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• uGejf rLepfygwrsm;wGivnf; wcsKd @ tm%m&/ wcsKd @u tm%m t0ef;t0di;f twGi;f / wcsKd @u Oya'wGi;f / D f k wcsKd @u Oya'y (Oya'yu enf;onf? Auy eJ@ wcsKd @yJ &Sonf?) d • olw@kd ue*&ufrsm;udk wufEiv#if wufonf? o0%fvmawmif;v#if ay;onf? G f kd f $ 'DtvkyfawGudk qufvkyfrnf? vufeufuiwuyJG A/S o¿mefukd t&efa&G;cs,p&mtjzpf xm;&onfh ta=umif;udk wifjyvdonf? kd f kd f f k • Auy udk acwfajymif;awmfvea&;vkyz@kd xlaxmifxm;wm jzpfonf? 'ga=umifvnf; puwnf;u S f f h rw&m;oif; a=unmcH&onf? Oya'wGif;a&mufwmuvnf; *syefawmfvSefa&;vd_if;udk pD;+yD; a&mufwm jzpfonf? (3) ESpyJ =umonf? f • 1948 rSm vufeufuiwuyJG wduonf? rwduv#if Auy zsuor;f +yD; jzpfvrrnf? (1948 kd f kd f k f k f f d d hf wke;f u Auyudk wef;+yD; rw&m;oif; ra=unmyg? zqyv tpd;k & jynfxa&;0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f J u ol@oi,fcsi;f OD;ode;f az (jrif) udk Auy tm; tydip;D &ef vrf;&Si;f ay;wm jzpfonf? od@k aomf l h kf OD;ode;f az (jrif) u ‘vuf0n!wa&;’ udyJ vkyaeonf? 'ga=umifh aemuf qH;k wGif OD;ode;f az h J D G f k f (jrif) udk zrf;&onf? Auy udvnf; rw&m;oif; a=unm&onf?) h k Auy u ajrv#dK;p&m&Sdv#if v#dK;zdk@ 0efrav;yg? awmcdkp&m&Sdv#if cdkzdk@ t+rJtqif oifjh zpfonf? ajrvnf; rv#Kd ;/ awmvnf;rcdv#if tm%m&SoawG xifwi;f tEdiusic&vdrrnf? k d l kd k f hf H hf Auy u ygwukd uspuspvspvspf zG@J onf? 'ga=umifh ygw0ifO;D a& trsm;qH;k umvurS D f f f D axmif*%ef; tenf;i,fyJ &Sonf? d ygwD0ifawGu b,folawGyg qdkwmudk tm%mydkifrsm;odk@ (b,fawmhrS) rwifjyEdkif? olw@kd bmom pHprf;,lz@kd yJ jzpfonf? Auy vufusef b,favmuf&w,f qdwmudawmh avhvm k dS k k pl;prf;olwi;f odonf? ppftyprm qdv#if pmwGvu/f "mwfye@J wuG &Sonf? ygw0ifopfawGawmh kd k f k S k J kd kH d D olwdk@ rodEdkif? rdrduvnf; pm&if;ray;Edkif? pm&if;ay;v#if A[dku opPmazmufwmyJ jzpfvdrfh rnf? 'ga=umifh ‘Oya'wGi;f b0 tm;rusvyg’ vd@k tjywfa&;wm jzpfonf? S (7) Auy bmvdcsiovJ? tvkyorm;/ v,form;/ +rdK@aevlvwfwef;pm;/ ausmif;om;/ wdi;f &if;om; t&if;&Sirsm;&J@ k f f k f or*~awG/ tpnf;t±Hk;awG/ toif;tzGJ@awG um,uH&Sifrsm;udk,fwdkif zGJ@wmudk awG@vdkonf? txl;ojzifh tvkyform;/ v,form;/ ausmif;om; or*~}uD; (3) ck zGJ@pnf;wmudk vdkvm;onf? • olwkd@ vwfwavmrSm bmawGvkdcsifovJqdkwm odcsifonf? • olwdk@&J@ vwfwavmawmif;qdkcsufawGudk avhvmcsifonf? • 1980 uwnf;u +rdK@ay: ‘rqv’ awmxJ Auy qd&if rd;k rqH;k ajrrqH;k wduae=u&vdrrnf? +idr;f csr;f a&;/ k k f hf wnf+idrfa&; &rSjzpfrnf? 'ga=umifh vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD ygwDwck &SdapcsifcJhonf? &Sdzdk@vnf; ‘1300 ta&;awmfykH wyfom;}uD;’ awGe@J !‡Ei;f cJonf? olw@kd .t}uH^m%f trsm;}uD; &onf? ‘1300 jynf&@J d _d h h a&$&wkEp’ (1350) rSm tJ'vkd ygway:zd@k tm;xkwc=hJ uonf? uHtm;avsmpm ay:onf? 'gayrJh uk S f D D f f G odkvfqdk;csifawmh ppfat;acwf ukefqHk;csdefeJ@ wdkufqdkifoGm;onf? ESpf (20) =umawmh txufrSm azmfjycJhovdk jzpfay:ajymif;vJcJhonf? ygvDrefvrf;a=umif;eJ@ ygvDrefyvrf;a=umif;qdk+yD; jzpfaeonf? (8) Auy u jynfo@l 'rua&pDo@kd jyefom;rnf? wdi;f jynf.uH=urRmudk jynfoawGu,wif zefw;D Ediz@kd um,uH&if D kd G k l kd f kd kf S udk,fwdkif OD;pD;wJh/ vGwfvyfwJhor*~awG/ tpnf;t±Hk;awG/ toif;tzGJ@awG +rdKif+rdKifqdkifqdkif &Sdvmatmifvkyfrnf? ‘2008 tajccHOya'’ wduzsua&;twGuf jynfoukd pnf;±H;k rnf? k f f l ygwD. ‘taxGaxGvrf;pOfopf’ wckcsrSwfzdk@ }udK;pm;rnf?

5

Ekiia&; dfH pDtiat (CIA) !ïerL; bmvkyz@kd vmrSmvJ kd f fS f

a&¸atmifpnf

(1) pDtiat!ïerL; Armjynfom;r,fv@kd tar&duefbufuyJ avoH kd f f S G ypfw,f? OD;ode;f pdetpd;k &uawmh avoHwwaew,f? vufcoifh f d f H vufrcHoifh pOf;pm;ae[ef&Sdw,f? (2) pOf;pm;&ayvdrfhr,f? uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;/ w±kwfqef@usifa&; av±l;xaewkef;u ae0if; ppftkyfpku pDtdkifateJ@ ajymifajymif wif;wif; yvl;cJhw,f? uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;oifwef;wufzdk@ axmufvr;f a&;t&m&SawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm; v$wcw,f? olw@kd S d f hJ xJu wcsdK@[m OD;odef;pdeftpdk;&xJrSm 0ef}uD;awG t&m&Sd}uD;awG jzpfae+yD? tJ'va[mif;awGe@J jyef+yD; qufo,z@kd e@J vlopfawGarG;zd@k D l G f vmcsifwm jzpfvdrfhr,f? (3) pDtiat!ïer;ª udk Armjynfom;zd@k wduwe;f olu tar&duef EdiiH kd f f G k f G kf jcm;a&; 0ef}uD;vd@k qdw,f? [kwEiw,f? EdiijH cm;a&;0ef}uD; rvkyf k f kd f kf Ediwmudk pDtiat !ïerL;u vkyEiw,f? w±kwukd &efvywhJ kf kd f f S f kd f f k f pum;udk olu vGwfvGwfu|wfu|wf ajymEdkifw,f? (4) OD;ode;f pdetpd;k &u pOf;pm;&ayvdrr,f? Armjynfvm+yD; w±kwukd f hf f &efvkyfwJhpum; ajymwmudk cGifhjyKEdkifrjyKEdkif/ pDtdkifat oifwef; qif;awGudk jyefvnfqufoG,fwmudk cGifhjyKEdkifrjyKEdkif/ oifwef; vmwuf=uygO;D vd@k ajymvm&if jiif;y,f&tcuf vufc&tcuf jzpf H rSmvnf; pOf;pm;vdrfhr,f? 'ga=umifh toHwdwfaewmyJvdk@ wGuf ygw,f? (5) xnfwu&r,fh udpwckuvnf; &Sw,f? Advae0if;acwfu Arm h G f P d k f jynf&@J t}uD;qH;k +rD&iu *syefjzpfv@kd pDtiateJ@ yvl;wmudk &J&wif; Sf kd f J wif; vkyEiayr,fh tck OD;ode;f pdetpd;k &&J@ t}uD;qH;k +rD&iu w±kwf f kd f f Sf jzpfae+yD? w±kwf+idKjiifwmudk cH0HhyHk r&bl;? [dkwkef;uvdk LDC av#muf+yD; aºu;0efxy0efy;kd udk avsmyg;atmif vkyEiwtajctae kf h f kd f hJ r&Sdbl;? (6) Advoef;a&$qu tm%mtarGcvuwhJ OD;ode;f pdetpd;k &rSm wjcm; k f D H kd f f qd;k arGawGvnf; vufcvu&w,f? txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;b¾m H kd f a&; tcuftcJy? pDtiat!ïerL;u aiGxyyu+f yD; vmrSmr[kwf J kd f f S k f kd bl;? wynfha[mif;awGeJ@ jyef+yD;qufoG,f/ wynfhopf&SmwmyJ vkyfrSmjzpfvdk@ zGwfr& "m;rqHk; tjzpfcHEdkifrSm r[kwfygbl;? 6

