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Effect of Visual Merchandising on Buying Behaviour of Customers

Effect of Visual Merchandising on Buying Behaviour of Customers

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EFFECT OF VISUAL MERCHANDISING ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CUSTOMERS: A CASE OF BIG BAZAAR STORES IN LUCKNOW

PROJECT REPORT

Submitted to

G. B. PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY PANTNAGAR-263145, (UDHAM SINGH NAGAR) UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

Submitted by

Monika Chauhan Id. No. 32144

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF Master of Business Administration (Agribusiness)

(MAY, 2011)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report is the result of contributions made by numerous people – too many to mention individually. Therefore, I thank all the respondents who have given their valuable time, views and authentic information for this project. At the very outset, I would like to extend my heartfelt respect to my advisor Dr. Ashutosh Singh, Associate Professor, Department of Human Resource and Personnel Management, for providing me all types of support, constant encouragement, and his relentless efforts to motivate me to achieve my goal. His close supervision and precious inputs have made me able to refine this project to this extent. I consider it my privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude to the members of my advisory committee Dr. M.L. Sharma, Professor and Head, Department of Finance and Dr. B.K.Sikka, Professor and Head, Department of Marketing Management, for all the pains they have taken to guide me and critically analyze my project work. I cannot forget to express my sincere thanks to Dr. T.S.Bhogal, Professor, Mr. Saurabh Singh, Assistant Professor, Dr. Mukesh Pandey, Associate Professor and Mr. Nirdesh
Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor who were always there to spend their time in giving me

valuable suggestions during the course of my project. I am extremely thankful to Mrs. Rajni Singh and Miss Kajal, Teaching Associates for their consistent support. I express my sincere thanks to the Dean of CABM, Dr. D. Kumar without whose support I would not have been successful. I am thankful to Dr. B.K.Kumbhler, Dean Post Graduate Studies for providing me the necessary research facilities. I owe a sense of indebtness to all the staff of Big Bazaar, Lucknow for providing necessary help, cooperation and facilities during the course of my project. This acknowledgement would be incomplete if I don’t mention a special regard to my family members, my friends, my seniors, batch mates, loving juniors, administrative staff of my college, and all those who have motivated me to perform better than the best. Last but not the least I thank the ALMIGHTY for blessing me with enough patience, endurance and strength in accomplishment of the Endeavor.

Pantnagar Chauhan

Monika

Visual merchandising practices serve as stimuli and ultimately motivate customers to make an unplanned purchase decision upon entering the store thus. place. price and promotion. Hence. increase the traffic in the store. lighting and visual merchandising have always been considered as having immediate effects on the buying decision making process. customers visiting apparel section of Big Bazaar. The study reveals that visual merchandising practices certainly influence customers’ buying behavior. The study also provided insights about types of visual merchandising that can influence customers’ buying behaviors. the application of more attractive visual merchandising techniques will help to obtain better results. retailers should continuously reinforce their usage to create favorable shopping environments to influence the customers. The study indicates that the activities of visual merchandising influence the behavior of the customers and create a change in the sales performance. innovative assortments and cleanliness and neatness of store/ store environment have been identified. by attracting more customers. Three most important factors of visual merchandising namely attractiveness of window display.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The retailers are facing a keen competitive market place and as a consequence of that they find many difficulties to differentiate their stores on the basis of product. lighting and space management have been identified. It was also observed that displays and signage play a very important role in the purchase process. Visual merchandising can. and thus influences the sales performance. The results proved that there was relationship between customers’ buying behavior and in-store form/mannequin display. During the study. Since these tools of visual merchandising significantly influence customers’ buying behavior. With the business of fashion in the country getting more competitive. which increases the traffic in it. which ultimately increases the sales figures. Various visual merchandising techniques like graphics and signage. visual merchandising has the capability to invite people to enter the store. people. promotional signage and window display. . The present study has been undertaken to determine the important factors of visual merchandising which influence consumer’s buying behaviour and in-store promotion activities. visual merchandising is the only differentiator. especially in a scenario where consumers encounter the same fashion designs almost uniformly everywhere. Thus. The study also elucidates the relationship between impulse buying and visual merchandising. fixtures. props. significantly influencing customers’ impulse buying behaviors. Retail store elements such as color. Lucknow were surveyed.

1 Role of Visual Merchandising 1.3 Timelines Title .2 2.2 INTRODUCTION Background Visual Merchandising Title Page No.3 Visual Merchandising: Current Trend and Future Prospects 1.4 2 2.1 Group Vision 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS S.1 Product Range in Big Bazaar 2.2 Tools of Visual Merchandising 1.1.2 Significant Features of Big Bazaar S.2 Group Mission 2.2.3 1.2.4.4.4. No Acknowledgements Executive Summary Table of Contents List of Exhibits List of Figures 1 1. i ii iii-v vi-viii ix 1-6 1 1-5 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6 7-13 7 7 7-8 8 8 9 9-13 10 10-11 Page No. No 2.1 1.4 Future Retail Pantaloon Retail India Limited Big Bazaar 2.1.1. 11-13 1.1 Problem Statement Objectives COMPANY PROFILE Background 2.3 2.3 Corporate Statement 2.2.

2 4.1 Customers’ Status S.2 5. 26-46 47 .1.1 Secondary Data 4.6 4.1 4.1 Sampling Frame 4. No 5.7 4.3.3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Information Required Data Source 4.5.3 4 4.3 Sample Size 4.5 Area of Study Sampling Plan 4.3 Behavioural Variable Whispering Window Title Page No.8 4.9 5 5.5.4 4.2 Sampling Unit 4.5.5.4 Sampling Technique 4.3.1 Research Instrument Data Analysis Limitations of Study Duration of Study RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic Variable 5.2 Primary Data 14-16 17-20 17 17 17-18 17 18 18 18-19 18 18 19 19 19 19-20 20 20 21-52 21-25 21-25 4.

5.4.5.2 Exterior Design 47-49 47-48 48-49 49-52 s5.4.1 Key To Symbols 53 54-55 56 57-58 x-xiv 6 7 8 CONCLUSION SUGGESTIONS Bibliography Annexure Vita .5 Proposed Model and Suggestions to Increase Footfall and Consequently Conversion Rate in the Store using Visual Merchandising 5.4 Visual Merchandising at Big Bazaar 5.1 Interior Design 5.

3 Comparison of Educational Qualification of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 23 4. Exhibit 5.9 Exhibit 5.10 Mode of Purchase Percentage of Monthly Income Spent on Total Household Shopping 28 29 12. Exhibit 5.11 Percentage of Income Spent on Purchase of Apparels 29 . No 1.1 Title Percentage of Male and Female Customers Visiting Big Bazaar Comparison of Age of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar Page No.1 Time of Purchase 27 9.LIST OF EXHIBITS S. 22 2.8. 11.2 Time of Purchase 27 10. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5.4 Comparison of Occupation of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 24 5.2 23 3.6 Comparison of Family Size of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 25 7. Exhibit 5.5 Comparison of Income of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 25 6. Exhibit No.7 Comparison between Places of Purchase 26 8.8. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5.

. 24. Exhibit 5.24 39 26. 30 31 32 16. No Exhibit 5. 18. 42 Page No. 15.20 36 22. Exhibit 5.18 Exhibit 5.17 Percentage of Customers who Try New Apparels Percentage of Customers who Feel that Displays Attract More Attention 33 34 19.23 Comparison of Method of Buying Apparels Connection of Visual Merchandising and Marketing of Product Effect of Visuals and Display of Apparels on Final Buying Decision Relationship between Visual Merchandising and Impulse Buying Attractiveness of VM Techniques Title 38 39 25.14 Title Reasons for Visiting an Organized Retail Outlet Factors Affecting Purchase of Apparels Percentage of Customers Paying Attention to Displays and Signage Percentage of Customers who get Help from Displays and Signage Page No. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5.26 Exhibit No. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5.13 Exhibit 5. Lighting. 14.22 Exhibit 5.16 Exhibit 5.21 37 Availability of Product 23. 20. Exhibit 5.15 32 17. Ambience and Attractive Visuals with Time Spent in Store Effect of Good Interiors and Display on Buying Behavior Percentage of Customers who Ask for 35 36 21. Exhibit 5.19 Reasons for Choosing a Particular Store Relationship of Color.25 41 27.S. S. Exhibit No. No 13.12 Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5.

29.30 Reasons for Entering Big Bazaar Percentage of Customers who Purchased any Apparel during the Visit Effectiveness of Visual Merchandising 45 46 32.31 46 Techniques Applied by Big Bazaar . Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. Exhibit 5. 31.28.29 Exhibit 5.28 Factors of Visual Merchandising Frequency of Purchase 43 44 30.27 Exhibit 5.

Figure No.2 Title A Model of Impulse Buying Process Model to Increase Footfall and Consequently Conversion Rate in the Store using VM Page No. 2. Figure 5. No 1.LIST OF FIGURES S. 40 52 .1 Figure 5.

. Visual merchandising can help create that positive customer image that leads to successful sales.1. restrooms and trial rooms. The interior design within store can maintain customer interest. INTRODUCTION 1. lipstick color of female personnel . staff uniforms. which means that a customer does not need to ask the sales personnel for assistance and can independently approach the offered merchandise. A story can be told that communicates to the prospective customer what the store is all about. both exterior and interior. The consequence of this is that consumers are not influenced anymore by a sales person but are influenced by the way the merchandise is exposed. desire and action on the part of the customer.2 VISUALMERCHANDISING “Eighty percent of our impressions are created by sight..1 BACKGROUND A successful retailing business requires that a distinct and consistent image be created in the customers’ mind that permeates all product and service offerings. the shop floor and ceiling. Most points of sale in the market of fashion today offer free access to their merchandise. that creates a positive image of a business and results in attention. 1. It is usually “THE” focus point which attracts customers. In tangible terms. It includes the dramatic presentation of merchandise as well as other important. Visual merchandising can be defined as everything the customer sees. interest. that is why one picture is worth a thousand words”. encourage customers to lower their psychological defences and assist in easy purchasing. Therefore. but also reinforces the stores advertising efforts and encourages impulse buying by the customers. marketers have recognized that visual merchandising in retailing makes significant effect on customers’ buying decisions. A retail outlet is an investment made to generate maximum sales and henceforth profits to the organization. It not only communicates the store’s image. subtle features that create the store’s overall atmosphere. it includes not only the products on sale but also the decor.

