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Osamu Dazai

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In this Japanese name, the family name is "Dazai".

Osamu Dazai

Dazai Osamu Born 19 June 1909 Kanagi, Aomori, Japan Died 13 June 1948 (aged 38) Tokyo, Japan Occupation Genres Literary movement Writer novels, short stories I novel, Buraiha

Influences[show]

Contents [hide]  1 Biography o o o o o o o 1.7 Selected bibliography of English translations   2 References 3 External links [edit]Biography “ The year before last I was expelled from my family and. Thanks to the compassion of others. ” —Seascape with Figures in Gold (1939).1 Early life 1. next to the muddy sea.2 Early literary career 1. June 19.6 Legacy in Japanese pop culture 1.3 Wartime years 1.Osamu Dazai (太宰 治 Dazai Osamu?.. Osamu Dazai [edit]Early life . convalescing. and just when I'd begun to think I might be able to support myself with my writing. 1909 – June 13. I had no choice but to press ahead with my work. barely managing to stay alive from one day to the next. was left to wander the streets. 1948) was a Japanese authorwho is considered one of the foremost fiction writers of 20th-century Japan. Chiba. I came down with a serious illness. begging help for various quarters. Though battling an illness that each and every night left my robe literally drenched with sweat. I was able to rent a small house in Funabashi.4 Postwar career 1. my mental anguish and exhaustion were such that the oleanders blooming in one corner of the garden appeared to me merely flicking tongues of flame. reduced to poverty overnight. and spent the summer there alone.5 Major works 1.. The cold half pint of milk I drank each morning was the only thing that gave me a certain peculiar sense of the joy in life.

but he survived and managed to graduate the following year. Tsushima was sent to Aomori Prefectural Aomori High School and Hirosaki for higher school. at the time heavily suppressed by the government. Tsushima in an undated high school yearbook photo. alcohol and prostitutes and dabbling with Marxism. so he was brought up mostly by the servants. he edited student publications and contributed some of his own works. In October. Tsushima attempted to commit suicide by taking an overdose of sleeping pills. a remote corner ofJapan at the northern tip of Tōhoku in Aomori Prefecture. An excellent student and an able writer even then.[citation needed] On 10 December 1929. His father was a member of the House of Peers and was thus often away from home.Dazai was born Shūji Tsushima (津島修治 Tsushima Shūji?). Tsushima started to neglect his studies. His life only started to change when his idol writer Ryūnosuke Akutagawacommitted suicide in 1927. he ran away with geisha Hatsuyo Oyama (小山初代Oyama Hatsuyo) and was formally expelled from . Tsushima enrolled in the French Literature Department of the Tokyo Imperial University and promptly stopped studying again. spending his allowance on clothes. the eighth surviving child of a wealthy landowner in Kanagi. He frequently expressed guilt in his earliest writing about having been born into what he thought of as the incorrect social class. the night before year-end exams that he had no hopes of passing. and his mother was chronically ill after having given birth to 11 children.

Tsushima's family intervened to drop a police investigation. but Tsushima lived. and who helped establish his reputation. upon learning this. He finished The Final Years. his elder brother Bunji promptly cut off his allowance again. but Bunji managed to get word to him that charges would be dropped and the allowance reinstated yet again if he solemnly promised to graduate and swear off any involvement with the party. Tsushima wrote at a feverish pace and used the pen name "Osamu Dazai" for the first time in a short story called Ressha (列車 Train 1933): his first experiment with the first-person autobiographical style that later became his trademark. as Tsushima was arrested for his involvement with the banned Communist Party of Japan and. The next few years were productive. Nine days after the expulsion. He managed to obtain the assistance of established writer Masuji Ibuse. it started to become clear that Dazai could not graduate. but neither one died. and tried to hang himself on 19 March 1935 failing yet again. his allowance was reinstated and in December Tsushima and Oyama were married. and he failed to obtain a job at a Tokyo newspaper as well. so he divorced her. Tsushima kept his promise and managed to settle down a bit. Tsushima went into hiding. during which time Dazai's wife Hatsuyo committed adultery with his best friend Zenshirō Kodate. leaving him with a strong sense of guilt. intended to be his farewell to the world. Tsushima attempted suicide by drowning off a beach in Kamakura with another woman (whom he barely knew). After fighting the addiction for a year. 19-year-old bar hostess Shimeko Tanabe (田辺シメ子 Tanabe Shimeko). locked in a room and forced to quit cold turkey. in October 1936 he was taken to a mental institution. during which time he become addicted to Pabinal. this time to a middle school teacher named Michiko Ishihara . a morphine-based painkiller. and Tsushima took up the offer. whose connections enabled him to get his works published. Worse was yet to come. Shocked by the events. This eventually came to light and Dazai attempted to commit double suicide with his wife. But in 1935. [edit]Early literary career In what was probably a surprise to all parties concerned. The "treatment" lasted over a month. They both took sleeping pills.his family. This moderately happy state of affairs did not last long. He quickly remarried. Shimeko died. having been rescued by a fishing boat. as less than three weeks after his third suicide attempt Dazai developed acute appendicitis and was hospitalized.