Ekiia&; dfH
NLD

. tajymif;tvJ

(b0if ; )

tay;t,l r #aewm apmapmuwnf ; u NLD (a':pk) eJ@ etz (Akvoef;a&$) tay;t,lr#aewm apmapmuwnf;uvk@d odxm; d f ygw,f? bmay;+yD; bm,lr,fqkdwJhudpPu olwkd@udpPyJ jzpfvkd@ ‘Auy’taeeJ@ =um;u0if+yD; ajym p&mrvkv@dk rajymcJygb;l ? tckawmh ajym&awmhr,f? d h &J@ tusyftwnf; NLD u ESpf ‘20’ausmf csufEkdifiH&J@ “uwWDyg awmfvSefa&;” vrf;a=umif;vkdufcJhw,f? csuEiie@J Armjynfu tajctaecsi;f vnf; rwl/ yx0Dtaetxm;csi;f vnf; rwlv@dk bmrS t&m f dk f H ra&mufcb;l ? “&&if&- r&&ifcs” tiftm;pkawG ‘&mausm’atmif tpktzG@J awG uG=J uwmyJ tzwf hJ f wifw,f? a':pkvnf; ‘&mausm’ atmif *k%x;l aqmif bG@J awG qkawG &w,f? f f
NLD

tif ' k d e D ; &S m ; wpwp jyKjyif a &;vrf ; a=umif ; “uwWDygawmfvSefa&;vrf;a=umif;” t&mra&mufawmh NLD (a':pk) u “tif'kdeD;&Sm; wpwp jyKjyifa&;vrf;a=umif;”ukd tm±Husw,f? 0ef}uD; OD;atmif=unfuwqifh Akvoef;a&$qukd k d f D tcsufjyw,f? tJ'Duwnf;u tay;t,lwnfhoGm;=uwmyJ? 'gayrJh NLD tzkd@u vrf;a=umiff; ajymif;a&;rSm tcuftcJ &Saew,f/? etz Akvoef;a&$tzk@d u rcufb;l ? vrf;jyajrykt& a&G;aumufyJG d d f H vky/f tm%mv$/J “2008 tajccHOya'” touf0if/ orRw OD;ode;f pdef tpk;d &opf zG@J vu&if acsmarG@ dk f aew,f? NLD tzkd@uawmh racsmarG@bl;? “uwWDyg awmfvSefa&;vrf;a=umif;” uae 180H 'D*&D “*i,fauG@ auG@&rSm” jzpfaew,f? 'ga=umifh “NLD ygwopf” jyefz@JG &wmyJ? D emrnf r ajymif ; / vrf ; a=umif ; ajymif ; wJ h NLD a':pk OuUÏ vkyfwJh NLD opf ay:vm+yD? ygwD0if “wpfoef;” pkrwJh? pkvkd@&csifvnf; &rSmyg/ “uwWDyg awmfvSefa&;” twGuf wufºuv_yf&Sm;ol ‘wpfaxmif’pkzkd@om cufygw,f? }uHh§zGH@ygwDeJ@ rdwfzuf tif'kdeD;&Sm;vrf;a=umif;vkdufr,fh NLD twGuf ‘wpfoef;’ &zkd@u vG,fEkdif ygw,f? OD;odef;pdef a':pk awG@qkHyGJ[m Akdvfoef;a&$ a':pk tay;t,lr#=uwm&J@ tusKd;qufyg OD;ode;f pdeu AkvcsKyfatmifqef; t&yf0wfe@J ykatmufrm a':pke@J awG@wm[m Akvoef;a&$ f d f H S d f a':pk tay;t,lr#wm&J@ tusK;d qufy? OD;ode;f pdeu Akvoef;a&$udk tmcHvuwm r[kwb;l ? J f d f dk f f 7

a&S@vl v$Jcsvkd@ r& tkbm;rm;u ay:vpDajymif;csiawmh a&S@v“bk&”ukd v$csv@dk &w,f? OD;ode;f d f l fS J pdeu ajymif;csiawmh ol@u,ol “aysmaysmif;ol” vk@d ykazmfv@dk &w,f? a':pku tJ'D f f dk f h H vkd v$Jcsvkd@ r&bl;? 'ga=umifh ygwDa[mif;zsuf/ ygwDopf xlaxmif&w,f? “uwWDyg awmfvSefa&;”ukd oHa,mZOf wG,faeolawGukd “uwWDyg vrf;cGJ”xm;cJhzkd@ ygwDopf axmif&wmyJ? Ak d v f a e0if ; eJ @ rwl b l ; ? ql[mwkdukd rif;tvSnfh +yD;+yD/ qif;ay;vkdufawmh-vkd@ ajymEkdifol &Sdayr,fh Akdvfae0if;ukd ajymEkdifol r&Sdbl;? yx0Dtaetxm;/ yx0DEkdifiHa&;uvnf; vkH;vkH; rwlb;l ? tif'e;D &Sm;u wki;f usyjf ynfusyf r[kwb;l ? w±kwe@J ukvm;=um;rSm r[kwf dk d f f bl;? ork'&m (2) ckudk cGxm;wmyJ? N Ekiiwumhtajctaeuvnf; ajymif;aew,f? ppfat;acwf ysm;&nfqrf;csef dfH d vGec+hJ yD? urBmpepfopf vGeyJG pae+yD? olrsm;awG vGwatmif a&SmifEirmjzpfayr,fh f h f f dk f S Armjynf rvGwfEkdifbl;? tmqD,H OuUÏ jzpfr,fEp-aemufwESprm “tmqD,H vGwvyfwaps;uGu” h S f f S f hJ f (AFTA) vmawmhr,f? Armjynfu vrf;ab;xrif;qkif zGiwmavmufyJ qk&ifawmh d hf d 'kuQawG@vdrfhr,f? =um;jzwf a &G ; aumuf y G J r S m a':pk Ekdifajc &Sdygw,f? OD;odef;pdefwkd@uvnf; &SdapcsifrSmyg? v$wfawmfxJrSm y0gpcs+yD; xkiaewJh a':pk &Sapcsirmyg? OD;a&$ref;/ OD;cifatmifjrif/h OD;wifatmifjrifO;D eJ@ Hk df d f S h tm;vk H ; u }uKd q k d = urS m yg? 0ef } uD ; wOD ; uawmh NLD w0uf x uf yk d r &bl ; vk d @ ajymaewmawmh &Sw,f? d ppftm%m&SifawGxJrSm aysmhaysmif;ol/ wif;rmol-qkdwm ,kHwrf;pum;yg? ppfAkdvfawG EkdifiHa&;vkyfaewJhacwfu ESpf“50”&Sd+yD? olwkd@ tHcGae+yDqkdwm rarhygeJ@? ArmjynfEiia&;ukvnf; tar&duef/ t*FvefEiia&;rsK;d vkd rpOf;pm;rdygapeJ@? dk f H d dk f H vrf ; cG J o G m ;wmuk d a0zef a ewm r[k w f / owd a y;aewmyg v$wawmfx0if+yD; “2008 tajccHOya'”ukd jyifr,fqwmyJ odygw,f? bm f J dk awG b,fvjdk yifr,fqwm rodao;ygb;l ? od&ifawmh tjyKoabmeJ@ a0zefrmyg? dk S raocif 'Drua&pD &apr,fvvdk ajymoH =um;ygw,f? touf“90” wef; dk dk txd ae&zk@d rSe;f &if ESp- ESpq,f tpdwtwGi;f &apr,fv@dk tmrcHwmvm; rodyg? f f f 2008 tajccHOya't& vkyr,fh a&G;aumufyawGudk rSe;f +yD; ajymwmvk@d xifyg f JG w,f? =um;jzwfa&G;aumufyrm ae&mtm;vk;H r[kwawmif trsm;pk &r,f? 2015JG S f rSm yk&r,f? 2020-2025 rSmawmh NLD u tºuif;rJh tEki&r,fv@dk rsm; rSe;f ovm; d df rodygb;l ? pdwu;l ,Ofcihf &Sygw,f? 'gayrJh uk,&ifqiae&wmu Armjynfppf tm%m f G d d f dk f &Sipepf qkwmawmh owdjyKyg? f d Armjynf EkdifiHa&;rSm }uHh§zGH@eJ@ NLD yJ &Sdaewm r[kwfbl; qkdwmvnf; ESvkH;oGif;yg?
NLD

8

umwGef;

umwGe;f aeOD;&J@ vuf&m(1)

9

umwGef;

umwGe;f aeOD;&J@ vuf&m(2)

