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SCOPE AND BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION The Word „psychology‟ is derived from Greek Words, „psyche (soul)‟ and „logos (science)‟ Thus literally it means the „science of the soul‟ But to be a science, it must be able to demonstrate the phenomenon on which observation and experimental methods can be applied. But “soul” or “mind” or even “consciousness” can never be demonstrated nor even be observed. Thus the definition of psychology as science of “soul” or “Mind” or consciousness had to be changed as the science of “behaviour” How, as science of behaviour, “psychology deals with responses to any and every kind of situation that life presents. Human psychology is concerned chiefly with such activities as per receiving imagining, feeling, thinking remembering, and acting. Psychology attempts to collects, organize describe and to some degree explain and interpret the facts of experience and behaviour. “owing to the obvious fact that the environment is always changing and the human organism is always changing, and absolute science of human behaviour is a impossibility. There are however, no absolute sciences; even physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are far from being exact. Science is relative” Since Psychology is far from being an exact science, this is even more true of it. It is an emerging science. The ultimate aim of the psychologist is to make predictions about behaviour. Predictions help in controlling and developing behaviour. METHODS : Having agreed on aims of psychology, the psychologists must decide upon the ways of collecting date for prediction. The methods generally applied for the purpose are : 1. Methods of Observation: (i) It may be Introspection or Subjective Method when
observation is made by looking inward upon one‟s own mind. The method has the merit of giving us firsthand information and knowledge of what goes on in our mind it has the disadvantage of not knowing what is true of other minds.
Observation may be made objective by looking out wards upon the
external expressions of mind of other people / animals. This method helps in inferring the mental processes of other people / animals from observation of their outward looks, gesture. 2. Experimental Method : The experimental method of psychology teaches us to define,
the real problem, relate it to known principles vary certain aspects in the conditions while holding others constant, make hypotheses, collect and analyze data, and verify other hypotheses. The experimental method requires the we conduct experiments in ways that allow for repetitions and for control. It requires that we under stand the variables involved. LIMITATIONS In the Laboratory it is relatively easy to design experiments so that they can be repeated. Some experiments can also be designed in industries easily and can be repeated. However, may industrial problems are so complex that repetition under exactly similar conditions often is not possible. This, of course does not mean that experimental methods should not be applied to the industrial problems. It does mean that Industrial psychologists have to be aware of the limitations. However, we may say that psychology is concerned with mind as well as its expression in behaviour. It must combine all methods, together to get a fuller picture of the behaviour under study so that effective prediction, as far, as possible may be made. It must, there fore, combine introspection with objective observations and be supported by experimental method where ever possible. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology has many branches now. Some major areas are :1. General Psychology : Mainly deals with development of mental concept of human
beings with emphasis of the changes that take place during different periods in the life span. 2. Physiological Psychology : Mainly deals with the relation between mind and body chemicals and their effects on human behaviour. 3. Abnormal / Clinical Psychology : Mainly concerned with the individual, and
primarily in helping him become more adequately adjusted to his environment.
4. Animal Psychology : knowledge of human beings.
Studies the behaviour of lower animals which contributes to
5. Child Psychology of Development Psychology : It studies the gradual development processes of the child from very conception. 6. Educational Psychology : It is primarly concerned with the factor leading ot effective
acquisition of knowledge on the part of the learner and effective teaching on the part of the teachers. 7. Social Psychology : The main concern is the study of group behaviour. Behaviour of
man in society, It applies the methods and techniques of psychology to the measurement and the prediction of social phenomena, such as attitude formation, prejudice and group behaviour. 8. Industrial Psychology : “The branch of applied psychology which concerns itself with
the application of psychological methods and results of problems arising in the industrial or economic field, inclusive of the selection and training of workers, methods and conditions of work etc”. A dictionary of psychology James Driver. Industrial psychology is a branch of psychology. Psychology is the science of human mind and deals with human behaviour in work environment. According to Harrell “Industrial psychology is the scientific study of people at work, It includes certain principles of understanding people and the application of certain techniques of dealing with people” It can be regarded as and aid to human resources management, because its object is to make the work interesting and inspiring so that every worker puts forth his best. It is connected with changing the attitude of the worker in such a manner that he may find “leisure in his work” It seeks to give the worker the greatest amount ease, both physical and mental at his job.
The worker feels tired and becomes less efficient not only on account of overwork, but also because of mental uneasiness reflected through irritability, annoyance anxiety fear, resentment etc. “Remove these, increase interest, improve general „metal‟ atmosphere, and complaints of overstrain will mostly vanish” says Myers.
he is likely to adopt on indifferent attitude toward his work. In the ultimate analysis. the individual concerned is bound to feel dissatisfied and even frust – rated with his job and environment. 1. if the credit gores to some body else. The mind of the worker functions through impulses. This is necessary because every human being has not only a body. under laying industrial psychology. but also a mind. Individuals differ from each other in degree through not in kind. On the other hand. emotions and passions all of which combine together to influence his attitude and behaviour. Every human being his certain instincts. The behaviour of an individual is governed and controlled by such powerful instincts as fear. pride and curiosity. If a worker does not feel happy at his job either because he has no taste for it or because it is so repetitive that it is tedious.Nature and scope : When a manager organizes human relationships in an industrial under taking. The concern. If a worker cam clan credit for creating something prefect. anger. if the worker is not satisfied with the treatment meted out by his employer he will develop grievances against the employer and will not be able to do his best for. Assumptions of Industrial Psychology : The are two fundamental assumptions. he has to take into account not only the physical needs of the workers but also their psychological requirements. it is the attitude of the worker toward his work and his employer which determines the results of his efforts. love hatre. if gives his a feeling of pride which inspires him to work with greater enthusiasm. his instinct for pride and self-display may be hurt and he may cease to work with enthusiasm. If they are not satisfied. whether in industry or in the social life at large. Similarly. 4 . which are the “essential springs of all thought and action” These instincts require satisfaction.
it will usually be found that there are differences in their productivity. Even when several people are working on identical machines. education. to take a very elementary sample. Cause of Human behaviour : The second fundamental assumption that industrial psychology makes is that human behaviour is caused by needs. which constitute his behaviour. Behavior is directed toward the fulfillment of satisfaction of certain needs. in appearance. has a want when he feels hungry. in personality. Some other need (say. and other traits. They differ also in their training. the urge to meet fried and share time with him) may become dominant and the individual then engages in behavior that will satisfy this urge. Research has established clearly the fact that individuals differ in personal characteristics and these differences create difference in work performance and behaviour of individuals in industry.2. Once the need for food is satisfied for the time being. In other words he behaves in a way that he can get food and satisfy his need and his want. Let us examine the implication of these assumptions and their relevance to industrial psychology here: Individual differences : The most fundamental assumption on which industrial psychology is based is the existence of differences among individuals. Individuals differ in physical build. it then becomes his need and he seeks to fulfill it through certain actions and responses. which become predominant in man at anytime. A need first appears as a want in the sense that an individual feels the lack of some thins that causes him to be dissatisfies and restless. in aptitudes. Then he makes those responses by which be can procure food. intelligence. Human behaviour is caused and does not occur automatically be itself. in physical skills. in motivation. an individual. He decides that the needs food to satisfy this want. 5 . in interests. and acquired knowledge and job skills.
aptitude. abilities. For this purpose. Selection and Placement: One of the most important factors in industrial efficiency is the selection of the right men for the right jobs. the best incumbent for the given job is chosen. Vocational Guidance (Counseling) : The aim of Industrial Psychology is to help in the perfect adjustment of men to jobs so that they can attain the highest levels of productivity and 6 . 2. accident. Over the years.The well-known psychologist Maslow gives the following classification of the psychological needs of man. 2. 1. Industrial Psychology has helped to make selection more systematic and scientific and less open to hit and miss methods. Application in Industrial Management : Industrial Psychology is a useful aid to the efficient management of the human factor in industry. thus saving industrial organizations from frequent changes in the work-force and ensuring maximum efficiency and job satisfaction to individual employees. dexterity. The available candidates for a job are then evaluated in terms of these predictors and their individual differences in trials like intelligence. 3. The findings and. On the basis of these criteria. prestige etc). 4. These categories of need are arranged in a hierarchy with the second categories arising after the first has been met to a considerable extent and third assessing after the second has been satisfied reasonably well and so on. 5. Self-realization (need to realize one‟s potentialities to the fullest extent possible). techniques of Industrial Psychology have been applied with benefit to the following areas of industrial management : 1. reputation. industrial psychology offers a whole array of tests. reproduction etc). Security needs (against pain. interests and personality characteristics are measured. sleeping. Ego (for respect. predictors of job success are determined. Physiological needs (breathing. This calls for a systematic analysis of the job requirements to determine the criteria for successful job performance. uncertainty etc) Security needs (need for association with others). the psychologist has made a place for himself in industrial organizations. By the use of psychological tests and systematic planned depth interviews. skills.
fellow-workers or supervisors. Industry psychology probes into human behaviour at work to determine the conditions in which a worker feels motivated and works willingly and wholeheartedly to maximize productivity. 4. The attempt. it with the requirements of different jobs to which he will be best suited. The causes of work behviour (human behaviour at work) are the needs of motives that drive or impel an individual. in such cases. to behave in a way that increases his productivity. Such adjustment can be attained through the use of the scientific methods of selection arid placement by industrial firms and also by the choice of prosper vacations by men. Industrial psychology has contributed significantly to the productivity movement in industry by identifying and the management to motivate employees can use highlighting the financial and non financial incentives. It has also brought into focus the role of supervision and leadership in motivating workpeople. Employee Motivation : The psychologist proceeds on the assumption that human behavior is caused and does not occur automatically. programmed learning.derive pleasure and satisfaction from their jobs. Vocational guidance may be arranged by the Employment Exchanges or Counseling Bureaus manned by specialists. it has been concerned about problems of fatigue. vestibule training. boredom and monotony also and has made useful contributions toward the fixation of work periods and rest pauses. In this. 3. industrial psychologists have been trying to develop and apply principles of effective learning to industrial training. is to find out causes of the maladjustment of an employee and the remedy that can be used to make him well-adjusted. 7 . psychologists have also developed new methods of training for the workers (like teaching machines. Since Industrial Psychology seeks to sustain the motivation of the work people so as to ensure higher productivity. etc). Since training involves learning on the part of the worker. This necessitates a systematic analysis of personal traits of an individual and matching. Training of Development : Much of the human effort in an industrial undertaking may go waste if the workers are not proficient in the proper methods of work. he has derived considerable assistance from the sociologists and anthropologists. Not merely this. Counseling in an industrial firm may be required for workers who have problems with their work. A worker can acquire proficiency on a job by undergoing systematic training.
human engineering has brought out the possibility of improving the work performance of men in industry by designing jobs and equipment and changing work environment to suit the operator. human engineering focuses attention on the man-machine relationship. They have also gone into the process of attitude change from the point of view of raising levels of individual group productivity.5. In developing human engineering. Job Evaluation and Merit rating : To the industrial psychologist also goes the credit of developing suitable scientific bases of basic wage-rate fixation and employee performance appraisal. 8. An outstanding contribution of Industrial Psychology to better management of the human factor in industry is the analysis of morale and job satisfaction the over all attitude of satisfaction or otherwise with the job and work environment on the part of a work group. counseling etc. Human Engineering (Ergonomics) : An important aspect of industrial psychology is human engineering (also called ergonomics). 7. Merit rating techniques are designed to achieve a systematic appraisal of the worth of each employee in terms of his ability and performance for the purposes of promotions. Whereas mainly the engineers seeking to increase productivity by improving upon the equipment design have guided traditionally industrial management. Thus. Employee Attitude and Morale : Industrial Psychologists have been trying to examine the relationship between the attitudes of the employees and their performance. Accident Prevention : According to the findings of a psychologist. work environment. Job evaluation methods developed by industrial psychologists aim at determining the relative worth or value of the different categories of jobs so that a rational wage structure can be built up. traditional industrial management treated the job and the equipment and environment as given and required man to adjust to these. work-place layout with the object of giving the worker the greatest amount of ease at his job. He also 8 . 98 per cent of the accidents in industry involving injury to workers or resulting in deaths are preventable. Industrial psychology has humanised industrial management and opened the way to a much fuller utilization of the human factor in industry. 6. Psychology provides useful aid to management through the identification of the dimensions or the factors of morale and through the development of the techniques to measure employee attitudes and morale. transfers.
