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SCOPE AND BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY DEFINITION The Word „psychology‟ is derived from Greek Words, „psyche (soul)‟ and „logos (science)‟ Thus literally it means the „science of the soul‟ But to be a science, it must be able to demonstrate the phenomenon on which observation and experimental methods can be applied. But “soul” or “mind” or even “consciousness” can never be demonstrated nor even be observed. Thus the definition of psychology as science of “soul” or “Mind” or consciousness had to be changed as the science of “behaviour” How, as science of behaviour, “psychology deals with responses to any and every kind of situation that life presents. Human psychology is concerned chiefly with such activities as per receiving imagining, feeling, thinking remembering, and acting. Psychology attempts to collects, organize describe and to some degree explain and interpret the facts of experience and behaviour. “owing to the obvious fact that the environment is always changing and the human organism is always changing, and absolute science of human behaviour is a impossibility. There are however, no absolute sciences; even physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are far from being exact. Science is relative” Since Psychology is far from being an exact science, this is even more true of it. It is an emerging science. The ultimate aim of the psychologist is to make predictions about behaviour. Predictions help in controlling and developing behaviour. METHODS : Having agreed on aims of psychology, the psychologists must decide upon the ways of collecting date for prediction. The methods generally applied for the purpose are : 1. Methods of Observation: (i) It may be Introspection or Subjective Method when
observation is made by looking inward upon one‟s own mind. The method has the merit of giving us firsthand information and knowledge of what goes on in our mind it has the disadvantage of not knowing what is true of other minds.
Observation may be made objective by looking out wards upon the
external expressions of mind of other people / animals. This method helps in inferring the mental processes of other people / animals from observation of their outward looks, gesture. 2. Experimental Method : The experimental method of psychology teaches us to define,
the real problem, relate it to known principles vary certain aspects in the conditions while holding others constant, make hypotheses, collect and analyze data, and verify other hypotheses. The experimental method requires the we conduct experiments in ways that allow for repetitions and for control. It requires that we under stand the variables involved. LIMITATIONS In the Laboratory it is relatively easy to design experiments so that they can be repeated. Some experiments can also be designed in industries easily and can be repeated. However, may industrial problems are so complex that repetition under exactly similar conditions often is not possible. This, of course does not mean that experimental methods should not be applied to the industrial problems. It does mean that Industrial psychologists have to be aware of the limitations. However, we may say that psychology is concerned with mind as well as its expression in behaviour. It must combine all methods, together to get a fuller picture of the behaviour under study so that effective prediction, as far, as possible may be made. It must, there fore, combine introspection with objective observations and be supported by experimental method where ever possible. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY Psychology has many branches now. Some major areas are :1. General Psychology : Mainly deals with development of mental concept of human
beings with emphasis of the changes that take place during different periods in the life span. 2. Physiological Psychology : Mainly deals with the relation between mind and body chemicals and their effects on human behaviour. 3. Abnormal / Clinical Psychology : Mainly concerned with the individual, and
primarily in helping him become more adequately adjusted to his environment.
4. Animal Psychology : knowledge of human beings.
Studies the behaviour of lower animals which contributes to
5. Child Psychology of Development Psychology : It studies the gradual development processes of the child from very conception. 6. Educational Psychology : It is primarly concerned with the factor leading ot effective
acquisition of knowledge on the part of the learner and effective teaching on the part of the teachers. 7. Social Psychology : The main concern is the study of group behaviour. Behaviour of
man in society, It applies the methods and techniques of psychology to the measurement and the prediction of social phenomena, such as attitude formation, prejudice and group behaviour. 8. Industrial Psychology : “The branch of applied psychology which concerns itself with
the application of psychological methods and results of problems arising in the industrial or economic field, inclusive of the selection and training of workers, methods and conditions of work etc”. A dictionary of psychology James Driver. Industrial psychology is a branch of psychology. Psychology is the science of human mind and deals with human behaviour in work environment. According to Harrell “Industrial psychology is the scientific study of people at work, It includes certain principles of understanding people and the application of certain techniques of dealing with people” It can be regarded as and aid to human resources management, because its object is to make the work interesting and inspiring so that every worker puts forth his best. It is connected with changing the attitude of the worker in such a manner that he may find “leisure in his work” It seeks to give the worker the greatest amount ease, both physical and mental at his job.
The worker feels tired and becomes less efficient not only on account of overwork, but also because of mental uneasiness reflected through irritability, annoyance anxiety fear, resentment etc. “Remove these, increase interest, improve general „metal‟ atmosphere, and complaints of overstrain will mostly vanish” says Myers.
1. which are the “essential springs of all thought and action” These instincts require satisfaction. emotions and passions all of which combine together to influence his attitude and behaviour. the individual concerned is bound to feel dissatisfied and even frust – rated with his job and environment. On the other hand. it is the attitude of the worker toward his work and his employer which determines the results of his efforts. If a worker does not feel happy at his job either because he has no taste for it or because it is so repetitive that it is tedious.Nature and scope : When a manager organizes human relationships in an industrial under taking. love hatre. The concern. if the worker is not satisfied with the treatment meted out by his employer he will develop grievances against the employer and will not be able to do his best for. Assumptions of Industrial Psychology : The are two fundamental assumptions. Every human being his certain instincts. pride and curiosity. Individuals differ from each other in degree through not in kind. In the ultimate analysis. This is necessary because every human being has not only a body. The behaviour of an individual is governed and controlled by such powerful instincts as fear. The mind of the worker functions through impulses. 4 . if the credit gores to some body else. If a worker cam clan credit for creating something prefect. If they are not satisfied. under laying industrial psychology. he has to take into account not only the physical needs of the workers but also their psychological requirements. anger. his instinct for pride and self-display may be hurt and he may cease to work with enthusiasm. he is likely to adopt on indifferent attitude toward his work. whether in industry or in the social life at large. but also a mind. if gives his a feeling of pride which inspires him to work with greater enthusiasm. Similarly.
in appearance. Cause of Human behaviour : The second fundamental assumption that industrial psychology makes is that human behaviour is caused by needs. to take a very elementary sample.2. in aptitudes. and other traits. 5 . Human behaviour is caused and does not occur automatically be itself. in interests. He decides that the needs food to satisfy this want. Research has established clearly the fact that individuals differ in personal characteristics and these differences create difference in work performance and behaviour of individuals in industry. in personality. in motivation. Behavior is directed toward the fulfillment of satisfaction of certain needs. education. Some other need (say. Individuals differ in physical build. which become predominant in man at anytime. the urge to meet fried and share time with him) may become dominant and the individual then engages in behavior that will satisfy this urge. which constitute his behaviour. Once the need for food is satisfied for the time being. in physical skills. and acquired knowledge and job skills. Then he makes those responses by which be can procure food. an individual. has a want when he feels hungry. They differ also in their training. it will usually be found that there are differences in their productivity. Let us examine the implication of these assumptions and their relevance to industrial psychology here: Individual differences : The most fundamental assumption on which industrial psychology is based is the existence of differences among individuals. A need first appears as a want in the sense that an individual feels the lack of some thins that causes him to be dissatisfies and restless. Even when several people are working on identical machines. In other words he behaves in a way that he can get food and satisfy his need and his want. it then becomes his need and he seeks to fulfill it through certain actions and responses. intelligence.
Industrial Psychology has helped to make selection more systematic and scientific and less open to hit and miss methods. The findings and. the psychologist has made a place for himself in industrial organizations. 2. 1. reproduction etc). On the basis of these criteria. Application in Industrial Management : Industrial Psychology is a useful aid to the efficient management of the human factor in industry. 2. 5. By the use of psychological tests and systematic planned depth interviews. skills. Physiological needs (breathing. abilities. This calls for a systematic analysis of the job requirements to determine the criteria for successful job performance. These categories of need are arranged in a hierarchy with the second categories arising after the first has been met to a considerable extent and third assessing after the second has been satisfied reasonably well and so on. Selection and Placement: One of the most important factors in industrial efficiency is the selection of the right men for the right jobs. Self-realization (need to realize one‟s potentialities to the fullest extent possible). aptitude. techniques of Industrial Psychology have been applied with benefit to the following areas of industrial management : 1. 4. accident. Over the years. For this purpose. Ego (for respect. interests and personality characteristics are measured.The well-known psychologist Maslow gives the following classification of the psychological needs of man. 3. thus saving industrial organizations from frequent changes in the work-force and ensuring maximum efficiency and job satisfaction to individual employees. uncertainty etc) Security needs (need for association with others). Vocational Guidance (Counseling) : The aim of Industrial Psychology is to help in the perfect adjustment of men to jobs so that they can attain the highest levels of productivity and 6 . prestige etc). industrial psychology offers a whole array of tests. dexterity. reputation. predictors of job success are determined. The available candidates for a job are then evaluated in terms of these predictors and their individual differences in trials like intelligence. sleeping. the best incumbent for the given job is chosen. Security needs (against pain.
In this. Vocational guidance may be arranged by the Employment Exchanges or Counseling Bureaus manned by specialists. Not merely this.derive pleasure and satisfaction from their jobs. Counseling in an industrial firm may be required for workers who have problems with their work. It has also brought into focus the role of supervision and leadership in motivating workpeople. Since training involves learning on the part of the worker. it has been concerned about problems of fatigue. Training of Development : Much of the human effort in an industrial undertaking may go waste if the workers are not proficient in the proper methods of work. fellow-workers or supervisors. it with the requirements of different jobs to which he will be best suited. The causes of work behviour (human behaviour at work) are the needs of motives that drive or impel an individual. The attempt. This necessitates a systematic analysis of personal traits of an individual and matching. in such cases. Employee Motivation : The psychologist proceeds on the assumption that human behavior is caused and does not occur automatically. 3. Industry psychology probes into human behaviour at work to determine the conditions in which a worker feels motivated and works willingly and wholeheartedly to maximize productivity. 4. he has derived considerable assistance from the sociologists and anthropologists. Since Industrial Psychology seeks to sustain the motivation of the work people so as to ensure higher productivity. psychologists have also developed new methods of training for the workers (like teaching machines. programmed learning. boredom and monotony also and has made useful contributions toward the fixation of work periods and rest pauses. vestibule training. 7 . etc). Such adjustment can be attained through the use of the scientific methods of selection arid placement by industrial firms and also by the choice of prosper vacations by men. to behave in a way that increases his productivity. Industrial psychology has contributed significantly to the productivity movement in industry by identifying and the management to motivate employees can use highlighting the financial and non financial incentives. is to find out causes of the maladjustment of an employee and the remedy that can be used to make him well-adjusted. industrial psychologists have been trying to develop and apply principles of effective learning to industrial training. A worker can acquire proficiency on a job by undergoing systematic training.