10

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jynfolvlxk}uD; xdawG@cHpm;vkduf&wmu ygvDref'Drkdua&pDvkd@ emrnfwyfxm;wJh wjynfaxmifpepf/ AsL±kdu&uf t&if;&SifpepfeJ@ AsL±kdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW&m;}uD;jzpfygw,f? 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv 2 &ufae@rSmawmh Adkvfae0if;ppftkyfpku tm%modrf;ygw,f? ppftkyfpkukdvnf; awmfvea&;aumifpq+dk yD; emrnfwyfygw,f? awmfvea&;aumifpu jrefrmhenf; jrefrmh[ef qk&,vpfpepfudk cswuf S f D S f D d S f D r,fv@dk ajymygw,f? Ediia&;orm;tawmfrsm;rsm; rsupvnfueygw,f? wcsKd @qkd ordi;f wacwfopfc+hJ yD wk@d bmwd@k awmif kfH f d k f k ajymvmygw,f? qk&,vpf 'Drua&pD usio;Hk r,f? avmavmq,f pyfu;l rwfu;l umv wck jzwfoef;&w,fv@dk ajym+yD; d S f dk hf rqv wygwtm%m&Sipepfudk xlaxmifygw,f? ygw/D aumifp/D v$wawmfqwmawG/ jynfaxmifpqwmawG ajymyg D f f kd k dk w,f? jynfolvlxk}uD;cHpm;vkduf&wmu wjynfaxmifpepf/ ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ppfAsLua&pD,Eœ&m;yJ jzpfygw,f? 1988 vlxktkHºuGr_a}umifh rqv wygwD tm%m&Sifpepfysufayr,fh e0w tm%modrf;wufvm+yD; ygwDpkH 'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ usif;yay;r,fqkdwJh uwdeJ@ ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ppfAsL±kdua&pD,Eœ&m;ukd ajAmif usifhokH;ygw,f? 1990 rSm a&G;aumufyGJusif;yay;ayr,fh a&G;aumufyGJ&v'fudk taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ jiif;y,f+yD;wJh aemuf etz tjzpf trnfajymif;w,f? trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;/ ygwDEdkifiHa&;qkdwm ajymvmw,f? trsdK;om; nDvmcH usif;yvkduf/ &yfem;xm;vkduf/ jyefusif;yvkdufvkyf+yD; trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;rSm wyfrawmfu OD;aqmifr_tcef;u yg&r,fqdkwJhtcsufukd r& &wJhenf;eJ@ csrSwfcJhw,f? 'DaemufrSmawmh pnf;urf;jynfh0wJh ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDpepfqkdwmudk ajymvmw,f ? 2008 tajccH O ya'uk d a&;qG J w ,f ? 2010 rS m a&G ; aumuf y G J v k y f + yD ; 2008 tajccH O ya't& jynfaxmifpvwawmf/ jynfe,fEihf wki;f a'o}uD;v$wawmfawG qdwm ay:vmw,f? orRw OD;ode;f pdeacgi;f aqmifwhJ k $ f S d f k f }uHz@HG tpd;k &qdwm wufvmw,f? umuG,a&;eJ@v+Hk cKHa&;aumifpqwm ay:vmw,f? Advoef;a&$e@J Advarmifat;wd@k udk h k f D dk k f k f etzzsuor;f vkuw,fv@dk a=unm+yD; topfz@JG pnf;ykxrm b,frmrS rawG@&awmhygb;l ? orRwOD;ode;f pdetpk;d &uvnf; f d d f H J S S f pnf;urf;jynfh0wJh ygwDpkH 'Drkdua&pDpepfukd usifhokH;r,f/ tajymif;tvJukd tavmw}uD;vkyfvdk@rjzpfbl;? wpwpyJ vky&r,fq+dk yD; etz tpd;k & vufxufu vkywtvkyawGuyJ qufcef@caeygw,f? f f hJ f dk JG wu,fawmh 2008 tajccHOya'wk@d a&G;aumufyw@dk v$wawmftqifqifw@dk / orRw acgi;f aqmifwtpd;k &wk@d / JG f h h hJ pnf;urf;jynfh0wJh ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDwkd@qdkwmawG[m [efjyawGomjzpf+yD; ppftkyfpk/ ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ppfAsL&kdu a&pD,Eœ&m;udk zkH;uG,fxm;zkd@oufoufyJ jzpfygw,f? tajymif;tvJqkdwmawG[mvnf; [efjyawGom jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh wHv#yfukd a&xifwJholawGukdvnf; ay:aygufapcJhwmuawmh trSefyJ? vlwcsdK@ukd vSnfhpm;vkdufEdkifygw,f? jynfolvlxk}uD;uawmh ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ppfAsLua&pD,Eœ&m;ukd 2008 tajccHOya' o&zlaqmif; vdkufw,fqdkwmukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jrifygw,f/ pnf;urf;jynf0wJh ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDpepfwdk@/ jynfaxmifpkwdk@/ aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;wk@d qdwm toHom =um;&+yD; vufawG@rm ppftm%m&SipepfuyJ &ifqi&w,f? ppfAsL±kua&pD ,Eœ&m;eJ@yJ k S f dk kd f d zdESdyfcH&w,fqdkwmudkyJ cHpm;&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh orRw OD;odef;pdeftpdk;&ukdvnf; t,kHt=unf r&Sdygbl;? wHv#yfukd a&vkd@ xifaeolawGukdvnf; pdwfr0ifpm;ygbl;? jynfolvlxk}uD; pdwf0ifpm;wmu olwdk@vnfukyfay: cGpD;aewJh 2008 tajccHOya' o&zl aqmif;xm;wJh ppftm%m&Sipepfe@J ppfAsL±kua&pD ,Eœ&m;}uD;ukd b,fvdk cgcsypf&rvJqwmygy? tJ'D vnfuycp;D xm;wJh raumif; f d dk J k fG qkd;0g;udk cgcsypfEdkifrS wu,fh+idrf;csrf;a&;/ wu,fh'Drkdua&pD/ wu,fhjynfaxmifpk/ wu,fhwef;wlr_/ wu,fhzGH@+zdK;r_awG &&SdEkdifr,fqkdwm tawG@t}uKHt& &Sif;&Sif;jrifxm;vdk@ygyJ?

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ol rdef@cGef;ajymwmu v$wfawmfxJrSmyg? v$wfawmfqkdwmu 2008 tajccHOya'ukd aemufcH tjzpf tok;H jyKygw,f? 2008 tajccHOya'ukd a&$uvyfay:wif+yD; txGwtjrwf OD;xdy&u/f uwWyg f f G D teDpeJ@ v$r;f um aemufrm xm;+yD; ajymwJh rde@f ce;f yg? 2008 tajccHOya'ukd aemuf S G cH xm;+yD;ajymwJh ta,mifaqmif 'Drua&pD avcsKat;yg? ta,mifaqmifv@dk ajym&wmu 2008 tajc dk d cH Oya'tay: tajcjyK+yD; ajymwJh tajym/ vkywhJ vky&yfawGqwmu tppftrSef 'Drua&pD b,fvrS f f dk dk dk rjzpfEkdifvkd@ygyJ? 2008 tajccHOya'u ppftm%m&Sifpepf om;pOfajr;quf wnfwHha&;twGuf ppftkyfpk u yEMu&uxm;wmrk@d 'Drua&pD&@J qef@usibuf jzpfae+yD; 'Dtay:u ajymwJh b,fvpum;rsK;d rS 'Drdk f dk f dk f dk ua&pD tawG;tac: tppftrSef r[kwEiygb;l ? twdtus ajymygr,f? 2008 tajccHOya'[m 'Dru f dk f dk a&pD vk;H 0 r[kwb;l ? 'Drua&pDe@J enf;enf;rS rtyfpyfb;l ? f dk rdef@cGef;&J@ tESpfom&ukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; jrifEkdifatmif owfuGif;udpPukd t&if &Sif;ygr,f? v$wfawmfqkdwmu olwkd@&J@ pnf;0kdif;yg? 'Dpnf;0kdif;twGif;rSm armif;cvkwfawG tqifhqifheJ@ owfuGif; jyifxm;ygw,f? yxrqkH; olwkd@*k%f,l0ifhºum;pGmeJ@ qef@usifzuftawG;tac:awGukd acsr_ef;zkd@ jyifxm;wJh armif;cvkwfu v$wfawmfukd ppfbufu vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;r_ygyJ? ta&twGuft& vuf0g; }uD; tkyfxm;r_u ykdjrifomygw,f? v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fawG&J@ ta&twGufu yxr armif;cvkwfyg? ppfwyfu wrwfom;ae&mawG ajAmif ,lxm;ygw,f? usefwmawGuvnf; t&yf0wf 0wfxm;wJh ppf bufuvlawGeJ@ ppfbufu OD;aqmifzGJ@pnf;xm;wJh }uHh@zGH@ ygwD0ifawGtrsm;pkyg? }uH@zGH@ygwDu b,fol@yg wDv/J b,fou ukixm;ovJ qkwm txl; &Si;f jyp&m rvkawmhb;l xifygw,f? 'Dawmh ppfbufu l df d d tenf;qk;H 75 &mckiEe;f v$r;f rk;d tkyp;D xm;wJh v$wawmfyg? olw@dk udk qef@usif vmwJh b,ftawG;tac: df _ f f b,ft,ltq b,ftqkjd yKcsuawGurqkd 'D 75 &mckiEe;f ausmf tykip;D xm;wJh v$wawmftrwfawG f dk df _ df f uae tjywftowftiftm;eJ@ tEkdif,l acsr_ef;ypfvkd@&wm tvGef&Sif;yg w,f? aemuf+yD; 'Dtwkdif;vnf; vkyfae=uwmygyJ? EkdifiHwumeJ@ jynfolvlxkukd t,kHoGif;zkd@ vkdtyfvmrS (aemuf+yD; topf jzpfwnfvm wJh olw@dk tpk;d &ukd 'Drua&pDt&yfom; tpk;d & toGiaqmifjycsiwhJ tcgusr) wcsK@d tqkjd yKcsuawG t dk f f S f Ekdif&atmif olwkd@vlawGu wHcg;ukd [ay;vkduf=uwmyg? 'kwd, armif;cvkwfu tckdiftrm XmeawGukd OD;pD;xm;wJh 0ef}uD;awGyg? ta&;}uD;wJh 0ef}uD; XmeawGukd ppfAkdvfawGeJ@ ppfAkdvfvlxGufawGu csKyfukdif tykdifpD;xm;wmukd owdjyKyg? wwd, armif;cvkwfu umvkH(trsKd;om; umuG,fa&;eJ@ vkH+cKHa&;aumifpD) yg? 'DaumifpDrSm vnf; ppftkyfpku 90 &mckdifE_ef;ausmf vuf0g;}uD; tkyfxm;wmyg? ykd+yD; ta&;ygwJh vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr_rsKd; yg? wki;f jynftwGuf wu,f ta&;ygwhJ tajymif;tvJawG v$wawmfu wufvm&ifawmifrS 'DumvkH d f tzGJ@u [ef@wm; acszsufypfvkdufvkd@ &ygw,f? pwkwˆ armif;cvkwu 2008 tajccH Oya'yg? olw@dk toufb;l vkd olw@dk taotvJ umuG,f f aewm 'DtajccHOya'jzpf+yD; olwkd@ pnf;&kH;aewmuvnf; 'DtajccHOya'atmuf 0ifa&mufvma&; jzpfyg w,f? aemufq;Hk armif;cvkwuawmh umvku 2008 tajccHOya'ukd uki+f yD; tm%modr;f a&; jzpfyg f H d w,f? (tm%mrodrf;ygbl;vkd@ olwkd@ xGufajym0Hhaewmu usefwJhtqifhawGuae 2008 tajccHOya'ukd olwkd@umuG,fxm;Ekdif+yDvkd@ tykdifwGufxm;vkd@yg/ olwkd@ppftkyfpk tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd wu,fwrf; +cdrf;ajcmuf vm+yDqkd&if tm%modrf;zkd@ 0efav;rSm r[kwfyg?) 'Darmif;cvkwfawGu tay:,H ta&cGHajymif;xm;wJh olwkd@ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd umuG,fa&; armif;cvkwfawGygyJ? 'Darmif;cvkwfawGeJ@ ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd qef@usifwJh tawG;tac:awG/ tqkdjyK wifjycsufawG/ v_yf&Sm;r_awGukd taoxk acsr_ef;ypfrSmyg? 'Dvkd jyifqifxm;r_tay:rSmvnf; olwkd@u ,kH 25