Human behaviour is of vital importance in every industrial activity. Leadership is business in becoming more demanding and the person without a liberal education is handicapped in getting the kind of position from which he can move upward in any business organization. The study of human side of management of supervision. Industrial psychology is interested not only in the man at work in factory. The reasons for studying human behaviour in industry arises from the fact that more leaders of modern industry are coming from the rank of university graduates. is the province of industrial psychology. This assumed that workers are individuals each pursuing his own interests and the workforce in an individual organization could therefore be compared with a rabble (dump of loose materials). It is the study of people producing goods. This shows how important psychological or personal factors are in any program of accident prevention. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN MODERN INDUSTRIES Psychology is the science of behaviour. Human Relations : For a long time managers and industrial psychologists both regarded an individual employee as the unit of motivation and work performances it was believed that if the individual employee was taken care of problems of motivation and productivity would be automatically settled. but in the salesman on the road and the girl at the desk in the office. or directing the activities of the large corporation. They have also been able to suggest positive ways and means for reducing accident – proneness. Industrial Psychologists have made a significant contribution to the development of safety programme and the preservation of the valuable human factor in industry by analyzing the factors that make certain individuals more accident prone than others. 9. 9 .found that only about 10 percent of the industrial accidents are due to distinctly physical factors such as faulty equipment or bad building conditions. It deals with the study of human behaviour. in the production and consumption of goods as well as in the rendering of services.
the psychologist may co-operate with an engineer. The problem of fitting men to jobs is one of such issues that requires of know how to analyze abilities and this is purely a psychological problem. To over emphasize one category. The Principle of individual differences implies. These are (i) principle of selection ratio (ii) Principle of Individual Differences and (iii) Principle of prediction. the job must also be analyzed so that the abilities to look for. we are concerned with technological advances and their effect on the production or goods because this determines our material welfare. We are concerned with labour management conflicts because its consequences often touch our pockets. as consumers and as citizens we find our lives influenced on every side by industrial changes. however. maladjustment. LELECTION : The psychologist who work in industry is interested not only in day to day problems. such as 10 . but also in long range programmes dealing with the effective utilization of human resources. and we are concerned with the problems in industry. in re-organizing the work so that job is redesigned to utilize a greater degree the abilities that are available. that effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man in relation to the total job situation. Man‟s behaviour thus plays a part in all phases of industrial life. can be known. therefore. To make the proper fit. absenteeism and low job satisfaction. The selection programme by which the recruitment process is implemented has three underlying principles. To ignore one category of individual differences is to invite future Problems in the forms of inefficiency. to at least some degree because many people we known work there.Whether we work directly or not. If these principles are adhered to the apparently complex system may be amenable to an optimum decision. If the abilities required for particular job are too complex.
They begin with individuals who behave is in ways which are defined as thew end products of the training programme. the derived information is quite meaningful. From laboratory work the psychologist has found out how people learn and how they can be trained more economically. However. When the tasks and the group are relevant to some aspect of the job situation. sensible measurement he faces a difficult situation when he attempts to determine how much of what trait an applicant possesses. Individuals need to be taught to perform in specific ways in order to accomplish certain aims. This is what training and this is what training institutes and education systems do. Improving a man‟s adoption to his work increases both his efficiency and his satisfaction with the job. Since the psychologist or the employment specialist deals with intangible human traits such as intellectual capacity or emotional stability. by comparing the individual‟s performance to he average performance of a specific group on certain will defined tasks. TRAINING : Teaching or training men for jobs is another purely psychological problem and one that requires a fundamental knowledge of subject of learning.cultural difference at the expenses of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover. The aims must be specified and the behaviour of individuals must be shaped and modified so that they can perform the tasks required as members an organization “shaping” and “modifying” are the key works and they define the meaning of training and indeed of all education. he can derive a set of numerical term that imply “below average” “average” and “above average” performance on these tasks and terms of this group. HUMAN RELATIONS : 11 . etc. The question of utilization of human resources in industries leads inevitably to think of training. that do not permit direct.
Even the decisions of higher management cannot be reduced to a profit motive. Some people will have accidents despite all mechanical precautions. EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT : Another important area of industrial psychology currently receiving mush attention involves development of executive leadership. once the basic needs are satisfied. The psychologist has discovered many things about the needs of the worker in his struggle for status for recognition and for the elements that lead to job satisfaction. The engineer may design safety devices. Training supervisors in leadership and in face to face dealings with employees is an important part of their development. The adjustments that employees make to each other and to the supervisor are greatly influenced by the supervisor‟s behaviour.Human relations is an important part of the subject of social psychology. which enables him to apply knowledge wherever they are needed. He helps to improve safety programmes and the works with the engineer on the human relation aspect of equipment 12 . considerate supervision and proper placement of men are psychological tools for accident. Safety habits. freedom of choice and security become the more precious. largely advisory. but he must design them so that the men will use them. Modern business has expanded so rapidly that there is a shortage of people for middle management and top executive jobs. ACCIDENT : Even the problem of industrial accidents has a psychological aspect. Prestige. The psychologist has discovered the basic principles underlying good supervision. The economic incentive of wages is not sufficient to gain co-operation. many others remain. for the will of man cannot be bought so cheaply. The will to work is largely a psychological problem. After this part of the problem is solved. The industrial psychologist usually holds a staff position.
These upholding one point of view have often minimized or even completely ignored the possible influence of the other factor. lawyer. regardless of his talents. merchant. and passing from generation to generation. The other group the advocates of environment in matters of individual differences opine that there is no real evidence of inheritance of human traits. economic advantage etc. abilities. He assists the office of the public relations in its interactions with consumers and with the community in which the company operates. but depends totally upon “natural gifts present in the family. Psychologists have long been interested in determining the ultimate cause of individual differences among people. It has no relation with training. Usually the psychologist divided the major causes into two general categories of heredity and environment. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR SIGNINFICANCE IN INDUSTRY Individual differences was the first problem to be studies in industrial psychology and has been studied more than any other psychological problem in industry. vocations and race of his ancestors” It 13 . chief and yes even beggar man and thief. well formed. The industrial psychologist may draw up a plan for the executive development of newly recruits on one hand and discuss the problem of aging employees the other. It is the surroundings and training the environmental conditions of life that “make the man” Dr. tendencies. and my own specified world to bring them up in and I will guarantee to take and one of them at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor. artist.design. and the accomplishment of and individual are determined primarily by his inheritance. from career planning to labour relations. Watson an ardent behaviourist writes “Give me an dozen healthy infant. From personnel selection to training from supervision to job evaluation. The advocates for the doctrine of heredity in the matter of individual differences maintain that the capacities. the inclinations. the industrial psychologist moves in a wide and every varying scene.
social and family customs. weight. For clarification the differences have been grouped into five arbitrary and not necessarily exclusive classifications : i) Physical Differences : Obviously. Other important physical differences that are not so obvious include heart functioning. 14 . age and outward appearance. sex. The variability of human race results from the interaction of heredity and environment Neither nature nor nurture alone can explain the wide rangs of differences in mental traits so characteristic of the rece. visual acuity and reaction time. and such other cognitive processes as memory and discrimination. blood pressure. piano playing. However it seems probable that both factors are usually operative but their relative importance differs markedly in the determination of different personal characteristics. work experience. That differences are likewise present in the abilities of man is also a commonly recognized fact. iii) Cultural Differences : People different in environmental experiences that lead to the acquision of specific attributes based on the cultural or social group in which they have matured. The people differ from one another is especially apparent from their physical appearance. but heredity appears to be the determining factor in accounting for individual differences. people differ in such physical characteristics as height. in problem solving ability.has also been found through various experimental studies that the environmental plays and important role in determining the mental level and behaviour of the individual. Such differences include education. ii) Mental Differences : People different in mental capacity in individual ability to learn specific skills such as typing. religion and athnic traits. The principle of individual differences simply states that each person has own unique characteristics that enable him to do some jobs and prevent him from doing others.
iii) Perceptual factor measured by abi8lity to discriminate small differences in visual designs. multiplication and division. measured by the ability to imagine the way objects are arranged in . subtraction. The measurement of ability has been done mainly by I. The principle of individual differences implies.Q tests which are composed of several separate mental factors. therefore. values. maladjustment. absenteeism and low job satisfaction. the effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man relation to the total job situation. and ethical standards and in their convictions about what does and does not constitute good conduct. and emotional reactions to event in their environment. 15 Reasoning factor. Spatial factor. The crux of the selection programme therefore depends. v) Personality Differences : People differ in personality that is social behaviour. upon being able to identify or measure such characteristics at the time of employment. ii) Numerical factor. such as the cultural differences at the expense of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover. in the first palace upon knowing what kind of human characteristics are required for successful performance on each of the various jobs.iv) Ethical differences : Families differ in their behavioural norms. and it depends. temperament. in the second place. measured by figuring out relationships. such as : i) Verbal factor measured by vocabulary. measured by spead and accuracy in addition. iv) v) space. To ignore one category of individual differences such as mental ability is to invite future problems in the form of inefficiency. To overemphasize one category.
it can readily be seen that proper selection alone greatly increases production. Successful persons in the same occupation have to a large extent the same interests. yet no amount of practice on the part of one man will make him as proficient in his work as a little practice will make another. is not generally appreciated. it should be the goal of personnel policy to place individuals on jobs in which their individual potentialities can be realized in the form of satisfactory work performance.vi) The special aptitudes tests such as Mechanical aptitude tests clerical aptitude tests. vii) Interests are an important determinant of the individual differences that are reflected in performance at work. In those of executives and salesmen. Thus in terms of the mutual interests of both employees and management. of manual dexterity and finger dexterity are uses in industrial selection processes. Probable Questions : 1. they would appear to be of particular importance. IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES : The importance and the nature of the variation between people. viii) Personality : Temperamental and non-intellectual personality traits are extremely important in some jobs. 3. Since marked differences in ability do occur. What do you mean by principle of Individual differences ? What are the main areas of individual differences ? What is the importance of differences in industry ? 16 . 2. Many believe that practice makes perfects. Furthermore emotional and personality difficulties are often the cause of much of the turnover for even routine jobs.
How can you derive benefits from individual differences ? BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ATTITUDE Attitude has been described as “learned readiness to react in a certain manner which normally involves in part of symbolic act. An individual can have a good attitude and still differ with superiors on policies and decisions. ignoring the present and future. Attitude refers to probable direction. An attitude is intangible. see. It stems from both the personality and mental outlook. In other words. nor (ii) r5esponse. The atmosphere is which on lives is determined more by his attitude than anything else. One person may always be looking to the past. not the behaviour itself. 17 . Another is viewing everything in the present and future. Giving not getting usually characteristics a good attitude. One individual will look upon mistake as total and permanent losses. as a motive is but simply state of readiness to respond.4. That is to say a certain object or situation will provide the individual with a framework within which he can react. is strongly influenced by his attitude. It is much more. An attitude is neither (i) motive. an attitude is a way a person tends to feel. It is reflecting a wholesome feeling from inside. It is an outward manifestation of wanting to be helpful and useful to the enterprise and to other employees. Attitude is not simply getting along with people. The kind of a person and the quality of this life. Attitude is not a drive or force. both at work and away from work. nothing is looked upon in the perspective of the past. but outward actions and speeches of the individual show respect for the decisions made and co-operation in carrying them out. it is determined by another from the way a person acts or responds to situation. while another view them as opportunities from which a great deal can be learned. One has fairly fixed ideas about certain types of employees and another considers each of then on individual merit. or interpret a particular situation.
that is. positive attitude are classed as “Construction attitudes” Positive attitudes are characterized by the reaction of “YES” it can be done”. all of which helps to formulate his attitudes. This is essential in maximizing managerial actuating works. a person acquires traditions. Managers should therefore strive to have positive attitudes and develop positive attitudes in their sub-ordinates. they emphasize possible hurdles or stress the view point that the objective cannot be attained.Two major types of attitudes : Attitude are generally classified as (i) positive or (ii) negative. whereas a negative attitude is directed away from a given object. negative attitudes have been termed” “Destructive attitudes” Because. and adventuresomeness. policy. The world belongs to those who have positive attitudes. but I fear our positions next year at this same month. 18 . A positive attitude is directed toward a given object. group. beliefs. Success and victory thrive under the influence of positive attitudes. a person. Expressions typifying this attitude are “This is a poor labour contract and will no doubt give us plenty of trouble” and “Right now our organization structure is strong. This is the direction to take “and” Let us advance along these approaches” In contrast. energy knowledge. People are not born with attitudes. Frequently. event or institution. opinions and knowledge. The attitudes. Most objectives are accomplished far more effectively when positive attitude prevail than when negative attitudes are dominant. Optimism is matter of attitude. From infancy on. Managers must first think they can before they can. Formation and development of attitudes : Attitudes are learned or acquired during daily life experience. a. First in past experience which is used to assist in evaluating and subsequently either accepting or rejecting the new situation into one‟s system of though. Attitudes are acquired in one or a combination of three ways.
