vuFm'Dy cspfol

cspfOD;ndK

rmwdum
tcef; (1)
tcef; (2)
tcef; (3)
tcef; (4)
tcef; (5)
tcef; (6)
tcef; (7)
tcef; (8)
tcef; (9)
tcef; (10)

&m0P\ atmifyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
tok&mbk&if\ vufaqmif . . . . . . . . . . . 6
aomuc&D;\ yxrajcvSrf; . . . . . . . . . . . 16
tcspf\ a&SharSmuf0,f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
w&d*rDÇ\ tultnD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
arSmf½kHa[0ef awmNrdKifpGef; . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
tcspfESifh trkef; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
tm&d,efESifh j'm0d'd,ef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
&m0PESifh &mrrif;om; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
vuFm'Dycspfol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

vuFm'Dycspfol
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1

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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awmifrsm;onf uREkfyf\atmifyJG&v'f oufaocHrsm;yifwnf;/
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ajcwifEidk cf ahJ yjyD/ awmifwpfv;kH pD\awmifxyd w
f iG f tqdyjf yif;aom ajrGMuD;rsm;awmifyYkd wpfv;kH pDjzifh aexdik cf MhJ uonf/
odkYwap oif;wdkYaemufxyfqufvuf aexdkifzdkY tcGifhr&Sdawmh/ uREkfyf\oHvsufaMumifh OD;acgif;rsm;jywfí
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'orawmifESpfvHk; usefao;onf/
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?oif;\ udk,fvHk;MuD;onf awmifatmufwGifysufpD;vsufvnf;aumif; wuGJwjym;pD jzpfcJhavjyD/
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awmifajcrS r,fawmf*kE¨D\ atmfoHudk Mum;vdkuf&onf/
2

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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a&&Gwfvdkufonf/
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pl;&Saom rdef;roHwpfck ay:vmonf/ eD&Jaom 0wf&kHp udkajr§mufjy&if; xdkrdef;ru atmf[pfaeavonf/
]]olodyfyifyef;aejyD? odyfyifyef;aejyD}}
csdKjraomu&kPmoHudkvnf;Mum;vdkuf&onf/tjcm;rdef;rwpfOD;\ toHyifjzpfonf/ xdktoHESpfckudk uREkfyf
qufpyfí a&&Gwfvdkufonf/
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e0rawmifxdyfESifh 'orawmifxdyfum; tawmifav;q,frQuGmvSrf;ayrnf/ awmifxdyfESpfckMum;
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3

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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'o*D&dudk *kPfjyK&rSmaygh ?a[m'DrSm armifMuD;"m;? ESr *rÇD&JY *kPfjyKypönf;}
teD;wGif0dkif;tHkaeMuaomy&dwfowfonf aemufodkYqkwfoGm;Mujyefonf/*rÇD\ *kPfjyKypönf;um;
uRefyfowfjzwfcJhaom jcHaoFhMuD;\vnfqHarG;rsm;yifwnf;/
]]armif M uD ; &m0P[m rd r d o H v suf u d k a um rd r d & J Y ,pf a umif u d k y g 'D t wd k i f ; xm;ypf c J h w mud k ; ?
bk&ifrif;jrwfrSmatmifjrifcJhwJh wdkufyJG0ifbdodufyPÖmqdkwm &Sd&rSmaygh}}
4

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]w&d*rÇD .. w&d*rÇD eifh&JYyPÖmudk ig0rf;ajrmuf*kPf,lpGmeJY vufcHvkdufr,f}}
vuf&kHowÅdt&mü uREfkyf\ aoG;ESifhta&mifwlaom ESri,f*rÇDonf 0rf;ajrmufpGm &,farmvdkufonf/
uREkfyfESifh raE´m wdkYvnf; &TifjrL;pGm&,farmvdkufrdMuonf/
]]'o*D&d bk&ifrif;jrwftjzpfudk &&SdaejyDjzpfwJh om;awmf&m0P? bk&ifwpfyg;[m 'Dvdkr&,f&bl;?
&mZ£ajE´ukd aqmif&r,f/ orD;awmf *rÇ[
D mvnf; oufO;D qHyikd f awG[m wnfMunfcefYnm;rIukd aqmifxm;&vdrrhf ,f}}
r,fawmf*kE´Du jywfom;pGmrdefYqdkonf/ xdktcg y&dwfowfrsm;uvnf; ]]'o*D&d bk&ifrif;jrwf}} [lí wpfcJeuf
aMuG;aMumfvdkufMuonf/ 0uf0HqDrD;wkdif tvif;a&mifwGif olwdkY\ ykjym;aom ESmacgif;rsm;&SdonfhrsufESmrsm;onf
wufMuGrIjzifh 0if;xdefaeMuonf/
]]jyD;awmh bk&ifrif;jrwfeJY olY&JYESrwdkY[m wpfOD;udkwpfOD; t&ifuvdk omreftoHk;tEIef; rac:roHk;&bl;?
omrefj'm0d'd,efawG&JY toHk;pum;rsdK;udk pGefYy,f&r,f/ 'grSom t&SifocifeJY aus;uRefqdkwm uGJjym;awmhrSmaygh?
Mum;&JYvm; om;awmf 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf}}
]]om;awmf 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf}} [laom r,fawmf\ tac:ta0: onf uRefyf\ ESvHk;tdrftwGif;odkY
pdrfh0ifoGm;av onf/ uREkfyfonf &m0Pr[kwfawmh? 'o*D&djzpfaeayjyD/ 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf? Muif&mawmfra[oD
raE´ma'0Drdzk&m;? ESrawmf w&d*rÇD uREfkyfonf pdwftwGif;rS t&Sifocif a0g[m&rsm;udk a&&Gwfaerdonf/ nDawmf
bdbdoe ...
]]nD ... nDawmf bdbdoe wpfa,mufaum}}
bdbdoeonf wJeef;twGif;bufrSaeí wif;wdrfteDpudk z,f&Sm;íxGufvmavonf/ bdbdoeum;
uRefyfESifhvn;frwl? *rÇDESifhvnf; rwl? wpfrlxl;jcm;oljzpfonf/ at;aq;wnfjidrfí vuf&kH;&nf trIudpöwdkYü
pdwfr0ifpm;bJ eu¨waÅ A'ü pdwf0ifpm;oljzpfonf/
]]aemifawmf&JY atmifyJGcH'DnOD;rSm nDawmf[m a[m'DtdE´Kjrpfurf;uaejyD; vjynfhn&JY Mu,few¨wfrsm;udk
Munfh&IwGufcsufaeygw,f}}
]]'g[mvnf ; bk & if r if ; jrwf t wG u f nD a wmf & J Y bd o d u f y PÖ m wpf c k y J a ygh } } *rÇ D u
jywfom;aomtoHjzifhaxmufcHvdkufavonf/
uREfkyf\&ifwGif;0,f MunfEl;rIt[kefwdkY jzefYusufvTrf;rdk;oGm;onf/r,fawmf*kE¨D? rdzk&m; raE´mESifh
i,fpOfuwnf;u rcJGrcGm a&Munf jrufEka'orsm; ajymif;wkdif; jrif;&xm;wpfpD;wnf; pD;cJhonfhcspfpGmaom ESri,f
*rÇD? nDawmfbdbdoewdkYjzifh jcH&Hvsuf uREkfyf'o*D&donf vuFm'Dy\ bk&ifrif;jrwf jzpfcJhjyD/
tdEK´ jrpfurf;\txuf aumif;uifwiG f Mu,feu¨ww
f Ykd onf txl;xl;aom tvif;a&mifwYkd jzifh jydK;jyufvsuf
vjynfhv udk0ef;&Hcpm;vsuf aeMuavonfwum;/

5

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

tcef;(2)
tok&m bk&if\ vufaqmif
a&mifeDavh ... a&mifeDavh ... a&mifeDZufoHk;
pD;eif;cawmifi,frSm ... wdrfay:ewfvSEIef;
uRef;ywfuHk; ... xGef;vQyfbkef; ...
jrifolawG;bG,fom
£E´m&dk;MurSwfxifaom ... uGefYjrL;ysHMuG ewfodaE´m
(jrefajre,fZrÁLabmif ... jrif;cif; )
]]ppfjrif;ajcmufaumifuaom þ&xm;jrwfudk j'm0d'd,efrsKd;EG,ftaygif;wdkY\t&Sifocif jzpfawmrlaom?
awmifq,fvHk;udk tpdk;&awmfrlaom ? ajrGe*g;ESifhjcaoFhwdkY\ &mZm"dywdjzpfawmfrlaom? 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf\
a&TvufawmfodkY tuReftok&mrif;u yPÖmqufoyg\}}
ESrawmf w&d*rÇDu uREkfyfa&SYarSmuf&Sd ppf&xm;\]]jrm;um}} ay:rSpmvHk;rsm;udk wpfvHk;jcif; zwfjyaeonf/
*rÇ\
D avoHonf xH;k pHtwdik ;f jywfom;wufMuGvaS yonf/ rdz&k m;MuDraE´monf uREkyf \
f 0Jvufarmif;udk wGzJ uf&if;
rcdkYw&kdY&yfaeonf/ ,cktcg rdzk&m;raE´m\ EIwfMumiHkoaE¨onf t&ifhtrmwnfaejyDjzpfonf/
]]tok&mbk&if[m tpfudkawmfeJY toifhawmfqHk; yPÖmudk qufovdkufwmyJ}}
]][kww
f ,f*rÇ?D tpfuakd wmf[m 0ZD&mpD;eif;jyD; ppfyaGJ wG wku
d cf &hJ wmrsm;awmh 0ZD&mcrsmvnf; tiftm;qkw,
f w
k v
f jS yD}}
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[Dvkdufayonf/ 0ZD&muJhodkY uRefyfpdwfwdkif;usaom jrif;wpfaumifaemufxyf&SmaecsdefwGif tok&mbk&if\
ppfjrif;ajcmufaumifu ppf&xm; udk vufcH&&SdvdkufonfrSm uREkfyf\ bkef;orÇmaMumifhyif[k qdk&csdrfhrnf/
]]r,fawmf*kE´Drsm; &Sdaeao;&if b,favmufrsm; 0rf;omvdkufrvJ}}
nDawmfbdbdoeu av;eufpGm a&&Gwfaeonf/
]]bdbdoe eif[muG,faysmufoGm;jyDjzpfwJh t&mawGudkcsnf; wrf;waevdkYbm tusdK;rsm;rSmvJ
r,fawmf*kE´D[m ocFsdKif;awmfrSm ataq;pGmpHjref;aejyDyJ/ eiftckpdwf0ifpm; &rSmutudkawmf 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf&JY
tmPmpufus,fjyefYzdkYta&;yJ r[kwfvm;/}}
jywfom;wufMuGaom *rÇED iS hf wnfjidraf t;aq;aom bdbo
d ewdYk onf tcGiMhf uHKwdik ;f pum;Ekid v
f ak vh&o
dS nf/
eef ; awmf o l eef ; awmf o m; tajcG t &H r sm; r&S d M uonf h uREk f y f w d k Y armif E S r awG c snf ; &S d a eMuonf h
,ckvdktcsdeftcgrsdK;wGifolwdkYonf xD;oHeef;oHrsm;udk azsmufzsufjyD; w&if;wESD;yifqufqHavh&SdMuonf/
uREkfyfuvnf; 'gudkyif auseyfaerdonf/
6

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]*rÇD igu uG,faysmufoGm;wJht&mudk wrf;wwmr[kwfbl;? ynmOmPfeJY jynfh0jzLpifwJh r,fawmfudk
owd & vd k Y a&&G w f r d w m/ r,f a wmf * k E ´ D u d k w if r[k w f b l ; ? OmPf y nmtod w &m; &S d w J h t&mrS e f o rQud k
igtjrJatmufarhqifjcifaewmyJ/}}
bdbdoeu ydkíav;eufpGm ajymvdkufjyefonf/
]]tHr,f 'Dvdkqdkawmhigu rdef;rwefr,fh rdkufrJnHhzsif;rIudkcsnf; atmufarhqifjcifaew,f vdkY qdkwmayghav/
'DrSm bdbdoe? avmurSm bkef;vuf&kH;tmPmomvQif trSefuefqHk;yJ}}
]]r[kwfbl;? eifrSm;aejyD? todOmPfom trSefuefqHk;}}
]]wdwfMuprf; 'g[mya&m[dwfawG&JY ae&mr[kwfbl;?'o*D&d&JYeef;awmf/&m0P&JYeef;awmf/ 'Dae&mrSm
bmrSrrSefbl;/ 'o*D&dom rSefw,f/}}
uREkfyfu bk&ifhtmPmoHjzifh aigufirf;vdkufaomtcgrSESpfOD;vHk;wdwfvsuf vuftkyf csDvdkufMuonf/
]]eef;&ifjyifrSmcpm;wJhyHkpHeJY 'Dvdkvkyfaep&monf; rvdkygbl;/ tjiif;tcHkawG &yfMuzdkYigu ajymwmyg/}}
]]uJ .. tok&mrif;&JY yPÖmawmfppf&xm;udk aoaocsmcsm MunfhygtHk;av}}
rdzk&m;raE´mu owday;rSyif uREfkfyfwdkY oHk;OD;pvHk; ppf&xm;qDFodkY tm&kHjyefa&muf oGm;onf/
pmwef ; xd k ; xm;aom ]jrm;um} wpf c k v k H ; wG i f a &T y d e f ; csxm;onf / &xm;wG i f ; ü jcaoF h a &rsm;ud k
cif;xm;aomaMumifh Ell;nHhvSayonf/ trdk;r&SdaomaMumifh &xm;\ yHkpHonf ydkíMuGaeonf/ ab;tumrsm;udkrl
aMu;eD o H k ; xyf u m&H j yD ; j'm0d ' d , ef r d s K;EG , f w d k Y \ jcaoF h w H q d y f r sm;ud k a&T o m;jzif h x k v k y f y H k a zmf x m;onf /
&xm;\vuf0JbuftwGif; ae&mwGif av[mjzifhjyKvkyfxm;onfh jrm;usnfawmufESifh &wempDcs,fxm;onfh
MuD;rm;vSaom av;MuD;ESpfckcsdwfxm;onf/ usnfawmufxJ&Sdjrm;wHrsm;\ toGm;rSm 0if;vufaeonf/
vuf , mbuf w G i f r l oef v suf " m;ES i f h vH S w H r sm;csd w f & ef a xmif & ef tuef Y r sm;&S d o nf / txl ; jcm;qH k ; um;
&xm;bD ; ES p f b uf \ 0if & k d ; rsm;jzpf o nf / 0ef & k d ; wef o nf bD ; \tjyif b uf w pf a wmif c ef Y rQxd k ; xG u f a ejyD ;
oefcReftwufrsm;jzifh twdjyD;onf/ bD;a'gufae&mwGifvn;f oHcRefrsm;wyfqifxm;onf/ ppfjrif;ajcmufaumif\
Zufudk xdef;aom MudK;rsm;udk jrm;umwpfzuf&Sda&Ta&mifvufukdifwGif &pfacGxHk;aESmifxm;onf/
a&TxnfESihfoHxnfrsm;jzifhom twdjyD;aom þppf&xm;\tav;'Pfudk jrif;ajcmufaumifonf
wpf[kefwnf; ajy;qJGEkdifygrnfavm[k uREkfyfoHo,jzpfvmonf/ jrif;rsm;tm;vHk; teufa&mifjzpfonf/
ES m a&mif t jzLpif ; rS p í cG m av;zuf t xuf tarG ; rsm; yG a eyH k x d ajcmuf a umif p vH k ; wpf a oG ; wnf ;
wpfqifwnf;jzpfayonf/ tqif;tm;jzifhwmh jrif;MuD;rsm;onf cefYnm;Muygayonf/ odkYaomf uREkfyfESifhwuGaom
av;vHonfh &xm;\tav;csdefudk oif;wdkYqJGEkdifygrnfvm;/
oHo,ESifhjyoemudk tcsdefray;wwfonfh uREfkyfonf &xm;ay: oddkYckefwufvsuf ZufMudK;rsm;udk pkqJG&if;
aemufqHk;jrif;ESpfaumif\ wifyg;udk&kdufcsvdkufonf/ &kwfw&ufvefYoGm;onfhjrif;rsm;onf w[D;[D;atmf&if;
ywyf&yfvdkufjyD;wpf[kefxdk; ajy;xGufMuavonf/ 0J,mESpfzufrS xif;&SL;yifrsm;onf w&dyf&dyfusef&pfcJhMuonf/
uRefyf\ em;ESpfzufab;wGif avonfw0D;0D;jzwfoef;oGm;onf/ uRefyfonf avxJwGifysH0Jaeonfhtvm;
cHpm;rdavonf/ tdE´Kjrpfurf;txd ZufMudK;udk tm;pdkufqJGxm;jyD; jyefvSnfharmif;vmcJhonf/ raE´m? *rÇDESifh
bd b d o ewd k Y &yf a e&mod k Y a&muf c geD ; wG i f ]a[;} [k u Ref y f a tmf v d k u f o nf / jrif ; ajcmuf a umif p vH k ;
wnDwnf;&yfoGm;Muonf/ uREfkyfarmif;cJhaom vrf;wpfavsmufwGif zkefvHk;rsm;xaeqJjzpfonf/ tcsdefbmrS
rMumvdkufay/
&xm;xufrS ckeq
f if;vdu
k jf yD;aemufwiG f raE´monf uREyfk \
f eDnKd a&mifqyH ifrsm;udk vufEiS o
hf yfay;avonf/
uREfkyf&Sd&modkYajy;vmjyD; [efygygESifh'l;axmufí OD;nTwfvdkufonf/
]]jrm;wpfpif;ypfvTwfvdkufovdkygyJvm; armifawmf}}
raE´mu awmufyaomrsufvHk;rsm;jzifh csD;usK;pum;qdkonf/
]]'D p pf & xm;ud k a rmif ; ES i f v mwJ h tud k a wmf u d k j rif w meJ Y &ef o l a wG [ mxG u f a jy;MurS m aocsmw,f /
xGufrajy;EkdifwJh&efolawG[mvnf; bD;ESpfzufuoHcRefawGaMumifh twHk;t&kef;aoukefMurSmyJ/tdk . . . 'o*D&d[m
tdE´Kjrpf0Srf;a'orSm jydKifbufuif;wJhbk&if rMumcifjzpfvmawmhr,f}}
7

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
b,ftcsdefua&mufvmMurSef;rodaom uRefyf\wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;onf uREkfyf\&xm;teD;wGif
'l;rsm;axmufvsuf aumif;csD;ay;aeMuonf/ wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;\ aumif;csD;ayoHrsm;udk uREkfyfonfaeYpOfESifhtrQ
cH,lae&onf/ xdktoHrsm;udk uREkfyfrjiD;aiGYrday/ wpfaeYwpfjcm;MuD;xGm;vmaomtjzpfü uREfkyf\j'm0d'd,ef
aoG ; onf y d k í f y d k í eD & J v mavonf / þpum;onf t rS e f j zpf o nf / uREf k y f \ tom;ta&mif o nf
tjcm;aomj'm0d',
d efrsm;uJo
h Ykd rnf;ndKraebJaMu;eDa&mifoef;vmonf/ tarG;trQifxal jymvSaom uREfyk w
f Ykd rsd K;EG,pf k
wd k i f ; &if ; om;wk d Y xuf y d k í uRef y f \ vuf a rmif ; rS tarG ; rsm;onf y d k í xl x yf & S n f v sm;onf /
Murf ; wrf ; aomqH y if r sm;onf y if teuf a &mif r [k w f b J teD a &mif o ef ; aeonf / uREk f y f \ rsuf v H k ; tpH k r S
rsufqefrSmvnf; tndKa&mifru aoG;a&mifjzpfvmonf/ uRefyftjrJvdkvdk qif,ifavh&Sdonfh a&nda§ &mif0wfpHk?
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f rsuv
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xl;jcm;ayonf/ þonfum;wpfaeYwpfjcm; ydkíydkíeD&Jvmaom aoG;wdkY\txdrf;trSwfyif jzpfonf/
]]b,fES,fhvnf; bdbdoe? bkef;vuf&kH;tmPm&JY wefzdk;udk eifawGYjyDr[kwfvm;}}
w&d*rÇDu nDawmftm; atmifjrifol\avoHjzifhar;vdkufonf/
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aemif a wmf & xm;ay:wuf v d k u f p Of jrif ; Zuf a wG u d k ud k i f v k d u f p Of r S m aemif a wmf & J Y &if b wf [ m
jrm;um&JYtxufa&mufaew,f}}
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0ifvmr,fqdk&ifjrm;umedrfhaewJhtwGuf jrm;[maemifawmf&JY &ifbwfudk}}
]wdwfprf; bdbdoe}
onfwpfcgawmh uREkfyfudk,fwdkif bdbdoeudk trsufxGufrdawmhonf/
]]awmfprf;? rif;[mol&owÅdt&meJYywfoufvm&if tjrJtedXm&Hkbufu Munfhw,f/ 'DrSmnDawmfbdbdoe?
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ta&mufcHr,fxifvm;/ a[h . . .'Dr,f}}
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xdkYaMumifhrvSrf;rurf;rS av;onfawmfwpfa,muftm; trdefYay;vdkufonf/
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tckypfvdkufprf;}}
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&xm;eH&rH o
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jrm;usd K ;onf bd b d o e\ajcES p f z uf M um;wG i f oG m ;ípd k u f a eavonf / bd b d o eonf tH h M oaom
rsufvHk;rsm;jzifhuREkfyfudkMunfhjyD; acgif;udkjznf;nif;pGm,rf;cgvsuf eef;awmfbufodkYxGufoGm;avonf/ uREkfyftm;
av;ES i h f y pf c J h & aomav;onf a wmf o nf uREk f y f \ ajc&if ; od k Y ypf v S J j yD ; ajczrd k ; ud k y g;jzif h y G w f o yf u m
awmif;yefaeavonf/
8

