This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Rujukan Kami: JUPEM 18/7/2.148 Jld. 3 ( 17 ) Tarikh: 25 Mei 2009
Semua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Negeri
PEKELILING KETUA PENGARAH UKUR DAN PEMETAAN BILANGAN 1 TAHUN 2009
GARIS PANDUAN MENGENAI SISTEM RUJUKAN KOORDINAT DI DALAM PENGGUNAAN GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (GNSS) BAGI TUJUAN UKUR DAN PEMETAAN
Pekeliling ini bertujuan untuk memberikan garis panduan mengenai sistem rujukan koordinat dalam kontek penggunaan Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia.
Sistem rujukan koordinat Malayan Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48) dengan Bukit Kertau sebagai titik asalan (origin) telah digunakan bagi aktiviti pemetaan dan ukur kadaster sejak tahun 1948 di Semenanjung Malaysia. Datum rujukan geodetik bagi sistem ini adalah Datum Kertau yang menggunakan elipsoid Modified Everest (Kertau). Bagi Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan pula, aktiviti ukur dan pemetaan telah dijalankan dengan
menggunakan sistem rujukan koordinat Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) dengan Bukit Timbalai sebagai titik asalan. Datum rujukan geodetik bagi BT68 adalah Datum Timbalai yang menggunakan elipsoid Modified Everest (Timbalai).
Penggunaan teknologi GNSS bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia telah bermula sejak tahun 1989. Dalam hal ini, Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia (JUPEM) telah dengan
menggunakan teknik Global Positioning System (GPS), iaitu Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network (PMGSN94) pada tahun 1994, diikuti dengan East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network (EMGSN97) pada tahun 1997. Seterusnya
dalam tahun 2003, kerangka rujukan geodetik GPS pasif tersebut telah diperkukuhkan bagi menghasilkan Malaysia Primary
Geodetic Network (MPGN2000).
Dalam pada itu, antara tahun 1998 dan 2008, JUPEM telah membangunkan rangkaian-rangkaian GPS/GNSS aktif, iaitu Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) antara tahun 1998 dan 2001 dan diikuti dengan penubuhan Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) antara tahun 2002 dan 2008.
Bagi memenuhi tuntutan semasa yang menjurus kepada penggunaan datum rujukan global yang bersifat geosentrik, JUPEM telah selanjutnya melancarkan datum rujukan geodetik baru yang seragam bagi kerja-kerja ukur dan pemetaan di Malaysia pada 26 Ogos 2003. Datum ini dikenali dengan nama Geocentric Datum of Malaysia (GDM2000), di mana elipsoid rujukan adalah Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80). Titik asalan bagi sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang berasaskan GDM2000 ini adalah di pusat jisim bumi (geosentrik).
GARIS PANDUAN PENGGUNAAN SISTEM RUJUKAN KOORDINAT Penerangan lebih lanjut tentang amalan penggunaan sistem rujukan koordinat terkandung di dalam dokumen Technical Guide to the Coordinate Reference Systems seperti di Lampiran ‘A’ yang disertakan. 2. 3.7 pada skala Ritcher di Sumatra.2 dan 8.2. pemantauan anjakan keatas sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat telah dilakukan oleh JUPEM secara berterusan melalui analisis anjakan ke atas stesen-stesen MyRTKnet.5 Pada tahun 2004 dan 2005 telah berlaku gempa bumi besar. terutamanya bagi kerja-kerja pengukuran yang memerlukan penggunaan sistem rujukan koordinat yang berkejituan tinggi seperti di dalam bidang geodesi dan geodinamik. Analisis mendapati bahawa sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang berasaskan GDM2000 perlu disemak dan dihitung semula. Indonesia dan kejadian ini telah menyebabkan anjakan yang signifikan terhadap sistem koordinat GDM2000. masing-masingnya bermagnitud 9. siri set koordinat baru yang dikenali sebagai GDM2000 (2009) bagi rangkaian-rangkaian GNSS/GPS aktif dan pasif telah diterbitkan oleh JUPEM.6 Hasil daripada semakan dan hitungan semula tersebut yang menggunakan produk data GPS bermula 1 Januari 2006 hingga 30 April 2009. Sehubungan itu. Intisari kandungan garis panduan tersebut adalah seperti berikut: 3 .
2 EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (PMGSN97) 4. REVISION OF GDM2000 5.1 PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) 3.3 INTRODUCTION MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS SYSTEM (MASS) MALAYSIA PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) 4. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 3.2 5.1 2. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4.1 MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004.1 Sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat yang dinyatakan di dalam pekeliling ini hendaklah digunakan berdasarkan tarikh-tarikh tertentu seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Jadual 1 dan Jadual 2 di bawah: 4 .Perenggan 1.2 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) 3.1 4. CONCLUSION 4. Perkara INTRODUCTION OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. PEMAKAIAN 4. 2. 2005 AND 2007 5.3 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) MPGN200 IN GDM2000 (2009) 6.4 MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 5.2 4.