Hence.and tie knots of male personnel. Strategically used. or the point of sale as a whole. everything that makes an impact on the perspective customer is part of visual merchandising. physically. no matter what kind of store it is or what dimension the store has. If handled well. 2004). thanks to the way it is presented. Its ultimate goal is to increase profitability (Pisani. a section. Visual Merchandising is a technique commonly and rightly called “Silent Salesman” and is widely used in market to increase footfalls and attract shoppers and make shopping a . increase selling) (Ravazzi. visual merchandising improves the commercial functionality of the point of sale. it helps clients to easily approach goods visually. It is a combination of methods that give the product the ability to be active.It is seen as an additional service. Visual merchandising is a possibility for a shop to make their merchandise move towards the customer. visual merchandising can even create a brand identity. a product family. The importance of visual merchandising as an essential instrument of communication for the retailer and manufacturer is derived basically from the demand of the customers. Visual Merchandising is an important support for fashion retail operations. 2000).1 ROLE OF VISUAL MERCHANDISING The basic objective for visual merchandising is a desire to attract customers to a place of business in order to sell the merchandise. per square meter etc) and increases its economic efficiency (accelerate rotation. 2000). mentally and intellectually without the help of a sales person (Ravazzi. and therefore it is relevant for every modern shop. develops the commercial productivity of the point of sale (improves the selling per personnel. 1. It establishes a connection between merchandise and fashion. It gives the business an edge over competition. It is also inclusive of the attitude of your personnel who interact with customers. Visual merchandising has become a natural component of every modern point of sale and is characterized by the direct contact between merchandise and clients.2. Visual merchandising is therefore believed to provide a fundamental contribution to a point of sale: it is a tool to valorize a product.

1. Special emphasis should be placed on a store’s window displays because they are the information link to the potential customer. It also includes building and designing a store space that understands the theme. merchandise display systems. It is a simple but a very powerful concept because it takes into consideration research on buying habits of consumers.pleasant experience to one and all. use of store logo to distance of shelves from each other and many more. interior store design. the store makes use of a publication generated by them called the VM guidelines. Creating a plan-o-gram forces the retailer to carefully evaluate which products go where and how many will be displayed. These guidelines are based on a Visual Plan. display systems. This is achieved by creating an environment not only to attract a customer but also to retain his/her interest. It is also known as a plan-ogram. The visual plan is an actual photograph. An effective store design can in many cases bring about much more sales than a substantial expenditure on an advertisement campaign. flooring & ceiling. graphics and signage. theme based products and accessories.  Fixtures: These include fascia design. These guidelines discuss in detail how the store is set up ranging from what type of fixtures to use in each area. create desire and finally augment the selling process. stock keeping units (skills) and furniture. window and entrance door.2. props. functionality and commercial viability of the fashion retailer. Mannequins are the most widely used props for Visual . A plan-o-gram is nothing more than a picture of how various fixtures. The right kind of Visual Merchandising boosts the sales graph rise upwards.  Props: They are items used for display purposes like mannequins. Generally. The most common fixture is Gondola which is used in most categories with modifications. Browsers are used in case of fashion and most browsers stock merchandise on a slightly higher side in numbers than its actual capacity. a hand drawn illustration or graphic presentation of a display. shelves and walls will present your merchandise. lighting.2 TOOLS OF VISUAL MERCHANDISING Broadly these comprise of fixtures.

Good lighting can guide the customer's eyes. visual merchandising and store displays are getting prominence.   Location signage which directs the buyer to specific departments or merchandise. reveal the color and cut of the merchandise. in India. the consciousness and recognition is just about coming about. displays and events within the store. and  Informational signage provides product related information like special features.3 VISUAL MERCHANDISING: CURRENT TREND AND FUTURE PROSPECTS While the West has nurtured effective VM practices over the past two decades and more. show the styling and tailoring details and emphasize the good qualities of the outfit. Signage is the "silent salesperson" for the retailer and must reflect the correct brand image. There are various types of signage. .Merchandising in fashion. sizes. price etc. As much as 80% of all sales are generated at the point of purchase (POP) by signage. 1. helping the merchandise to be pre-sold to customer. Special lighting like focus lights are used specially in windows for displays. Proper signage has been shown to increase the sale of an item by over 40%. Institutional signage which gives information on store policies. For example:  Promotional signage which informs the customer about off price events or schemes. With the coming of malls.  Lighting: An often overlooked and underestimated tool available to retailers is store lighting.2. but the story is yet to unfold. charitable events etc. Highly specialized props fabricated from a variety of materials are created by experts for VM. Studies show that proper lighting can increase merchandise sales by up to 20%. benefits. Effective lighting is a key in the sale of merchandise in helping to create that favorable first impression of the merchandise and its surroundings.  Signage: Signage varies according to different categories of products and formats as well. but one of the flip sides being that all malls and displays look similar with very few exceptions..

1. for instance. display systems etc. Fashion companies must make sure that they use effective Visual Merchandising.000 per season on visual merchandising. The idea is to create euphoria in the fashion market by trying out new retail techniques and profiting by building more on store presentation. VM is the only differentiator. especially in a scenario where consumers encounter that the same fashion designs almost uniformly. Lifestyle and Westside spending in the range of Rs.Indian consumers are turning increasingly global in their outlook having become much more aware of design trends in the business of fashion. .00. compared to the last couple of years. and visual merchandising is one key area for the same. which involves shopper research. With the business of fashion in the country getting more competitive. About 60 percent are expected to be in the area of fashion and lifestyle. Further. attaining an international outlook is subconsciously creating a demand for it. saw some big spends. point-of-sale (POS) promotion is steadily gaining a bigger slice of the promotion pie. and.40.5 to 2 percent of their turnover on visual merchandising in earlier years. 30. with large department stores like Shopper's Stop. India is placed sixth in the global retail development index. As both fashion brands and retailers in India strive to convert brand thinking into retail thinking. emphatically or not.00. The year 2006. the spend figure now stands at about 4 percent of the turnover. The Indian retail industry is waking up to the need for visual merchandising and the Indian society. are demanding the same levels of design and innovation from store spaces. According to a CII analysis the Indian retail business has the capacity to employ over 2 million in new jobs within the next 6 years. Estimated at a $ 180 billion market size and accounting for a national GDP of 10 percent the Indian retail industry is poised to see a growth of 11-12 percent per year. as well as providing complete visual merchandising solutions for fashion retailers. props. Visual Merchandising spend had indeed doubled in 2006. Where fashion retailers traditionally spent approx. There is a mushrooming of companies manufacturing fixtures. creating a distinct identity for the retailer.000 .

1. people. price and promotion. Retail store elements such as color. global standard of the product. Merchandising plays an important role in maintaining a balance between rack stock and the buffer stock. as the Indian consumer now demands state of the art service. lighting and visual merchandising have always been considered as having immediate effects on the buying decision making process.4 OBJECTIVES The present study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. retailers may be able to develop a sustainable competitive advantage through merchandising. the mall culture sets a limitation on the retailers for manually displaying each and every article in front of the customers. A proper visual merchandising helps the retailer to increase the customer walk-ins and in turn increase the sales of the product. 1. place. the retailers are facing a keen competitive market place and as a consequence of that they find many difficulties to differentiate their stores on the basis of product. . To find out the intensity of influence of visual merchandising on buying behaviour of customers.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT Visual Merchandising has long been considered as important strategic business decision for a number of reasons. Hence. First. and international level of shopping experience. Second. Thus. customer store choice decisions are influenced greatly by merchandising (Arrangement of merchandise) which denotes the relationship between customer perception and buying behaviour. the retailer can either meet the demand or give into international competition.Finally. the present study has been undertaken to determine the important factors of visual merchandising which influence consumer’s buying behaviour and in-store promotion activities. lucrative and much sought after business and profession. With all this in view there seems to be a very bright future for Visual Merchandising in India and is fast emerging as a professional. Also.

. To determine the important factors of visual merchandising influencing customers’ buying behaviour and in-store promotion activities. To propose a model for increasing conversion rate in the store with reference to visual merchandising. 3.2.

New Media. COMPANY PROFILE 2. Headquartered in Mumbai (Bombay).1. Everytime for Every Indian Consumer in the most profitable manner. The company follows a multi-format retail strategy that captures almost the entire consumption basket of Indian customers. a chain of seamless malls. Big Bazaar is a hypermarket format that combines the look. the future of Future Group shows a rising star in the business sky of India.  We shall infuse Indian brands with confidence and renewed ambition. Its founder and Group CEO is Mr. touch and feel of Indian bazaars with the choice and convenience of modern retail. . Future Group India was established in 1994 with a vision to provide diverse services in Indian and Global markets. the group operates over 16 million square feet of retail space in 73 cities and towns and 65 rural locations across India.2.1. The business areas of Future Group cover BPO (Business Process Outsourcing). Kishore Biyani. Led by its flagship enterprise. Pantaloon Retail.2 GROUP MISSION  We share the vision and belief that our customers and stakeholders shall be served only by creating and executing future scenarios in the consumption space leading to economic development. Pantaloon Retail employs around 30. and Construction. 2.000 people and is listed on the Indian stock exchanges. making consumption affordable for all customer segments – for classes and for masses.  We will be the trendsetters in evolving delivery formats.1 GROUP VISION Future Group’s vision is to deliver Everything. Through their strategic investment and services. a fashion retail chain and Central. its marquee brand. Everywhere. the group operates Pantaloons. In the value segment. In the lifestyle segment. creating retail realty. 2.1 BACK GROUND Future Group is India’s largest retailer and one of the leading business houses with a strong presence in retail. Security Management.

Present in the value and lifestyle segments. Our customers will not just get what they need. . in Future Group. humility and united determination shall be the driving force to make us successful.2 FUTURE RETAIL Retail forms the core business activity at Future Group and most of its businesses in the consumption space are built around retail. but also get them where. We shall ensure that our positive attitude. Future Group’s retail network touches the lives of more than 200 million Indians in 73 cities and 65 rural locations across the country. we will effect socio-economic development for our customers. shareholders.  We shall be efficient. The group currently operates around 1. associates and partners. do just one thing. Rewrite Rules. We will not just spot trends. 2. Thereby.000 stores spread over 16 million square feet of retail space. We shall keep relearning. how and when they need. cost.1.conscious and committed to quality in whatever we do. 2. We will not just post satisfactory results. sincerity. we will set trends by marrying our understanding of the Indian consumer to their needs of tomorrow. will not wait for the Future to unfold itself but create future scenarios in the consumer space and facilitate consumption because consumption is development. And in this Process.. We will not just operate efficiently in the Indian economy. Retain Values. we will write success stories. It is this understanding that has helped us succeed. the group’s retail formats cater to almost the entire consumption expenditure of a wide cross-section of Indian consumers.3 CORPORATE STATEMENT We. employees. we will evolve it. And it is this that will help us succeed in the Future.

