SCOPE AND BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION The Word „psychology‟ is derived from Greek Words, „psyche (soul)‟ and „logos (science)‟ Thus literally it means the „science of the soul‟ But to be a science, it must be able to demonstrate the phenomenon on which observation and experimental methods can be applied. But “soul” or “mind” or even “consciousness” can never be demonstrated nor even be observed. Thus the definition of psychology as science of “soul” or “Mind” or consciousness had to be changed as the science of “behaviour” How, as science of behaviour, “psychology deals with responses to any and every kind of situation that life presents. Human psychology is concerned chiefly with such activities as per receiving imagining, feeling, thinking remembering, and acting. Psychology attempts to collects, organize describe and to some degree explain and interpret the facts of experience and behaviour. “owing to the obvious fact that the environment is always changing and the human organism is always changing, and absolute science of human behaviour is a impossibility. There are however, no absolute sciences; even physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are far from being exact. Science is relative” Since Psychology is far from being an exact science, this is even more true of it. It is an emerging science. The ultimate aim of the psychologist is to make predictions about behaviour. Predictions help in controlling and developing behaviour. METHODS : Having agreed on aims of psychology, the psychologists must decide upon the ways of collecting date for prediction. The methods generally applied for the purpose are : 1. Methods of Observation: (i) It may be Introspection or Subjective Method when

observation is made by looking inward upon one‟s own mind. The method has the merit of giving us firsthand information and knowledge of what goes on in our mind it has the disadvantage of not knowing what is true of other minds.



Extrospection :

Observation may be made objective by looking out wards upon the

external expressions of mind of other people / animals. This method helps in inferring the mental processes of other people / animals from observation of their outward looks, gesture. 2. Experimental Method : The experimental method of psychology teaches us to define,

the real problem, relate it to known principles vary certain aspects in the conditions while holding others constant, make hypotheses, collect and analyze data, and verify other hypotheses. The experimental method requires the we conduct experiments in ways that allow for repetitions and for control. It requires that we under stand the variables involved. LIMITATIONS In the Laboratory it is relatively easy to design experiments so that they can be repeated. Some experiments can also be designed in industries easily and can be repeated. However, may industrial problems are so complex that repetition under exactly similar conditions often is not possible. This, of course does not mean that experimental methods should not be applied to the industrial problems. It does mean that Industrial psychologists have to be aware of the limitations. However, we may say that psychology is concerned with mind as well as its expression in behaviour. It must combine all methods, together to get a fuller picture of the behaviour under study so that effective prediction, as far, as possible may be made. It must, there fore, combine introspection with objective observations and be supported by experimental method where ever possible. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology has many branches now. Some major areas are :1. General Psychology : Mainly deals with development of mental concept of human

beings with emphasis of the changes that take place during different periods in the life span. 2. Physiological Psychology : Mainly deals with the relation between mind and body chemicals and their effects on human behaviour. 3. Abnormal / Clinical Psychology : Mainly concerned with the individual, and

primarily in helping him become more adequately adjusted to his environment.

4. Animal Psychology : knowledge of human beings.

Studies the behaviour of lower animals which contributes to

5. Child Psychology of Development Psychology : It studies the gradual development processes of the child from very conception. 6. Educational Psychology : It is primarly concerned with the factor leading ot effective

acquisition of knowledge on the part of the learner and effective teaching on the part of the teachers. 7. Social Psychology : The main concern is the study of group behaviour. Behaviour of

man in society, It applies the methods and techniques of psychology to the measurement and the prediction of social phenomena, such as attitude formation, prejudice and group behaviour. 8. Industrial Psychology : “The branch of applied psychology which concerns itself with

the application of psychological methods and results of problems arising in the industrial or economic field, inclusive of the selection and training of workers, methods and conditions of work etc”. A dictionary of psychology James Driver. Industrial psychology is a branch of psychology. Psychology is the science of human mind and deals with human behaviour in work environment. According to Harrell “Industrial psychology is the scientific study of people at work, It includes certain principles of understanding people and the application of certain techniques of dealing with people” It can be regarded as and aid to human resources management, because its object is to make the work interesting and inspiring so that every worker puts forth his best. It is connected with changing the attitude of the worker in such a manner that he may find “leisure in his work” It seeks to give the worker the greatest amount ease, both physical and mental at his job.

The worker feels tired and becomes less efficient not only on account of overwork, but also because of mental uneasiness reflected through irritability, annoyance anxiety fear, resentment etc. “Remove these, increase interest, improve general „metal‟ atmosphere, and complaints of overstrain will mostly vanish” says Myers.


Assumptions of Industrial Psychology : The are two fundamental assumptions. he has to take into account not only the physical needs of the workers but also their psychological requirements. Every human being his certain instincts. but also a mind. emotions and passions all of which combine together to influence his attitude and behaviour. The concern. The behaviour of an individual is governed and controlled by such powerful instincts as fear. If a worker does not feel happy at his job either because he has no taste for it or because it is so repetitive that it is tedious. he is likely to adopt on indifferent attitude toward his work. If they are not satisfied. Similarly. if the worker is not satisfied with the treatment meted out by his employer he will develop grievances against the employer and will not be able to do his best for.Nature and scope : When a manager organizes human relationships in an industrial under taking. if the credit gores to some body else. pride and curiosity. In the ultimate analysis. 1. his instinct for pride and self-display may be hurt and he may cease to work with enthusiasm. anger. under laying industrial psychology. which are the “essential springs of all thought and action” These instincts require satisfaction. The mind of the worker functions through impulses. If a worker cam clan credit for creating something prefect. 4 . the individual concerned is bound to feel dissatisfied and even frust – rated with his job and environment. love hatre. Individuals differ from each other in degree through not in kind. This is necessary because every human being has not only a body. if gives his a feeling of pride which inspires him to work with greater enthusiasm. whether in industry or in the social life at large. On the other hand. it is the attitude of the worker toward his work and his employer which determines the results of his efforts.

Even when several people are working on identical machines. it will usually be found that there are differences in their productivity. in appearance. which become predominant in man at anytime. education. In other words he behaves in a way that he can get food and satisfy his need and his want. Some other need (say. in personality. in physical skills. to take a very elementary sample. Behavior is directed toward the fulfillment of satisfaction of certain needs. an individual.2. He decides that the needs food to satisfy this want. Once the need for food is satisfied for the time being. A need first appears as a want in the sense that an individual feels the lack of some thins that causes him to be dissatisfies and restless. in motivation. has a want when he feels hungry. Research has established clearly the fact that individuals differ in personal characteristics and these differences create difference in work performance and behaviour of individuals in industry. in aptitudes. and other traits. it then becomes his need and he seeks to fulfill it through certain actions and responses. Cause of Human behaviour : The second fundamental assumption that industrial psychology makes is that human behaviour is caused by needs. and acquired knowledge and job skills. 5 . which constitute his behaviour. Let us examine the implication of these assumptions and their relevance to industrial psychology here: Individual differences : The most fundamental assumption on which industrial psychology is based is the existence of differences among individuals. Then he makes those responses by which be can procure food. the urge to meet fried and share time with him) may become dominant and the individual then engages in behavior that will satisfy this urge. They differ also in their training. in interests. Human behaviour is caused and does not occur automatically be itself. Individuals differ in physical build. intelligence.

aptitude. Application in Industrial Management : Industrial Psychology is a useful aid to the efficient management of the human factor in industry. By the use of psychological tests and systematic planned depth interviews. For this purpose. interests and personality characteristics are measured. Industrial Psychology has helped to make selection more systematic and scientific and less open to hit and miss methods. the best incumbent for the given job is chosen.The well-known psychologist Maslow gives the following classification of the psychological needs of man. dexterity. Security needs (against pain. thus saving industrial organizations from frequent changes in the work-force and ensuring maximum efficiency and job satisfaction to individual employees. Selection and Placement: One of the most important factors in industrial efficiency is the selection of the right men for the right jobs. 1. the psychologist has made a place for himself in industrial organizations. This calls for a systematic analysis of the job requirements to determine the criteria for successful job performance. 3. 5. On the basis of these criteria. 2. accident. Ego (for respect. uncertainty etc) Security needs (need for association with others). Over the years. 2. skills. reproduction etc). The findings and. abilities. Self-realization (need to realize one‟s potentialities to the fullest extent possible). prestige etc). techniques of Industrial Psychology have been applied with benefit to the following areas of industrial management : 1. Physiological needs (breathing. sleeping. predictors of job success are determined. industrial psychology offers a whole array of tests. These categories of need are arranged in a hierarchy with the second categories arising after the first has been met to a considerable extent and third assessing after the second has been satisfied reasonably well and so on. 4. The available candidates for a job are then evaluated in terms of these predictors and their individual differences in trials like intelligence. reputation. Vocational Guidance (Counseling) : The aim of Industrial Psychology is to help in the perfect adjustment of men to jobs so that they can attain the highest levels of productivity and 6 .

is to find out causes of the maladjustment of an employee and the remedy that can be used to make him well-adjusted. In this. 3. industrial psychologists have been trying to develop and apply principles of effective learning to industrial training. A worker can acquire proficiency on a job by undergoing systematic training.derive pleasure and satisfaction from their jobs. Vocational guidance may be arranged by the Employment Exchanges or Counseling Bureaus manned by specialists. 7 . psychologists have also developed new methods of training for the workers (like teaching machines. Since training involves learning on the part of the worker. he has derived considerable assistance from the sociologists and anthropologists. Since Industrial Psychology seeks to sustain the motivation of the work people so as to ensure higher productivity. Not merely this. 4. Counseling in an industrial firm may be required for workers who have problems with their work. in such cases. The causes of work behviour (human behaviour at work) are the needs of motives that drive or impel an individual. it with the requirements of different jobs to which he will be best suited. This necessitates a systematic analysis of personal traits of an individual and matching. Such adjustment can be attained through the use of the scientific methods of selection arid placement by industrial firms and also by the choice of prosper vacations by men. Industrial psychology has contributed significantly to the productivity movement in industry by identifying and the management to motivate employees can use highlighting the financial and non financial incentives. It has also brought into focus the role of supervision and leadership in motivating workpeople. vestibule training. The attempt. fellow-workers or supervisors. etc). to behave in a way that increases his productivity. boredom and monotony also and has made useful contributions toward the fixation of work periods and rest pauses. Industry psychology probes into human behaviour at work to determine the conditions in which a worker feels motivated and works willingly and wholeheartedly to maximize productivity. programmed learning. it has been concerned about problems of fatigue. Training of Development : Much of the human effort in an industrial undertaking may go waste if the workers are not proficient in the proper methods of work. Employee Motivation : The psychologist proceeds on the assumption that human behavior is caused and does not occur automatically.

traditional industrial management treated the job and the equipment and environment as given and required man to adjust to these. work environment. Whereas mainly the engineers seeking to increase productivity by improving upon the equipment design have guided traditionally industrial management. Psychology provides useful aid to management through the identification of the dimensions or the factors of morale and through the development of the techniques to measure employee attitudes and morale. An outstanding contribution of Industrial Psychology to better management of the human factor in industry is the analysis of morale and job satisfaction the over all attitude of satisfaction or otherwise with the job and work environment on the part of a work group. human engineering has brought out the possibility of improving the work performance of men in industry by designing jobs and equipment and changing work environment to suit the operator. Employee Attitude and Morale : Industrial Psychologists have been trying to examine the relationship between the attitudes of the employees and their performance. 7. human engineering focuses attention on the man-machine relationship. He also 8 . Job evaluation methods developed by industrial psychologists aim at determining the relative worth or value of the different categories of jobs so that a rational wage structure can be built up. They have also gone into the process of attitude change from the point of view of raising levels of individual group productivity. In developing human engineering. counseling etc. Job Evaluation and Merit rating : To the industrial psychologist also goes the credit of developing suitable scientific bases of basic wage-rate fixation and employee performance appraisal. Human Engineering (Ergonomics) : An important aspect of industrial psychology is human engineering (also called ergonomics). Thus. Industrial psychology has humanised industrial management and opened the way to a much fuller utilization of the human factor in industry. Accident Prevention : According to the findings of a psychologist. work-place layout with the object of giving the worker the greatest amount of ease at his job.5. Merit rating techniques are designed to achieve a systematic appraisal of the worth of each employee in terms of his ability and performance for the purposes of promotions. transfers. 8. 6. 98 per cent of the accidents in industry involving injury to workers or resulting in deaths are preventable.