khususnya bidang geodesi dan geodinamik.0 4.0 2 GDM2000 (2009) Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 Tarikh Penggunaan 1 Januari 1994 hingga 22 Ogos 2003 1 Januari 1997 hingga 22 Ogos 2003 23 Ogos 2003 hingga 30 April 2009 1 WGS84 Ellipsoid: WGS84 Reference Frame: WGS84 (G783) Epoch: 1997.0 Mulai 1 Mei 2009 Jadual 2 : Jaringan GPS/GNSS Aktif Malaysia Sistem Rujukan Koordinat Bil Sistem Koordinat Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) Datum Geodetik GDM2000 1 Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.Jadual 1 : Jaringan GPS/GNSS Pasif Malaysia Sistem Rujukan Koordinat Bil Sistem Koordinat Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97) Datum Geodetik WGS84 Ellipsoid: WGS84 Reference Frame: WGS84 Epoch: 1987. tarikh penggunaan sistem- 5 .0 Tarikh Penggunaan 1 Januari 1999 hingga 30 April 2009 12 Mei 2004 hingga 30 April 2009 Mulai 1 Mei 2009 GDM2000 Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network (MyRTKnet) Datum: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 2 GDM2000 Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) Ellipsoid: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.0 3 GDM2000 (2009) Ellipsoid: GRS80 Reference Frame: ITRF2000 Epoch: 2000.2 Bagi pengguna-pengguna yang terlibat di dalam kerja-kerja ukur yang memerlukan ketepatan dan kejituan yang tinggi.
my. iaitu http://www. TARIKH BERKUATKUASA Pekeliling ini adalah berkuatkuasa mulai tarikh ianya dikeluarkan.3 Pengguna-pengguna boleh mendapatkan nilai-nilai koordinat dan maklumat lokasi bagi setiap stesen trigonometri dan stesen GPS/GNSS dengan menghubungi Ibu Pejabat JUPEM. manakala tarikh penggunaan sistem-sistem rujukan koordinat berasaskan GDM2000 (2009) adalah mulai 1 Januari 2006. “BERKHIDMAT UNTUK NEGARA” ( DATUK HAMID BIN ALI ) Ketua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia 6 . terima kasih. 5. JUPEM juga turut menyediakan maklumat dan perkhidmatan penukaran koordinat dan transformasi datum bagi semua sistem rujukan koordinat serta unjuran peta kepada para pengguna. 4.gov. Selain itu.jupem.sistem rujukan koordinat berasaskan GDM2000 adalah sehingga 31 Disember 2005. Sekian. Kuala Lumpur atau dengan melayari Laman Web JUPEM.
Salinan kepada: Timbalan Ketua Pengarah Ukur dan Pemetaan Pengarah Ukur Bahagian (Pemetaan) Pengarah Ukur Bahagian (Kadaster) Pengarah Bahagian Geospatial Pertahanan Setiausaha Bahagian (Tanah. Ukur dan Pemetaan) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Pengarah Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Pengarah Pusat Infrastuktur Data Geospatial Negara (MaCGDI) Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar Ketua Penolong Pengarah Unit Ukur Tanah. Cawangan Pengkalan Udara dan Maritim Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia Penolong Pengarah Unit Ukur Tanah. Bahagian Kejuruteraan Awam Ibu Pejabat Jabatan Perumahan Negara Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Semenanjung Malaysia Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Sabah Setiausaha Lembaga Jurukur Tanah Sarawak 7 .
Lampiran ‘A’ Technical Guide to the Coordinate Reference Systems JABATAN UKUR DAN PEMETAAN MALAYSIA 2009 .
INTRODUCTION 2.4 5. REVISON OF GDM2000 5. CONCLUSION REFERENCES i .2 3.1 5.3 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) MPGN2000 IN GDM2000 (2009) MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 4.3 4.2 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (EMGSN97) INTRODUCTION MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS NETWORK (MASS) MALAYSIA PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 1 2 2 5 7 7 10 12 12 12 14 17 19 24 25 26 27 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.2 5.1 3.1 4. 2005 AND 2007 19 6.2 4.1 2. OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4.
1 .2 With the recent advances in space-based positioning technology. This later led to the establishment of the Peninsular Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) and East Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97). comprising of 238 stations and 171 stations respectively. Coupled with the GPS data obtained from the International Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. many countries have begun to implement and subsequently adopted a global geocentric coordinate reference system.2002). JUPEM itself has embraced in the early 1990s the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology with the eventual objective of adopting a global unified datum for Peninsular Malaysia. This is also the case with Malaysia where it has in place two old/classical triangulation networks. the coordinates of MASS stations were derived from 4years of continuous GPS data (1999 . fit to limited areas to satisfy national mapping requirements. 1. which was launched on 26 August 2003.3 Subsequently.1 Coordinate reference systems have been established in many regions around the world by national mapping authorities since the 19th century. Most of them use local datums that are confined to small areas of the globe. with eighteen (18) stations making up the whole MASS infrastructure. INTRODUCTION 1. 1. using conventional surveying techniques and procedures.1. Collectively. JUPEM established the permanent GPS tracking stations known as Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS) at the end of 1998. namely the Malayan Revised Triangulation 1968 (MRT68) for Peninsular Malaysia and the Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) for Sabah and Sarawak. these coordinates represent the basis for the determination of the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia (GDM2000). In relation to this. Sabah and Sarawak.
JUPEM further developed a modern active GNSS network with the latest state-of-the-art technology to establish the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet. due to the relatively stable conditions that followed in the past four years (albeit still quite unpredictable). 2.2 The trigonometrical survey in Perak together with the Penang and Province Wellesley triangulations as well as Malacca Triangulation 2 .1. OLD TRIANGULATION NETWORKS 2. there were significant displacements of positions of the aforementioned Malaysian geodetic infrastructure as a result of two major Indonesian earthquakes that occurred in 2004 and 2005. The 1880s marked an important phase with the commencement of widespread trigonometrical works in various parts of Malaya. The resultant coordinates obtained through this endeavour are known as GDM2000 (2009).1 MALAYAN REVISED TRIANGULATION 1968 (MRT68) 2. 1. 1. strategies and procedures involved in the move towards the adoption of GDM2000 in 2003 and its subsequent revision carried out in 2009.1 JUPEM could trace its origin to way back in 1885.1.4 Between 2002 and 2008. JUPEM has taken further steps to revise the coordinate reference systems. including a triangulation survey in Penang in 1832.5 However. using GPS data from the years 2006 to 2008 of MyRTKnet and IGS stations.1. The new MyRTKnet system is able to provide real-time positioning services at centimeter-level accuracy to users in the field. 2.6 This technical guide then is produced to give an overview of the coordinate reference systems that are available in Malaysia and to assist users in understanding the concept. Nevertheless.