Thus. In developing human engineering. work-place layout with the object of giving the worker the greatest amount of ease at his job. 6. An outstanding contribution of Industrial Psychology to better management of the human factor in industry is the analysis of morale and job satisfaction the over all attitude of satisfaction or otherwise with the job and work environment on the part of a work group. human engineering has brought out the possibility of improving the work performance of men in industry by designing jobs and equipment and changing work environment to suit the operator. work environment. Whereas mainly the engineers seeking to increase productivity by improving upon the equipment design have guided traditionally industrial management. 7. counseling etc. human engineering focuses attention on the man-machine relationship. Job evaluation methods developed by industrial psychologists aim at determining the relative worth or value of the different categories of jobs so that a rational wage structure can be built up. Human Engineering (Ergonomics) : An important aspect of industrial psychology is human engineering (also called ergonomics). traditional industrial management treated the job and the equipment and environment as given and required man to adjust to these. Merit rating techniques are designed to achieve a systematic appraisal of the worth of each employee in terms of his ability and performance for the purposes of promotions. Job Evaluation and Merit rating : To the industrial psychologist also goes the credit of developing suitable scientific bases of basic wage-rate fixation and employee performance appraisal. Psychology provides useful aid to management through the identification of the dimensions or the factors of morale and through the development of the techniques to measure employee attitudes and morale. transfers. Accident Prevention : According to the findings of a psychologist. Employee Attitude and Morale : Industrial Psychologists have been trying to examine the relationship between the attitudes of the employees and their performance. 8.5. Industrial psychology has humanised industrial management and opened the way to a much fuller utilization of the human factor in industry. 98 per cent of the accidents in industry involving injury to workers or resulting in deaths are preventable. He also 8 . They have also gone into the process of attitude change from the point of view of raising levels of individual group productivity.
in the production and consumption of goods as well as in the rendering of services. 9. This assumed that workers are individuals each pursuing his own interests and the workforce in an individual organization could therefore be compared with a rabble (dump of loose materials). Leadership is business in becoming more demanding and the person without a liberal education is handicapped in getting the kind of position from which he can move upward in any business organization. Industrial psychology is interested not only in the man at work in factory. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN MODERN INDUSTRIES Psychology is the science of behaviour. 9 . This shows how important psychological or personal factors are in any program of accident prevention. The reasons for studying human behaviour in industry arises from the fact that more leaders of modern industry are coming from the rank of university graduates. Human Relations : For a long time managers and industrial psychologists both regarded an individual employee as the unit of motivation and work performances it was believed that if the individual employee was taken care of problems of motivation and productivity would be automatically settled. The study of human side of management of supervision. It deals with the study of human behaviour. Industrial Psychologists have made a significant contribution to the development of safety programme and the preservation of the valuable human factor in industry by analyzing the factors that make certain individuals more accident prone than others. but in the salesman on the road and the girl at the desk in the office. They have also been able to suggest positive ways and means for reducing accident – proneness.found that only about 10 percent of the industrial accidents are due to distinctly physical factors such as faulty equipment or bad building conditions. Human behaviour is of vital importance in every industrial activity. or directing the activities of the large corporation. is the province of industrial psychology. It is the study of people producing goods.
therefore. that effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man in relation to the total job situation. we are concerned with technological advances and their effect on the production or goods because this determines our material welfare. the job must also be analyzed so that the abilities to look for. such as 10 . can be known. The Principle of individual differences implies. To over emphasize one category. to at least some degree because many people we known work there. We are concerned with labour management conflicts because its consequences often touch our pockets. absenteeism and low job satisfaction. LELECTION : The psychologist who work in industry is interested not only in day to day problems.Whether we work directly or not. These are (i) principle of selection ratio (ii) Principle of Individual Differences and (iii) Principle of prediction. however. If the abilities required for particular job are too complex. maladjustment. To ignore one category of individual differences is to invite future Problems in the forms of inefficiency. but also in long range programmes dealing with the effective utilization of human resources. Man‟s behaviour thus plays a part in all phases of industrial life. If these principles are adhered to the apparently complex system may be amenable to an optimum decision. The selection programme by which the recruitment process is implemented has three underlying principles. as consumers and as citizens we find our lives influenced on every side by industrial changes. and we are concerned with the problems in industry. To make the proper fit. the psychologist may co-operate with an engineer. The problem of fitting men to jobs is one of such issues that requires of know how to analyze abilities and this is purely a psychological problem. in re-organizing the work so that job is redesigned to utilize a greater degree the abilities that are available.
the derived information is quite meaningful. etc.cultural difference at the expenses of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover. Individuals need to be taught to perform in specific ways in order to accomplish certain aims. They begin with individuals who behave is in ways which are defined as thew end products of the training programme. he can derive a set of numerical term that imply “below average” “average” and “above average” performance on these tasks and terms of this group. This is what training and this is what training institutes and education systems do. Since the psychologist or the employment specialist deals with intangible human traits such as intellectual capacity or emotional stability. When the tasks and the group are relevant to some aspect of the job situation. TRAINING : Teaching or training men for jobs is another purely psychological problem and one that requires a fundamental knowledge of subject of learning. The question of utilization of human resources in industries leads inevitably to think of training. sensible measurement he faces a difficult situation when he attempts to determine how much of what trait an applicant possesses. Improving a man‟s adoption to his work increases both his efficiency and his satisfaction with the job. The aims must be specified and the behaviour of individuals must be shaped and modified so that they can perform the tasks required as members an organization “shaping” and “modifying” are the key works and they define the meaning of training and indeed of all education. However. HUMAN RELATIONS : 11 . that do not permit direct. From laboratory work the psychologist has found out how people learn and how they can be trained more economically. by comparing the individual‟s performance to he average performance of a specific group on certain will defined tasks.
which enables him to apply knowledge wherever they are needed. for the will of man cannot be bought so cheaply. The industrial psychologist usually holds a staff position. He helps to improve safety programmes and the works with the engineer on the human relation aspect of equipment 12 . The psychologist has discovered the basic principles underlying good supervision. Prestige.Human relations is an important part of the subject of social psychology. largely advisory. The engineer may design safety devices. Even the decisions of higher management cannot be reduced to a profit motive. Modern business has expanded so rapidly that there is a shortage of people for middle management and top executive jobs. many others remain. once the basic needs are satisfied. The will to work is largely a psychological problem. The economic incentive of wages is not sufficient to gain co-operation. but he must design them so that the men will use them. considerate supervision and proper placement of men are psychological tools for accident. After this part of the problem is solved. Training supervisors in leadership and in face to face dealings with employees is an important part of their development. Some people will have accidents despite all mechanical precautions. EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT : Another important area of industrial psychology currently receiving mush attention involves development of executive leadership. ACCIDENT : Even the problem of industrial accidents has a psychological aspect. The psychologist has discovered many things about the needs of the worker in his struggle for status for recognition and for the elements that lead to job satisfaction. The adjustments that employees make to each other and to the supervisor are greatly influenced by the supervisor‟s behaviour. freedom of choice and security become the more precious. Safety habits.
It has no relation with training. The industrial psychologist may draw up a plan for the executive development of newly recruits on one hand and discuss the problem of aging employees the other. Psychologists have long been interested in determining the ultimate cause of individual differences among people.design. lawyer. artist. abilities. vocations and race of his ancestors” It 13 . from career planning to labour relations. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR SIGNINFICANCE IN INDUSTRY Individual differences was the first problem to be studies in industrial psychology and has been studied more than any other psychological problem in industry. These upholding one point of view have often minimized or even completely ignored the possible influence of the other factor. and my own specified world to bring them up in and I will guarantee to take and one of them at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor. well formed. economic advantage etc. tendencies. Usually the psychologist divided the major causes into two general categories of heredity and environment. Watson an ardent behaviourist writes “Give me an dozen healthy infant. and passing from generation to generation. The other group the advocates of environment in matters of individual differences opine that there is no real evidence of inheritance of human traits. From personnel selection to training from supervision to job evaluation. the industrial psychologist moves in a wide and every varying scene. The advocates for the doctrine of heredity in the matter of individual differences maintain that the capacities. the inclinations. but depends totally upon “natural gifts present in the family. He assists the office of the public relations in its interactions with consumers and with the community in which the company operates. It is the surroundings and training the environmental conditions of life that “make the man” Dr. chief and yes even beggar man and thief. and the accomplishment of and individual are determined primarily by his inheritance. merchant. regardless of his talents.
For clarification the differences have been grouped into five arbitrary and not necessarily exclusive classifications : i) Physical Differences : Obviously. people differ in such physical characteristics as height. and such other cognitive processes as memory and discrimination. Other important physical differences that are not so obvious include heart functioning. religion and athnic traits. 14 . That differences are likewise present in the abilities of man is also a commonly recognized fact. The variability of human race results from the interaction of heredity and environment Neither nature nor nurture alone can explain the wide rangs of differences in mental traits so characteristic of the rece. sex. The principle of individual differences simply states that each person has own unique characteristics that enable him to do some jobs and prevent him from doing others. piano playing. ii) Mental Differences : People different in mental capacity in individual ability to learn specific skills such as typing. but heredity appears to be the determining factor in accounting for individual differences. social and family customs. blood pressure. age and outward appearance.has also been found through various experimental studies that the environmental plays and important role in determining the mental level and behaviour of the individual. weight. The people differ from one another is especially apparent from their physical appearance. However it seems probable that both factors are usually operative but their relative importance differs markedly in the determination of different personal characteristics. iii) Cultural Differences : People different in environmental experiences that lead to the acquision of specific attributes based on the cultural or social group in which they have matured. visual acuity and reaction time. in problem solving ability. Such differences include education. work experience.
ii) Numerical factor. maladjustment. The measurement of ability has been done mainly by I. and emotional reactions to event in their environment. To overemphasize one category. therefore. the effective selection requires the assessment of the whole man relation to the total job situation. such as the cultural differences at the expense of another such as mental ability is to court mediocrity and high turnover. iii) Perceptual factor measured by abi8lity to discriminate small differences in visual designs.iv) Ethical differences : Families differ in their behavioural norms. iv) v) space. multiplication and division. measured by spead and accuracy in addition. and it depends.Q tests which are composed of several separate mental factors. such as : i) Verbal factor measured by vocabulary. measured by the ability to imagine the way objects are arranged in . absenteeism and low job satisfaction. v) Personality Differences : People differ in personality that is social behaviour. Spatial factor. measured by figuring out relationships. in the first palace upon knowing what kind of human characteristics are required for successful performance on each of the various jobs. in the second place. and ethical standards and in their convictions about what does and does not constitute good conduct. upon being able to identify or measure such characteristics at the time of employment. 15 Reasoning factor. subtraction. The principle of individual differences implies. The crux of the selection programme therefore depends. values. temperament. To ignore one category of individual differences such as mental ability is to invite future problems in the form of inefficiency.
3. viii) Personality : Temperamental and non-intellectual personality traits are extremely important in some jobs.vi) The special aptitudes tests such as Mechanical aptitude tests clerical aptitude tests. Furthermore emotional and personality difficulties are often the cause of much of the turnover for even routine jobs. Since marked differences in ability do occur. it can readily be seen that proper selection alone greatly increases production. In those of executives and salesmen. it should be the goal of personnel policy to place individuals on jobs in which their individual potentialities can be realized in the form of satisfactory work performance. What do you mean by principle of Individual differences ? What are the main areas of individual differences ? What is the importance of differences in industry ? 16 . 2. yet no amount of practice on the part of one man will make him as proficient in his work as a little practice will make another. Thus in terms of the mutual interests of both employees and management. of manual dexterity and finger dexterity are uses in industrial selection processes. is not generally appreciated. they would appear to be of particular importance. Many believe that practice makes perfects. vii) Interests are an important determinant of the individual differences that are reflected in performance at work. Probable Questions : 1. IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES : The importance and the nature of the variation between people. Successful persons in the same occupation have to a large extent the same interests.
One has fairly fixed ideas about certain types of employees and another considers each of then on individual merit. It is reflecting a wholesome feeling from inside. How can you derive benefits from individual differences ? BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ATTITUDE Attitude has been described as “learned readiness to react in a certain manner which normally involves in part of symbolic act. Attitude is not a drive or force. The atmosphere is which on lives is determined more by his attitude than anything else. One person may always be looking to the past. It stems from both the personality and mental outlook. nor (ii) r5esponse. while another view them as opportunities from which a great deal can be learned. both at work and away from work. That is to say a certain object or situation will provide the individual with a framework within which he can react. an attitude is a way a person tends to feel. but outward actions and speeches of the individual show respect for the decisions made and co-operation in carrying them out. In other words. ignoring the present and future. Another is viewing everything in the present and future. It is much more. nothing is looked upon in the perspective of the past. Attitude is not simply getting along with people. or interpret a particular situation. It is an outward manifestation of wanting to be helpful and useful to the enterprise and to other employees. Giving not getting usually characteristics a good attitude. The kind of a person and the quality of this life. Attitude refers to probable direction. One individual will look upon mistake as total and permanent losses. An individual can have a good attitude and still differ with superiors on policies and decisions.4. 17 . it is determined by another from the way a person acts or responds to situation. is strongly influenced by his attitude. An attitude is neither (i) motive. An attitude is intangible. not the behaviour itself. see. as a motive is but simply state of readiness to respond.
a person. The attitudes. A positive attitude is directed toward a given object. positive attitude are classed as “Construction attitudes” Positive attitudes are characterized by the reaction of “YES” it can be done”. This is essential in maximizing managerial actuating works. People are not born with attitudes. The world belongs to those who have positive attitudes. a person acquires traditions. negative attitudes have been termed” “Destructive attitudes” Because. Success and victory thrive under the influence of positive attitudes. and adventuresomeness. First in past experience which is used to assist in evaluating and subsequently either accepting or rejecting the new situation into one‟s system of though. event or institution. they emphasize possible hurdles or stress the view point that the objective cannot be attained. beliefs. a. group. energy knowledge. Managers must first think they can before they can. From infancy on. Optimism is matter of attitude. 18 . Expressions typifying this attitude are “This is a poor labour contract and will no doubt give us plenty of trouble” and “Right now our organization structure is strong. opinions and knowledge.Two major types of attitudes : Attitude are generally classified as (i) positive or (ii) negative. Most objectives are accomplished far more effectively when positive attitude prevail than when negative attitudes are dominant. Formation and development of attitudes : Attitudes are learned or acquired during daily life experience. all of which helps to formulate his attitudes. Attitudes are acquired in one or a combination of three ways. policy. whereas a negative attitude is directed away from a given object. Managers should therefore strive to have positive attitudes and develop positive attitudes in their sub-ordinates. This is the direction to take “and” Let us advance along these approaches” In contrast. Frequently. that is. but I fear our positions next year at this same month.