His first story. and those published in his 1936 collection Bannen (Declining Years). He depicted a dissolute life in postwar Tokyo in Viyon no Tsuma (Villon's Wife. 1947). Her determination to survive is tested by hardships. born in 1944. [edit]Wartime years Japan entered the Pacific War in December. The censors became more reluctant to accept Dazai's offbeat work.Gyofukuki (魚服記 1933). In the 1930s and 1940s. 1943).(石原美知子 Ishihara Michiko). Shayo (The Setting Sun. which Dazai published during World War II were retellings of stories by Ihara Saikaku (1642–1693). Tsugaru (1944). 1936). but he managed to publish quite a bit anyway. which describe his sense of personal isolation and his debauchery. but Dazai was excused from the draft because of his chronic chest problems (he was diagnosed with tuberculosis). is a grim fantasy involving suicide. 1945–46). His third child. 1935). 1935). daughter Satoko (里子). Dazai reached the height of his popularity. but Dazai's family escaped unscathed. Masaki (正樹). Wartime works included Udaijin Sanetomo (Minister of the Right Sanetomo. Other stories written during this period include Dōke no hana (The Flowers of Buffoonery. was born in May 1947. later became a famous writer under the pseudonym Yūko Tsushima (津島佑子). Their first daughter. translated 1956) depicting the decline of the Japanese nobility after World War II was published. Kyōgen no kami (狂言の神 The God of Farce. Pandora no hako (Pandora's Box. was born in June 1941. His house was burned down twice in the American air raids against Tokyo. The narrator is the wife of a poet. and the delightful Otogizōshi(Fairy Tales. who has abandoned her. Dazai wrote a number of subtle novels and short stories that are frequently autobiographical in nature. but her will is not broken. Gyakkō (逆行 Against the Current. [edit]Postwar career In the immediate post-war period. with a son. Sonoko (園子). remaining one of the very few authors who managed to turn out interesting material in those years. 1945) in which he retold a number of old Japanese fairy tales with vividness and wit. In July 1947 Dazai's best-known work. This work was based on the diary . propelling the already popular writer into a celebrity.[citation needed] A number of the stories. rape and her husband's self-delusion. She takes a job for a tavern keeper from whom her husband has stolen money.

While providing a plot for various subsequent fictional novels and a Japanese TV drama. translated. he became an alcoholic. there has been no proof that there is any veracity in this rumor. Dazai and Tomie finally succeeded in killing themselves. in Mitaka. but that he was murdered by Tomie Yamazaki. writing his quasi-autobiography Ningen Shikkaku (人間失格. and his health was also rapidly deteriorating. a beautician and war widow who had lost her husband after 10 days of married life. all the while despairing of the seeming impossibility of changing the course of his life. At this time Dazai met Tomie Yamazaki (山崎富栄). She bore him a daughter Haruko (治子) in 1947. Ōta was one of the fans of Dazai's works and first met him in about 1941. Dazai effectively abandoned his wife and children and moved in with Tomie. he was working on a novelette scheduled to be serialized in the Asahi Shimbun newspaper. [edit]Major works . The book is one of the classics ofJapanese literature and has been translated into several foreign languages. No Longer Human.of Shizuko Ōta (太田静子). Tokyo. titled Guddo bai (Goodbye). Always a heavy drinker. 1958) at the hot-spring resort Atami. On 13 June 1948. 1948. drowning in the rain-swollen Tamagawa Canal near his house. His grave is at the temple of Zenrin-ji. who then killed herself after dumping his body in the canal. Ningen Shikkaku deals with a character hurtling headlong towards self-destruction. devoid of all sentimentality. The novel is told in a brutally honest manner. Dazai and Tomie's bodies discovered in 1948 In the spring of 1948. he had already fathered a child out of wedlock with a fan. There has been a persistent rumor that his final. successful suicide attempt was not a suicide at all. Their bodies were not discovered until June 19. which by eerie coincidence was his 39th birthday.