Consumer electronics Health & Beauty Malls Online retail through futurebazaar. Food Bazaar.2. 2001 with the opening of three stores in Calcutta. including those located within Big Bazaar. 2. Central – A chain of seamless destination malls Food Bazaar – A supermarket chain that blends the look. .India's first concept store.A large-format home solutions store E Zone . books. convenience and quality       Home Town . There are now 169 Food Bazaar outlets. electronics. there are now 148 Big Bazaar stores in 80 cities and towns across India.com Aadhaar. Within a span of ten years.Consumer electronics Depot . provides a complete solution provider for the Indian farmer. which recreates the experience of a traditional ethnic market in a modern retail format. fast food and leisure and entertainment sections. Aadhaar.   Furniture Bazaar .Lifestyle segments and fashion segment.that is present in over 65 locations in rural India.3 PANTALOON RETAIL INDIA LIMITED The leading retail formats under this include:     Pantaloons Stores . food products.4 BIG BAZAAR Big Bazaar was launched in September.Specialized formats for home furniture and home furnishing Ethnicity . an agri-service cum rural retail initiative.India’s leading rural retailing chain. furniture. Big Bazaar – A uniquely Indian hypermarket chain. Big Bazaar is designed as an agglomeration of bazaars or Indian markets with clusters offering a wide range of merchandise including fashion and apparels. touch and feel of Indian bazaars with aspects of modern retail like choice. Bangalore and Hyderabad in 22 days. general merchandise. a supermarket format was incorporated within Big Bazaar in 2002 and is now present within every Big Bazaar as well as in independent locations.

Some of the significant features of Big Bazaar are:  The Food Bazaar or the grocery store with the department selling fruits and vegetables.2 SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF BIG BAZAAR Shopping in the Big Bazaar is a great experience as one can find almost everything under the same roof. It varies from clothing and accessories for all genders like men. women and children. luggage gift items.000 square feet.000 SKUs in a wide range of categories led primarily by fashion and food products. 2. plastics. These stores offer over 200.A typical Big Bazaar is spread across around 50. Big Bazaar is part of Future Group and is owned through a wholly owned subsidiary of Pantaloon Retail India Limited. home textiles. The added advantage for the customers shopping in Big Bazaar is that there are all time discounts and promotional offers going on in the Big Bazaar on its salable products.000 square feet of retail space. footwear. It has different features which caters all the needs of the shoppers.60.000 square feet. that is listed on Indian stock exchanges. home utility products.1 PRODUCT RANGE IN BIG BAZAAR This large format store comprise of almost everything required by people from different income groups. 2. Big Bazaar Express stores in smaller towns measure around 30. While the larger metropolises have Big Bazaar Family centres measuring between 75. . crockery. other novelties.   There is a zone specially meant for the amusement of the kids. cosmetics. Furniture Bazaar or a large section dealing with furniture.000 square feet and 1.4. playthings. and also food products and grocery.4. stationary and toys. Most of the Big Bazaar stores are multi-level and are located in stand-alone buildings in city centers as well as within shopping malls.

3 TIME LINES 2001  Three Big Bazaar stores launched within a span of 22 days in Kolkata. Food Bazaar becomes part of Big Bazaar with the launch of the first store in Mumbai at High Street Phoenix 2003   Big Bazaar enters Tier II cities with the launch of the store in Nagpur Big Bazaar welcomes its 10 million-th customer at its new store in Gurgaon 2004  Big Bazaar wins its first award and national recognition.4. Bangalore and Hyderabad 2002   Big Bazaar . inviting customers to exchange household junk at Big Bazaar .  FutureBazaar. the store at Lower Parel becomes the first to touch Rs 10 million turnover on a single day 2005  Initiates the implementation of SAP and pilots a RFID project at its central warehouse in Tarapur  Launches a unique shopping program: the Big Bazaar Exchange Offer.ICICI Bank Card is launched. 2.com or the online shopping portal which makes shopping easier as one can shop many products of Big Bazaar at the same price from home. Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar awarded the country’s most admired retailer award in value retailing and food retailing segment at the India Retail Forum  A day before Diwali. Electronics Bazaar or the section concerned with electronic goods and cellular phones.

com to launch India's most popular shopping portal  Big Bazaar initiates the Power of One campaign to help raise funds for the Save The Children India Fund  Pantaloon Retail wins the International Retailer of the Year at US-based National Retail Federation convention in New York and Emerging Retailer of the Year award at the World Retail Congress held in Barcelona. India’s first credit card program tailored for housewives Navaras – the jewellery store launched within Big Bazaar stores   2007   The 50th Big Bazaar store is launched in Kanpur Big Bazaar partners with Futurebazaar. It is voted among the top ten service brands in the country in the latest Pitch-IMRB international survey 2009  Big Bazaar initiates Maha Annasantarpane program at its stores in South India – a unique initiative to offer meals to visitors and support local social organisations  Big Bazaar captures almost one-third share in food and grocery products sold through modern retail in India . Fashion@Big Bazaar Big Bazaar joins the league of India’s Business Superbrands. The Sangli farmer becomes Big Bazaar’s largest ever customer.367 shopping bill. Big Bazaar launches Shakti. 2008  Big Bazaar becomes the fastest growing hypermarket format in the world with the launch of its 101st store within 7 years of launch   Big Bazaar dons a new look with a fresh new section. Electronic Bazaar and Furniture Bazaar are launched 2006  Mohan Jadhav sets a national record at Big Bazaar Sangli with a Rs 1.37.

Most Preferred Multi Brand Retail Outlet and Most Preferred Multi Brand One Stop Shop  Big Bazaar connects over 30.2010  Future Value Retail Limited is formed as a specialised subsidiary to spearhead the group’s value retail business through Big Bazaar.000 small and medium Indian manufacturers and entrepreneurs with around 200 million customers visiting its stores. Adjudged the most preferred Most Preferred Multi Brand Food & Beverage Chain. . Food Bazaar and other formats.  Big Bazaar wins CNBC Awaaz Consumer Awards for the third consecutive year.

special events. the place. Visual merchandising is offered to the customer through exterior and interior presentation. Wolters and White (1987) stated that the interest in the visual has – at one level within the retail context – coalesced to from the practices of “visual merchandising”. Creating and maintaining a store’s visual merchandising plan.REVIEW OF LITERATURE Keeping the importance of the topic an attempt was made to review studies related to visual merchandising and how it affects buying behavior of consumers. is more influential than the product itself in the purchase decision. personal selling. It is necessary to continually determine what the customer sees. which coordinates effective merchandising selection with effective merchandising display. In some cases. Each should be coordinated with the other using the store’s overall theme. Zetocha and Passewitz (1991) explained that basic objective for visual merchandising is a desire to attract customers to a place of business in order to sell the merchandise. advertising. display. Visual merchandising is therefore concerned with both how the product and/ or brand are visually communicated to the customer and also whether this message is decoded “appropriately”. In some cases. Mills. This evaluation from the customer’s perspective should start on the exterior and work completely through the interior of the store. the atmosphere is the primary product. more specifically the atmosphere of the place.3. public relations and other tools of marketing. Kotler (1973) indicated that one of the most significant features of the total product is the place from where it is bought. . Paul and Moorman (1995) defined visual merchandising as “the presentation of a store/brand and its merchandise to the customer through the teamwork of the store’s advertising. and merchandising departments in order to sell the goods and services offered by the store/company”. This is defined as the activity. Holly. is not a simple task. however. fashion coordination. The paper also emphasized that visual merchandising is not practiced “as consciously and skillfully as retailers now use price.

to enhance the store/company’s image. The emphasis has moved away from in-store product displays. effective pleasure and cognitive pleasure. towards elements that excite the senses of shoppers such as flat screen videos or graphics. lighting and flooring that tend to capture the brand image or personality and help to create an unique environment and shopping experience. then the decision to enter or not to enter may be made solely from the store’s visual image. service and store design all contribute towards the overall store image.Smith (1997 ) stated that it is worth remembering that products. for example to invite them into the store. Fiore. visual merchandising has been widely employed by . music. smells. but if a customer has no prior experience of a particular store nor any word-of-mouth reference from peers. which include sensory pleasure. Yah and Yoh (2000) in their study indicated that apart from retail identity building. McGoldrick (2002) stated that visual simulation and communication have long been considered important aspect of retailing by practitioners and academic alike. Frings (1999) said that the purpose of visual merchandising is to educate the customer. and to encourage multiple sales by showing apparel together with accessories. Ravazzi (2004) in her book said that visual merchandising is the totality of all exposition techniques that allow to settle the presentation of the merchandise in the display window and in the interior of the point of sale effectively. The store’s exterior offers an opportunity to communicate with the customer. Castaldo (2001) observed that display windows are probably the most important visual communication instrument that a retailer has at his disposal to attract the attention of the potential clients and to make the clients enter the store. It is the totality of all marketing activities that can be realized in the point of sale in order to valorize the product and to increase the sell-out. Visual merchandising focuses on various aspects of consumers. visual merchandising is regarded as a powerful tool in shaping consumers’ final decision inside a store. Derry and Yip (2007) suggested that store environment can intensify consumers’ response (either positive or negative) to a brand of the product being sold in the store and to achieve a positive store atmosphere.