=unfpwcsr_ &Saeygw,f? auseyftm;&r_ &Saeygw,f? 'Dvdk jzpfvmatmifvnf; 2010 vdrnmnpfywf wJh d f d d f a&G;aumufyGJtygt0if ESpfwcsKd@ olwkd@ }uKd;pm;vmcJh&wmukd;? tckawmh t&yfom;tpkd;& ta&+cKHxm; +yD;+yD/ v$wfawmfukdvnf; ukd,fhtiftm;eJ@ tykdifpD;xm;+yDqkdrS ukd,fhpnf;0kdif;xJ 0ifvmatmiftjyifxGuf+yD; r#m;ac: vkduf/ 0ifvmrSmukd pnf;0kdif;xJu 'l;ESH@+yD; apmifhaevkduf vkyfygw,f? 'Dpnf;0kdif;xJukd OD;odef;pdef r#m;ac:aewmrSm tjrifomqkH;udpPu “xm0& +idrf;csrf;a&; azmfaqmifa&; t wGuf tqifh(3)qifh”qkdwmyJ jzpfygw,f? (OD;odef;pdeftpkd;&u oabmw&m;a&;t&a&m/ vufawG@t&yg taumif txnf razmfEkdifwJh“xm0& +idrf;csrf;a&;”qkdwmukd avvkH;xGm;+yD; ajymoGm;vkdufygao;w,f? “a&&SnftmrcH csuf&SdwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;”ukdom wkdif;jynfu azmfaqmif}uKd;yrf;oGm;&rSm jzpfygw,f) 'kwd, tqifhukdyJ azmfjyygr,f? ('kwd,tqifhuawmh jynfaxmifpktqifhyJ jzpfygw,f? 'DtqifhrSm aqG;aEG;&r,fhtcsufawGuawmh jynfaxmifpk uae b,fawmhrS cGrxGuz@dk / 'k@d wm0ef ta&;ok;H yg;ukd vufcz@dk / pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ zG@H +zKd;a&;vkyief;rsm;wGif ESpzuf yl; J f H f f aygif;aqmif&Gufzkd@/ rl;,pfaq;0g;eJ@ pdwfukd ajymif;vJapwwfwJh aq;0g;rsm; wkdufzsufa&; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufzkd@/ EkdifiH a&;ygwDrsm; xlaxmif+yD; EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufzkd@/ v$wfawmfwGif; a&muf&Sdvmv#if tjcm;aom wkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifh taustvnf aqG;aEG;n‡dE_dif;+yD; zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya' jyifqifzkd@/ zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'eJ@tnD wckwnf;aom vufeufukdif wyfrawmftjzpf &yfwnfa&; n‡dE_dif;aqmif&Gufzkd@) qkdygvm;? vufeufuif wki;f &if;om;tzG@J tpnf;awGe@J usewi;f &if;om;awG&@J qENu jynfwi;f ppf Ekiia&;jy\emukd dk d f dk G dfH pm;yG0i;f rSm wef;wl&nfwl awG@qaqG;aEG;zk@d yg? r[mu±k%meJ@ OD;ode;f pdef zGiay;xm;wJh wHcg;u olw@dk owfui;f jyif J dk Hk hf G xm;wJh v$wawmf pnf;0ki;f xJuyg? yxrtqifh typftcwf &yfpa&;umvrSmukyJ tcsef trsm;}uD; =umygvrr,f? f d dk J d d d hf Ekiia&;ygwD zG@J pnf;cseus&ifvnf; vufeufuitzG@J tpnf;u Ekiia&;ygwD wku±uz@JG v@dk r&bl;qk+d yD; t&yfom;toGif dfH d f dk f dfH d f dk f ajymif;cki;f rSmrk@d tcsetrsm;}uD; xyf=umvdrr,f? txpftaigawG trsK;d rsK;d vky=f uOD;rSmyg? 'DtwGi;f rSm wki;f &if;om; d d f hf h d tzGJ@tpnf;awG tiftm;enf;oGm;a&;eJ@ +zKdcGJa&;awG enf;rsKd;pkH okH;+yD; vkyfOD;rSm jzpfygw,f? 'DtzGJ@awG EkdifiHa&;ygwD zG@J vm&ifvnf; a&G;aumufyJG tEkir&atmif enf;rsK;d pkH ok;H +yD; npfO;D rSmyg? v$wawmfxJ a&mufom;&ifawmh olw@dk u df f G ykdif+yDaygh? aemuf+yD; jynfaxmifpktqifhrSm aqG;aEG;&r,fh tcsufawGukd tay:pD;,l+yD; owfrSwfxm;ygao;w,f? }uKdwifuef@owfcsufawG vkyfxm;wmyg? b,fvkdrS vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh/ wef;wl&nfwl&SdwJh aqG;aeG;r_rsKd; jzpf rvmEkdifygbl;? aemufqkH;uawmh wckwnf;aom vufeufukdifwyfrawmf qkd+yD; olwkd@vufatmufcHwyfawG vkyfypfvkdufrSmygyJ? 'geJ@twl olwkd@ajymwJh (xm0& +idrf;csrf;a&;) qkdwmvnf; typftcwf &yfpJa&;ukd tcsdefqGJ+yD; 2008 Oya'abmifxJ usKH;oGif;a&;uvGJvkd@ wjcm; bmrS r[kwfbl;qkdwm }uKdwifwGufqxm;vkd@ &ygw,f? e0w etz tpkd;&&J@ tcsdefqGJenf;eJ@[efjyvkyfcJhwJh twkta,mif+idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@ xl;rjcm;em;ygyJ? aemufwck olwkd@pnf;0kdif;xJa&mufatmif usKH;oGif;vkdufwmuawmh “trsKd;om; jyefvnf aygif;pnf; nD nGwfa&;/ xm0&+idrf;csrf;a&; aqmif=uOf;a&;pwJh EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOf” qkdwmygyJ? jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOfrSm yg0if oifh yg0ifxuf yg0ifEioawGtm;vk;H yg0ifci&a&; qkwhJ All Inclusive Political Process ukd u|eawmfw@dk }uKd; dk dk f l G hf dS d f yrf; wnfaqmufcygowJ? 'g[m v$wawmfwi;f 0ifa&mufa&;ukd n¸e;f qkaewmom jzpfygw,f? (jynfwi;f EkiiH hJ h f G d G df a&;tiftm;pk tm;vkH;[m tajccHOya' rlabmiftwGif;uae 'Drkdua&pDusifhpOfawGukd vkdufemusifhokH;+yD; jynfol@ ukd,fpm;vS,fawGtjzpf yg0ifaqmif&GufEkdifzkd@ pdwftm;xufoefpGm }uKd;yrf;vm=uwmukdvnf; 0rf;ajrmufzG,f&m jrifawG@ae&+yD) wJh? tusOf;om;awG v$wfwmukdu yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajym&&if =um;jzwfa&G;aumufyGJrSm tm;vkH; yg 0ifcGifh&apa&;wJh? EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGtygt0if tm;vkH;aom EkdifiHa&; tiftm;pkawGukd ol@ v$wfawmfxJ r#m; ac:aewm &Sif;vSygw,f? v$wfawmfwGif; a&muf&if olwkd@tusKd;pD;yGm; qef@usifwJh tqkdjyKcsufawG 26