This assumed that workers are individuals each pursuing his own interests and the workforce in an individual organization could therefore be compared with a rabble (dump of loose materials). Industrial Psychologists have made a significant contribution to the development of safety programme and the preservation of the valuable human factor in industry by analyzing the factors that make certain individuals more accident prone than others. It is the study of people producing goods. 9. This shows how important psychological or personal factors are in any program of accident prevention. Human behaviour is of vital importance in every industrial activity. Human Relations : For a long time managers and industrial psychologists both regarded an individual employee as the unit of motivation and work performances it was believed that if the individual employee was taken care of problems of motivation and productivity would be automatically settled. is the province of industrial psychology. or directing the activities of the large corporation.found that only about 10 percent of the industrial accidents are due to distinctly physical factors such as faulty equipment or bad building conditions. but in the salesman on the road and the girl at the desk in the office. It deals with the study of human behaviour. The study of human side of management of supervision. Leadership is business in becoming more demanding and the person without a liberal education is handicapped in getting the kind of position from which he can move upward in any business organization. in the production and consumption of goods as well as in the rendering of services. They have also been able to suggest positive ways and means for reducing accident – proneness. 9 . Industrial psychology is interested not only in the man at work in factory. The reasons for studying human behaviour in industry arises from the fact that more leaders of modern industry are coming from the rank of university graduates. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN MODERN INDUSTRIES Psychology is the science of behaviour.

as consumers and as citizens we find our lives influenced on every side by industrial changes.Whether we work directly or not. Man‟s behaviour thus plays a part in all phases of industrial life. We are concerned with labour management conflicts because its consequences often touch our pockets. If the abilities required for particular job are too complex. and we are concerned with the problems in industry. the job must also be analyzed so that the abilities to look for. however. therefore. but also in long range programmes dealing with the effective utilization of human resources. absenteeism and low job satisfaction. can be known. The problem of fitting men to jobs is one of such issues that requires of know how to analyze abilities and this is purely a psychological problem. If these principles are adhered to the apparently complex system may be amenable to an optimum decision. maladjustment. These are (i) principle of selection ratio (ii) Principle of Individual Differences and (iii) Principle of prediction. To over emphasize one category. To ignore one category of individual differences is to invite future Problems in the forms of inefficiency. to at least some degree because many people we known work there. the psychologist may co-operate with an engineer. such as 10 . LELECTION : The psychologist who work in industry is interested not only in day to day problems. The Principle of individual differences implies. in re-organizing the work so that job is redesigned to utilize a greater degree the abilities that are available. The selection programme by which the recruitment process is implemented has three underlying principles. we are concerned with technological advances and their effect on the production or goods because this determines our material welfare. that effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man in relation to the total job situation. To make the proper fit.

From laboratory work the psychologist has found out how people learn and how they can be trained more economically. the derived information is quite meaningful. Since the psychologist or the employment specialist deals with intangible human traits such as intellectual capacity or emotional stability. he can derive a set of numerical term that imply “below average” “average” and “above average” performance on these tasks and terms of this group. by comparing the individual‟s performance to he average performance of a specific group on certain will defined tasks. The question of utilization of human resources in industries leads inevitably to think of training.cultural difference at the expenses of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover. This is what training and this is what training institutes and education systems do. TRAINING : Teaching or training men for jobs is another purely psychological problem and one that requires a fundamental knowledge of subject of learning. They begin with individuals who behave is in ways which are defined as thew end products of the training programme. Individuals need to be taught to perform in specific ways in order to accomplish certain aims. etc. The aims must be specified and the behaviour of individuals must be shaped and modified so that they can perform the tasks required as members an organization “shaping” and “modifying” are the key works and they define the meaning of training and indeed of all education. that do not permit direct. Improving a man‟s adoption to his work increases both his efficiency and his satisfaction with the job. When the tasks and the group are relevant to some aspect of the job situation. However. HUMAN RELATIONS : 11 . sensible measurement he faces a difficult situation when he attempts to determine how much of what trait an applicant possesses.

The industrial psychologist usually holds a staff position. The psychologist has discovered the basic principles underlying good supervision. once the basic needs are satisfied. ACCIDENT : Even the problem of industrial accidents has a psychological aspect. Prestige. which enables him to apply knowledge wherever they are needed. After this part of the problem is solved. The adjustments that employees make to each other and to the supervisor are greatly influenced by the supervisor‟s behaviour. many others remain. Modern business has expanded so rapidly that there is a shortage of people for middle management and top executive jobs. Training supervisors in leadership and in face to face dealings with employees is an important part of their development. The will to work is largely a psychological problem. considerate supervision and proper placement of men are psychological tools for accident. freedom of choice and security become the more precious. but he must design them so that the men will use them. Even the decisions of higher management cannot be reduced to a profit motive. Safety habits. Some people will have accidents despite all mechanical precautions. He helps to improve safety programmes and the works with the engineer on the human relation aspect of equipment 12 . EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT : Another important area of industrial psychology currently receiving mush attention involves development of executive leadership.Human relations is an important part of the subject of social psychology. largely advisory. The psychologist has discovered many things about the needs of the worker in his struggle for status for recognition and for the elements that lead to job satisfaction. The engineer may design safety devices. The economic incentive of wages is not sufficient to gain co-operation. for the will of man cannot be bought so cheaply.

from career planning to labour relations. It is the surroundings and training the environmental conditions of life that “make the man” Dr. the industrial psychologist moves in a wide and every varying scene. and passing from generation to generation. abilities. The other group the advocates of environment in matters of individual differences opine that there is no real evidence of inheritance of human traits. and the accomplishment of and individual are determined primarily by his inheritance. The industrial psychologist may draw up a plan for the executive development of newly recruits on one hand and discuss the problem of aging employees the other. lawyer. and my own specified world to bring them up in and I will guarantee to take and one of them at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR SIGNINFICANCE IN INDUSTRY Individual differences was the first problem to be studies in industrial psychology and has been studied more than any other psychological problem in industry. These upholding one point of view have often minimized or even completely ignored the possible influence of the other factor. Watson an ardent behaviourist writes “Give me an dozen healthy infant. tendencies. vocations and race of his ancestors” It 13 . but depends totally upon “natural gifts present in the family. It has no relation with training. Usually the psychologist divided the major causes into two general categories of heredity and environment. The advocates for the doctrine of heredity in the matter of individual differences maintain that the capacities. economic advantage etc. artist. chief and yes even beggar man and thief. merchant. well formed. regardless of his From personnel selection to training from supervision to job evaluation. the inclinations. He assists the office of the public relations in its interactions with consumers and with the community in which the company operates. Psychologists have long been interested in determining the ultimate cause of individual differences among people.

age and outward appearance. For clarification the differences have been grouped into five arbitrary and not necessarily exclusive classifications : i) Physical Differences : Obviously. religion and athnic traits. weight. The people differ from one another is especially apparent from their physical appearance. Other important physical differences that are not so obvious include heart functioning. piano playing. in problem solving ability. people differ in such physical characteristics as height. 14 . blood pressure. visual acuity and reaction time. The variability of human race results from the interaction of heredity and environment Neither nature nor nurture alone can explain the wide rangs of differences in mental traits so characteristic of the rece. work experience. Such differences include education. ii) Mental Differences : People different in mental capacity in individual ability to learn specific skills such as typing. The principle of individual differences simply states that each person has own unique characteristics that enable him to do some jobs and prevent him from doing others. iii) Cultural Differences : People different in environmental experiences that lead to the acquision of specific attributes based on the cultural or social group in which they have matured. social and family customs. sex. That differences are likewise present in the abilities of man is also a commonly recognized fact. However it seems probable that both factors are usually operative but their relative importance differs markedly in the determination of different personal characteristics.has also been found through various experimental studies that the environmental plays and important role in determining the mental level and behaviour of the individual. and such other cognitive processes as memory and discrimination. but heredity appears to be the determining factor in accounting for individual differences.

To ignore one category of individual differences such as mental ability is to invite future problems in the form of inefficiency. multiplication and division. Spatial factor. To overemphasize one category. measured by figuring out relationships. maladjustment. in the second place. measured by spead and accuracy in addition. the effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man relation to the total job situation.iv) Ethical differences : Families differ in their behavioural norms. The principle of individual differences implies. measured by the ability to imagine the way objects are arranged in . therefore. v) Personality Differences : People differ in personality that is social behaviour. ii) Numerical factor. such as : i) Verbal factor measured by vocabulary.Q tests which are composed of several separate mental factors. The measurement of ability has been done mainly by I. iii) Perceptual factor measured by abi8lity to discriminate small differences in visual designs. and emotional reactions to event in their environment. upon being able to identify or measure such characteristics at the time of employment. temperament. subtraction. and ethical standards and in their convictions about what does and does not constitute good conduct. and it depends. values. in the first palace upon knowing what kind of human characteristics are required for successful performance on each of the various jobs. iv) v) space. The crux of the selection programme therefore depends. 15 Reasoning factor. absenteeism and low job satisfaction. such as the cultural differences at the expense of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover.

Probable Questions : 1. Many believe that practice makes perfects. Since marked differences in ability do occur. vii) Interests are an important determinant of the individual differences that are reflected in performance at work. 3. it can readily be seen that proper selection alone greatly increases production. it should be the goal of personnel policy to place individuals on jobs in which their individual potentialities can be realized in the form of satisfactory work performance. of manual dexterity and finger dexterity are uses in industrial selection processes. Thus in terms of the mutual interests of both employees and management. 2. In those of executives and salesmen. Successful persons in the same occupation have to a large extent the same interests. What do you mean by principle of Individual differences ? What are the main areas of individual differences ? What is the importance of differences in industry ? 16 . viii) Personality : Temperamental and non-intellectual personality traits are extremely important in some jobs. Furthermore emotional and personality difficulties are often the cause of much of the turnover for even routine jobs. they would appear to be of particular The special aptitudes tests such as Mechanical aptitude tests clerical aptitude tests. IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES : The importance and the nature of the variation between people. yet no amount of practice on the part of one man will make him as proficient in his work as a little practice will make another. is not generally appreciated.

One has fairly fixed ideas about certain types of employees and another considers each of then on individual merit. Attitude is not a drive or force. An attitude is neither (i) motive. It is an outward manifestation of wanting to be helpful and useful to the enterprise and to other employees. see. Attitude is not simply getting along with people. One individual will look upon mistake as total and permanent losses. It is much more. It is reflecting a wholesome feeling from inside. not the behaviour itself. or interpret a particular situation. The kind of a person and the quality of this life. That is to say a certain object or situation will provide the individual with a framework within which he can react. ignoring the present and future. An individual can have a good attitude and still differ with superiors on policies and decisions. but outward actions and speeches of the individual show respect for the decisions made and co-operation in carrying them out. An attitude is intangible. Another is viewing everything in the present and future. both at work and away from work. nor (ii) r5esponse. Giving not getting usually characteristics a good attitude. How can you derive benefits from individual differences ? BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ATTITUDE Attitude has been described as “learned readiness to react in a certain manner which normally involves in part of symbolic act. The atmosphere is which on lives is determined more by his attitude than anything else. nothing is looked upon in the perspective of the past. as a motive is but simply state of readiness to respond. 17 .4. Attitude refers to probable direction. It stems from both the personality and mental outlook. while another view them as opportunities from which a great deal can be learned. One person may always be looking to the past. it is determined by another from the way a person acts or responds to situation. is strongly influenced by his attitude. an attitude is a way a person tends to feel. In other words.

all of which helps to formulate his attitudes. People are not born with attitudes. a person acquires traditions. energy knowledge. Managers must first think they can before they can. policy. beliefs. Optimism is matter of attitude. Most objectives are accomplished far more effectively when positive attitude prevail than when negative attitudes are dominant. First in past experience which is used to assist in evaluating and subsequently either accepting or rejecting the new situation into one‟s system of though.Two major types of attitudes : Attitude are generally classified as (i) positive or (ii) negative. This is essential in maximizing managerial actuating works. Attitudes are acquired in one or a combination of three ways. Managers should therefore strive to have positive attitudes and develop positive attitudes in their sub-ordinates. Expressions typifying this attitude are “This is a poor labour contract and will no doubt give us plenty of trouble” and “Right now our organization structure is strong. Frequently. that is. and adventuresomeness. a. 18 . they emphasize possible hurdles or stress the view point that the objective cannot be attained. negative attitudes have been termed” “Destructive attitudes” Because. The attitudes. positive attitude are classed as “Construction attitudes” Positive attitudes are characterized by the reaction of “YES” it can be done”. opinions and knowledge. From infancy on. Formation and development of attitudes : Attitudes are learned or acquired during daily life experience. a person. Success and victory thrive under the influence of positive attitudes. This is the direction to take “and” Let us advance along these approaches” In contrast. event or institution. group. The world belongs to those who have positive attitudes. but I fear our positions next year at this same month. whereas a negative attitude is directed away from a given object. A positive attitude is directed toward a given object.