The study also focuses on the influence of visual merchandising on the store atmosphere and its corresponding impact on consumer decision making process for intimate apparel. The research findings of this paper recommend Visual merchandising as the most important variable in in-store environment among the tested variables. . It can significantly influence on consumer’s store choice decisions. and (3) self-explanatory (descriptive/illustrative). Emphasis is laid on the application of more attractive visual merchandising materials in their promotions to obtain better results. Wanninayake and Randiwela (2007) indicated a significant correlation between visual merchandising and store choice decisions of customers. Karolia and Dua (2008) emphasized on the role of visual merchandising in today’s retail and fashion industry. It indicates that the right kind of Visual Merchandising boosts the sales graph rise upwards. The lighting.retailers. Bhalla and Anurag (2009) defined Visual merchandising as the presentation of any merchandise at its best (1) color coordinated (synchronised colours). The paper explains that how visual merchandising actually works and what tools of visual merchandising are used. This is achieved by creating an environment not only to attract a customer but also to retain his/her interest. The study concluded that paying a close attention to the interaction of cultural or societal differences together with visual merchandising elements causes a great impact on final purchase decision. create desire and finally augment the selling process. It is one of the final stages in the process of setting up of a retail store which customers would then find attractive and appealing. Design layout and cleanliness are the key elements of visual merchandising programs other than product display. (2) accessorised (related products/ props).

The inferences were drawn mainly from primary source. Secondary information on the present scenario and role of visual merchandising were required. . Exploratory kind of research was used for exploring the influence of visual merchandising on buying behaviour of customers. 4. 4.2 Information Required Both primary and secondary information were required for the study. 4. The information was collected for knowing the impact of visual merchandising on customers’ buying behavior. 4. articles. research papers. internet and web portals of different retail organizations. Descriptive research was designed to know the different dimensions of visual merchandising which are necessary to influence the customers’ final buying decisions. Primary information on the influence and important factors of visual merchandising affecting the buying behavior of customers were required. It helped to understand the basic concept of visual merchandising and what role it can play in increasing the customer footfall in the stores.3.3 Data Source Both secondary data and primary data were used for the information generation. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY To fulfill the objectives of the study following methodology was used for the study and report preparation.4. It also helped to know the impact of visual merchandising on the sales performance of the apparels.1 Research Design The research design was both exploratory as well as descriptive. This research design helped in providing significant insight of the use of art of visual merchandising in present scenario.1 Secondary Data Secondary data was gathered from books.

4.3.4.2 Sampling Unit Sampling unit included customers visiting the Big Bazaar store for buying apparels. 4.3 Sampling Size The sample size was as follows: Saharaganj Store : Riverside Store : 40 30 . The stores are located at Sahara Mall in Saharaganj. Primary data was collected from personal interview of customers visiting the stores. The data was collected by survey method using pre-tested structured questionnaires having both open and close ended questions.2 Primary Data Primary data was the first hand information for fulfilling the objectives of the study. Since our study is mainly concentrated on applying visual merchandising to apparels therefore our sampling unit is only those customers who visited the apparel section of these stores. 4. 4. Apart from this store staff was also approached for in depth knowledge regarding the topic. This area was suitable for the necessary information generation as it had three Big Bazaar stores operating in three different locations. The data collected addressed to issue regarding customer’s profile.5. All three stores were covered.5.5 Sampling Plan 4. Riverside Mall in Gomtinagar and Phoenix in Alambaag.5.4 Area of Study The study was concentrated in the Lucknow. capital city of Uttar Pradesh.1 Sampling Frame The sampling frame comprised of all the customers visiting and purchasing from the stores of Big Bazaar (Lucknow). general perception regarding various attributes of visual merchandising and how it influences customers’ buying behavior.

simple tabulation and ranking method. But. Inferences were made on the basis of averages.–For analyzing demographic variables. 4.7 Data Analysis Following statistical tools was used for data analysis: Frequency Distribution.8 Limitations of the Study 1. tabulated and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed so as to go into the depth of respondents’ psychology. In all 100 customers were selected from the apparel section and studied from all three stores.6 Research Instrument Pre-tested Structured questionnaire with both open and close ended questions has been used as a research tool for conducting the interviews of customers visiting apparel section of Big Bazaar stores.Phoenix Store : 30 A sample size of 30 is a large sample and is considered appropriate for reproducing results so. Data collected from respondent was classified. 4. since Saharaganj store is the largest and most visited store of Lucknow therefore it was decided to select 40 samples from this store. Bar graph. 4. buying behavior and other factors like techniques preferred by customers about visual merchandising. it was decided to select a minimum sample size of 30 for meeting the objectives of the study. The respondents were selected subjectively and intuitively. The biggest obstacle for the realization of the research for this project was the difficulty to determine which elements in and of a point of sale are referable to visual . . 4. Purposive sampling has helped in meeting the objective of the research. The adopted sampling technique had also overcome the Time and Cost constraints.5. It has helped in identifying customers and finding out the important factors affecting visual merchandising. The Non-probabilistic.4 Sampling Technique Purposive sampling technique was used for the sample selection. Pie chart and columns were used for pictorial representation of the result.

in particular. 4. The result cannot be generalized for all stores of Big Bazaar because only three stores have been covered in the survey. The study was confined mainly to the apparel section of the stores and hence we cannot generalize it for all the sections. 2011 to 6th May. therefore the visual merchandising attributes chosen may not reflect the entire range of attributes that compose visual merchandising.merchandising and. 4. 2.9 Duration of Study The period of study was from 6th of March. Time constraint also existed as the respondents gave little time to interact. 2011. how those and their impact on buying behavior of customer and on the sales performance can be measured. The specific literature does not provide significant coverage of the subject under observation. . 3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the present study various issue related to visual merchandising have been discussed.1. 5.1 Demographic Variable: It is associated with customers need and wants which are easy to measure. It is high time that the Indian textile and clothing industry should understand and adopts the scientific and professional system of visual merchandising rather than the traditional practices of display of products and communication.5. The main reason for the difference of the percentage is that men are mostly engaged in their jobs while women do the household purchasing. It will be recognized under the following points: 5. But. Thus. creates desire and finally augments the selling process. and therefore did not want to spend five minutes of their time to answer the questions. Also.1. it can be observed that during festivals or holidays the participation of males is comparable to females. the impact of visual merchandising has been analyzed. It is used to estimate the size of the market and the media to be used to reach it significantly. which puts the merchandiser in focus. whereas the men often seemed to be busier.1. Visual merchandising is the art of presentation. 5.1 Gender: As can be seen in exhibit 5.1. This study was discussed under Demographic variable which deals with customers’ profile and Behavioural variable explaining their view regarding the various attributes of visual merchandising. . It educates the customers. This is an area where the Indian business people lack adequate knowledge and expertise. the shops were frequented more often by women than by men. 66 percent of the interviewed customers were female and 34 percent were male. Accordingly.1 Costumers’ Status: It is very important component of the project which will be used to know the buying power of customers. women were better available to fill out the questionnaire.

both the age groups will not respond to the same visual merchandising features and they will not look for the same products either. who had entered the store. to complete the questionnaire. The second highest. This category includes college students who are fashion conscious and spend a lot of money on purchase of apparels. Having this in mind. . The highest proportion (44%) is in the category from the 16 to 25 years old customers.1 Percentage of Male and Female Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 5.1.70% Percentage of Customers 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Male Female Gender Exhibit5. independent from gender or age.2 Age: Big Bazaar targets a wide range of people providing a wide spectrum of brands for family oriented women to fashion oriented girls. the decision was taken to ask everybody. Surely. As can be seen in exhibit 5.2 men and women from the age of 16 have participated in the survey. from career-oriented men to young guys who start their day in a pair of jeans and T-shirt.1. is the one from above 46 years.

1.0nly 13 percent of customers interviewed were intermediate passed while nine percent had done higher education.1.2 Comparison of Age of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 5. 70% Percentage of Customers 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% High School Intermediate Graduation Post Graduation Any other Educational Qualification Exhibit 5. During the study.3 depicts that more than 58 percent of the customers are graduates while 20 percent have done their post graduation. This explains that most of the customers are capable to understand the written information which they have assimilated from different source.3 Educational Qualification: Education plays a vital role in determining the profile of customers.3 Comparison of Educational Qualification of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar . The exhibit 5.50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 16-25 years 26-35 years 36-45 years Above 46 years Percentage of Customers Age of Customers Exhibit 5. it is revealed that majority of them could read English and understand the message delivered by one or the other technique of visual merchandising.

5 Income: It can be depicted from the exhibit 5. Only 18 percent of the customers are having income in the range of Rs. Another 20 percent worked in private jobs while seven percent were self employed.3 to 5 lakhs.5.1.1 to 3 lakh per annum income. they play a major role in the purchase process.4 Comparison of Occupation of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar 5. Percentage of Customers 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Occupation of Customers Exhibit 5.1. This indicates that majority of the customers to Big Bazaar are in middle income group and have good purchasing power. .5 that majority (51%) of the customers have an annual family income in the range of Rs. Thus.4 Occupation: It can be depicted from exhibit 5.1. The reason for majority of respondents being housewives is that in Indian society the decision making with respect to household activities like shopping vests with the females.4 that 23 percent of respondents interviewed were housewives.1. Another 31 percent exist in the range of above Rs. 24 percent of respondents were government employees while another nine percent were engaged in business. 5 lakhs. They are generally deciding over the quantum and venue of household purchasing.

60%

Percentage of Customers

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Below 1 Lakh 1-3 Lakhs 3-5 Lakhs Above 5 Lakhs

Income of Customers

Exhibit 5.5 Comparison of Income of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar

5.1.1.6 Size of Family: Exhibit 5.6 indicates that 23 percent of customers belong to nuclear family while majority 64 percent belonged to joint family. Another, 13 percent respondents had extended family having more than six members. Larger the size of family, greater is the demand for household goods. Since, majority of the families are either joint or extended families therefore, there exist a huge market for household products.

70%

Percentage of Customers

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Nuclear Family Joint Family Extended family

Size of Family

Exhibit 5.6 Comparison of Family Size of Customers Visiting Big Bazaar

5.2 Behavioural Variable: This variable will help in knowing the customer insight toward visual merchandising. Accordingly, inferences will be drawn on the basis of knowledge

about visual merchandising and the attitude of customers towards various attributes of visual merchandising. In this segment the views of the customers towards various visual merchandising techniques and the role it plays in the purchase process have been discussed.

5.2.1 Place of Purchase: The exhibit5.7 illustrates that more than 34 percent of the customers purchased their apparels from malls while 29 percent customers preferred to buy their apparels from exclusive showrooms and shopping complex. It was also found that 24 percent customers bought from hypermarkets as compared to 13 percent who preferred to buy apparels from ordinary retailers. Malls have emerged as the most sought after shopping destinations these days. They have very good ambience and provide the customers with a great shopping experience. Hence, they are the most preferred shopping destination.