t,ltqawGukd olwkd@&J@ jyifqifxm;wJh tiftm;eJ@ y,fcs+yD; trsm;oabmrwlvkd@ v$wawmfu twnfjyKvufcEijf cif; r&Syg bl; qk+d yD; vkyvurmyg? olw@dk tusKk ;d pD;yGm; f H dk d f dk f S odyfrxdcdkufwJh tqkdjyKcsufawG t,l tqawGavmufukdom vufcHtwnfjyKay;rSm jzpfygw,f? EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkawGukd olwkd@ jzpfapcsifwmu olwkd@wnfaqmufxm;wJh tiftm;eJ@ acsr_ef;vkd@&wJh v$wfawmfwGif; EkdifiHa&;ygyJ? v$wfawmfwGif;a&muf&if olwkd@ vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;wJh tiftm;awGeJ@ 0kdif;zdxm;=urSmomru 2008 tajccHOya'qkdwmeJ@vnf; olwkd@u zdxm;OD;rSmyg? (2008 tajccHOy a'&J@ t"du ruswJh tcsufawGavmufom olwkd@u tav#mhay;xm;wmyg) OD;odef;pdef&J@ rdef@cGef;xJrSmukd 2008 tajccHOya'ukd wkdifwnfajym =um;wJhpum;awG rkd;r$efaeygw,f? 'Drkdua&pD acwfopf pepfopfwJh? ,kH=unf=uygovm;? zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOy a'ukd A[kdjyK+yD;vkd@ OD;odef;pdef txl;jyK+yD; ajymoGm;wmukd em;v#rf;rsufpdv#rf; rjzpf=uygeJ@? 'Drkdua&pD toGiful;ajymif;a&;qkdwmuvnf; zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'eJ@tnDygwJh? ol@&J@ 'Drkd ua&pDo±kyfrSefukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; zGifh[jyvkdufwJh pum;uawmh “'Drkdua&pD toGiful; ajymif;a&;&J@ yËdnmOf rlabmif}uD;jzpfwJh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'rSm tm%m(3) &yfukd tnD tr# cGa0ay;xm;wm jzpfygw,f” qkwmygy? ppfbufe@J ol@aemufawmfygawG tm%m J d J tnD tr# cGJa0xm;wmuvGJvkd@ wjcm; bmrSr[kwfygbl;? 2008 tajccHOya'u yËdnmOf rlabmif}uD; vkyfxm;wJhtxJu b,fvkd ppfrSefwJh 'Drkdua&pDrsKd; xGufvmrSmwJhvJ? v,form;awG rw&m; ajr,mtvkt,ufcHae&csdef/ 'kuQEGHxJ tvl;tvJ epfrGef; ae&csdefrSm/ aemuf+yD; v,form;awGu v,form;or*~awGukd ukd,fhbmom zGJ@pnf;zkd@ jzpf vmwJhtcsdefrSm ac|;odyfwJhtaeeJ@ v,form;or*~awG/ tvkyform;or*~awG/ trsKd;om; pme,fZif;aumifpDawG “pepfwus” zGJ@pnf;a&;ukd xnfhoGif;ajym=um;oGm;ygw,f? pepf wusqkdwmu olwkd@tpDtpOftwkdif; zGJ@pnf;zkd@yg? rqvacwfu tvkyform;aumifpD/ v,form;aumifpD/ pmayvkyfom; qkdwmrsKd; jzpfvmrSmyJ qkdwmu aA'ifar;r=unfhbJ od EkiwhJ udpyg? df P olre@f ce;f wckv;Hk ukd Rule of Law qkwhJ pum;vk;H ukd t}udr}f udrf ok;H +yD; xde;f csKyf d G d oGm;ygw,f? ol@&@J Rule of Law u jynfoawG vkvm;wJh ppfrewhJ w&m;Oya'pepfe@J ppf l d S f rSewhJ w&m;Oya'pk;d rk;d a&; r[kwygb;l ? olw@dk ppfvuf0g;}uD;tkyf v$wawmft&yf&yfu a&; f f f qG/J 'D Oya'eJ@tnD olw@dk tpk;d &u tkycsKyfr,fqwhJ Rule of Law qkwm[m jynfoawGudk f dk d l zdEycsKyfcs,r,fh Oya'yJ qkwm rSe;f q=unfv@dk &ygw,f? 'D Rule of Law qkwm}uD;eJ@ dS f f d h d jynfoltay: t&dyfvkdrkd;xm;+yD; ajcmufvSef@zdESdyfxm;rSmyg? tvdrftnmpum;awG jrLqG,fwJh pum;awGeJ@ &ufoDxm;wJh ol@rdef;cGef;rSm a0zef zGifhcsp&mawG waxG;}uD;yg? a0zefzGifhcsolawGuvnf; zGifhcsaeyg+yD? odomxif&Sm;wJh tvdrf tnm pum;wcGef;ukdyJ Oyrmay;yg&apawmh? jrefrmjynfolw&yfvkH; odxm;wJh udpPyg? “rd bjynfolrsm;u ,kH,kH=unf=unf av;av;eufeuf tyfESif;vmwJh wm0efawG”wJh? “jynfol vlxu a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufvuwhJ jynfo@l tusK;d xrf;aqmif&r,fh jynfo@l tpk;d &” wJ? k dk f h “u|efawmfwkd@ukd ,kH,kH=unf=unfeJ@ EkdifiHawmftkyfcsKyfr_tm%mukd tyfESif;” vkdufw,fwJh? jynfou ,k=H unfv@dk wifajr‡mufv@dk tpk;d & jzpfvmwmvm;? a&G;aumufyrm rJvrnpfywf l JG S d f AkdvfustEkdifusifh wufvmwm r[kwfvm;? &SufzG,f? ? nd K pd e f 0 if ; 27

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azmfjyygtcsufawGuwqifh odEdkifwmu 2008 tajccHOya'qdkwm jynfol@qENtusdK;pD;yGm;udk qef@usifwJh etz ppftkyfpk(ppfwyft&yf0wf) &J@ taxGaxGtusdK;pD;yGm;udk udk,fpm;jyKumuG,fwJh cHwyf jzpfw,f? OD;odef;pdef }uHhzGH@tpdk;& qdkwm etzppftpdk;&&J@ udk,fyGm;jzpfw,f? tqufjzpfw,f? wu,fu 2008 tajccHOya'qdkwm vlyk*~dKvft&ajym&&if orRw OD;odef;pdeftygt0if ppfAdkvfvlxGufawGeJ@ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf rif;atmifvd_if&Jh tusdK;pD;yGm;vnf; jzpfw,f? t+idr;f pm; ,lom;=u+yD qdwhJ Advoef;a&$/ Advarmifat;wd@k &@J tusKd ;pD;yGm;vnf; jzpfw,f? wcGe;f wnf; ajym&&if ppftyp&@J G k k f k f k f k taxGaxGtusdK;pD;yGm;udk umuG,fxdef;odrf;zdk@ 2008 tajccHOya'udk t"rR twnfjyKxm;wm jzpfw,f? 2008 tajccHOya' r&S&if ppftyp&@J taxGaxGtusKd ;pD;yGm;qdwmvnf; tmrcHcsuf &Sawmhrmr[kwb;l ? 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Ekiia&; dfH wyfrawmftiftm;&SrS æ d =unf0if;