240 primary. the early works were so inconsistent and of questionable quality that it was decided to re-observe the principal triangles of the general triangulation with the object of bringing it up to modern standards of that time. The map projection used for mapping in Peninsular Malaysia is Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) and Cassini Soldner for cadastral surveying. Table 2 tabulates the parameters for map projection used in Peninsular Malaysia.1888) laid the foundation for the existing control framework. This was followed by the commencement of other trigonometrical surveys in various parts of the country that included Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. 2.1. which eventually resulted in a system referred to as MRT68.1. 837 secondary and 51 tertiary stations.5 The MRT68 network consists of 77 geodetic.(1886 .1. The reference ellipsoid used for MRT68 is in Table 1 below. The MRT68 has been adopted as a result of the recomputations of the earlier network together with the Primary or Repsold Triangulation (Figure 1) carried out between 1913 and 1916. This triangulation scheme in Peninsular Malaysia which was completed in 1916 is known as the Primary or Repsold Triangulation. 3 . It is based on conventional observations with many of the triangulation points dated as far back as 1885. This was subsequently followed by a lengthy process of additional measurements and re-computation until 1968. 2.3 However. 2.4 The Primary or Repsold Triangulation was later replaced by a new system known as the Malayan Revised Triangulation 1948 (MRT48).
Labuan 6 377 298.556 6 356 097.50 G004 Latitude 4.00 101. 1.50 100.00 99.00 G052 G055 G065 G068 G038 G020 G066 G012 G039 2.8017 BT68 Modified Everest Timbalai.50 101.550 1/300.00 100.50 102.Table 1 No.063 6 356 103.50 G011 G015 3.00 102.8017 Reference Ellipsoid Origin Semi-major axis ( a ) Semi-Minor Axis ( b ) Flattening ( f ) 6.00 G034 G037 G067 G005 4. Pahang 6 377 304.00 103.50 G043 G084 P075 G045 G018 G064 G056 P4 1. 4.039 1/300.50 G027 G013 G050 G060 G072 G053 G008 G022 G024 G069 G076 G019 G021 G017 G063 G048 G026 G016 5.50 103.50 G010 G051 G046 2.00 G025 G057 G040 G032 G033 G047 G031 G030 G044 G054 G003 G077 G042 G059 5.00 G041 G001 G070 G075 G074 G007 G061 G073 G036 G009 3.50 G071 G058 G028 G035 G023 G029 6. Reference Ellipsoids for MRT68 and BT68 Parameter MRT68 Modified Everest Kertau.00 G002 G014 G049 G062 1. 3. 5. 2.50 104.00 Longitude Figure 1: Malayan Revised Triangulation 1968 (MRT68) 4 .
2.2.1 Sabah started its primary triangulation work in a project known as the Borneo West Coast Triangulation between 1930 and 1942.2. Sarawak and Brunei) made by the DOS.5 The BT68 network consists of the Borneo West Coast Triangulation of Brunei and Sabah (1930-1942).2. 2.2.3 The East Coast Triangulation was later introduced and initiated by DOS and observations were carried out in the year 1955 to 1960.2. The map projection employed for mapping and cadastral surveys is RSO and Table 2 shows the various parameters used. This geodetic network is shown in Figure 2 with the reference ellipsoid used given in Table 1. 2. The aim of this triangulation was to extend the Primary Triangulation of Borneo to the eastern side of Sabah. BT68 consequently resulted from the readjustment of the primary control of East Malaysia (Sabah.2 BORNEO TRIANGULATION 1968 (BT68) 2. was established with the station at Bukit Timbalai (in the island of Labuan) as the origin. Borneo East Coast Triangulation of Sarawak and extension of the West Coast Triangulation in Sabah (1955-1960) as well as some new points surveyed between 1961 and 1968. Sarawak and Brunei also began their primary triangulation projects.2.2 The Directorate of Overseas Survey (DOS) undertook the task of readjusting the whole primary triangulation of Borneo.4 The combined geodetic networks in Sabah and Sarawak. 5 . known as the Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68). EDM traversings were also carried out in 1961 to 1968 to supplement the work. The adjusted results for the Primary Triangulation of Borneo 1948 were then published in terms of Timbalai Datum and Modified Everest ellipsoid. 2. In around 1935.
0 119.0 112.0 117.Table 2: Map Projections for Peninsular Malaysia.0 Longitude Figure 2: Borneo Triangulation 1968 (BT68) 6 .0 114. E 102° 15’ 0.0 3. 3.99 984 4. 1.0 6.11676512m 1 chain = 20.0 SOUTH CHINA SEA SABAH Latitude 4.0 111.99 984 N 4° 00’ .0 5.0 115.0 118. Jolly & Johnson.0 113. Parameter Projection Name Datum Conversion Factor Origin of Projection Scale Factor (Origin) Peninsular Malaysia Malayan RSO Kertau Sabah & Sarawak Borneo RSO Timbalai 1 chain= 20.0 116.0 SARAWAK INDONESIA 2. 7. (Chaney & Benoit. 5.0 1. 1896) 1927) N 4° 00’ .0 110.11678249m (Sears. E 115° 00’ 0. Sabah and Sarawak No. 2.