Percentage of Customers

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Place of Purchase

Exhibit 5.7 Comparison between Places of Purchase

5.2.2 Time of Purchase: The exhibit 5.8.1 illustrates that 56 percent of respondents preferred to shop during evening hours while another 17 percent shop after 8 pm. The customers who are working prefer this timing and it also becomes an outing for their family. It was also indicated that majority of the housewives preferred to shop in the morning hours which made 22 percent. Hardly, five percent customers came to shop in the afternoon.

60%

Percentage of Customers

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Morning Afternoon Evening After 8 pm

Time of Purchase

Exhibit 5.8.1 Time of Purchase It is clear from the exhibit 5.8.2 that timing of purchase varied from customer to customer. A majority 52 percent said that there was no specific timing and they purchased depending upon their requirements while another 14 percent customers said that they preferred to shop in the first week of month. The remaining 23 percent said that they shop during the mid of month while 11 percent said that last week of month was more suitable.
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% First week of month Mid of month Last week of month Depending upon requirement

Percentage of Customers

Time of Purchase

Exhibit 5.8.2 Time of purchase 5.2.3 Mode of Purchase: The study indicated that the best mode of purchase for majority of customers (73 percent) was by cash payment. It is clear from exhibit 5.9 that only four percent customers preferred to shop with credit cards. The remaining 23 percent used either cash or credit depending upon availability and choice. Even though it is always safer to carry plastic money but still majority of customers prefer to use cash. This is because a

Another 26 percent of respondents spend above 40 percent of their monthly income on shopping. 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Less than 10% 10-20% 21-40% Above 40% Percentage of Customers Monthly Income Spent on Total Shopping Exhibit 5.9 Mode of Purchase 5.10 Percentage of Monthly Income Spent on Total Household Shopping .2.4 Income Spent on Total Household Shopping: The exhibit 5.5 shows that the customers are having good purchasing power and are ready to spend a major portion of their income (21 percent and above) on purchase of different household items.10 indicates that 38 percent of respondents spend 10-20 percent of their monthly income on total household shopping while another 27 percent spend 21-40 percent of their monthly income. 80% Percentage of customers 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cash only Credit only Both Mode of Purchase Exhibit 5. This along with exhibit 5.large population does not rely on electronic transaction and hence feel more comfortable in using cash.

2. . 21-40 percent of their total monthly expenditure of shopping is contributed to purchase of apparels and for the remaining 10 percent it is more than 40 percent. and selection.5 Expenditure on Purchase of Apparels: The exhibit 5. 10-20 percent of their total monthly expenditure on shopping is for apparels while 20 percent customers are in the category who spend less than 10 percent. of which visual merchandising plays a vital role. Various schemes and discounts offered by retail outlets attract 23 percent of customers while another 31 percent said that the main reason for visiting an organized retail outlet was the store environment and ambience it provides. The findings of Darden et al.11 Percentage of Income Spent on Purchase of Apparels 5.2.5. 60% Percentage of Customers 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Less than 10% 10%-20% 21%-40% Above 40% Income Spent on Purchase of Apparels Exhibit 5. attractive schemes and discount offers and ambience. This supports the notion that consumers’ choice of a store is influenced by the store environment.11 depicts that for 53 percent of customers.’s (1983) study showed that consumers’ beliefs about the physical attractiveness of a store had a higher correlation with a choice of a store than did merchandise quality. general price level. It is clear from exhibit 5. This shows that people are ready to spend a good amount of their monthly income on purchase of apparels.12 that 34 percent of customers visit an organized retail outlet because they get better quality products there. For another 17 percent of customers.6 Reasons for Visiting an Organized Retail Outlet: The top three reasons quoted by customers for visiting an organized retail outlet are better quality.

12 Reasons for Visiting an Organized Retail Outlet 5. Visual Merchandising can be the unique selling proposition. on the other hand 62 percent customers said that it is an important factor for purchase of apparels. price. the first point of intimate contact between product and customer. . a large population feels that visual merchandising is an important factor which affects the purchase of apparels therefore.2.13 clearly indicates that 82 percent of customers feel that quality is a very important factor affecting the purchase of apparels. design and visual merchandising) affecting the purchase of apparels have been identified. Exhibit 5. 14 percent of customers said that they are neutral towards visual merchandising while only two percent feel that it is unimportant factor in purchase of apparels. five important factors (quality.Percentage of Customers 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Reasons for Visiting an Organized Retail Outlet Exhibit 5. variety.7 Factors Affecting Purchase of Apparels: During the study. only 22 percent of customers said that visual merchandising is a very important factor but. retailers can make use of the art of visual merchandising to attract customers to their stores. Though. Since.

Customers give three to five seconds of their attention to window display. the retailers’ visual message should be conveyed to the customer in that short period of time. . Display windows are an ideal opportunity to attract customers’ attention and drag them into your store. Signage are the most important means by which a customer gets to know about the price of product and the discount offered on that product. They are simple and easy to understand.13 Factors Affecting Purchase of Apparels 5.2.90% Percentage of Customers 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Very Important Important Neutral Unimportant Factors Affecting Purchase of Apparels Exhibit 5.14 that 92 percent of customers pay attention to displays and signage while only eight percent do not pay any attention. Therefore.8 Attention Paid to Displays and Signage: It is clear from exhibit 5.

price and various schemes and discounts offers. It also provides ease in shopping. displays and events within the store. The signage and displays provide information about product. Displays also provide an opportunity for the customers to have the “Touch and Feel Effect” which is very important to make a purchase decision. especially in case of Indian consumers. As much as 80 percent of all sales are generated at point of purchase by signage.100% 90% Percentage of Customers 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Attention Paid to Displays and Signage Exhibit 5.15 indicates that signage and displays help 87 percent of customers during shopping.9 Role of Displays and Signage: The exhibit 5. The remaining13 percent customers said that signage and display do not assist while shopping.14 Percentage of Customers Paying Attention to Displays and Signage 5.15 Percentage of Customers who get Help from Displays and Signage .2. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Percentage of Customers Role of Displays and Signage Exhibit 5.

90% Percentage of Customers 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Customers who Try New Apparels Exhibit 5. the retailers can make use of this opportunity. a majority of customers have a tendency to adapt change therefore. Thus.5. According to Jiyeon Kim (2003). The initial step to getting customers to purchase is getting them in the door. at least to some degree.2.16 Percentage of Customers who Try New Apparels 5. They can make use of effective visual merchandising techniques and can attract customers to buy new apparels.17 clearly indicates that 87 percent of respondents feel that apparels on display attract more attention as compared to 13 percent who contradict the same. the retailers can use displays to attract customers and compel them to buy the apparels and part with their hardearned cash. window display may influence. .10 Tendency towards Change .2. Since.11 Displays Attract More Attention: The exhibit 5.Try New Apparel: It is clear from exhibit 5. consumers’ choice of a store when they do not set out with a specific purpose of visiting a certain store and purchasing a certain item.16 that 81 percent of customers said that they would try new apparels which are on display while 19 percent do not try and prefer their usual garments.

100% 90% Percentage of Customers 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Displays Attract More Attention Exhibit 5.17 Percentage of Customers who Feel that Displays Attract More Attention 5. visual merchandising and shopping experience are not the main reasons but together with attractive offers and discount they contribute 60 percent to store choice decision.18 clearly indicates that even though the brands are same in different stores but 32 percent customers feel that better quality is the main reason for choosing a particular store.2. Another. Store environment/ visual merchandising and shopping experience are the main reasons for visiting a particular store in case of 17 percent and 22 percent customers respectively. Effective visual merchandising together with good quality products can attract good number of customers.12 Reason for Choosing a Particular Store: The exhibit 5. 21 percent customers said that offers and discounts are the main factors which help them to decide which store to chose. . Though.

place. .13 Relationship of Color. lighting. The emphasis has moved away from in-store product displays. ambience and attractive visuals make them spend more time in store while 31 percent customers feel that various attributes of visual merchandising do not have any relation with the time spent in the stores. Marsh.18 Reasons for Choosing a Particular Store 5. Retail store elements such as color. towards elements that excite the senses of shoppers such as flat screen videos or graphics. 1999). Ambience and Attractive Visuals with Time Spent in Store: The exhibit 5. Lighting.2.19 illustrates that 69 percent of the customers feel that color. Retailers are facing a keen competitive market place and as a consequence of that they find many difficulties to differentiate their stores on the basis of product. smells. price and promotion. people. music. 1990. lighting and visual merchandising have always been considered as having immediate effects on the buying decision making process.Percentage of Customers 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Reasons for Choosing a Particular Store . lighting and flooring that tend to capture the brand image or personality and help to create an unique environment and shopping experience (McGoldrick. Exhibit 5.

80% Percentage of Customers 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Effect of Good Interiors and Display on Buying Behaviour Exhibit 5. there has been a growing recognition that store interiors and exteriors can be designed to create specific feelings in shoppers that can have an important cuing or reinforcing effect on purchase. It is remaining 27 percent said that their buying behavior is not affected by good interiors and display.19 Relationship of Color.20 Effect of Good Interiors and Display on Buying Behavior . Ambience and Attractive Visuals with Time Spent in Store 5. Lighting. According to Kotler.80% Percentage of Customers 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Response of Customers Exhibit 5.14 Effect of Good Interiors and Display on Buying Behavior: The exhibit 5. The reason behind this is that apparels on display attract more attention and have a positive impact on our buying behavior.2.20 reveals that 73 percent of customers feel that good interiors and display affect their buying behavior and stimulate to shop more.

Also. the mall culture sets a limitation on the retailers for manually displaying each and every article in front of the customers.2.22 that there is still a large population (23%) that feels that store person should display each and every item while 24 percent customers feel that a store person should assist them only when needed.21 Percentage of Customers who Ask for Availability of Product 5. 100% Percentage of Customers 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Ask for availability Purchase whatever is available Availability of Products Exhibit 5. only six percent customers said that they prefer displays with the help of dummy but 39 percent customers have chosen it as their second preference along with one or the other method. So.15 Availability of Products: It is clear from exhibit 5.2.21 that only seven percent of customers said that they purchase whatever is available on display while the remaining 93 percent said they ask the store person for availability of new design/style of their choice. “Touch and Feel” effect is very important criteria for Indian customers. customers prefer apparels to be displayed on racks and hangers. availability of the product of customers’ choice is very important. In today’s world all customers want to get the best from the hard earned money they spend to purchase any apparels or any other product. Apparels displayed on racks and hangers are easy to touch and feel. . Hence. It is clear from exhibit 5.16 Method of Buying Apparels: It is clear from exhibit 5.22 that majority 45 percent of customers said that they prefer the apparels to de displayed on racks and hangers. Though.5. The electronic and print media are not so popular and contribute hardly two percent.