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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qktjzpfvufcHacs/oGm; . . oGm;}}
av;onfawmfonf ydkíwkefvIyfoGm;jyD; uREkfyf\ajczrdk;udk rsufESmjzifhtyfum erf;&IyfjyD;aemuf
ckefaygufxGufoGm;avonf/
]]awG Y M uvm;? Mum;Muvm;? 'D r S m &S d a ewJ h j'm0d ' d , ef w d k Y ? 'o*D & d & J Y vuf & k H ; atmuf r S m cpm;vd k & if
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em;vnfvm;}}
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]]tud k a wmf bd b d o euajymoG m ;w,f ? tok & mrif ; [mtud k a wmh f x H 'D v uf a qmif a y;wm
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uREkfyfwdkYonf eef;awmfodkYjyefcJhMuavonf/

9

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
vuFm'Dyodef;cdkuRef;onf bkd;awmf£&PÖykoQrif; vufxufwGifvnf;aumif;? uREkfyfrjrifzl;aom
crnf;awmfb&mrykoQrif;vufxufwiG v
f nf;aumif; e,ferdwu
f s,fjyefYvo
S nfr[kw/f crnf;awmfb&mrykoQonf
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ppf y J G w G i f u sqH k ; cJ h & onf / crnf ; awmf \ yd k i f e uf o nf v nf ; us,f j yef Y vS o nf r [k w f c J h / ,ck t cg
bdk;awmfonfvnf;aumif;? crnf;awmfonfvnf;aumif; r,fawm*E´Donf vnf;aumif; þvumF'Dyajray:0,f
touf x if & S m ;r&S d M uawmh / vuF m 'D y wd k i f ; &if ; om; rif ; aqG r if ; rsd K ;quf w G i f uREk f y f ' o*D & d o nf o m
eef;arGqufcHusef&pfcJhonf/
odkYaomf uREkfyfvufxufwGif vuFm'Dyonf e,fedrdwftmPmpuf us,fjyefYvmcJhonf/ MuD;pGmaom
td;k p&nf;MuD;rsm;udk jyKvkyjf cif;ü vufryI nmajymifajrmufonfh *krmÇ rsdK;EG,pf rk sm;onf vnf;aumif;? tvrÜm,fynmü
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*&k#rsKd ;EG,pf rk sm;onfvnf;aumi;f? aq;0g;rEÅet
f wwfü vdrm® Muonfh *E©ArÁ sKd ;EG,pf rk sm;onfvnf;aumif;? ,cktcg
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jzpfvmMuavjyD/ vuFm'Dy&Sdopfyifwkdif;\ opf&Gufwdkif;ESifh? tdE´Kjrpf&Sd oJyGifhwdkif;wGif 'o*D&d[laombJGYonf
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ppf&IH;olwdkY\aoG;rsm; pD;0if&m ork'´&m jzpfcJhavjyD/
,cktcg uREyfk \
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oGm;cJhavonf/ rdcif[lonf om;\vuf&kH;twGuf t[efYtwm;jzpfaponf[k ,HkMunfaomuRefyftzdkYrlum;
rd z k & m;MuD ; ted p ö a &muf o nf h t wG u f yl y if q if ; &J j cif ; r&S d v S / om;awmf arCem'tm; twm;tqD ; r&S d
uREkfyf\vuf&kH;&nfESifh bkef;wefcdk;awmfwdkYudk qifhyGm;EkdifjyD[laomtodjzifh rdzk&m;MuD;uHawmfukefjcif;udk
em;vnf,lvdkufayonf/
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usqH k ; oG m ;cJ h j yD ; jzpf o nf / xd k Y aMumif h uREf k y f o nf uREk f y f \ trd r J h o m; arCem'ES i f h
ESr*rÇD\tzrJhom;wlawmf'koESifhc&wdkYtm; jyif;jypGmwG,fwmcspfcif vmrdayonf/ i,f&G,folrsm;jzpfonfh
'koESifhc&wdkudkrl uREkfyfydkíMuifemrdonf/ om;awmfarCem'tm; nOD;,HrSeHeufrdk;aomuftxd "m;a&;usifhapjyD;
wlawmfrsm;udkrl nOD;,HrSoef;acgif,Htxdom "m;a&;usihfapjcif;jzifhuREfkyf\MuifemrIudk oufaojyvdkufayonf/
ESri,f*rÇrSD u
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OD;csdKMuD;rsm;udk tzsm;cRefaeatmif jyKjyifay;xm;onf/ pdwftqwfqHk;ESifh toefrmqHk; orifzdkESpfaumifudk
,SOfjydKifícwfaponf/ orifMuD;rsm;onf j'm0d'd,efppfrSL;MuD;rsm;ESifhrjcm; taotaMuwdkufcdkufMuonf/
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od k Y aomf o rif c wf y J G u sif ; ywd k i f ; rnf o nf h t cgrS r wuf a &muf o l wpf O D ; &S d o nf / xd k o l u m;
nDawmfbdbdoeyifjzpfayonf/
nDawmfbdbdoeonf eu©wÅaA'udk ydkívdkufpm;vm;jyD; ol\trlt&mrsm;rSm uHawmfukefbdk;awmfESihf
wpfaeYwpfjcm;wlvmonf/ t&G,fESifhrvdkufatmif wnfjidrf at;aq;vSay&m ol\tom;ta&mifonfyif
j'm0d'd,efESifhrwlawmhbJ El;nHh azsmhawmhvmonf[k uREfkyfxifayonf/ odkYaomf nDawmfbdbdoeonf
vufatmufcHa'orsm;\ tkyfcsKyfa&;? tcGefyPÖmvufcHa&;ESifh j'm0d'd,ef tcsif; jzpfyGm;aomw&m;wabmifrsm;ü
pD&ifqHk;jzwfa&;wdkYwGifum; tm;xm;avmufygayonf/

10

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
,ck v nf ; uRef y f o nf nD a wmf \ tpD t rH t & uREk f y f \ atmif y J G t xd r f ; trS w f awmif q ,f v H k ; ud k
vumF'DycHwyfrsm; wnfaqmufae&onf/ nDawmfonf yxryAÁwrS e0ryAÁwtxdaom awmifudk;vHk;\
ajc&if ; awmif M um;rsm;ud k ausmuf w H k ; rsm;jzif h t aoyd w f q d k Y vd k u f o nf / uREf k y f & m0Prif ; om;b0u
ajrGa[mufMuD;rsm;udkokwfoifcJhonfh awmifuvyfxdyfzsm;rsm;ay:wGif pufarmif;cvkyfrsm;wyfqifonfh
cHwyfrsm;wnfaqmufaponf/ e0ryAÁwESihf 'oryAÁwtMum; awmifMum;wpfckwnf;om; wHcg;ayguftjzpf
csefvSyfxm;cJhonf/ ,if;vQdKY0Suf wHcg;rSonf OrifvdkPfvrf;aMumif;jzifh tdE´Kjrpfurf;txdazmufvkyfrnf[k
nDawmfu pDpOfaeonf/ tdEK´ jrpfurf;udk þae&mrSjzwfu;l ygu wpfzufurf;&Sd uREfyk w
f Ykd \vufatmufcH *E¨rsdK;EG,pf k
bk&if&Sd&m b&mrmAE´jrdKYawmfodkY a&mufEdkifayonf/
nDawmf\ tpDtrHaMumifh uREfkyf\ vuFm'DyrSm wefckd;MoZmMuD;rm; cefYnm;vmonfhtavsmuf
0gvkcsdpwefa'orS uREky\
f trdsK;tEG,v
f &l ikd ;f rsm;vnf; ck0d ifvmMuonf/ vGecf o
hJ nfEh pS af ygif;wpf&mcefYuwnf;u
a&Munf&m jrufE&k m vSnv
hf nfc&hJ aom þt&dik ;f wdYk onf ,cktcg vumF'yD \ tmPmpufatmuf0,f uRerf sm;tjzpf
aexdkifaeMujyDjzpfonf/ nDawmfbdbdoeonf vuf&kH;&nft&mü nHhzsif;aomfvnf; ,if;odkYaom t&mrsm;ürl
uRrf;usifrI&SdaMumif; uREkfyfESifh ESr*rÇDwdkY rjiif;y,fEdkif/ 0efcHMu&ayonf/
odkYaomf awmifq,fvHk;teufe0rawmifESifh 'orawmifMum;udkwHcg;azmufvkyf? Orifwl;jcif;?
usefawmifMum;rsm;wGif ausmufwHk;jzifh taoydwfqdkYjcif; . . . wnf;[laom vkyfief;udkrl uREfkyf em;rvnfrday/
xdkYaMumifhqD;ESif;rsm;xlxyfpGm usaeaom eHeufcif;wpfckü uREkfyfonf *rÇDudkac:jyD; Orifwl;aeonfh ae&m&Sd
nDawmfxHodkY xGufvmcJhayonf/
tok&mrif;\ vufaqmifppf&xm;udk uREkfyfr,lcJhay/ 0ZD&m\ tquftEG,f jzpfaom r[l&mtrnf&Sd
jrif;MuD;wpfpD;udkom pD;vmcJhonf/ nDawmfbdbdoeonf ausmufwHk;MuD;wpfwHk;ay:üxkdifí pDrHcefYcJGaeonf/ ol\
cdkjyma&mif0wf&kHxufwGif qD;ESif;prsm;jzifh jzLazG;íaeonf/
]]tudkawmfbk&ifrif;jrwf . . MuGyg}}
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]]tcsdefr&Sdbl; tudkawmf? 'DOrif jrefjrefjyD;rS pdwfat;Ekdifr,f? 'Dvkyfief;[m nDawmf&JY acgif;xJrSm av;vHpGm
ydusaeygw,f/}}
vuFmqefaom bdbdoe\ toHk;pum;rsm;udk uREkfyfjyHK;rdonf/
]]at; . . ppfwu
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tusdK;taMumif;odcsifvmw,f}}
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tudkawmfeJYvdkufvmcJh&w,f}}
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11

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uREkfyfvufxJodkY pmcRefwpfckqufovmonf/
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rsufvHk;rsm;jzifh pdkufMunfhaeavonf/
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MudKwifz,f&Sm;jcif;vdkYvnf; t"dyÜm,f&ygw,f bk&ifrif;jrwf}}
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arCem'udkvJ csyf0wfwefqmrsm; 0wfqifyavhap? qD;ESif;awG t&nfaysmfoGm;csdefrSm ppfxGufr,f}}
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olwdkYppfrufjyKMuvdrfhr,f}}
]]tifrwefMuD;us,fjyD; *kPfajrmufwJhppfyJGMuD;wpfck jzpfrSmayghbdbdoe? odkYaomf tom;0gawGtzdkY
tdE´Kjrpf0Srf;awmifydkif;rSm olwdkYudk,fwdkif ajrMoZmawGjzpfukefMu&r,f}}
]]tok tok&mbk&if ppfulawmif;wJh udpö[m 'Dta&;&JYa&SYajy; jzpfygvdrfhr,f? tok&mudk wdkufwJh
rmCbk&if[m tm&d,efwdkY&JY rdwfaqGjzpfygw,f}}
]]nDawmfbdbdoe . . . rif;eJYpum;ajym&wm ightzdkY pdwf0ifpm;p&mtaumif;qHk;yJ? ao;odrfwJh
j'm0d',
d efrsdK;EG,pf ik ,fawG tcsif;csif;ppfrufjyK&wmudk jiD;aiGYaecsderf mS rif;[m ightwGuf tzd;k wefwhJ vkyif ef;wpfcu
k kd
nTefjyay;wmyJ}}
12

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]'gayr,fh tm&d,efawGudk . . . }}
]]awmfavmufygjyDuG,f? uJ . . rif;vkyfp&m&Sdwmqufvkyf igtok&mbk&ifxHoGm;vdkufOD;r,f}}
]]tudkawmf bk&ifrif;jrwf . . . atmifjrifygap}}
bd b d o e\ qk a wmif ; oH E S i f h &k y f y H k w d k Y onf qD ; ES i f ; rsm; tMum;epf j rKyf a ysmuf u G , f o G m ;onf /
jrif;ajcmufaumifu ppf&xm;onf tqifoifhjzpfaeavmufayjyD/
rmCbk&if\ppfwyfMuD;um; tiftm;MuD;rm;vSayonf? ykpGefaoG;a&mif udk,fxnf ESifh '&,farG;a&mif
rsufESmjyif&SdMuD;rm;aom pnfMuD;udk ppfOD;wGif &dkufESwfwD;cwfvsuf rmCwyfrMuD;onf vSdrfhíqif;vm avonf/
olwdkY\wdkufyJG0if pnfoHonf rdk;jcdrf;oHwrQ jrnf[D;vSonf/ ]]tmvrÁ& wyfOD;wHcGefvmjyD a[h ....}} [k
olwYkd[pfaMuG;Muonf/ odYk aomf ppfjrif;ajcmufaumifu ppf&xm;udo
k m;awmf arCem'tm; armif;ESiaf pí uREyfk u
f rl
av;ES i f h j rm;ud k pJ G v suf &ef o l Y ppf O D ; uif ; xJ o d k Y w&Murf ; xd k ; azmuf 0 if E k d i f c J h o nf / rd k ; Mud K ;vsyf p D ; ES i f h
ivsif a wmf v nf ; oH w d k Y u d k tjcH t &H j yKvsuf arG ; zG m ;vmonf j zpf a omaMumif h rmCem'[k t rnf w G i f a om
uREk f y f o m;awmf t zd k Y &ef o l w d k Y \ wd k u f y G J 0 if p nf o H o nf tjyif ; ajywl & d , m*D w oH o zG , f jzpf o G m ;onf /
xdkYaMumifh&xm;armif;wm0efudk om;awmftm; uREfkyfay;tyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ oHcRefoGm;wyf bD;rsm;atmuf0,f
r&IrvSaoqHk;cJhMuonfh &efolrsm;\ aoG;prsm;onf &ufaygif;rsm;pGmyif oHcRefoGm;rsm;ü pGef;xif;pGJjrJaecJhayonf/
&ef o l \ tmvrÁ & ppf O D ; wH c G e f u d k uREf k y f x d k ; azmuf j yD ; aemuf y d k i f ; wG i f u m; j'm0d ' d , ef w yf w d k Y onf
rmCwyfwdkYudkwqifhjyD;wqifh atmifyGJcHEdkifcJhonf/
aemufqHk;wGif rmCbk&ifonf ol\rsdK;EG,fpk ppfonftenf;i,frQavmufudkom toufESifhwuG
jyefvnfpk&kH;EdkifjyD; tdE´Kjrpfajrmufbufa'oqDodkY qkwfcGmoGm;cJhavonf/ ckESpf&ufrQMumaom xdkppfyJGudk uREkfyf
tao;pdwrf rSwrf ad wmh/ odYk aomf tok&mrsdK;EG,pf rk S vuFmpmqdrk sm;url rd;k rmCESihf ewftok&mppfy[
GJ al om trnfjzifh
MuD;us,fcef;em;pGm uAsmvuFmrsm; zJGYcJhMuavonf/ xdkuAsmvuFmwdkY\ pmydk'fwdkif;wGifyg0ifaom trnfum;
'o*D&d[laom trnfemryif jzpfonf/ om;awmf arCem'rif;om;um; tok&mrsdK;EG,f rdef;rydsKrsm;tMum;wGif
MuD;pGmaomol&Jaumif;pnf;pdrfudk cHpm;ae&ayonf/
j'm0d',
d efwyfrsm;udk ppfaq;jyD; vuFm'Dyeef;awmfoYkd jyefvnfxu
G cf mG &ef ppf&xm;ay:ckew
f ufvu
kd o
f nfEiS hf
tok&mbk&ifonf ppf&xm;teD;odkY csOf;uyfvmjyD; 'l;axmufí OD;nGwfvdkufonf/
]]aemuf x yf p pf & xm;wpf p D ; vuf a qmif a y;OD ; rvd k Y vm;a[h ? 'gqd k & if rif ; wd k Y tok & mawG q D
aemufxyf&efolawGxyfvm? aemufxyfwpfcgigwdkYu ppfulaemufxyfjyefay; . . . }}
tok&mbk&ifu jyHK;&if; acgif;udkcg&rf;vdkufavonf/
]]aemufxyfppf&xm;wpfpD; vufaqmifay;p&mrvdkawmhygbl; 'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf? tok&mwdkY&JY&ef[m
jyD;pD;oGm;ygjyD/ t&Sifbk&ifrif;jrwfvnf; tok&mrmCppfaMumifh yifyef;vSygjyD/ t&Sif&JY yifyef;EGrf;e,frIeJY
oH k ; pJ G v d k u f & wJ h cG e f t m;awG u d k jyef v nf j znf h p G u f a y;r,f h aemuf x yf v uf a qmif y PÖ m wpf r sd K ;
tuRefqufovdkufygw,f}}
]]aemufxyf vufaqmifyPÖm . . }}
]]rSefygw,f t&Sifbk&ifrif;jrwf? [kdrSmyg}}
tok&mbk&if nTefjyaomae&modkY uREkfyfMunhfvdkufonf/ j'm0d'd,efppfwyfMuD;\ aemufqHk;bufwGifum;
tok&mbk&if\ vufaqmifrsm;onf ppfwyfwpfwyfcefY &Sdaeonf/
]]aus;uRefawG&,f .. ppfjrif;awG&,f . . a&TaiG&wemawG&,f . . tok&m rdef;racsmawG&,f? a[h . . .
'DvufaqmifawG[m ay;&kd;xHk;pHyJr[kwfvm; tok&mbk&if&JY? 'gudk tqef;vkyfjyD;jyae&ovm;}}
]]aoaocsmcsm &Ipm;yg bk&ifrif;jrwf}}
MuD;rm;aom &xm;MuD;q,fpD;udk awGY&onf/ ppf&xm;rsm; r[kwf? trdk;ygonfh jrif;ESpfaumifu
c&D;oGm;xm;rsm;jzpfonf/
]]tJ'D &xm;q,fpD;xJrSm MuD;rm;wJhtdk;MuD;ESpfvHk;pD &Sdygw,f/ 'Dtdk;MuD;awGxJrSm xl;jcm;rGefjrwfwJh
wpfpHkwpfckS&Sdygw,f}}
]]a[ . . bmvJuG,fh}}
13

