This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
project guide: Ms. Vasudha project members: 1. Bhavika Kaushal 2. Bhunesh Mittal 3. Dharmendra Bhatt 4. Ghazalpreet 3/25/12 Kaur
This circuit can switch on and off a light, a fan or a radio etc; by the sound of a clap. This circuit is constructed using basic electronic components like resistors, transistors, relay, transformer, capacitors. This circuit
For the next clap the light turns OFF. This circuit works with 12V voltage .Therefore a step-down transformer 12V/300mA is employed.
The working of this circuit is based on amplifying nature of the transistor, switching nature of transistor, and relay as an electronic switch
1 microphone (BC547).4 -2 3/25/12 Two Condenser Red LED’s Transistors Diodes(IN4148) Capacitors: .COMPONENTS USED 12V battery way Switch.
2.2.1 INTRODUCTION OF RESISTOR: A resistor is a twoterminal electrical or electronic component that resists an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: R=V/I The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor 3/25/12 .2 COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION 2.
capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive electronic capacitor consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). consisting in general of two metallic plates separated and insulated from each other by a dielectric. Also called condenser. When a potential difference 3/25/12 A .3.1 INTRODUCTION TO CAPACITOR: An electric circuit element used to store charge temporarily.
solar cells.4. 3/25/12 . Semiconductor devices include the various types of transistor. and many other devices. including radio. Devices made from semiconductor materials are the foundation of modern electronics.1 INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTORS: semiconductor is a material that has an electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and an insulator. This means roughly in the range 103 Siemens per centimeter to 10−8 S/cm. telephones. computers.
5. An A 3/25/12 . two-terminal semiconductor device used chiefly as a rectifier .1 INTRODUCTION OF DIODE: An electronic device that restricts current flow chiefly to one direction . electron tube having a cathode and an anode .
the most common type today. In electronics. a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. A vacuum tube diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two 3/25/12 . This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode.
commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. The transistor is the fundamental building block of the circuitry in computers. and all other modern electronic devices.6. 3/25/12 .1 TRANSISTOR: INTRODUCTION OF TRANSISTORS : A 'transistor' is a semiconductor device. cellular phones.
current.1 TRANSFORMER: INTRODCTION OF TRANSFORMER A device used to transfer electric energy from one circuit to another. 3/25/12 . inductively coupled wire coils that effect such a transfer with a change in voltage.7. especially a pair of multiply wound. phase. or other electric characteristic.
In an ideal transformer. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. If a load is connected to the secondary. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows: 3/25/12 . the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP).
3/25/12 . or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. By Vs/Vp = Ns/Np appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP.
3/25/12 . (frequently called the secondary or output). Step down transformers are made from two or more coils of insulated wire wound around a core made of iron. The turns ratio of the two sets of windings determines the amount of voltage transformation. When voltage is applied to one coil (frequently called the primary or input) it magnetizes the iron core. which induces a voltage in the other coil.
Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit.1 RELAY: INTRODCTION OF RELAYS: A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit.8. in a . It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. it can be 3/25/12 considered. In the original form.
The control circuit has a small control coil while the load circuit has a switch. Relays have two circuits: A control circuit (shown in GREEN) and a load circuit (shown in RED).8. The coil controls the operation of the switch. 3/25/12 .2 RELAY OPERATION : All relays operate using the same basic principle. Our example will use a commonly used 4 .pin relay.
8. 3/25/12 .3 RELAY ENERGIZED (ON) : Current flowing through the control circuit coil (pins 1 and 3) creates a small magnetic field which causes the switch to close. pins 2 and 4. when the relay is energized. which is part of the load circuit. is used to control an electrical circuit that may connect to it. The switch. Current now flows through pins 2 and 4 shown in RED.
the switch opens and current is prevented from flowing through pins 2 and 4. the relay becomes deenergized.8. The relay is now OFF 3/25/12 . Without the magnetic field.4 RELAY DE-ENERGIZED (OFF) : When current stops flowing through the control circuit. pins 1 and 3.
10 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 3/25/12 .
by the sound of clap .11. Transistor Q1 is used as common emitter circuit to amplify weak signals received by the microphone. Radio etc.1 OPERATION: Here is a circuit that can switch on & off a light. Fan. Amplified output from the 3/25/12 .The sound of clap is received by a small microphone that is shown biased by resistor R1 in the circuit. The microphone changes sound wave in to electrical wave which is further amplified by Q1.
3/25/12 . Flip flop circuit is made by using 2 Transistor. in our circuit Q2&Q3. Thus output of transistor is either logic-0 or logic-1 and it remains in one state 0 or 1 until it gets trigger pulse from outer source. at a time only one transistor conduct and other cut off and when it gets a trigger pulse from outside source then first transistor is cutoff and 2nd transistor conducts. In a flip-flop circuit.
The pulse of clap which is trigger for flip-flop makes changes to the output which is complementary (reverse). With 3/25/12 . Decision of flip-flop which is in the low current form is unable to drive relay directly so we have used a current amplifier circuit by using Q4 which is a common emitter circuit. works like a mechanical switch. Output of Q4 is connected to a Relay (Electromagnetic switch).
The relay contact is connected to the power line and hence turns on/off any electrical appliance connected all the way through relay. For power supply. the help of a relay it is easy for connecting other electrical appliance. Diode D1 and capacitor C1.It is a half wave rectifier. 3/25/12 . we have made 12Volt eliminator with the help of Transformer T1.
1 CONDENSER MIC: INTRODUCTION OF CONDENSER MICROPHONE: Condenser means capacitor. which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy 3/25/12 .9. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type of microphone. an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field.
making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamics. They are not ideal for high-volume work. The resulting audio signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort. 3/25/12 .
C O N D EN SER M I 1 CRO PH O N E 3/25/12 . 4.9. CO N D EN SER M I RO PH O N E 1 C 9. 4.
require voltage supply across the capacitor for it to work They are suitable for handling They are not ideal for high volume high volume level. such as work as their sensitivity makes them from certain musical prone to distortion instruments The signal produced are The resulting audio signal is strong therefore making them stronger than that from a dynamic. sensitive It also tends to be more sensitive and responsive than dynamic 3/25/12 . Employs the principle of electrostatics and consequently.Dynamic Microphone Do not have flat frequency response but rather tend to have tailed frequency response for particular applications Condenser Microphone Have a flat frequency response Operate with the principle of Electromagnetism as it does not require voltage supply.
a fan.15.v.1 APPLICATIONS This circuit can be used to switch on and off a light. a radio or a t. by the sound of a clap 3/25/12 .
The major disadvantage is that it's generally cumbersome to have to clap one's hands to turn something on or off and 3/25/12 .14.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLAPSWITCH: The major advantage of a clap switch is that you can turn something (e. a lamp) on and off from any location in the room (e. while lying in bed) simply by clapping your hands.g.g.
This circuit turns on and off a light.This circuit functions on using the sound energy provided by the clap which is converted into electrical energy by condenser mic .CONCLUSION: Hereby we would like to conclude that this circuit is very much useful to switch ON and OFF the household appliances just by clapping hand . a t. etc using this converted electrical energy which is used to turn on relay 3/25/12electronic (an . a radio.v. a fan.
References: http://www.ffldusoe. “Electronics Tutorial” Denenberg University.2007. Retrieved May 5. erg/topics/Electronics/AlexPounds.com.com: Country circuits.kpsec. http://www. 2004 3/25/12 http://www/starmicromics .SPDT automobile Relays.htmls.edu/faculty/Denenb http://www/the 12volt. the Electronics club Alex Pounds.