Attitudes develop from the influences of emotions. the type of work done and the amount of compensation. acceptance of the attitude of the group of which a person is a member. Group codes and unwritten agreements not only guide and shape the group but give support to each member individuality.b. An employee‟s attitude is influenced by such things as the position and reputation of the enterprise. it is quite likely that the employee will have a constructive and sincere attitude 19 . perceptions. wife. An exceedingly complex pattern of influences tends to make up a particular attitude. Second. and children. Many attitudes are founded more on emotional than on rational basis. economic forces and motivations. if an employees „parents. its policies and practices. habits and attitudes are required in order for the individuality to possess fully accepted membership. the opportunities for advancement. but to others the individual would not. understanding and cooperative. The work situation is extremely vital in attitude development and frequently is thought of as the inclusive area which gives rise to attitudes. the thoroughness of training. nor of exposing several individuals to the same patterns of influences in order to form similar attitude among those individuals. are wholesome. It is not a question of simply combining three or four factors to produce an attitude. Third and last is statement of an authoritative source. Certain conventions. But the work situation is by no means the only area. To one person a particular individual may be considered an authority. c. For example. When a person is confronted with a situation about which he is expected to have an attitude but about which situation he has limited a background or knowledge. The influence of social forces is of tremendous importance in attitude development. he may accept an attitude based upon the word of an authority. What constancies and authoritative source depends upon the person involved. the caliber of leadership. social factors. Attitudes are not necessarily related to the education and the intelligence of the person or the facts of the situations.

A lawyer‟s attitude toward prosecution might differ widely from that of a social worker. The mode of living likewise helps shape attitudes. In contrast. Their attitude encompasses the fundamental truth that one cannot get until he learns to give and thus they divided genuine happiness and lasting satisfaction from his attitude. Some concentrate their entire efforts upon getting material possessions.toward his work. Some view observance of the law as a necessary social control for the greatest overall good. This attitude may be carried over by employee to his place of work so that company rules and regulations are looked upon in various degrees of seriousness by an employee. his plans for their future. Outgrowths of experience are of major consequence in determining attitude. their attitudes encourage the acquisition of goods. his interests in their activities frequently means that he will have a favourable attitude towards his job because he seems that through his employment the means for providing his children are achieved. the employee will frequently reflect this attitude in the kind and quality of work he does. Frames of reference : Frames of reference are also of vital importance in the existence and development of attitudes. a person feels and thinks toward on object. not getting. position and influence. To a significant degree. others have the attitudes that most laws are probably necessary but many have little value and can perhaps be violated if it is so desired. others believe in giving. On the other hand if his family is quarrelsome and a great deal of dissatisfaction is usually prevalent. What is associated with an object or is referred to in connection with it helps to determine the attitude toward that object. Government is another important consideration in the determination of attitudes. Whether an attitude is favourable or infablurable depends upon the judgment in terms of the frame of reference. If the reference is highly 20 . Being in close association or experiencing almost daily experience to a situation or activity tend to influence one‟s attitude toward that particular circumstance or entity. The motives aroused with an employee by his children what he wants for the.

and further more. Competence may deemed not only outstanding talent. his work will show it. vacationary pay etc. but genuine employee satisfaction comes from finding real satisfaction in his job. If he nervous any faulty attitudes. Fundamentally that is what every employee actually seeks. but they render achievement more difficult. and coveresely a reference of low desirability will result in an unfabourable attitude. expert. lack of confidence.desirable. Attempts are being made to keep the employee satisfied means of various benefits. Every employee reflects his attitude towards his work in his daily affords. jealousy. the attitude will be favourable. Importance of attitude in Management : Attitude is an extremely important concept in the managerial work of actuating A person is often descried in terms of his attitude. narrow mindedness. training and wide experience. A person having limited ability and brilliance but possessing an attitude which is pleasant and fair toward other employees might well advance to managerial positions of greet importance. These benefits are all desirable and fulfill certain social needs. if not more so. the task of management is lightened. although at times he may not fully recognize it. fear. Work is as much a mental attitude as it is a concrete 21 . When each individual obtain genuine satisfaction from his work. group insurance. conceit. It includes a great many things and frequently is an important as ability. Such as pensions. but also a co-operative attitude. it will affect the efforts of these associated with him. Attitudes permitting such traits do not make the task unattainable. Attitude is also important because it holds the key to job satisfaction. There appears to be little doubt that the must frequent handicap of a manager is a faulty mental attitude or mental sets which consist of such things as believing an objective cannot be attained. Attitude is the key that either opens or closes the employees mind to the proper service motive installed by competent managers. fallacious thinking and personnel prejudices.

frames of reference supplied. In other words. The individual or group that believes it can succeed. efforts to strengthen. Research studies have confirmed that individual and group attitudes are commonly the difference between a highly successful work group and one that is not between a high production until a low production unit. Without positive attitude toward his work is an important reason for keeping him from obtaining employee satisfaction from his greatest potential his job. Persons are influenced favourably or unfavourable by examples provided experiences permitted. People become set in their responsiveness. However. It is the right king of attitude that makes the difference. of the top management group‟s thinking illustrates the same point of view. affection or innermost readiness of the individual to response sociologists are the term “ego-involves” explain an attitude which is clung to by an individual because he likes to think of himself as one who has this particular attitude. that the mission can be accomplished his leader knows what he is doing are most likely to be most effective.thing. Changing Attitude : There is little question that managers can influence employees attitudes. The old adage that employees reflect the shadow or perhaps more appropriately the light. modify or eliminate attitudes must handled expertly and with great care. encouragement of certain motives and the discountenance of other forces. This tough mindedness is not more inertia or laziness but an active resistance to influence. Human being usually resist any attempt to change their attitude. 22 . the self-evaluation and strong desire to retain a present attitude depend in great measure not only on the possessor‟s confidence in that attitude but also in it being favourably responded to by others. Why does a person resist a change in his attitude? Primarily because of the attitude is a personal entity and exemplify a certain prize.

A person will normally defend his attitude when it is challenged Usually challenge is viewed as undermining something deemed important because values of one‟s ineffective involved. The greater the ego involvement of the person, the less the likelihood of gaining a change in attitude by means of arguments.

An existing attitude represents the outcome of a balance of motives supporting the attitude. Some of the motives export a strongest influence upon an altitude than do others. In order to change an attitude it is usually best to weaken the supporting influence. Other approaches such as frontal efforts to substitute new influences in order to counteract old ones are generally ineffective. The removal of accustomed influences meets resistance and arouse defenses.

The weakening of supporting influences can be attempted in various ways. Among the more common is to provide facts and knowledge which can be evaluated. The attempt here is to stress greater rational consideration than emotional Supplying export of authoritative explanations or view points along with the reasons for such view points can also be employed. In some cases, it is effective to get the individual to review his experience, to become more aware of what it means, and to re-conceived relationship of the individual with the reference group, that is, to reduce the ego-involvement by lowering the favourable respondence of the group to the attitude. Possibly the best way to achieve this so to talk with the group, request, their co-operation and support and appeal to the group a favourable decision. It is frequently less difficult to away a group than an individual. This is true for several reasons.

Firstly, When members of the group change the attitude, the individual can see that a change on his part will not reduce his relative ego-involvement.

Secondly, changes or acceptance of persuasive efforts are of ten more effective on a group than on an individual, the influence of mob-psychology and group motivations being exercised.

Thirdly, the attainment of an atmosphere of high enthusiasm, helpful for indicating changes, can best be reached with a group.

Some suggestions for developing favourable attitude : 1. Have a wholesome, practical outlook on life and your fellow employees. Think

optimistically, show enthusiasm, be genuinely interested in the other fellow, expect mistakes and misgivings but do not become depressed by them.


Take the constructive side of issue : Speak, wife and act from the positive view-point, Stress confidence and progress, avoid

fear and retrospection. Keep looking until some good is found and then figure out the best manner to utilize this good. Emphasize what to do and what not to do. 3. Associate with those who are successful : The people surrounding a person can exercise great influence upon him attitude. If they are experiencing full, rice, helpful lives, they serve as a favourable motivation and tend to encourage a person to greater and better accomplishments. It is difficult for an individual to maintain an unfavourable attitude when all those around him have a favourable attitude.


Give other the feeling of importance and self-worthiness : Permit others to participate, their opinions, build up their self confidence, and let them

know they are doing something worthwhile. Practice the philosophy of giving, not getting. Talk about the individuals astute accomplishments and his sagacity in arriving at the proper decision, but refrain from talking about him. 5. Feel deeply about certain values on life : A human being must have an outlet for his productivities; he must have a deep sense of responsibility for certain attributes of his own choosing so that he can anchor the whole of his activities around what constitutes to him a meaningful target. Probable Questions 1. Define attitude and mention the different types of attitudes.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

How attitude is formed ? Can attitude be changed ? What is frame of reference ? How it influences or affects attitude ? What is the importance of attitude in management? How to change attitude and what is precaution ? Give some suggestions for development of favourable attitudes.

BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY JOB SATISFACTION The terms “employee attitude” Job satisfaction” and “Industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. Similarly job satisfaction in not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. Job attitude is the feeling the employee has about his job, his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factors related to his job, Job satisfaction dissatisfaction is the result of various attitudes the person holds toward his job, toward related factors and toward life in general.

INFORMATION ABOUT ATTITUDE : Information about employee attitudes may be obtained from the following sources : 1. Formal Communication Channels : Assessment / analysis of employees feeling toward their jobs and factors related to the job, made by the foreman and supervisors is one of the most important sources of information of employee attitude. 2. Grapevine Channels : Rumored Attitudes are a part of all organizations. However, the information that rumors carry becomes altered and often distorted as it makes its upward movement. More dangerous

early quits and excessive absenteeism are true revealers of attitudes. multiple choice questions. Behaviour Manifestations : Some of the behaviour manifestations such as griping on the job. attitudes of the majority of the workers never get impartially expressed. Factors related to job attitudes : The following are the ten major factors related to job attitudes : 1. Security : The Factor deals with the steadiness of employment. 3. 2. there is an attempt to get answers to predetermined questions. Security is a strong reason for liking a job and is generally mentioned first by both men and women as contributing job satisfaction. Interviewing : This has been one of the main means of getting information of employee attitude. where the manager or worker feels he has a reasonable chance of working under conditions of company stability. Answers may be obtained through check lists. The Questionnaire : The questionnaire technique is economical and also has certain advantages of objectivity of measurement providing for a quantitative treatment of responses. But it is already too late by the time such manifestations are evidenced and the damage is already done. Within this structure. The results of many attitude surveys show that the lack of opportunity for 26 . slow downs. particularly to the person striving for upward mobility.still are the attitudes communicated by the grapevine. yes on answers. In the guided interview. for they may reflect only the extremes. 5. The man with security feels that he is valued by the organization and that he has the abilities and opportunity to keep his job. Opportunity of advancement : This factor ranks high in importance. 4.

