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History

History

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Published by Hans B. Tamidles

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Published by: Hans B. Tamidles on Mar 26, 2012
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The History of Education in the Philippines Education has been a priority in the Philippines for decades, and this

is evidenced in the fact that many of the advancements in education in Asia have been pioneered in the Philippines. In fact, the Philippines was home to the first modern public schooling system in Asia. It is also home to the oldest universities, colleges, and vocational schools. While controlled by colonial rule for several years, once the Philippines gained their independence they took over control of the educational system and began to move it in their own direction. Children in the Philippines are educated in the primary and secondary school systems for about thirteen to fourteen years, depending on when they start, after which they complete the College Entrance Examinations, that allow them to qualify for one of the many institutions of higher learning. There are both private and public schools in the Philippines, and on the whole the education provided by the private schools is much more comprehensive than that provided by the public school system. When the Spanish first arrived in the Philippines, education of the indigenous people was mainly viewed as the duty of religious organizations. Parish friars put forth great effort to teach the indigenous people to read believing that literacy was the key to better lifestyles. During the 16th century the Franciscans, Jesuits, and Augustinians all established schools in the Philippines. Later on during American rule the first public schooling was set up and more than 1,000 teachers came from the United States between 1901 and 1902. During this time a university was also established to train native Filipino teachers. During the 1970′s and 1980′s President Marcos decentralized the office that oversaw education in the Philippines, and it eventually became the Ministry of Education and Culture. In subsequent years laws and referendums have been drafted to improve the quality of the education provided by the public schooling system. These include initiatives for the accreditation of universities and vocational schools, as well as upgrades in the qualifications for teachers and administrators. The education system in the Philippines has quite the storied history and if the educational reforms that are currently being pushed for can pass, then it can continue to live up to its impressive past. Theories about human learning can be grouped into four broad "perspectives". These are 1. 2. 3. 4. Behaviorism - focus on observable behavior Cognitive - learning as purely a mental/ neurological process Humanistic - emotions and affect play a role in learning Social - humans learn best in group activities

The development of these theories over many decades is a fascinating story. Some theories developed as a negative reaction to earlier ones. Others built upon foundational theories, looking at specific contexts for learning, or taking them to a more sophisticated level. There is also information here about general theories of learning, memory, and instructional methodology. Read brief descriptions of these four general perspectives here: Learning Theories: Four Perspectives Within each "perspective" listed below, there may be more than one cluster of theories. Click on the name of the theorist to go to the page with biographical information and a description of the key elements of his/her theory. 1. Behaviorist Perspective Classical Conditioning: Stimulus/Response Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Classical Conditioning Theory Behaviorism: Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement John B. Watson 1878-1958 Behaviorism Edward L. Thorndike 1874-1949 Connectivism Edwin Guthrie 1886-1959 Contiguity Theory B. F. Skinner 1904-1990 Operant Conditioning William Kaye Estes 1919 - Stimulus Sampling Theory Neo-behaviorism: Stimulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior Edward C. Tolman 1886-1959 Sign Theory & Latent Learning Clark Hull 1884-1952 Drive Reduction Theory

Rumelhart 1942 .2001 Aptitude Treatment Interaction K. Social Learning Perspective: Learning as a group process Lev Vygotsky 1896 .1990 Genetic Epistemology Jean Lave Situated Cognition Chris Argyris 1923 . Cognitive Perspective: Learning as a Mental Process Gestalt Learning Theory: Perception.1935 Social Constructivism Albert Bandura 1925 .O.Keneth W. Humanistic Perspective: Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 Humanistic Theory of Learning Carl Rogers 1902-1987 Experiential Learning Jack Mezirow Transformational Learning 4.Interactive Activation with Competition Constructivism: Knowledge is Constructed. Hebb 1904 .Information Processing Theory Allen Newell 1927 .Constructivism Jean Piaget 1896 .1985 Neurophysiologic Theory George A Miller 1920 . Spence 1907-1967 Discrimination Learning 2. R. Guilford Structure of Intellect Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences Robert Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 6.Double Loop Learning Rand J.P.Characteristics of Adult Learners Robert Gagne 1916-2002 Conditions of Learning Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Lev Landa Algo-Heuristic Mager Criterion-Referenced-Instruction Merrill Component Display Theory Reigeluth Elaboration Theory .1947 Field Theoretical Approach Wolfgang Kohler 1887 . Decision making.1941 Gestalt Theory Leon Festinger 1919 .1989 Cognitive Dissonance Information Processing and Computer Models D. Spiro Cognitive Flexibility David Kolb Learning Styles John Flavell Metacognition Roger Schank Script Theory Psychoanalytic: The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning 3. the Learner is an Active Creator David Ausubel 1918 . General Theories of Memory & Intelligence J.1967 Insight Learning Kurt Koffka 1887 .2008 Subsumption Theory Jerome Bruner 1915 .P. & Problem Solving Max Wertheimer 1880 -1943 Gestalt Learning Theory Kurt Lewin 1890 .1992 General Problem Solver Craik & Lockhart Levels of Processing Allan Paivio 1941 . Attention.Dual Coding Theory David E.Observational Learning John Seely Brown Cognitive Apprenticeship 5. Anderson ACT* J. Memory. Cross CAL. Instructional Theories John Bransford Anchored Instrution Lee Joseph Cronbach 1916 .

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