Attitudes develop from the influences of emotions. Third and last is statement of an authoritative source. it is quite likely that the employee will have a constructive and sincere attitude 19 . the type of work done and the amount of compensation. the opportunities for advancement. The work situation is extremely vital in attitude development and frequently is thought of as the inclusive area which gives rise to attitudes. An employee‟s attitude is influenced by such things as the position and reputation of the enterprise. Attitudes are not necessarily related to the education and the intelligence of the person or the facts of the situations. social factors. acceptance of the attitude of the group of which a person is a member. understanding and cooperative. he may accept an attitude based upon the word of an authority. if an employees „parents. the thoroughness of training.b. and children. the caliber of leadership. Group codes and unwritten agreements not only guide and shape the group but give support to each member individuality. The influence of social forces is of tremendous importance in attitude development. But the work situation is by no means the only area. are wholesome. c. For example. What constancies and authoritative source depends upon the person involved. but to others the individual would not. When a person is confronted with a situation about which he is expected to have an attitude but about which situation he has limited a background or knowledge. Many attitudes are founded more on emotional than on rational basis. Certain conventions. To one person a particular individual may be considered an authority. An exceedingly complex pattern of influences tends to make up a particular attitude. wife. perceptions. It is not a question of simply combining three or four factors to produce an attitude. economic forces and motivations. nor of exposing several individuals to the same patterns of influences in order to form similar attitude among those individuals. habits and attitudes are required in order for the individuality to possess fully accepted membership. its policies and practices. Second.
his interests in their activities frequently means that he will have a favourable attitude towards his job because he seems that through his employment the means for providing his children are achieved. Government is another important consideration in the determination of attitudes.toward his work. Outgrowths of experience are of major consequence in determining attitude. Their attitude encompasses the fundamental truth that one cannot get until he learns to give and thus they divided genuine happiness and lasting satisfaction from his attitude. The mode of living likewise helps shape attitudes. others believe in giving. Being in close association or experiencing almost daily experience to a situation or activity tend to influence one‟s attitude toward that particular circumstance or entity. a person feels and thinks toward on object. their attitudes encourage the acquisition of goods. his plans for their future. This attitude may be carried over by employee to his place of work so that company rules and regulations are looked upon in various degrees of seriousness by an employee. What is associated with an object or is referred to in connection with it helps to determine the attitude toward that object. Some concentrate their entire efforts upon getting material possessions. position and influence. To a significant degree. The motives aroused with an employee by his children what he wants for the. A lawyer‟s attitude toward prosecution might differ widely from that of a social worker. others have the attitudes that most laws are probably necessary but many have little value and can perhaps be violated if it is so desired. the employee will frequently reflect this attitude in the kind and quality of work he does. Some view observance of the law as a necessary social control for the greatest overall good. not getting. Whether an attitude is favourable or infablurable depends upon the judgment in terms of the frame of reference. If the reference is highly 20 . Frames of reference : Frames of reference are also of vital importance in the existence and development of attitudes. On the other hand if his family is quarrelsome and a great deal of dissatisfaction is usually prevalent. In contrast.
if not more so. Attempts are being made to keep the employee satisfied means of various benefits. it will affect the efforts of these associated with him. conceit. Attitudes permitting such traits do not make the task unattainable. and further more. Importance of attitude in Management : Attitude is an extremely important concept in the managerial work of actuating A person is often descried in terms of his attitude. Attitude is also important because it holds the key to job satisfaction. but genuine employee satisfaction comes from finding real satisfaction in his job. If he nervous any faulty attitudes. narrow mindedness. Such as pensions. the task of management is lightened. lack of confidence. but they render achievement more difficult. It includes a great many things and frequently is an important as ability. jealousy. Competence may deemed not only outstanding talent. and coveresely a reference of low desirability will result in an unfabourable attitude. A person having limited ability and brilliance but possessing an attitude which is pleasant and fair toward other employees might well advance to managerial positions of greet importance.desirable. although at times he may not fully recognize it. When each individual obtain genuine satisfaction from his work. group insurance. Every employee reflects his attitude towards his work in his daily affords. There appears to be little doubt that the must frequent handicap of a manager is a faulty mental attitude or mental sets which consist of such things as believing an objective cannot be attained. Fundamentally that is what every employee actually seeks. Attitude is the key that either opens or closes the employees mind to the proper service motive installed by competent managers. his work will show it. fallacious thinking and personnel prejudices. expert. vacationary pay etc. training and wide experience. fear. but also a co-operative attitude. Work is as much a mental attitude as it is a concrete 21 . the attitude will be favourable. These benefits are all desirable and fulfill certain social needs.
However.thing. It is the right king of attitude that makes the difference. This tough mindedness is not more inertia or laziness but an active resistance to influence. People become set in their responsiveness. The individual or group that believes it can succeed. Persons are influenced favourably or unfavourable by examples provided experiences permitted. of the top management group‟s thinking illustrates the same point of view. 22 . frames of reference supplied. encouragement of certain motives and the discountenance of other forces. efforts to strengthen. that the mission can be accomplished his leader knows what he is doing are most likely to be most effective. Why does a person resist a change in his attitude? Primarily because of the attitude is a personal entity and exemplify a certain prize. Without positive attitude toward his work is an important reason for keeping him from obtaining employee satisfaction from his greatest potential his job. Research studies have confirmed that individual and group attitudes are commonly the difference between a highly successful work group and one that is not between a high production until a low production unit. affection or innermost readiness of the individual to response sociologists are the term “ego-involves” explain an attitude which is clung to by an individual because he likes to think of himself as one who has this particular attitude. Human being usually resist any attempt to change their attitude. Changing Attitude : There is little question that managers can influence employees attitudes. The old adage that employees reflect the shadow or perhaps more appropriately the light. modify or eliminate attitudes must handled expertly and with great care. In other words. the self-evaluation and strong desire to retain a present attitude depend in great measure not only on the possessor‟s confidence in that attitude but also in it being favourably responded to by others.
A person will normally defend his attitude when it is challenged Usually challenge is viewed as undermining something deemed important because values of one‟s ineffective involved. The greater the ego involvement of the person, the less the likelihood of gaining a change in attitude by means of arguments.
An existing attitude represents the outcome of a balance of motives supporting the attitude. Some of the motives export a strongest influence upon an altitude than do others. In order to change an attitude it is usually best to weaken the supporting influence. Other approaches such as frontal efforts to substitute new influences in order to counteract old ones are generally ineffective. The removal of accustomed influences meets resistance and arouse defenses.
The weakening of supporting influences can be attempted in various ways. Among the more common is to provide facts and knowledge which can be evaluated. The attempt here is to stress greater rational consideration than emotional Supplying export of authoritative explanations or view points along with the reasons for such view points can also be employed. In some cases, it is effective to get the individual to review his experience, to become more aware of what it means, and to re-conceived relationship of the individual with the reference group, that is, to reduce the ego-involvement by lowering the favourable respondence of the group to the attitude. Possibly the best way to achieve this so to talk with the group, request, their co-operation and support and appeal to the group a favourable decision. It is frequently less difficult to away a group than an individual. This is true for several reasons.
Firstly, When members of the group change the attitude, the individual can see that a change on his part will not reduce his relative ego-involvement.
Secondly, changes or acceptance of persuasive efforts are of ten more effective on a group than on an individual, the influence of mob-psychology and group motivations being exercised.
Thirdly, the attainment of an atmosphere of high enthusiasm, helpful for indicating changes, can best be reached with a group.
Some suggestions for developing favourable attitude : 1. Have a wholesome, practical outlook on life and your fellow employees. Think
optimistically, show enthusiasm, be genuinely interested in the other fellow, expect mistakes and misgivings but do not become depressed by them.
Take the constructive side of issue : Speak, wife and act from the positive view-point, Stress confidence and progress, avoid
fear and retrospection. Keep looking until some good is found and then figure out the best manner to utilize this good. Emphasize what to do and what not to do. 3. Associate with those who are successful : The people surrounding a person can exercise great influence upon him attitude. If they are experiencing full, rice, helpful lives, they serve as a favourable motivation and tend to encourage a person to greater and better accomplishments. It is difficult for an individual to maintain an unfavourable attitude when all those around him have a favourable attitude.
Give other the feeling of importance and self-worthiness : Permit others to participate, their opinions, build up their self confidence, and let them
know they are doing something worthwhile. Practice the philosophy of giving, not getting. Talk about the individuals astute accomplishments and his sagacity in arriving at the proper decision, but refrain from talking about him. 5. Feel deeply about certain values on life : A human being must have an outlet for his productivities; he must have a deep sense of responsibility for certain attributes of his own choosing so that he can anchor the whole of his activities around what constitutes to him a meaningful target. Probable Questions 1. Define attitude and mention the different types of attitudes.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
How attitude is formed ? Can attitude be changed ? What is frame of reference ? How it influences or affects attitude ? What is the importance of attitude in management? How to change attitude and what is precaution ? Give some suggestions for development of favourable attitudes.
BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY JOB SATISFACTION The terms “employee attitude” Job satisfaction” and “Industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. Similarly job satisfaction in not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. Job attitude is the feeling the employee has about his job, his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factors related to his job, Job satisfaction dissatisfaction is the result of various attitudes the person holds toward his job, toward related factors and toward life in general.
INFORMATION ABOUT ATTITUDE : Information about employee attitudes may be obtained from the following sources : 1. Formal Communication Channels : Assessment / analysis of employees feeling toward their jobs and factors related to the job, made by the foreman and supervisors is one of the most important sources of information of employee attitude. 2. Grapevine Channels : Rumored Attitudes are a part of all organizations. However, the information that rumors carry becomes altered and often distorted as it makes its upward movement. More dangerous
multiple choice questions.still are the attitudes communicated by the grapevine. Interviewing : This has been one of the main means of getting information of employee attitude. Within this structure. Security : The Factor deals with the steadiness of employment. slow downs. 3. The Questionnaire : The questionnaire technique is economical and also has certain advantages of objectivity of measurement providing for a quantitative treatment of responses. The results of many attitude surveys show that the lack of opportunity for 26 . there is an attempt to get answers to predetermined questions. Answers may be obtained through check lists. But it is already too late by the time such manifestations are evidenced and the damage is already done. particularly to the person striving for upward mobility. Behaviour Manifestations : Some of the behaviour manifestations such as griping on the job. yes on answers. attitudes of the majority of the workers never get impartially expressed. 2. Factors related to job attitudes : The following are the ten major factors related to job attitudes : 1. Opportunity of advancement : This factor ranks high in importance. for they may reflect only the extremes. Security is a strong reason for liking a job and is generally mentioned first by both men and women as contributing job satisfaction. 5. early quits and excessive absenteeism are true revealers of attitudes. The man with security feels that he is valued by the organization and that he has the abilities and opportunity to keep his job. 4. where the manager or worker feels he has a reasonable chance of working under conditions of company stability. In the guided interview.