1.3 In an effort to harness the full prowess of the space-based technology. Another is the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) and it is reported to be compatible with WGS84 at the centimeter level. old triangulation networks such as MRT68 and BT68 are regional in nature and are thus not aligned with global geocentric coordinate frames.1.1. The coordinates of Kertau are in approximate WGS84 and derived from Doppler coordinates of NSWC 9Z-2 reference frame. This was made possible over the last decade or so because the space-based positioning satellites revolve around the center of mass of the earth and are therefore related to an earth-centered or geocentric datum. earth-centered geocentric system is difficult to define . JUPEM has established a GPS network of 238 stations in Peninsular Malaysia.1 PENINSULAR MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1994 (PMGSN94) 3. 3.3.1 As stated earlier. On the other hand.1. 3. which is maintained by the United States Department of Defense for GPS-based positioning. called the Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94). held fixed.2 The World Geodetic System of 1984 or WGS84 is one such system. The main objectives of setting up PMGSN94 are to establish a new geodetic network based on GPS observations and to analyse the existing geodetic network. GPS-BASED NETWORKS 3. The Ashtech GPS Post-Processing 7 . 3. a minimally constrained adjustment was made with Kertau.4 In the network adjustment. Pahang. The network has been observed using four Ashtech LX II dual frequency GPS receivers and the acquired data was processed and adjusted in 1994.not until the recent development of space-based positioning systems. as in Figure 3.
00 99.50 104.50 Latitude P101 4.00 GP02 GP82 G003 GP04 251.00 6.00 2.00 GP49 GP50 GP51 1.50 P314 TG36 P283 P282 TG33 P281 5.50 GP11 GP12 GP13 GP61 GP58 GP55 2.00 104. The relative accuracy of the network is between 1-2 ppm for the horizontal coordinates and between 3-5 ppm for the vertical coordinates. The summary of the results of the network adjustment using Geolab network adjustment software is tabulated in Table 3.00 Figure 3: Peninsular Malaysia GPS Scientific Network 1994 (PMGSN94) 8 .00 3.00 101.00 100.50 105.50 G100 3.50 103.00 TG26 4.50 102.50 TG19 DOP2 TD01 J416 TG10 GP52 99.00 103.Software (GPPS) with broadcast ephemeris was used for the determination of the baseline solutions.00 5.50 P299 TG38 P298 DOP5 P296 P297 TG56 P304 P249 P295TG35 P305 K350 P289 P290 P292 P288 P291 P287 P285 P286 P311 P276 P280 P279 P278 P275 P272 P273 P274 P270 P214 P209 P204 P205 P102 P207 P202 S290 P211 P210 P203 TG58 P213 TG57 P351 TG59 P212 P352 P269 P268 P500 P219 P218 P216 P217 P215 P201 GP28 GP81 GP79 GP32 GP33 GP94 GP05 GP06 TG18 GP24 GP86 GP23 GP17 149B DOP1 GP08 GP19 GP20 TG01 GP18 GP09 GP10 GP89 TG20 GP14 TG05 GP41 GP42 GP43 GP44 TG04 M331 TG03 GP16 GP15 GP48 GP85 GP84 GP59 GP60 GP90 GP54 GP91 13DJ GP53 TG07 GP47 GP57 TG09 GP56 GP87 GP21 GP88 GP99 TG11 GP40 GP98 TG06 GP39 TG15 GP95 GP38 GP25 GP22 DOP3 GP80 GP36 GP37 TG14 GP34 GP45 GP31 GP35 T200 GP07 T190 GP30 GP26 GP27 TG25 GP29 P260 P259 TG13 TG24 P261 P257 P227 P258 P226 P255 P256 P228 P313 P264 P221 P271 P263 P220 P267 P105 P254 P229 P265 P083 P223 TG42 P310 P277 P222 P224 P293 P808 P306 P307 P809 P308 P309 P246 P248 TG27 P247 P250 DOP4 P243 P242 P244 P245 TG31 P225 TG61 P239 TG28 P240 P241 P238 P236 P235 P107 P251 P106 P237 P232 P234 T283 P233 P231 P252 P253 P230 S136 6.50 100.00 Longitude 102.50 101. 7.
5 ppm σE = 5mm ± 0.9952 Passed Hort: 0.030 Hort: < 1.031 Vert: 0.7 ppm σU = 7mm ± 1.0 ppm 9 .080 Hort: 0. of Observations Redundancy Weights Used Variance Factor Used Chi-Square Test Station Error Ellipses Relative Error Ellipses Average Baseline Accuracies Geolab Network Adjustment Kertau.094 Vert: 0.011 – 0.Table 3: Results of Minimally Constrained Adjustment for PMGSN94 Network Adjustment Software Used Fixed Point in 3D Approximate Positions Number of Parameters No.032 – 0.5 ppm Vert: < 2.1 ppm 0. Pahang 237 711 3594 2883 σN = 5mm ± 0.013 – 0.038 – 0.