or is free of tension and pressure. gives him an opportunity to travel. 6. there is some evidence that the high the skill level. but for both bad supervision can be a primary reason for absenteeism and labour turnover. third person may like his job because it is easy. Whatever the reason. 27 . Wages : When this factor is ranked with nine other job factors employees give it fourth place. Wages are more important to men than women worker4s. earnings. or public or public relations. Intrinsic aspects of the job : There are many reasons why people like their job simply for the sake of the job. Men are much more expressive in giving importance to this factor than are women. 3.advancement is frequently a strong reasons for disliking a job but rarely is opportunity for advancement mentioned as contributory to satisfaction. there is some evidence that there is a decrease in the importance of the advancement factor with increasing age. Another may like his job parse because it brings him recognition. One may like it because he has the right ability and training for it. and are generally more important to factory workers than to office workers. reputation. the greater the satisfaction with the company. Like security it contributes substantially to the employee‟s satisfaction. Women seem more sensitive to supervision then men. 4. Supervision : To the worker his supervisor is an equally strong contributor to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. In terms of occupational level. It is interesting that employers generally rank this factor near the top when they are asked what the employee wants. the employee believes that a good company is one which helps him fell some stability in his job. However. what the man does at his particular job contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. 5. Company management : Whether we deal with the size of the organization.

leaves vacations and holiday etc. medical facilities. Working conditions : Temperature. cohesive group is happier with his job than is someone who finds himself a misfit. They contribute to satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factor of communication seems to be more important at the higher educational level. 9. Benefits : Employee benefits such s retirement provisions. giving orders / turning out annual reports. In short it may be said that needs fulfillment and positive attitudes and intrinsic aspect of jobs. This factor contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employee. ventilation. but it is never a reason for liking a job.7. Good communication means the opposite of being ignored. The social factor appears slightly more important to women than to men. It is relatively independent of age and occupational level. lighting. The extent and nature job dissatisfaction : 28 . Communication : Communication means the formalities of conveying information. A man who feels himself a member of a productive. 10. The lack of good communication may be a reason for disliking a job. especially married women this aspect has even more significance. Hours are more important to men than any other specific aspect of working conditions. cafeteria. but among women. are the contributing factors to job satisfaction. 8. Social Aspect of the job : This involves such needs as belonging and social approval. toilets and the like have been found to be equally contributing to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. are a standard part of most jobs. Working conditions are substantially more important to women than to men.

those people with the strongest desires. when the psychological climates favour high production. the less his satisfaction” (Morse) As the person grows older. and show more boredom. People who are dissatisfied with their jobs are less outgoing and friendly. In general. It has been found in a number of studies that workers with positive attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than workers with negative attitudes. Effects of attitudes on productivity : A number of research studies found that workmen with positive job attitudes showed higher productivity than those with negative attitudes. when the atmosphere is friendly. This can lead to job dissatisfaction when the discrepancy between levels of aspiration and possibilities of attainment gets too great. discontent than the satisfied workers. but also of where he stands with respect to his level of aspiration. job satisfaction is high among young workers but tends to go down during the first few years of employment. It is also found that workers with positive attitude out-produce workers with negative job attitudes. The basic consideration is that high productivity accompanies high morale only when the attitudes of the group is very cohesive. When the environment provides little possibility for need satisfaction. or highest aspirations will be the least happy.The average figure of job dissatisfaction found in varying industries (USA) is around 13% age as a factor has been shown from twenty three studies. where there is a good supervision. Aspiration and productivity : Morse pointed out that employee satisfaction was a function not only of how much a person receives from the job situation. are more emotionally unbalanced. In another way “The greater the amount the individual gets the greater his satisfaction and at the sometime the more the individuals still desires. daydreaming and general. and where the employee really wants to produce and get ahead. and when belonging to that specific work group is highly desirable to its members. the need for pay and job status increases. Probable questions 29 .

5. What do you mean by job Satisfaction ? Is it synonymous with industrial morale ? Which is more convenient and effective and why ? What are the main sources of obtaining employee attitude ? What are the factors related to Job attitude ? What are effects of job attitudes on production ? BIHRM MOTIVATION Basically the topic of motivation deals with the question of WGY animals and human beings do what they do. wants and they are generally directed toward some goal or goals. thirst sex and pain avoidance are closely co-related with physiological states. a primary drive to obtain food which is based on unlearned biological needs. even perceiving has a motive followed by reasons. People work because they what nice things.1. attention. They fight because they are threatened. 30 . 3. Some motives or needs are called primary needs because they are not dependent on learning for their basic motive force (although learning may affect the social expression of these drives). everything we do learning. achievement. motives. working studying playing solving problems. 4. approval. sometimes called secondary motives / drives are learned or acquired desires for particular goal such as power. Most people describe the cause of their behaviour in terms of goals toward which they are striving. hunger. money. wishes. acceptance. Responses are determined not only environmental conditions but also by states within the organism needs. Motives are said to be needs. They save because they want security. which create drives and learned behaviour is drive reducing. Other. An example is. 2. Practically all behaviour. The primary motives such as hunger.

Man‟s needs are arranged in a series of levels – hierarchy of importance. 4. achievement. Physiological needs or biological needs : Hunger. 5. 3. by others. competence. or desires impel the individual to action. those on the next higher level emerge and demand satisfaction. Classification of Needs : A number of attempts have been made by psychologists to classify and categorize the various human needs into levels to relative importance concerning their impact on motivation. Social needs : Belonging. The most important point here is that motives needs. Independence. Deprivation and so on. Ego or Esteem Needs : Self esteem (Self confidence. appreciation. recognition. Association. As soon as needs of lower level are by and large satisfied. 31 . Self Actualization or Self Fulfillment needs : Realizing one‟s own potential. knowledge) and personal reputation. Sex and so on (bodily need fulfillment). The essence of this theory is that the overwhelming majority of normal human being have certain common. Acceptance. Safety needs : Protection against danger. standard habit of smoking etc. (status. The theory that has received the highest degree of acceptance is that of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs. Giving and receiving friendship and love. self development. Thirst. 2. respect). basic needs which can be grouped into five levels and arranged in a hierarchy of strength as follow : Self-realization needs Ego / Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Biological needs 1. Threat.

Schematically : Motivation = f (Social condition x Individual needs x physical condition). One may drag a horse to water but cannot make it to drink. Human performance of human input depends upon ability and motivation. 4. 32 . direct. we may define productivity as : Productivity = f (Material input x Human input). Jon security and freedom from unjust reprimand.The tasks of modern management are to obtain facts. 3. 5. planning and so on. Prospect for future development. co-ordinate and motivate. Proper training and familiarization with company‟s objectives. Selection of best qualified employees when required. Reasonable amount of work and satisfactory working condition. Fair grievance handling. Pay as high as the going rate for the same type of work elsewhere. 6. Since productivity is closely related to motivation. The motivation on the other hand is the function of social condition. We may say : Human performance ability motivation. Social factors influencing motivation : 1. Friendly and helpful criticism for correction of error. individual needs and physical condition. Prais for good work. 8. are not motivated to do so. 10. 9. if people who are supposed to carry out plans. Due recognition as an individual. 7. plan. 2. It is of little use for the management to carry out other actives of getting facts. Under coercion they may have to do the task but it is no substitute of or voluntary action.

mental attitude and fatigue. Proper lighting essential for health safety and efficiency. 9. We may define individual need as function of : F (experience x education x cultural background x level of aspiration x perception x general economic condition x and personal situation) 33 . Unnecessary noise must be avoided. This process is unending.11. Regular supply of materials. Good working space and sating arrangement. Hot and humid atmospheric condition has adverse effect on efficiency. Motion economy. “Man is a wanting animal as soon as one of his needs is satisfied. But5 strong lighting strains worker‟s eyes causing fatigue which reduces interest for work. Ignored in the conventional approach to management of people”. healing and cooling has a definite effect on physical comfort. Noise causes annoyance to workers and hinders concentration. 4. Physical conditions motivation productivity : 1. 2. 10. another appears in its place. Man continuously put forth the effort works. if you please to satisfy his needs A satisfied need is not a motivation. experience of progress towards goal and confidence in leaders. This is a fact which is …………. 5. Well ventilation. Work simplification. participation in group activities. It continues from birth to death. The importance of various needs or wants which motivate man was expertly expressed by prof. 6. Doughlas McGregor as follows. Mutual sacrifice. Prevention of accidents. 3. Rest pauses providing good food and comfortable lounge during rest period reduces fatigue and help from favourabel attitude towards the company 8. Good maintenance of machines. 7.

To achieve the desired behaviour. most people must be controlled directed or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. wishes to avoid responsibility.McGregor “X” and “Y” Theory The bulk of current managerial principles. theory X. Pressure has bred counter pressure. Theory “Y” The accumulation of knowledge about human behaviour from many specialized field. rather such behaviour in man in part the result of management philosophy and practice. has lead to further research regarding the validating of conventional managerial assumptions. 2. 34 . has been directly derived from the first set of assumption. But theory X does not reflect man‟s inherent nature . management hashed to impose still more restriction. without ambition and resistant to change and responsibility. The assumptions of theory x and the approaches to motivation and supervision which result from it may indeed be what exists in many organizations. has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. McGregor himself regarded theory X as an extreme and as an unacceptable set of assumptions about human being. Management has regarded employees as indolent. a vicious cycle has been set up and the assumptions of the theory seems to have been confirmed. can. according to McGregor. The average human being prefers to be directed. These assumption are : 1. Pressure through the use of rewards and the threat of punishment has been used to achieve company objectives. The average human being has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if he Because of this human characteristic of dislike for work. 3. and subordinates have reacted in way detrimental to organizational efficiency.

Under conditions of modern industrial life.From these date McGregor derived a new set of assumptions what he called theory “Y” These assumptions of McGregor provide a better example of human nature and therefore indicated the need for different managerial strategy in dealing with people. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only utilized.g. lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of experience. The average human being does not inherently dislike work Depending upon controllable conditions. Theory “X” emphasizes autonomy. not inherent human characteristics. It is a new managerial philosophy as well as a criticism of traditional managerial policy and action. 1. The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to accept but to seek responsibility. 4. ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely. The most significant of such rewards e. self direction individual freedom and inner direction. thinking of methods so that organizational and individual goals are compatible. Avoidance of responsibility. work may be a source of satisfaction or sources of punishment. Although these conditions may be desirable for some people. 35 . According to theory “Y” many managers should near range their assumptions. 6. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. Man will exercise self direction and self control in the servi9ce of objectives to which he is committed. 3. 2. Commitment to objectives is a result of the rewards associated with their achievement. not narrowly distributed in the population. others do not want and cannot handle them and are extremely uncomfortable with too much freedom. individual development and expression. Management should adopt policies that promote on the job satisfaction. 5. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as lay or rest. the satisfaction of ego and self actualization need can be direct product of effort directed toward organizational objectives. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort organizational objectives.

chiefly relied upon negative sanction based on fear and punishment to get the result. freedom and permissiveness. theory “Y” emphasizes independence. Though it is true in mass production job. agreed that complete individual freedom is not the answer but freedom with limits varying in intensity. This is usually done by upholding morale of the workers and motivation them for higher production. Motivation based on fear Concept of Negative sanction : The old concept of motivation was based on fear. When strapped of value judgments theory “X” emphasis‟s dependence. Positive Incentives : Motivation and morale : By inducing the workers to work and creating interest in them for the work.Unbridled individual freedom is neither compatible with organization goals nor is it desirable. The workers either teed the line or faced the consequence of losing the job. The situation however changes as organized labours gained influence. theory “Y” proponents expect to stimulate initiative. By encouraging independence. ineffective time wastage may be reduced. contribution. involvement and creativity of organizational members. work satisfaction has undoubtedly increased may work situations in modern industry. The other criticism is that over implication of work has reduced job satisfaction. in his pursuits he contributes to organizational achievement. In some new nations sudden freedom from colonial control causes virtual anarchy. The basic principle is that every individual kikes to stand well in his own eyes and also in the eye of those whose 36 . domination and control. Several authors like Erick from. Maslow etc. It becomes an important means through which the employee can pursue his goals and since organizational goals are compatible with individual goals. Sometimes it may prove detrimental. besides organizations become larger and spread in complexity. The current emphasis is on human relations and positive incentives.