Intrinsic aspects of the job : There are many reasons why people like their job simply for the sake of the job. third person may like his job because it is easy. Like security it contributes substantially to the employee‟s satisfaction. In terms of occupational level. gives him an opportunity to travel. Another may like his job parse because it brings him recognition. or public or public relations. Company management : Whether we deal with the size of the organization. 4. However. earnings. there is some evidence that there is a decrease in the importance of the advancement factor with increasing age. and are generally more important to factory workers than to office workers. Supervision : To the worker his supervisor is an equally strong contributor to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Men are much more expressive in giving importance to this factor than are women. the greater the satisfaction with the company. It is interesting that employers generally rank this factor near the top when they are asked what the employee wants. what the man does at his particular job contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Women seem more sensitive to supervision then men. Wages are more important to men than women worker4s. Wages : When this factor is ranked with nine other job factors employees give it fourth place. reputation. but for both bad supervision can be a primary reason for absenteeism and labour turnover. One may like it because he has the right ability and training for it. 5. 3. the employee believes that a good company is one which helps him fell some stability in his job. or is free of tension and pressure. 27 . Whatever the reason. there is some evidence that the high the skill level.advancement is frequently a strong reasons for disliking a job but rarely is opportunity for advancement mentioned as contributory to satisfaction. 6.
lighting. ventilation. Good communication means the opposite of being ignored. toilets and the like have been found to be equally contributing to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. especially married women this aspect has even more significance. Social Aspect of the job : This involves such needs as belonging and social approval. Communication : Communication means the formalities of conveying information. medical facilities. but it is never a reason for liking a job. The lack of good communication may be a reason for disliking a job. are a standard part of most jobs. leaves vacations and holiday etc. The social factor appears slightly more important to women than to men. giving orders / turning out annual reports. 10. cafeteria. This factor contributes to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employee. A man who feels himself a member of a productive. 8.7. Benefits : Employee benefits such s retirement provisions. They contribute to satisfaction and dissatisfaction. but among women. The extent and nature job dissatisfaction : 28 . Working conditions are substantially more important to women than to men. 9. are the contributing factors to job satisfaction. The factor of communication seems to be more important at the higher educational level. It is relatively independent of age and occupational level. cohesive group is happier with his job than is someone who finds himself a misfit. In short it may be said that needs fulfillment and positive attitudes and intrinsic aspect of jobs. Hours are more important to men than any other specific aspect of working conditions. Working conditions : Temperature.
job satisfaction is high among young workers but tends to go down during the first few years of employment. Effects of attitudes on productivity : A number of research studies found that workmen with positive job attitudes showed higher productivity than those with negative attitudes. It has been found in a number of studies that workers with positive attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than workers with negative attitudes.The average figure of job dissatisfaction found in varying industries (USA) is around 13% age as a factor has been shown from twenty three studies. The basic consideration is that high productivity accompanies high morale only when the attitudes of the group is very cohesive. In another way “The greater the amount the individual gets the greater his satisfaction and at the sometime the more the individuals still desires. but also of where he stands with respect to his level of aspiration. and show more boredom. Probable questions 29 . This can lead to job dissatisfaction when the discrepancy between levels of aspiration and possibilities of attainment gets too great. when the psychological climates favour high production. In general. those people with the strongest desires. the need for pay and job status increases. Aspiration and productivity : Morse pointed out that employee satisfaction was a function not only of how much a person receives from the job situation. daydreaming and general. When the environment provides little possibility for need satisfaction. and where the employee really wants to produce and get ahead. when the atmosphere is friendly. the less his satisfaction” (Morse) As the person grows older. or highest aspirations will be the least happy. It is also found that workers with positive attitude out-produce workers with negative job attitudes. People who are dissatisfied with their jobs are less outgoing and friendly. and when belonging to that specific work group is highly desirable to its members. discontent than the satisfied workers. where there is a good supervision. are more emotionally unbalanced.
everything we do learning. They save because they want security. 30 . 4. wants and they are generally directed toward some goal or goals. wishes. 3. which create drives and learned behaviour is drive reducing. An example is. motives. Motives are said to be needs. hunger. acceptance. Responses are determined not only environmental conditions but also by states within the organism needs. 5. approval. sometimes called secondary motives / drives are learned or acquired desires for particular goal such as power. even perceiving has a motive followed by reasons. People work because they what nice things. attention.1. money. a primary drive to obtain food which is based on unlearned biological needs. working studying playing solving problems. Practically all behaviour. achievement. The primary motives such as hunger. Other. Most people describe the cause of their behaviour in terms of goals toward which they are striving. 2. What do you mean by job Satisfaction ? Is it synonymous with industrial morale ? Which is more convenient and effective and why ? What are the main sources of obtaining employee attitude ? What are the factors related to Job attitude ? What are effects of job attitudes on production ? BIHRM MOTIVATION Basically the topic of motivation deals with the question of WGY animals and human beings do what they do. thirst sex and pain avoidance are closely co-related with physiological states. Some motives or needs are called primary needs because they are not dependent on learning for their basic motive force (although learning may affect the social expression of these drives). They fight because they are threatened.
Acceptance. Social needs : Belonging. Classification of Needs : A number of attempts have been made by psychologists to classify and categorize the various human needs into levels to relative importance concerning their impact on motivation. Threat. As soon as needs of lower level are by and large satisfied. Deprivation and so on. 5. respect). Self Actualization or Self Fulfillment needs : Realizing one‟s own potential. Physiological needs or biological needs : Hunger. 2. creativity. Thirst. The essence of this theory is that the overwhelming majority of normal human being have certain common. (status. 3. competence. The theory that has received the highest degree of acceptance is that of Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs. Man‟s needs are arranged in a series of levels – hierarchy of importance. basic needs which can be grouped into five levels and arranged in a hierarchy of strength as follow : Self-realization needs Ego / Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Biological needs 1. 4. Safety needs : Protection against danger. or desires impel the individual to action. Independence. 31 . Association. Giving and receiving friendship and love. Sex and so on (bodily need fulfillment). Ego or Esteem Needs : Self esteem (Self confidence. recognition. by others. appreciation.living standard habit of smoking etc. those on the next higher level emerge and demand satisfaction. achievement. The most important point here is that motives needs. knowledge) and personal reputation. self development.
if people who are supposed to carry out plans. Since productivity is closely related to motivation. Reasonable amount of work and satisfactory working condition. co-ordinate and motivate. Selection of best qualified employees when required. Social factors influencing motivation : 1. Prais for good work. are not motivated to do so. Under coercion they may have to do the task but it is no substitute of or voluntary action.The tasks of modern management are to obtain facts. 8. 7. We may say : Human performance ability motivation. planning and so on. 6. 4. One may drag a horse to water but cannot make it to drink. 10. 5. Prospect for future development. Jon security and freedom from unjust reprimand. plan. The motivation on the other hand is the function of social condition. Human performance of human input depends upon ability and motivation. Proper training and familiarization with company‟s objectives. Due recognition as an individual. individual needs and physical condition. Friendly and helpful criticism for correction of error. 3. 9. Schematically : Motivation = f (Social condition x Individual needs x physical condition). direct. 2. Pay as high as the going rate for the same type of work elsewhere. Fair grievance handling. 32 . It is of little use for the management to carry out other actives of getting facts. we may define productivity as : Productivity = f (Material input x Human input).
Proper lighting essential for health safety and efficiency. Regular supply of materials. The importance of various needs or wants which motivate man was expertly expressed by prof. Good maintenance of machines. This is a fact which is …………. But5 strong lighting strains worker‟s eyes causing fatigue which reduces interest for work. Well ventilation. Man continuously put forth the effort works. Physical conditions motivation productivity : 1. We may define individual need as function of : F (experience x education x cultural background x level of aspiration x perception x general economic condition x and personal situation) 33 . 7. Unnecessary noise must be avoided. “Man is a wanting animal as soon as one of his needs is satisfied. Doughlas McGregor as follows. Hot and humid atmospheric condition has adverse effect on efficiency. This process is unending. Prevention of accidents. healing and cooling has a definite effect on physical comfort. another appears in its place. 3. 10. mental attitude and fatigue. Ignored in the conventional approach to management of people”.11. 9. 6. participation in group activities. experience of progress towards goal and confidence in leaders. Motion economy. Good working space and sating arrangement. Noise causes annoyance to workers and hinders concentration. 5. Rest pauses providing good food and comfortable lounge during rest period reduces fatigue and help from favourabel attitude towards the company 8. 2. Work simplification. if you please to satisfy his needs A satisfied need is not a motivation. Mutual sacrifice. 4. It continues from birth to death.
rather such behaviour in man in part the result of management philosophy and practice. has lead to further research regarding the validating of conventional managerial assumptions. 3. The average human being prefers to be directed. 2. To achieve the desired behaviour. McGregor himself regarded theory X as an extreme and as an unacceptable set of assumptions about human being. These assumption are : 1. 34 . and subordinates have reacted in way detrimental to organizational efficiency. management hashed to impose still more restriction. But theory X does not reflect man‟s inherent nature . The average human being has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it if he Because of this human characteristic of dislike for work. according to McGregor. Pressure through the use of rewards and the threat of punishment has been used to achieve company objectives. theory X. wishes to avoid responsibility. has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. The assumptions of theory x and the approaches to motivation and supervision which result from it may indeed be what exists in many organizations. Pressure has bred counter pressure. Theory “Y” The accumulation of knowledge about human behaviour from many specialized field. has been directly derived from the first set of assumption. a vicious cycle has been set up and the assumptions of the theory seems to have been confirmed. most people must be controlled directed or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives. can. Management has regarded employees as indolent.McGregor “X” and “Y” Theory The bulk of current managerial principles. without ambition and resistant to change and responsibility.
g. thinking of methods so that organizational and individual goals are compatible. The most significant of such rewards e. According to theory “Y” many managers should near range their assumptions. lack of ambition and emphasis on security are generally consequences of experience. 6. Commitment to objectives is a result of the rewards associated with their achievement. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort organizational objectives. The average human being does not inherently dislike work Depending upon controllable conditions. The average human being learns under proper conditions not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Although these conditions may be desirable for some people. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination. 3. the satisfaction of ego and self actualization need can be direct product of effort directed toward organizational objectives. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as lay or rest. individual development and expression. Avoidance of responsibility. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only utilized. Management should adopt policies that promote on the job satisfaction. self direction individual freedom and inner direction. It is a new managerial philosophy as well as a criticism of traditional managerial policy and action. not inherent human characteristics. Under conditions of modern industrial life. 1. 5. Man will exercise self direction and self control in the servi9ce of objectives to which he is committed. Theory “X” emphasizes autonomy. not narrowly distributed in the population.From these date McGregor derived a new set of assumptions what he called theory “Y” These assumptions of McGregor provide a better example of human nature and therefore indicated the need for different managerial strategy in dealing with people. 2. 35 . others do not want and cannot handle them and are extremely uncomfortable with too much freedom. ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely. work may be a source of satisfaction or sources of punishment. 4.
Sometimes it may prove detrimental. work satisfaction has undoubtedly increased may work situations in modern industry. When strapped of value judgments theory “X” emphasis‟s dependence. contribution. Maslow etc. besides organizations become larger and spread in complexity. This is usually done by upholding morale of the workers and motivation them for higher production. ineffective time wastage may be reduced. The other criticism is that over implication of work has reduced job satisfaction. The current emphasis is on human relations and positive incentives. agreed that complete individual freedom is not the answer but freedom with limits varying in intensity. The basic principle is that every individual kikes to stand well in his own eyes and also in the eye of those whose 36 . Several authors like Erick from. theory “Y” emphasizes independence. By encouraging independence. domination and control. theory “Y” proponents expect to stimulate initiative. freedom and permissiveness. chiefly relied upon negative sanction based on fear and punishment to get the result. The workers either teed the line or faced the consequence of losing the job. It becomes an important means through which the employee can pursue his goals and since organizational goals are compatible with individual goals. Motivation based on fear Concept of Negative sanction : The old concept of motivation was based on fear.Unbridled individual freedom is neither compatible with organization goals nor is it desirable. Positive Incentives : Motivation and morale : By inducing the workers to work and creating interest in them for the work. in his pursuits he contributes to organizational achievement. The situation however changes as organized labours gained influence. Though it is true in mass production job. involvement and creativity of organizational members. In some new nations sudden freedom from colonial control causes virtual anarchy.
appreciation he values. there is less need to apply negative sanctions and they in any case a sanction should be reserved for individual cases and rarely if ever used on a group. What are the social and physical factors influencing motivation. What are the Maslow‟s classification of human needs ? narrate the „X” and “Y” theories of motivation. 4. the complete elimination of sanction would quickly get the administration into trouble. This is due to growing realization that positive incentives are more conducive to the welfare of the enterprise then negative sanctions based on fear of demotion or dismissal. 3. Although the right to fine or demote an employee under certain circumstances remains a tool in the hands of management for disciplinary purposes. This does not mean that negative sections should be discarded entirely. It seems neared the truth to say that as positive incentives are made effective. What is a motive ? What is difference between primary and secondary needs. The output and moral both increase when the policy of the company is employee centered and not production centered. it has now been replaced by positive incentives and morale. 2. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL MORALE The terms “employee attitude” “Job satisfaction” and “industrial morale” are in many instances used interchangeably. But according to Blum they are not synonymous. However. Probable Questions : 1. Similarly job satisfaction is not the same as industrial morale although it may contribute to morale. 37 . An attitude may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is comprised of a number of attitudes. The workers are favourable affected by a boss who treats them as human being and they are motivated to work for a company where there is confidence in fairness of the top management.