To one person a particular individual may be considered an authority. the thoroughness of training. its policies and practices. economic forces and motivations.b. Second. acceptance of the attitude of the group of which a person is a member. Many attitudes are founded more on emotional than on rational basis. Certain conventions. But the work situation is by no means the only area. wife. The influence of social forces is of tremendous importance in attitude development. it is quite likely that the employee will have a constructive and sincere attitude 19 . Attitudes develop from the influences of emotions. are wholesome. For example. c. the caliber of leadership. The work situation is extremely vital in attitude development and frequently is thought of as the inclusive area which gives rise to attitudes. and children. social factors. It is not a question of simply combining three or four factors to produce an attitude. Third and last is statement of an authoritative source. nor of exposing several individuals to the same patterns of influences in order to form similar attitude among those individuals. he may accept an attitude based upon the word of an authority. An exceedingly complex pattern of influences tends to make up a particular attitude. habits and attitudes are required in order for the individuality to possess fully accepted membership. An employee‟s attitude is influenced by such things as the position and reputation of the enterprise. understanding and cooperative. the opportunities for advancement. but to others the individual would not. What constancies and authoritative source depends upon the person involved. Attitudes are not necessarily related to the education and the intelligence of the person or the facts of the situations. When a person is confronted with a situation about which he is expected to have an attitude but about which situation he has limited a background or knowledge. perceptions. the type of work done and the amount of compensation. Group codes and unwritten agreements not only guide and shape the group but give support to each member individuality. if an employees „parents.
If the reference is highly 20 . Government is another important consideration in the determination of attitudes. Frames of reference : Frames of reference are also of vital importance in the existence and development of attitudes. A lawyer‟s attitude toward prosecution might differ widely from that of a social worker. What is associated with an object or is referred to in connection with it helps to determine the attitude toward that object. This attitude may be carried over by employee to his place of work so that company rules and regulations are looked upon in various degrees of seriousness by an employee. Outgrowths of experience are of major consequence in determining attitude. On the other hand if his family is quarrelsome and a great deal of dissatisfaction is usually prevalent. a person feels and thinks toward on object. To a significant degree. The motives aroused with an employee by his children what he wants for the. position and influence. The mode of living likewise helps shape attitudes. the employee will frequently reflect this attitude in the kind and quality of work he does. Being in close association or experiencing almost daily experience to a situation or activity tend to influence one‟s attitude toward that particular circumstance or entity. Whether an attitude is favourable or infablurable depends upon the judgment in terms of the frame of reference. his plans for their future. others have the attitudes that most laws are probably necessary but many have little value and can perhaps be violated if it is so desired. not getting.toward his work. In contrast. Some concentrate their entire efforts upon getting material possessions. others believe in giving. his interests in their activities frequently means that he will have a favourable attitude towards his job because he seems that through his employment the means for providing his children are achieved. Some view observance of the law as a necessary social control for the greatest overall good. Their attitude encompasses the fundamental truth that one cannot get until he learns to give and thus they divided genuine happiness and lasting satisfaction from his attitude. their attitudes encourage the acquisition of goods.
group insurance. but genuine employee satisfaction comes from finding real satisfaction in his job. his work will show it. Work is as much a mental attitude as it is a concrete 21 . fallacious thinking and personnel prejudices. Attitudes permitting such traits do not make the task unattainable. A person having limited ability and brilliance but possessing an attitude which is pleasant and fair toward other employees might well advance to managerial positions of greet importance. training and wide experience. Every employee reflects his attitude towards his work in his daily affords. Competence may deemed not only outstanding talent. conceit. Attitude is also important because it holds the key to job satisfaction. If he nervous any faulty attitudes. and further more. although at times he may not fully recognize it. jealousy. narrow mindedness. vacationary pay etc. Attempts are being made to keep the employee satisfied means of various benefits.desirable. it will affect the efforts of these associated with him. When each individual obtain genuine satisfaction from his work. Importance of attitude in Management : Attitude is an extremely important concept in the managerial work of actuating A person is often descried in terms of his attitude. lack of confidence. expert. the task of management is lightened. the attitude will be favourable. and coveresely a reference of low desirability will result in an unfabourable attitude. Such as pensions. but they render achievement more difficult. It includes a great many things and frequently is an important as ability. fear. Attitude is the key that either opens or closes the employees mind to the proper service motive installed by competent managers. These benefits are all desirable and fulfill certain social needs. but also a co-operative attitude. There appears to be little doubt that the must frequent handicap of a manager is a faulty mental attitude or mental sets which consist of such things as believing an objective cannot be attained. if not more so. Fundamentally that is what every employee actually seeks.
thing. Changing Attitude : There is little question that managers can influence employees attitudes. It is the right king of attitude that makes the difference. of the top management group‟s thinking illustrates the same point of view. affection or innermost readiness of the individual to response sociologists are the term “ego-involves” explain an attitude which is clung to by an individual because he likes to think of himself as one who has this particular attitude. that the mission can be accomplished his leader knows what he is doing are most likely to be most effective. The old adage that employees reflect the shadow or perhaps more appropriately the light. modify or eliminate attitudes must handled expertly and with great care. Research studies have confirmed that individual and group attitudes are commonly the difference between a highly successful work group and one that is not between a high production until a low production unit. efforts to strengthen. 22 . People become set in their responsiveness. Why does a person resist a change in his attitude? Primarily because of the attitude is a personal entity and exemplify a certain prize. Human being usually resist any attempt to change their attitude. frames of reference supplied. However. In other words. Persons are influenced favourably or unfavourable by examples provided experiences permitted. The individual or group that believes it can succeed. the self-evaluation and strong desire to retain a present attitude depend in great measure not only on the possessor‟s confidence in that attitude but also in it being favourably responded to by others. This tough mindedness is not more inertia or laziness but an active resistance to influence. encouragement of certain motives and the discountenance of other forces. Without positive attitude toward his work is an important reason for keeping him from obtaining employee satisfaction from his greatest potential his job.
A person will normally defend his attitude when it is challenged Usually challenge is viewed as undermining something deemed important because values of one‟s ineffective involved. The greater the ego involvement of the person, the less the likelihood of gaining a change in attitude by means of arguments.
An existing attitude represents the outcome of a balance of motives supporting the attitude. Some of the motives export a strongest influence upon an altitude than do others. In order to change an attitude it is usually best to weaken the supporting influence. Other approaches such as frontal efforts to substitute new influences in order to counteract old ones are generally ineffective. The removal of accustomed influences meets resistance and arouse defenses.
The weakening of supporting influences can be attempted in various ways. Among the more common is to provide facts and knowledge which can be evaluated. The attempt here is to stress greater rational consideration than emotional Supplying export of authoritative explanations or view points along with the reasons for such view points can also be employed. In some cases, it is effective to get the individual to review his experience, to become more aware of what it means, and to re-conceived relationship of the individual with the reference group, that is, to reduce the ego-involvement by lowering the favourable respondence of the group to the attitude. Possibly the best way to achieve this so to talk with the group, request, their co-operation and support and appeal to the group a favourable decision. It is frequently less difficult to away a group than an individual. This is true for several reasons.
Firstly, When members of the group change the attitude, the individual can see that a change on his part will not reduce his relative ego-involvement.
Secondly, changes or acceptance of persuasive efforts are of ten more effective on a group than on an individual, the influence of mob-psychology and group motivations being exercised.
Thirdly, the attainment of an atmosphere of high enthusiasm, helpful for indicating changes, can best be reached with a group.
Some suggestions for developing favourable attitude : 1. Have a wholesome, practical outlook on life and your fellow employees. Think
optimistically, show enthusiasm, be genuinely interested in the other fellow, expect mistakes and misgivings but do not become depressed by them.
Take the constructive side of issue : Speak, wife and act from the positive view-point, Stress confidence and progress, avoid
fear and retrospection. Keep looking until some good is found and then figure out the best manner to utilize this good. Emphasize what to do and what not to do. 3. Associate with those who are successful : The people surrounding a person can exercise great influence upon him attitude. If they are experiencing full, rice, helpful lives, they serve as a favourable motivation and tend to encourage a person to greater and better accomplishments. It is difficult for an individual to maintain an unfavourable attitude when all those around him have a favourable attitude.
Give other the feeling of importance and self-worthiness : Permit others to participate, their opinions, build up their self confidence, and let them
know they are doing something worthwhile. Practice the philosophy of giving, not getting. Talk about the individuals astute accomplishments and his sagacity in arriving at the proper decision, but refrain from talking about him. 5. Feel deeply about certain values on life : A human being must have an outlet for his productivities; he must have a deep sense of responsibility for certain attributes of his own choosing so that he can anchor the whole of his activities around what constitutes to him a meaningful target. Probable Questions 1. Define attitude and mention the different types of attitudes.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
How attitude is formed ? Can attitude be changed ? What is frame of reference ? How it influences or affects attitude ? What is the importance of attitude in management? How to change attitude and what is precaution ? Give some suggestions for development of favourable attitudes.
BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY JOB SATISFACTION The terms “employee attitude” Job satisfaction” and “Industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. Similarly job satisfaction in not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. Job attitude is the feeling the employee has about his job, his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factors related to his job, Job satisfaction dissatisfaction is the result of various attitudes the person holds toward his job, toward related factors and toward life in general.
INFORMATION ABOUT ATTITUDE : Information about employee attitudes may be obtained from the following sources : 1. Formal Communication Channels : Assessment / analysis of employees feeling toward their jobs and factors related to the job, made by the foreman and supervisors is one of the most important sources of information of employee attitude. 2. Grapevine Channels : Rumored Attitudes are a part of all organizations. However, the information that rumors carry becomes altered and often distorted as it makes its upward movement. More dangerous
The results of many attitude surveys show that the lack of opportunity for 26 . 5. multiple choice questions. In the guided interview. early quits and excessive absenteeism are true revealers of attitudes. there is an attempt to get answers to predetermined questions. 2. Interviewing : This has been one of the main means of getting information of employee attitude. 3. Within this structure. for they may reflect only the extremes. Security : The Factor deals with the steadiness of employment. Behaviour Manifestations : Some of the behaviour manifestations such as griping on the job. Factors related to job attitudes : The following are the ten major factors related to job attitudes : 1. slow downs.still are the attitudes communicated by the grapevine. Opportunity of advancement : This factor ranks high in importance. The Questionnaire : The questionnaire technique is economical and also has certain advantages of objectivity of measurement providing for a quantitative treatment of responses. particularly to the person striving for upward mobility. yes on answers. 4. where the manager or worker feels he has a reasonable chance of working under conditions of company stability. attitudes of the majority of the workers never get impartially expressed. Security is a strong reason for liking a job and is generally mentioned first by both men and women as contributing job satisfaction. The man with security feels that he is valued by the organization and that he has the abilities and opportunity to keep his job. Answers may be obtained through check lists. But it is already too late by the time such manifestations are evidenced and the damage is already done.