50 6008 3010 3021 T038 7083 T019T018 T036 T035 1009 1019 T034 T030 T031 T029 R027 T025 9900 T026 2005 2038 2011 2015 J01 T032 T022 2200 T021 T020 6047 6052 7086 7085 T045 D003 7084 7082 T037 T040 7079 T039 7080 1.00 115.00 Longitude Figure 4: East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMSGN97) 10 .00 113.00 116.50 T001 M509 M403 M408M409 T106 D004 Latitude T105 4044 4242 8045 3.50 110. The relative accuracy of the network is found to be better than 1 ppm for the horizontal coordinates and 2-3 ppm for the vertical coordinates.50 T119 D005 T118 M103 T117 T116 A101 T124 T114 M102 T113 T115 M101 T003 T101 T100 T111 T004 M501 M503 M502 T102 M511 T005 M504 M505 M506 T103 M508 M507 T007 D002 T010 4122 T008 T009 T110 T002 D001 M510 T112 M105 5. JUPEM began making plans to establish a similar type of GPS-derived geodetic network in Sabah and Sarawak. GPS observations were made using Trimble 4000SSE L1/L2 receivers to establish the East Malaysia Geodetic Scientific Network 1997 (EMGSN97) that comprises a total of 171 GPS stations as shown in Figure 4.00 111.00 118.00 119. Broadcast ephemeris was used for the baseline determinations. For this purpose.2. T121 T122 D006 A102 M204 M203 T123 T120 M201 M202 M104 M301 M311 M307 M310 M305 T125 M302 M304 M303 M306 T127 T128 M313M314 M317 M416 M406 M415 M414 M315 M316 M419 M422 M417 T109 M418 M420 M423 M312 6.2 In the network adjustment. a constrained adjustment was made with coordinates from the Special Technical Royal Engineer (STRE) GPS campaign fixed.50 M424 M421 T006 5101 M413 T108 M404 M401 T104 M405 M402 M407 M412 M411 M410 T107 4.2.50 T012 8028 3074 T015 3046 8048 8047 4118 T043 4119 4127 T042 T041 4120 T013 4114 T016 T014 T017 3032 2.00 114.50 0.1 Following the successful completion of PMGSN94 in Peninsular Malaysia. The summary of the results of the network adjustment using Geolab network adjustment software is tabulated in Table 4.3.00 112. 3.2 EAST MALAYSIA GEODETIC SCIENTIFIC NETWORK 1997 (EMGSN97) 3.00 117.
2 ppm σU = 2.040 Vert: 0.5mm ± 0.010 – 0.5 ppm 0.Table 4: Results of Constrained Adjustment for EMGSN97 Network Adjustment Software Used Fixed Points in 3D Approximate Positions Number of Parameters No.2 ppm σE = 2mm ± 0.8 ppm 11 .008 – 0.055 Hort: 0.009 – 0.6 ppm Vert: 0.9600 Passed Hort: 0.007 – 0.052 Hort: 0. of Observations Redundancy Weights used Variance Factor Used Chi-Square Test Station Error Ellipses Relative Error Ellipses Average Baseline Accuracies Geolab Network Adjustment Five (5) Stations from STRE GPS Campaign 166 498 1218 720 σN = 2mm ± 0.044 Vert: 0.
The eleven (11) permanent GPS tracking stations of the IGS world-wide network in ITRF2000 Epoch 1997 were used as fiducial points in the processing to obtain the MASS set of station coordinates. This was followed by the establishment of the Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 or MPGN2000 by strengthening the PMGSN94 and EMGSN97 networks via a GPS observation campaign performed at selected stations to form a connection to the MASS network.1.2 MALAYSIA ACTIVE GPS NETWORK (MASS) 4. 12 . the MASS network is replaced by another network of active GNSS stations known as the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet.4. It was officially launched nationwide on 26 August 2003. 4.2 The development of GDM2000 began firstly by the establishment of the zero-order network of permanent GPS stations known as the Malaysia Active GPS System (MASS).2.1 The Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 is the new national geodetic datum for Malaysia and it replaces the old datum of MRT48 and BT68. Subsequently.1 INTRODUCTION 4. GEOCENTRIC DATUM OF MALAYSIA (GDM2000) 4.2. 4.1.1 Malaysia Active GPS Network or MASS is a permanent network of active GPS stations that was established in 1999 and formed a homogeneous and coherent geodetic infrastructure. covering the whole of Malaysia.2 GPS data from seventeen (17) MASS stations (Figure 5) and eleven (11) IGS stations (Figure 6) from 1999 to 2002 have been processed to establish the zero-order geodetic network. 4. The MASS station’s GPS data were used along with those from the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations for the realization of the zero-order geodetic network for Malaysia.
8 Arau 6 Geti Kual Miri Kuan Ktpk Sega Bint Kina Labu Sand Usmp Ipoh Latitude Tawa 4 Sibu Utmj Kuch 2 0 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 Longitude Figure 5: Distribution of MASS stations LHAS SHAO KUNM WUHN PIMO GUAM NTUS IISC BAKO COCO KARR Figure 6: IGS stations used to derive MASS coordinates in ITRF2000 13 .
3 MALAYSIAN PRIMARY GEODETIC NETWORK 2000 (MPGN2000) 4. These new set of coordinates are known as the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia or GDM2000 and was officially adopted on 26 August 2003. the coordinates of the heavily constrained adjustment was adopted as the final coordinates in ITRF2000 at epoch 2 January 2000.e.3 The reference IGS station coordinates which are in ITRF2000 at epoch 1997. Both networks formed the new Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) and were strengthened by connecting them to the MASS network. 14 .2.1 Following the availability of MASS network in GDM2000 coordinates. ITRF 2000 at epoch 2000.0 is between 9 to 15 mm in the horizontal component and between 12 to 19 mm in vertical component. Thus. 4.4. From the free network adjustment. The outcome defines a new Malaysia Primary Geodetic Network 2000 (MPGN2000) for the whole of Malaysia (Figure 9) based on the GDM2000 reference frame. This was achieved by carrying out GPS campaigns to re-observe thirty-six (36) stations of PMGSN94 in 2000 and thirty (30) stations of EMGSN in 2002 for a period of 48 hours to form the strengthening network (Figures 7 and 8).3.4 In the heavily constrained adjustment. 4. a specific reference frame in ITRF2000 was adopted and results indicated that the accuracy of station coordinates is between 3 to 16 mm in the horizontal component and between 8 to 13 mm for the vertical component.00. i.2. the resulting accuracy of the MASS stations with respect to the ITRF2000 reference frame at epoch 2000.0 were transformed to the same epoch as the adjusted MASS station coordinates. JUPEM carried out further efforts to transform the PMGSN94 and EMGSN97 networks into the newly adopted datum.