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]ppfyJGrsm;aMumifhjzpfjzpf? tjcm;b,fvdktaMumif;aMumifhjzpfjzpf EGrf;e,fukefcrf;oGm;wJh t&Sifbk&ifrif;jrwf&JY
cGeftm;rsm;udk jyefvnfjzpfay:apwJh Moo"&nfrsm; jzpfygw,f}}
]]aMomf . . w,f[kwfygvm;? tJ'DMoo"&nfudk b,fvdkac: ovJ}}
]]ol&mvdkYac:ygw,f}}
]]ol&m . . wJh? tvGefem;axmifvdkYaumif;wJh trnfopfygvm;}}
]]rSefyg/ aomufoHk;&ef tnTef;pnf;rsOf;rsmudk t&Sifh&JY bPÖmpdk;rif;MuD;xH tuREfkyfay;tyfxm;ygw,f}}
]]at; at;? udkif;a[h? vuFm'Dyudk jyefMupdkY? *rÇD&JY orifcwfyJGudk igMunfhcsifvSjyD/ udkif; . . vmMu
j'm0d'd,efwdkY oGm;MupdkY}}
]]'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwf oufawmf&Snfygap}} [laom toHrsm;onf vGifh0Jí yJhwifjyD;usefae&pfavonf/
orifzdkMuD;ESpfaumifonf olwdkY\ vnfukyfom;MuD;rsm;udk atmufodkY ESdrfhqJGxm;Muonf/ OD;csdK\
tpG e f t zsm;rsm;ud k wpf a umif h w pf a umif csd e f & G , f x m;Muonf / OD ; csd K zsm;rsm;onf cRef j rí
rnf;eufawmufajymifaeonf/ cGmrsm;udk &SyfaeaomaMumifh jrufyifrsm;onf olwdkY\ ajcav;acsmif;atmufrS
zGmxGufaeMuonf/ w&SL;&SL; ESmrIwfoHrsm;udk twdkif;om; Mum;ae&onf/ uREfkyfonf a&TcGufudk EIwfcrf;wGifawhí
]]ol&m}} udk armhcsvdkufonf/ csdKjrjcif;? ylpyfjcif;? cg;oufjcif;[laom t&omoHk;rsdK;onf vQmudkjzwfoef;oGm;jyD;
vQmt&if;wGifaysmufuG,foGm;onf/ xdkYaemuf wpfqufwnf;rSmyif &Sdef;jraom txdtawGYwpfrsdK;udk
vnfacsmif;wpfavQmufrS 0rf;Adkuftxd cHpm;vkduf&onf/ aoG;aMumrsm;onf wzsif;zsif;jrnfvmonf[k
xif & avmuf a tmif vI y f & S m ;vmMuonf / xd k Y aemuf uRek f y f \ rsuf v H k ; td r f r S jrif u G i f ; onf
yd k í Munf v if j ywf o m;vmonf [ k cH p m;rd o nf / em;\tm&k H E S i f h cH w G i f ; EI w f c rf ; wd k Y onf v nf ; tvG e f
Ed;k Mum;wufMuGvmavonf/ xdYk aemuf uRefyk o
f nf orifcwfyGJ Munf&h aI eaom rdr\
d MuD;us,fcrf;em;onfh vuFm'Dy
bk&ifrif;jrwftjzpfudk jyif;xefpGmESpfjcdKufauseyfvmrdonf/ aysmf&TifjrL;wl;rI tvsOfonf uREfkfyf\ pdwfESvHk;ü
jzefYMuuf pdk;rdk;oGm;avonf/
]]a[h . . . *rÇD&JY orif;awG[m 'DvdkyJ apmifaeMu&if;eJY tcdsefukefawmhrvm;}}
*rÇDonf usmyGwfudk ajr§mufudkifjyD; orifzdkMuD;ESpfaumifudk cyfqwfqwf&kdufcsvdkufonf/ eef;awmfO,smOf\
taemufbuf? orifcwfyGJusif;y&m ae&mav;wp0kdufü cGmoH? OD;csdKcsif;xdoH? ESmrIwfoH? [pfatmftm;ay;oHrsm;
qlnHoGm;avonf/ orifeufMuD;ESifh orifndKMuD;ESpfaumifonf tv,fA[kdwGifqHkMujyD; rdrdae&mrdrd
jyefa&mufoGm;Muonf/ olwdkY\[efyefrSm wu,fhj'm0d'd,ef ppfoklMuD;rsm;vdk cHhnm;vSyayonf/ xl;jcm;pGm
wufMuGaeaom pdwfESvHk;rsm;jzifh uREfkfyfonf ol&mudk aemufxyfaomufoHk;vdkufjyefonf/
]]a[; . . . a[;}}
orifzEkd pS af umifonf uGuv
f yftv,fwiG f 'kw,
d tMudrf qHMk ujyefonf/ aMu;eD'ikd ;f vTm;ay: odYkd oHyq
k ed jf zifh
ck w f c svd k u f o nf h toH r d s K;xG u f a y:vmonf / rd r d a e&m toD ; oD ; od k Y jyef a &muf o G m ;Mujyef o nf / *rÇ D \
avh u sif h o if M um;ay;rI o nf tH h r cef ; aywnf ; / txl ; ojzif h o rif n d K MuD ; \[ef y ef r S m uREk f y f \ rsuf ü
ydkrdk0ifhMuGm;aeavonf/
]]a[haumifMuD; jyefx jyefxprf;}}
orifndKMuD; jyefxvmonf/ olnTwfusoGm;&m ae&mwGif aoG;uGufMuD;wpfck jzpfusefae&pfcJhonf/
orifndKMuD;onf qwfqwfcgvsuf,drf;,dkifaeonf/ ol\OD;csdKwpfzufonf t&if;rSaeí oGifoGifusdK;vsuf
jyKwfxGufoGm;cJhjyD/ csdKapmif;wGif aoG;rsm; wyGufyGuf xGufvmonf/
uRk e f y f o nf ol & mud k xyf í aomuf o H k ; vd k u f o nf / a&T c G u f o nf uREk f y f \ EI w f c rf ; rsm;ES i f h
tMudrfaygif;rnfrQxdawGYcJhonfudk rrSwfrdawmhacs/ orifndKMuD;\ csdKapmif;rS aoG;rsm;udk awGYjrif&ojzifh
ydkíwufMuGvmonf/ aoG;rsm;eD&JaeonfhMum;rS wpfzufwnf;aomOD;csdKudkom ydkifqdkifawmhonfh orifndKMuD;onf
&JY0HhpGmyif &efoludk &ifqdkifvdkufjyefonf/ O,smOfuGyfvyfwpfckvHk; uREkfyf\ tm;ay?oHwpfoHwnf;om
tqufrjywfxGufay:aeawmhonf/
14

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
'Pf & mMuD ; pG m &xm;onf h OD ; csd K wpf z uf w nf ; &S d orif n d K MuD ; ud k orif e uf M uD ; onf
jyif;xefpGmxdk;cwfcsvdkufonf/ orifndKMuD;\ MuD;rm;aom cE©mudk,fMuD;onf ajrjyifwGif t&Sdefjyif;pGm
ypfusoGm;onf/ ol\ vnfyif;rSm orifeufMuD;\ OD;csdK xdyfcRefaMumifh xkwfcsif;cwfaygufoGm;ayjyD/
uREyfk o
f nf vufxrJ S a&Tcu
G u
f kd vTiyhf pfvu
kd jf yD; a&Taowaumif;udk onftwdik ;f armhcsvu
kd jf yD; uGi;f v,fwiG f
&yfaeonfh &ufpufaom orifeufMuD;qDodkY ckefaygufvsuf ajy;0ifcJhonf/
]]a[haumifMuD;? orifndKMuD;twGuf vufpm;acszdkY igvmjyDa[h}}
*rÇD\ atmf[pfoHudk em;xJwGif oJhoJhMum;ae&onf/uRkefyf\vufwGif "m;ajrmifwdk wpfacsmif;omygonf/
orifeufMuD;onf uRefkyfudk tHhMo[wefjzifh&yfMunfhaeayonf/ uRekfyf\ vufudk ajr§mufvdkufonf/
tvdk . . . xl;qef;pGwum;/
uREkfyf\ ajcaxmufrsm;onf ,drf;,dkifaeMuonf/ a&SYrS orifeufMuD;onf wpfaumifwnf;r[kwfawmh/
orifeufMuD;\ cE¨mudk,ftwGif;rS tjcm;orifeufrsm; yGm;íxGufay:vmonf/ OD;csdKrsm;onfvnf; xif;&SL;yif\
opfudkif;rsm;ozG,f rsm;jym;&IyfaxG;vmonf/ em;xJwGif toHrsdK;pHkudk qlnHpGmMum;ae&onf/ ]]igvmjyDa[h}} [laom
uREkfyf\ toHonfyif uRefyf\em;twGif;ü wpfrsdK;jzpfaeonf/ AvHk;AaxG;ESifh av;vHaeonf/ uREfkyf\
udk,fonfvnf; ,drf;,dkifvsuf&Sdonf/ odkYygvsuf uREkfyfonf orifeufMuD;&Sd&modk &l;rdkufpGm wdk;0ifoGm;cJhonf/
vufacsmif;rsm;onf av;vHqdkif;wGaejyD; "m;ajr§mifudk qkyfudkifEkdifpGrf;r&Sd? orifcwfyJGuGufvyf\ ab;ywfvnfrS
opfyifrsm;? yef;&kHrsm;? y&dowfrsm; tm;vH; wpfckESifhwpfck a&maxG;vsuf vsifjrefpGm vnfywfaeMuonf/
]]igvmjyDa[h? o . . rif . . euf}}
uRekyf o
f nf orifeufMuD;&S&d modYk ra&mufrrD mS yif ajrjyifoYkd ypfvu
J soGm;onf/ orifeufMuD;onf cRefjraom
OD;csdKzsm;rsm;udk uREfyk t
f m; csde&f ,
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f suf ajy;0ifvmaeayjyD/ odYk aomf vSw
H w
H pfpif;jzwfomG ;oHukd oJo
h rhJ QMum;vdu
k &f jyD;
orifeufMuD;\ vufjyifwiG f vSw
H 0H ifpo
JG nf/ orifMuD;onf uREfyk Ef iS hf tvGeef ;D uyfaomae&mwGif yHv
k u
J soGm;onf/
*rÇDajy;vmonfudk 0kd;w0g;rQawGYvdkuf&onf/
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orifeufMuD;udk owfvdkuf&jyD}}
bdbdoe\ toHudkvnf; uRefkyfMum;ae&onf/
]] tok & mbk & if [ m ppf & xm;ud k OD ; pG m vuf a qmif a y;w,f / 'g[m 'o*D & d b k & if t wG u f
ppfrSefwJhvufaqmifyJ/ 'Dppf&xm;udk toHk;jyKjyD; tok&mbk&ifxH ppfulay;jyD;aemuf 'kwd,vufaqmifwpfck
ay;vd k u f j yef w ,f ? tJ ' guawmh ol & mjzpf w ,f / rl ; ,pf & D a 0wJ h ol & mud k aomuf o H k ; wJ h t wG u f
aemif a wmf b k & if r if ; jrwf [ m tck t ouf t EÅ & m,f u oD o D a v; vG w f a jrmuf & w,f / 'D o l & mud k
qufvufaomufoHk;cJhr,fqdk&if 'o*D&dbk&if[m . . . }}
bdbdoe a&SYqufí bmawGajymaeonfudk uREkfyfrodawmh/ t&mtm;vHk; csmcsmvnfoGm;jyD; uREkfyf\
owdaysmufuG,foGm;cJhavonf/

15

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

tydkif; (3)
aomuc&D;\ yxrajcvSrf;
jrifoljrifol Asma0 . . .aMutHhrqHk; . .
wifumwifum oGifrsufcHk; . . . cs,frSifa&mif
ydwkef;i,fESifh . . oef;cgarSmif . . . rsufvHk;awmfa&mif
aomuf&SL;Mu,fnDaemif jrrsufawmifaumhaumh&Tef;
(yyi,fav0if;0if; . . ywfysdK; )

]]awmifq,fv;kH udk tpd;k &wJt
h wGuf 'o*D&b
d YGJ ukd &&Sjd yD; vumF'yD &JY OD;aoQmifrud¥k u
f kd aqmif;Ekid cf w
hJ &hJ m0P?
tif ; . . iguawmh rif ; ud k &m0Pvd k Y yJ ac:csif w ,f ? 'o*D & d b G J Y ud k &&S d j yD ; aemuf r S rif ; [m
bkef;vuf&kH;MuD;xGm;vmcJhw,f/ j'm0d'd,eftaygif;&JY t&SifocifjzpfcJhw,f/ odkYayr,fhrif;[m tckol&mudk
ESpfjcdKufcHkrifpGm rSD0JcJhwJh umvaygif;rsm;pGmMumcJhjyD? wwfEkdifr,fqdk&if 'o*D&dqdkwJh trnfemrudk rif;xHucGmcsjyD;
&m0PqdkwJh t&iftrnfemrudkyJ jyefvnfay;tyf csifw,f}}
&J & if h þ pum;wd k Y ud k tb,f o l o nf uREk f y f t m; ajymqd k 0 H h o enf ; / &D a 0aom rsuf v H k ; xJ w G i f
taMumjydKif;jydKif;xaeonfh ajc0wfrygaom ajctpHkudk uREkfyfjrifae&onf/ zdwfzdwfawmufaeaom eef;&ifjyifrSm
ausmufjym;\ EGm;EkdYa&miftuGufay:wGif ajctpHkrS &GYH&nfajrprsm; ayusHaeavonf/ uREfkyfonf idkufaeaom
OD;acgif;udk tm;,lí ajctpHktxufodkY jznf;jznf;csif;wufMunfh vdkufonf/ &Sm;a&mif0wf&kHp? tndKa&mifykwD;?
jyma&mifrkwfqdwf? &SKYHwGaeaom vufarmif;? ycHk;? vnfyif;? &IyfaxG;aeaom qGwfqGwfjzLaeonfh qHyifprsm; ...
]]tvdk . . a*:"Hq&mawmf &aohygwum;}}
awmif q ,f v H k ; atmif y J G j yD ; onf r S p í q&ma*:"H & aoh M uD ; uREk f y f a rh a vsmh a ecJ h o nf r S m
vaygif;rsm;pGmMumcJhayjyD/ ol&maiGYwdkYjzifhrIefrIdif;aeaom uREkfyf\pu©Kya'om0,f q&m&aohMuD;\ &kyfyHkonf
rjywfrom;jzpfaeonf/
]]igajymaewm Mum;&JYvm; &m0P? ol&mtcdk;taiGYawG ,Sufoef;aewJh rif;&JY rsufvHk;xJrSm ighudkjrif&JYvm;?
[if . . vlrdkuf/ raumif;rI&JYpu©KxJrSm igh&JYjrifhjrwfwJh yHkoP²mefudk rif;awGY&JYvm;}}
16

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]q&m&aoh/ bmvdkcsifovJ}}
&aohMuD;onf vufxJrS awmifa0S;udk eef;Mur;fjyifxufodkY aqmifhcsvdkufjyD; uREKfyf\rsufESmwnfhwnfhodkY
vufndSK;aigufaiguf xdk;vdkufavonf/ ao;i,faom ol\rsufvHk;rsm;rSm 0if;0if;awmufaeonf/
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17

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18

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19

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20

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21

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22

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23

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24

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apmifhMuyfaeMuonf/ olwdkYonf 0g0if;aom tom;ta&mif&Sdí j'm0d'd,efwdkYxuf ydkít&yfjrifhMuonf[k
uRek f y f o wd x m;vk d u f r d o nf / od k Y aomf j'm0d ' d , ef r sm;avmuf wk w f c k d i f j cif ; r&S d M uacs/
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usef&pfcJhavonf/
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vuf&majrmufpGm tuGufazmfxm;onf/ uREkfyfonf jcaoFhOD;acgif;yHkay: odkY wnfhrwfpGmajcpHk&yfvdkufonf/
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25

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f ikd jf yD; ydí
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vI y f & S m ;wk e f v I y f v monf / uREk f y f \ ES v H k ; aoG ; rsm; ql y G u f vmonf / ol & majrmuf j rm;pG m ud k rsuf E S m ayd k Y
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oG,fvsajyjypfonfhvufacsmif;rsm;onf wqwfqwfwkef,ifae Muonf/ xdkvIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk jrifvdkuf&onfwGif
uREkfyfacgif;xJodkY tawG;wpfck0ifa&mufvmonf/
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jcHKvTrf;xm;onf/
26

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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b,fhtwGufaMumifh 'Dudk a&mufvmygovJ}}
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uREkfyfonf &kyfyHka&TvTm\ ausmbufrSpmudk ajr§mufjyvdkufonf/
]]'Dudk,lcJhyg Zeod'd¨}}
pifjrifh\ tjrifhqHk;ae&mrS cefYnm;aom toHwpfoHxGufvmonf/ qHyif? rkwfqdwfwdkYtm;vHk;
azG;azG;jzLaeonfh tm&d,ef tbdk;MuD;wpfOD;jzpfonf/ uRekfyfonf &kyfyHka&TvTmudk Zeod'd¨xHodkYypfay;vdkufonf/
,ckxd uREkfyfonf tjcm;bk&ifrsm;vdk uwÅDygxkdifcHkr&ao;/ wJeef;tv,fwGifrwfwwf&yfvsufon;&Sdao;onf/
Zeod ' d ¨ o nf &k y f y H k v T m ud k tbd k ; MuD ; xH o d k Y &d k a opG m quf o vd k u f o nf / tbd k ; MuD ; onf &k y f y H k a &T v T m ud k
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0wf&kHtjyifodkYxkwfvdkufonf/
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"m;rsm;ay: odkYvufwifvdkufMuonf/ tcsdKYbk&ifrsm;url 0wf&jHprsm;udk wif;usyfpGm &pfywfíudk,fudk
usHKYvkdufMuavonf/
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usKyfodyg&ap}}
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27

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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ol\rsufvHk;rsm;wGif uREkfyfudk txifao;aom t&dyfoP²mefrsm;udk awGYae&onf/
]]qufajymygOD;}}
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cuf x ef M urf ; wrf ; jyD ; tqif ; t*F g rwif h w ,f o l vl & k d i f ; rsm; rMuG c sD E k d i f a tmif 'D a v;awmf u d k
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udkifaygufzsufqD;ypfvdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ Zeod'd´onf xdkpum;rsm;udk ajymjyD; uREkfyftm; t&kyfqdk;pGm jyHK;jy&if;
olYae&modkYxGufcGmoGm;avonf/
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av;awmf0ef Zeod'd¨\aMunmoHxGufay:vmonf/
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aemuf q H k ; ES i f h wwd , tMud r f touf & S L vd k u f j yD ; av;ud k qJ G r vd k u f o nf / &S d o rQcG e f t m;ud k
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]]j'm0d'd,eftwGuf. . . jyD;awmh . . cspfjcif;arwÅmtwGuf}}

28

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29

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30

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31

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32

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33

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35

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xGufay:aeaomfvnf; y&dowftm;vHk;\ toHrsm;atmufü epfjrKyfoGm;Muonf/
oD w ma'0D \ cef ; qD ; y0gonf yG i f h [ vsuf a ejyD / yk v J M ud K ;rsm;ab;ES p f z uf w G i f wJ G c d k a eonf /
cef;qD;0&Sdy&dowfwdkYonf ab;odkY&SJvdkuf&m vrf;ajr§mifwpfckozG,fjzpfoGm;onf/ xdkae&mrSaeí &mronf
txJ o d k Y w d k ; 0if o G m ;aeonf / ol Y v uf x J w G i f av;ud k u d k i f a qmif x m;onf / wJ e ef ; \ av;wif c k H a e&mwG i f
uREkfyfwpfOD;wnf; &yfíusefcJhonf/
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uREk f y f x if a erd o nf / þrS m buf w G i f uREk f y f w pf O D ; wnf ; / wJ e ef ; A[k d {PD o m;arT ; cif ; xm;onf h
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av;wifcHkonf uREkfyf\a&SYarSmufü ajcmufoa,mif;aom yifpnfikwfwdkwpfckESifh wlaeonf/ AvmewÅd? okn?
uif;rJhaysmufuG,fjcif;/
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tjrifhae&mqDodkY uREkdyfckefwufvdkufonf/ t"dywdMuD;\ ae&mxdkifcHk/
]]tm;vHk;&yfvdkufMuprf;? w&m;rQwrIr&SdwJh 'Dav;wifyJGudk uREkfyfuefYuGufw,f}}
&kwfw&uf toHrsm;tm;vHk;wdwfoGm;onf/ tm;vHk; uREkfyfudk armhMunfhaeMuonf/
]]&mr[m bk&ifr[kwfbkl;? bk&ifhom;awmfomjzpfw,f/ jyD;awmhol[m &kyfyHka&TvTmt&vmcJholr[kwfbl;?
olYrSm av;wifyJG 0ifa&muf,SOfjydKifzdkYtcGifhr&Sdbl;}}
toHwpfckrSxGufrvmacs/ uREkfyfu t"dywdMuD;qDodkYvufndK§ ;xdk;vsuf . .
36

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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0ifa&mufav;wifcGifh jyKwmvm;}}
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a0SY,rf;vdkufonf/
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jydKifyJG&JYpnf;rsOf;[m 'gygyJ/ 'Dpnf;rsOf;eJYudkufnDwJh &mrrif;om;[matmifEkdifoljzpfw,f}}
Zeod ' d ¨ o nf pum;ajym&if ; rd k u f r J p G m pif j rif h a y: od k Y w uf v monf / vuf [ ef a jc[ef w jyjyES i f h
&Sif;vif;aeonf/ teD;odkYa&mufaomtcgav;awmf0efonf cg;axmufí uREkfyfudk rJh&GJYMunfhaeonf/
]]'DrSm j'm0d'd,efbk&if? tm&d,efvl,Ofaus;awG&JY jydKifyJGpnf;rsOf;udk oifwkdYvdk awmifydkif;om; vl&kdif;awG[m
em;rvnfEkdifygbl;? 'g[m vuFm'Dyawma'o r[kwf . ... . tm; }}
Zeod'd¨pum;rqHk;cif uREkfyfu ol\usufoa&r&SdaomrsufESmudk &kdufcs vdkufonf/ av;awmf0efonf
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csufcsif;qlnHvIyf&Sm;vmjyD; vufeufrsm;udk xkwfMuavonf/ "m;oH? vHSoHrsm; wcRifcRifjrnfvmonf/
]]apmfum;vSwJh tom;eDbk&ifudk owfMua[h}}
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vSHwHrsm; uREkfyfab;wGif wpfacsmif;jyD;wpfacsmif; 0ifpdkufonf/ "m;ajr§mifwpfvuf onf uREkfyfoHudk,fusyf
0rf;ydkufjyifae&mudk xdrSefjyD; atmufodkYvGifhusoGm;onf/ vnfrsdKqDodkY0ifvmonfh ykqdefwpfvufudkrl
vufudkif&kd;ae&mrS ckwfcsvdkuf&onf/ atmufrSaeí vufeufrsm;jzifhypfoGif;aeMuaomfvnf;pifjrifhay: odkY
wpfpHkwpfa,muf rS wufrvmMuacs?
]]vmMua[h tom;0gawG? tay:wufcJhMuygawmhvm;}}
tom;0g wpfOD;rSwufrvm/ odkYaomf tpdrf;a&mifoPÖmefwpfckuREkfyfESifh reD;ra0;wpfajy;wnf;ae&modkY
ckefwufvmonf/
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&mronf av;ndKYay:üjrm;udkwifxm;jyD; atmufcsxm;onf/
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&mr\rsufvHk;pdrf;rsm;ESifh uREkfyf\eD&Jaom rsufvHk;ESpfpHkwdkYonf wpfckudkwpfck xGif;azmufoGm;rwwf
qHkaeMuonf/ xdktcdkuf a&Tjcnfazmfuy0gcef;qD;qDrS pl;&SaomtoHwpfoHay:vmayonf/
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armifawmf&mr? ESrudk u,fyg}}
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atmfvdkufonf/
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tqdyfjrm;aygif;axmifaomif;ESifhypfvdkufonfhtvm; uREkfyftm;jyif;pGmemusifapawmhonfwum;/
]]bDvl;vdkMurf;wrf;cufxefwJh vuFm'Dybk&if? bDvl;vdkMurf;wrf;cufxefwJh vuFm'Dybk&if}} oDwmonf
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cspf o l \
rk e f ; wD ; pyf q k w f a Mumuf & H G Y jcif ; ?
tcspf u d k q H k ; &I H ; jcif ;
uREk f y f o nf
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vltkyfMuD;twGif;odkYtwif;xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufcJhawmhonf/ aoG;&l;aoG;wef;jzifh a0SY,rf;aerdonf uREfkyf\
oHvsufonf rnfonfht&mudk xd&Sydkif;jzwfoGm;onf udkrodawmh/ uREkfyf\udk,fay:ü rnfodkYaomvufeufrsm;
xd c k d u f M uonf u d k v nf ; rod a wmh / uRek f y f t od j yef 0 if v maomtcgwG i f u m; uREk f y f o nf wJ e ef ; rk c f 0 od k Y
a&mufaeavonf/ urÇmavmutm; emMunf;vsufrkcf0wdkifudkoHvsufjzifhydki;f jzwfvdkuf&m wdkifonfusdK;jywfvsuf
rk c f 0 \trd k ; onf jyd K usvmavonf / jyd K usvmaom trd k ; aiG j ym;rsm;ud k oef v suf j zif h z ,f & S m ;&if ;
&xm;xufodkYckefwufvkdufonf/ wJee;ftwGif;rS &mr\ toHudkMum;vdkuf&onf/
37