Exhibit 5. .2.50% 45% Percentage of Customers 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Store person Store person displaying each assisting only and every item when needed Displayed in racks and hangers Displayed on Displayed with dummy help of electronic and print media Method of Buying Apparels Exhibit 5. It makes the products more presentable and attractive. With the help of effective visual merchandising retailers can distinguish their products and can market them in a better way.17 Connection of Visual merchandising and Marketing of Product: The study indicated that 89 percent of customers feel that by applying effective visual merchandising techniques the companies can market their products in a better way.22 Comparison of Method of Buying Apparels 5.23 depicts that only five percent of customers said that effective visual merchandising has no effect on marketing of products. The remaining six percent said that they had no idea regarding effect of visual merchandising on marketing of products. Today’s fast paced. competitive and chaotic consumer world provides a multitude of challenges for retailers.

80% Percentage of Customers 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Effect of Visuals and Display of Apparels on Final Buying Decision Exhibit 5. presenting them in a way that would convert the window shoppers into prospects and ultimately buyers of the product. Visual merchandising sets the context of the merchandise in an aesthetically pleasing fashion.23 Connection of Visual Merchandising and Marketing of Product 5.100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Can't say Percentage of Customers Customers' response for Visual Merchandising to Promote Marketing of products Exhibit 5.24 that 67 percent of customers said that their final buying decision is affected by visuals and display of apparels while 33 percent customers said that visuals and display have no effect on their final buying decision. window display. mannequins and dresiforms and lighting can be effectively used to influence the final buying decision.24 Effect of Visuals and Display of Apparels on Final Buying Decision .18 Effect of Visuals and Display of Apparels on Final Buying Decision: It is clear from exhibit 5.2. Various tools of visual merchandising like graphics and signage.

19 Relationship between Visual Merchandising and Impulse Buying: During the study. such as visual merchandising. At the stages of the impulse buying process. Retail setting. can be achieved by browsing and being exposed to the stimuli.1: A Model of Impulse Buying Process Source: Churchill & Peter (1998) .25 illustrates that remaining 44 percent of customers said that visual merchandising does induce impulsive buying. retailers can attempt to provoke consumers’ desire for the products. which can satisfy the desire. can influence consumers’ impulse buying by providing information or reminding needs as well as producing positive feelings. and the awareness of the products.5. it was found that 56 percent customers said that effective visual merchandising induces impulsive buying.1). such as visual merchandising (Figure 5. Exhibit 5.2. Figure 5. therefore. The positive impulse buying experiences contribute to establishing store loyalty and customers’ perceived value and satisfaction influences future buying decisions.

tables. . Another. Props include dresiforms and mannequins which catch customers’ attention easily.20 Attractiveness of VM techniques: The exhibit 5. styles. and manufacturer pointof-purchase displays.25 Relationship between Visual Merchandising and Impulse Buying 5. colors.60% 50% Percentage of Customers 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Relationship between VM and Impulse Buying Exhibit 5. quality. Signs advertise vendors. The second in line is the use of props (25%). Another six percent customers revealed that they are attracted most by out-of-box thinking.26 that space management is an important technique for 13 percent customers while proper lighting is essential in case of seven percent customers. They are used in visual merchandising to tell a story about the product.26 indicates that the most popular visual merchandising technique is the use of graphics and signage (28%). It is clear from exhibit 5. A good sign provides the most information in the fewest possible words. offers and discounts. the merchandise concept or the store itself. prices.2. They can be used to explain customer benefits and describe merchandise features. 21 percent customers said that they prefer fixtures such as gondolas. waterfalls and other racks. cubes. display cases.

. It is seen that from the identified factors music is least preferred. store environment (25%) followed by attractiveness of display window (24%).27 that the most preferred factor is cleanliness and neatness of store i. seven factors of visual merchandising namely cleanliness and neatness of store. attractiveness of display window.2. It is clear from exhibit 5. Innovative assortment is also a very important factor (40%) and is ranked at number two.e. music and display of apparels using dresiforms and mannequins were identified. The various factors of visual merchandising if applied in harmony can be used as a unique selling proposition. . lighting in the store. innovative assortments.21 Factors of Visual Merchandising: During the study.Percentage of Customers 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Attractiveness of VM Techniques Exhibit 5. The retailers can make use of these factors to attract customers to their stores. attractiveness of shop fittings.26 Attractiveness of VM Techniques 5.

The main reason for not purchasing apparels from Big Bazaar quoted by customers was that they did not found what they were looking for. Poor quality of fabric and designs was also quoted as the reason for not buying by some customers.2. A large population of customers 28 percent said that they rarely purchase their apparels from Big Bazaar. .27 Factors of Visual Merchandising 5.28 illustrates that 23 percent customers purchased one or the other apparel from Big Bazaar within two to three months while 18 percent of customers said that they buy after six months.70 60 Cleanliness and Neatness of store Attractiveness of Display Window Attractiveness of the Shop Fittings Innovative Assortments Lighting in the Store Percentage of Customers 50 40 30 20 Music 10 0 I II III IV V VI VII Display of Apparels using Dresiforms and Mannequins Rank Given by Customers Exhibit 5.22 Frequency of Purchase: The exhibit 5. 0nly 17 percent customers revealed that they buy any apparel from the stores within a month as compared to14 percent who buy within four to six months.

Nine percent of customers said that they are attracted by schemes and discounts while seven percent customers said that they were attracted by something nice in the display.29 that 54 percent of customers said that Big Bazaar makes a part of the store that they visit regularly.28 Frequency of Purchase 5.2. Thus. .30% Percentage of Customers 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Within a month Within 2-3 months Within 4-6 months After 6 months Rarely Frequency of Purchase Exhibit 5. the retailers can make use of effective visual merchandising to attract the potential customers and convert them into regular one.23 Reasons for Entering Big Bazaar: It is clear from exhibit 5. It means that these 54 percent customers are loyal and regular customers of Big Bazaar. Music was not a reason for entering the store in any case. Another 18 percent of customers said that the reason for visiting the store is that they have been influenced by friends and relatives.

30 illustrates that 38 percent of customers had purchased one or the other thing from apparel section while 25 percent said they did not purchased anything.29 Reasons for Entering Big Bazaar 5. did not buy anything and whether those factors which influenced the people not to purchase. The answer that was chosen the second most often was “I did not like anything”.24 Purchased any Apparel During the Visit: The exhibit 5.2. . The intention of this question was to realize. why people who had entered the store. The remaining 42 percent said they can’t say anything right now.Percentage of Customers 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Reasons for Entering Big Bazaar Exhibit 5. namely “I did not find what I was looking for”. were factors of visual merchandising or not. Unfortunately. It was found that the main reason why people did not purchase was the same in all of the considered stores. the study was not able to find any reason associated to visual merchandising for not purchasing.

25 Effectiveness of Visual Merchandising Techniques Applied by Big Bazaar: It is clear from exhibit 5.2. 80% Percentage of Customers 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Needs improvement Can't say Effectiveness of VM Techniques Exhibit 5.31 that 71 percent of customers feel that visual merchandising techniques applied by Big Bazaar are effective while 17 percent said that some improvement is needed.45% Percentage of Customers 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Yes No Can't say Customers' Response to Purchase of Any Apparel During the Visit Exhibit 5. Another 8 percent of customers do not like the visual merchandising techniques applied by Big Bazaar as compared to four percent who had no idea.31 Effectiveness of Visual Merchandising Techniques Applied by Big Bazaar .30 Percentage of Customers who Purchased any Apparel during the Visit 5.

floors and ceilings. Whispering Window evenly distributes sound across any solid surface and can be tied into any retail promotion throughout the store. Whispering Window is small. Whispering Windows can also be used outside as it is weather and tamper resistant and can even automatically adjust its volume according to the level of nearby background noise. They can be used to introduce the benefits of a new product. 5.5. Big Bazaar is designed as a self service store and makes ample utilization of resources. Big Bazaar is designed as agglomeration of bazaars with different sections selling different categories.  Store Layout: Big Bazaar has been established around the idea of contemporary Bazaar. increase traffic flow. Stocks are organized and not hung for display. Design is to get as much people in to door as possible. enough to get the buzz going around the store. enhance the shopping experience. The general design of the interior is in uniform with the exterior. windows. With subtle and unobtrusive audio the store windows can attract new customers. It is designed as Indian hyper market that promises one stop shopping. walls. it was found that now-days retailers are using whispering windows to attract customers into their stores. easily hidden and can be used on any solid surfaces like glass. shelves.3 WHISPERING WINDOW During the study. The model is based on maintaining margin and drawing customer in masses. or build brand awareness.1 INTERIOR DESIGN “The interior of a Big Bazaars comprises of the living space of the store which includes ceiling. mannequins. The billing counter is near to the exit. walls. endcaps. flooring and lighting.4. and can becomes part of in-store sales and retail promotion campaigns. The products in Big Bazaar are arranged in order and placed segment wise . fixture and fittings”.4 VISUAL MERCHANDISING AT BIG BAZAAR 5. The elements of the interior design are selected economically. Instead of using sound as just a filler or background noise.  Store Design: Design is consistent and self expressive. The “U” shaped section and islands have proved to be more appropriate for Indian context than long aisle. so it is easy to leave after purchasing.

so special attention is given in designing windows of the store. It uses various visual merchandising techniques like remarkable window display and mannequins for creating a shopping environment. The exterior is attractive enough to encourage customers to enter in to the store. and attractive holding so as to affect their purchase behavior. music and Scent to stimulate customer perceptual and emotional responses. They use danglers and hoardings at the entrance of the store as this may be a deciding element in a consumer’s decision to enter a store. Big Bazaar uses harmony between the elements of the exterior of the store in order to deliver desired store image. 5. orange and white colors with red strips are used. Window display is used as an effective medium to introduce new offerings of the company. Music: Light back ground instrumental music is usually played to attract customers. Atmospherics: It refers to the design of an environment via visual communication. Entire outlet was visible from outside and looks attractive. . The floor is neat and clean. A censor located in the front gate checks the customers. The exterior design of Big Bazaar is easily visible from the distance and it can be distinguished from its competitors. Price tag and the offer price are shown with each product. Front Gate: It is completely made up of glass. lighting. The entrance of the store is designed to welcome shoppers and to provide easy accessibility. Orange color and has Big Bazaar written on it. The board is in blue.4. Announcement: They announce offers and schemes to the customers so that they can know about the available schemes and make best out of their shopping. Light were fixed in ceiling and are used tube lights to create reflection. Color: Mostly blue. architectural design of the building and window.2 EXTERIOR DESIGN The exterior of Big Bazaar includes the exterior of the stores like the entrance of the store. Signage which indicate the cost and discount offers are placed near each and every product.     Lighting: Bright lights are used which make reflection on the products. Color.  Visual Merchandising: Posters of merchandising and name is displayed in each segment. The whole big bazaar is centrally air conditioned.   Sign Board: The big sign board is usually seen on the top of the entry and exit gate.