50 101.00 M331 GP84 GP58 GP54 Main Station 1.00 P297 P247 P310 KUAL P244 P238 5.50 P299 P298 GETI 6.50 GP47 Mass Station 2. referred to the ITRF2000 Epoch 1 Jan 2000.00 99.2 Heavily constrained adjustment with MASS stations held fixed was made to adjust the observed baseline vectors and obtain the link station’s coordinates.50 Check Station 100.50 P219 P258 GP28 GP32 KUAN 4.50 104.00 P281 P263 P274 P213 P102 IPOH P221 P229 P255 4.50 102.00 GP18 GP43 2.00 102.00 103. The accuracy of stations in horizontal and vertical components is less than 14 mm.50 P290 USMP 5.50 Figure 7: Link Stations Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia 15 .00 100.50 GP50 UTMJ GP52 103.4.50 GP06 KTPK GP24 GP21 GP98 GP36 GP37 3. which conform to GDM2000.3. ARAU 6.00 GP02 3. The adjustment of the MPGN2000 using the old vectors has eventually achieved the primary target of obtaining 3 cm accuracy station coordinate.00 101.
00 112.00 113.00 D006 M202 D005 6.00 119.7.00 116.00 3046 Bint T041 4114 7083 2.00 110.00 Longitude Figure 8: Link Stations Distribution in East Malaysia 6 Latitude 4 2 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 Longitude Figure 9: MPGN2000 Stations in Peninsular Malaysia.00 T021 1009 Kuch 2011 9900 7080 7086 1.00 M509 M405 M410 Tawa Main Station 4242 T008 4119 Check Station 3.00 Kina M111 T112 M309 M305 M302 Sand M424 M416 Labu T 004 M503 5.00 118.00 T006 Latitude Miri T001 MASS Station 4.00 120.00 114.00 111.00 117. Sabah & Sarawak 16 .00 115.00 109.
a virtual reference station will be established for any single roving GPS user near the survey area.4.2 By the end of 2008. A web site is also available to enable downloading of GPS data for postprocessing solutions. situated at JUPEM headquarters in Kuala Lumpur (Figures 11 and 12). JUPEM has established a network known as the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematic GNSS Network or MyRTKnet that uses a new generation of RTK solution known as Virtual Reference Station (VRS).3 The central facility at JUPEM headquarters in Kuala Lumpur continuously gathers the information from GPS receivers at all MyRTKnet stations and creates a living database of regional area corrections.4.1 Beginning 2002. It also models the spatial errors that limit GPS accuracy through a network solution and in turn generates corrections for the roving GPS users to be positioned anywhere inside the network with an accuracy better than a few centimetres to a few decimetres in real-time. 4. Each station is equipped with either a Trimble 5700 or a NetR5 GPS receiver. power supply and modem to communicate with the central facility via Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network (IPVPN) communication infrastructure. 4. 17 .4.4 MALAYSIA REAL-TIME KINEMATIC GNSS NETWORK (MyRTKnet) 4. With MyRTKnet. The spacing between stations ranges from 30 to 100 km.4. MyRTKnet is based on a network of GPS reference stations continuously connected via tele-communication network to the control centre. Malaysia has seventy-eight (78) RTK reference stations for the network with fifty (50) stations covering the whole Peninsular Malaysia. apart from fourteen (14) stations each covering Sabah and Sarawak. antenna.
00 6.00 110.00 111.00 Longitude Figure 11: MyRTKnet Stations in Peninsular Malaysia 8.00 104.00 KUKP 103.00 115.00 109.00 BIN1 3.00 SAND 5.50 TGPG 104.00 116.50 101.50 2.00 SERA KAPI BELA NIAH 0.00 119.50 3.00 118.50 105.00 PUSI CAME LIPI JRNT BEHR BENT TLOH SRIJ PEKN CENE TLKI SBKB 3.00 102.00 100.00 KUDA MRDU BELU UMSS RANA TMBN LAB1 BEAU KENI 6.7.50 102.00 99.00 101.50 PUPK 4.00 MIRI LAWS TENM DATU TAWA SEMP Latitude MRDI 4.50 UUMK ARAU LGKW TOKA GETI PASP KRAI SETI KUAL TERI LASA GMUS MUKH 6.00 117.00 MERU UPMSKLAW BANT BAHA PDIC SEG1 JUML MUAD KROM MERS GAJA PRTS SPGR JHJY TGRH 2.00 114.00 SIK1 SGPT USMP BABH GRIK AYER 5.00 120.00 Longitude Figure 12: MyRTKnet Stations in East Malaysia 18 .00 SEMA UMAS AMAN TEBE 1.00 113.50 100.50 5.00 1.50 103.00 7.00 112.00 MUKH SIB1 2.00 Latitude 4.50 99.