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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yg;jyifteD;rS pl;&Saom toHwpfoHMum;vdkuf&onf/
uREkfyf\nmbufycHk;wGif rD;pESifhxdk;vdkufouJhodkY ylavmifoGm;onf/
jrm;wpfpif;onf a&Tjrm;umwpfzuf jrif;aZmif;usdK;csnfaESmifxm;onfhwdkifxdyf0wGif 0ifpdkufonf/
ppfjrif;ajcmufaumif\ausmjyifxufodkY usmyGwfjzifh&kdufcsvdkufonf/ ppf&xm;onf w[kefxdk; ajy;xGufoGm;onf/
wpf p H k w pf a ,muf a om&ef o l ( od k Y r [k w f ) &ef o l t rsm;tjym; aemuf r S v d k u f v mjcif ; cH & ovd k u REk f y f & xm;ud k
tjyif;armif;ESifhcJhonf/ ajcmufcsm;pGmjzifh jrif;rsm;udk usmyGwfESifh w&Trf;&Trf;&kdufaerdonf/uREkfyf\aemufrS ...
&mrrif;om;onfvnf; aumi;f? vu©Ponfaomfvnf;aumif;? tm&d,efbk&if rsm;aomfvnf;aumif;
?&ef o l Y wyf r sm;aomf v nf ; aumi;f vd k u f v mMuonf r [k w f / xd k t &mrsm;omqd k v Qif u REk f y f &xm;ud k
jyefíODvSnfhvdkufrnf/ uREkfyf\aemuf xyfMuyf ruGm vdkufygaeonfum; &efolrsm;r[kwf? cspfoljzpfonf/
cspfoloDwma'0D/ olr\pl;&Saom atmf[pfoH . ./
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bDvl;vdkMurf;wrf;cufxefwJh vuFm'Dybk&if? bDvl;vdkMurf;wrf; cufxefwJh vuFm'Dybk&if}}

38

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

tykdif; (5)
w&d*rÇD\ tultnD
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(eef;oD[kd . . armfjyef,dk;',m; )
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oef;acgif,HjzpfaomaMumifh 0ef;usif0J,mwGif rnf;arSmifaeonf/ odkYaomf ydef;ydwfatmif rnf;arSmif onfh
tarSmifwdkufr[kwfacs / unifESifh tifMuif;yifrsm;xufwGif va&mifpD;qif;aeonf/prf;acsmif; xJrSmvnf;
aiG&nfrsm; oGef;jzmaeonf/
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wpfckteD;'kl;axmufjyD;aiG&nfrsm;pD;qif;aeonfh a&tvsOfudk iHkYMunfhrdonf/ [kdrSmbufuaomifpyfonf
eDvma&mifawmufaeonf/aumif;uifwGif 0dkif;pufaomv/
Mu,fwdkYwzsyfzsyf yGifhzl;aeMujyD/ e*g;aiGYwef; onf Mu,frsm;udk ayGYzufvsuf wGefYvdrfaeonf/
Mu,frsm;onf rdxdvmwJheef;rS ykvJMudK;rsm;udk vnf;aumi;f? e*g;aiGYwef;onf a&Tjcnfazmuf y0gcef;qD;udk
vnf;aumif; owd&apavonf/ jynfjh zdK;0kid ;f pufaeaom v url uREfyk t
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39

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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ES v H k ; onf ; yG w f u d k u k p m;Ek d i f r nf [ k x if r d o nf h t wG u f " rd ® u awmif a ovmajc&if ; rS prf ; acsmif ; i,f t &yf o d k Y
uRefyfarmif;ESifvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ odkYaomf at;jraomva&mifESifh prf;a&wdkYonf uREkfyftm;rukpm;EkdifMuukef
vGefcJhonfh ig;&ufu uRekfyf\&ifudk aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrhapcJhonfhþae&mav;onf ,cktcg qefYusif om &v'fudk
ay;aeonf / prf ; a&tvsOf x uf w G i f t&I H ; \jy,k * f r sm; wpf c k j yD ; wpf c k ay:vmonf / wpf c k x uf w pf c k
ydkrdkMuDxGm;aeMuonf/
Zeod'd¨\avSmifajymifjcif;
t"dywd\ pD&ifqHk;jzwfjcif;?
tm&d,efwdkY\ 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkufjcif;?
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tvHk;ukefaom jy,k*frsm;xuf . .
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ae&mjzpfonf/
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opf&efprf;a&xJodkY uREkfyfvufrsm; ESpfvdkufonf/ at;jraom a&ESifh xdawGY vdkufcdsefwGif uREkfyf\
,mbufvufzaemifhae&mü usdef;pyfoGm;onf/
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'Pf&mudMk unf&h if; av;wifyjGJ zpf&yfrsm; tpDt&D0ifa&mufvmjyefonf/ ESv;kH rcsrf;ajrhb,
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csufcsif;qla0vmjyD; teD;rS ausmufwkef;wpfwkH;udk r,lí prf;a&tvsOfxJodkY aygufcsvdkufonf/ ausmufwkH;
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40

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&if b wf o nf e d r f h c snf j rif h c snf jzpf a eao;onf / *rD Ç o nf uREk f y f & yf a e&mod k Y avQmuf v monf /
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f ufuikd w
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uRkEkfyfonf pl;0ifaeaom&mrrif;om;\ jrm;udk EIdwfvdkufonf/ jrm;onf uRwfíryg vmojzifh
pl;0ifaeonfh xdktwdkif;xm;vdkufjyD; jrm;wHudkomcsdK;ypfvdkufonf/ vufwGifygvmaom jrm;wHudk xyfrHí
tydkif;ydkif;csKd;ypfvdkufonf/
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42

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_____________
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45

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__________________
uREk f y f u xd k i f c H k x uf o d k Y x d k i f c d k i f ; vd k u f o jzif h om;awmf E S i f h nD a wmf w d k Y v nf ; cH k e d r f h r sm;toD ; oD ;
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&ifhusufwnfjidrfaeMuavonf/
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46

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47

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tjyifbufrSmxm;jyD;ydkYvdkuf? ppfrufESifh yufoufw,f? ppfulvdkw,fqdk&if uwDyÅ gteDa&mifpudk tjyifbufrSm
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tpG r f ; jyyJ G t crf ; tem;ud k od r f ; &ef t rd e f Y ay;vd k u f o nf / om;awmf a rCem'onf ol \ ppf w yf r sm;ud k
pk&kH;íjyefvnfxGufcGm&efpDpOfaeonf/ &Jruf&ifjyif\ tem;,l cef;rodkYa&mufaomtcg bddbdoeonf
uREkfyf\teD;odkYuyfvmonf/
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]]bmawGrsm;vJ}}

48

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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ol[mb,fvdktusifhazmufjyefwmrsdK;vJ? okc&dwf&JY bkef;vuf&kH ;eJY tmPmpuf[m udoudE´mrSm wu,fyJ
uG,faysufoGm;wm[kwf&JYvm; pwJhtcsufawG? jyD;awmh okc&dwf[m tdE´Ljrpfajrmufydkif;a'oudk xGufcGmoGm;jyD;
tm&d,efawGeJY yl;aygif;w,fqdkwm ol[m ol&JYudoudE´mudk tom;0gawG&JYtultnDeJY jyefvnf&,lzdkY MudK;pm;rSmyJ
aemifawmfbk&ifrif;jrwf}}
]]'Dawmh wkdY[m wdkY&JYvufatmufcHbmvDbk&ifbufuae tultnDay;&rSmayghnDawmf bdbdoe}}
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tjyifbufrSmxm;&SdwJhyHkpHeJY aemifawmfqD jyefa&mufvmrSmyJ}}
þwGifwcsdefvHk;jidrfí em;axmifaeaom *rÇDu0ifajymavonf/
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bd b d o eurl cef ; raqmif j ywif ; ayguf o d k Y x oG m ;jyD ; jywif ; rS y 0gpud k vuf j zif h yG w f o yf v suf
jznf;jznf;csif;ajymavonf/
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k cf w
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tm&d,efawGu w&m;rQwrI&JY bufawmfom;jzpfoGm;r,f}}
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ppfa&;twwfxufjrufjcif;udk ac:wmyJ? bkefwefcdk;&JYaemufuG,frSm w&m;rQwrIqdkwm tpOfwGJygae&w,f}}
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eD v mausmuf u d k v nf ; wk e f , if a omvuf j zif h y G w f o yf q k y f a jcaeonf / bd b d o e bmaMumih f 'D a vmuf
trlt,mysuf&ovJqdkonfudk uREfkyfrawG;wwfacs/
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tck t wd k i f ; qd k & if a wmf aemif a wmf b k & if r if ; jrwf [ m bk e f ; vuf & H k h ; w&m;"r® r S m vH k ; vH k ; rsm;vsm;
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49

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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bdbdoeonf OD;acgif;udk cg,rf;aeonf/
]]wd k i f ; jynf w pf j ynf [ m ol & J Y w &m;"r® u d k bk e f ; vuf & k H ; eJ Y wnf a qmuf r ,f q d k & if ysuf p D ; cef ; ud k
tkwfjrpfcswmeJYtwlwlyJ . . . twlwlyJ}}
]]rif;xGufoGm;vdkufprf; bdbdoe? cef;raqmifxJu xGufoGm;vdkufprf;? aemufwpfcg xyfajymr,fqdk&if
vuFm'Dy eef;awmfxJu . . . odef;cdkjynf&JYe,fedrdwfxJuyg xGufoGm;vdkYigajymvdkufr,f}}
bddbdoeonf uREkfyftm; pdrf;pdrf;0g;0g;Munfhvsuf cef;raqmifxJrS xGufoGm;avonf/ w&d*rÇdu
uREkfyf\vufrsm;udk qkyfe,fvsuf ESpfodrfhvmonf/
]]xHk;pHtwdkif; bdbdoe[m bk&ifrif;jrwfudk cspfcifav;pm;vdkY tpdk;&drfMuD;aewmyg/ xHk;pHtwdkif;
tudkawmfwdkYaqG;aEG;yJG[m qlqlnHnHjzpfvmjyD; bdbdoeudk tudkawmfu armif;xkwf? bdbdoeu xGufoGm;?
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w&m;rQwrI[macgif;eJYtjrD;ydkif;jzpfw,fvdkY ESrawmf*rÇDeJYwuG j'm0d'd,eftm;vHk;u ,HkMunfouf0ifMuygw,f}}
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qefYusifa0zefonfh nDawmfbdbdoeudk uREKfyfrausreyf jzpfvmonf/ vuFm'Dytdrfa&SYpHtjzpfukdyif
om;awmfarCem'tm;rtyfESif;bJ olYtm;ay;cJhonf/ þrQavmufaMumuf&GYHawGa0wwfolonf tdrfa&SYpHESifh
rwef a wmh [ k uREk f y f x if o nf / od k Y aomf M uD ; rm;us,f j yef Y aom vuF m 'D y e,f e d r d w f t wG i f ; &S d
MuD;av;aomvkyfief;wm0efrsm;udk om;awmfarCem'onf EdkifEkdifeif;eif;pDrHcefYcJG Ekdifrnfr[kwf/ þudpöudk
pG r ;f a qmif E k d i f o l r S m nD a wmf b d b d o erS w pf y g; vuF m 'D y wG i f tjcm;rnf o l r S v nf ; r&S d M uacs/
aMumuf&GHYawGa0wwfjcif;rSty bdbdoeonf OmPfynmMuD;rm;ítodtjrifus,f0ef;oljzpfaeayonf/
]]uJ . . . tpfudkawmfbk&ifrif;jrwf? xD;eef;udpöeJY yifyef;vSygjyD/ *E¨rmvmom;&JwGif; rSmvnf;
tqifoifhjzpfaejyDrdkY}}
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jyD;awmh orifzdkt&kdif;ESpfaumifeJY usm;opfwdkYwkdufcdkuf Mur,f? jyD;awmh . . . .}}
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þumvrsm;twGif; uREkfyfonf vuFm'Dy\tkyfcsKyfa&;&mrsm;ESifh rtm;rvyf Ekdifatmif &Sdaeawmhonf/
om;awmfarCem'\ppfwyfrsm;udk ppfaq;jcif;? vufatmufcrH sKd ;EG,pf b
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'koESifhc&wkYdonf OD;&D;awmfxHrS ]]y#dyu© aoe*FAsL[m}}udk oifMum;&if;aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrhaeMuayonf/
Eke,faomolwdkY\ rsufESmrsm;ESihf rvdkufatmifyifudk,fcE¨mcGeftm;AvwdkYMuD;xGm;oefpGrf;aeMuonfudkvnf;
tm;&zG,fawGYcJh&onf/ ,cktcg olwdkYonf OD;&D;awmf\qefYusifbufynmrsm; ?awmawmifa&ajrwdkY\
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"m;vSHESifh ykqdeftwwf rsm;udkom avhusifhxm;Muojzifh ]]av;jrm;twwf}}udk qufvufoifMum;ay;&efOD;&D;awmf
tm; uREfkfyfrSmMum;cJhonf/ wlawmfarmifrsm;url av;jrm;twwfudk oifMum;&ef pdwfyg0ifpm;rIr&SdvSbJ
y#yu©aoe*FAsL[mudkom qHk;cef;wdkif oif,lvdkaMumif; OD;&D;awmfu uREfkyfudk ajymonf/

50

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
xD;eef;tkycf sKyfa&; vkyif ef;rsm;rS tm;vyfonfh tcsed rf sm;wGiu
f REKfyo
f nf rdrd uk,
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f idk f ppfa&;avhusirhf rI sm;udk
jyKvkyfcJhonf/ ,cktcg tok&mbk&ifqufocJhaom ppf&xm;onf ppfjrif;ajcmufaumifr[kwfawmhacs/
rlvppfjrif;eufajcmufaumifudk jzKwfí qD;ESif;vdkqGwfqGwfjzLaom ppfjrif;q,faumifudk wyfqifxm;ayonf/
]]a&Tjrm;um edrfhaeonf}}[k bdbdoeu uREkyftm; tMuHay;cJhzl;onf/ odkYaomf xdk edrfhaomjrm;um jzifhyifuREkfyfonf
vuFm'DyEkdifiHawmftm; wkdufcdkfupk&kH;csJYxGifEkdifcJhonf jzpfí xdktao;tzJGudpövnf;xdktwdkif;omxm;vdkufonf/
xdkYjyif jrm;umudk jrifhvkdufjcif;tm;jzifh tusdK;ESpf&yfqkwf,kwfoGm;rnfjzpfonf/ yxrwpf&yfrSm &xm;xufrSaeí
uREk f y f u &ef o l u d k y pf c wf v d k a omtcg jrm;umjrif h a evQif t aES m uf t ,S u f jzpf r nf / 'k w d , wpf & yf r S m
vuFm'Dybk&if'o*D&donf &efol\ vufeufab;rSvkHjcHKaom iSm jrifhaomjrm;umudk toHk;jyKonf[k
txifrcHvdkaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ qD;ESif;vdkjzLazG;aom ppfjrif;q,faumifu ppf&xm;udk armif;ESifonfhuREkfyftm;
vuFm'Dpmqkdrsm;ESifh tEkynm&Sifrsm;u ]]wdrfwdkufrsm;tMum;rS azmufcGJxGufay:vmonfh &xm;ysH\ t&Sifocif}}
[k zJGYEGJYoDukH;Muavonf/
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0,fu;l cwfaeonfyifjzpfapOD;? wpfpw
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vuF m 'D y eef ; aqmif p uf & m\ uwÅ D y govG e f a wmf x uf v J a vsmif ; ae&if ; rd x d v m av;awmf w if y J G u
tjyefnwpfn\"rd®uawmifaovmajc&if;rS prf;acsmif;udk jrifa,mifaerdonf/ prf;a&tvsOfxufodkY
ausmufwHk;MuD;rsm;udk wpfwHk;jyD;wpfwHk; udkifaygufypfcsaeonfh uREKfyfudk,fuREkfyfawGYae&onf/ w0kef0kef;toHrsm;
Mum;a,mifrdonf/
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twGif;bufudk rif; . . . cPav; pl;prf;Munfhprf;yg? 'DtcgrSm tcspfudk rif;awGY&rSmyg}}
ESvHk;ylyefaMuuJGaomfvnf; uREkfyfonf aysmhnHhaeonfum; r[kwfcJh/ oDwma'0Dudk jrifa,mifrdwkdif;
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Munfhaeonf/ oif;\rsufESmay:wGif avSmifajymifaom tjyHK;wpfck tjrJ&Sdaeonf/ xdktcg uREKfyf\&iftwGif;ü
a'goESifh rkef;wD;jci;fwkdYqla0vmMuonf/
]]oif;[m tm&d,efwpfa,muftaeeJY igh&JY&efol? oDwma'0DeJY ywfowfwJhtwGuf ydkíMuD;rm;aom &efol}}
toHxGufí MuHK;0g;vdkufaom tcgrsm;wGif uREkfyf\ ESvHk;ylyefemusifrIrsm;onf qla0vmaom j'm0d'd,efaoG;rsm;
atmufwGif wdk;vQdK;aysmufuG,foGm;&ayonf/ ,cktcgwGif &mrrif;om;ESifh oDwma'0DwkdYonf vufxyfjyD;
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51

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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uREKfy'f o*D&t
d wGuf rnfonft
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h yk if ef;r[kw?f uREKfy\
f ppf&xm; a&SYjrm;umwpfzufrS
wkdifxdyfwGif &mrrif;om; ypfvTwfpdkuf0ifcJhaom jrm;\toGm;onf oHomjzpfygu ,cktcgoHacs;yifjzpfavmufjyD;/
uRkEfkyfonf xdkjrm;oGm;udk xkwf,ljci;frjyK/ rdxdvmav;wifyJGu tjyeftwdkif; onftwdkif;&Sdaponf/ xdkt&monf
uREk f y f \ &if w G i f ; ü cspf j cif ; arwÅ m ES i f h u vJ h p m;acsrI w m0ef u d k t pOf r jywf eD ; uyf p G m EI d ; aqmf a e&rnf /
ESvHk;onf;yGwftwGif;0,f tcspfESifh trkef;wdkYudk uREkfyf 'o*D&d&JY&ifhpGmyif odrf;qnf;xm;rnf/
nDawmfbdbdoeonf EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; udprö sm;rSvJGí ,cifuvdk uREkfyfESifh &if;&if;ESD;ESD; rqufqHawmhacs/
ruú#bk&ifbmvDESihf ol\ppfonfrsm; tpGr;fjyyJG tcsdefrSpí olonf uREKfyfudk cyfwef;wef;qufqHaeonf/
uREkfyftm;qefYusifa0zefaom pum;rsm;vn;frajymawmh/ pifppfbdbdoeonf vuFm'Dyeef;awmfür&Sdonfu
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bdbdoeonf ausmufovif;pm;yJG&Sd&modkY avQmufvmjyD;pm;yJGay:odkYvufwif vdkufonf/
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52