Attitude toward the company‟s objectives. Attitude toward the organization structure of the company. plans. According to the definition morale is the attitude of employee toward management members. the state of employee‟s attitudes toward their company and its mode of operation is a foremost issue and is commonly included under the subject morale. He must be aware of job to be done to defend or extend his store of values and his 38 . Job a satisfaction or dissatisfaction is the result various attitudes the person holds toward his hob. attitude toward their company and its mode of operation. those pertaining to the following areas are of tap importance : a) Attitude of mangers toward other managers of the same enterprise. and leadership. Thus morale concerns the state of employees. To have high morale an individual must processes firm conviction and values which make life worthwhile for him that he has the energy and confidence to face the future. Attitudes. the higher the morale. non- management members and vice verse. Attitude toward the size and type of enterprise for whom as working Emp0loyee b) c) d) e) morale may be high or low. and toward each other” Other stress the identification of the employees objectives with those of the company. Industrial morale is generated by the group. Attitude toward pay. hours of work and working conditions. From the standpoint of management. his readiness to react in one way or another to specific factor related to his job. are very vital to morale. The concept is that the extent to which an employees‟ attitudes enable him to realized maximum satisfaction of his desires with the fulfillment of the company‟s objectives. For the individual it is a feeling of being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals. toward related factors and toward life in general. While many attitude influence morale. therefore.Job attitude is the felling the employee has about his job. In a company industrial morale is the composite expression of the attitudes of the various individuals working there. toward their jobs.
Zest being the tope value and apathy the lowest value because if implies a complete absence of effort. It must not be assumed that all members of the group would feel the same way in any situation. There is interest and excitement in performing a job. c) Zest - implies high motivation. Staying quality – implies that a group does not loose. The general picture of the morale of various work groups may compared on the basis of level of morale as shown below : LEVEL OF MORALE Zest Activity Co-operation Satisfied Job O. Low morale indicates as attitude of apathy or resignatice. When zest is present. Might of its goal under adverse circumstances. Together for achieving the goal. It means perseverance. Individual difference are always present. The works commonly regarded as ingredients of high moral are : a) b) Team spirit describes a relationship between people.values must be essential agreement with those of his group and there must be in essential agreement with those of his group and there must be a co-ordination of effort in attaining objectives. 39 . confidence and standing.K Passive Co-operation Job Unimportant Work a Burden Hostility From the comparison it follows. Good morale is resistance to frustration. Without goal interest is absent or the obstacles between individual and the goal are regarded unsurmountable.
the type of foreman. It is possible to think in terms of group as unit describe the way group works. continuous. Job satisfaction demonstrates high morale among those who are satisfied with the job some of the important psychological Factors influencing high morale are : a) b) c) d) Mutual sacrifices. an attitude is the result of many complex forces and to change an existing attitude requires persistent. Participation in group activity. This is easier said than done As already mentioned. and Confidence in leaders. Acquired personality qualities derived from environment has a direct hearing on good morale. Satisfaction with the company : Such factors as company attitude to employees and society in general. Tolerance and freedom within group. 40 . Inborn personality differences which brings out differences in energy. influence stamina. Physical Factors : The degree of high or low morale differs from person to person depending upon his mental and bodily conditions. proper food and adequate rest also have a direct influence on stamina. and well planned efforts over a long period of time. ventilation and attractiveness of the shop and many other conditions which constitute the environment influence the morale of the workers.Nevertheless. Groups have personality of their own and one can think of a groups motivation. but the task can be done. attitude and adjust. determination emotional stability. Moral Building Programme : The first step in a moral building is to instill proper attitudes in the minds of all employees. lighting. Experience of progress toward goal. the sanitary facilities. Like-wise bodily conditions good health.
if any. the areas requiring immediate attention can be pinpointed and definite plans for correcting these trouble sports can be evolved and put into action. 2. especially those of irritation and trouble. status and recognition.K Employees answers to much questions the relative standing of such considerations as confidence in managers. 4. 3. records showing number of grievances. The Next step is evaluate carefully the results obtained in step No. Some managers advocate publishing the results of the survey along with what corrective measures will be taken. adequacy or communication.Second step is to measure morale to determine are areas where improvements can be made. 6 My Job is often dull My superior keeps his promises My superior knows a great deal about his job I can say that I think around here I have the proper tools and equipment to do my job We have a poor way of handling employee complaints 7. and the like. and analysis of employees. surveys. Morale measurement requires specialized techniques in handling and should be performed only be a trained researcher in this field. The working conditions here are O. other executives oppose such a practice. The decision must be based on the individual circumstances of each case. Employee attitudes can be catalogues by various means including by an intuitive basis. In contrast. and identification with company. 9. 8.2 In this way. Some of the questions used in a survey are show below as examples: Don‟t Know Yes 1. 5. 41 . rate of labour turnover. absenteeism. I take pride in working for this company The people I work with are friendly We have a good employee benefit programme No 10. employee benefits. Improperly handled it can have an adverse effect upon morale. interviews.
Although we have good measures of tiredness. but the reports of out feeling may actually be more relevant than the physiological measures especially for work of non-physical nature. One personnel Manager reports the case of a worker who frequently complained of feeling tired on the Job. We might suppose that work decrements. feelings of tiredness are subjective or psychological states that may accompany prolonged work. however. More specially the effort must constantly be toward the end that the managerial organizing work should be the very best possible. Psychological means for evaluating the effort expended in work are less precise than are the physiological measures. Following up on the supplication that the man was not being accepted in his particular work group. that is. A emotional upset may involve a kind of tiredness different from that resulting from a hard day of physical labour free from frustration. Feelings of tiredness are. by improving management. related to physiological changes. Morale can not be sought for directly. There is. But here are different kinds of tiredness related to different kinds of work. capable leadership emphasized and developed to all employees. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND BOREDOM Most people are familiar with such terms as “fatigues” tiredness” boredom” and “monotony” These terms are used to describe feelings. of course. and proper emphasis given to the human element in managerial decisions. no clear cut measures of boredom or fatigue. it must be improved by indirect means. This is not true. the actual decreases in proficiency over time. he had the man transferred to a 42 . lead directly to such subjective feelings. FATIGUE Feelings of fatigue.In the final analysis good morale is a by-product of competent management. the descriptions we can give of it are useful in certain practical situations.
he would retire with his lessons unprepared. REST FROM WORK It is known from experimental studies that a subject can become so tired from lifting a weight that he can no longer move his arms until he has had a given period of rest. Though he fought the impulse. He complained of being tired each night when he sat down to study. He may get less work done for each operation. employees take unauthorized ones. Here he soon came to feel that he belonged and he made fewer complaints. He and his wife moved out of his mother-inlaw‟s home and in two weeks the symptoms of fatigue were completely gone. fatigue should be prevented by taking rest periods before the fatigue gets in. It has been found in some instances 43 . it may take time longer to complete some piece of work or the quality of his work may be affected. the longer it takes to recover. finally giving up. From labor4atory studies under ideal controlled conditions and from less controlled industrial situations has come practical principles of work which says in effect. He was working quite effectively.similar job with a different group of workers. It is generally recognized that rest pauses improve worker performance. is followed by a long slow period of come-back. Reduction in work output : It is known that beyond a certain point a man‟s production rate gets lower the longer he works at a job. It is also known that efforts in work and lack of precision and co-ordination occur as a result of fatigue on phychometor tasks. Another case reported by a University Counselor was that a newly married student of twenty-four. Recovery. he could invariably fall asleep over his books. It formal rest pauses are not allowed. The more fatigued we are. was having difficulty with his courses. thought quite rapid at first. His scholastic performance brought him before the counselor.
An important part of rest is change of deviation from the usual or routine course of work. Day dreaming may be thought of as form of rest which allows the person to leave his job mentally. We know that worry can sometimes be lessened by putting something in the place of the worrisome thoughts. It is also important to keep an eye on production records routinely.that these are just as effective in combating fatigue as are those scheduled by management. because not all drops in production are caused by fatigue or corrected by rest. An of course. Here the worker actually rests while he works. Late starts and early quits. This study showed that rest pauses should be introduced just before production to fall from its maximum. It has been found through several studies that rest pause during work are beneficial to production. One way to get at the problem is by plotting production records throughout the working period and observing drops in production. In one study it was found that the introduction of 12 minute rest pause in the MIDDLE OF THE MORNING AND A SIMILAR PAUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE AFTERNOON increased the output by 29%. It also decreased the length of voluntary rest pauses 60%. The introduction of rest pauses which result in increased work output have been found to have a beneficial effect both physiologically and psychologically. are other forms of work stoppage. 44 . It is important to schedule rest periods before the drops occur. they improve the attitudes of the employees toward the working situation. Rest on the job can be obtained in a number of ways. Just when to schedule rest period veries from situation to situation. One way is to slow down activity. Some people resort to pacing their activities. with interruptions in between. Deviation involves turning something away from its course. physical departure from the work scene is a possible form of rest. as most workers on a piece-rate learn to do. The attitude of a person ahs toward his work determines to a large extent his need for rest. and it is most important in combating mental stress.
The important thing involved here is the change of activity.BOREDOM : Boredom is characterized by a lack of interest. If such a change is not possible in the job situation itself. the worked may have varied and discordant thoughts during which he keeps coming back to the amount of time still to be worked. Quantities which take about an hour to complete give more satisfaction than an endless flow along a conveyer. A practical way to remove boredom is to change one‟s activity. Wyatt suggests that the additional incentive and satisfaction which accompanies a pieces a piece-rate system of payment tends to retard the onset of boredom. Jobs which require continuous attention tend to be interesting. The two factors determining boredom are the amount of repetition in work and the degree of attention demanded by the work. then a change of pace may be accomplished by taking a hobby. The bored worked is inclined to over estimate the duration of time Although a repetitive task may not be attention demanding. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY FRUSTRATION AS A FACTOR IN HUMN BEHAVIOUR 45 . There seems to be general agreement that such susceptibility to boredom is individualistic. and those which require little or no attention leave the individual free to talk his neighbors or to think of other things. This where the work is automatic. where there is a little or no chance for conversation and where there is little or no personal interest in the final production its destination. because of the interest associated with awareness of achievement. A person who is by temper mentally lively and has a high degree of intelligence tends to be more bored by repetitive work than the person of lower intelligence who is submissive. It is differentiated from fatigue in that it involves the desire for change in activity rather than for rest or relief from the work itself . usually associated with repetitive work activity.
affection and a feeling of belongingness etc. (4) Inability to get along with others. This will be more clear if you look at the basic closed circuit model of behaviour. (3) Attaching labour legislation and (4) Opposing labour organization. it is the blocking of an organism‟s path towards a goal. In short. The management expresses its aggression by (1) Enforcing stricter discipline. love. (3) Damaging of equipment. (2) Constant Voicing of grievances. regression. shelter. however. attempts to attain a goal are blocked time and time again with the result that there is an accumulation of tension within the individual. The characteristics of frustrated behaviour are aggression. They need food. In frustrated situations the behaviour of the individual becomes emotional and unreasonable. At other times. RESGESSION : 46 . but these desires or motives get blocked in some way or other. showing relationships between causality. fixation and resignation. (5) Absenteeism and (6) Joining of militant unions. Displaced Aggression and organized Aggression. The symptoms of aggression commonly found in industrial employees are (1) Excessive criticism of management. Attempts to obtain satisfaction of needs and desires frequently meet with obstacles. But all needs are not fulfilled always and easily. recognition. status. comfortable and worthy of living. There are three forms of aggression viz: Elementary Aggression. Many times these blockages are only temporary and overcome easily. motivation and goal direction (Demonstration with Transparency). Some are more difficult ot satisfy. regardless of one‟s status or job. (2) Imposing penalties of all sorts. AGGRESSION : Aggression behaviour occurs when one resents interference but does not react to it as a problem. power. This frustration occurs because individuals have desires or motives which they want to satisfy.Human beings wants many things to make lives meaningful.