Indonesia with magnitude 9. Similarly. c) Post-seismic motion: earth movement after the earthquake. 5. the results from 2005 and 2007 earthquakes indicate displacements of between 1. earth movement at the time of earthquake. When these natural catastrophes occurred.1. Results indicate that the displacement of MyRTKnet stations due to the co-seismic motion from the 2004 earthquake in Sumatra was between 1. also in the south-west direction. The post-seismic motion is the most difficult to model and the task can only be made after the velocity and the rotating pole of the motion have been determined.0 to 6. 2005 AND 2007 5. 5. 14 and 15 show the displacements of MyRTKnet stations associated with the co-seismic motions from the 26 December 2004. 5. 8.1 On 26 December 2004.5 cm and 1. 19 . 28 March 2005 and 12 September 2007.1.9 on the Richter scale respectively.0 to 3 cm respectively. three types of motions were generated: a) Pre-seismic motion: b) Co-seismic motion: earth movement before the earthquake.3 The co-seismic motion was deduced by comparing the coordinates of MyRTKnet stations computed using GPS data during the first week before the earthquake with those during the second week after the event. 28 March 2005 and 12 September 2007 Sumatran earthquakes respectively.2. three major earthquakes occurred in Sumatra.7 and 7. occurring predominantly in the south-west direction.1.4 Figures 13.5 to 17 cm.2 The earlier two aforementioned earthquakes have generated motions and caused significant displacements to the geodetic infrastructures in Malaysia which need to be modelled.5.1 MAJOR SUMATRAN EARTHQUAKES IN 2004. REVISION OF GDM2000 5.1.
Figure 13: Co-seismic motion during the 26 December 2004 earthquake Figure 14: Co-seismic motion during the 28 March 2005 earthquake 20 .
6 Further computation of MyRTKnet station coordinates for the years 2006.5 Consecutively.Figure 15: Co-seismic motion during the 12 September 2007 earthquake 5. 2008 and 2009 show that their displacement vectors from the post-seismic motions continuously demonstrate an anticlockwise rotation. the rate of the post-seismic motion was also deduced. 17 and 18. This was carried out by comparing the GDM2000 coordinates of MyRTKnet stations with those computed after the 2005 earthquake using GPS data from April to December 2005. 2007. These yearly post-seismic motions for the years 2006 to 2008 are illustrated in Figures 16. 5.1.1. 21 . thus indicating a possible return to the effect of tectonic plate motion. Results indicate that the MyRTKnet stations had experienced post-seismic motion from the two earlier Sumatran earthquakes and moving at a rate of about 8 cm/year in the south-west direction.
Figure 16: Post-seismic motion in 2006 Figure 17: Post-seismic motion in 2007 (January to August) 22 .
Consequently. In carrying out data adjustments.1.1.7 The accumulated displacement of MyRTKnet stations from 26 December 2004 until 30 April 2009 is shown in Figure 19. which range from 1. it can be concluded that the resultant displacement of MyRTKnet stations. 2005 and 2007 Sumatran earthquakes.0 to 25. were significant. as the displacement of the coordinates in Sabah and Sarawak were found to be very minimal. as a result of the co-seismic and post-seismic motions associated with the 2004. 23 . their GDM2000 coordinates cannot be further utilised for high precision survey and that they need to be revised.8 From the magnitude of the displacements.8 cm.Figure 18: Post-seismic motion in 2008 5. the GDM2000 coordinates of MyRTKnet stations in Sabah and Sarawak were held fixed. 5.
5.2 Subsequently. Comparison with the original GDM2000 coordinates was then carried out using three parameter Helmert 24 . in the case of Sabah and Sarawak.2 MyRTKnet IN GDM2000 (2009) 5.67 were then brought to ITRF2000 at epoch 2000. only thirty-three (33) IGS stations were used as fiducial points in the processing to obtain the MyRTKnet set of station coordinates. BINT and KINA) were used in the data processing to re-establish the zero order geodetic network.Figure 19: Accumulated displacement of MyRTKnet stations from 26 December 2004 to 30 April 2009 5.1 GPS data from seventy-eight (78) MyRTKnet stations and fifty-six (56) IGS stations in ITRF2005 from 1 January 2006 to 30 April 2009 as well as GPS data from an observation campaign conducted in January 2009 on three (3) MASS stations (KUCH. the combined adjustment for the aforementioned data was fixed at epoch 1 January 2000 and the resulting coordinates named as GDM2000 (2009).2. These IGS stations which are in ITRF2005 at epoch 2007.2. However.00 using published velocity models.
With this adjustment. by fixing them to the GDM2000 (2009) coordinates of the MASS stations. the resulting coordinates of the MyRTKnet stations were obtained and are labelled as GDM2000 (2009). any type of modelling of the actual displacement 25 .2. 5. the next step taken is to perform the adjustment using the GPS vectors of the remaining PMGSN94 stations.1) in GDM2000 (2009). Similar process is carried out for EMGSN97 using thirty (30) link stations (refer to Section 4. similar efforts were also made for the MPGN2000 stations. BINT. 5.1 Apart from producing MyRTKnet stations in GDM2000 (2009) coordinates. KINA and MIRI) were less than one (1) cm in the north and east as well as in the height components. used the 2009 data and employed the original GDM2000 reference frame as the reference by holding the coordinates of the four (4) aforementioned reference stations fixed. involving MyRTKnet and MASS stations only.2). it is necessary to firstly ascertain the thirty-six (36) link stations between PMGSN94 and MASS (refer to Section 4. This approach requires adjustment to be performed using the October to November 2000 GPS vectors of those link stations and ten (10) MASS stations.3. In addition.3.3.3 The final combined adjustment.3 MPGN2000 IN GDM2000 (2009) 5.3. Thus. In order to establish MPGN2000 with GDM2000 (2009) coordinates.2 Results indicate that the coordinate displacement of the MPGN2000 network in Peninsular Malaysia is not linear and displays elastic properties. With the link stations in GDM2000 (2009).transformation process and results indicate that the RMS fitting for the coordinates of four (4) reference stations (KUCH. the displacements also differ from one station to another. Other stations saw large displacements which were possibly caused by the earthquakes or seasonal environmental effects. 5.