What are the Maslow‟s classification of human needs ? narrate the „X” and “Y” theories of motivation. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. 4. What is a motive ? What is difference between primary and secondary needs. The output and moral both increase when the policy of the company is employee centered and not production centered. This is due to growing realization that positive incentives are more conducive to the welfare of the enterprise then negative sanctions based on fear of demotion or dismissal. What are the social and physical factors influencing motivation. Probable Questions : 1. Although the right to fine or demote an employee under certain circumstances remains a tool in the hands of management for disciplinary purposes. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL MORALE The terms “employee attitude” “Job satisfaction” and “industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. 3. However. This does not mean that negative sections should be discarded entirely. It seems neared the truth to say that as positive incentives are made effective. 37 . An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. Similarly job satisfaction is not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. the complete elimination of sanction would quickly get the administration into trouble. The workers are favourable affected by a boss who treats them as human being and they are motivated to work for a company where there is confidence in fairness of the top management.appreciation he values. 2. there is less need to apply negative sanctions and they in any case a sanction should be reserved for individual cases and rarely if ever used on a group. it has now been replaced by positive incentives and morale.

hours of work and working conditions. non- management members and vice verse. Thus morale concerns the state of employees. and leadership. and toward each other” Other stress the identification of the employees objectives with those of the company. toward their jobs. Attitude toward the organization structure of the company. To have high morale an individual must processes firm conviction and values which make life worthwhile for him that he has the energy and confidence to face the future. The concept is that the extent to which an employees‟ attitudes enable him to realized maximum satisfaction of his desires with the fulfillment of the company‟s objectives. therefore. Attitude toward pay. In a company industrial morale is the composite expression of the attitudes of the various individuals working there. Attitudes. According to the definition morale is the attitude of employee toward management members. From the standpoint of management. are very vital to morale. Industrial morale is generated by the group. the state of employee‟s attitudes toward their company and its mode of operation is a foremost issue and is commonly included under the subject morale. For the individual it is a feeling of being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals. plans. Attitude toward the size and type of enterprise for whom as working Emp0loyee b) c) d) e) morale may be high or low. While many attitude influence morale. toward related factors and toward life in general.Job attitude is the felling the employee has about his job. Job a satisfaction or dissatisfaction is the result various attitudes the person holds toward his hob. attitude toward their company and its mode of operation. his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factor related to his job. those pertaining to the following areas are of tap importance : a) Attitude of mangers toward other managers of the same enterprise. Attitude toward the company‟s objectives. the higher the morale. He must be aware of job to be done to defend or extend his store of values and his 38 .

Low morale indicates as attitude of apathy or resignatice.K Passive Co-operation Job Unimportant Work a Burden Hostility From the comparison it follows.values must be essential agreement with those of his group and there must be in essential agreement with those of his group and there must be a co-ordination of effort in attaining objectives. Individual difference are always present. confidence and standing. It means perseverance. Good morale is resistance to frustration. Staying quality – implies that a group does not loose. When zest is present. Together for achieving the goal. Might of its goal under adverse circumstances. Zest being the tope value and apathy the lowest value because if implies a complete absence of effort. c) Zest - implies high motivation. Without goal interest is absent or the obstacles between individual and the goal are regarded unsurmountable. It must not be assumed that all members of the group would feel the same way in any situation. The general picture of the morale of various work groups may compared on the basis of level of morale as shown below : LEVEL OF MORALE Zest Activity Co-operation Satisfied Job O. 39 . The works commonly regarded as ingredients of high moral are : a) b) Team spirit describes a relationship between people. There is interest and excitement in performing a job.

Physical Factors : The degree of high or low morale differs from person to person depending upon his mental and bodily conditions. lighting. This is easier said than done As already mentioned. 40 . attitude and adjust. Like-wise bodily conditions good health. continuous. Inborn personality differences which brings out differences in energy. Acquired personality qualities derived from environment has a direct hearing on good morale. determination emotional stability. the type of foreman. Experience of progress toward goal. influence stamina. but the task can be done. ventilation and attractiveness of the shop and many other conditions which constitute the environment influence the morale of the workers. Moral Building Programme : The first step in a moral building is to instill proper attitudes in the minds of all employees. proper food and adequate rest also have a direct influence on stamina. Satisfaction with the company : Such factors as company attitude to employees and society in general. Tolerance and freedom within group. the sanitary facilities. It is possible to think in terms of group as unit describe the way group works. Job satisfaction demonstrates high morale among those who are satisfied with the job some of the important psychological Factors influencing high morale are : a) b) c) d) Mutual sacrifices. and Confidence in leaders. Participation in group activity. an attitude is the result of many complex forces and to change an existing attitude requires persistent. and well planned efforts over a long period of time. Groups have personality of their own and one can think of a groups motivation.Nevertheless.

5. I take pride in working for this company The people I work with are friendly We have a good employee benefit programme No 10. status and recognition. adequacy or communication. 41 . 9. and identification with company. Improperly handled it can have an adverse effect upon morale. Some of the questions used in a survey are show below as examples: Don‟t Know Yes 1. if any. 4. absenteeism. other executives oppose such a practice. In contrast. rate of labour turnover.Second step is to measure morale to determine are areas where improvements can be made. The Next step is evaluate carefully the results obtained in step No. interviews. 8. the areas requiring immediate attention can be pinpointed and definite plans for correcting these trouble sports can be evolved and put into action. 2.2 In this way. Employee attitudes can be catalogues by various means including by an intuitive basis. especially those of irritation and trouble. Morale measurement requires specialized techniques in handling and should be performed only be a trained researcher in this field. and analysis of employees. records showing number of grievances. The decision must be based on the individual circumstances of each case. 3. Some managers advocate publishing the results of the survey along with what corrective measures will be taken. The working conditions here are O.K Employees answers to much questions the relative standing of such considerations as confidence in managers. and the like. employee benefits. surveys. 6 My Job is often dull My superior keeps his promises My superior knows a great deal about his job I can say that I think around here I have the proper tools and equipment to do my job We have a poor way of handling employee complaints 7.

feelings of tiredness are subjective or psychological states that may accompany prolonged work. lead directly to such subjective feelings. Psychological means for evaluating the effort expended in work are less precise than are the physiological measures. FATIGUE Feelings of fatigue. Feelings of tiredness are. There is. More specially the effort must constantly be toward the end that the managerial organizing work should be the very best possible. the descriptions we can give of it are useful in certain practical situations. however. that is. Following up on the supplication that the man was not being accepted in his particular work group. it must be improved by indirect means. he had the man transferred to a 42 . BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND BOREDOM Most people are familiar with such terms as “fatigues” tiredness” boredom” and “monotony” These terms are used to describe feelings. but the reports of out feeling may actually be more relevant than the physiological measures especially for work of non-physical nature. by improving management. But here are different kinds of tiredness related to different kinds of work.In the final analysis good morale is a by-product of competent management. This is not true. no clear cut measures of boredom or fatigue. of course. Morale can not be sought for directly. One personnel Manager reports the case of a worker who frequently complained of feeling tired on the Job. and proper emphasis given to the human element in managerial decisions. the actual decreases in proficiency over time. A emotional upset may involve a kind of tiredness different from that resulting from a hard day of physical labour free from frustration. capable leadership emphasized and developed to all employees. Although we have good measures of tiredness. related to physiological changes. We might suppose that work decrements.

Here he soon came to feel that he belonged and he made fewer complaints. REST FROM WORK It is known from experimental studies that a subject can become so tired from lifting a weight that he can no longer move his arms until he has had a given period of rest. he would retire with his lessons unprepared.similar job with a different group of workers. Another case reported by a University Counselor was that a newly married student of twenty-four. finally giving up. Reduction in work output : It is known that beyond a certain point a man‟s production rate gets lower the longer he works at a job. employees take unauthorized ones. he could invariably fall asleep over his books. the longer it takes to recover. Though he fought the impulse. His scholastic performance brought him before the counselor. it may take time longer to complete some piece of work or the quality of his work may be affected. fatigue should be prevented by taking rest periods before the fatigue gets in. He was working quite effectively. He complained of being tired each night when he sat down to study. was having difficulty with his courses. thought quite rapid at first. He and his wife moved out of his mother-inlaw‟s home and in two weeks the symptoms of fatigue were completely gone. The more fatigued we are. It is also known that efforts in work and lack of precision and co-ordination occur as a result of fatigue on phychometor tasks. is followed by a long slow period of come-back. It is generally recognized that rest pauses improve worker performance. Recovery. It has been found in some instances 43 . He may get less work done for each operation. It formal rest pauses are not allowed. From labor4atory studies under ideal controlled conditions and from less controlled industrial situations has come practical principles of work which says in effect.

Late starts and early quits. The attitude of a person ahs toward his work determines to a large extent his need for rest. It is also important to keep an eye on production records routinely. One way is to slow down activity. Day dreaming may be thought of as form of rest which allows the person to leave his job mentally. An important part of rest is change of deviation from the usual or routine course of work. physical departure from the work scene is a possible form of rest. are other forms of work stoppage. We know that worry can sometimes be lessened by putting something in the place of the worrisome thoughts. as most workers on a piece-rate learn to do. One way to get at the problem is by plotting production records throughout the working period and observing drops in production. Deviation involves turning something away from its course. In one study it was found that the introduction of 12 minute rest pause in the MIDDLE OF THE MORNING AND A SIMILAR PAUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AFTERNOON increased the output by 29%. Rest on the job can be obtained in a number of ways. The introduction of rest pauses which result in increased work output have been found to have a beneficial effect both physiologically and psychologically. An of course. with interruptions in between.that these are just as effective in combating fatigue as are those scheduled by management. 44 . It has been found through several studies that rest pause during work are beneficial to production. Just when to schedule rest period veries from situation to situation. Some people resort to pacing their activities. This study showed that rest pauses should be introduced just before production to fall from its maximum. Here the worker actually rests while he works. and it is most important in combating mental stress. because not all drops in production are caused by fatigue or corrected by rest. they improve the attitudes of the employees toward the working situation. It also decreased the length of voluntary rest pauses 60%. It is important to schedule rest periods before the drops occur.

Jobs which require continuous attention tend to be interesting. The important thing involved here is the change of activity. usually associated with repetitive work activity. because of the interest associated with awareness of achievement. A person who is by temper mentally lively and has a high degree of intelligence tends to be more bored by repetitive work than the person of lower intelligence who is submissive. and those which require little or no attention leave the individual free to talk his neighbors or to think of other things. the worked may have varied and discordant thoughts during which he keeps coming back to the amount of time still to be worked. Quantities which take about an hour to complete give more satisfaction than an endless flow along a conveyer. This where the work is automatic. The two factors determining boredom are the amount of repetition in work and the degree of attention demanded by the work. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY FRUSTRATION AS A FACTOR IN HUMN BEHAVIOUR 45 . A practical way to remove boredom is to change one‟s activity. If such a change is not possible in the job situation itself. Wyatt suggests that the additional incentive and satisfaction which accompanies a pieces a piece-rate system of payment tends to retard the onset of boredom.BOREDOM : Boredom is characterized by a lack of interest. It is differentiated from fatigue in that it involves the desire for change in activity rather than for rest or relief from the work itself . The bored worked is inclined to over estimate the duration of time Although a repetitive task may not be attention demanding. then a change of pace may be accomplished by taking a hobby. There seems to be general agreement that such susceptibility to boredom is individualistic. where there is a little or no chance for conversation and where there is little or no personal interest in the final production its destination.

Displaced Aggression and organized Aggression.Human beings wants many things to make lives meaningful. affection and a feeling of belongingness etc. (2) Constant Voicing of grievances. The characteristics of frustrated behaviour are aggression. (3) Attaching labour legislation and (4) Opposing labour organization. (5) Absenteeism and (6) Joining of militant unions. They need food. recognition. Attempts to obtain satisfaction of needs and desires frequently meet with obstacles. motivation and goal direction (Demonstration with Transparency). power. But all needs are not fulfilled always and easily. This frustration occurs because individuals have desires or motives which they want to satisfy. regardless of one‟s status or job. attempts to attain a goal are blocked time and time again with the result that there is an accumulation of tension within the individual. shelter. but these desires or motives get blocked in some way or other. showing relationships between causality. The management expresses its aggression by (1) Enforcing stricter discipline. love. This will be more clear if you look at the basic closed circuit model of behaviour. comfortable and worthy of living. At other times. fixation and resignation. (3) Damaging of equipment. (4) Inability to get along with others. it is the blocking of an organism‟s path towards a goal. AGGRESSION : Aggression behaviour occurs when one resents interference but does not react to it as a problem. RESGESSION : 46 . Many times these blockages are only temporary and overcome easily. regression. however. There are three forms of aggression viz: Elementary Aggression. (2) Imposing penalties of all sorts. status. In short. The symptoms of aggression commonly found in industrial employees are (1) Excessive criticism of management. Some are more difficult ot satisfy. In frustrated situations the behaviour of the individual becomes emotional and unreasonable.