Melos! 1941 新ハムレット Shin-Hamuretto New Hamlet .Major works by Dazai include: Year Japanese Title English Title Comments 1933 思い出 Omoide Memories in 'Bannen' 1935 道化の華 Dōke no Hana Flowers of Buffoonery in 'Bannen' 1936 晩年 Bannen The Late Years Collected short stories 1937 二十世紀旗手 Nijusseiki Kishu A standard-bearer of the twentieth century 富嶽百景 Fugaku Hyakkei 1939 女生徒 Joseito One hundred views of Mount Fuji Schoolgirl 女の決闘 Onna no Kettō Women's Duel 1940 駈込み訴え Kakekomi Uttae An urgent appeal 走れメロス Hashire Merosu Run.

1942 正義と微笑 Seigi to Bisho Right and Smile 1943 右大臣実朝 Udaijin Sanetomo Minister of the Right Sanetomo 1944 津軽 Tsugaru Tsugaru パンドラの匣 Pandora no Hako Pandora's Box 新釈諸国噺 Shinshaku Shokoku Banashi 1945 惜別 Sekibetsu A new version of countries' tales A farewell with regret お伽草紙 Otogizōshi Fairy Tales 1946 冬の花火 Fuyu no Hanabi Winter's firework Play ヴィヨンの妻 Viyon No Tsuma 1947 斜陽 Shayō Villon's Wife The Setting Sun 如是我聞 Nyozegamon 1948 桜桃 Ōtō I heard it in this way Essay A Cherry .

Kodansha International. Tokyo and New York. 1988. 1993. 1983? Return to Tsugaru: Travels of a Purple Tramp (津軽). translated by Ralph F. 1985.人間失格 Ningen Shikkaku No Longer Human グッド・バイ Guddo-bai Biography portal Novels portal Japan portal Good-Bye Unfinished [edit]Legacy in Japanese pop culture bibliography of English translations A haiku of his is featured at the end of the last episode of Space Pirate Captain Harlock. Vermont.    [edit]References  Lyons. New York: One Peace Books. New York. translated by James Westerhoven. James Laughlin. Charles E. Ralph F. McCarthy. Crackling Mountain and other stories. translated by James O’Brien. 1958. Connecticut. Stanford University Press (1985). 1988. Cornell University. China-Japan Program. translated by Donald Keene. McCarthy. Norfolk. Ithaca. Rutland. 1975. Tokyo: Kodansha International. New York. Melos! and Other Stories.. Kodansha International Ltd. Phyllis.     Run. Schoolgirl (女生徒 Joseito). (Japanese publication: 1947). Tuttle Company. 1989. translated by Donald Keene. Blue Bamboo: Tales of Fantasy and Romance. [edit]Selected  The Setting Sun (斜陽 Shayō). Connecticut. Dazai Osamu. translated by Allison Markin Powell. James A. Tokyo: Kodansha English Library. Trans. Selected Stories and Sketches. Dazai Osamu. translated by James O’Brien. ISBN 0-8047-1197-6 O'Brien. The Saga of Dazai Osamu: A Critical Study With Translations. 1956. No Longer Human (人間失格 Ningen Shikkaku?). New Directions Publishers. 2011.  . New York: Twayne Publishers. Norfolk.