Regression is a break-down of constructive behavior and represents a return to childish behaviour. The management too show sings of regression when (1) Bosses refuse to delegate responsibility (2) Do not distinguish between reasonable and unreasonable requests and (3) Form blind loyalties for particular persons or organizations. Resignation is probably a dormant condition in which all aggression has been temporarily blocked. All forms of activity seem to be closed to the individual. In industry the resigned individual is one who has lost hope of bettering his conditions. (3) Unreasoned fear and (4) Responsiveness to rumour (5) Following the leader etc. In extreme cases. An action is respected over and over again despite the fact that the person knows it will accomplish nothing examples of fixation commonly meet in industry are to be found in (1) Individuals who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. People in this state of mind obviously have low morale and will remain socially neutral unless their mental condition changes. FIXATIONS : The terms fixation is used designate a compulsion to continue a kind of activity which have no adoptive value. 47 . adults regresses to the infantile stage and are considered as babies. This is a frame of mind which the oppressive rulers may desire to create. He becomes apathetic regarding his future. Signs of regression in industrial employees are (1) Loss of emotional control. who are unable to accept change old methods seem best and are defended whether they concern the nature of the method of work or the nature of industrial relations economic outlook. so he surrenders. RESIGNATION : Resignation is frustratingly resign one‟s lot to the guidance of some superior brain. (2) Lack of responsibility.
The study of riots and mob behaviour also reveals the attractiveness of destructive behaviour to certain groups of people. In other cases 48 . it is desirable that industry avoid creating frustrating circumstances. The frustration instigated movement develop into militant labour organization develops. Though the economic beliefs are almost similar. A group of frustrated people may become organized and since aggressive behaviour tendencies are present in such people. Regressive tendencies make people suggestible and easily led. Because labour then frustrated is highly susceptible to being organized into a strong labour movement.FRUSTRATION AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT : Frustration-instigated social movement-Any important social movement can transform the social. while socialism emphasizes the bette3r life. This social trend should not be ignored by the industrial organization. The objective examination of industrial strike shows that labour movement become more militant as attempts are mode to frustrate their activities. they may take the pattern of aggression. The tendency to fixate makes their behaviour stereotyped that they can be made to persist in any activity in which they started. the character of the two movements are different. they actually co-operate with management. Frustrations and tensions on a wide scale procede these outburst and are the underlying causes. Whether or not they will sweep away these things which are good evil in cociety depends upon the circumstances themselves. It seems reasonable to regard communism as primarily a frustration instigated type of movement and socialism as largely a goal motivated type. In industries where unions do not have to struggle for recognition. political and economic structure of the country. The manner in which frustration influences the character of a social organization may be found out from a comparative study of the communistic and socialistic movements. and the leader is the most important factor to determine the directive of the activity. it frustrated them and thus encourage the formation of militant labour movement. Communism gives the frustrated people an aggressive pattern of action rather than a promise of better things. The former is militant in nature and places great emphasis on the overthrow of capitalism. The leader of the movement determines the form of the aggression. The other types of behaviour which are characteristic of frustration lend support to an organization build around frustration. If it opposes unions which have goals.
cultural evaluation changes his nature. which affects their interests. frustrating them further merely increases their destructive potentialities. and thereby winning over their confidence. The contributions of both heredity and environment are important though it may vary in degree in different circumstances. it naturally extends co-operation with the management. By environment. Prior consultation with the employees on any matter. A grievance settlement procedure through a machinery set-up for the purpose. 2. In industrial enterpries working environment is the most important factor for sustaining and improving the efficiency of the worker. Since the unreasonable people are frustrated people. SOURCES FOR REMOVAL OF FRUSTRATION : 1. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY VORKING ENVIRONMENT “A person is what he is because of his nature and his heredity and environment” Man‟s biological evolution changes his nature.all forms of energy or energy other fores internaor external that invoke activity . in its broadest sense is meant all factors or groups of factors. It is a well known fact that productivity is the effect of individual ability and his motivation and the influence of environment in which his performs the job. 3. Schematically we may say that 49 . To keep the worker organized when the workers are recognized without any hindrance. behaviour response from the individual. To force them into submission in the hope that they will eventually become resigned and give up is psychologically unsound and dangerous.conciliation is the rule rather than the exception.
and low vitality of the workers resulting in reduction in productivity. which affects their efficiency. lighting or illumination colour. noise. 50 . Rooms. The physical factors include cleanliness. Spittoons should be provided in sufficient number and must be cleaned and disinfected at least once in every day. Temperature of Atmospheric Condition : Excessively high or low temperature and inadequate ventilation cause sickness. The workers are to go outside to recover from the unbearable heat. discomfort. Ventilation is required for the health and comfort of the workers which increases efficiency. sanitation etc. ventilation. the unhealthy and unhappy workers doing their jobs under conditions of physical and mental strain are inefficient producers. Living condition factors. passages and must be cleaned every day. The total environmental factors that influence human performance my be grouped under the following heads: a) b) c) d) Physical factors. 3. Organizational factors. temperature or atmospheric condition. Psychological factors. A M = Motivation and E = Environment. 2.P = (AxM) E = Ability Where P =Productivity. In some of our mills and factories little have been done to mitigate the effects of heat by proper ventilation. Cleanliness is essential to both physical and mental health. Therefore. Cleanliness . artificial or a combination of both. 1. The working place must be kept clean of accumulated dirts and debris. Ventilation may be natural. Ventilation .
HARMONIOUS EMPLOYEE RELATIONS 51 . Very high tones and extremely low tones are more irritating than those in the middle ranges. one study showed that the performance did not begin to deteriorate until around 900F. Noise : Noise has been defined as unpleasant sound. OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Workers are most loyal and co-operative when they have pride in work in their employers. there is no clear. Company restaurants which are clean. 6. In low temperature production decreases and accident rate increases.Although the most comfortable working temperature may be around 650F. If there is high morale in a group. Lighting or Illumination Good lighting speeds production. quiet and comfortable are conductive to workers mind. 4. It has been found that glare causes discomfort in workers and affects performance. In temperate conditions workers' comfort are influenced by repainting the4 walls and furnishings of the work place in colours designed to give a feeling of warmth or cold. while there are indications that noise reduces work performance. Attractive physical appearance of the plant provide for good sanitation and health of the workers. Colour : The use of colour is an important factor governing the workers feelings of heat or coldnees. In high temperature more errors occur and production drops. Clean and adequate toilet and wash room facilities are important factors for high morale. It is essential to the health. Management striving to overcome grievances in the job environment in one way of building up this pride. it may well stand grand greater noise levels without complaint that with another group with low morale. Insufficient light affect eye-sight. safety and efficiency of workers. 5.cult evidence in support of such a contention.
swallowing. relatively free from pain and able to grows. He needs. Living conditions outside the factory also have an influence. When relations between employers and workers are bad. the morale of the workers becomes low resulting in frustration and low output. in his early days. For sheer survival. What an infant can perform are only a few limited automatic reflex. Reasonable wages. Discuss very briefly the physical factors influences human performance. a lot of 52 . good understanding between management and labour. The mother must provide food and arrange the environment so that the child will stay alive. 2. when workers fear dismissal. when workers are dissatisfied with wages. Probale Questions 1. when working hours are long. living in slum areas have undesirable moral and physical effects and thereby adversely influences the workers attitude in the factor. What do you mean by environment? What are the groups into which environmental factors can be classified.Worker's behaviour usually reflects their material and psychological environment. eliminating. correct decisions on questions of promotion and at the same time well cared for work places. he becomes more capable of learning. he needs other people as identification models so he can become increasingly socialized. As he grows physically. sanitary facilities much better than "good enough for a worker" behaviour and bring about employment stability among the personnel. the infant needs other people to behave in ways which will bring all manner of need objects to him. good human relations inside the factory. Respect of worker's feeling an dignity helps to give him peace of mind. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY HUMAN RELATION & ITS IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATION A new born human infant is among the most helpless of living organism. crying and gross motor movements.
so he can learn to behave in socially acceptable. neurotic in institutions than in families. morals and social roles. psychotic. The child needs other people to reward punish him. How this transaction takes place ? Generally the needful individual buys the knowledge or skill from its possessors with money or anything else that is deemed of value equivalent to the skill. can be gratified only in relation to. He needs others in society for his growth and development. 53 . essential in defining the child's membership in varied groups. they become more often a social. The development of children is impaired by lack of maternal love. and social stimulation. There is evidence that without such close mothering. delinquent. learning of many skills important in the solution of problems and the gratification of assorted needs. The adult by virtue of vastly skill repertoire is much more self reliant than an infant or young child. play games and so on. Division of labour and specialization in knowledge and techniques are enormously developed in the present world. also grows the society in mutual interaction of its members.mothering caressing. holding. but still he needs other people for many reasons. In present day society. Most of the satisfactions which make life worthwhile . or at the least. or with co-operation of other people. He needs to be in contact with persons other children of his age. So. so each man is dependent upon many other people for the specialized skill and knowledge. co-operate. his physical development will be impaired and his social development will be deviant. physical survival and health. particularly in the west. no man can ever hope in his life time to encompass all the skills necessary to solve all his problems and gratify all his wants. in fact. and the learning of attitudes. values. where scarce the skill the higher the price. Contact with other people is thus seen as crucial for many aspects of Child's healthy development. feeble minded. so he can learn to compete. Thus we can see that none can live and grows satisfactorily by himself alone.
Job security. people work to achieve certain goals. BASIC OF HUMAN RELATIONS : The study of human relations is important because in organizational set up. The actual performance of an individual depended upon his willing less and capacity to perform. we implement the proposed and organized activities. One of the fundamental functions of the management is actuating which literally means the putting or moving into action. We can plan and organize but no tangible output is achieved until. where a large number of people work together to achieve established goals. important to keep in mind that all enterprises are built to serve people within and without the enterprise. 3. Individuals needs / wants are however numerous and they differ widely among people. therefore. as none can satisfy all his needs/ wants by himself. 54 . Pleasant working condition. It is. Therefore an understanding and application of human relations is basic to successful actuating. Thereby they satisfy their own needs as well as the needs of other group members. a person hopes to satisfy his individual wants/needs and to meet the mutual interest of the participating group. Actuating may be defined as "getting all the members of the group to want to achieve mutual objective because they want to achieve them. By accomplishment of the work and achievement of the goal. Human relations may be defined as the integration of the manpower resources for effective and maximum utilization by means of satisfying human wants and maintaining of satisfactory relationships among the members seeking these human wants. Some important wants are : 1. Fair pay.An enterprise is looking upon as a man made system. 2.
It is necessary for the managers to have some understanding of pattern of behavior involved in human aspects which facilitate in achieving organizational objects. a manager who thinks in terms of healthy relations. the president of American management Association: "Management is the development of people and not direction of things. Efficient leadership. 6. The relative importance of these wants differ from individual to individual from one occasion to another.4. who is apathetic and frustrated. 5. The people of an organization represent an aggregate of individuals brought together to do a job. cannot do justice to his work. Acceptance as member of work group. Recognition of good work. Their reactions to one another. Opportunity for development. Although they may represent a "work force" they bring with them all the fears. hopes. ambitions. Interesting work. They have different psychological make up. is very likely to be more effective than one who pays no attention to human relations with and among his subordinates. An individual who is torn in internal conflicts. 8. to their surroundings to the jobs and to the supervisor usually show significant variations. They are influenced by individual characteristics. place in the organization etc. His seemingly erratic and at times irrational behaviour stamp from the fact that employees do not shed their responsibilities. different experience and different aspirations. and values when they come to work. who attempts to understand what they are and what role they play in achieving smoothness in operation. 7. and whose relation with other individuals are disturbing to him. Therefore. frustrations. The executive or 55 . the are to pay attention to those human relations factors which influence their effectiveness. moods. If this fact were more generally accepted. beliefs. background. disappointments. These variations are reflected in a wide variety of individual actions. According to Lawrence A. goals and beliefs that have shaped their personalities and their life style. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RELATIONS Since the managements' objective is to achieve the set goal effectively. many Management difficulties would disappear.
more than what you say. is admitting that he cannot manage". APPLICATION OF HUMAN RELATIONS Normally employees work better and are more satisfied when they know that management is interested in them and is concerned about their wants and welfare. They appreciate being viewed and treated as human being and accepted as member of working group. and Inspiring them with confidence in their ability to accomplish the objectives. “Success in management in largely a matter of :Getting competent people. They participate fully where the performance is duly recognized. extensive study of literature available on the subject and considerable practical experience in dealing with people. recognizing work well done and ensuring fair play. Make people feel important: Recognition and status are of prime consideration to most people. Some of the important points. Employees work towards greater accomplishments where there is some incentive always work better under democratic leadership and they believe in what you do. a) b) c) d) e) “Everything in management hinges around and involves the human element. ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE HUMAN RELATIONS: Favorable response to actuating efforts is obtained by treating employees as human beings. They appeal to people because everyone has an inner desire to feel important. encouraging their growth and development. Important of human management is expressed by various statements like:1. Explaining how to do it. Achieving effective human relations require a keen interest in human personalities. Telling them what you want to accomplish.manager who says that he would rather exhaust himself doing things correctly than expand the time and patience necessary to get other people to do them correctly. Giving them responsibility. instilling a desire to excel. 2. 56 . which can provide guidance in developing the ability to achieve good human relations are :- 1.
