You are on page 1of 32

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 1

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 2

Contents:
INTRODUCTION

IMPORTANCE & USES OF DYNAMIC PROPERTIES

LAB TESTS FOR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES

FIELD TESTS FOR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES

REFERENCES
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3

INTRODUCTION
SOIL DYNAMICS:
Soil dynamics is the branch of soil mechanics that deals with the behavior of soil under dynamic load, including the analysis and the stability of earth-supported and earth retaining structures.
Soil Dynamic Properties: Properties (Behavior) of Soil under dynamic loading. Most commonly, these properties include Shear wave velocities Vs, Shear Modulus G, Damping D and Poisons Ratio .
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4

IMPORTANCE OF DYNAMIC SOIL PROPERTIES


Earthquake, ground vibration, and wave propagation through soils Dynamic stress, deformation, and strength properties of soils Dynamic earth pressure problem Dynamic bearing capacity problems and design of shallow foundations Problems related to soil liquefaction Design of foundations for machinery and vibrating equipment Design of embedded foundations and piles under dynamic loads Stability of embankments under earthquake loading
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5

1. Shear Wave Velocity, Vs


For Soil Characterization As Particle motion is perpendicular to the wave motion, so it can be used for determining shear properties of soil skeleton.

2. Shear Modulus, G

Used for defining stiffness matrices in FEM of Earth structures and foundation soils

3. Damping Ratio, D Ability of System to absorb dynamic energy Controls the duration and mode of Vibration
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6

i. Laboratory tests and results


ii. Field tests and measurements

iii. Empirical correlations for the shear modulus and damping ratio
Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio are obtained from field and lab test and are the most important parameters for design work.
Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 7

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 8

1) For Saturated Clays:


Unconsolidated - Undrained Trixial Tests Cu = Undrained Shear Strength

() =

; = 1 3
For Strain of 42% to 50%

For Strain of 0.5% or less

() = ()

For most of the practical cases


() () Free Powerpoint Templates

1.5

(Carroll 1963)

Page 9

bad

Fig. Typical Triaxial Test Apparatus Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 10

SHEAR STRENGHT UNDER RAPID LOADING (Contd)

2) For Sands:
Vacuum Triaxial tests on dry sands Compressive Strength, = 1 3
Whereas, 1 = Effective Major Principal stress at failure
3 = Effective Minor Principal stress

Drained soil friction angle, =

1 3 1 +3

Similarly, for Dynamic Friction Angle,

=
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11

Transient Load is defined as Short timed, sudden change of Load. Typical example is Blast Loading.
tL = Loading Time tD = Decay time () = . . ()

Free Powerpoint Templates Transient Loading

Page 12

UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT OF A CLAY FOR VARYING TIME OF LOADING Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13

For determining Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Soil


Damping Ratio = Decay of Oscillations after disturbance = C/Cc

Where, C = Damping Coefficient Cc = Critical Damping Coefficient

Sample Size: h = 20-30mm, d = 60-80mm Sample under Vertical Effective Stress, and Cyclic Shear Stress,

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 14

Cyclic Simple Shear Test (Contd)

G=

. . ; . .

D=

. ( ) &

Go Back

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 15

Cyclic Simple Shear Test (Contd)

and and

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 16

Used to determine Modulus of Elasticity E & Damping Ratio D


Confining Pressure 3 and Axial Cyclic Stress is applied

Strain-Controlled Test
(Servo-System is used)

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 17

Cyclic Triaxial Test (Contd)

To calculate Shear Modulus, G


= ( + )

= Damping Ratio, D

&

(Same as that of Cyclic Simple Shear Test)

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 18

Resonant Column Test

Cyclic Torsional Simple Shear Test


Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19

Summary

And or

And Or For

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 20

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 21

For Calculating Spring Constant K & Shear Modulus G


Trench is excavated at the depth of 0.75m (depth of foundation). Steel plate 25mm thick and 762mm diameter Loading is done at the rate of 25% increment until negligible settlement rate (0.25mm/hour) Plate is unloaded in short time but gradually. Rebound of soil is noted and plate is again loaded to the next increment.

Preparation

Free Powerpoint Templates

Unloading

Loading

Page 22

Cyclic Plate Load Test (Contd)

For Cohesive Soils

= (
= (

)
)

For Cohesion less Soils

+ 2

Wf = Foundation width Wp = Plate Width ( ) = .


= , = . , Free Powerpoint Templates =
Page 23

Used for: Wave Propagation Velocities Thickness of soil layers

Suitable for General Site Investigation for soil dynamics

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 24

Best method for low strain shear wave velocity At least Two bore holes required

Seismic Energy (S-waves) generated from bottom of bore hole

Time to travel to another hole is calculated

Velocity is calculated from time and used to determine Shear Modulus G.

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 25

Cross-hole Technique (Contd.)

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 26

Similar to Cross-Hole Technique Require only one borehole

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 27

Recently Developed Technique Combination of Down-hole technique with standard CPT Less expensive than other seismic techniques Seismic Receiver is attached to the cone

Penetration is paused temporarily

Shear force is induced at surface with drop hammer. Rest of the process is like Down hole technique
Shear Wave Velocity Vs is calculated by dividing the difference in travel paths b/w two depth by time diff. of two signals recorded. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 28

Seismic CPT (Contd.)

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 29

REFERENCES
Determination of dynamic soil properties using geophysical methods by Ronaldo Luna and Houda Jadi

Soil Dynamics, Braja M. Das


In situ determination of dynamic soil properties, Jaehun Ahn

Seismic Cone Analysis using digital signal processing, R G Campanella & W. P. Stewert Unified Facilities Criteria (ufc), Soil Mechanics: Department of Defense, USA

Soil Dynamic, Shamsher Prakash


Free Powerpoint Templates Page 30

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 31

Free Powerpoint Templates

Page 32