   Locality: Retail site is located at the main areas of the city. “Most snowboarding stores could increase their sales by ten percent overnight. As designer Brian Dyches of Retail Resource Group says. .” Many other effective changes can be made easily and without major expenditure. They even provide the customers with after sale services in case of buying electronic items. 5. simply by changing their light bulbs. security. and many other design components are largely dependent on the size. Parking: Good parking facility which is free of cost is provided to the customers. Entice Visual merchandising actually starts on the street outside the store. Staff of the Big Bazaar is properly dressed which helps in easy identification.5 PROPOSED MODEL AND SUGGESTIONS TO INCREASE FOOTFALL AND COSEQUENTLY CONVERSION RATE IN THE STORE USING VISUAL MERCHANDISING The design of your store has a huge impact on success as a retailer. Store person are available to assist the customers during shopping. 2. baggage counter. and sight-lines you are working with. Change the window displays with the seasons. shape. The best location for displays. This helps them to create sales. Even some simple visual changes can immediately have dramatic results. how lighting is arranged. and always reflect the newest or best-selling items. Here’s some suggestion which can be applied in the stores: 1. Consider the Space Space management is required. trolleys to provide ease in shopping. Customer Service: Customer service is the set of activities and programme undertaken by retailer to make the shopping experience good. Apart from this. elevators. Big Bazaar provides a wide range of services to its customers like Trial rooms. Creative and interesting window displays catch the eye of people walking by and draw them into the store.

Customers are more likely to purchase if they can imagine themselves using/wearing the product. color. You Only Have Seven Seconds It is often seen that a customer walks into a store. their legs follow. Product should be organized in logical groupings -. Leave at least six feet between the entrance and your first display. Think of small items that people usually forget -. light bulbs. So get rid of everything that might create a negative first reaction or resistance to entering the store. etc -. Think of it like a fish trap. This acts as a visual block.Create product displays that shows the customer how an item might fit into their everyday life. Where their eyes stop. This display should feature your most exciting new products. What leads customers most effectively is their eyes. Change the display regularly to reassure your regular customers you are constantly updating merchandise. 4.Point-of-sale add-ons (also known as "impulse buys") can generate extra money in sales. 7. gift wrapping. or some other characteristic. . At that point you either still have a chance for a sale. Add-on . Maybe he/she was "just looking" -.whether by item type.more than likely. and signage and product descriptions. something about the store or the merchandise displays turned him/her off. crossmerchandised to show a range of items. 5.batteries.these small items can be placed near or at the register as a gentle reminder to the customer. Don’t overload store with displays or anything that blocks sightlines to the back of the store. A common mistake is putting displays right up to the lease line. In a clothing store it might mean dressing mannequins.Shoppers are more likely to purchase if they can find what they are looking for and easily identify the price. Identify . Inspire . though. takes a lap around.3. No customer spends money where they don’t feel comfortable and they decide how they feel in under seven seconds. or you can forget them. The first thing to grab their attention should be your main visual display located about a third of the way into the store. 6. and leaves. Lead Your Customer Your goal is to entice the customer into the main selling area and then slowly past your merchandise displays to the back of the store.

The eye can only take in eight feet of visual information at a time. so make your store increasingly bright as it goes back. Hands-On Selling Stack the boards to allow easy access so customers. The same is true for bindings. or the customers’ eyes run quickly over the display without stopping. Keep them spotlessly clean. And never align your displays parallel to the circulation. Don’t position any display so it blocks the circulation either physically or visually. Use quality light bulbs and fittings this will quickly pay for itself with increased sales. 8. Instead angle your displays against the visual plain. but in such a way as to help define the circulation path. You want them to see how good they look. . One effective trick is to use low-cost aromatizing systems to add a familiar and comforting pine scent. particularly if you are using a central aisle. Your Most Powerful Tool is Light The eye naturally gravitates towards brightness. Use the walls to highlight special promotions or new product information. Put your logo and store name prominently in each fitting room (as well as around your cash wrap) to enhance your store identity. think about the circulation path you want them to make. Any longer displays need to be visually broken up. Bindings can be simply laid out on a table so they can be tried on with a pair of boots and easily compared to other bindings for size and weight. With this in mind. Using soft light and color scheme. Almost every customer subconsciously moves to their right. flatter the customer. 10. not the effects of three hours’ shopping. Use Fitting Rooms Well It is always better to have fewer spacious fitting rooms than a greater number of cramped ones.From that point should be clear sight-lines to other displays. This is particularly the case on wall displays. The best path is circular. The rear of the store should be roughly twice as brightly lit as the front. 9. All your displays should be spotlit. Provide a break by using a contrasting color or product for a strong visual impact. Fitting rooms are a sales opportunity.

2 Model to Increase Footfall and Consequently Conversion Rate in the Store using VM .Figure: 5.

Main display window (Whispering window) 3.Whispering Dummy for traditional wear 8.Whispering Dummy for fresh arrivals 20.Hangers for western wear 10.Entrance 2.Hangers for fresh arrivals 16.Cash counter 19.Security staff outside trial room T1.Cashier 21.Four shelved rack (For traditional wear) 6.Trial Room1 T2.5.Central dummy formations 5.Hangers for traditional wear 7.) 12.Tit bit basket (For socks/ handkerchief/ caps/ mufflers etc.Storeroom 11.5.Four shelved racks with dresiforms on top (For western wear) 9.Hanger cum shelves for nightwear apparels 14.1 KEY TO SYMBOLS: 1.Mannequins on display window (Whispering window) 4.Hanger cum shelves for intimate apparels 13.Central dummy displaying fresh arrivals 17.Store person to assist only when needed 22.Four shelved rack for accessories 15.Trial Room 2 Note: Arrows indicate path of movement .Four shelved rack containing mix items for sale 18.

1973) An important finding of this study was that visual merchandising practices certainly influence customers’ buying behavior. or coordination tips. The study also provided insights about types of visual merchandising that can influence customers’ buying behaviors. CONCLUSION “Atmospheres are a factor present in every buying situation. is the conscious planning of atmospheres to contribute to the buyer’s purchasing propensity. The findings of this study provided sufficient evidence that retailers can utilize visual merchandising to increase desirability of products and to help customers being aware of the products as well as to create favorable attitudes. . atmospherics is likely to play a growing role in the unending search of firms for differential advantage”. Until recently. As other marketing tools become neutralized in the competitive battle. promotional signage and window display. Retailers should put more efforts creating attractive and eyecatching window display providing information regarding new products. retailers should continuously reinforce their usage to create favorable shopping environments to influence customers’ both in-store responses and future store choice decisions. fashion trends. innovative assortments and cleanliness and neatness of store/ store environment have been identified. they more likely make purchase decisions on impulse. Atmospherics. atmospheres developed casually or organically.6. (Kotler. When consumers are exposed to visual stimuli. however. This suggests that the visual merchandising practices. Since these tools of visual merchandising significantly influence customers’ buying behavior. The results proved that there was relationship between customers’ buying behavior and in-store form/mannequin display. serve as stimuli that provoke a desire that ultimately motivates a customer to make an unplanned purchase decision upon entering the store and thus significantly influence customers’ impulse buying behaviors. A significant contribution of the present study is its elucidation of the relationship between impulse buying and visual merchandising. Three most important factors of visual merchandising namely attractiveness of window display.

The study proves that visual merchandising has the capability to invite people to enter the store. increase the traffic in the store. the findings of this study proved sufficient evidence that retailers can utilize visual merchandising to increase desirability of products and to help customers being aware of the products as well as to create favorable attitudes. which increases the traffic in it.Thus. visual merchandising is an important variable in present scenario.The study also concludes that visual merchandising has an influence on the sales performance. . Hence. application of more attractive visual merchandising techniques will help to obtain better results. Visual merchandising can. Therefore. which ultimately has a positive impact on the sales figures. there are activities of visual merchandising that influence the behavior of the customers which might then increase the sales performance. and thus has an influence on the sales performance. by attracting more customers. In other words. It can significantly influence on customer’s buying behaviour.