Wages : When this factor is ranked with nine other job factors employees give it fourth place. Men are much more expressive in giving importance to this factor than are women. the greater the satisfaction with the company. third person may like his job because it is easy. and are generally more important to factory workers than to office workers. Another may like his job parse because it brings him recognition. One may like it because he has the right ability and training for it. Wages are more important to men than women worker4s. reputation. or public or public relations. In terms of occupational level. 4. gives him an opportunity to travel. However. It is interesting that employers generally rank this factor near the top when they are asked what the employee wants. but for both bad supervision can be a primary reason for absenteeism and labour turnover. Whatever the reason.advancement is frequently a strong reasons for disliking a job but rarely is opportunity for advancement mentioned as contributory to satisfaction. Women seem more sensitive to supervision then men. or is free of tension and pressure. what the man does at his particular job contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. earnings. Intrinsic aspects of the job : There are many reasons why people like their job simply for the sake of the job. Supervision : To the worker his supervisor is an equally strong contributor to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. there is some evidence that there is a decrease in the importance of the advancement factor with increasing age. 5. Company management : Whether we deal with the size of the organization. 3. there is some evidence that the high the skill level. 6. Like security it contributes substantially to the employee‟s satisfaction. 27 . the employee believes that a good company is one which helps him fell some stability in his job.
especially married women this aspect has even more significance. Good communication means the opposite of being ignored. giving orders / turning out annual reports. toilets and the like have been found to be equally contributing to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In short it may be said that needs fulfillment and positive attitudes and intrinsic aspect of jobs. 9. 8.7. but it is never a reason for liking a job. cohesive group is happier with his job than is someone who finds himself a misfit. This factor contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employee. lighting. cafeteria. The extent and nature job dissatisfaction : 28 . Hours are more important to men than any other specific aspect of working conditions. The lack of good communication may be a reason for disliking a job. medical facilities. are a standard part of most jobs. 10. The social factor appears slightly more important to women than to men. ventilation. They contribute to satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Communication : Communication means the formalities of conveying information. but among women. A man who feels himself a member of a productive. Working conditions are substantially more important to women than to men. leaves vacations and holiday etc. It is relatively independent of age and occupational level. The factor of communication seems to be more important at the higher educational level. Social Aspect of the job : This involves such needs as belonging and social approval. are the contributing factors to job satisfaction. Working conditions : Temperature. Benefits : Employee benefits such s retirement provisions.
Effects of attitudes on productivity : A number of research studies found that workmen with positive job attitudes showed higher productivity than those with negative attitudes. It is also found that workers with positive attitude out-produce workers with negative job attitudes. and show more boredom. when the atmosphere is friendly. and where the employee really wants to produce and get ahead. and when belonging to that specific work group is highly desirable to its members. job satisfaction is high among young workers but tends to go down during the first few years of employment. The basic consideration is that high productivity accompanies high morale only when the attitudes of the group is very cohesive. It has been found in a number of studies that workers with positive attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than workers with negative attitudes. but also of where he stands with respect to his level of aspiration. daydreaming and general. People who are dissatisfied with their jobs are less outgoing and friendly. the less his satisfaction” (Morse) As the person grows older. when the psychological climates favour high production. This can lead to job dissatisfaction when the discrepancy between levels of aspiration and possibilities of attainment gets too great. Aspiration and productivity : Morse pointed out that employee satisfaction was a function not only of how much a person receives from the job situation. those people with the strongest desires. In another way “The greater the amount the individual gets the greater his satisfaction and at the sometime the more the individuals still desires. In general. Probable questions 29 . where there is a good supervision. the need for pay and job status increases. are more emotionally unbalanced. or highest aspirations will be the least happy.The average figure of job dissatisfaction found in varying industries (USA) is around 13% age as a factor has been shown from twenty three studies. discontent than the satisfied workers. When the environment provides little possibility for need satisfaction.
2. motives. hunger. They fight because they are threatened. approval. which create drives and learned behaviour is drive reducing. a primary drive to obtain food which is based on unlearned biological needs. What do you mean by job Satisfaction ? Is it synonymous with industrial morale ? Which is more convenient and effective and why ? What are the main sources of obtaining employee attitude ? What are the factors related to Job attitude ? What are effects of job attitudes on production ? BIHRM MOTIVATION Basically the topic of motivation deals with the question of WGY animals and human beings do what they do. Responses are determined not only environmental conditions but also by states within the organism needs. Practically all behaviour. Other. They save because they want security. Most people describe the cause of their behaviour in terms of goals toward which they are striving. 30 . working studying playing solving problems. 3. acceptance. The primary motives such as hunger. People work because they what nice things. wishes. 4. even perceiving has a motive followed by reasons. everything we do learning. attention. money. 5. Some motives or needs are called primary needs because they are not dependent on learning for their basic motive force (although learning may affect the social expression of these drives). Motives are said to be needs. sometimes called secondary motives / drives are learned or acquired desires for particular goal such as power. An example is. thirst sex and pain avoidance are closely co-related with physiological states.1. achievement. wants and they are generally directed toward some goal or goals.
knowledge) and personal reputation. those on the next higher level emerge and demand satisfaction. 3. Sex and so on (bodily need fulfillment). Threat. Self Actualization or Self Fulfillment needs : Realizing one‟s own potential. recognition. Independence. achievement. 2. Deprivation and so on. 31 . competence. Giving and receiving friendship and love. respect). (status. 5. The most important point here is that motives needs. Physiological needs or biological needs : Hunger. creativity. Ego or Esteem Needs : Self esteem (Self confidence. Association. self development. Thirst. by others. Man‟s needs are arranged in a series of levels – hierarchy of importance. 4. Safety needs : Protection against danger. appreciation.living standard habit of smoking etc. or desires impel the individual to action. The essence of this theory is that the overwhelming majority of normal human being have certain common. Acceptance. The theory that has received the highest degree of acceptance is that of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs. Classification of Needs : A number of attempts have been made by psychologists to classify and categorize the various human needs into levels to relative importance concerning their impact on motivation. Social needs : Belonging. As soon as needs of lower level are by and large satisfied. basic needs which can be grouped into five levels and arranged in a hierarchy of strength as follow : Self-realization needs Ego / Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Biological needs 1.
direct. co-ordinate and motivate. are not motivated to do so. planning and so on. We may say : Human performance ability motivation.The tasks of modern management are to obtain facts. Fair grievance handling. 8. Human performance of human input depends upon ability and motivation. we may define productivity as : Productivity = f (Material input x Human input). 10. Reasonable amount of work and satisfactory working condition. 2. One may drag a horse to water but cannot make it to drink. Under coercion they may have to do the task but it is no substitute of or voluntary action. 6. Prospect for future development. if people who are supposed to carry out plans. Schematically : Motivation = f (Social condition x Individual needs x physical condition). The motivation on the other hand is the function of social condition. Prais for good work. 7. 4. 5. Proper training and familiarization with company‟s objectives. individual needs and physical condition. Since productivity is closely related to motivation. Due recognition as an individual. Jon security and freedom from unjust reprimand. plan. Social factors influencing motivation : 1. 9. Pay as high as the going rate for the same type of work elsewhere. 32 . Friendly and helpful criticism for correction of error. It is of little use for the management to carry out other actives of getting facts. Selection of best qualified employees when required. 3.
9. Noise causes annoyance to workers and hinders concentration. mental attitude and fatigue. 6. Well ventilation. Work simplification. Good maintenance of machines. But5 strong lighting strains worker‟s eyes causing fatigue which reduces interest for work. Mutual sacrifice. This is a fact which is …………. The importance of various needs or wants which motivate man was expertly expressed by prof. Hot and humid atmospheric condition has adverse effect on efficiency. healing and cooling has a definite effect on physical comfort. Unnecessary noise must be avoided. 7. 5. “Man is a wanting animal as soon as one of his needs is satisfied. experience of progress towards goal and confidence in leaders. This process is unending. 4. We may define individual need as function of : F (experience x education x cultural background x level of aspiration x perception x general economic condition x and personal situation) 33 . Man continuously put forth the effort works. participation in group activities. Motion economy. Proper lighting essential for health safety and efficiency. Doughlas McGregor as follows. 3. Physical conditions motivation productivity : 1.11. Prevention of accidents. 2. if you please to satisfy his needs A satisfied need is not a motivation. Ignored in the conventional approach to management of people”. another appears in its place. Good working space and sating arrangement. 10. Regular supply of materials. Rest pauses providing good food and comfortable lounge during rest period reduces fatigue and help from favourabel attitude towards the company 8. It continues from birth to death.
has been directly derived from the first set of assumption. management hashed to impose still more restriction. The assumptions of theory x and the approaches to motivation and supervision which result from it may indeed be what exists in many organizations. Pressure through the use of rewards and the threat of punishment has been used to achieve company objectives. most people must be controlled directed or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. These assumption are : 1. 34 . without ambition and resistant to change and responsibility. To achieve the desired behaviour. rather such behaviour in man in part the result of management philosophy and practice. 2. The average human being prefers to be directed. Management has regarded employees as indolent. Pressure has bred counter pressure. according to McGregor. McGregor himself regarded theory X as an extreme and as an unacceptable set of assumptions about human being. wishes to avoid responsibility. But theory X does not reflect man‟s inherent nature . can. a vicious cycle has been set up and the assumptions of the theory seems to have been confirmed. and subordinates have reacted in way detrimental to organizational efficiency.McGregor “X” and “Y” Theory The bulk of current managerial principles. 3. theory X. has lead to further research regarding the validating of conventional managerial assumptions. has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. The average human being has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if he Because of this human characteristic of dislike for work. Theory “Y” The accumulation of knowledge about human behaviour from many specialized field.
g. 5.From these date McGregor derived a new set of assumptions what he called theory “Y” These assumptions of McGregor provide a better example of human nature and therefore indicated the need for different managerial strategy in dealing with people. Although these conditions may be desirable for some people. self direction individual freedom and inner direction. Management should adopt policies that promote on the job satisfaction. not narrowly distributed in the population. 6. According to theory “Y” many managers should near range their assumptions. ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely. thinking of methods so that organizational and individual goals are compatible. individual development and expression. 1. Avoidance of responsibility. Man will exercise self direction and self control in the servi9ce of objectives to which he is committed. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only utilized. Theory “X” emphasizes autonomy. Under conditions of modern industrial life. others do not want and cannot handle them and are extremely uncomfortable with too much freedom. The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to accept but to seek responsibility. work may be a source of satisfaction or sources of punishment. not inherent human characteristics. It is a new managerial philosophy as well as a criticism of traditional managerial policy and action. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as lay or rest. 3. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort organizational objectives. lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of experience. 4. 2. Commitment to objectives is a result of the rewards associated with their achievement. the satisfaction of ego and self actualization need can be direct product of effort directed toward organizational objectives. The most significant of such rewards e. 35 . The average human being does not inherently dislike work Depending upon controllable conditions.
This is usually done by upholding morale of the workers and motivation them for higher production. Several authors like Erick from. When strapped of value judgments theory “X” emphasis‟s dependence. Motivation based on fear Concept of Negative sanction : The old concept of motivation was based on fear. The current emphasis is on human relations and positive incentives. theory “Y” proponents expect to stimulate initiative. in his pursuits he contributes to organizational achievement. agreed that complete individual freedom is not the answer but freedom with limits varying in intensity. Sometimes it may prove detrimental. ineffective time wastage may be reduced. contribution. The situation however changes as organized labours gained influence. involvement and creativity of organizational members. work satisfaction has undoubtedly increased may work situations in modern industry. domination and control. The workers either teed the line or faced the consequence of losing the job. Though it is true in mass production job.Unbridled individual freedom is neither compatible with organization goals nor is it desirable. It becomes an important means through which the employee can pursue his goals and since organizational goals are compatible with individual goals. The basic principle is that every individual kikes to stand well in his own eyes and also in the eye of those whose 36 . Positive Incentives : Motivation and morale : By inducing the workers to work and creating interest in them for the work. theory “Y” emphasizes independence. By encouraging independence. chiefly relied upon negative sanction based on fear and punishment to get the result. In some new nations sudden freedom from colonial control causes virtual anarchy. freedom and permissiveness. besides organizations become larger and spread in complexity. Maslow etc. The other criticism is that over implication of work has reduced job satisfaction.
BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL MORALE The terms “employee attitude” “Job satisfaction” and “industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. This is due to growing realization that positive incentives are more conducive to the welfare of the enterprise then negative sanctions based on fear of demotion or dismissal. Probable Questions : 1. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. It seems neared the truth to say that as positive incentives are made effective. 3. Although the right to fine or demote an employee under certain circumstances remains a tool in the hands of management for disciplinary purposes. the complete elimination of sanction would quickly get the administration into trouble. What are the Maslow‟s classification of human needs ? narrate the „X” and “Y” theories of motivation. 2. However. The output and moral both increase when the policy of the company is employee centered and not production centered. there is less need to apply negative sanctions and they in any case a sanction should be reserved for individual cases and rarely if ever used on a group. What are the social and physical factors influencing motivation. 4. 37 .appreciation he values. An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. it has now been replaced by positive incentives and morale. The workers are favourable affected by a boss who treats them as human being and they are motivated to work for a company where there is confidence in fairness of the top management. This does not mean that negative sections should be discarded entirely. Similarly job satisfaction is not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. What is a motive ? What is difference between primary and secondary needs.
Thus morale concerns the state of employees. and leadership. The concept is that the extent to which an employees‟ attitudes enable him to realized maximum satisfaction of his desires with the fulfillment of the company‟s objectives. From the standpoint of management. While many attitude influence morale. toward their jobs. To have high morale an individual must processes firm conviction and values which make life worthwhile for him that he has the energy and confidence to face the future. Job a satisfaction or dissatisfaction is the result various attitudes the person holds toward his hob. his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factor related to his job. are very vital to morale. the state of employee‟s attitudes toward their company and its mode of operation is a foremost issue and is commonly included under the subject morale. According to the definition morale is the attitude of employee toward management members. Attitude toward the organization structure of the company. Attitude toward the company‟s objectives. the higher the morale. Attitude toward pay. therefore. In a company industrial morale is the composite expression of the attitudes of the various individuals working there. Attitudes. toward related factors and toward life in general. Attitude toward the size and type of enterprise for whom as working Emp0loyee b) c) d) e) morale may be high or low. plans. attitude toward their company and its mode of operation. For the individual it is a feeling of being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals. hours of work and working conditions. those pertaining to the following areas are of tap importance : a) Attitude of mangers toward other managers of the same enterprise.Job attitude is the felling the employee has about his job. non- management members and vice verse. He must be aware of job to be done to defend or extend his store of values and his 38 . and toward each other” Other stress the identification of the employees objectives with those of the company. Industrial morale is generated by the group.
When zest is present. 39 . It means perseverance. Without goal interest is absent or the obstacles between individual and the goal are regarded unsurmountable.values must be essential agreement with those of his group and there must be in essential agreement with those of his group and there must be a co-ordination of effort in attaining objectives. Together for achieving the goal. c) Zest - implies high motivation.K Passive Co-operation Job Unimportant Work a Burden Hostility From the comparison it follows. The general picture of the morale of various work groups may compared on the basis of level of morale as shown below : LEVEL OF MORALE Zest Activity Co-operation Satisfied Job O. Individual difference are always present. confidence and standing. Good morale is resistance to frustration. Low morale indicates as attitude of apathy or resignatice. It must not be assumed that all members of the group would feel the same way in any situation. Might of its goal under adverse circumstances. Staying quality – implies that a group does not loose. The works commonly regarded as ingredients of high moral are : a) b) Team spirit describes a relationship between people. Zest being the tope value and apathy the lowest value because if implies a complete absence of effort. There is interest and excitement in performing a job.
and well planned efforts over a long period of time. an attitude is the result of many complex forces and to change an existing attitude requires persistent. lighting. the sanitary facilities. determination emotional stability. proper food and adequate rest also have a direct influence on stamina. and Confidence in leaders. This is easier said than done As already mentioned. 40 . ventilation and attractiveness of the shop and many other conditions which constitute the environment influence the morale of the workers. the type of foreman. Physical Factors : The degree of high or low morale differs from person to person depending upon his mental and bodily conditions. Acquired personality qualities derived from environment has a direct hearing on good morale. It is possible to think in terms of group as unit describe the way group works. but the task can be done. Like-wise bodily conditions good health. Satisfaction with the company : Such factors as company attitude to employees and society in general. attitude and adjust. Participation in group activity. Experience of progress toward goal. Groups have personality of their own and one can think of a groups motivation. influence stamina. Inborn personality differences which brings out differences in energy. Moral Building Programme : The first step in a moral building is to instill proper attitudes in the minds of all employees. Job satisfaction demonstrates high morale among those who are satisfied with the job some of the important psychological Factors influencing high morale are : a) b) c) d) Mutual sacrifices. continuous.Nevertheless. Tolerance and freedom within group.
adequacy or communication.K Employees answers to much questions the relative standing of such considerations as confidence in managers. absenteeism. The working conditions here are O. 6 My Job is often dull My superior keeps his promises My superior knows a great deal about his job I can say that I think around here I have the proper tools and equipment to do my job We have a poor way of handling employee complaints 7. the areas requiring immediate attention can be pinpointed and definite plans for correcting these trouble sports can be evolved and put into action. and analysis of employees. Improperly handled it can have an adverse effect upon morale. especially those of irritation and trouble. Morale measurement requires specialized techniques in handling and should be performed only be a trained researcher in this field.2 In this way. if any. 4. Some managers advocate publishing the results of the survey along with what corrective measures will be taken. 8. interviews. employee benefits. Employee attitudes can be catalogues by various means including by an intuitive basis. 2. Some of the questions used in a survey are show below as examples: Don‟t Know Yes 1. 9. status and recognition. other executives oppose such a practice. and identification with company. In contrast. rate of labour turnover. 41 . I take pride in working for this company The people I work with are friendly We have a good employee benefit programme No 10. The decision must be based on the individual circumstances of each case. The Next step is evaluate carefully the results obtained in step No. surveys. 5. and the like. records showing number of grievances.Second step is to measure morale to determine are areas where improvements can be made. 3.
but the reports of out feeling may actually be more relevant than the physiological measures especially for work of non-physical nature. no clear cut measures of boredom or fatigue. There is. capable leadership emphasized and developed to all employees. he had the man transferred to a 42 . the descriptions we can give of it are useful in certain practical situations. of course. feelings of tiredness are subjective or psychological states that may accompany prolonged work. Although we have good measures of tiredness. A emotional upset may involve a kind of tiredness different from that resulting from a hard day of physical labour free from frustration. lead directly to such subjective feelings. Feelings of tiredness are. it must be improved by indirect means. the actual decreases in proficiency over time. Psychological means for evaluating the effort expended in work are less precise than are the physiological measures. But here are different kinds of tiredness related to different kinds of work. FATIGUE Feelings of fatigue. by improving management.In the final analysis good morale is a by-product of competent management. Following up on the supplication that the man was not being accepted in his particular work group. and proper emphasis given to the human element in managerial decisions. More specially the effort must constantly be toward the end that the managerial organizing work should be the very best possible. related to physiological changes. We might suppose that work decrements. One personnel Manager reports the case of a worker who frequently complained of feeling tired on the Job. however. This is not true. Morale can not be sought for directly. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND BOREDOM Most people are familiar with such terms as “fatigues” tiredness” boredom” and “monotony” These terms are used to describe feelings. that is.
he would retire with his lessons unprepared. It has been found in some instances 43 . His scholastic performance brought him before the counselor. It is also known that efforts in work and lack of precision and co-ordination occur as a result of fatigue on phychometor tasks. he could invariably fall asleep over his books. fatigue should be prevented by taking rest periods before the fatigue gets in. is followed by a long slow period of come-back. He complained of being tired each night when he sat down to study. the longer it takes to recover. The more fatigued we are. was having difficulty with his courses. Though he fought the impulse. He and his wife moved out of his mother-inlaw‟s home and in two weeks the symptoms of fatigue were completely gone. Reduction in work output : It is known that beyond a certain point a man‟s production rate gets lower the longer he works at a job. It is generally recognized that rest pauses improve worker performance. It formal rest pauses are not allowed. REST FROM WORK It is known from experimental studies that a subject can become so tired from lifting a weight that he can no longer move his arms until he has had a given period of rest. finally giving up. Another case reported by a University Counselor was that a newly married student of twenty-four. Here he soon came to feel that he belonged and he made fewer complaints. He may get less work done for each operation.similar job with a different group of workers. employees take unauthorized ones. He was working quite effectively. Recovery. thought quite rapid at first. it may take time longer to complete some piece of work or the quality of his work may be affected. From labor4atory studies under ideal controlled conditions and from less controlled industrial situations has come practical principles of work which says in effect.
physical departure from the work scene is a possible form of rest. We know that worry can sometimes be lessened by putting something in the place of the worrisome thoughts. Late starts and early quits. It has been found through several studies that rest pause during work are beneficial to production. In one study it was found that the introduction of 12 minute rest pause in the MIDDLE OF THE MORNING AND A SIMILAR PAUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AFTERNOON increased the output by 29%. as most workers on a piece-rate learn to do. This study showed that rest pauses should be introduced just before production to fall from its maximum. Here the worker actually rests while he works. Deviation involves turning something away from its course. are other forms of work stoppage. Some people resort to pacing their activities. with interruptions in between. Just when to schedule rest period veries from situation to situation. One way to get at the problem is by plotting production records throughout the working period and observing drops in production. The attitude of a person ahs toward his work determines to a large extent his need for rest. One way is to slow down activity. Rest on the job can be obtained in a number of ways. and it is most important in combating mental stress. The introduction of rest pauses which result in increased work output have been found to have a beneficial effect both physiologically and psychologically. It is important to schedule rest periods before the drops occur. It also decreased the length of voluntary rest pauses 60%. It is also important to keep an eye on production records routinely. An of course.that these are just as effective in combating fatigue as are those scheduled by management. Day dreaming may be thought of as form of rest which allows the person to leave his job mentally. 44 . An important part of rest is change of deviation from the usual or routine course of work. they improve the attitudes of the employees toward the working situation. because not all drops in production are caused by fatigue or corrected by rest.
usually associated with repetitive work activity. The important thing involved here is the change of activity. There seems to be general agreement that such susceptibility to boredom is individualistic. The bored worked is inclined to over estimate the duration of time Although a repetitive task may not be attention demanding. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY FRUSTRATION AS A FACTOR IN HUMN BEHAVIOUR 45 . the worked may have varied and discordant thoughts during which he keeps coming back to the amount of time still to be worked.BOREDOM : Boredom is characterized by a lack of interest. A person who is by temper mentally lively and has a high degree of intelligence tends to be more bored by repetitive work than the person of lower intelligence who is submissive. It is differentiated from fatigue in that it involves the desire for change in activity rather than for rest or relief from the work itself . Wyatt suggests that the additional incentive and satisfaction which accompanies a pieces a piece-rate system of payment tends to retard the onset of boredom. because of the interest associated with awareness of achievement. The two factors determining boredom are the amount of repetition in work and the degree of attention demanded by the work. If such a change is not possible in the job situation itself. then a change of pace may be accomplished by taking a hobby. This where the work is automatic. Jobs which require continuous attention tend to be interesting. Quantities which take about an hour to complete give more satisfaction than an endless flow along a conveyer. where there is a little or no chance for conversation and where there is little or no personal interest in the final production its destination. A practical way to remove boredom is to change one‟s activity. and those which require little or no attention leave the individual free to talk his neighbors or to think of other things.
The characteristics of frustrated behaviour are aggression. (2) Constant Voicing of grievances. Attempts to obtain satisfaction of needs and desires frequently meet with obstacles. The symptoms of aggression commonly found in industrial employees are (1) Excessive criticism of management. (3) Damaging of equipment. In frustrated situations the behaviour of the individual becomes emotional and unreasonable. Some are more difficult ot satisfy. RESGESSION : 46 . it is the blocking of an organism‟s path towards a goal.Human beings wants many things to make lives meaningful. comfortable and worthy of living. but these desires or motives get blocked in some way or other. however. This frustration occurs because individuals have desires or motives which they want to satisfy. fixation and resignation. (3) Attaching labour legislation and (4) Opposing labour organization. (2) Imposing penalties of all sorts. motivation and goal direction (Demonstration with Transparency). AGGRESSION : Aggression behaviour occurs when one resents interference but does not react to it as a problem. recognition. power. At other times. They need food. regression. Many times these blockages are only temporary and overcome easily. (4) Inability to get along with others. But all needs are not fulfilled always and easily. love. This will be more clear if you look at the basic closed circuit model of behaviour. attempts to attain a goal are blocked time and time again with the result that there is an accumulation of tension within the individual. In short. showing relationships between causality. regardless of one‟s status or job. The management expresses its aggression by (1) Enforcing stricter discipline. There are three forms of aggression viz: Elementary Aggression. affection and a feeling of belongingness etc. shelter. Displaced Aggression and organized Aggression. (5) Absenteeism and (6) Joining of militant unions. status.