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&mrrif ; om;xH tul t nD a wmif ; jyD ; tck u d o ud E ´ m ud k csD w uf v mwmygyJ ? bmvD b k & if x H u teD p ud k
tjyifbufvSnfhxm;wJh aemifawmf&JY a&TycHk;um ppf0wfwefqmvJ rMumcif a&mufvmawmhrSmygyJ}}
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ppfjrif;q,faumifwyf&xm;udk tckjyifcdkif;}}
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OD;pD;jyD; udoudE´mudk csDwufygr,f? aemifawmfbk&ifrif;jrwfu vuFm'DyrSmyJ pHaeyg}}
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vm . . . }}

53

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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atmuf o d k Y csvk d u f o nf / uwÅ D y gponf teD a &mif j zpf o nf / od k Y aomf wajy;wnf ; teD a &mif r [k w f ?
tuGuftuGufMuD;rsm; . .. /
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&m0P&JY? rifhwlESpfa,mufudk Munfhprf;ygOD;}}
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vnfrS azmufxGif; ípGJaeonf/
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bdbdoeu ar;onf/

54

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a,muf s m;ES p f a ,muf r S m wpf a ,muf u 0wf & k H t pd r f ; ? wpf a ,muf u 0wf & k H t 0g? rd e f ; ruawmh
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55

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vuFm'Dy cspfol

tykdif; (6)
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56

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57

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58

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0wf&kHpdrf;udk qifjref;xm;onf wum; . . /

59

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aemufrSm tEÅ&m,fawGuyfygaevdrfhr,fvdkY armifbk&m;xifw,f? 'Dorifa&muf&Sdvmjcif;[m awm&JY obm0eJY
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jrufcif;üyGwfoyfvdkuf jzifh tvGefcspfzG,faumif;aom vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk jyKaeonf/
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tkyfrdk;vdkufavonf/ol\vHk;0ef;aom ycHk;av;rsm; wodrfhodrfhvIyfvmonf/
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eHeufwdkif;a&aomufqif;vmr,fh orifav;udk apmihfpm;&if; ola&mufvmwJhtcgrSm oleJYaqmhupm;&if;eJYyJ
oDwm&JYaeYawGudk tcsdefukefapawmhr,f? armifawmfwdkYom c&D;qufxGufMuygawmh}}
&Snfvsm;eufarSmifaom qHyifwkdYudk qkyfe,f&if; idkaMuG;aeonfh cspfoltm; jrifae&onfh twGuf
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a&TavSmiftdrfav;wpfck wnfaqmufjyD; oluav;udk oDwmarG;xm;csifw,f}}

60

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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ausmjyifwGifodkif;ívG,fvdkufavonf/ oDwma'0Donf Munfvifaom rsufESmESifh aemufodkYqkwfvdkufonf/
wpfcsdefvHk;vSyaMumh&Sif;pGm ckefaygufjrL;xl;aecJhaom orifi,fonf OD;acgif;udk apmif;iJhvsuf wufMuGzsufvufpGm
ajcpHk&yfvdkufavonf/ oDwma'0Du &mr\vufxJodkY wpfpHkwpfck vSrf;íxnfhay;aeonf/
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rufarmvGef;vdkY 'Dae&mudk vm&Smwm? olESpfjcdKufwJh tpmudkjyjyD; jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifvdkuf&if olarmifawmfudk
tem;uyfcHrSm}}
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qkyfudkifvdkufjyD; a&Torif&Sd&modkY wa&GYa&GYwdk;uyfoGm;avonf/ a&Torifonf pdk;pOf;rQaom vIyf&Sm;rIudk rjyKvkyfbJ
owdMuD;pGm&yf&if;&mrudk apmifhqkdif;aeonf/ teD;odkYa&mufaomtcg &mronf usefvufwpfzufjzifh
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uREkfyfonf jyHK;vdkufrdayonf/
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a&Torifvnf; xdkYtwlvdkufygvSnfhywfaeonf/
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a&TorifcwfyGJrsm;udk Munfh&pOfu rnfodkYrQ xdwfvefYwkefvIyfjcif;r&SdcJhonfh uREkfyfonf xdkEl;nHhodrfarGY
aomorifzrf;yJGudk Munfh&if; &if0,fwxdwfxdwfvIyfcgaeonf/ wcgw&HwGif ol\0wf&kHpdrf;udk jzefYudkifvsuf
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wdk;acGYvGwfajrmufvmonfcsnf;jzpfonf/ wcgw&HwGifrl &mronf a'goxGuf[efjzifh vufrS av;udk
udkifajr§mufvsuf &kdufykwfavonf/ xdktcgrsm;wGif orifi,fonf av;udkif;tay:rS ausmfvTm;ckefaygufvsuf
uRrf;usifpGm wdrf;a&Smifwwfonf/ &mru tqufrjywf&dkufykwfaomfvnf; xdkae&mrsm;ü a&Torifonf
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a&TorifESifh &mrrif;om;wdkYonf uREkfyf\jrifuGif;rS aysmufuG,fvsuf ajrmufbufawmtkyftwGif;odkY
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trdefYay;&r,f/ ESrawmfeJY uif;uGmoGm;&if 'Dorifudk &mr[m tvG,fwul ypfcGif;owfjzwfoGm;EkdifrSm jzpfw,f/
tckajrmufbufawmeufxJudk jzm;a,mif;ac: oGm;awmhr,f? tudkawmfae&pfcJhayawmh/ ajrmufbufqDu
atmfoHawGMum;&vdkY vu©PxGufcGmoGm;awmhrS tudkawmf oDwma'0DqDoGm;ygaemf? aysmf&Tifp&maumif;wJh
vuf p m;acsa&; tpD t pOf u d k wd w d u susvd k u f e myg/uJ ES r awmf o G m ;r,f / oD w ma'0D e J Y twl & S d a er,h f
'o*D&dbk&ifrif;jrwfudk vuFm'Dyeef;awmfrSm jyefvnfawGYqHkr,faemf}}
*rÇDonf jyHK;&,fEIwfqufjyD;aemuf awmpyfcsHKykwfrsm;Mum;odkY0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;avonf/
61

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opfyifjydKvJoHrsm;udk uREkfyfem;pGifhaerdonf/ *rDÇ\tpDtpOfonf acsmacsmarmarm jzpfygrnfavm[kvnf;
uREkfyfpdwfrSm wxifhxifh jzpfaerdonf/ &mrrif;om;wdkYtm;,ckausmuf*lpcef;wGif wdkufcdkufjyD; oDwma'0Dudk
ac:aqmifomG ;Ekid yf gvsuf tb,faMumifh vQdKY0u
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uREkfyf\ vIyfckefaom&ifrStoHudk olwdkYMum;oGm;rnfpkd;ojzifh &ifudkvufESifh tkyfvdkufrdonf/
a&Torifudk ayGYydkufvsuf &mrrif;om; jyefvmrnfudk awG;&if; oDwma'0Donf aysmf&Tifae[efwlonf/
xdkYaMumihfol\vSy0if;0gaomrsufESmwGif tjyHK;&dyfwkdYoD;yGifhaejcif;jzpfonf/ vu©Pürl wif;rmaomrsufESmxm;ESifh
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yG i f h a eonf h opf c G y ef ; rsm;ud k cl ; qG w f a eayonf / tcsd K Yud k a&tvsOf x J o d k Y ajcG c sarsmygaponf /
oDwm\vIyf&Sm;[eftvHk;pHkwGif tvSonf wnfrSDudef;atmif;aeonf/
]]'DopfcGyef;av;vdk rif;udk,fwkdifvnf; usKyf&JY tcspfa&tvsOfrSm a0h0dkufarsmyg . . . . }}
qGwfysHYaom uREfkyf\ tawG;prsm;tm;vHk; tqHk;rowfvdkuf&acs/
ajrmufbufqDrS qif&dkif;atmfoHwpfck xGufay:vmonf/ xdkYaemufqiftkyfMuD; wpfckrS qif&kdif;rsm; atmfoH
wpfcJeufjrnf[nf;vmonf/ opfyifMuD;rsm; usdK;usoHESifh opfyifrsm;ay:odkYqif&kdif;tkyfrsm; jzwfausmf
eif;ajy;oHrsm;vnf; ay:vmonf/
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jcaoFhatmfoHrsm;udk zefwD;vdkufayjyD/ *rÇD\tpDtpOfonf wpf0ufodkY csOf;eif;0ifa&mufayjyD/
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vu©Ponf ausmuf*al y:odYk ckew
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ajrmuft&yfqDodkYvufndK;nTefjyonf/ arSmf&kHa[0efwpfckvHk; tHk;tHk;uRufuRuf jrnfaeaom toHrsm;aMumifh
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oDwma'0DudkMunfh&if; uREkfyfonf auseyf0rf;ajrmufaerdonf/
vu©Ponfausmuf*lxufrS oDwma'0Da&SYodkYckefqif;vdkufjyD; 'l;axmufvdkufonf/
oDwma'0Du ajrmufbuft&yfqDodkY vufndK;nTef&i;f wwGwfwGwfajymaeonf/ vu©POD;acgif;udk
twGifom,rf;&i;fjyefajymaeonf/

62

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
&mrtm; awmqif&kdif;ESifh jcaoFhrsm; tEÅ&m,frS vGwfajrmufatmif tultnDay;&ef ajrmuft&yfodkY
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tpDtpOft& oif;yg olYtudkaemufvdkufoGm;jyD;rS uREkfyfoDwmudk ac:aqmifoGm;&rnf/ ausmuf*l0odkY
uREkfyfMunfhvdkufonf/ tm&d,ef ppfonfrsm; wpfOD;wpfa,mufrS xGufrvmMu/ þarSmf&kHa[0efwGif
tjcm;rnfolrQr&Sd/ olwdkYESifh twl ppfonf&Jrufrsm; rygMu/
acgif;udkcg,rf;í vdkuf&efjiif;y,faeaom vu©PudkMunfh&if; uREkfyfonf;rcHEkdif atmifjzpfvmonf/
'o&Xbk&if\omi,f þrif;om;ukd owfjzwfí oDwmudk ac:oGm;awmhrnf[k pdwful;vdkufrdonf/
*rÇD\tpDtpOftwdkif; &Sdcsif&Sdapawmh/ þtcsdefwGif oDwmudk ac:aqmif&efrS ty tjcm;rnfonfh aoe*FAsL[m
y&d,m,frS ta&;rMuD;awmhjyD/
odkYaomf uREkfyfawmpyftjyifodkY ckefxGufvkqJqJrSmyif tajctae ajymif;vJoGm; ayonf/ oDwma'0Donf
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xvdkufonf/ ajrmuft&yfodkY arQmfMunfhvdkufonf/ xdkYaemufolonf oDwma'0Dudk rSmMum;owday;[efjzifh
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63

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64

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65

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67

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68

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69

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70

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72

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nDawmfbdbdoerlum; e0rESifh 'or yAÁwtMum;rS cHwyfudk xyfrHívHkjcHKckdifcHhatmifpDrHaeonf/
xdkvQKdY0SufOrifvrf;udk jyoíaemufqHk;OrifvIdPfxGufaygufjzpfaom tdE´Kjrpfurf;txd bdbdoeu vrf;jyonf/
tdE´Kjrpfurf;xdkae&monf vuFm'DyESifh a0;uGmaom ae&mjzpfonf/ xdkae&mrSaeí tdE´Kjrpftwdkif; awmifbufodkY
pkefqif;oGm;ygu ork'´&mac: tvGefus,fjyefYaom yifv,fMuD;wpfckodkYa&muf&Sdrnf[k bdbdoeu ajymjyonf/
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uREkfyf\pdwfudk&IyfaxG; aponf/ uRekfyfem;rvnfEkdifonfh udpörsm;twGuf tcsif;rrsm;vdkaomaMumifh xdkYxufydkí
uREkfyfrar;awmhacs/
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78

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vuFm'Dy cspfol
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]]oifhjrwfvdrfhr,fvdkY xifygw,f OD;&D;awmf? tJ'guawmh usqHk;oGm;wJhudoudE´me,fpyfwyfrI;ae&mrSm
OD;&D;awmfwm0ef ,lapcsifwmygyJ}}
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]][kwfygw,f? OD;&D;awmf? aoemywdyg}}
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OD;&D;awmfwpfpHkwpfckudk tvdkrusvQif jyKrlavh&Sdonfh twdkif; usm;vQmxufMurf;aom nmvufz0g;MuD;ESifh
teD;rS xif;&I;yifpnfwpfckudk &kdufypfvdkufonf/ aygifvHk;cefY&Sd xif;&I;yifi,fonf ajzmif;ceJusdK;usoGm;avonf/
]]ajr;u aoemywdcsKyfjzpfaejyD; olYtbdk;aoemywdudk trdefYay;r,f? 'DtrdefY[m wljzpfqDuvmwJhtrdefY?
awmfprf;yg &m0P}}
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pum;ajym&if; OD;&D;awmf rm&ZÆonf b,fbufvufz0g;jzihf teufa&mif ESif;qDtcdkifwpfckdifudk
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awmufay;&if;tzl;rsm;udk jznf;nif;pGm vdrf;okwfvdkufavonf/ ESif;qDzl;rsm;onf nuyGifhcJhonfh tyGifhrsm;twdkif;
vSypGmyGihftmoGm;Muonf/ OD;&D;awmf\xdkxl;qef;vSyaom vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;udk Munfh&if;uREkfyfacgif;xJodkY
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OD;&D;awmf\ jcaoFhESifhwlaom rsufESmrS rsufvHk;rsm;onf awmufajymifoGm;Muonf/
]][kwfw,f OD;&D;awmf}}
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tcspfudk ydwfqdkYumuG,fxm;w,f? 'gudkzl;yGifhvmatmifvkyfzdkY ...............}}
OD;&D;awmfonf uREkfyfudk tHhMoxdwfvefYpGm pdkufMunfhaeonf/ *E¨rmvmO,smOftwGif;rS yef;&eYHrsm;onf
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79

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rdef;rwpfOD;&JY y#yu©aoe*FAsLpmxuftqaygif;rsm;pGm eufeJY&IyfaxG;w,f? ydwfqdkYaewJh ESvHk;tdrfudk
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'gaMumifh rif;udk oifMum;ray;Edkifbl;}}
pum;qHk;aomtcg OD;&D;awmfonf vSypGmyGifhaeonfh olYvufxJrS ESif;qDeufudk atmufokdYypfcsvdkufjyD;
ajcESiehf if;acsvdu
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av;nd K Yud k t Mud r f a ygif ; rsm;pG m qJ G i if & r,f ? 'gayr,f h ... ol w d k Y ... rd e f ; rqd k w mrsd K ;u
ndKYudkwcgiif;vdkuf&ifyJjrm;ig;pif;udk wpfjydKifwnf;vTwfEkdifw,f? vSywJh &kyftqif;? om,mwJhtoH?
El;nHhwJhtxdtawGY? oif;ysYHwJh&eH? csdKjrwJht&omqdkwJh tqdyfvl;jrm;ig;pif; ...}}
qef ; jym;aompum;rsm;ud k toH e uf M uD ; jzif h a&&G w f & if ; OD ; &D ; awmf o nf aomf u yef ; &k H a emuf u d k
0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;avonf/ OD;&D;awmf\wdk;a0SYyGwfoyfrIaMumifh aomfuyef;&kHonf vIyfcgoGm;jyD;
vdyfjymi,frsm; yef;&kHtjyifodkYvefYzsyfysHxGufvmMuonf/ twefMumrQ&pf0JysHoef;aeMujyD;aemuf vdyfjymwdkYonf
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uREfkyf\ tawG;rsm;xJwGifOD;&D;awmfrm&ZÆajymoGm;onfh pum;rsm; vSnfhvnfaeavonf/ yef;wdkY\
tzl ; tiH k r sm;ud k rd r d v uf j zif h yG i f h t mapol þ yk * ¾ d K vf M uD ; onf yd w f q d k Y a eaom rd e f ; rwpf O D ; \ES v H k ; td r f u d k
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opfyifrsm;qDrS aus;iSufrsm;vefYíajy;ukefMuonf/ jcaoFh\tqufrjywf[def;a[mufoHrsm;udk em;axmif&if;
uREkfyf\acgif;xJodkY tajzwpfck0ifa&mufvmavonf/
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trSefw&m;yJ r[kwfvm;? tiftm;&JYa&SYarSmufrSm ydwfqdkYaewJht&mrSeforQ yGifh[vm&rSmyJ}}
uREk f y f o nf *E¨ r mvm O,smOf x J r S xG u f c J h j yD ; oD w ma'0D & S d & m puf & maqmif o d k Y vmcJ h o nf /
vuFm'DyodkYa&mufonfh aerSpí oDwma'0Dudk uREkfyftwwfEkdifqHk; olYoabmus vdkufavsmcJhayonf/
'o*D & d b k & if \ wpf o uf w m0,f rd r d t vd k q E´ u d k arh a zsmuf v suf ol w pf y g;\tvd k t wd k i f ;
vdkufavsmcGifhjyKrIwpfMudrfwpfcg jzpfay:cJonfqdkvQif xdkwpfMudrfwpfcgonf oDwma'0Dudk vdkufavsmcGifhjyK
jcif ; omjzpf a yrnf / oD w ma'0D u d k oG m ;a&muf a wG Y qH k w d k i f ; uRek f y f o nf vuF m 'D y ouf O D ; qH y d k i f
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oDwma'0DtwGufrluREkfyfonf tb,faMumifhuREkfyfESifh cJGcGmr&atmif wGJzufaeonfh tiftm;udk woD;wjcm;y,fcGm
cJ&h oenf;/ tiftm;rSuif;uGmaom 'o*D&\
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avomjywif;&Sd&modkY wpf[kefxdk;csnf;uyfvdkufjyD; oDwma'0Dudk rsufESmcsif;qkdifvdkufonf/ þavomjywif;
80

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a&Tprsm; MuJyufcwfESdyfxm;onfh y0gjzpfonf/
puf&maqmiftwGif;&Sd uREkfyftrdefYay;xm;onfh vHkri,fwkdYonf tvQdKvQdKaysmufuG,foGm;Muavonf/
]]b,fhES,fhvJ oDwma'0D? j'm0d'd,efaw;*Dwudk rif;em;,OfoGm;jyDr[kwfvm;?
vuFm'Dyeef;awmfxJu toHk;taqmifawGeJYvJ &if;ESD;oGm;jyDr[kwfvm;}}
oDwmonf a&Ty0gudk wif;usyfpGmqkyfudkif&if; rsufESmudk ikHYxm;avonf/
]]avomjywif;u ckefcszdkYjyifqifjyD; usKyfudk ESifxkwfzdkYtMuHudkawmh vufvTwfvdkufygawmhoDwma'0D?
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ol\yxrOD;qHk;pum;vHk;rsm; xGufay:vmonf/
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oDwma'0D\EIwfrS ajyjypfaompum;toHk;udk yxrqHk;tMudrf uREkfyfMum;&jcif;aywnf;/ þrQaom
tvStyonf þrQaomcsdKjronfhtoHESifhom vdkufzufavonf/ tb,fhaMumifh oDwma'0Donf ol\csdKjraom
rlvtoHudk &ufaygif;rsm;pGm odrf;qnf;xm;&oenf;/
]]ajymyg oDwma'0D? ajymyg? usKyftjrm;MuD;0rf;ajrmufrdygw,f? oDwma'0Dudk 'o*D&dcGifhrjyKwJh t&mqdkwm
r&SdEkdifygbl;}}
]]uRef r ud k 'D e ef ; awmf x J a c:vmjyD ; 'D v d k x m;wm[m tm&d , ef a wG t ay:rS m j'm0d ' d , ef a wG u
vTrf;rdk;csKyfudkifEkdifzdkYta&;twGufoHk;cswmvm; vuFm'Dybk&if}}
ESvHk;onf;yGwf\0ef;usifü vSnfhvnfaeaomuREkfyf\tawG;wkdYonf rmausmaomar;cGef;rsm;aMumifh
acsmufcsm;oGm;&ayonf/ xdktar;udkajz&efuREkfyfpum;vHk;&SmrawGYjzpfoGm;&onf/
]]b,fvkd ar;vdkufovJoDwma'0D}}