People in this state of mind obviously have low morale and will remain socially neutral unless their mental condition changes. 47 . so he surrenders. who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. adults regresses to the infantile stage and are considered as babies. The management too show sings of regression when (1) Bosses refuse to delegate responsibility (2) Do not distinguish between reasonable and unreasonable requests and (3) Form blind loyalties for particular persons or organizations. (2) Lack of responsibility. RESIGNATION : Resignation is frustratingly resign one‟s lot to the guidance of some superior brain. Signs of regression in industrial employees are (1) Loss of emotional control. This is a frame of mind which the oppressive rulers may desire to create. All forms of activity seem to be closed to the individual. An action is respected over and over again despite the fact that the person knows it will accomplish nothing examples of fixation commonly meet in industry are to be found in (1) Individuals who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. He becomes apathetic regarding his future.Regression is a break-down of constructive behavior and represents a return to childish behaviour. (3) Unreasoned fear and (4) Responsiveness to rumour (5) Following the leader etc. In industry the resigned individual is one who has lost hope of bettering his conditions. In extreme cases. Resignation is probably a dormant condition in which all aggression has been temporarily blocked. FIXATIONS : The terms fixation is used designate a compulsion to continue a kind of activity which have no adoptive value.

The leader of the movement determines the form of the aggression. The study of riots and mob behaviour also reveals the attractiveness of destructive behaviour to certain groups of people. In industries where unions do not have to struggle for recognition. Frustrations and tensions on a wide scale procede these outburst and are the underlying causes. The other types of behaviour which are characteristic of frustration lend support to an organization build around frustration. Though the economic beliefs are almost similar. A group of frustrated people may become organized and since aggressive behaviour tendencies are present in such people. they actually co-operate with management. the character of the two movements are different. while socialism emphasizes the bette3r life. it frustrated them and thus encourage the formation of militant labour movement. In other cases 48 . it is desirable that industry avoid creating frustrating circumstances. The former is militant in nature and places great emphasis on the overthrow of capitalism. Whether or not they will sweep away these things which are good evil in cociety depends upon the circumstances themselves. Because labour then frustrated is highly susceptible to being organized into a strong labour movement. and the leader is the most important factor to determine the directive of the activity. It seems reasonable to regard communism as primarily a frustration instigated type of movement and socialism as largely a goal motivated type. Regressive tendencies make people suggestible and easily led. The manner in which frustration influences the character of a social organization may be found out from a comparative study of the communistic and socialistic movements. The frustration instigated movement develop into militant labour organization develops. Communism gives the frustrated people an aggressive pattern of action rather than a promise of better things. The tendency to fixate makes their behaviour stereotyped that they can be made to persist in any activity in which they started. This social trend should not be ignored by the industrial organization. they may take the pattern of aggression. The objective examination of industrial strike shows that labour movement become more militant as attempts are mode to frustrate their activities. If it opposes unions which have goals.FRUSTRATION AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT : Frustration-instigated social movement-Any important social movement can transform the social. political and economic structure of the country.

in its broadest sense is meant all factors or groups of factors. In industrial enterpries working environment is the most important factor for sustaining and improving the efficiency of the worker. it naturally extends co-operation with the management. cultural evaluation changes his nature. Schematically we may say that 49 .all forms of energy or energy other fores internaor external that invoke activity .conciliation is the rule rather than the exception. Since the unreasonable people are frustrated people. A grievance settlement procedure through a machinery set-up for the purpose. By environment. 3. To keep the worker organized when the workers are recognized without any hindrance. 2. behaviour response from the individual. which affects their interests. and thereby winning over their confidence. SOURCES FOR REMOVAL OF FRUSTRATION : 1. To force them into submission in the hope that they will eventually become resigned and give up is psychologically unsound and dangerous. frustrating them further merely increases their destructive potentialities. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY VORKING ENVIRONMENT “A person is what he is because of his nature and his heredity and environment” Man‟s biological evolution changes his nature. It is a well known fact that productivity is the effect of individual ability and his motivation and the influence of environment in which his performs the job. Prior consultation with the employees on any matter. The contributions of both heredity and environment are important though it may vary in degree in different circumstances.

artificial or a combination of both. Psychological factors. lighting or illumination colour. temperature or atmospheric condition. Cleanliness . 1. The total environmental factors that influence human performance my be grouped under the following heads: a) b) c) d) Physical factors. 3. passages and must be cleaned every day. A M = Motivation and E = Environment. 2. Ventilation . Therefore. Temperature of Atmospheric Condition : Excessively high or low temperature and inadequate ventilation cause sickness. The workers are to go outside to recover from the unbearable heat. the unhealthy and unhappy workers doing their jobs under conditions of physical and mental strain are inefficient producers. The working place must be kept clean of accumulated dirts and debris. Organizational factors. Cleanliness is essential to both physical and mental health. Living condition factors. and low vitality of the workers resulting in reduction in productivity. which affects their efficiency.P = (AxM) E = Ability Where P =Productivity. Ventilation is required for the health and comfort of the workers which increases efficiency. sanitation etc. ventilation. Ventilation may be natural. Spittoons should be provided in sufficient number and must be cleaned and disinfected at least once in every day. discomfort. 50 . The physical factors include cleanliness. noise. In some of our mills and factories little have been done to mitigate the effects of heat by proper ventilation. Rooms.

Clean and adequate toilet and wash room facilities are important factors for high morale. In temperate conditions workers' comfort are influenced by repainting the4 walls and furnishings of the work place in colours designed to give a feeling of warmth or cold. Management striving to overcome grievances in the job environment in one way of building up this pride. while there are indications that noise reduces work performance. HARMONIOUS EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 51 . one study showed that the performance did not begin to deteriorate until around 900F. Very high tones and extremely low tones are more irritating than those in the middle ranges. 6. Colour : The use of colour is an important factor governing the workers feelings of heat or coldnees. It is essential to the health. Insufficient light affect eye-sight.cult evidence in support of such a contention. In high temperature more errors occur and production drops. safety and efficiency of workers. In low temperature production decreases and accident rate increases. quiet and comfortable are conductive to workers mind. Company restaurants which are clean. It has been found that glare causes discomfort in workers and affects performance. If there is high morale in a group. there is no clear. Noise : Noise has been defined as unpleasant sound. 5. Attractive physical appearance of the plant provide for good sanitation and health of the workers. Lighting or Illumination Good lighting speeds production.Although the most comfortable working temperature may be around 650F. OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Workers are most loyal and co-operative when they have pride in work in their employers. it may well stand grand greater noise levels without complaint that with another group with low morale. 4.

the morale of the workers becomes low resulting in frustration and low output. in his early days. swallowing. Probale Questions 1. Reasonable wages. Living conditions outside the factory also have an influence. correct decisions on questions of promotion and at the same time well cared for work places. living in slum areas have undesirable moral and physical effects and thereby adversely influences the workers attitude in the factor. eliminating. As he grows physically. the infant needs other people to behave in ways which will bring all manner of need objects to him. when working hours are long. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY HUMAN RELATION & ITS IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATION A new born human infant is among the most helpless of living organism. good understanding between management and labour. crying and gross motor movements. 2. What do you mean by environment? What are the groups into which environmental factors can be classified. Discuss very briefly the physical factors influences human performance. Respect of worker's feeling an dignity helps to give him peace of mind. relatively free from pain and able to grows. when workers fear dismissal. a lot of 52 . For sheer survival. sanitary facilities much better than "good enough for a worker" behaviour and bring about employment stability among the personnel. He needs. good human relations inside the factory. when workers are dissatisfied with wages.Worker's behaviour usually reflects their material and psychological environment. What an infant can perform are only a few limited automatic reflex. he becomes more capable of learning. When relations between employers and workers are bad. The mother must provide food and arrange the environment so that the child will stay alive. he needs other people as identification models so he can become increasingly socialized.

so each man is dependent upon many other people for the specialized skill and knowledge. Thus we can see that none can live and grows satisfactorily by himself alone. or at the least. morals and social roles. Division of labour and specialization in knowledge and techniques are enormously developed in the present world. There is evidence that without such close mothering. neurotic in institutions than in families. and the learning of attitudes. learning of many skills important in the solution of problems and the gratification of assorted needs. values.mothering caressing. where scarce the skill the higher the price. delinquent. they become more often a social. psychotic. Most of the satisfactions which make life worthwhile . so he can learn to behave in socially acceptable. The adult by virtue of vastly skill repertoire is much more self reliant than an infant or young child. but still he needs other people for many reasons. The child needs other people to reward punish him. co-operate. his physical development will be impaired and his social development will be deviant. holding. Contact with other people is thus seen as crucial for many aspects of Child's healthy development. and social stimulation. in fact. also grows the society in mutual interaction of its members. essential in defining the child's membership in varied groups. He needs to be in contact with persons other children of his age. He needs others in society for his growth and development. How this transaction takes place ? Generally the needful individual buys the knowledge or skill from its possessors with money or anything else that is deemed of value equivalent to the skill. can be gratified only in relation to. or with co-operation of other people. particularly in the west. so he can learn to compete. no man can ever hope in his life time to encompass all the skills necessary to solve all his problems and gratify all his wants. play games and so on. In present day society. So. physical survival and health. feeble minded. The development of children is impaired by lack of maternal love. 53 .

An enterprise is looking upon as a man made system. we implement the proposed and organized activities. important to keep in mind that all enterprises are built to serve people within and without the enterprise. Some important wants are : 1. BASIC OF HUMAN RELATIONS : The study of human relations is important because in organizational set up. The actual performance of an individual depended upon his willing less and capacity to perform. One of the fundamental functions of the management is actuating which literally means the putting or moving into action. therefore. 3. Individuals needs / wants are however numerous and they differ widely among people. where a large number of people work together to achieve established goals. Human relations may be defined as the integration of the manpower resources for effective and maximum utilization by means of satisfying human wants and maintaining of satisfactory relationships among the members seeking these human wants. Fair pay. It is. We can plan and organize but no tangible output is achieved until. Actuating may be defined as "getting all the members of the group to want to achieve mutual objective because they want to achieve them. Therefore an understanding and application of human relations is basic to successful actuating. 2. as none can satisfy all his needs/ wants by himself. a person hopes to satisfy his individual wants/needs and to meet the mutual interest of the participating group. By accomplishment of the work and achievement of the goal. Pleasant working condition. 54 . Thereby they satisfy their own needs as well as the needs of other group members. Job security. people work to achieve certain goals.

It is necessary for the managers to have some understanding of pattern of behavior involved in human aspects which facilitate in achieving organizational objects. and whose relation with other individuals are disturbing to him. Recognition of good work. The executive or 55 . An individual who is torn in internal conflicts. background. Interesting work.4. They are influenced by individual characteristics. ambitions. 8. goals and beliefs that have shaped their personalities and their life style. hopes. the president of American management Association: "Management is the development of people and not direction of things. These variations are reflected in a wide variety of individual actions. the are to pay attention to those human relations factors which influence their effectiveness. Opportunity for development. disappointments. place in the organization etc. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONS Since the managements' objective is to achieve the set goal effectively. According to Lawrence A. is very likely to be more effective than one who pays no attention to human relations with and among his subordinates. The relative importance of these wants differ from individual to individual from one occasion to another. 6. If this fact were more generally accepted. a manager who thinks in terms of healthy relations. moods. Efficient leadership. 5. Acceptance as member of work group. Therefore. and values when they come to work. The people of an organization represent an aggregate of individuals brought together to do a job. Their reactions to one another. many Management difficulties would disappear. to their surroundings to the jobs and to the supervisor usually show significant variations. different experience and different aspirations. frustrations. His seemingly erratic and at times irrational behaviour stamp from the fact that employees do not shed their responsibilities. Although they may represent a "work force" they bring with them all the fears. who is apathetic and frustrated. 7. They have different psychological make up. cannot do justice to his work. who attempts to understand what they are and what role they play in achieving smoothness in operation. beliefs.