(2) Lack of responsibility. who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. In extreme cases. Signs of regression in industrial employees are (1) Loss of emotional control. Resignation is probably a dormant condition in which all aggression has been temporarily blocked. This is a frame of mind which the oppressive rulers may desire to create. FIXATIONS : The terms fixation is used designate a compulsion to continue a kind of activity which have no adoptive value. All forms of activity seem to be closed to the individual. The management too show sings of regression when (1) Bosses refuse to delegate responsibility (2) Do not distinguish between reasonable and unreasonable requests and (3) Form blind loyalties for particular persons or organizations. He becomes apathetic regarding his future. 47 . In industry the resigned individual is one who has lost hope of bettering his conditions. An action is respected over and over again despite the fact that the person knows it will accomplish nothing examples of fixation commonly meet in industry are to be found in (1) Individuals who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. (3) Unreasoned fear and (4) Responsiveness to rumour (5) Following the leader etc. RESIGNATION : Resignation is frustratingly resign one‟s lot to the guidance of some superior brain. adults regresses to the infantile stage and are considered as babies. People in this state of mind obviously have low morale and will remain socially neutral unless their mental condition changes. so he surrenders.Regression is a break-down of constructive behavior and represents a return to childish behaviour.
Though the economic beliefs are almost similar. they may take the pattern of aggression. If it opposes unions which have goals. Regressive tendencies make people suggestible and easily led. political and economic structure of the country. A group of frustrated people may become organized and since aggressive behaviour tendencies are present in such people. In other cases 48 . The tendency to fixate makes their behaviour stereotyped that they can be made to persist in any activity in which they started. The leader of the movement determines the form of the aggression. Frustrations and tensions on a wide scale procede these outburst and are the underlying causes. This social trend should not be ignored by the industrial organization. The former is militant in nature and places great emphasis on the overthrow of capitalism. In industries where unions do not have to struggle for recognition. the character of the two movements are different. The study of riots and mob behaviour also reveals the attractiveness of destructive behaviour to certain groups of people. and the leader is the most important factor to determine the directive of the activity. Communism gives the frustrated people an aggressive pattern of action rather than a promise of better things. Because labour then frustrated is highly susceptible to being organized into a strong labour movement. The manner in which frustration influences the character of a social organization may be found out from a comparative study of the communistic and socialistic movements. The objective examination of industrial strike shows that labour movement become more militant as attempts are mode to frustrate their activities. it frustrated them and thus encourage the formation of militant labour movement. The frustration instigated movement develop into militant labour organization develops. Whether or not they will sweep away these things which are good evil in cociety depends upon the circumstances themselves. they actually co-operate with management. It seems reasonable to regard communism as primarily a frustration instigated type of movement and socialism as largely a goal motivated type. while socialism emphasizes the bette3r life.FRUSTRATION AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT : Frustration-instigated social movement-Any important social movement can transform the social. The other types of behaviour which are characteristic of frustration lend support to an organization build around frustration. it is desirable that industry avoid creating frustrating circumstances.
conciliation is the rule rather than the exception. cultural evaluation changes his nature. In industrial enterpries working environment is the most important factor for sustaining and improving the efficiency of the worker. frustrating them further merely increases their destructive potentialities.all forms of energy or energy other fores internaor external that invoke activity . Schematically we may say that 49 . BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY VORKING ENVIRONMENT “A person is what he is because of his nature and his heredity and environment” Man‟s biological evolution changes his nature. Since the unreasonable people are frustrated people. SOURCES FOR REMOVAL OF FRUSTRATION : 1. behaviour response from the individual. The contributions of both heredity and environment are important though it may vary in degree in different circumstances. and thereby winning over their confidence. Prior consultation with the employees on any matter. 2. It is a well known fact that productivity is the effect of individual ability and his motivation and the influence of environment in which his performs the job. it naturally extends co-operation with the management. in its broadest sense is meant all factors or groups of factors. A grievance settlement procedure through a machinery set-up for the purpose. 3. To force them into submission in the hope that they will eventually become resigned and give up is psychologically unsound and dangerous. By environment. To keep the worker organized when the workers are recognized without any hindrance. which affects their interests.
noise. The total environmental factors that influence human performance my be grouped under the following heads: a) b) c) d) Physical factors. sanitation etc. which affects their efficiency. Cleanliness . ventilation. Ventilation is required for the health and comfort of the workers which increases efficiency. Temperature of Atmospheric Condition : Excessively high or low temperature and inadequate ventilation cause sickness. 2. Cleanliness is essential to both physical and mental health. In some of our mills and factories little have been done to mitigate the effects of heat by proper ventilation. and low vitality of the workers resulting in reduction in productivity. The physical factors include cleanliness. lighting or illumination colour. Organizational factors. the unhealthy and unhappy workers doing their jobs under conditions of physical and mental strain are inefficient producers. Ventilation . artificial or a combination of both. temperature or atmospheric condition. 50 . passages and must be cleaned every day. 3. Living condition factors. The working place must be kept clean of accumulated dirts and debris. 1. discomfort. Psychological factors.P = (AxM) E = Ability Where P =Productivity. Rooms. The workers are to go outside to recover from the unbearable heat. A M = Motivation and E = Environment. Ventilation may be natural. Therefore. Spittoons should be provided in sufficient number and must be cleaned and disinfected at least once in every day.
Lighting or Illumination Good lighting speeds production.cult evidence in support of such a contention. Attractive physical appearance of the plant provide for good sanitation and health of the workers. Insufficient light affect eye-sight. 5. Company restaurants which are clean. It has been found that glare causes discomfort in workers and affects performance. In low temperature production decreases and accident rate increases. Clean and adequate toilet and wash room facilities are important factors for high morale. 6. there is no clear. safety and efficiency of workers. OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Workers are most loyal and co-operative when they have pride in work in their employers. Management striving to overcome grievances in the job environment in one way of building up this pride. HARMONIOUS EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 51 . Noise : Noise has been defined as unpleasant sound. 4. Very high tones and extremely low tones are more irritating than those in the middle ranges. one study showed that the performance did not begin to deteriorate until around 900F. It is essential to the health. it may well stand grand greater noise levels without complaint that with another group with low morale. If there is high morale in a group. In temperate conditions workers' comfort are influenced by repainting the4 walls and furnishings of the work place in colours designed to give a feeling of warmth or cold. while there are indications that noise reduces work performance. Colour : The use of colour is an important factor governing the workers feelings of heat or coldnees. In high temperature more errors occur and production drops. quiet and comfortable are conductive to workers mind.Although the most comfortable working temperature may be around 650F.
he becomes more capable of learning. good understanding between management and labour. when working hours are long. the morale of the workers becomes low resulting in frustration and low output. As he grows physically. he needs other people as identification models so he can become increasingly socialized. For sheer survival. The mother must provide food and arrange the environment so that the child will stay alive. Probale Questions 1. Living conditions outside the factory also have an influence. crying and gross motor movements. correct decisions on questions of promotion and at the same time well cared for work places. Reasonable wages. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY HUMAN RELATION & ITS IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATION A new born human infant is among the most helpless of living organism. He needs. eliminating. in his early days. when workers fear dismissal. Respect of worker's feeling an dignity helps to give him peace of mind. swallowing. What do you mean by environment? What are the groups into which environmental factors can be classified. the infant needs other people to behave in ways which will bring all manner of need objects to him. relatively free from pain and able to grows. What an infant can perform are only a few limited automatic reflex. living in slum areas have undesirable moral and physical effects and thereby adversely influences the workers attitude in the factor. Discuss very briefly the physical factors influences human performance. a lot of 52 .Worker's behaviour usually reflects their material and psychological environment. good human relations inside the factory. sanitary facilities much better than "good enough for a worker" behaviour and bring about employment stability among the personnel. 2. When relations between employers and workers are bad. when workers are dissatisfied with wages.
holding. or with co-operation of other people. physical survival and health. He needs to be in contact with persons other children of his age. Division of labour and specialization in knowledge and techniques are enormously developed in the present world. morals and social roles. How this transaction takes place ? Generally the needful individual buys the knowledge or skill from its possessors with money or anything else that is deemed of value equivalent to the skill. In present day society. play games and so on. essential in defining the child's membership in varied groups. delinquent. and social stimulation. but still he needs other people for many reasons. particularly in the west. so he can learn to compete.mothering caressing. neurotic in institutions than in families. also grows the society in mutual interaction of its members. Most of the satisfactions which make life worthwhile . So. Contact with other people is thus seen as crucial for many aspects of Child's healthy development. The child needs other people to reward punish him. He needs others in society for his growth and development. feeble minded. so he can learn to behave in socially acceptable. or at the least. Thus we can see that none can live and grows satisfactorily by himself alone. they become more often a social. so each man is dependent upon many other people for the specialized skill and knowledge. his physical development will be impaired and his social development will be deviant. 53 . no man can ever hope in his life time to encompass all the skills necessary to solve all his problems and gratify all his wants. The adult by virtue of vastly skill repertoire is much more self reliant than an infant or young child. learning of many skills important in the solution of problems and the gratification of assorted needs. values. and the learning of attitudes. can be gratified only in relation to. where scarce the skill the higher the price. There is evidence that without such close mothering. The development of children is impaired by lack of maternal love. co-operate. in fact. psychotic.
Individuals needs / wants are however numerous and they differ widely among people. The actual performance of an individual depended upon his willing less and capacity to perform. Therefore an understanding and application of human relations is basic to successful actuating. Human relations may be defined as the integration of the manpower resources for effective and maximum utilization by means of satisfying human wants and maintaining of satisfactory relationships among the members seeking these human wants. We can plan and organize but no tangible output is achieved until. One of the fundamental functions of the management is actuating which literally means the putting or moving into action. 2. Job security. we implement the proposed and organized activities. 54 . Pleasant working condition. Actuating may be defined as "getting all the members of the group to want to achieve mutual objective because they want to achieve them. Some important wants are : 1. It is. people work to achieve certain goals. a person hopes to satisfy his individual wants/needs and to meet the mutual interest of the participating group. important to keep in mind that all enterprises are built to serve people within and without the enterprise. Fair pay. where a large number of people work together to achieve established goals. as none can satisfy all his needs/ wants by himself. Thereby they satisfy their own needs as well as the needs of other group members. therefore.An enterprise is looking upon as a man made system. BASIC OF HUMAN RELATIONS : The study of human relations is important because in organizational set up. 3. By accomplishment of the work and achievement of the goal.
5. The executive or 55 . 7. Recognition of good work. They are influenced by individual characteristics. An individual who is torn in internal conflicts. the are to pay attention to those human relations factors which influence their effectiveness. Therefore. 8. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONS Since the managements' objective is to achieve the set goal effectively. many Management difficulties would disappear. Efficient leadership. These variations are reflected in a wide variety of individual actions. hopes. beliefs. and values when they come to work. The relative importance of these wants differ from individual to individual from one occasion to another. Although they may represent a "work force" they bring with them all the fears. cannot do justice to his work. place in the organization etc. disappointments. Their reactions to one another. It is necessary for the managers to have some understanding of pattern of behavior involved in human aspects which facilitate in achieving organizational objects. is very likely to be more effective than one who pays no attention to human relations with and among his subordinates. the president of American management Association: "Management is the development of people and not direction of things. According to Lawrence A. a manager who thinks in terms of healthy relations. Acceptance as member of work group. background. goals and beliefs that have shaped their personalities and their life style. who attempts to understand what they are and what role they play in achieving smoothness in operation. to their surroundings to the jobs and to the supervisor usually show significant variations. different experience and different aspirations. ambitions. They have different psychological make up. who is apathetic and frustrated. Opportunity for development. If this fact were more generally accepted. His seemingly erratic and at times irrational behaviour stamp from the fact that employees do not shed their responsibilities. 6.4. and whose relation with other individuals are disturbing to him. moods. frustrations. Interesting work. The people of an organization represent an aggregate of individuals brought together to do a job.
ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE HUMAN RELATIONS: Favorable response to actuating efforts is obtained by treating employees as human beings. Explaining how to do it. instilling a desire to excel. 2. encouraging their growth and development. and Inspiring them with confidence in their ability to accomplish the objectives. is admitting that he cannot manage". Important of human management is expressed by various statements like:1. 56 . Some of the important points. a) b) c) d) e) “Everything in management hinges around and involves the human element.manager who says that he would rather exhaust himself doing things correctly than expand the time and patience necessary to get other people to do them correctly. “Success in management in largely a matter of :Getting competent people. APPLICATION OF HUMAN RELATIONS Normally employees work better and are more satisfied when they know that management is interested in them and is concerned about their wants and welfare. more than what you say. They appeal to people because everyone has an inner desire to feel important. Employees work towards greater accomplishments where there is some incentive always work better under democratic leadership and they believe in what you do. Achieving effective human relations require a keen interest in human personalities. Giving them responsibility. They participate fully where the performance is duly recognized. Make people feel important: Recognition and status are of prime consideration to most people. which can provide guidance in developing the ability to achieve good human relations are :- 1. recognizing work well done and ensuring fair play. Telling them what you want to accomplish. They appreciate being viewed and treated as human being and accepted as member of working group. extensive study of literature available on the subject and considerable practical experience in dealing with people.
7. Allowing the individual to talk himself out without interruption. Abstain from domination: Domination and use of fear for getting the work accomplished seldom groduce the desired results as people resent being dominated. Recognize individual difference: It is important to understand the make up of each individual because the same desire. Employ question to persuade: Most people like to talk about those subjects in which they are well versed and interested. He does not drive them. 3. and to tell his entire story often results in the talker's seeing the error of his views or in agreeing to other's valid points of view. 57 . goal and interest do not appeal equally to all members of the group. These sentiments should not be destroyed but should be used for creating harmonious relationships. Be a good listener: And problems and hurdles to harmonious relationships are revealed if managers listen what employees talk.2. Arguments only aggravate the differences. 6. experiences. Avoid arguments: No one really ever wins in argument. beliefs and emotions. If they could be convinced that they get their fair deal and are not deprived of fair privileges. The questioning approach gives them opportunity to impress others with their knowledge. Recognize most people are acquisitive: All human beings want to get what they believe is their rightful share. A good manager leads people. Know deep feelings of others: All human beings usually have deep sentiments about personal attachments. 4. 5. 8. they will be motivated to work better.
High rate of absenteeism and labour turner indicates labour unrest. Some companies keep time cards. Absenteeism is one of the major problems in the industrial organizations in Bangladesh. 58 . On returning to work after absence. Absenteeism and labour turnover rate is a kind of industrial barometer. Every plant maintains records of days worked. Low rate show job satisfaction which speaks of peaceful industrial climate and ensures increased production and cost reduction. A simple count of unpunched cards or absence in the records may show the number of employees absent.A Islam For calculating absenteeism the fololowing formula may be used: Man-dayslost Absenteeism = Men-daysschedules x 100 Turnover is the rate found out by the above formula and is expressed in percentage. there is not only general lowering of moral but distinct loss of skill and efficiency. production delays and high cost. Since we do not pay any serious attention to this problem of absenteeism and turnover. Workers who quit job without notice are also counted as absentees until they are officially removed from the pay roll. Excused absences should also be included in absenteeism figures as well as unauthorized time off. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation. His work performance at high pace is affected". the worker finds it difficulot to get started and regain his old stride.BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ABSENTEEISM AND LABOUR TURNOVER Definition : Absenteeism is the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work. K. Apart from the direct financial loss. An enlightened management therefore. absenteeism breeds further absenteeism and becomes a habit. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation of an organization. we cannot quote any estimated cost but it may be said with convication that the loss is a colossal one. always tends to minimize the rate of absenteeism and turnover. Interest in the occupation and in the company is decreased.
.. 2050 4000 Dividing by two 400/ 2000 2 2000 will be the average number of employees for July. on pay roll June 30 . for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month 6 new workers were hired. 1950 July 31 ............ the rate then is : S..R = 100 (totalaccession) X 100 = 6% 2000 In other works. 59 ......... 5 workers dropped off the pay roll.. Find the average number of employees by adding the number on pay roll on last days of two successive months and then divides the result by two for example..... 2...... Separation Rate : Separation rate can be found out by dividing the total number of employees separated from pay roll during the monthly by the average number of employees for the month.... ACCESSION RATE : Accession rate can be calculated by dividing the number of accession for the month by the average employment........... suppose 120 is the accession figure.... No. 1. 100 is the separation figure then the rate is: S..R = 100 (totalspeperation) X 100 = 5% 2000 In other works. for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month.For computing the monthly separation rate and accession rate of a plant the following procedure may be followed.
PERSONAL FACTORS : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Old age. could account for all absences. The factors may be grouped under the following heads. Frequent visits home. Sex.The net labour turnover rate is the rate of gain or loss per 100 workers in the average workforce. to counteract the effect of high labour turnover. Organization factors. and External factors. Housing problems. The under 35 group has the worst record of all. It is (6-5) = +1. Personal Habitsalcoholism. i) ii) iii) Personnel factor. In the example its positive. U. such other factors as age. such as emotional disorders.A. Old age : In one study made in the Baker chocolate Division of the General Foods company. the factors associate with the absenteeism should first be identified. Distinction between kinds of 60 . The complexity of the problem renders solution difficult. Family responsibility and family disturbance. Lack of proper transport facility. It would be unreasonable to expect that any single factor. It is the accession rate minus the separation rate. it is negative if separations exceed accessions. It was found that the age bracket 45 to 55 has a decidedly better absence record than either those older or those younger. Agrarian background. organizational elemate and community conditions should also be evaluated door effects on absenteeism.S. The net turnover rate is positive if accessions exceed separation. Illness. However. CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a complex problem.
61 . The high absence employees were found to have a lower drive level and to be less emotionally stable than the low-absence group.absenteeism was also important. Lack of proper supervision. Lack of leadership. Loyalty comes with the feelings of oarticippation. Induction of the new worker is the beginning of his on the job training. In one study it was found that the workers with positive job attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than worker with negative attitudes. Non-availability of recreational facilities. Unfavorable working condition. get established in the induction process. Organization factors : Some of the most important organizational factors contributing to high absenteeism and turnover are as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Improper selection. inducting and placement Lack of proper financial return. training. Participation in decision making is a major factor in the morale of all levels of employees. Older workers are absent for longer period (severity rate) but younger workers are absent often (frequency rate). Lack of co-operation among the working group. Absence of job satisfaction and security. Illness : It has been established through studies that emotional illness causes between a quarter and a third of all absence from work due to illness. The attitudes which promote individual job satisfaction. Lack of management attitude for well-being of workers. High-absence group had a greater number of record instance of emotional disorders and other disorders with an underlying emotional basis. as well as group morale. Lack of recognition of good work and career advancement. The induction stage is crucial in helping to reduce costly employee turnover. about 80% of all turnover takes place during the first three months of employment. Lack of employee participation or resistance to change also causes employee turnover.
For that a number of measures should be adopted by the management. External : The employees should be properly motivated not to indulge in unauthorized absence causing loss of production and thereby increasing production cost. Proper health and safety arrangements should be made. be minimized. interpersonal relations and providing necessary motivational factors on the job. proper training & induction and appropriate placement should be programmed. Organizational : Management should give due attention to the problem of absenteeism. They should follow grievances handling procedure to dispose off the employee complaints promptly and fairly. Participation in religious festivals. The steps may be classified into three groups:Individual (i) Sound selection. They should not be 62 . career opportunity and appreciation of good work should be followed as policy matters. REMEDICAL MEASURES: It has been mentioned earlier that absenteeism is a complex problem and complexity renders solutions more difficult. (iv) 2. management has to make the job more human by creating co-operative atmosphere in the plant. (ii) Proper wages.External Factors: Similarly some external factors influence the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover are: i) ii) iii) iv) Local weather condition. Political situation . Worker's participation should be encouraged and allowed for creating a sense of belonging. 3. But it is not totally unsurmountable. practitioners. good working condition. (iii) Housing and transport facilities recreational facilities and child care and educational opportunity to the children to the employees should be ensured. find out causes and take steps to mitigate those causes contributing to high rate of absenteeism and turnover management should train supervisors who are the keymen in absence control by ensuring proper working conditions. He has to imposes on his workers that unauthorized absence is a serious offence. it is true but it can however. Easy availability of medical certificates from outside.strikes. Absenteeism may not be eliminated. Management should take steps to improve the condition so that the employee may feel that the management is genuinely interested in their wel-being. hartals etc.
seeing the activities of the sub ordinates with authority. Basic Principles of Supervision : Supervision is the art of working with a group of people. It is best performed in an atmosphere of good-will and tactful cooperation of the people and the supervisor. The general principles of supervision while working with people are laid down as under :- 1. The should not subject them selves to external pressure to absent themselves from duties. means "Seeing" Where "Super" means 'over' and 'vision' means seeing. 63 .motivated to avoid absence on avoidable circumstances. there are certain general principles which are used by successful supervisors as guides. over whom authority is exercised in such a way as to achieve their greatest combined effectiveness in getting work done. Effective supervision helps to maintain congenial working relationships resulting in increased output of quality standard. Experienced supervisors recognize that there are no sure and certain rules for working with people. It requires a supervisor to acquire the skill of a democratic leader who encourages employee participation and treats them as associates. a skill which can rarely be acquired without training. They should be motivated to place service before self. Good supervision increases production and as such a supervisor is the key-man in the managerial set-up. His method of handling his section can make all the difference between loss of production and increasing output a good supervisor is a trained supervisor demands more than crafts skill or work knowledge. Human beings are individually unique and with due regard for the uniqueness of the individuals. The success of the organization is the success of the employee. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY SUPERVISION : PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES Introduction : The work "Supervision" when considered from the Latin origin of the word. it calls for skill in an-management. Thus supervision means seeing from above. People must understand clearly what is expected clearly what is expected of them.
the people should be judged by what they do.their4 schooling. how they think and how they act. People should have opportunities to show that they can accept responsibilities. People should work in a safe and healthful environment. How to Beging supervising Anew supervisor needs to know all about his people . and give a decision accordingly. Techniques in supervising The basic knowledge and skill with which a supervisor goes about supervising comes only with practice. How to Give orders : Orders should not be given in the form of a direct command. 3. 4 How to make decision : A supervisor should get full facts relating to a problem fit the facts together. Poor work deserves constructive criticism. He should judiciously delegate authority to see that he want them to do is done the way he likes to do it. People should be encouraged to improve themselves. 64 . 2. He may encourage employee participation by allowing them to know "Why" of the orders. 6. their habits their attitude towards work their ambitions. Good work should always be recognized. People must have guidance in doing their work. 7. It rather be given by analyzing a situation to the people in such a way the situation itself gives the order involving need for action. It should be kept in mind that each individual has some unique experiences that have helped to make him what he is.2. By giving due weight age to individual differences. 1. 3. 5. The supervisor may also encourage employee cooperation by placing a problem before them for finding its solution. How to get help from people : The people are there under the guidance of a supervisor to do a job. 4.
never in presence of a man's fellow workers. I. If talks fails. 7. How to deal with misconduct : Although in such cases the decision has to be taken by the Personnel Department depending on the merit of the case but the supervisor is the main person forgetting facts. he should have patience and try to gain his cooperation. the supervisor is to assume the following:- 1) Technician : Frequently. he should talk to his own supervisor and find out the course of action. 9.5. If no progress is achieved. Dignity of people is important to every man and crition should be constructive. As a result. 8. As management's representatives to the employee he is to carry out company policy. if they are not settled as early as possible. Loyalty of the Supervisor In one study it has been found that the supervisor who could understand the objectives of both the company and the workers were rated highest by management. 6. How to settle grievances : Petty grievances may become tough. he has a reverse role. He should have sufficient information to recommend for action to whatever authority makes the final decision. How to criticise : Criticism must be made in private. 65 . the supervisor should go over the situation and seek for more reasons if fault persists. Management Role : In his scientific management roles. He always belongs to major organization groups. supervisors often become involved in extremely challenging and complex problems. As the employee's representative to management. employees look to their supervisors to solve their technical problem. How to deal the problem child : The logical way is to talk to the man about his faults showing reasons. How to deal with inefficiency : The supervisor is to play various roles.