He does not drive them. they will be motivated to work better. Know deep feelings of others: All human beings usually have deep sentiments about personal attachments. goal and interest do not appeal equally to all members of the group. experiences. beliefs and emotions. Recognize individual difference: It is important to understand the make up of each individual because the same desire. The questioning approach gives them opportunity to impress others with their knowledge. A good manager leads people. 8. If they could be convinced that they get their fair deal and are not deprived of fair privileges. Be a good listener: And problems and hurdles to harmonious relationships are revealed if managers listen what employees talk. Employ question to persuade: Most people like to talk about those subjects in which they are well versed and interested. Avoid arguments: No one really ever wins in argument. These sentiments should not be destroyed but should be used for creating harmonious relationships. and to tell his entire story often results in the talker's seeing the error of his views or in agreeing to other's valid points of view. 4. 5. 7. 6. Abstain from domination: Domination and use of fear for getting the work accomplished seldom groduce the desired results as people resent being dominated. Allowing the individual to talk himself out without interruption. 3. 57 .2. Arguments only aggravate the differences. Recognize most people are acquisitive: All human beings want to get what they believe is their rightful share.
On returning to work after absence. Workers who quit job without notice are also counted as absentees until they are officially removed from the pay roll. Interest in the occupation and in the company is decreased. An enlightened management therefore. Apart from the direct financial loss.A Islam For calculating absenteeism the fololowing formula may be used: Man-dayslost Absenteeism = Men-daysschedules x 100 Turnover is the rate found out by the above formula and is expressed in percentage. Absenteeism is one of the major problems in the industrial organizations in Bangladesh. High rate of absenteeism and labour turner indicates labour unrest. A simple count of unpunched cards or absence in the records may show the number of employees absent. we cannot quote any estimated cost but it may be said with convication that the loss is a colossal one. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation of an organization. the worker finds it difficulot to get started and regain his old stride. Every plant maintains records of days worked. production delays and high cost. always tends to minimize the rate of absenteeism and turnover.BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY ABSENTEEISM AND LABOUR TURNOVER Definition : Absenteeism is the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work. His work performance at high pace is affected". 58 . Absenteeism and labour turnover rate is a kind of industrial barometer. Some companies keep time cards. K. absenteeism breeds further absenteeism and becomes a habit. Excused absences should also be included in absenteeism figures as well as unauthorized time off. Since we do not pay any serious attention to this problem of absenteeism and turnover. Low rate show job satisfaction which speaks of peaceful industrial climate and ensures increased production and cost reduction. This is a test of soundness of management policies and mode of operation. there is not only general lowering of moral but distinct loss of skill and efficiency.
. 5 workers dropped off the pay roll..... 2..... ACCESSION RATE : Accession rate can be calculated by dividing the number of accession for the month by the average employment. for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month.. 1950 July 31 . Find the average number of employees by adding the number on pay roll on last days of two successive months and then divides the result by two for example. 2050 4000 Dividing by two 400/ 2000 2 2000 will be the average number of employees for July. 59 .R = 100 (totalspeperation) X 100 = 5% 2000 In other works... No..... the rate then is : S......... 100 is the separation figure then the rate is: S..........R = 100 (totalaccession) X 100 = 6% 2000 In other works...... 1. suppose 120 is the accession figure.. for every 100 workers employed in this plant during the particular month 6 new workers were hired...For computing the monthly separation rate and accession rate of a plant the following procedure may be followed..... Separation Rate : Separation rate can be found out by dividing the total number of employees separated from pay roll during the monthly by the average number of employees for the month.... on pay roll June 30 ..
The net labour turnover rate is the rate of gain or loss per 100 workers in the average workforce. Frequent visits home. The complexity of the problem renders solution difficult. Agrarian background. it is negative if separations exceed accessions. The factors may be grouped under the following heads. It is the accession rate minus the separation rate. It is (6-5) = +1. U. such as emotional disorders. It was found that the age bracket 45 to 55 has a decidedly better absence record than either those older or those younger. Lack of proper transport facility. the factors associate with the absenteeism should first be identified. The net turnover rate is positive if accessions exceed separation. to counteract the effect of high labour turnover.S. such other factors as age. Old age : In one study made in the Baker chocolate Division of the General Foods company.A. could account for all absences. Housing problems. The under 35 group has the worst record of all. Family responsibility and family disturbance. It would be unreasonable to expect that any single factor. In the example its positive. PERSONAL FACTORS : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Old age. Illness. Personal Habitsalcoholism. Distinction between kinds of 60 . Organization factors. organizational elemate and community conditions should also be evaluated door effects on absenteeism. CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a complex problem. and External factors. However. Sex. i) ii) iii) Personnel factor.
Participation in decision making is a major factor in the morale of all levels of employees. Absence of job satisfaction and security. Illness : It has been established through studies that emotional illness causes between a quarter and a third of all absence from work due to illness. Unfavorable working condition.absenteeism was also important. The high absence employees were found to have a lower drive level and to be less emotionally stable than the low-absence group. Older workers are absent for longer period (severity rate) but younger workers are absent often (frequency rate). training. Induction of the new worker is the beginning of his on the job training. Lack of leadership. High-absence group had a greater number of record instance of emotional disorders and other disorders with an underlying emotional basis. inducting and placement Lack of proper financial return. as well as group morale. In one study it was found that the workers with positive job attitudes have less turnover and absenteeism than worker with negative attitudes. Non-availability of recreational facilities. Lack of recognition of good work and career advancement. Lack of proper supervision. about 80% of all turnover takes place during the first three months of employment. get established in the induction process. Loyalty comes with the feelings of oarticippation. Lack of management attitude for well-being of workers. The induction stage is crucial in helping to reduce costly employee turnover. 61 . Organization factors : Some of the most important organizational factors contributing to high absenteeism and turnover are as follows: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Improper selection. Lack of employee participation or resistance to change also causes employee turnover. Lack of co-operation among the working group. The attitudes which promote individual job satisfaction.
be minimized. hartals etc. But it is not totally unsurmountable. The steps may be classified into three groups:Individual (i) Sound selection. proper training & induction and appropriate placement should be programmed. Political situation . Management should take steps to improve the condition so that the employee may feel that the management is genuinely interested in their wel-being. Easy availability of medical certificates from outside. They should follow grievances handling procedure to dispose off the employee complaints promptly and fairly. (iii) Housing and transport facilities recreational facilities and child care and educational opportunity to the children to the employees should be ensured.strikes. External : The employees should be properly motivated not to indulge in unauthorized absence causing loss of production and thereby increasing production cost. Proper health and safety arrangements should be made. (ii) Proper wages. For that a number of measures should be adopted by the management. good working condition. 3. (iv) 2. practitioners. management has to make the job more human by creating co-operative atmosphere in the plant. it is true but it can however. Organizational : Management should give due attention to the problem of absenteeism. Absenteeism may not be eliminated. Worker's participation should be encouraged and allowed for creating a sense of belonging. Participation in religious festivals.External Factors: Similarly some external factors influence the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover are: i) ii) iii) iv) Local weather condition. find out causes and take steps to mitigate those causes contributing to high rate of absenteeism and turnover management should train supervisors who are the keymen in absence control by ensuring proper working conditions. REMEDICAL MEASURES: It has been mentioned earlier that absenteeism is a complex problem and complexity renders solutions more difficult. career opportunity and appreciation of good work should be followed as policy matters. interpersonal relations and providing necessary motivational factors on the job. He has to imposes on his workers that unauthorized absence is a serious offence. They should not be 62 .
a skill which can rarely be acquired without training. His method of handling his section can make all the difference between loss of production and increasing output a good supervisor is a trained supervisor demands more than crafts skill or work knowledge. means "Seeing" Where "Super" means 'over' and 'vision' means seeing. Experienced supervisors recognize that there are no sure and certain rules for working with people. They should be motivated to place service before self. Effective supervision helps to maintain congenial working relationships resulting in increased output of quality standard. Thus supervision means seeing from above. The general principles of supervision while working with people are laid down as under :- 1. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY SUPERVISION : PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES Introduction : The work "Supervision" when considered from the Latin origin of the word. It is best performed in an atmosphere of good-will and tactful cooperation of the people and the supervisor. seeing the activities of the sub ordinates with authority. People must understand clearly what is expected clearly what is expected of them. there are certain general principles which are used by successful supervisors as guides. Basic Principles of Supervision : Supervision is the art of working with a group of people. 63 . Good supervision increases production and as such a supervisor is the key-man in the managerial set-up.motivated to avoid absence on avoidable circumstances. The success of the organization is the success of the employee. Human beings are individually unique and with due regard for the uniqueness of the individuals. It requires a supervisor to acquire the skill of a democratic leader who encourages employee participation and treats them as associates. it calls for skill in an-management. over whom authority is exercised in such a way as to achieve their greatest combined effectiveness in getting work done. The should not subject them selves to external pressure to absent themselves from duties.
their habits their attitude towards work their ambitions. People should have opportunities to show that they can accept responsibilities. the people should be judged by what they do. It rather be given by analyzing a situation to the people in such a way the situation itself gives the order involving need for action. How to get help from people : The people are there under the guidance of a supervisor to do a job. 7.their4 schooling. How to Give orders : Orders should not be given in the form of a direct command. 64 .2. Poor work deserves constructive criticism. 5. how they think and how they act. 4. 2. 6. He may encourage employee participation by allowing them to know "Why" of the orders. Techniques in supervising The basic knowledge and skill with which a supervisor goes about supervising comes only with practice. 3. By giving due weight age to individual differences. 3. How to Beging supervising Anew supervisor needs to know all about his people . The supervisor may also encourage employee cooperation by placing a problem before them for finding its solution. 1. It should be kept in mind that each individual has some unique experiences that have helped to make him what he is. People should be encouraged to improve themselves. Good work should always be recognized. He should judiciously delegate authority to see that he want them to do is done the way he likes to do it. and give a decision accordingly. 4 How to make decision : A supervisor should get full facts relating to a problem fit the facts together. People must have guidance in doing their work. People should work in a safe and healthful environment.
he has a reverse role. Loyalty of the Supervisor In one study it has been found that the supervisor who could understand the objectives of both the company and the workers were rated highest by management. employees look to their supervisors to solve their technical problem. He always belongs to major organization groups. 9. As management's representatives to the employee he is to carry out company policy. Dignity of people is important to every man and crition should be constructive. How to deal with inefficiency : The supervisor is to play various roles. 8. He should have sufficient information to recommend for action to whatever authority makes the final decision. the supervisor should go over the situation and seek for more reasons if fault persists. supervisors often become involved in extremely challenging and complex problems. How to settle grievances : Petty grievances may become tough. How to criticise : Criticism must be made in private. if they are not settled as early as possible. he should talk to his own supervisor and find out the course of action. 6.5. never in presence of a man's fellow workers. Management Role : In his scientific management roles. As a result. How to deal with misconduct : Although in such cases the decision has to be taken by the Personnel Department depending on the merit of the case but the supervisor is the main person forgetting facts. I. If talks fails. 65 . he should have patience and try to gain his cooperation. How to deal the problem child : The logical way is to talk to the man about his faults showing reasons. If no progress is achieved. As the employee's representative to management. the supervisor is to assume the following:- 1) Technician : Frequently. 7.