81

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]tm&d , ef r sd K ;EG , f p k b k & if h o rD ; awmf w pf a ,muf u j'm0d ' d , ef b k & if u d k ar;vd k u f w myg? uRef r ud k
zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;twGuf vuFm'Dybk&ifvdk ppfbk&ifwpfOD;tzdkY 'guvJGjyD; wjcm; &nf&G,fcsufrsm;
&Sdao;ovm;}}
]]awmf ......... awmfprf;yg oDwma'0D? tJ'DMurf;wrf;wJh tawG;udk z,fxkwfvdkufprf;yg? rif;udk
zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;wmvJ r[kwfbl;? rsdK;EG,fpkwpfckudk vTrf;rdk;tkyfcsKyfzdkYta&;vJ r[kwfbl;? usKyfrif;&kyfyHkudk
"r®uawmifajc&if;u prf;acsmif;i,fwpfckrSawGY&Sd&jyD; rdxdvmav;wifyGJudk vma&mufcJhpOfwkef;u rif;udk usKyf
...............}}
xl;qef;aom tiftm;MuD;u pum;wpfcGefonf uREkfyf\EIwfzsm;odkYa&muf&SdvmjyD;aemuf &kwfw&uf
&yfwefYomG ;onf/ xdt
k &mudk uREyfk af vxJoYkd zGi[
hf xkw&f eftwGuf xl;qef;aom xdwv
f efYrw
I pfcu
k kd MuHKawGYaeonf/
]]cspfjrwfEkd; .... vdkY}}
ppfbk&if[k tac:cH&aom uREkfyfu xdwfvefYaepOfvSyaomrdef;ronf ppfbk&if\a&SYarSmufü
[uf[ufyufyuf &,farmvdkufavonf/
]]cspfjrwfEkd;jcif;wJhvm; ....... ? &Sdygapawmh vuFm'Dybk&if? 'gayr,fh urÇmavmurSm cspfjrwfEId;rIudk
ydik q
f idk w
f o
hJ al wG[m rdrcd spfjrwfE;dk olawG&YJ qif;&J'u
k u
© kd rzefw;D &bl;? rdrcd spfjrwfE;dk ol&YJ vdt
k ifqE´ukd jznfqnf;zdYk ukd
tjrJ&nf&G,f&r,f? tJ'g[m cspfjrwfEk;d jcif;qdkwm&JY *kPfvu©Pmaygif;rsm;pGmxJu wpfckom&Sdao;w,f?
vuFm'Dybk&if}}
yifyef;cufcJpGmuREkfyftm;xkwfajymqdk&onfh pum;vHk;rsm;udk oDwma'0Donf vG,fulpGmjzifh xyfwvJvJ
oHk;pGJajymqdkaeEkdifayonf/
]]vuFm'Dybk&if oif&h YJ tjyKtrlawG[m cspfjrwfE;dk jcif;&JY qefYusifbufawGjzpfw,f? 'gudak um oifo&d YJ vm;}}
oDwma'0Dudk cspfjrwfEkd;rdaomaMumifh uREkfyfjyKrlcJhonf rsm;onf xdkt&m\ qefYusifbufwJhvm;/
uREkyf rf odacs? odYk aomfuRekyf rf od[ak jzvdu
k v
f QifuREkyf \
f ESv;kH tdrt
f wGi;f rS wu,f&adS eaomt&mudk twkta,mif[k
oDwma'0D,lqayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaMumifh uREKfyfonf olYar;cGef;udkrajzbJ aevdkufrdonf/
]]rdrdcspfjrwfEkd;wJhol&JY qE´udk vdkufavsm&r,f? 'gudkaumod&JYvm; vuFm'Dybk&if}}
]]'grSefygw,f oDwma'0D? rif;&JYvdktifqE´udk usKyfvdkufavsm&rSmaygh}}
oDwma'0D\rsufESmonf csufcsif;wif;rmoGm;jyefonf/
]]'gjzifh uRefrudk tckcsufcsif; vTwfjyD; armifawmf &mrqDjyefydkYyg]]
]]bm ..............}}
uREfkfyf\rsufpdxJü vQyfjyufouJhodkY 0if;ceJjzpfoGm;onf/
]] uRefrudk tckcsufcsif; vTwfjyD; armifawmf &mrqDjyefydkYyg}}
]]wdwfprf; ...........}}
uREkfyfonf a,mif,rf;í cg;Mum;rS "m;ajr§mifudk qJGxkwfvkdufonf/ oDwma'0Donf uREkfyfteD;rS
&kwfjcnf;aemufodkYqkwfoGm;avonf/
]]rif;udk usKyfu vTwfjyD;jyefydkY&r,f [kwfvm;? usKyf&JYESvHk;onf;yGwfudk xkwf,ljyD; &efol&JYajc&if;rSm
oGm;xm;&r,f [kwfvm;? tdE´Kjrpfu a&awGtm;vHk;eJYaq;aMumawmifrS raysmufysufEkdifr,fh rdkufrJwJh tjypfudk
usKyfuusL;vGef&r,fwJhvm;? 'DrSm vuFm'Dybk&ifudk Munfhprf;yg? rif;udkawmh olqDb,fawmhrS jyefrydkYbl;?
vuFm'Dyudk ruú#rsdK;EG,pf ak wGeYJ twla&mufvmr,fh olYtavmif;udyk J rif;a&SYarSmufta&mufvmydYk r,f? em;vnfvm;}}
]][if ... bmajymw,f? ruú#rsdK;EG,fpkawGeJYtwl armifawmf&mr 'Dudk vmr,f [kwfvm;}}
]][kwfw,f? 'gayr,fh rif;udk touf&Sif&ufeJY b,fawmhrS rawGY&bl;? rif;uawmh usKyftwGuf
touf&Sifae&r,f? tJ'Dtom;0gbk&if&JYom;udkawmh touf0dOmOfuif;rJwJh tjzpfeJY rif;awGYap&r,f}}
]]&ufpufMurf;MuKwfwJh vuFm'Dybk&if uRefrudk tckvTwf ... vTwf}}
]]b,fawmhrS rvTwfEkdifbl; oDwma'0D? b,fawmhrS rvTwfEkdifbl;? rvTwfwJhtjyif rif;[m El;nHhwJh
usKyfESvHk;tdrfudk tcsdefra&G; xGif;azmufxGufajy;vdrfhr,f? cspfjrwfEkd;rIeJY rif;udkcsnfaESmifvdkYawmh r&bl;?
tusOf;axmifeJYomvQifrif;udk csnfaESmif&awmhr,f? a[h taqmifawmf0ef'Dukdvmprf;? [kda&ToriftwGuf
82

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
w&d*rÇDtxl;pDrHxm;cJhwJh a&TavSmiftdrfudk tckcsufcsif;'Dudk,lcJh? oGm;oDwma'0D tJ'Da&TavSmiftdrf[m
arSmf&kHa[0efausmuf*lpcef; rSmwkef;u rif;vdkcsif wyfrufcJhwJh a&Torifi,faexkdifoGm;wJh avSmiftdrfyJ? rif;tck
tJ'DavSmiftdrfxJrSm ae&r,f? avSmiftdrfxJrSm ae&jcif;uvGJjyD; tm;vHk;csrf;ompGmae& atmif usKyfpDpOfay;cJhr,f?
a&TavSmiftdrf[m a[m'Dpuf&maqmiftcef;eYJ xyfwlus,f0ef; wmrdkY rif;twGuf tusOf;axmifqdk&ifvJ 'g[m
&uf p uf w J h t usOf ; axmif r [k w f b l ; ? oD w ma'0D cspf j rwf E k d ; rI E S v H k ; td r f u d k azmuf x G i f ; xG u f a jy;rS m pd k ; vd k Y
xyfrHwm;qD;&wJht&m wpfck vdkYomoabmxm;yg/ a&TavSmiftdrfxJrSm rif;[m t&ifuxufESq&SdwJh
pnf;pdrfcsrf;omeJY azsmfajzrIudk &&Sdapr,f? usKyfajymcJhwJh pum;awGxJrSm t&mESpfckudk rif;rSwfom;&pfcJhyg? wpfcku
usKyfrif;udk cspfjrwfEkd;ygw,fqdkwm&,f? wpfcku rif;udk usKyfb,fawmhrS rvTwfbl;qdkwm&,f ...}}
oDwma'0Donf arhajrmvJusoGm;avonf/
trsdK;trnfrodEkdifawmhaom ylavmifjyif;jyrIrsm;udk &ifüayGYydkufvsuf uREkfyfvnf; cspfola&SYrS
ajy;xGufcJhrdavawmhonf/

83

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

tydkif; (8)
tm&d,efESihf j'm0d'd,ef
vmacsjyD ........... jrif;rsm;acgif;bG,frSmav ........
jzdK;rQuJvGef; ............... edrfholqkwfMuoGm;avapi,fav ............
wdrf;vdkYvrf;&Sm; ............. MuGm;MuGm;&Gm; ............
a0a0ajymifajymif ........... a0a0ajymifajymif
a&TuawmifESifhom ........... 0dk;0dk;0if;0if; .......
jrif;wGif;jrif;rsm;rif; .........
(jrif;pD;MudK;)
tdE´KaomifjyifwGif j'm0d'd,efwdkYjzifh jynfhESufaeonf? þae&mwGifpk&kH;aeonfh rsdK;EG,fpkrSm q,fpkjzpfonf/
ol w d k Y tm;vH k ; onf td E ´ K jrpf 0 S r f ; a'o\ uRJ E G m ;arG ; ol r sm;? *sH K ES i f h qef a jymif ; pd k u f o l r sm;jzpf o nf /
olwdkYtpOftjrJudkifaqmifcJhonfhvufeufrSm uRJEGm;tkyfudkvmíqJGwwfonfh 0HykavG? usm;rsm;ESihf pkdufcif;rsm;udk
0ifa&mufzsufqD; wwfonfh awm0uf? qif&kdif;rsm;udk ckcHowfjzwfonfh vufeufrsm;omjzpfonf/ olwdkYonf
aMu;eD'dkif;udk aomfvnf;aumif;? oH"m;udkaomfvnf;aumif; ? avm[m jzifhjyD;aomav;jrm;udkaomfvnf;aumif;
tuRr;fw0ifudkifaqmifcJhMuolrsm;r[kwf? olwdkYuRrf;usifonfrSm oHoGm;wyfvHSwH&Snfrsm;omjzpfonf/
tcsdKYaomrkqdk;rsm;om uRJcsdKav;ESifh tqdyfvl;jrm;udkudkifaqmifzl;Muonf/ odkYaomfolwdkYtm;vHk;onf ,cktcg
j'm0d'd,efppfonf&Jrufrsm;jzpfaeMuayjyD/ olwdkYonf aumif;pGmavhusifhxm;onfh vuFm'Dy&Jrufrsm;ESifh rjcm;
tdE´KvGifjyifwGif pk&kH;aeMuayonf/ rsdK;EG,fpkacgif;aqmifrsm; onf 0uf0Ha&udk,fusyfrsm;udk 0wfqifxm;jyD; cg;wGif
uRJcsdKwHydk;rsm; csdwfqJGxm; Muavonf/ wHydk;oHrsm;onf rsdK;EG,fpkbmomtvdkuf vGifjyifwGifvGifh0JaeMuonf/
tcsd K Yaom j'm0d ' d , ef w d k Y onf oH k ; acsmif ; cG c uf & if ; rsm;ud k ud k i f a qmf x m;Muonf / rnf ; euf a om?
ndKjymaom?eDarmif;aomtom;ta&mif trsdK;rsdK;&SdMuonfh j'm0d'd,efrsdK; EG,fpkrsm;onf vGefcJhonfh&uftenf;i,fu
uRJEGm;arG;jrLolrsm;? oD;ESHpkdufolrsm;jzpfMu onf/ ,aeYolwdkYonf ppfonf&Jrufrsm;jzpfaeMuayjyD/olwdkYum;
vuFm'Dybk&if\ ppfonf&Jrufrsm;jzpfMuonf/
84

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
olwYkd um; tdEK´ jrpf0rS ;f a'oodYk 0ifa&mufvmrnf&h eforl sm;udk ckcw
H u
dk cf u
dk Mf urnfh vuFm'Dy&Jrufrsm;jzpfonf/
azG;azG;vIyfaeonfh j'm0d'd,efwkdYudk awmifukef;xufrSMunfh &if;uREkfyf\pdwfü qGwfysHYjcif;rsm;jzpfvmrdonf/
ol w d k Y pk & k H ; &mvG i f j yif \ ab;buf ü rd e f ; rES i f h uav;rsmonf [k d r S o nf r S oG m ;vmvI y f & S m ;aeMuonf /
wd&pmäefrsm;\ta&wdkYESifh jyKvkyfxm;onfh wJrsm;a&SYwGifrD;zdkrsm;&Sdonf/ rD;cdk;rsm;onf vuFm'Dyaumif;uifodkY
wvlvlvGifhaeMuonf/ wHpdkYxdk;íuifxm;aom orifudk,fvHk;udk t&G,fa&mufonfhuav;rsm;u vufudkifjzifh
vSnfhywfrD;uifaeMuonf/ wpfae&mwGifrl eDarmif;aomtom;ta&mif&Sdonfh j'm0d'd,eftbdk;MuD;wpfOD;onf
Asyfapmif;ukd wD;cwf&if;aw;wpfyk'fudkoDqdkaeonf/ orifaumifudk uifaeonfh rD;zdkrS rD;awmufonf tbdk;MuD;\
rsufESmodkYteDa&mifrsm; yufzsef;vsuf&Sdonf/
]]yx0Dudktpdk;&wJh ewfa'0wmu .......
ajrMoZmaumif;wJh vGifjyifMuD;wpfckudk .......
j'm0d'd,efrsm;tm; ay;oem;cJhw,f ....
twkr&SdwJh tJ'DvGifjyifudk ...
tdE´Kjrpf0Srf;vdkYac:Muw,f}}
tbdk;MuD;oDqdkaomaw;rSm uGsEkfyfi,fpOfuwnf;u Mum;zl;aeonfh ]]j'm0d'd,efwdkY\ tdE´Ka'o}}
trnf&Sdaw;jzpfonf/ 'o*D&dbJGYcH&m0Ponf xdkaw;jzifhyif t&G,fa&muf vlvm;ajrmufí vuFm'Dybk&iftjzpf
cH,lcJh&ayonf/ tbdk;MuD;\aw;onf uREkfyftwGuf jyefvnftopfjzpfaeavonf/
]]awmqif&kdif;eJY jcaoFhrsm;uvnf; ....
j'm0d'd,efwkdY&JYatmifyJGudk ...
oufaocHMuw,f ....
tdE´Kjrpf&JY oJyGifhrsm;[m .........
rnf;eufwJh&mZ0if&JY aw;vuFmrsm;jzpfMuw,f ........
tbdk;tdkrsm;&JY jzLazG;wJh rkwfqdwfawGudk
vkvifysdKrsm;&JY oefrmwJh vuf&kH;awGeJY yGwfoyfMur,f
xif;&SL;yifudk tpdk;&wJh ewfa'0wmu ..
vuFm'Dyaw;oDcsif;udk zJGYEJGYw,f .............}}
tbk d ; td k \ aw;ud k uav;ol i ,f r sm;u teD ; &S d o pf a cgif ; wk H ; MuD ; tm;vS H w H r sm;jzif h &d k u f E S u f í
pnf;csufvdkufaeonf/ w'kef;'kef;jrnfoHonf ppfonfrsm; ajccsoHESifh wlaeayonf/ tcsdKYuav;rsm;onf
opfom;"m;rsm;ESifh ppfwkdufwrf;upm;aeMuonf/ uav;wpfa,mufonf rsufESmudk ajr0grsm;vdrf;usHxm;jyD;
olYtm; tjcm;uav;rsm;u 0dkif;0ef;wkdufcdkufaeMuonf/
]]tom;0g tm&d,efqdkwm rif;vm;uG? aoayawmh}}
]]tm; ........... ighudk vHSwHMuD; xkwfcsif;aygufoGm;jyD}}
ajr0gvdr;f usHxm;aom uav;onf jrufcif;ay:odYk vSrd chf svdu
k o
f nf/ ]]ig .... &I;H oGm;jyD}} [katmf[pfaeonf/
tjcm;uav;rsm;u olYudk 0dkif;&Hí ckefaygufvSnfhywfaeMuavonf/
tjcm;wpfae&mwGifrl rdef;rrsm;onf olwdkY\vifom;rsm;twGuf usm;opfa&ESifh 0uf0Ha&rsm;udk
ycHk;umvufpnf;rsm;jzpfatmifcsKyfvkyfaeMuonf/ jyHK&Tifaom rsufESmrsm;jzifh &,farmajymqkdaeMuonf/
wpf a e&mrS r l tvG e f p d w f 0 if p m;zG , f aumif ; aomaMumif h uREk f y f t eD ; tem;&S d ausmuf * l
ay:odkYwufíMunfhrdonf/ jzLazG;aeonfh rkwfqdwf&SnfMuD;rsm;&Sdonfh tbdk;tdkMuD;wpfOD; udk oefrmonfh
vli,frsm;u 0ef;&HvsufxkdifaeMuonf/ tbdk;MuD;onf toGm;usdK;yJh aeonfh ol\ykqdefudk udkifvsuf
vltkyftv,fwGifckefaygufvIyf&Sm;aeonf/ olYEIwfrSvnf; wpfpHkwpf&mudk a&&Gwfajymqkdaeavonf/
]]tJ'g em*gvlrsKd ;EG,pf ak wG&YJ pm;usuv
f &k wJph pfyaJG ygh? trSeaf wmhoif;wdYk u wdYk aewJh pm;usuu
f kd vmvkwmyg?
igh&JYykqdefwpfcsufa0SY,rf;vdkuf&if 0J,mu &efolwpfa,muf[m wkef;ceJyJ? aqGrsdK;pkacgif;aqmfjzpfwJh ightbdk;u
ppf o l M uD ; aygh ? igqk d w mtJ ' D w k e f ; u aqG r sd K ;pk x J r S m toef r mqH k ; tEk y sd K qH k ; ppf o m;yJ / touf u vnf ;
ESpfq,fyJ&Sdao;wmudk;}}
85

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
]]tcktbdk;&JYtoufu b,favmuf&SdjyDrdkYvJ}}
]]wpf&meJY av;ESpf? 'gayr,fh rif;wdkYeJY ykqdefcsif; ckwf&Jao;w,f}}
tbd;k td\
k toHrmS rl arm[ku
d af eayonf/ 0dik ;f xkid af eMuaomvli,fwYdk onf tbd;k tdu
k f pdwt
f m;xufoefpmG
ai;armaeMuonf/
]]'Dvdkqdk&if uRefawmfeJY wpfyJGwpfvrf;avmuf prf;Munfh&atmifvm; tbdk;}}
vl&G,fwpfa,mufu xkdif&mrSxí ajymvdkufonf/ uREkfyfonf ausmufwkH;aemufodkY ckefqif;vdkufjyD;
olwdkYrjrifomatmif ykef;uG,fvdkufonf/
]]vmavuG,f? 'dkif;udk toHk;rjyKpwrf;}}
tbdk;tdkESifh vli,fwkdY\wkdufyJGp avonf/ ykqdefrsm;onf avxJwGif ajrGa[mufwGefoHrsm; odkYaom
toHrsm;udk jzpfaponf/ tbdk;tdkonf vl&G,f\ykqdefcsufrsm;udk ckcHaeonf/ ol\wkdufuGufrsm;rSm aooyf
vSyayonf/ odkYaomftwefMumrQ wdkufckdufMujyD;aemufwGif tbdk;tdkxHrS arm[kdufoHrsm; xGufvmonf/
]]tbdk; ........armaejyD? t&IH;ay;awmhav}}
]]rif; .......... ighykqdef&kd;udkyJ xdatmifckwfygOD;}}
oHoGm;ESpfck qHkrdonfhtcgrsm;wGif rD;yGifhrsm;vGifhpOfvmonf/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm toHk;jyKcJhaom
tbdk;tdk\ykqdef&dk;onf vl&G,f\ckwfcsufrsm;wGif usdK;yJhoGm;jyD; ykqdefvGifhusoGm;onf/
]]a[h ... awmfawmh}}
vl&G,f\ykqdef&dk;qDodkY uREkfyf"m;ajrmifwpfacsmif;ypfpkdufvdkufonf/ vufudkif&dk;wGifvIyfcgaeaom
"m;ajr§mifudkMunfh&if; vl&G,fonfuREkfyfykef;uG,fae&modkY vSrf;Munfhvdkufonf/
]]bk&ifrif;jrwfygvm;}}
olwdkYtm;vHk; uREkfyfa&SYodkY'l;axmufcsvdkufonf/
]]'Dtbkd;MuD; ykqdef&dk;usdK;oGm;jyD? 'g[m opfom;aqG;jrnfhaevdkYyJ? ol&JY owdeÅ JY pGrf;&nfuawmh b,fawmhrS
raqG;jrnfhbl;? [kwfw,fr[kwfvm; tbdk;MuD;}}
]][kwf ...... [kwfygw,f bk&ifrif;jrwf? vuFm'Dybk&iftwGuf usKyf&JYj'm0d'd,efaoG;rsm;[m b,fawmhrS
a[mif;EGrf;aqG;jrnfhroGm;ygbl;}}
tbdk;MuD;onf awmufajymifpl;&SaomrsufvHk;rsm;udk armhMunfh&if; arm[kdufoHESifh ajzaeavonf/
uREkfyfa&muf&SdaMumif; odoGm;onfhtwGuf tjcm;j'm0d'd,efrsm; pka0;vmMuonf/ ppf&xm;ay:wGifom
tpOftjrJawGYjrifcJh&aom olwdkY\bk&ifrif;jrwfudk olwdkYþodkYteD;uyfawGYjrifvdkMuayrnf/ vltkyfMuD;onf
uREkfyfteD;odkYwdk;a0SYvmMu&if; ac:oHatmfoHrsm;jzifh qlnHoGm;Muavonf/
]]bk&ifrif;jrwf a&mufvmw,fa[h}}
]]'o*D&dbk&if a&mufvmw,fa[h}}
eDjref;onfh qHyif&o
dS nfh tbGm;MuD;wpfO;D onf usm;opfa&cif;xm;onfh opfom;xdik cf w
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97