‘wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS wdkif;jynftiftm;&Sdrnf’ wJh? ppftyptqufquf&@J vufo;kH aºu;a=umfoH jzpfygw,f? 'Dve@J ppfwyfukd k f k kd tiftm;awG tqrwefwdk;csJ@vmcJhwm tckqdk&if tiftm; av;odef;ausmf&SdwJhtxd jzpfvmcJhyg+yD? 'DtwGuf ppfoHk;p&dwfawG b,favmufoHk;cJh=uovJqdkwmudkvnf; ppf tkypxyo;D awGuvGv@kd b,forS rodEiygb;l ? olw@kd xwjf yefwhJ bwf*suqwmawG f k d f J l kd f k f kd uvnf; ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&wm r[kwfygbl;? ydkqdk;wmu Adkvfoef;a&$wdk@vufxufrSm wdkif;jynf&J@ bwf*sufpm&if;udkawmif rxkwfjyefawmhwmygyJ? 2010 a&G;aumufyGJ+yD; vd@k v$wawmfpac:awmhrS etzu }udKa&;qGxm;wJh 2011 - 2012 bwf*supm&if; f J f udk jyefawG@&awmhwm jzpfygw,f? 2012 - 13 b¾ma&;ESptwGuf bwf*suuawmh v$wawmfu a&;qGJ f f kd f twnfjyKay;&rSm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tck usi;f yaewJh v$wawmfrm umuG,a&; f S f 0ef}uD; 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyf}uD;vSrif;u umuG,fa&;toHk;p&dwfawG wifjyawmif;qdkwmudk awG@=u&w,f? umuG,a&;0ef}uD;Xme&J@ 2011 - 2012 b¾ma&;ESptwGuf rlvu f f vsmxm;wJh toHk;p&dwf[m usyf 1100 bDvsH ausmfjzpfayr,fh jyKjyif+yD;cef@rSef;toHk; p&dwu usyf 1192 bDvsausmjf zpfv@kd vdaiGusyf 91 bDvsukd aemufxyfjznfpuvaiG f H k H h G f kd tjzpf v$wawmfo@kd awmif;cHw,f? 2012 - 2013 b¾ma&;ESptwGuf umuG,a&; f f f 0ef}uD;XmetwGuf vsmxm;toHk;p&dwftjzpf usyf 1877 bDvsHausmf awmif;cHw,f? +yD;cJwhJ b¾ma&;ESpxuf usyf 685 bDvsH wd;k vmwm awG@&w,f? h f 'Dvdk wdk;awmif;&mrSm ‘wyfrawmftiftm;&SdrS’ qdkwJhtoHudk =um;&jyefwm jzpfygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyf}uD;vSrif;u tcktoHk;p&dwf[m tdrfeD; csif;EdkifiHawG&J@ toHk;p&dwfeJ@ Ed_if;,SOf&if edrfhygw,fvdk@ qdkw,f? (v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f wOD;uawmh udk,fhxufcsrf;omvdk@ ydkoHk;EdkifwmyJqdk+yD; rSwfcsufcsw,fvdk@ zwfvdkuf&yg w,f? rSeygw,f? aemufxyfajymp&m&Swmu umuG,a&;p&dwu usewu¾awG f d f f f hJ xufpm&if tcsdK;tpm; uGm[vGef;aewmygyJ?) umuG,fa&;pGrf;tm; raumif;&if EdkifiH awmf&J@ tcsKyftjcmtm%m/ EdkifiHawmf&J@e,fedrdwfawG tcsdefra&G; qHk;±_H;ajymif;vJ oGm;Edkif a=umif; ajym+yD;awmhvnf; ajcmufvdkufygao;w,f? AdkvfvSrif;ajymwmeJ@wif rvHkavmufbl;xifvdk@vm; rodygbl;? orRw OD;odef; pdefuvnf; jynfaxmifpkae@o0%fv$mrSm EdkifiH}uD;awG&J@ }uD;Edkifi,f!‡Of;awm±dkif;Oya' usifhoHk;wwfyHkudk owdðy=uzdk@ wdkufwGef;xm;w,f? EdkifiHwEdkifiHrSm umuG,fa&; tm;enf; &if EdkifiH}uD;awG&J@ }uD;Edkifi,f!‡Of; awm±dkif;Oya'eJ@ &ifqdkif&vdrfhr,fvdk@ ajymqdkoGm;wm awG@&w,f? 'Dae&musawmh twdie@J tazmufu nDygayw,f? kf

35

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bufajymif;apum) jynf ta&S@yi;f trwftjzpf zqyvrS dk 0ifa&muf ta&G;cHckdif;vkd@ v$wfawmftrwf jzpfoGm;cJhzl;yg w,f? 'gayrJh AkvcsKyfw@dk usq;kH +yD; zqyvtzG@J }uD;vnf; vuf d f ,morm;rsm;jzpfwJh qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;u tkyfpD;rdoGm;csdefrSm awmh Akdvfatmif}uD;[m qkd&S,fvpfygwD ukd,fpm;vS,f tjzpf wyfxJjyefa&mufcJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfom jzpfvm& w,f- wu,fEiia&;tiftm;pk atmufajccHr&SwhJ OD;Ek[m h dk f H d qk&,vpfygwD tvkus vkyaqmifvm&+yD; Akvatmif}uD; d S f d f d f ukd umuG,a&;Xme ygvreftwGi;f 0eftjzpf pay;+yD; tJ'u f D D rSwqifh wyfxJ jyefa&mufvm&mrSm yxrawmh vJA;D wyf (aemif ppf0efxrf;wyf) qkwm&J@ wyfrif;}uD;tjzpf AkvrL; d d f S }uD;tqifh wku±uay;+yD; 1950 ckEprmawmh ppfO;D pD;Xme d f dk f S f S (ppf±Hk;csKyf) ukd OD;pD;vkdufEkdifygawmhw,f? ppf±;kH csKyf (War Office) [m wyfwi;f &mxl; twuf G tus tajymif;ta&$@awG/ EkdifiHjcm; ynmawmfoifcGifhawG tm;vH;k ukd ukixm;wJXme jzpfavawmh tcGita&; vkcsif df h hf d olawGtm;vHk;&J@ 0kdif;0ef;tm;xm;+yD; tm;ukd;tm;xm; &Sm&m Xme}uD; jzpfom;ygawmhw,f? jynfwi;f ppf jyif;xef G G vmcserm raoraysmuf ±H;k xkivyief;awG vkcsiwhJ wyfr d f S df k f d f awmf t&m&Sdrsm;uvnf; olwkd@ukd uyf&/ a&S@wef;rSm ppf wkdufae&wJh wyfawGuvnf; aemufykdif;u axmufyHha&; ypPn;f rsm; jynfjh ynfppkH &&Sz@dk / vktyfoavmuf &&Sz@dk tJ'D h kH d d d ppf±;kH csKyfu vlawGuyJ tm;uk;d &eJ@ Akvatmif}uD;wk@d b,f kd d f avmuf=oZm}uD;cJhr,fqkdwm cef@rSef;=unfhEkdifygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm u|er Oyrmwck ajymyg&ap? f 1954-55 ckEprsm;twGi;f azaz w±kwjf zLppfqifa&; S f rsm; qifEaepOfumvu jzpf&yfrsm;yg? azaz[m tJ'we;f J$ D k u AkvrL;csKyftqife@J ajrmufyi;f wkirL;tjzpf wm0efxrf; d f S h dk d f S aqmifaewmyg? azaz[m a&S@wef;rSmyJae+yD; ppfqifa&; awG u k d wk d u f ± k d u f u G y f u J a ewmyg? tJ ' D u ae vk d t yf w J h vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf/ ppfultiftm;/ txl;axmufyHh a&;ypPnf; (Oyrm-aq;0g;/ tm[m&pojzifh) pwJh ypPnf; awGukd ppf±Hk;csKyfu vmwJh ppfOD;pD;t&m&SdawGukd aemuf wef;jyefjyef+yD; wifjy awmif;cH&ygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u Akdvf atmif}uD;u ppfOD;pD;Xmewm0efcH AkdvfrSL;}uD;tqifheJ@yg? olw@dk u tE©&m,f}uD;vSwhJ a&S@wef;txd rvmygb;l ? azaz u a&S@wef;uae rki;f qwfv/dk usKd if;wkvdk av,mOfui;f &SwhJ d H G d ae&mawG jyef+yD; olwkd@eJ@ aqG;aEG;awmif;qdk&wmyg? Akdvf atmif}uD;yJ OD;pD;+yD; vmwwfygw,f? tJ'umvu olw@dk u D jynfwGif;ppfwkdfufzkd@yJ (atmifrmC ppfqifa&;twGuf jyif qifaecsdefyg) tm;oefaevkd@/ w±kwfjzLppfajrjyiftwGuf vdtyfcsuawG awmif;&wm odyf vuf0ifwmyJv@dk azazu k f