Achieving effective human relations require a keen interest in human personalities. Make people feel important: Recognition and status are of prime consideration to most people. Employees work towards greater accomplishments where there is some incentive always work better under democratic leadership and they believe in what you do. encouraging their growth and development. and Inspiring them with confidence in their ability to accomplish the objectives. Telling them what you want to accomplish. is admitting that he cannot manage". 2. “Success in management in largely a matter of :Getting competent people. extensive study of literature available on the subject and considerable practical experience in dealing with people. ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE HUMAN RELATIONS: Favorable response to actuating efforts is obtained by treating employees as human beings. APPLICATION OF HUMAN RELATIONS Normally employees work better and are more satisfied when they know that management is interested in them and is concerned about their wants and welfare. recognizing work well done and ensuring fair play. Giving them responsibility. They participate fully where the performance is duly recognized. which can provide guidance in developing the ability to achieve good human relations are :- 1. Important of human management is expressed by various statements like:1. They appeal to people because everyone has an inner desire to feel important. instilling a desire to excel. Some of the important points. Explaining how to do it. They appreciate being viewed and treated as human being and accepted as member of working group.manager who says that he would rather exhaust himself doing things correctly than expand the time and patience necessary to get other people to do them correctly. 56 . more than what you say. a) b) c) d) e) “Everything in management hinges around and involves the human element.

6. 57 . they will be motivated to work better. 4. 7. If they could be convinced that they get their fair deal and are not deprived of fair privileges. 8. Know deep feelings of others: All human beings usually have deep sentiments about personal attachments. experiences. and to tell his entire story often results in the talker's seeing the error of his views or in agreeing to other's valid points of view. The questioning approach gives them opportunity to impress others with their knowledge. beliefs and emotions. goal and interest do not appeal equally to all members of the group. Allowing the individual to talk himself out without interruption. Recognize most people are acquisitive: All human beings want to get what they believe is their rightful share. 3.2. These sentiments should not be destroyed but should be used for creating harmonious relationships. A good manager leads people. 5. Be a good listener: And problems and hurdles to harmonious relationships are revealed if managers listen what employees talk. He does not drive them. Arguments only aggravate the differences. Employ question to persuade: Most people like to talk about those subjects in which they are well versed and interested. Abstain from domination: Domination and use of fear for getting the work accomplished seldom groduce the desired results as people resent being dominated. Avoid arguments: No one really ever wins in argument. Recognize individual difference: It is important to understand the make up of each individual because the same desire.

An enlightened management therefore. the worker finds it difficulot to get started and regain his old stride. High rate of absenteeism and labour turner indicates labour unrest. Some companies keep time cards.BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ABSENTEEISM AND LABOUR TURNOVER Definition : Absenteeism is the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work. Low rate show job satisfaction which speaks of peaceful industrial climate and ensures increased production and cost reduction. Excused absences should also be included in absenteeism figures as well as unauthorized time off. we cannot quote any estimated cost but it may be said with convication that the loss is a colossal one. production delays and high cost. Workers who quit job without notice are also counted as absentees until they are officially removed from the pay roll. Absenteeism and labour turnover rate is a kind of industrial barometer. On returning to work after absence. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation.A Islam For calculating absenteeism the fololowing formula may be used: Man-dayslost Absenteeism = Men-daysschedules x 100 Turnover is the rate found out by the above formula and is expressed in percentage. Every plant maintains records of days worked. His work performance at high pace is affected". Since we do not pay any serious attention to this problem of absenteeism and turnover. A simple count of unpunched cards or absence in the records may show the number of employees absent. 58 . absenteeism breeds further absenteeism and becomes a habit. Interest in the occupation and in the company is decreased. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation of an organization. always tends to minimize the rate of absenteeism and turnover. there is not only general lowering of moral but distinct loss of skill and efficiency. Absenteeism is one of the major problems in the industrial organizations in Bangladesh. K. Apart from the direct financial loss.

...R = 100 (totalspeperation) X 100 = 5% 2000 In other works... Separation Rate : Separation rate can be found out by dividing the total number of employees separated from pay roll during the monthly by the average number of employees for the month... suppose 120 is the accession figure. 5 workers dropped off the pay roll. for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month 6 new workers were hired. ACCESSION RATE : Accession rate can be calculated by dividing the number of accession for the month by the average employment....For computing the monthly separation rate and accession rate of a plant the following procedure may be followed........ No..... on pay roll June 30 .......... 59 .......... 1. 2..... for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month.. 2050 4000 Dividing by two 400/ 2000 2 2000 will be the average number of employees for July.. the rate then is : S. Find the average number of employees by adding the number on pay roll on last days of two successive months and then divides the result by two for example....R = 100 (totalaccession) X 100 = 6% 2000 In other works. 100 is the separation figure then the rate is: S.. 1950 July 31 .

It was found that the age bracket 45 to 55 has a decidedly better absence record than either those older or those younger. Old age : In one study made in the Baker chocolate Division of the General Foods company. The under 35 group has the worst record of all. Illness. Personal Habitsalcoholism. Organization factors. Sex. However.The net labour turnover rate is the rate of gain or loss per 100 workers in the average workforce. the factors associate with the absenteeism should first be identified. Agrarian background. Lack of proper transport facility. The complexity of the problem renders solution difficult. The net turnover rate is positive if accessions exceed separation. such other factors as age.S. U. organizational elemate and community conditions should also be evaluated door effects on absenteeism. i) ii) iii) Personnel factor. could account for all absences. CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a complex problem. PERSONAL FACTORS : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Old age. Frequent visits home. It would be unreasonable to expect that any single factor. It is (6-5) = +1. Distinction between kinds of 60 . It is the accession rate minus the separation rate. it is negative if separations exceed accessions. to counteract the effect of high labour turnover. In the example its positive. such as emotional disorders.A. Housing problems. and External factors. The factors may be grouped under the following heads. Family responsibility and family disturbance.

High-absence group had a greater number of record instance of emotional disorders and other disorders with an underlying emotional basis. Non-availability of recreational facilities. The high absence employees were found to have a lower drive level and to be less emotionally stable than the low-absence group. training. as well as group morale. Lack of recognition of good work and career advancement. Organization factors : Some of the most important organizational factors contributing to high absenteeism and turnover are as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Improper selection. inducting and placement Lack of proper financial return. 61 . Unfavorable working condition. Lack of leadership. about 80% of all turnover takes place during the first three months of employment. Illness : It has been established through studies that emotional illness causes between a quarter and a third of all absence from work due to illness. The induction stage is crucial in helping to reduce costly employee turnover. Lack of management attitude for well-being of workers. Participation in decision making is a major factor in the morale of all levels of employees. The attitudes which promote individual job satisfaction.absenteeism was also important. Lack of employee participation or resistance to change also causes employee turnover. Absence of job satisfaction and security. Older workers are absent for longer period (severity rate) but younger workers are absent often (frequency rate). Induction of the new worker is the beginning of his on the job training. Loyalty comes with the feelings of oarticippation. Lack of co-operation among the working group. get established in the induction process. Lack of proper supervision. In one study it was found that the workers with positive job attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than worker with negative attitudes.

For that a number of measures should be adopted by the management. find out causes and take steps to mitigate those causes contributing to high rate of absenteeism and turnover management should train supervisors who are the keymen in absence control by ensuring proper working conditions.External Factors: Similarly some external factors influence the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover are: i) ii) iii) iv) Local weather condition. Management should take steps to improve the condition so that the employee may feel that the management is genuinely interested in their wel-being. 3. management has to make the job more human by creating co-operative atmosphere in the plant. They should not be 62 . practitioners. Worker's participation should be encouraged and allowed for creating a sense of belonging. interpersonal relations and providing necessary motivational factors on the job. Easy availability of medical certificates from outside. They should follow grievances handling procedure to dispose off the employee complaints promptly and fairly. proper training & induction and appropriate placement should be programmed. (ii) Proper wages. (iv) 2. (iii) Housing and transport facilities recreational facilities and child care and educational opportunity to the children to the employees should be ensured. Proper health and safety arrangements should be made. be minimized. Participation in religious festivals. Political situation . He has to imposes on his workers that unauthorized absence is a serious offence. good working condition.strikes. career opportunity and appreciation of good work should be followed as policy matters. it is true but it can however. The steps may be classified into three groups:Individual (i) Sound selection. Absenteeism may not be eliminated. Organizational : Management should give due attention to the problem of absenteeism. REMEDICAL MEASURES: It has been mentioned earlier that absenteeism is a complex problem and complexity renders solutions more difficult. But it is not totally unsurmountable. hartals etc. External : The employees should be properly motivated not to indulge in unauthorized absence causing loss of production and thereby increasing production cost.

Human beings are individually unique and with due regard for the uniqueness of the individuals. means "Seeing" Where "Super" means 'over' and 'vision' means seeing. The success of the organization is the success of the employee. over whom authority is exercised in such a way as to achieve their greatest combined effectiveness in getting work done. it calls for skill in an-management. Thus supervision means seeing from above.motivated to avoid absence on avoidable circumstances. The should not subject them selves to external pressure to absent themselves from duties. It requires a supervisor to acquire the skill of a democratic leader who encourages employee participation and treats them as associates. seeing the activities of the sub ordinates with authority. there are certain general principles which are used by successful supervisors as guides. They should be motivated to place service before self. It is best performed in an atmosphere of good-will and tactful cooperation of the people and the supervisor. Effective supervision helps to maintain congenial working relationships resulting in increased output of quality standard. People must understand clearly what is expected clearly what is expected of them. 63 . Basic Principles of Supervision : Supervision is the art of working with a group of people. Good supervision increases production and as such a supervisor is the key-man in the managerial set-up. Experienced supervisors recognize that there are no sure and certain rules for working with people. The general principles of supervision while working with people are laid down as under :- 1. His method of handling his section can make all the difference between loss of production and increasing output a good supervisor is a trained supervisor demands more than crafts skill or work knowledge. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY SUPERVISION : PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES Introduction : The work "Supervision" when considered from the Latin origin of the word. a skill which can rarely be acquired without training.

How to Beging supervising Anew supervisor needs to know all about his people . 1.2. By giving due weight age to individual differences. 4 How to make decision : A supervisor should get full facts relating to a problem fit the facts together. Techniques in supervising The basic knowledge and skill with which a supervisor goes about supervising comes only with practice. Good work should always be recognized. 3. How to get help from people : The people are there under the guidance of a supervisor to do a job. 7. He should judiciously delegate authority to see that he want them to do is done the way he likes to do it. how they think and how they act. People must have guidance in doing their work. People should have opportunities to show that they can accept responsibilities. How to Give orders : Orders should not be given in the form of a direct command. 5. It should be kept in mind that each individual has some unique experiences that have helped to make him what he is. Poor work deserves constructive criticism. 6. It rather be given by analyzing a situation to the people in such a way the situation itself gives the order involving need for action. and give a decision accordingly. 64 . the people should be judged by what they do. 3. People should be encouraged to improve themselves. 4. He may encourage employee participation by allowing them to know "Why" of the orders.their4 schooling. The supervisor may also encourage employee cooperation by placing a problem before them for finding its solution. their habits their attitude towards work their ambitions. 2. People should work in a safe and healthful environment.

employees look to their supervisors to solve their technical problem. He always belongs to major organization groups. never in presence of a man's fellow workers. I. How to deal with inefficiency : The supervisor is to play various roles. How to deal the problem child : The logical way is to talk to the man about his faults showing reasons. 6. the supervisor is to assume the following:- 1) Technician : Frequently. If no progress is achieved.5. How to deal with misconduct : Although in such cases the decision has to be taken by the Personnel Department depending on the merit of the case but the supervisor is the main person forgetting facts. As the employee's representative to management. he should have patience and try to gain his cooperation. As a result. 9. If talks fails. 65 . As management's representatives to the employee he is to carry out company policy. Dignity of people is important to every man and crition should be constructive. 8. Loyalty of the Supervisor In one study it has been found that the supervisor who could understand the objectives of both the company and the workers were rated highest by management. How to settle grievances : Petty grievances may become tough. Management Role : In his scientific management roles. the supervisor should go over the situation and seek for more reasons if fault persists. if they are not settled as early as possible. How to criticise : Criticism must be made in private. supervisors often become involved in extremely challenging and complex problems. he has a reverse role. He should have sufficient information to recommend for action to whatever authority makes the final decision. he should talk to his own supervisor and find out the course of action. 7.

buffer and councilor. The employees expect supervisors to design new job procedures and to implement them when they prove to be effective. the supervisor can be either task oriented or people oriented. All these indicate that supervisors need a large measure of interpersonal or human relation skills. communicator. Human relations expert : The linking pin role implies that the supervisor will serve as a negotiator. Motivatior : One of the key functions of the supervisors is to motivated the people. evaluating them and changing the direction of the work group if necessary. For management the supervisors represent the critical link to the operation of employees. Four important roles are to be played as . paper-work. To the supervisors own subordinate they are management. In performing the leadership function. II) Human Relations Roles The supervisor must be a person who is sensitive to employee needs and intergrates these needs with the goals of the organization. 4. Trainer : The supervisor must carefully analyze the training needs of each employee and make necessary arrangement for specialist training. 66 . 2) Organizer: The supervisor's world can be viewed as a complex of people.2) Research/analysis : Another scientific Management role supervisors are expected to perform is that of researcher and job analyst. III. materials objectives and goals. 5. 3. 3) Controller : Another important role of supervisor is controlling the work group to ensure that the appropriate work methods and utilized. Functional Roles : The supervisor must be able to organize and Co-ordinate the unite human and physical resources to achieve the organization objectives. From this point of view a supervisor assumes the functions of a :- 1) 2) Counselor : The supervisor is to opportunity to air their problems. Linking pin : Both employee and top management view supervisors as the key linking pins in the organization. 3) Planner: As a planner the supervisor has a major responsibility for determining exactly what the goals are.- 1) Leader : Employees look to the supervisor for direction. job machines. Each of these factors must be carefully brought together in an organized co-ordinate manner to create an organizer.