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98

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om;awmfarConf wHcg;0wGifajcpHk&yfvsuf&Sdonf/ uREkfyfudkawGYvdkufaomtcg 'l;axmufcsvdkufonf/
olYtm;uREkfyfvuFm'Dyeef;awmfwGif wm0efay;xm;cJhonf/ tb,fhaMumifh om;awmfonf þrQa0;vHaom
cHwyfOrifvdkPf0odkY a&muf&Sdae&avoenf;/
]]rif;udk igvuFm'DyjyefvGwfcJhw,fr[kwfvm;om;awmf? bmjzpfvdkY rif; .............}}
om;awmfarCem'onf vufxJrS wpfpHkwpfwpf&mudk uREkfyftm;vSrf;ay;vdkufonf/ pmcRefjzpfonf/
pmcRefxnfhonfhav[mbl;rSm bdbdoe\tdrfa&SYpHwHqdyfcwfEdSyfxm;onfh bl;jzpfonf/ uREkfyftxJrS pmcRefudk
xkwf,lvdkufonf/
]]nDawmf\tMuHtpnfratmifjrifcyhJ g? aemifawmfb&k ifrif;jrwfay;tyfaom wm0efukd rausyGeo
f nft
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]]'g ............ bddbdoe&JYpm? bmt"dyÜm,fvJ? olb,frSmvJ arCem'}}
arCem'onf bl;rygaom pmcRefvdyfwpfckudk xyfíay;jyefonf/
]]baxG;awmfbdbdoe&JY pmeJYtwl a&muf&SdvmwJh pmcRefygcrnf;awmf}}
uREfkyfpmcRefvdyfudkzGifhvdkufonf/ ru0#rsdK;EG,fpkwHqdyfudk cwfESdyfvsuf .............
]
]vjynfhaewGif oif\vuFm'Dyudk uREkfyfwkdYwkdufckdufrnf? oif\nDtdrfa&SYpH uREkfyfwdkYESifh twl&SdaejyD?
olonf OmPfynm&Sdaom okcrdefjzpf?uREkfyftm;udk;&onf/ oifum;rdkufrJoljzpfonf/ okcrdeftdrfa&SYpHudk
wyfOD;üuREkfyfESifh twlxm;?rdkufrJaomoifhtm; owfrnf}}
t,k'jynfh&Sif bk&if'o&|\om;awmf&mrrif;om;
]]opömazmuf}}
uREkyf o
f nf pmcRefukd qkyv
f ;kH ?ajrjyifoYkd aygufcsvdu
k o
f nf/ nDawmfbb
d o
d e? vuFm'Dy\ tdraf &SYpH bdbo
d e?
uREkfyf\vuf&kH; okcrdefnDawmf? OD;&D;wmfESifhwuGaom aoemywdrsm;tm;vHk;\ av;pm;jrwfEkd;rIudkcH,l&aom
bd b d o eonf uREk f y f t m;,k w f n H h o d r f z sif ; pG m opö m azmuf a csjyD w um;/ j'm0d ' d , ef ? vuF m 'D y tmPm?
100

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
aemif a wmf ' o*D & d b k & if ........ tm;vH k ; aom t&mwd k Y ud k oif ; onf o pö m azmuf v suf t m&d , ef r sm;ES i f h
yl;aygif;acsjyDwum;/ oif;tm; oDwma'0Dudk odrf;oGif;&efuREkfyfwm0efay;cJhonf/ ,ck ......
]]oDwma'0Db,frSmvJ}}
]]vuFm'Dyeef;awmfrSm &Sdaeygw,f crnf;awmf}}
]]bmawGjzpfaeovJ? oif;ub,fvdkvkyfjyD; &efoleJYyl;aygif;ovJ? oif;udk rif;wkdYu tvGwfcHovm;?
rif;wdkY vufFm'Dyeef;awmfwyfrif;awG? bmvkyfaeovJ}}
om;awmfarCem'ESifh twlolESifhygvmaomaoemywdrsm;\rsufESmrsm;udk uREkfyf&kdufcsypfvdkufonf/
arCem'onf yg;pyfwGif;rSusvmaom aoG;rsm;udk vufzrdk;jzifh okwfvkdufonf/ aoemywdrsm;um; aoG;udk
rokwf&JMu/
]]baxG;awmf[m oDwma'0D&JY a&TavSmiftdrftwGif;oHk;&ufrQ0ifa&mufcJhygw,f/ crnf;awmf&JYtrdefYaMumifh
b,folrS tem;ruyfJ&JMuygbl;/ pwkwaÅ jrmufaeYrSm ol[moDwma'0Dudk a&TavSmiftdrftjyifodkYxkwf,lygw,f/
aemif a wmf b k & if r if ; jrwf & S d & mud k ac:oG m ;r,f v d k Y ol a jymwmaMumif h om;awmf w d k Y cG i f h j yKvd k u f y gw,f /
'gayr,f h o m;awmf u d k twl v d k u f c G i f h r jyKwmaMumif h rouF m jzpf j yD ; ol w d k Y &xm;aemuf u d k
om;awmf e J Y aoemywd r sm;vd k u f M uygw,f / baxG ; awmf u &xm;ud k tjyif ; armif ; ES i f a jy;ygw,f /
td E ´ K jrpf u rf ; a&muf w J h t cgrS ol [ mcrnf ; awmf q D o G m ;wmr[k w f b J ud o ud E ´ m buf a c:oG m ;aMumif ;
twdtusod&ygawmhw,f? olYudkom;awmfwdkY wm;qD;wdkufckufzdkYMudK;pm;Muygw,f/ 'gayr,fh vuFm'Dytdrfa&SYpHudk
b,f a oemywd r S xd c k d u f a tmif r wd k u f & J M uygbl ; / 'gaMumif h o D w ma'0D u d k o mjyef v nf a c:,l v mEk d i f c J h j yD ;
baxG;awmfuawmh vufvGwfoGm;ygw,f/ 'DpmcRefvTm[m baxG;awmfudoudE´KbufxGufajy;oGm;wJh
aemufwaeYrSm e,fpyfwyfrxHuwqifh a&mufvmwJhpmcRefygcrnf;awmf bk&ifrif;jrwf}}
]]tckoDwma'0Db,frSmvJ}}
]]vuFm'Dyeef;awmfudk jyefa&mufaeygjyD? crnf;awmf}}
]]*krÇDuPÖ?wpfa,mufyJ ae&pfcJh/ usefwJhvuFm'Dyaoemywdtzsif;tt vlrdkufawGigeJY vuFm'Dyudk
jyefvdkufcJh}}
ppfjrif;jzL q,faumif\ausmxufodkY uREkfyf\ usmyGwfudktqufrjywf&kdufcsvdkufavonf/
+++++++++
aomfuO,smOf
vuFm'Dyeef;awmf\ vuf0b
J ufeef;aqmifteD;rS aomfuO,smOfwiG f tapmifph pfonfwYkd wpfxyfjyD;wpfxyf
csxm;onf/ om;awmfarCem'\nTefjycsuft& uREkfyfonf aomfu O,smOfbufodkY&xm;udk armif;ESifcJhonf/
tapmifhppfonfrsm;onf &xm;udk z&kdz&Jjzifh a&Smifwdrf;vdkufMuonf/
MuD;rm;aom aomfuyef;&HkMuD;teD;&Sd ausmufovif;cHkay:wGif oDwma'0Dxkdifaeonf/ ndK;i,fEGrf;vsaom
tvStyESifhqefYusifpGmyif olr\rsufESmonf wif;rmaeonf/ oDwma'0Dtm; apmifhMuyfaeonfhppfonfrsm;udk
uREkyf af rmif;xkwv
f u
kd o
f nf/ om;awmfarCem'ESiahf oemywdrsm;ud puf0ikd ;f o@mef0ikd ;f &Hvu
kd Mf uonf/ uREkyf o
f nf
oDwma'0D&Sd&modkY rqdkif;rwG0ifoGm;vdkufonf/
om;awmfarCem'ESifh OD;&D;awmfrm&ZÆwkdYu uREkfyfaemufrSvdkufygvmonf/
]]bmjzpfvdkYoDwma'0Dudk *E¨rmvmom;&JwGif;bufu eef;aqmifxJjyefrxm;wmvJ? a&TavSmiftdrfaum}}
]]baxG;awmfqDu oDwma'0Dudk jyefvk,lcJh&jyD;aemuf olYudk eef;aqmifxJjyefac:vdkYr&bl;crnf;awmf?
'gaMumifh'DaomfuO,smOfxJrSmyJ tapmifhawGxlxyfpGmcsjyD; xm;&wmyg? a&TavSmiftdrfuawmh eef;aqmifxJrSmyJ
&Sdaeygao;w,f}}
]]oGm; ........... a&TavSmiftdrfudk 'D,lvmcJh/ 'Dae&mrSmyJ olYudk a&TavSmiftdrfeJYxm;}}

101

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
ppfonfrsm; xGuo
f mG ;Muonf/ a&TavSmiftrd u
f kd ,lvmMuonf/ oDwma'0D\a&SYwiG f a&TavSmiftrd w
f cH g;udk
zGifhay;vdkufonf/ oDwma'0Donf uREkfyfudk rD;xGufrwwfrsufvHk;rsm;jzifhMunfhjyD;avSmiftdrftwGif;ohdk
0ifvdkufavonf/ avSmiftdrfwHcg;udk uRkefyfudk,fwdkifydwfjyD; wHcg;wdkifudk vufjzifhqkyfudkifvdkufonf/
]]oDwma'0D? rif;usKyfqDu xGufajy;zdkY opömazmufeJY yl;aygif;cJhw,f}}
oDwma'0Donf uREkfyfudk ausmcdkif;?a&TavSmiftdrfoHwkdifrsm;udk wif;MuyfpGmzufwG,fxm;avonf/
]]rif ; ud k ......... [k d o pö m azmuf u b,f v d k t MuH a wG a y;cJ h o vJ / bmtul t nD a wG a y;cJ h o vJ /
rif;wdkYudoudE´mudk xGufajy;MurvdkYr[kwfvm;? opömazmufbdbdoeudk rif;,HkMunfudk;pm;cJhwmaygh[kwfvm;}}
]]'DrSm vuFm'Dybk&if? tdrfa&SYpHbdbdoe[m opömazmufr[kwfbl;? tajrmftjrifMuD;wJhokcrdef?
&Sifom&ufpufMurf;wrf;wJhppfbk&ifodvm;? bdbdoe[m uRefrudk vGwfajrmufatmifu,fwifzdkYMudK;pm;cJhw,f?
Murf;wrf;wJh ppfbk&ifvufxJu vGwfajrmufatmifulnDcJhw,f}}
oDwma'0Donf om;awmfarCem'tm; rkef;wD;pGmjzifhMunfhvdkufonf/
]]'gayr,hf &Si&hf YJ aemufvu
kd b
f v
D ;l awGaMumifh uRefr'Dujkd yefa&muf&w,f? tdraf &SYpv
H w
G af jrmufomG ;wJt
h wGuf
uRefr0r;fomw,f/ tdrfa&SYpH[m &SifwdkYj'm0d'd,efawGtm;vHk;eJYrwlwJh okcrdef? &SifwkdYom ....... &SifwkdYom}}
wif;rmcufxefaomtoHonf wkef,ifvmjyD;aemuf oDwma'0Donf onf;xefpGmidkaMuG;avonf/
a&TavSmiftdrfoHwkdifrsm;udk qkyfudkfif&if; atmufodkYyHkusoGm;onf/ bdbdoe\,kwfnHhaom tjyKtrludk
a'goxGufaeojzifh uRekfyfonf oDwma'0D\idkaMuG;jcif;?cgwkdif;uJhodkYrwkefvIyfawm hay/
]]at; ... rif;uawmh rif;udk u,fwifzdkYMudK;pm;ay;wJholqdkawmh okcrdefvdkYxifrSmyJ/'gayr,fh bdbdoe[m
j'm0d ' d , ef w d k Y &J Y aMumuf p &mtaumif ; qH k ; opö m azmuf v l , k w f r myJ / xm;awmh b d b d o eeJ Y ywf o wf j yD ;
rif;eJYusKyftjiif;ryGm;csifbl;/ bdbdoeudk bmawGajymcJhjyD;b,fvdkulnDcJhw,fqdkwm usKyfudkajymprf; oDwma'0D}}
uREkfyf\tar;rsm;udk vspfvsL&I[efjzifh pum;jyefvSefajymavhr&SdaomoDwma'0Donf ,cktcgwGifum;
idk&IdufoHAvHk;AaxG;jzifh wif;rmpGmjyefajzavonf/
]]bmuln&D rvJ? &Si&hf YJ i&Jxu
J vGwaf jrmufapjyD; armifawmf&mrqDukd jyefyYkd ay;zdYk ou
l n
l aD y;wmaygh/ uRefrudk
armifawmf&mr&Sd&m udoudE´mudk ac:oGm;r,f?jyD;awmh ruú#rsdK;EG,fpkeJY&SifwdkYtMum;rMumcifjzpfyGm;awmh r,fhppfudk
rjzpf&atmifolarmifawmf&mrudk ajymr,f/ uRefru uRefrudku,fwifay;cJhwJhtwGufaus;Zl;wHk;jyefwJhtaeeJY
ppfrwkdufzdkYarmifawmf&mrudk ajymjyay;&r,f? tm&d,efeJY j'm0d'd,efppfrjzpf&atmifuRefreJY tdrfa&SYpHMudK;pm;Mur,f/
'gayr,fh .............. 'gayr,fh aoG;qmaewJh &SifwkdYppfbDvl;awGaMumifh tMuHtpnftm;vHk;ysufpD;&jyD}}
]][m; .......... [m; ...... [m; ......... ? usKyf & J Y oD w ma'0D u d k & mrqD j yef y d k Y rwJ h ?
tm&d,efeJYj'm0d'd,efppfrjzpfatmifMudK;pm;r,fwJh? [m; ..... [m; ......... }}
uREkfyfonfa&TavSmiftdrfwHcg;0udk w0kef;0kef;qJGcgvdkufonf/
]]'DrmS oDwma'0D? bdbo
d e[m aumufuspfpOf;vJwo
hJ pömazmufy?J rif;ud&k mrqDjyefyYkd jyD; olu&mreJYy;l aygif;?
jyD;awmh vuFm'DyxD;eef;udk &efolYtultnDeJY odrf;? ighudkokwfoifz,f&Sm;ypf? olubk&ifvkyf? 'g[mokcrdefwJhvm;?
'g[mtdrfa&SYpHokcrdefwJhvm;? 'Dr,f .... OD;&D;awmf rm&ZÆ}}
OD;&D;awmfonf &yfae&mrS uREkfyfteD;odkYwdk;vmonf/
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kd &f YJ tpDtrHawGukd OD;&D;awmfwYdk tHMh ocsD;usL;cJMh uwm rSwrf ad o;vm;[if? OrifvP
kd u
f
vQdKY0Sufvrf;ESpfckeJY? wpfcku vuFm'Dyeef;awmfodkYwJh? wpfcku tdE´KjrpfusOf;wJh ......? 'gawG[m bdbdoe&JY
tpDtrHawGaygh/ vuFm'Dytdrfa&SYpH[m tifrwefxufjrufjynfh0wJh okcrdef .. qdk .. }}
OD;&D;awmfrm&ZÆonf rsufarSmifukwfjyD; ajrjyifudkpkdufMunfaeonf/ uREkfyfudkbmrSjyefrajymEkdifacs/
]]oif; ......... vuFm'Dyu xGufajy;pOfrSm rif;wkdYaoemywdawG tdrfa&SYpHqdkjyD; xddckdufatmifrwdkuf&JYcJhwm/
igeJ J Y awG Y cJ h & if r if ; wd k Y td r f a &S Y pH [ m &xm;ay:rS m yJ acgif ; jywf o G m ;ap&r,f / rif ; wk d Y [m
opömazmufudkaMumuf&HGYcJhwJhtoHk;ruswJh vlzsif;awG? at; ..... oDwma'0Dudk jyef&atmifac:EkdifcJhvdkYom
rif;wkdYtoufcsrf;om&m &w,frSwfyg/ a[h ... arCem'}}
]]trdefY&Sdyg crnf;awmfbk&ifrif;jrwf}}
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102

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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]]ac:vdkufprf;}}
ppfonfrsm;um&d|udkac:vmMuonf/ okdYaomf olonfpum;rajymEkdif? rvIyf&Sm;Ekdifawmh/ olYvnfyif;wGif
"m;ajrmifwpfacsmif;pkdufaeonf/
]]'gbdbdoe&JYvufcsufr[kwfvm;}}
]]r[kwfygbl; ....... crnf;awmfbk&ifrif;jrwf? oDwma'0Dudk avSmiftdrftjyifbufxkwf,loGm;jyD;aemuf
ud o ud E ´ m buf x G u f a jy;Muw,f M um;od w meJ Y ol [ m ol Y tjypf o l a Mumuf j yD ; ud k , f h u d k , f u d k
owfaooGm;wmjzpfygw,f}}
]]rdrt
d jypfukd aMumuf&YHG jyD; jypf'Pfp&D if rcH&w
J 'hJ t
D aumifukd om;&JwiG ;f xJypfcsvdu
k f ? b,frmS rS jrKyfErHS aeeJY?
oGm;tckcsufcsif;,ljyD; om;&JwGif;xJjypfcsvdkuf}}
ppfonfrsm;onf um&d|tavmif;udk r,ljyD; om;&JwGif;odkY,loGm;Muonf/ cPtMumwGif om;&JwGif;rS
jcaoFh[def;oHrsm;ESifh wpfaumifESifhwpfaumif tpmvk,ufowfykwfMuoHrsm;udk Mum;vdkuf&onf/
]]Mum;Muvm;? 'g[m vHkavmufwJh tjypf'Pfr[kwfao;bl;? um&d|[m olYudk,folowfaojyD;rS
ol Y & J Y t ouf r &S d w J h u d k , f c E¨ m ud k om;&J w G i f ; xJ y pf c svd k u f w ,f / aemif q d k & if rd r d w m0ef r ausyG e f w J h o l r sm;
om;awmfarCem'u tptm;vHk;? t&Sifvwfvwf om;&JwGif;xJypfcscH&r,f}}
oD w ma'0D o nf id k & I d u f a e&mrS uREk f y f & S d & m a&T a vS m if t d r f w H c g;buf o d k Y csOf ; uyf v monf /
xdkYaemufa&TavSmiftdrfwHcg;udk qGJcgvdkufavonf/
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t&Sifvwfvwfypfcsvdkufygvm; ........ ypfcsvdkufygvm;}}
oDwma'0D\ yg;jyifwGif rsuf&nfprsm;vdrf;usHaeonf/ Eke,faomol\rsufESmjyifü'goaMumifh
yef;Eka&mifwkdY,Sufoef;aeavonf/
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tjypftuif;qHk;oljzpfw,f/ 'gayr,fh rif;udk usKyfqDuaemufxyfwpfcgxGufajy;rcHEkdifbk;/ 'gaMumifh rif; ...
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eef;aqmifxJrSmjyefxm;&ifrif;[m wpfpHkwpfa,muf&JYya,m*eJY xGufajy;zdkYMudK;pm;csifMudK;pm;r,f/ 'grSr[kwf
atmufu om;&JwiG ;f xJcek cscsicf ek cf sr,f/ 'Da&TavSmiftrd ef YJ a[m'DaomfuO,smOf udk OD;&D;awmfu,
kd w
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f yk cf sKyf&r,f}}
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kd aMumif;udprö S b,forl S a&TavSmiftrd x
f rJ 0ifap&bl;? rif;ud,
k w
f idk af omfrS 0ifciG rhf ay;bl;}}
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om;awmfarCem'onf aoemywdcsKyf\ ppfwm0efrsm;udk av;eufpGmajymvmonf/ bddbdoe\
opömazmufrIaMumifh a'goqla0aecJhaom uREkfyfonf xdktcgrSmyif &mr\pmcRefudk owd&awmhonf/
]]tif; .......... vjynfhaeYrSm &efolvmr,fwJh? aemufoHk;&ufae&ifvjynfhawmhr,f? e,fpyfwyfru
aoemywd a wG ud k , f h w yf r ud k , f t ck x G u f M u? cH w yf a wG t m;vH k ; tqif o if h j zpf y gap? OD ; &D ; awmf u
tde´Kjrpfurf;aomifjyifu OD;&D;awmf&JYj'm0d'd,efppfonfawGudk pk&kH;jyifqifzdkYoGm;yg/. olwdkYudk jyifqifjyD;rS
aomfuO,smOftkyfcsKyfrIudk wm0efjyef,lyg/ om;awmfarCem'u igeJYtwl eef;awmfaqmifudkvdkufcJhprf;}}
trdefYudk&onfESifh tm;vHk;vIyf&Sm;oGm;Muonf/ aomuO,smOfwGif a&TavSmiftdrftwGif;rS oDwma'0D/
uREkfyfESifh om;awmfarCem'wdkYoHk;OD;omusefcJhonf/ tapmifhppfonfrsm;u cyfvSrf;vSrf;wGif&Sdaeavonf/
]]crnf;awmfbk&ifrif;jrwf? ru?ppfolMuD; [mEkrmefudk okwfoifzdkYwm0ef[mom;awmftwGufjzpfw,fvdkY
trdefYcsrSwfcGifhjyKxm;wmudk rarhbl;vdkYom;awmfxifygw,f}}
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d udEm´ e,fpyfwyfrudk oGm;yg&ap/ ppfO;D rSmyJ
om;awmf tJ'Dru?ppfolMuD;udk okwfoifvdkufygr,f}}
]]at; .... aumif;jyD}}
a&TavSmiftdrfxJrS oDwma'0Donf uREkfyfwkdYpum;ajymoHudkem;pGifhae[efwlonf/
103