- 1) Leader : Employees look to the supervisor for direction. The employees expect supervisors to design new job procedures and to implement them when they prove to be effective. 5. evaluating them and changing the direction of the work group if necessary. job machines. 2) Organizer: The supervisor's world can be viewed as a complex of people. Trainer : The supervisor must carefully analyze the training needs of each employee and make necessary arrangement for specialist training. materials objectives and goals. 3) Controller : Another important role of supervisor is controlling the work group to ensure that the appropriate work methods and utilized. 3. paper-work. Four important roles are to be played as . Linking pin : Both employee and top management view supervisors as the key linking pins in the organization. II) Human Relations Roles The supervisor must be a person who is sensitive to employee needs and intergrates these needs with the goals of the organization. To the supervisors own subordinate they are management. 4.2) Research/analysis : Another scientific Management role supervisors are expected to perform is that of researcher and job analyst. In performing the leadership function. the supervisor can be either task oriented or people oriented. buffer and councilor. Functional Roles : The supervisor must be able to organize and Co-ordinate the unite human and physical resources to achieve the organization objectives. Motivatior : One of the key functions of the supervisors is to motivated the people. For management the supervisors represent the critical link to the operation of employees. communicator. Human relations expert : The linking pin role implies that the supervisor will serve as a negotiator. 3) Planner: As a planner the supervisor has a major responsibility for determining exactly what the goals are. All these indicate that supervisors need a large measure of interpersonal or human relation skills. 66 . III. From this point of view a supervisor assumes the functions of a :- 1) 2) Counselor : The supervisor is to opportunity to air their problems. Each of these factors must be carefully brought together in an organized co-ordinate manner to create an organizer.
4) Decision maker: maker. Managing the budget. 6. as a problem solve as he interprets facts that lead to correction of behaviour by encouragement warning. 8. Worker rating. 5. penalty by layoff or demotion or finally dismissed. to wrong job placement. the nature of habit interference. Discipline handling. He must have a working understanding of profit and loss. 2) Training responsibilities : Some training responsibility falls to the supervisor. He must know how to prepare the best instruction sequence for the job at hand.. He must keep records - material cost. whether attributed to work climate. and what to about it. The good supervisor must learn the principles of transfer of training. The Job of the Supervisor: 1. to inadequate job training. The handling of grievances. Another important functional role of supervisor is that of decision Inducting the new worker. manpower cost. 4) The handling of grievances : In their initial stages. 6) Managing the budget : The supervisor has the role of budget manager. grievances fall to the supervisor. 3) Safety : Good safety practice is the responsibility of everyone. 5) Discipline handling : The supervisor acts as an analyst as he seeks the reasons for absenteeism or lateness to work. not grievances. 4. 1) Inducting the new worker : The supervisor's tact to in getting the new man to talk about himself in a free and easy way is essential to good supervisor. Safety. but the supervisor goes the job of checking on the environmental and personal causes of accidents in his department. Communication. The good supervisor soon learns that gripes are often safety valves. He must examine them for cause. 67 . 2. 7. to personal causes. Training responsibilities. 3.
Most authorities define a standard test as "an objective sample of some aspect of behaviour" 68 . Using employees as scapegoats for the supervisor's errors. Never gives credit where credit is due. 5.7) Communication : The supervisor is a key-man in the communication network whether communication be up.either to general not complete. Failure to provide adequate materials or facilities for his people. Cleare -cut prompt decisions not given for problems. 12. Such practices should be avoided by all means. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST There is considerable agreement. Deadlines not explained in advance. 13. Failure to support and fight for his people. 10. Insufficient knowledge of the work. 9. Over supervision. Loud reprimanding in presence of other people. Favoritism towar4ds certain individuals in the unit. Poor instruction . despite difference regarding purposes and uses of tests. Failure to delegate authority to his people. commands and controls the people over whom he has authority. among the critics as to the definition of tests. 8. 3. Short-coming in Supervising The resentment for the short coming of supervisors may be listed as under : 1. 15. 14. The autocratic leader/boss indulges in such practices as he frequently directs. 7. Refusal to admit mistakes. that is too close watching of everything people are doing. 2. where needed/ Does not trust his people fully. 4. down or horizontal. 6. Treats his people as inferiors not given for problems. 11.
'average' performance as well as estimates of the degree of deviation above below average are obtained. GENERAL PURPOSES OF TESTS Tests are administered generally for the following purposes :- (I) Prediction : Tests are given to obtain a measure of ability. validity and item difficulty level are usually experimentally determined before they are put to wider use. (II) Selection : Tests are used by institutions (Such as colleges. scoring and interpretation are free from the individual examiner's subjective judgement. Examples of classification include diagnosis of mental patients. methods. From this administration. instructions to subjects and other details. Evaluation : Tests are used to assess and evaluate programmes. Norms are determined by administering the test to a large representative group of subjects for whom the instrument is designed. Standardization in tests to uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring uniformity regarding time limits. (IV) like. Decisions involve prediction-how well individuals will do at a later time prediction based on quantitative data is likely to be more reliable and accurate and provide a balance against wishful thinking.The term 'objective' refers to the requirement that it's administration. achievement and/or other characteristics which will offer a solid basis upon which individuals can make decisions. Classification involves deciding which of the many treatments or groups. treatments and the 69 . Tests are also objectives in the sense that reliability. Standardization also implies that norms or established normal or average performance on the test are available. choice of school. so that future users may draw conclusions concerning level of performance of subjects who take the test at a later date. (III) Classification : Classification is an arrangement according to some systematic divisions into classes or groups. The decision to hire an individual is a selection decision and the decision to admit a student to college is a selection decision. a person should be assigned to. employers) and organizations to accept some individuals and to reject others.
Typical performance tests are those which seek to determine what the individual usually does or most likely to 70 . while subjective tests require the scorer to exercise judgment in evaluating the examinees answers. (3) Speed Versus Power Test : A speed test is one in which the examinee completes as m. (6) Maximum Versus Typical Performance : Maximum performance tests are those which require the individuals to perform at his best to the best he can to demonstrate his ability. records the subjects responses. On the other hand.TYPES OF TEST : Tests have been classified in many ways be purpose. (4) Performance Versus paper and Pencil Test : Performance tests require the subjects to manipulate objects or assemble parts or actually perform tasks. (5) Objective Versus Subjective Test : Objective tests require little or no judgement on the part of the scorer. A power test is one in which the examinee demonstrates the extent of his knowledge or scope and depth of his understanding with the time factor either eliminated or provided in generous amount. group tests are those that can be administered to more than one individual at a time. function as well as in other ways.any items as possible within specified time limits. for procedure and. (2) Individual Versus Group Tests : Individual tests are those administered by a trained examiner to one subject at a time the examiner observes the subjects responses to oral questions and assigned tasks and in addition. A brief description of six ways of classifying tests is given below: (1) Standardized Versus Teacher Made Tests : Standardized tests are those administered and scored according to specific instructions. Teachers made tests are constructed for informal pupil evaluation within the class room and usually do not have extensive norms available. Norms based on large samples of students are available to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar population category or group. content. Items of a power test usually range from easy to extermely difficult. while paper and pencil tests require the examinee to mark an answer sheet or to provide written responses.
3) Aptitude Tests : Warren's Dictionary of Psychology defines aptitude as "a condition or set of characteristics regarded as symptomatic of an individual's ability to acquire with training some (usually specified) knowledge. The are given below :- 1) Mental Ability Tests : Mental ability test were the first standardized psychological tests to be developed.do in a given situation. Types of Aptitude Test : A few major aptitude areas are mentioned below:- (i) Mechanical Aptitude : Mechanical aptitude tests cover a diversity of functions including motor perception and spatial and mechanical reasoning factors." Lennon defines aptitude as "a combination of abilities and other characteristics whether native or acquired.. Another way of classifying test is by the purpose for which they disigned or the aspects of behaviour they sample... Mechanical aptitude tests are frequently separated into there groups :- (a) (b) tests of mechanical information and experience.. to produce music .. (a) (b) an objective independent judgment of what has been learned. and 71 . or set of responses. skill. such as the ability to speak a language. The merit of standardized test lies in its providing.. test of special ability. Ability tests measures the individuals present status resulting from the modification of potential brought about by contact with environment. known or believed to be indicative of an individual's ability to learn in some particular area. 2) Standardized Group Achievement Tests : Greater emphasis is being placed on improving the use of standardized achievement tests... and norms for evaluating performance.
The3 individual states that he likes. or the accountant who devotes evenings to operating a model railroad. (ii) Manifest Interest : is synonymous with participation in an activity or an occupation. task or occupation. In such inventories each possible response is given an experimentally determined weight and weights are added in order to yield a score which represents not a single subjective estimate. Nature of Interests : Interests are usually defined as the "likes" and "dislikes" of an individual or the feeling of intentness. as in expressed interests. Super gives four interpretations to the term interest.(c) test of manual and finger dexterity. particularly per children. concern or curiosity about some object. These are:- (i) Expressed Interest : Is the verbal profession of interest in an object. A knowledge of the strength and direction of an individuals interests represents an important area of his personality. Tests designed to assess clerical aptitude place emphasis upon perceptual speed and accuracy. (iv) Inventoried interests : refers to the assessment of one's preference for a large number of activities and occupations. It's a fact that without interest very little learning takes place. 5) Interest Inventories : Interests have been described as one of the main factors in the learning situation and as being the motivator of learning. Rabid observation of numbers and symbols is an important factor in the work of a clerical workers. depending upon the formation about the. (iii) Testes interests : refers to the interests as measured by objective tests as differentiated from inventories which are based upon subjective self estimates. dislikes or is indifferent to the activity in question. 4) Clerical Attitude Test : Clerical aptitude composite of abilities. 72 . Examples of manifest interest are students who are active in dramatic clubs. but a pattern of interests which research has shown to be rather stable. Expressed interests re often unstable and usually fail to provide useful data for diagnosis or prognosis.
These items are broken down into groups made up of professional occupations. school subjects. (II) as a starting point in teaching or studying the major area of occupations. to verify or confirm choice ors to open up new possibilities.VOCATIONAL INTEREST INVENTORIES In appraising vocational interests. (b) The Juder Preference Reard : is another popular interest inventor. It differs in approach and scoring of items from the strong. Strong has recommended that the inventory not to be used with individuals below the age of 17 except in the case of unusually mature 15/16 years olds. Three such inventories are most frequently used. USE OF INTEREST INVENTORY Interest inventories may be used in :- (I) Counseling to help obtain information which will aid in educational and vocational decision-making. many employ a vocabulary level beyond the comprehension of the examinee. one for men and one women. Tests are :- (a) The SVIB (Strong Vocational Interest Blank) consists of four hundred items. will respond with socially acceptable choices rather than their own true preferences. Problems in use of interest Inventory The following are the main problems:- i) ii) iii) they can be faked. Its major purpose is to indicate relative interest in ten interest areas rather than specific occupations. and the possibility that examinees. 73 . the usual approach is by the use of a standardized inventory. activities types and/or peculiarities of people and self rating personality inventory. most of which are responded to on a "Lite" "indifferent to" or "dislike" basis. amusements. The SVIB comes into two forms.
PERSONALITY INVERTORIES Personality tests are most frequently designed to measure such characterizes as emotional adjustment social relations and the motivational aspects of behaviour. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY APPRAISAL The following question characterise the complexity of using personally inventories :- (1) (2) (3) Are the responses of the individuals honest or trues ? Does the individual understand the questions ? How can such inventions be interpreted when actually there is no ideal type of behaviour ? (4) How has the inventory been validated and what is its reliability ? Certainly the question of faking and malingering is always present. for example. Edward personal preference Schedule. Some of the personally inventories are :- (a) (b) (c) (d) California Test of personality. and self sufficiency. They cover measures of social traits such as relations with other persons including. The number of available personality tests runs into several hundred and it increasing every year. is more changing and fluid. B. The behaviour measured by per4sonality inventories. The search for adequate criterion data to establish validity is still present. Guildford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. 74 . 16 Personally factors Form A. as contrasted to other kinds of tests. This leads to complications in determining test reliability and validity. C and D. introversion extroversion. ascendance submission.