Think of small items that people usually forget like batteries. 3. it has very low importance relative to the other elements of in-store environment. etc. canola (Light ceiling). However. When designing the product display.7. Therefore. 5. Lighting helps to select correct products. Therefore. The study suggests the use of „whispering window‟ to attract customers into the store. 1.m. reduce the time wasted and feel relaxation during the shopping tours. lighting box. It will help to encourage customers to have a pleasant mood. color separation. the retailers can use whispering window. introduce the benefits of a new product and build brand awareness. 6. And also customers will consider the shopping in such a store is one of entertaining exercise. The soft and classic music are highly recommended than other type of music. Most of customers are willing to purchase products from retail stores in the evening hours and after 8 p. Hence. 2. . 4. managers can pay special attention to make attractive environment in the store premises and make action to control the rush condition. managers can select appropriate lighting system that creates satisfaction of psychological needs of customers. these small items can be placed near or at the cash counter as a gentle reminder to the customer. Instead of using loud music to attract customers. Point-of-sale add-ons also known as "impulse buys" can generate extra money in sales. gift wrapping. store managers should pay special attention on category layout. category name of product shells. the study suggests the following. Majority of customers respond to the lighting more positively. The background music will also encourage customers to spend extra time in the store. SUGGESTIONS The research findings of present study have more practical orientation and which is important for the marketers in retail sector. light bulbs. These attract shoppers’ attention to a specific sale item.

tw/bitstream/2377/3942/1/ce05atc902007000065.. pp. 31. Morgan. (1991). John Wiley & Sons. 9.. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Decision Process for Intimate Apparel retrieved from http://dspace. Anurag S... Ward..A.. 46. McGoldrick.pdf 13.. 7. Retail Marketing (2nd Edition). (1973-1974). J. R. 4. .. Rossiter J. Han. Visual merchandizing and the creation of discernible retail brands. Cahan. Y.8. (1998).A. (1994). G. 23-34. 8. Number 4 Winter 1973-1974.. (2002). Marketing: Creating value for customers. 5. Joanne Yip. Kim Jiyeon. Linda and Joseph Robinson (1984).P.48-64. Vol. The Effect of Store Atmosphere on Consumer Quality Perceptions and Store Image. Visual Merchandising: A Guide for Small Retailers. 3.Tata McGraw Hill. 2. A. and Nesdale A. and Parasuraman. R. (2003). Albany. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 6. Grewal.(1994). B. Clothing and Textile Research Journal.fcu. International journal of Retail and Distribution Management. J. R. 15-21. ( 2003). 10. Volume 49. Visual Merchandising. Dale Zetocha. S.. New York: Delmar. Journal of Marketing. 9. J. Iowa State University.lib. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. 86-91. A. Journal of Retailing. Impulse buying behavior of apparel purchasers.(2009). Store Atmosphere and Purchasing Behaviour. Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool. Marcoolyn G. College Students‟ Apparel Impulse Buying Behaviors in Relation to Visual Merchandising. Visual merchandising: The business of merchandise presentation.edu. 12.K. New York.143-152. Kotler. (1982). Kerfoot.2-30. Kotsiopulos. D. Vol. J. 14. Gregory Passewitz. (1991). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.70. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers. Churchill.. University Publications. Baker. Law Derry. Milliman.. & Kang-Park.. P. Journal of Retailing. 11. Bhalla Swati. Donovan R.Davis.. Colborne. A Practical Guide to Visual Merchandising. Understanding Retail and Visual Merchandising. G. Bastow-Shoop Holly. P.(2007). & Peter. (1996).283-294.

. 115 No.pdf retrieved on 10 May. 11. Yalch.html. 116 No. Determinants of Shopping Behaviour of Urban Consumers retrieved from http://www. & Spangenberg. E.. Park.com/Pages/Article. D. 24. Vol.” Visual Merchandising & Store Design.com/attract-new-customers-store-windows retrieved on 10 May. ttp://www. 7 (Spring).C.fibre2fashion. Rajgopal. Vol.. (2000). 20. Volume 11..com/industry-article/13/1212/visual-merchandising-thechanging-scenario1. Weishar. (November 1985). Joseph.com/prof_rajagopal/homepage. http://www.. 15 (March). 28.15. Joseph.F. & Ambrosini.(2007). (1990). C. R.com/answers/marketing-sales/advertising-promotion/directmarketing/MAR_ADP_DMA/396200-25028298 retrieved on 3May. Color. B. July 2004. 12. (December 1984). A. 422-433. 27...W. E. 17. Consumer evaluations of store brands: effects of store image and product attributes.” Visual Merchandising & Store Design. http://www.C. http://www. Iyer. “The Business of. Ravazzi. 29.B.. Vol. C.asp retrieved on 10 May. Journal of Consumer Marketing.. and Pradeep Randiwela. The effects of situational factors on in-store grocery shopping behavior: The role of store environment and time available for shopping. Visual Merchandising: per sviluppare la vendita visiva nei punti di vendita di ogni tipo e dimensione. Semeijn. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services.geocities. Angeli.futuregroup. J. (2004). 16.com retrieved on 4 May.ivoconsultants. 23. & Smith. & van Riel. Journal of Consumer Research. 26. (1989). (2009).S.linkedin. 55-63.utalkmarketing. 19. 18. Issue 4. 2011. Effects of Store Music on Shopping Behavior.whisperingwindow. 2011. 2011. 2011. 22. The Impact of Visual Merchandising on Consumer Store Choice Decision in Sri Lankan Supermarkets.Articulating Visual Aesthetics. “The Business of.In-Store Marketing. 116 No. 21. Milano: F. Joseph. .M. 3. (March 1985). Weishar.com/images/Visual_MerchandisingConcepts%20&%20Concerns. “The Business of.” Visual Merchandising & Store Design.. http://www. 25.aspx?ArticleID=1904&Title=How_vis ual_merchandising_can_improve_retail_fortunes. www. 2011.. Wanninayake W. Weishar.

Q1.Gender 3.ANNRXURE I QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SURVEY 1. Credit only c. What percent of your monthly income do you spend on shopping? . Income Level ( per annum ) 7.00. b. Depending upon requirement Q3. From where do you buy your apparels? a. d. Last week of month d. Mid of month c.Educational Qualification 3) 5.000 1) less> 4 6 2) 26-35 years 4) 46 years and above 2) Intermediate 4.5. Any of the above Q4. d.001-3.000 4) Above 5.00.Name of Respondent 2.00.001. c. Cash only b.No. Morning Afternoon Evening After 8 PM a. b.000 2) 4-6 6. Occupation 5) Any other 2) Private job 4) Business 2) 1.00. What is your mode of purchase? a. c.00.000 3) 3.00. First week of month b.of Family Members 3) Above Note: In questions which have more than one answer tick a maximum of two options and rank them according to your preference. When do you prefer to shop? a.Age Male / Female 1) 16-25 years 3) 36-45 years 1) High School Graduation 4) Post Graduation 1) Government Service 3) Self employment 1) Below 1. Hyper Market Malls Shopping Complex/Exclusive Showrooms Ordinary Retailers Q2.

c. While visiting a store do you pay any attention to displays and signage? a.How important are the following factors while purchasing apparels? Very important Price Quality Collection Variety Visual Merchandising Important Neutral Unimportant Very unimportant Q8. No Q10. What percent of this shopping is spend on apparels? a. Ambience / Store environment Better quality Less price Attractive offers. Yes b. c. c. schemes and discounts Variety Any other Q7. What are the reasons for visiting an organized retail outlet? a. then how? Q11. b. e.a. Less than 10 % 10-20% 21-40 % Above 40 % Q6. Yes b. d. Less than 10 % 10-20 % 21 – 40 % Above 40% Q5. No Q9. b. b. If Yes. f. d. d. Do you have a look on items on display and try anything new? a. No . Yes b. Does these signage and display help you in shopping? a.

Do the apparels on display attract more attention? a. ambience and attractive visuals make you to spend more time in store? a. e. Yes b. If brands are almost same then what are the factors for visiting/choosing a particular store? a. Do you think that by applying VM techniques the company can market its products in a better way? a. c.Q12. No c. e. f. c. Quality Less expensive as compared to other stores Better offers/ discounts/schemes Shopping Experience Store environment. lighting. No Q15. Do you ask about the availability of products from the sales person or you purchase whatever is available on display? a. Store person displaying each and every product Store person assisting you only when needed All product are displayed in racks and hangers Display with the help of dummy Display with the help of electronic media and print media Any other Q18. Can’t say Q19. Yes b. No Q16. b. Ask for availability b. Yes b. Yes b. Do you think that your final buying decision is affected by visuals and display of apparels? . d. Which means do you prefer for buying the product? a.Do good interior and display affect your buying behavior and stimulate you to shop more? a. ambience and visual merchandising Q14. Purchase whatever is available Q17. d. No Q13.Does color. b.

d. b. Big Bazaar makes the part of the store that I visit regularly I was looking for something particular that I only found at Big Bazaar Because this store looks promising I was attracted by music I have seen something nice in the display Influenced by my relatives/friends I find quality products here . What are the reasons / motivation for entering Big Bazaar store? a. display systems. Which types of VM techniques are more attractive? a. Props ( Dresiforms and mannequins ) d. window and entrance door. e. g. stock keeping units and furniture) c. No Q21. Out-of-box thinking Q22. Fixtures (interior store design. No Q20. Graphics and signage ( Promotional/Location/Institutional/ Informational ) b. b.a. How often do you purchase your apparels from Big Bazaar? a. Space management f. c. e. Lighting e. Yes b. c. flooring & ceiling. f. Does effective visual merchandising induce impulsive buying on you? a. Yes b. Rank the following attributes of Visual merchandising on a scale of 1-9: ATTRIBUTES Cleanliness and Neatness of store Attractiveness of Display Window Attractiveness of the shop fittings Inventiveness of assortments Atmosphere/Spirit Attractiveness of the presentation of clothes 7) Lighting in the store 8) Music 9) Display of apparels using dresiforms and mannequins 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) RANK Q23. d. merchandise display systems. Within a month Within 2-3 months Within 4-6 months After 6 months Rarely Q24.

Any other reason Q25. Attractive schemes and discounts i.h. c. Yes No Needs improvement Can’t say Q27. then what are your suggestions for effective VM in Big Bazaar? . Can’t say Q26. No c. Yes b. If no. Do you like the VM techniques applied by Big Bazaar? a. Have you purchased anything (apparel) during this visit? a. d. b.

Rajkot.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology. capital city of Uttrakhand. She was also awarded Vice Chancellor’s Bronze Medal for academics in 2009.O: Nagal Jawalapur.A Renewable Source of Energy”. Thereafter. She has been awarded the title of “Child Scientist” by Government of Uttarakhand in the year 2002 for her work on “Biogas. was born on 20th August. P. B. She has successfully completed her summer training from Champion Agro Limited.com .VITA Monika Chauhan. Doiwala Distt: Dehradun Uttarakhand Pin: 248140 e-mail: chauhanmonika129@gmail. during campus placement she got placed with Future India Value Retail. 1986 in Dehradun. 2009 with first division. Further. she took admission in the College of Home Science.Chauhan Vill: Simlash Grant P. G. Permanent Address Monika Chauhan D/o Mr.S. she got selected through CAT in 2009 and was admitted to G. Pantnagar in 2005 batch and obtained the degree of Bachelor in Science (Home Science) in June. She has completed her High School and Intermediate examinations from Central Board of Secondary Education in 2004. She is also a recipient of the prestigious “Nagamma Shanta Bai Award” for Best Achiever in Rural Work for the year 2008-09. the authoress of this manuscript. Gujarat on the topic “Feasibility Study for Organic Food Supply in three major cities of Gujarat State”. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology.B. In the month of November 2010. Pantnagar for MBA (Agribusiness) degree in the College of Agribusiness Management.

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