In order to validate the accuracy of the multiple regression model. 6.2 The GDM2000 supersedes the classical geodetic datums in Malaysia and has been established with respect to a geocentric reference frame defined in ITRF system at ITRF2000 epoch 2 January 2000 at an accuracy of 1 cm. On the other hand. with the reference frame and epoch maintained. the new GDM2000 (2009) coordinates have taken into account the displacements and movements resulting from the Sumatran earthquakes in 2004. GPS observations were carried out at selected MPGN2000 stations and results showed that the coordinates of MPGN2000 in GDM2000 (2009) stations are at cm-level accuracy. CONCLUSION 6. 26 . 6. As an alternative. 2005 and 2007.1 JUPEM has successfully established both active and passive GNSS networks to replace the old triangulation networks in Malaysia.needs a long period of monitoring in order to produce precise parameters. homogeneous and up-to-date datum for Malaysia. This new GDM2000 (2009) would be continuously maintained and managed through the use of MyRTKnet permanent tracking stations to ensure the availability of a highly accurate. These new networks will facilitate the development and enhancement of various surveying and mapping activities and meet the requirements of all types of users. ranging from the novice to the scientists. a multiple regression model was subsequently produced to provide a relationship between the MPGN2000 in GDM2000 and MPGN2000 in GDM2000 (2009).
Ontario Canada Bowring.B. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Abu. Z. vol. Melaka. P. 2214. Altamimi. (1998). Kuala Lumpur. (2002). (1985). Determination of Malaysian Geodetic GPS Network in the ITRF2000.32 no. 107(B10). A. (1987).. M. ITRF2000: A new release of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame for earth science application. Sillard. (1997). Department of defence World Geodetic System 1984: its definition and relationship with local geodetic 27 . 536-558. Defence Mapping Agency (DMA). Boucher (2002). Riviera Bay Resort. S. Towards the Next Millienium: Current Status. S & Mohamed. The accuracy of geodetic latitude and height equations. 89 Auriga Drive Nepean. J.R. The theory of the determination of the non-parallelism of the minor axis of the reference ellipsoid and the inertial polar axis of the Earth. (1985). and C. Studia Geophysica et Geodetica.9 Reference Manual. A further examination of datum transformation parameters in Australia The Australian Surveyor. Bursa.1029/2001 JB000561. Res. pp. Burford. B. B. Sea Level Monitoring System (Proposed Malaysian Active Control System). July 21-22. Preliminary Results and Applications of Malayssian Active GPS System). Survey Review 28(218): 202-206. 7. Paper presented at the Departmental Management Meeting. pp. (1998). (1962). Geolab 3. 6.J.doi:10. October 8-9. Geophys. Paper presented at the Directors of Surveys Conference. Abu. and the planes of the initial astronomic and geodetic meridians from observations of artificial Earth Satellites. Bitwise Ideas Inc.. 209-214. no.REFERENCES Abu et al.
E.J. Coordinates. U. and Thomson. Report on the Adjustment of the Primary Control in East Malaysia and Brunei Heiskanen and Moritz (1967). the Canadian Surveyor. R. North-Holland Pub.. Technical report no. (1974). Ahmad Fauzi Nordin. W.B. 1968. Richardus. 28. Samad Abu. K. Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Mathematical models for the combination of terrestrial and satellite networks. Map Pprojetions for Geodesists. pp. 4th Malaysia Survey Congress. H et al (2002). Peter.systems (second edition). 606-615. 2007.2.. vol. Switzerland. Astronomical Institute University of Berne. Hamid Ali.. USA. Schaer. 28 . Krakiwsky. (1974). 1948. and Fridez. Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia. Jamil. Chang Leng Hua (2006). Bernese GPS Processing Software Version 4. June 13-14. Physical Geodesy. D. MyRTKnet: Get Set and Go. Primary Triangulation of Borneo Directorate of Colonial Surveys. Malaysia Reference Frame System: Current Study and GDM2000 Revision (Sistem Kerangka Rujukan: Kajian Semasa dan Semakan GDM2000). no. S. Co. San Francisco. H Freeman and Company. Defence Mapping Agency. (2001). Malaysia Reference Frame System: Current Study and GDM2000 Revision (Sistem Kerangka Rujukan: Kajian Semasa dan Semakan GDM2000). Cartographers and Geographers: Amsterdam. 2000. Geocentric Datum of Malaysia. 8350. Washington. 6-13 Hugentobler. P. Directorate of Colonial Surveys. Issues 6. 5.2. and Adler. Subang aya.
van Loon. 121 271-277 Snyder. A. Simons W. C. Kahar.0. J. A decade of GPS in Southeast Asia: Resolving Sundaland motion and boundaries. A. D. Socquet. Subarya. doi:10. A.F. Sarsito.F. B.A. J. Chaiwat Promthong. (1984). A.C. Vigny. Bernese GPS Processing Software Version 4. Sarsito. and P. Asia: Final Results of the Sulawesi 1998 GPS campaign. IAG: Geod. C. F. J.S. Geological Survey.. Wolf.L.. Abu.Z.J. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1532. pp165-169. Switzerland. and Mervart. D.Rothacher.H. 29 . B. Beyond 2000. P. Geodynamics of S. Morgan (2000).1029/2005JB003868 Simons W. S. Bulletin Geodesique. Shahabuddin (1978). L. Spakman (2007). J.. Matheussen. M. 112. Map projections used by the U. Haji Abu. and W. No. Ambrosius. (1963). S.A. B06420. Msc Thesis. Geometric connection and re-orientation of three-dimensional triangulation nets. Astronomical Institute University of Berne. (1996). Abidin. University of Oxford. Ambrosius.P. C.S. United Kingdom. Res. H.. Morgan. H. Geological Survey. Walpersdolf. 68. D. Geophys. U.E.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.