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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oDwma'0DxHrS xl;qef;aom toHMum;vdkuf&onf/uREkfyfwkdYoDwma'0DukdvSnfhMunfhvdkufMuonf/
oDwma'0Donf a&TavSmiftdrfudk wif;usyfpGmqkyfudkif&if; 0if;vufaomrsufvHk;rsm;jzifh tjyifodkYMunhfaeonf/
]][Ekrmef ..?udoudE´mbk&ifokc&dwf&JY arSmf&kHa[0efawmpyfrSmawGYpOfu okc&dwfbk&ifajymzl;wJh
ppfoMl uD;[mEkrmefqw
dk mjzpfrmS yJ?ol[mcGet
f m;AvMuD;jyD; &JprG ;f owÅed YJ jynfph w
kH rhJ uú#wpfa,mufy?J armifawmf&mr[m
olYvdkppfolMuD;rsdK;eJY ighudkvmu,f&ifigrkcsvGwfajrmufrSmyJ}}
oDwma'0Donf arQmfvifhjcif;rsm;jynfhESufaeaom avoHjzifh wpfudk,fwnf;a&&Gwfaeonf/
]]Mum;&JYvm;om;awmfarCem'? oDwma'0D[m [mEkrmefudkrjrifzl;ao;bJ odyfudktm;udk;aeygvm;?
olYarQmfvifhcsufawGtm;vHk;jydKuJGoGm;atmifvkyfzdkY rif;wm0efyJ? iguawmh&mrrif;om;&JY acgif;udkjzwfjyD;
ppf&xm;&JYjrm;umwkdifrSmcsdwfqJGzdkhwm0ef&Sdaew,f? [mEkrmeftwGufu rif;wm0ef? &mrrif;om;twGufu
vuFm'Dybk&if 'o*D&dwm0ef? opömazmuf bdbdoetwGufudkawmh 'DurÇmavmurSmtjyif;xefqHk;tjypf'Pfudk
wkdYtm;vkH;pOf;pm;Mu&OD;r,f? udkif; .... oGm;MupkdYom;awmf arCem'}}

104

cspfOD;ndK

vuFm'Dy cspfol

tcef; (9)
&m0PESifh &mrrif;om;
aevmodefewfeef;MumMuG ......
a&Ttmvdefwyfvrf;xm0& ......
rmeoHwdkif ......... a'gavoHjydKif ......
armav[efESifhqdkif ...
a0,efydkif ....... a&Tr@Kdif&Sif ...
ydkifpOfqkdifpOf .... Ekdifcsifawmfrl .....
ausmfoJZrÁL ......
awmfoJvdkYuRwfuRwfql .......
(vQyfyef;acGEGJY ... ,dk;',m;)
ausmufovif;pm;yJGay:wGif &GHap;i,frsm;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom cHwyfyHkpHi,f&Sdonf/
þpm;yJGudk tv,frSmxm;vsuf uREkfyfESifhom;awmfarCem'wdkY wpfzufpDüae&m,l vdkufMuonf/
uREkfyfwdkYrSty tjcm;rnfolrQr&Sd? rnfonfhaoemywdrQr&Sd? aoemywdcsKyf jzpfaom om;awmfonf uREkfyfxHrS
trdefYpum;udk apmihfpm;vsuf&Sdonf/ cef;raqmifwpfckvHk;wdwfqdwfaeonf/
,cifuqkv
d Qif þcef;raqmiftwGi;f &Sd þcHwyfypkH iH ,fausmufovif;pm;yJ\
G 0J,mywfvnfwiG f bdbo
d e?
w&d*rÇD?OD;&D;awmfwdkY &SdcJhMuzl;onf/ OD;&D;awmfonf ,cktcg tdE´Kjrpfurf;üj'm0d'd,efppfonf topfrsm;tm;
ppftwwfrsm;avhusifh ay;&efxGufcGmoGm;ayjyD/ w&d*rÇDonfvnf; rdk[ef*sdK'g&dkt&yfrS wpfckaomawmifukef;
i,fxufwiG f xm0&tem;,ltyd pf ufomG ;cJjh yD/ bdbo
d eopöazmuf bdbo
d e? vQyfay:avmfvnfaom bdbo
d evnf;
&efolrsm;xH cdk0ifyl;aygif;oGm;cJhavjyD/
OmPfynmMuD;rm;ol? tdE´Ka'owpfckvHk;taMumif;udk wwfuRrf;em;vnfol? rsdK;EG,fpkwkd\&mZ0ifrsm;ü
ESHYpyfuRrf;usifol[lí uREkfyfESifhwuGaom j'm0d'd,efwdkYu csD;ajr§mufjrwfEkd;cJhMuonfh bdbdoeonf ,cktcg
&ef o l v uf a tmuf c H opö m azmuf j zpf c J h j yD / ,cif u ppf a &;aqG ; aEG ; wd k i f y if o H ? jiif ; cH k a tmf [ pf o H w d k Y j zif h
pnfyifa0qmcJhaom þcef;raqmifü ,cktcg uREfkyfESifh arCem' ESpfOD;wnf;/ .... wdwfqdwfjidrfoufrIxJü
uREfkyfonf rkef;wD;jcif;? emMunf;jcif;? pufqkyfjcif;wdkYudk cHpm;ae&onf/
cHwyfyHkpHi,fonf ajcmufaoGYpGmvJavsmif;aeonf/
105

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
þyH k p H i ,f u m; bd b d o e\ tpD t rH ? opö m azmuf \ vuf & m/ tb,f y H k t oH k ; 0if E k d i f r nf e nf ; /
&THYap;tndKa&mifcHwyfrsm;onf uREkfyfudk avSmifajymifaeMuonf/ opömazmufwpfOD;\&mZ0ifudkazmfjyaeMuonf/
]]oGm;prf; ....... oGm;prf;? 'gawGtm;vHk;bmvkyf&rSmvJ ..... oGm;}}
rkef;wD;&GH&SmpufqkyfpGmjzifh uREkfyfonf &TYHap;cHwyfyHkpHrsm;udk &kdufykwfzsufqD;ypfvdkufonf/ tm;vHk; z&dkz&J
jzpfukefavonf/
]]oif; ...... vkyfoGm;cJhwJh tpDtrH? 'gawG&JYvQdKY0Sufcsufudk oif;[mtodqHk;? 'gawGudk &efolYxHrSm
tm;vHk;zGifhajym? &efolu'DvdQKY0Sufcsufay:rSm tEkdif,lwkdufcdkuf ......}}
trsuf a 'goacsmif ; acsmif ; xG u f v G e f ; vS o jzif h uREk f y f \ pum;ud k a&S Y rquf E k d i f a wmh a cs/
om;awmf a rCem'onf pum;wpf p H k w pf & mrajymbJ pm;yJ G a b;üajcpH k & yf & if ; uREk f y f u d k M unf a eonf /
yHkpHi,fwpfckvHk;&THYap; cJrsm;tjzpfa&muf &SdoGm;onf/ odkYaomfwae&m usefaeonf/ xdkae&mum;teDa&mif
uwÅ D y gpwpf c k u yf x m;aomae&m? ]ud o ud E ´ m e,f p yf } [l a ompmwef ; uyf x m;onf / xd k a e&mü e0rES i f h
'oryAÁ w awmif M um;cH w yf O rif y H k & S d o nf / uwÅ D y gteD p uyf x m;onf h t "d y Ü m ,f r S m ]ta&;tMuD ; qH k ; }
[laomt"dyÜm,fyifjzpfonf/ aemufqHk;usefaeaom bdbdoe\vuf&mudk uREkfyfteD;rS oefvsufjzihf
ckwfydkif;zsufqD;vdkufonf/
]]crnf ; awmf b k & if r if ; jrwf 'D y H k p H i ,f u d k b ,f v d k y J z suf q D ; ayr,f h wu,f h c H w yf a wG u awmh
tcd k i f t rmaqmuf x m;jyD ; jzpf y gw,f / ppf o nf & J r uf r sm;vnf ; 'D c H w yf a wG r S m tm;vH k ; tqif o if h
jyifqifaeMujyDjzpfygw,f/ baxG;awmf&JYopömazmufrItay: pufqkyf&GH&Smaejcif;rsm;udk acwÅodrf;qnf;jyD;
ppfa&;twGufjyifqifzdkY om;awmfowday;yg&ap}}
arCem'onf a&SYodkYwkd;vmjyD; av;eufaomtoHjzifhajymvdkufavonf/
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'gudkoljyefrzsufqD;Ekdifygbl;}}
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tjcm;yHkpHwpfrsdK;ajymif;vJxm;vdkufjcif;tm;jzifh &efol[mrarQmfvifhwJhwkdufckduf rIeJYawGYoGm;ap&r,f}}
]]b,fvdk .........}}
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om;awmfwkdYu cHwyf&JYtjyifbufudkom e*dktwdkif;xm;&SdapjyD; twGif;tpDtrHudkjyefvnfjyKjyifvkdufr,f? &efol[m
rarQmfvifhwJh aoe*FAsL[matmufudk usa&mufoGm;ap&r,f/ 'gaMumifhcHwyftpDtrHtm;vHk;udk zsufodrf;zdkYrvdkygbl;?
twkta,miftjzpfe*dktwdkif;xm;&ygr,f}}
om;awmf a rCem'\aoe*F A sL[monf aumif ; rG e f v S a yonf / tm&d , ef w d k Y ud k vS n f h p m;
wdkufckdufonfhy&d,m,fyifjzpfonf/
]]at; ........ rif;ajymwmrSefw,f? 'gayr,fhta&;tMuD;qHk;u e0reJY 'or awmifMum; cHwyf OrifyJ?
&m0PcHwyfvdkYtrnfay;xm;wJh 'DcHwyftpDtrHrSmawmh wdkYxyfqifh y&d,m,fudk toHk;jyK&vdrfhr,f}}
]]b,fvdk xyfqifhy&d,m,fvJ crnf;awmf}}
om;awmfarCem'\aoe*Fy&d,m,fudk taMumif;jyKíay:aygufvmonfh uREkfyf\ tMuHtpnfudk
ajymjy&ayrnf/ arCem'wifjyaomy&d,m,frSm yxryAÁwrSonf &SpfckajrmufaomcHwyftxdudk tjyifrsufESmpmü
rlvtwdkif;xm;&SdjyD; twGi;fü tpDtrHopfrsm;jyKvkyfxm;&efjzpfonf/ xdkcHwyf&Spfckü rarQmfvifhaom wdkufckdufrI
ESiahf jymif;vJxm;aom ppfa&;tpDtrHukd &efow
l Ykd&ifqikd Mf u&rnf/ xdt
k cgaemufq;kH jzpfaom e0rESi'hf orawmifMum;&Sd
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tMuH O mPf & &S d r nf / &ef o l u tpD t rH o pf t aejzif h w G u f c suf j yD ; ppf j yKvmcsd e f w G i f uREk f y f w k d Y u
rlvtpDtrHta[mif;twdkif;xm;&Sdvdkufrnf/ xdktcgwGifvnf; &efolonf rarQmfvifhaomwkdufckdufrIudk
106

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
awG Y Mu&aprnf / taumuf O mPf M uG , f 0 aom opö m azmuf b d b d o eonf oif ; \rl v tpD t rH E S i f h y if
oif;toufudk&mrESifhtwl ay;quf&aprnf/
]]tifrwefjrifhrm;&IyfaxG;wJh aoe*Fy&d,m,fayyJ crnf;awmf? 'gayr,fh tifrwefaumif;ygw,f}}
]]at; ........ 'Dvdkqdk&if rif;awmifMum;cHwyfqDoGm;jyD; tpDtrHtopfawGvkyfxm;ayawmh om;awmf?
&efolvmwkdufr,fh vjynfhaeYa&mufzdkYoHk;&uftcsdef&w,f? 'D&uftwGif; toifhjzpfatmifjyifqifxm;ayawmh
tJ ' gawG j yD ; rS
rif ; ud o ud E ´ m e,f p yf w yf r ud k o G m ;ayawmh ?
vjynf h a eYwpf & uf t vd k r S m
igudoudE´m,efpyfwyfudkvmcJhr,f}}
]][kdruú#ppfolMuD;[mEkrmef[m om;awmftwGufqdkwm}}
]at;ygom;awmf? 'Darsmuf0H[m rif;twGufygyJ? uJ ....... uJ ........ oGm;awmh}}
arCem'onf uREkfyfudk OD;nGwfvsufcef;raqmiftwGif;rS xGufcGmoGm;onf/ cef;raqmifxJü z&dkz&JysufpD;aeaom
cHwyfyHkpHi,f&GHYap;wHk;rsm;ESifh uREkfyfwpfOD;wnf; usef&pfcJhonf/ &mrESifh pD;csif;xdk;&ef[laomtpDtpOfrSmvnf;
ysufjy,foGm;jyDjzpfonf/ ,cktcg&mr?vu¨PwdkYonf okc&dwfrif;OD;aqmifonfh ruú#ppfonfrsm;udk
acgif;aqmifumvuFm'DyodkYcsDwufvmMuayjyD/ tm&d,efrif;om;ESpfOD;acgif;aqmifonfhppfyJGjzpfaomfvnf;
þppfonf opömazmufbdbdoe MudKwifedrdwfzwfcJhonfh tm&d,ef-j'm0d'd,efrsdK;EG,fpkppfyJGum; rjzpfEdkifacs/
&efolYppfwyfütom;0gppfonfrsm;tpm; vufwH&Snfíarsmuf0HESifhwlaom ppfonfrsm;om yg0ifvmayrnf/
&ef o l o nf rnf o nf h e nf ; ES i f h r Q yxrES i f h e0ryAÁ w awmif M um;cH w yf &S p f v H k ; ud k wpf j yd K if w nf ;
ppfrsuEf mS zGiEhf idk rf nfr[kwaf cs/ oif;wdYk ppfjyKEkid v
f S cHwyfEpS cf rk Qavmuf udo
k m wpfjydKifwnf;wdu
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e0rESifh'orawmifMum; &m0PcHwyf um;vuFm'Dyeef;awmfodkYaygufa&mufonfhvQdKY0SufOrifvdkPf &Sdonfh
cH w yf j zpf o jzif h tcsuf t csmtusqH k ; ppf r suf E S m jzpf E k d i f a yonf / od k Y aomf & m0PcH w yf t eD ; od k Y
oif;wkdYcsDwufEkdif&eftwGuf udoudE´e,fpyfwyfrudk OD;pGm&ifqkdif&ayrnf/ udoudE´m e,fpyfwyfrum;
aoemywd*krÇDuPÖtjyif aoemywdcsKyf om;awmfarCem'udk,fwkdif OD;pD;uGyfuJrnfhppfrsufESmjzpfonf/ &efolonf
vuFm'Dyef;awmfteD;odkYum;wpfqHjcnfrS csOf;uyfEkdifrnfr[kwf/ xdkYxufoDwma'0Dudk jyef&,lvdkonfh&mronf
vuFm'Dyeef;awmf twGif;oDwma'0D&Sd&maomfuO,smOfodkYrnfonfhenf;ESifh rQ a&mufatmifvmEkdifrnfr[kwf/
aomfuO,smOfudk OD;&D;awmfrm&ZÆu apmifha&SmufumuG,fxm;rnf/ ppfrsufESmtoD;oD; a'otoD;oD;wGif
&J 0 H h x uf j ruf a om j'm0d ' d , ef o l & J a umif ; rsm;&S d a eonf / uREk f y f u d k , f w d k i f v nf ; ppf r suf E S m toD ; oD ; od k Y
MudrfzefrvyfvSnfhywfOD;pD;aernf/ odkYaomf uREkfyft"duae&rnfh ppfrsufESmum; .......... &m0PcHwyf ....
udoudE´me,fpyf ........./
xdkt&yfwGif &mr\Oau©mif;ajrodkYusap&rnf/
aevH k ; raysmuf u G , f r D r S m yif 0k d i f ; puf a omvonf ta&S Y t&yf r S a y:xG u f v monf / nOf Y tcsd e f
ra&muf a o;ojzif h vjynf h v onf eD M uef M uef j zpf a eonf / taemuf t &yf qD r S a ea&mif j cnf r sm;onf
ta&SYbufqDodkYrD;vQHrsm;ozG,f t&Sdef[yfaeMuojzifh avmu"mwfonf eD&Jaeayonf/aea&mifatmifwGif
j'm0d',
d efppfonfwYdk\ wif;rm aeaomrsuEf mS rsm;onfvnf; teDa&mifjzpfaeonf/ vufeufrsm;onf tm;aysmah om
ae\tvif;a&mifrSmyif 0if;vufawmufyaeonf/
vjynfhaeYESifh ae0ifcsdef/
yxryAÁwESifh 'kwd,yAÁwawmifMum;&Sd yxrcHwyfppfrsufESm/
yxrcH w yf a oemywd o l & m*k r Ç m ef o nf uREk f y f a b;wG i f &yf a eonf / om;awmf a rCem'ES i f h
OD;&D;awmfwdkYvnf;&SdaeMuonf/ rnfolrQpum;rajymMu/ cHwyfxdyfwGif&yfvsuf usHK;wpfzufawmtkyftwGif;rS
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ql a 0aomaoG ; rsm;jzif h j 'm0d ' d , ef wk d Y apmif h a rQmf c J h M uonf h p pf y J G t wG u f wjznf ; jznf ; eD ; uyf v mayjyD /
yxrqH k ; ppf y J G \ tOD ; qk H ; wk d u f y J G j zpf r nf h þ yxrcH w yf p pf r suf E S m onf ta&;tMuD ; qH k ; jzpf a omaMumif h
uREkfyfESihfwuGaoemywdcsKyf arCem'? OD;&D;awmfwkdYyg a&muf&SdaeMu&ayonf/
107

cspfOD;ndK
vuFm'Dy cspfol
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waeY v H k ; arQmf v if h c J h a om &ef o l o nf ,ck t cd s ef t xd ay:rvmao;acs/ 0d k i f ; puf j ynf h w if ; aomvonf
ta&S Y buf a umif ; uif ü jrif h w uf v mavjyD / ausmuf & k y f o zG , f j id r f o uf a eaomOD ; &D ; awmf r m&ZÆ o nf
pwifvIyf&Sm;vdkufonf/
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usHK;wpfzufrnf;eufaomawmtkyfMuD;qDodkYOD;&D;awmfonf rrSdwfrokefpl;pkdufMunfhaeavonf/
ol\MuD;rm;aom&iftkyfMuD;onf jyif;xefpGmedrfhcsnfjrifhcsnf jzpfvmonf/ xdkYaemufjcaoFh[def;oHESifhrjcm;aom
toHMuD;jzifh atmfvdkufavonf/
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us,fjyefaom usHK;wpfzufü rnf;eufaom toGifo@mefrsm; ay:vmonf/ awmpyfrS vGefaomtcg
vjynfh\va&mifatmifwGif vufwH&Snfaom ruú#rsm;udk xif&Sm;pGm awGYjrifvkduf&awmhonf/ &efolESifh
rsufESmcsif;qkdifrdjyD/
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us,af vmifp;l &SaomtoHrsm; wcJeufxu
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109

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a&SYqw
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jrif;acgif;wnfhwnfhwGif 0ifpkdufonf/ jrif;onf uRrf;xdk;usoGm;jyD; oif;vdrfhusonf/
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125

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uREkfyf&nf&G,fxm;onfhae&modkYroGm;/ odkYaomfvufarmif;&if;wGif0ifpdkufjyD/
oif;\rsufESmudkyif qD;ESif;Mum;üroJruGJjrifae&jyD/
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uREkfyf\&iftHkqDodkY ............
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aumif;uifwpfjyifvHk; rnf;eufoGm;onf/
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ausmufpGef;rsm;ESifh &xm;oHcRefbD;rsm; xdcwfoH? j'm0d'd,efwdkY\ [pfaMuG;oHrsm; /
]]vuFm'Dybk&ifrif;jrwf ........ oufawmf&Snfygap}}
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wa0ga0gusqif ; vmjyD / aoG ; tk d i f x J w G i f a&T o rif ? w&d * rÇ D \ tavmif ; ? om;awmf a rCem'onf
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jzifhjynfhvQHoGm;avonf/
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acsmif;pl;0ifaeonf/crf;em;aomwJeef;MuD;wpfct
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a&Tjcnfazmuf y0gcef;qD;pESifh ykvJMudK;rsm; ........
om,maom toHwpfck wvGifvGif xGufay:vmjyefonf/
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rsm;arsmygvmonf/ c&rf;a&mifopfcGyef;rsm; pka0;MujyD;aemuf &kyfyHka&TvTmwpfck jzpfoGm;jyefonf/
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126

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127

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128

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129

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130

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131

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