Trainer : The supervisor must carefully analyze the training needs of each employee and make necessary arrangement for specialist training. Each of these factors must be carefully brought together in an organized co-ordinate manner to create an organizer.2) Research/analysis : Another scientific Management role supervisors are expected to perform is that of researcher and job analyst. For management the supervisors represent the critical link to the operation of employees. evaluating them and changing the direction of the work group if necessary. job machines. communicator. 3. All these indicate that supervisors need a large measure of interpersonal or human relation skills. To the supervisors own subordinate they are management. 5. From this point of view a supervisor assumes the functions of a :- 1) 2) Counselor : The supervisor is to opportunity to air their problems. In performing the leadership function. Four important roles are to be played as . II) Human Relations Roles The supervisor must be a person who is sensitive to employee needs and intergrates these needs with the goals of the organization. 2) Organizer: The supervisor's world can be viewed as a complex of people. buffer and councilor. the supervisor can be either task oriented or people oriented. Human relations expert : The linking pin role implies that the supervisor will serve as a negotiator. Linking pin : Both employee and top management view supervisors as the key linking pins in the organization. 4. 66 . Functional Roles : The supervisor must be able to organize and Co-ordinate the unite human and physical resources to achieve the organization objectives. Motivatior : One of the key functions of the supervisors is to motivated the people. paper-work.- 1) Leader : Employees look to the supervisor for direction. III. 3) Planner: As a planner the supervisor has a major responsibility for determining exactly what the goals are. The employees expect supervisors to design new job procedures and to implement them when they prove to be effective. 3) Controller : Another important role of supervisor is controlling the work group to ensure that the appropriate work methods and utilized. materials objectives and goals.
and what to about it. 3. Safety. 1) Inducting the new worker : The supervisor's tact to in getting the new man to talk about himself in a free and easy way is essential to good supervisor. to inadequate job training. 6. to wrong job placement. not grievances. 6) Managing the budget : The supervisor has the role of budget manager. The good supervisor must learn the principles of transfer of training. The handling of grievances. Communication. He must know how to prepare the best instruction sequence for the job at hand. manpower cost. 4) The handling of grievances : In their initial stages. Another important functional role of supervisor is that of decision Inducting the new worker. to personal causes.. 5) Discipline handling : The supervisor acts as an analyst as he seeks the reasons for absenteeism or lateness to work. 2. penalty by layoff or demotion or finally dismissed. The Job of the Supervisor: 1. 67 . He must have a working understanding of profit and loss. 3) Safety : Good safety practice is the responsibility of everyone. whether attributed to work climate. He must keep records - material cost. 4.4) Decision maker: maker. Worker rating. Managing the budget. The good supervisor soon learns that gripes are often safety valves. 7. but the supervisor goes the job of checking on the environmental and personal causes of accidents in his department. as a problem solve as he interprets facts that lead to correction of behaviour by encouragement warning. 8. He must examine them for cause. Training responsibilities. grievances fall to the supervisor. the nature of habit interference. 2) Training responsibilities : Some training responsibility falls to the supervisor. 5. Discipline handling.
Using employees as scapegoats for the supervisor's errors. 8. 3. 4. Insufficient knowledge of the work. Failure to support and fight for his people. that is too close watching of everything people are doing. 12. among the critics as to the definition of tests. Never gives credit where credit is due. 11. commands and controls the people over whom he has authority. 5. Favoritism towar4ds certain individuals in the unit. Failure to provide adequate materials or facilities for his people. 6. Cleare -cut prompt decisions not given for problems. 2. 15. Such practices should be avoided by all means. BIHRM INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST There is considerable agreement. despite difference regarding purposes and uses of tests.7) Communication : The supervisor is a key-man in the communication network whether communication be up. Treats his people as inferiors not given for problems. where needed/ Does not trust his people fully. Refusal to admit mistakes. The autocratic leader/boss indulges in such practices as he frequently directs. Most authorities define a standard test as "an objective sample of some aspect of behaviour" 68 . 9. down or horizontal. 10. Deadlines not explained in advance. Loud reprimanding in presence of other people. Failure to delegate authority to his people.either to general not complete. 14. Over supervision. 7. Poor instruction . 13. Short-coming in Supervising The resentment for the short coming of supervisors may be listed as under : 1.
(IV) like. Classification involves deciding which of the many treatments or groups. instructions to subjects and other details. validity and item difficulty level are usually experimentally determined before they are put to wider use. a person should be assigned to. Standardization also implies that norms or established normal or average performance on the test are available. Tests are also objectives in the sense that reliability. Norms are determined by administering the test to a large representative group of subjects for whom the instrument is designed. scoring and interpretation are free from the individual examiner's subjective judgement. achievement and/or other characteristics which will offer a solid basis upon which individuals can make decisions. From this administration. Standardization in tests to uniformity of procedure in administering and scoring uniformity regarding time limits. 'average' performance as well as estimates of the degree of deviation above below average are obtained. treatments and the 69 . so that future users may draw conclusions concerning level of performance of subjects who take the test at a later date.The term 'objective' refers to the requirement that it's administration. Examples of classification include diagnosis of mental patients. GENERAL PURPOSES OF TESTS Tests are administered generally for the following purposes :- (I) Prediction : Tests are given to obtain a measure of ability. choice of school. The decision to hire an individual is a selection decision and the decision to admit a student to college is a selection decision. methods. Decisions involve prediction-how well individuals will do at a later time prediction based on quantitative data is likely to be more reliable and accurate and provide a balance against wishful thinking. (III) Classification : Classification is an arrangement according to some systematic divisions into classes or groups. Evaluation : Tests are used to assess and evaluate programmes. employers) and organizations to accept some individuals and to reject others. (II) Selection : Tests are used by institutions (Such as colleges.
function as well as in other ways. while subjective tests require the scorer to exercise judgment in evaluating the examinees answers.any items as possible within specified time limits. for procedure and. A brief description of six ways of classifying tests is given below: (1) Standardized Versus Teacher Made Tests : Standardized tests are those administered and scored according to specific instructions.TYPES OF TEST : Tests have been classified in many ways be purpose. content. A power test is one in which the examinee demonstrates the extent of his knowledge or scope and depth of his understanding with the time factor either eliminated or provided in generous amount. Teachers made tests are constructed for informal pupil evaluation within the class room and usually do not have extensive norms available. (5) Objective Versus Subjective Test : Objective tests require little or no judgement on the part of the scorer. Items of a power test usually range from easy to extermely difficult. (2) Individual Versus Group Tests : Individual tests are those administered by a trained examiner to one subject at a time the examiner observes the subjects responses to oral questions and assigned tasks and in addition. (4) Performance Versus paper and Pencil Test : Performance tests require the subjects to manipulate objects or assemble parts or actually perform tasks. while paper and pencil tests require the examinee to mark an answer sheet or to provide written responses. Typical performance tests are those which seek to determine what the individual usually does or most likely to 70 . records the subjects responses. Norms based on large samples of students are available to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar to comparation a subjects performance with that of others in a similar population category or group. On the other hand. (3) Speed Versus Power Test : A speed test is one in which the examinee completes as m. group tests are those that can be administered to more than one individual at a time. (6) Maximum Versus Typical Performance : Maximum performance tests are those which require the individuals to perform at his best to the best he can to demonstrate his ability.
test of special ability.do in a given situation. The merit of standardized test lies in its providing. such as the ability to speak a language.... and norms for evaluating performance. (a) (b) an objective independent judgment of what has been learned. skill. or set of responses. Mechanical aptitude tests are frequently separated into there groups :- (a) (b) tests of mechanical information and experience. The are given below :- 1) Mental Ability Tests : Mental ability test were the first standardized psychological tests to be developed.. and 71 . Ability tests measures the individuals present status resulting from the modification of potential brought about by contact with environment. Another way of classifying test is by the purpose for which they disigned or the aspects of behaviour they sample. known or believed to be indicative of an individual's ability to learn in some particular area.. to produce music .." Lennon defines aptitude as "a combination of abilities and other characteristics whether native or acquired. 3) Aptitude Tests : Warren's Dictionary of Psychology defines aptitude as "a condition or set of characteristics regarded as symptomatic of an individual's ability to acquire with training some (usually specified) knowledge. Types of Aptitude Test : A few major aptitude areas are mentioned below:- (i) Mechanical Aptitude : Mechanical aptitude tests cover a diversity of functions including motor perception and spatial and mechanical reasoning factors.. 2) Standardized Group Achievement Tests : Greater emphasis is being placed on improving the use of standardized achievement tests..
dislikes or is indifferent to the activity in question. A knowledge of the strength and direction of an individuals interests represents an important area of his personality. depending upon the formation about the. Rabid observation of numbers and symbols is an important factor in the work of a clerical workers. particularly per children. concern or curiosity about some object. In such inventories each possible response is given an experimentally determined weight and weights are added in order to yield a score which represents not a single subjective estimate. (iii) Testes interests : refers to the interests as measured by objective tests as differentiated from inventories which are based upon subjective self estimates. Tests designed to assess clerical aptitude place emphasis upon perceptual speed and accuracy. but a pattern of interests which research has shown to be rather stable. or the accountant who devotes evenings to operating a model railroad. 5) Interest Inventories : Interests have been described as one of the main factors in the learning situation and as being the motivator of learning. These are:- (i) Expressed Interest : Is the verbal profession of interest in an object. 72 . The3 individual states that he likes. Super gives four interpretations to the term interest. Examples of manifest interest are students who are active in dramatic clubs. as in expressed interests. Expressed interests re often unstable and usually fail to provide useful data for diagnosis or prognosis. (iv) Inventoried interests : refers to the assessment of one's preference for a large number of activities and occupations. 4) Clerical Attitude Test : Clerical aptitude composite of abilities. (ii) Manifest Interest : is synonymous with participation in an activity or an occupation. It's a fact that without interest very little learning takes place. Nature of Interests : Interests are usually defined as the "likes" and "dislikes" of an individual or the feeling of intentness.(c) test of manual and finger dexterity. task or occupation.
The SVIB comes into two forms. Strong has recommended that the inventory not to be used with individuals below the age of 17 except in the case of unusually mature 15/16 years olds. (II) as a starting point in teaching or studying the major area of occupations. 73 . Its major purpose is to indicate relative interest in ten interest areas rather than specific occupations.VOCATIONAL INTEREST INVENTORIES In appraising vocational interests. the usual approach is by the use of a standardized inventory. to verify or confirm choice ors to open up new possibilities. many employ a vocabulary level beyond the comprehension of the examinee. activities types and/or peculiarities of people and self rating personality inventory. one for men and one women. will respond with socially acceptable choices rather than their own true preferences. Problems in use of interest Inventory The following are the main problems:- i) ii) iii) they can be faked. USE OF INTEREST INVENTORY Interest inventories may be used in :- (I) Counseling to help obtain information which will aid in educational and vocational decision-making. school subjects. amusements. It differs in approach and scoring of items from the strong. Three such inventories are most frequently used. Tests are :- (a) The SVIB (Strong Vocational Interest Blank) consists of four hundred items. (b) The Juder Preference Reard : is another popular interest inventor. and the possibility that examinees. most of which are responded to on a "Lite" "indifferent to" or "dislike" basis. These items are broken down into groups made up of professional occupations.
Some of the personally inventories are :- (a) (b) (c) (d) California Test of personality. 16 Personally factors Form A. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY APPRAISAL The following question characterise the complexity of using personally inventories :- (1) (2) (3) Are the responses of the individuals honest or trues ? Does the individual understand the questions ? How can such inventions be interpreted when actually there is no ideal type of behaviour ? (4) How has the inventory been validated and what is its reliability ? Certainly the question of faking and malingering is always present. Edward personal preference Schedule. for example. as contrasted to other kinds of tests. 74 . is more changing and fluid. Guildford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey. They cover measures of social traits such as relations with other persons including. C and D. and self sufficiency.PERSONALITY INVERTORIES Personality tests are most frequently designed to measure such characterizes as emotional adjustment social relations and the motivational aspects of behaviour. The search for adequate criterion data to establish validity is still present. introversion extroversion. The behaviour measured by per4sonality inventories. The number of available personality tests runs into several hundred and it increasing every year. This leads to complications in determining test reliability and validity. B. ascendance submission.