jyefajymzl;ygw,f? awmfao;w,f? tJ'Dwkef;u zq yvtpkd;&u vlxk&J@ zdtm;a=umifh w±kwfjzLppfqif a&;awGukd tm;ay;axmufcHcJhvkd@ oufomwmvkd@ azazu qufajymcJhygw,f? tJ'gom=unfyg? Advatmif}uD;wk@d b,favmuf h k f =oZm}uD;cJhw,fqkdwm awG@Ekdifygw,f? 1958 ck E S p f td r f a pmif h t pk d ; & wuf v m+yD ; wJ h aemuf/ ppfwyfu pD;yGm;a&;vkyief;awGjzpfwhJ DSI wk@d f BEDC wkd@ukdyg vkyfaqmifvmwJhtcgrSmawmh b,f ajymp&m&SawmhrvJ? 'D=um;xJ Akvatmif}uD;uk,wif d d f d f dk OD;aqmif+yD; *syefppfavsmfa=u;udpP aqG;aEG;&mrSm pDrH udef; vkyfief;awG trsm;tjym; &&SdvkdufwJhtcgrSm awmh/ Adkvfatmif}uD;wkd@ =oZmtwufqHk; umvvkd@ awmif ajymvk@d &r,fxifygw,f? tJ'D *syefu&wJh pDrH udef;awGukd Akdvfatmif}uD;u ol@nDjzpfwJh OD;atmif av;wk@d / ole@J tvGe&if;ES;D wJh (ol&@J Proxy vk@d vnf; f qkdEkdifwJh) OD;aZmf!Gef@/ a':xl; (xl;ukr`%Dykdif&Sifrsm;) wkd@ukd cGJa0ay;+yD; vkyfaqmifapcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifyJ 1963 ckEpf ol@udk t+idr;f pm;ay;vkuf h S d +yD;aemuf/ Akvae0if;u atmif}uD;pm;xm;or#awGudk d f igajcreJ@ jyefaumfxwr,fv@dk }udr;f 0g;zl;ygw,f? Akvf h k f d ae0if;u Akvatmif}uD; =oZm}uD;vmr_[m ol@ xkif d f d cHk v_yfvmapw,f/ ol@ajc&m wkdif;vmwmjzpfw,f vkd@vnf; ylyefvmyHk&ygw,f? 'Dae&mrSm Akdvfae0if;[m ol@ae&mwpHkw&m ckdifrmvm&if ol@ukd tJ'Dae&mwifay;cJhwJh b,faus; Zl;&SiurS csr;f omray;bl;qkwm 'kw,t}udrajrmuf f kd d d f awG@Ekdifygw,f? (yxrt}udrfuawmh wnf+rJacgif; aqmifawGudka&m/ wyfwGif;u qkd&S,fvpfwyfrSL;rsm; ukd 1962 ckEpf ppftm%modr;f +yD;aemuf ajz&Si;f vkuf S d wJhudpPyg?) Akdvfatmif}uD;[m Akdvfae0if;ukd ycHk;eJ@xrf;+yD;/ tJ'Dae&mawG a&mufatmifwifay;cJhygw,f? Akdvfae 0if;ukd,fwkdifu Akdvfatmif}uD;ukd jzKwfcs+yD;aemuf/ pdwrvH[ef&y&+yD;/ 'ga=umifyJ bma=umifh Akvatmif f k dS kH h d f }uD;ukd jzKwf&wJhta=umif;awGukd (olk@rqvtwGuf tm;ukd; tm;xm;jyKae&wJh) ocifwifjrwkd@ tkyfpkukd &Sif;jywJhta=umif;t&mawG ,ckwavm *sme,fawG rSm olw@dk jyefa&;wmawG awG@ae&ygw,f? Akvae0if;&J@ d f &nf&G,fcsufu (tJ'Docifwifjrwkd@tkyfpk ylyefaumif; ylyefEiw) ol[m bk&m;+yD; jirf;zsuwhJ vlpm;r[kwf dk f hJ f a=umif;/ Akdvfatmif}uD;ukd ol t}udrf}udrf cGifhv$wfcJh a=umif;/ odyvevmrS rv$omrS vky&wmjzpfa=umif; f G f J f

pwmawGukd tJ'vawGudk oG,0upm &Si;f jyyH&ygw,f? D l f dk f G k azazuawmh Akdvfatmif}uD;[m Akdvfae0if;tay: EkdifwJhzJcsyfawG &SdyHk&w,f? 'ga=umifh Akdvfae0if;u onf; nnf;cH aecJh+yD;/ aemufykdif; Akdvfatmif}uD; (*syefppfavsmf a=u;udpPrsm;rSm) pD;yGm;a&;udpPawG r&Sif;rvif;jzpfvmrS tjywf&i;f yH&w,fv@dk qkygw,f? azazuk,wivnf; uk,f S k d d f dk f d awG@}uHKzl;wm wck&Sdygw,f? wcgu azazwkd@ wyfrSL;rsm; nDvmcHusi;f yaepOf wif;epf+ydKifywck vkyz;l w,fw? tJ'D JG f hJ ae@u azazu +ydKifyu ±_;H vd@k xGu&+yD; t0wfvwhJ tcef; JG f J 0ifvuwtcg tJ'tcef;xJrm Advae0if;eJ@ Akvatmif}uD; dk f hJ D S k f d f wk@d 2 a,muf pum;ajymae=uwm awG@&+yD; Akvatmif}uD; d f [m Akvae0if;xkiaewJh cH&nwef;vsm;ay:rSm ajcaxmuf d f df k S f wzuf w if x m;+yD ; vuf w zuf u vnf ; cg;axmuf + yD ; pum;ajymaewmwJ? azazhudk jrifrS Akvatmif}uD;u ajc h d f axmufcsvu+f yD; cg;uawmh qufaxmuf+rJ axmufxm; dk w,fw? azazu olawG@z;l wmukd ajymjyzl;ygw,f? hJ tJ'Dumvu Akdvfae0if; uHedrfhaecsdefyg? tdrfaxmif &Sol upfwboef; (a':cifaroef;) ukd ,lvure@J zqyv d D dk f _ tpkd;&u jzKwfzkd@ }udK;pm;aecsdefjzpfygw,f? tJ'Db0uae vGwajrmufatmif vkyay;olawGxrm Akvatmif}uD;[m f f J S d f tc&m tcef;u ygcJhyHk&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh 2007 ckEpu (OD;) jrwfcie@J jyKvkywhJ awG@ S f dk f f qHkar;jref;cef;wckrSm Akdvfatmif}uD;u “Akdvfae0if;eJ@ ukd,fu i,fi,fuwnf;u olvnf; pma&;/ ukd,fvnf; pma&;/ t&rf;cifw,fqwm [kww,f? uk,u b,fwe;f dk f d f k urS ol@q&m rjzpfcb;l ? oluvnf; uk,udk q&mrwif hJ d hf cJb;l ? ole@J u,w@kd twlwl aezl;w,fav”vk@d ajymoGm; h dk f [ef wlygw,f? (pum;csyf-tJ'DawG@qHk ar;jref;cef;awGrSmyJ olu azaz[m tajccHenf;w,f? &nfrSef;csuf}uD;w,f? 'g a=umifh EkdifiHu xGufoGm;&w,fvkd@vnf; qkdxm;wmawG@ &ygw,f? 'ghtjyif ol@b0Zmwfa=umif; ajymoGm;&mrSm “tpuwnf;u ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u acgif;aqmif csnf;yJ awmufav#mufvkyfvmcJhwmyg? b,fwkef;urS aemufvuf rjzpfcb;l ? AkvcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf; uk,udk dk hJ d f d hf vkyfazmfukdifzufvkdyJ oabmxm;cJhwmyg”vkd@ ajymxm; ygw,f? azazuawmh 'gawG zwf+yD; “awmfao;w,f? Akvf d csKyfatmifqef;[m ukd,fhwynfhygvkd@ rajymwm”vkd@qkd+yD; &,faecJhzl;ygw,f?) tJovkdom ajymaewm? Akdvfae0if;ukdawmh rjywf vSr;f zm;aewmygy? 1988 ckEpf 0ef;usirsm;u xGuvmwJh J S f f ol&J@“Akdvfae0if;okd@ tdwfzGifhay;pmrsm;”[m wzufu vnf; vlxtºkH ur_}uD;ukd ykrwufºuvmatmif tusKd ;jyK k d kd cJhayr,fh wzufuvnf; tckjzpf&yfawGukd Akdvfae0if;u 49