The good supervisor soon learns that gripes are often safety valves. Another important functional role of supervisor is that of decision Inducting the new worker. The good supervisor must learn the principles of transfer of training. The handling of grievances. manpower cost. Managing the budget. Training responsibilities. the nature of habit interference. 5) Discipline handling : The supervisor acts as an analyst as he seeks the reasons for absenteeism or lateness to work. 2. to inadequate job training. penalty by layoff or demotion or finally dismissed. to wrong job placement. Safety. 3) Safety : Good safety practice is the responsibility of everyone. 5. 67 . He must keep records - material cost. grievances fall to the supervisor. He must have a working understanding of profit and loss. as a problem solve as he interprets facts that lead to correction of behaviour by encouragement warning. 1) Inducting the new worker : The supervisor's tact to in getting the new man to talk about himself in a free and easy way is essential to good supervisor. The Job of the Supervisor: 1. Communication. He must examine them for cause. 2) Training responsibilities : Some training responsibility falls to the supervisor. He must know how to prepare the best instruction sequence for the job at hand. 8. not grievances. but the supervisor goes the job of checking on the environmental and personal causes of accidents in his department.4) Decision maker: maker.. and what to about it. 6. Discipline handling. Worker rating. 4. to personal causes. 7. 3. 6) Managing the budget : The supervisor has the role of budget manager. whether attributed to work climate. 4) The handling of grievances : In their initial stages.

Cleare -cut prompt decisions not given for problems. commands and controls the people over whom he has authority. Using employees as scapegoats for the supervisor's errors. 6. Treats his people as inferiors not given for problems.either to general not complete. Over supervision. Deadlines not explained in advance. Insufficient knowledge of the work. Failure to support and fight for his people. despite difference regarding purposes and uses of tests. 9. Loud reprimanding in presence of other people. 13. Short-coming in Supervising The resentment for the short coming of supervisors may be listed as under : 1.7) Communication : The supervisor is a key-man in the communication network whether communication be up. 4. 5. Poor instruction . Most authorities define a standard test as "an objective sample of some aspect of behaviour" 68 . 14. The autocratic leader/boss indulges in such practices as he frequently directs. Such practices should be avoided by all means. among the critics as to the definition of tests. Failure to provide adequate materials or facilities for his people. down or horizontal. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST There is considerable agreement. 11. Never gives credit where credit is due. Refusal to admit mistakes. 12. 3. that is too close watching of everything people are doing. where needed/ Does not trust his people fully. 8. Failure to delegate authority to his people. 10. 15. Favoritism towar4ds certain individuals in the unit. 7. 2.

'average' performance as well as estimates of the degree of deviation above below average are obtained. validity and item difficulty level are usually experimentally determined before they are put to wider use. Examples of classification include diagnosis of mental patients. treatments and the 69 .The term 'objective' refers to the requirement that it's administration. GENERAL PURPOSES OF TESTS Tests are administered generally for the following purposes :- (I) Prediction : Tests are given to obtain a measure of ability. From this administration. instructions to subjects and other details. The decision to hire an individual is a selection decision and the decision to admit a student to college is a selection decision. (III) Classification : Classification is an arrangement according to some systematic divisions into classes or groups. Evaluation : Tests are used to assess and evaluate programmes. employers) and organizations to accept some individuals and to reject others. Tests are also objectives in the sense that reliability. Standardization also implies that norms or established normal or average performance on the test are available. achievement and/or other characteristics which will offer a solid basis upon which individuals can make decisions. choice of school. Standardization in tests to uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring uniformity regarding time limits. (IV) like. scoring and interpretation are free from the individual examiner's subjective judgement. methods. so that future users may draw conclusions concerning level of performance of subjects who take the test at a later date. a person should be assigned to. Norms are determined by administering the test to a large representative group of subjects for whom the instrument is designed. Classification involves deciding which of the many treatments or groups. (II) Selection : Tests are used by institutions (Such as colleges. Decisions involve prediction-how well individuals will do at a later time prediction based on quantitative data is likely to be more reliable and accurate and provide a balance against wishful thinking.

Norms based on large samples of students are available to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar population category or group. group tests are those that can be administered to more than one individual at a time. records the subjects responses. (3) Speed Versus Power Test : A speed test is one in which the examinee completes as m. for procedure and. while subjective tests require the scorer to exercise judgment in evaluating the examinees answers. Items of a power test usually range from easy to extermely difficult. A brief description of six ways of classifying tests is given below: (1) Standardized Versus Teacher Made Tests : Standardized tests are those administered and scored according to specific instructions.TYPES OF TEST : Tests have been classified in many ways be purpose. On the other hand. (4) Performance Versus paper and Pencil Test : Performance tests require the subjects to manipulate objects or assemble parts or actually perform tasks. (2) Individual Versus Group Tests : Individual tests are those administered by a trained examiner to one subject at a time the examiner observes the subjects responses to oral questions and assigned tasks and in addition. content. Typical performance tests are those which seek to determine what the individual usually does or most likely to 70 . A power test is one in which the examinee demonstrates the extent of his knowledge or scope and depth of his understanding with the time factor either eliminated or provided in generous amount. Teachers made tests are constructed for informal pupil evaluation within the class room and usually do not have extensive norms available. (6) Maximum Versus Typical Performance : Maximum performance tests are those which require the individuals to perform at his best to the best he can to demonstrate his ability. (5) Objective Versus Subjective Test : Objective tests require little or no judgement on the part of the scorer. while paper and pencil tests require the examinee to mark an answer sheet or to provide written responses. function as well as in other ways.any items as possible within specified time limits.

The are given below :- 1) Mental Ability Tests : Mental ability test were the first standardized psychological tests to be developed. Another way of classifying test is by the purpose for which they disigned or the aspects of behaviour they sample. 3) Aptitude Tests : Warren's Dictionary of Psychology defines aptitude as "a condition or set of characteristics regarded as symptomatic of an individual's ability to acquire with training some (usually specified) knowledge.. Types of Aptitude Test : A few major aptitude areas are mentioned below:- (i) Mechanical Aptitude : Mechanical aptitude tests cover a diversity of functions including motor perception and spatial and mechanical reasoning in a given situation.... 2) Standardized Group Achievement Tests : Greater emphasis is being placed on improving the use of standardized achievement tests.... or set of responses. Ability tests measures the individuals present status resulting from the modification of potential brought about by contact with environment. such as the ability to speak a language. to produce music . and 71 . and norms for evaluating performance." Lennon defines aptitude as "a combination of abilities and other characteristics whether native or acquired. The merit of standardized test lies in its providing.. skill. (a) (b) an objective independent judgment of what has been learned. test of special ability. known or believed to be indicative of an individual's ability to learn in some particular area. Mechanical aptitude tests are frequently separated into there groups :- (a) (b) tests of mechanical information and experience.

as in expressed interests. 4) Clerical Attitude Test : Clerical aptitude composite of abilities. dislikes or is indifferent to the activity in question. (ii) Manifest Interest : is synonymous with participation in an activity or an occupation. 72 . A knowledge of the strength and direction of an individuals interests represents an important area of his personality. (iii) Testes interests : refers to the interests as measured by objective tests as differentiated from inventories which are based upon subjective self estimates. In such inventories each possible response is given an experimentally determined weight and weights are added in order to yield a score which represents not a single subjective estimate. concern or curiosity about some object. 5) Interest Inventories : Interests have been described as one of the main factors in the learning situation and as being the motivator of learning. Rabid observation of numbers and symbols is an important factor in the work of a clerical workers.(c) test of manual and finger dexterity. Expressed interests re often unstable and usually fail to provide useful data for diagnosis or prognosis. Examples of manifest interest are students who are active in dramatic clubs. particularly per children. Tests designed to assess clerical aptitude place emphasis upon perceptual speed and accuracy. (iv) Inventoried interests : refers to the assessment of one's preference for a large number of activities and occupations. depending upon the formation about the. These are:- (i) Expressed Interest : Is the verbal profession of interest in an object. The3 individual states that he likes. It's a fact that without interest very little learning takes place. Nature of Interests : Interests are usually defined as the "likes" and "dislikes" of an individual or the feeling of intentness. Super gives four interpretations to the term interest. but a pattern of interests which research has shown to be rather stable. task or occupation. or the accountant who devotes evenings to operating a model railroad.

Its major purpose is to indicate relative interest in ten interest areas rather than specific occupations. (b) The Juder Preference Reard : is another popular interest inventor. activities types and/or peculiarities of people and self rating personality inventory. Strong has recommended that the inventory not to be used with individuals below the age of 17 except in the case of unusually mature 15/16 years olds. Tests are :- (a) The SVIB (Strong Vocational Interest Blank) consists of four hundred items. It differs in approach and scoring of items from the strong. The SVIB comes into two forms. most of which are responded to on a "Lite" "indifferent to" or "dislike" basis. 73 . These items are broken down into groups made up of professional occupations. amusements. to verify or confirm choice ors to open up new possibilities. USE OF INTEREST INVENTORY Interest inventories may be used in :- (I) Counseling to help obtain information which will aid in educational and vocational decision-making. (II) as a starting point in teaching or studying the major area of occupations. will respond with socially acceptable choices rather than their own true preferences.VOCATIONAL INTEREST INVENTORIES In appraising vocational interests. Three such inventories are most frequently used. one for men and one women. the usual approach is by the use of a standardized inventory. many employ a vocabulary level beyond the comprehension of the examinee. school subjects. Problems in use of interest Inventory The following are the main problems:- i) ii) iii) they can be faked. and the possibility that examinees.

PERSONALITY INVERTORIES Personality tests are most frequently designed to measure such characterizes as emotional adjustment social relations and the motivational aspects of behaviour. is more changing and fluid. 74 . 16 Personally factors Form A. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY APPRAISAL The following question characterise the complexity of using personally inventories :- (1) (2) (3) Are the responses of the individuals honest or trues ? Does the individual understand the questions ? How can such inventions be interpreted when actually there is no ideal type of behaviour ? (4) How has the inventory been validated and what is its reliability ? Certainly the question of faking and malingering is always present. B. introversion extroversion. as contrasted to other kinds of tests. Guildford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. They cover measures of social traits such as relations with other persons including. for example. The behaviour measured by per4sonality inventories. Edward personal preference Schedule. This leads to complications in determining test reliability and validity. The search for adequate criterion data to establish validity is still present. Some of the personally inventories are :- (a) (b) (c) (d) California Test of personality. C and D. The number of available personality tests runs into several hundred and it increasing every year. ascendance submission. and self sufficiency.

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