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“ESpf 50-100 twGif; wcgrS r}uHKzl;/ r=um;zl;wJh vlxktHkºur_}uD;a=umifh tpkd;&,E©&m;[m vHk;0&yfoGm;cJhw,f? 'D v k d taetxm;vnf ; a&muf a &m Ak d v f c sKyf } uD ; apmarmif u tm%mod r f ; cJ h w mjzpf w ,f ? jynf o l v l x k u r}udKufvkd@ tpkd;&jyKwftHhqJqJrSm tm%modrf;wm[m 'DtHkºuwmukd wm;wmyJjzpfw,f? æ tckawmh 0ef}uD; a[mif ; acgif ; aqmif a [mif ; awG u k d rzrf ; wJ h t jyif tumtuG , f a y;xm;w,f ? taqmif t a,mif a wG a wmif ay;xm;w,f ? 'g u|ef a wmf w k d @ tvum;ajymaewm r[k w f b l ; ? igh 0 rf ; yl q m raeomvk d @ od r f ; &wmawmif orkdif;ay;wm0ef xrf;aqmifwmvkd@ ajymae=u&if 'Dt,ltqukd ausysufatmif wkdufEkdif&ifwkduf/ rwkdufEkdif&if aemufxyf tE© &m,f }uD;w,f æ æ æ æ tck v nf ; yJ t*F v d y f tar&d u ef u k d ol w k d @ yJ qef @ usif o a,mif a&;om;ae=uw,f ? æ 'D v k d a vrsd K ;eJ @ pnf;±Hk;zkd@ }udK;pm;ae=uw,f/ wu,fu olwkd@ qef@usifwm r[kwfbl;? olwkd@tm%m wnf+rJzkd@ toHk;csaewmyJ jzpfw,f? 1953-54 ckESpfavmufu jrefrmjynfxJukd w±kwfjzLawG t}uD;tus,f usL;ausmfcJhw,f/ æ 'Djy \emukd ukvor*~ukd wkdifwJh tcgrSm tar&duefOD;pD;wJh w±kwfjzLvkd@awmif rajym&Jbl;? b,fvkdajymcJh=uw,f wif o vJ / Ek d i f i H j cm; usL;ausmf o l r sm;vk d @ ajymqk d w k d i f w ef ; cJ h = uw,f ? w±k w f j zLuk d a wmif w±k w f j zLvk d @ awmif ratmf & J o l a wG u ck r S e,f c sJ @ qef @ usif o a,mif a ,mif ajymae=uw,f ? æ æ 'D a wmh u|ef a wmf w k d @ [m nD n D ! G w f ! G w f e J @ yef ; wk d i f a &muf a tmf &[ef ; &S i f v l ausmif ; om; jynf o l a wG & J @ aoG ; cif ; vrf ; twk d i f ; &J & J 0 H h 0 H h quf v uf c sD w uf = uygpk d @ vk d @ ajym&if ; ed * H k ; csKyf c J h y g&ap æ æ (txufrSm ajymcJhwJh 'Dpum;awGuawmh 9/ 4/ 1989 ae@ yJcl;+rdK@e,f jynfol@wkd;wufa&;ygwDzGifhyGJ tcrf;tem;rSm yJcl;+rdK@rSm OD;av;OD;cifarmifjrifh ajym=um;oGm;wJh rdef@cGef;xJu aumufEkwfcsuf pum;awGygyJ?) (5) OD;av;[m ppftpdk;&&J@ zrf;qD;xm;wmukd cH&&if;/ tif;pdeftusOf;axmiftwGif;rSmyJ ol&Jaumif; yDopGm us qHk;oGm;cJh&ygw,f? OD;av;usq;kH oGm;&wmukd twnfjyKEki+f yD; &ufyi;f twGi;f rSmyJ Armjynfuejf rLepfygwD A[kd pnf; ±H;k a&;aumfrwDuae d dk G (1993 ck/ azazmf0g&D 27 &ufae@) ae@pe@J 0rf;enf;o0%fvmwapmifudk xkwf jyefay;yk@d cygw,f? tJ'we;f u u|eawmfqu JG $ hJ J D k f h D wqifh ay;ykd@cJhwJh 0rf;enf;o0%fv$mrSm “&Jabmfwkd@. cspfvSpGmaom ygwDOuUÏ &Jabmfcifarmifjrifhonf &efol e0w ppftpkd;&. zdESdyf!‡Of;yef;r_ a=umifh 1993 ckESpf azazmf0g&D 16 &ufae@u tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; usqHk;oGm;onfhowif;qkd;ukd u|efawmfwkd@ =um;od & ygonf ? Tonf r S m jynf o l @ 'D r k d u a&pD a wmf v S e f a &;ES i f h Armjynf vl r sd K ;aygif ; pH k jynf o l r sm;tzd k @ qH k ; ±_ H ; r_ } uD ; w&yf jzpf a yonf ? &JabmfcifarmifjrifhESifh ywfoufI ol. wkdufyGJ0ifawmfvSefa&;b0ukd u|efawmfwkd@ aumif;pGm od&Sdygonf? wef z k d ; vnf ; xm;ygonf ? ol . &J & J 0 H h 0 H h usqH k ; r_ o nf jynf o l r sm;ES i f h tjcm;ygwD t zG J @ tpnf ; rsm;twG i f ; wG i f *,uf a umif ; ±k d u f c wf y gvd r f h r nf ? olav#mufvSrf;oGm;aom aoG;cif;vrf;twkdif; atmifyGJ&onftxd wAkdvfus wAkdvfwuf &Jabmfwdk@ av#muf vS r f ; vd r f h r nf q k d w m ,H k = unf o vk d u|ef a wmf w k d @ uk d , f w k d i f v nf ; Tvrf ; uk d a&G ; cs,f x m;a=umif ; ajymjyvk d ygonf ? ” æ pojzifh azmfjyyg&c+hJ yD;/ tqH;k rSm dS “tmZmenf &J a bmf c if a rmif j rif h xm0pOf O'gef ; wG i f y gap” vkd@ azmfusL;*k%fjyKcJhygw,f? jrifhjrifhrm;rm; wefzkd;xm;+yD; av;av;eufeuf txdrf;trSwf jyKcJh wm jzpfygw,f? [kwfygw,f- OD;av;[m trsm;tusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf ukd,fusdK;pD;yGm;rSefor# pGef@v$wftepfemcH+yD; wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;cJhwJh wu,fhtmZmenfwOD;ygyJ? Armjynf ppftm%m&Sifpepf qef@usifa&;ordkif;rSm/ Armjynf 'Drkdua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_orkdif;rSm OD;av;[m xm0ZOf O'gef;wGif&pfcJhrSm aocsmygw,f? u|efawmfwkd@awG&J@ ESvHk;omawGxJrSm vnf; OD;av;[m xm0pOf O'gef;wGif&pfcJhyg+yD? xm0pOf O'gef;wGif&pfcJhyg+yD? ? 0if;wifhxGef; 61
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orRwtdkbm;rm;u ‘tm&yfaEGOD;’ udk 'Frdkua&pDjyKa&; twGuf tpOfrjywftm;ay;aewJh=um;u tar&duef jynfaxmifpktay: tm&yfEdkifiHomrefvlxku r,Hk=unf r_ us,fjyef@vmaew,f? Brooking Institution rS &S D b vD w ,f [ rD (Shibley Telhami) &J@ ESpfpOfaumufaeus ppfwrf;rsm;rS ‘tm&yfvlxk xifjrifcsufppfwrf; 2011’ udk xkwfjyef vduw,f? tD*sp/f armf±u/kd a*sm'ef/ vpfbEGe/f ,lat k f kd f tD;eJ@ aqmf'tma&As (tenf;tusO;f yJ ygw,f) rS +rdK@ae D vlxk 3˜000 xHrS oabmxm;aumufc&&Scsuukd ,ck H d f vdk awG@&w,f? trsm;pku ta&S@tv,fyi;f tay:xm;wJh 0g&if kd S wef&J@ay:vpD[m a&eHudk xdef;csKyfzdk@eJ@ tpPa&;udk um uG,z@kd v@kd ,H=k unf=uw,f? 5µ uom vl@tcGita&; f hf eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDjyef@yGm;apzdk@vdk@ ,Hk=unfw,f? tpPa&;eJ@tar&duefudk tm&yfrsm;&J@ t}uD;rm; qH;k jynfy&efv@kd jrifw,f? tD&ef&@J EsLuvD;,m; &,lvr_ kd [m a'owGi;f ‘tEkwvuQ%m’ tjzpf jrifaomfvnf; f tpPa&;eJ@tar&dueftEW&m,fu tD&efxuf tqaygif; rsm;pGm }uD;w,fvdk@ jrifw,f? tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;udk qef@usifwJh twdkuf tcHtiftm;pkrsm;tay: wcJeuf axmufcH=uw,f? qD;&D;,m; (86 µ)/ ,Drif (87 µ)/ bm&de;f (64 µ)? vpfAsm;rSmjynfypGufzufr_eJ@ tpdk;&jzKwfcs+yD; u'gzD u d k owf v d k u f w meJ @ ywf o uf v d k @ tjrif E S p f r sd K ; jzpfaew,f? (35µ) u rSefw,fvdk@ jrifw,f? (46µ) u rSm;w,fvdk@ jrifw,f? tD*spforRw rlbm&ufudk jzKwfcs+yD; ppfaumifpD SCAF u tm%mv$Jajymif;,lvdkufwJhtay: (tD*spf t&yfom; 750 udk ar;jref;csut&) (21µ) u wd;k wuf f

r_tjzpf jrifw,f? (43 µ) u qkw,wrtjzpf jrif w,f? f k f _ (14 µ) u rxl;bl;vd@k jrifw,f? urBmacgi;f aqmif 9 a,mufukd azmfjy+yD; aemuf h wufrnfhorRwudk b,facgif;aqmifvdk jzpfapcsifovJ tar;ud k (tD * spf t &yf o m;awG u d k a r;awmh ) tm'k d * sif (wl&uD) 38 µ/ 'De*suf (tD&ef) 11 µ/ rif'vm; (awmif D J tmz&du) 9 µ/ tA'lvm (aqmf'b&if) 8µ/ tdbm;rm; D k k 5 µ? tm&yfaEGO;d rSm tjyKoabmyg0ifwhJ EdiiEpEiiukd k f H S f kd f H ar;awmh wl&uD (50 µ)/ jyifopf (30 µ) tar&duef (24 µ) w±kwf (20 µ) eJ@ +Adwef (11 µ)? d jynfypGufzufr_tay:tjrif - jyifopfeJ@+Adwdefu &eftvdkqHk;/ w±kwfu pGufzufr_tenf;qHk;/ tar&duefu aemufu}udK;udkifolvkd@ jrifw,f? 0g&SifweftaeeJ@ a'owGif; wdk;wufr_&Sdatmif bmvkyoifovJar;awmh - tpPa&; - ygvufpwdi;f +idr;f f h k csrf;a&;&atmifvkyfoifh (55µ)/ tpPa&;udk axmufcH r_&yfoifh (42 µ)? tD&eftaeeJ@ EsLuvD;,m;tpDtpOfudk vkyfydkifcGifh &Sw,fv@kd ,lqol (64 µ)/ rvkyoifv@kd ,qol (25 µ)? d f h l tEW&m,ft}uD;qH;k EdiiEpcuar;awmh - tpPa&; k f H S f k kd (71 µ)/ tar&duef (59 µ) ææ tD&ef (18 µ) urBmrSm plygyg0gEdkifiHwckwnf;tjzpf b,fEdkifiHudk jzpfapcsiovJar;awmh - w±kwf (23 µ) *smreD (15 µ)/ f ±k&m; (12 µ) jyifopf (10µ)/ tar&duefe@J ygupPwef (7 S µ) pD? (3 - 3 - 2012)

jrprf;at;

66

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