Wolf.2008 Book Review: Setting Sun by Osamu Dazai The Setting Sun by Osamu Dazai New Directions books 175 Pages Copyright 1956 This is my final selection for the Japanese Literature Challenge. ISBN 1-901903-11-7. 1983. London: Global Oriental. Cornell University Press." in Roy Starrs Japanese Cultural Nationalism: At Home and in the Asia Pacific. I thoroughly enjoyed the two previous books.03. hosted by Bellezza. ISBN 0-691-06774-0 "Nation and Region in the Work of Dazai Osamu. Akutagawa and Dazai: Instances of Literary Adaptation.. Stanford University Press. Modern Japanese Writers and the Nature of Literature. Princeton University Press (1990). O'Brien. Makoto.    [edit]External    links e-texts of Osamu's works at Aozora bunko Osamu's Short Story Waiting Osamu Dazai's grave My Years of Reading Seriously "I have always imagined that Paradise will be a kind of Library. 2004. Allan Stephen. Snow Country was a lyrical. Ueda. Suicidal Narrative in Modern Japan: The Case of Dazai Osamu. James A. Snow Country and The Woman in The Dunes. 1976. ed. poetic journey into ." Jorge Luis Borges (1890-1996) 1.

According to the back of the book. The principal characters of the story are Kazuko. grit. leaving behind a note . brings changes and they wind up impoverished. The Woman in The Dunes was a bizarre journey into sand. Naoji. polite society is being replaced but no one seems to be certain as to what comes next. After their mother dies. however. They are caught by the changes taking place and they do not know how to handle those changes. The rigid. Kazuko has returned home after leaving her husband and getting a divorce. He continually takes what little money they have and disappears to Tokyo for weeks on end. when her mother becomes ill. For the first time in her life.the life of a geisha and the snow country of Japan. As part of the aristocracy of Japan. This book. she accepts it without question.‖ Osamu Dazai committed suicide in 1948. at first to feed his opium habit and then to drink. The war. a man of wealth who has chosen to spend his days drinking and carousing with others who are just like he is –disillusioned and adrift. was different. She struggles to accept her new role but. Kazuko finds herself having to take care of her mother without the help of servants. however. while Kazuko is in Tokyo. Naoji returns from the war an opium addict. She finds him a wasted. who has already abandoned a great deal of her up-bringing. Kazuko. she lives with her mother and servants in Tokyo. They are forced to sell their home in Tokyo and move to a small house in a remote village. Kazuko returns to Tokyo in search of a man she had a brief affair with years before. and the will to survive. it is a novel about a post World War II Japan and ―it probes the destructive effects of the war and the transition from a feudal Japan to an industrial society. it is World War II and Japan is beginning to change. has decided to revolt in her own way by becoming Uehara’s mistress and having a his baby. commits suicide. and their mother. a year after Setting Sun was published and after several unsuccessful attempts. drunken shell. her brother Naoji. At the beginning of the novel.

the aristocracy. The Setting Sun is the only one of the three books that I did not feel a connection to. either pre-war or post-war. The fire is vanquished by the villagers and the fire department with only the wood being damaged. . where she reveals she is pregnant and has declared that her bastard child shall be her revolution. It was an interesting read and if it peaks your interested. The novel ends with Kazuko’s last letter to her lover. and the life he has been living.explaining that he is hopelessly in love with a married woman.. He also reveals his contempt for himself. Recommendation: The book never grabbed me like the previous two did. The next day. Kazuko is told to go and apologize to the various leaders of the village for her actions that led up to the fire.. I think it’s because I lack the basis for understanding exactly what was going on. There was a section of the book the highlights the vast difference between my culture and Japanese culture very clearly. it is well written. and I did feel a sense of the displacement Kazuko and Naoji felt. That’s not a criticism of the society by any means. however. I don’t understand the rigid politeness of the Japanese society. It’s simply the difference of my reality. Kazuko accidentally sets a wood pile located just outside the house on fire. after it had changed. But. I’d say give it a read Posted by cj at 3:15 PM Labels: book review 2008 2 comments: reader kay said. I could foresee thanking my neighbors and the fire department for their efforts on my behalf but an apology? I don’t see that happening in this country and I don’t understand a society that would demand such actions.

It was interesting. so the argument goes. I kept wondering where all the angst was coming from. "Dazai's life and work. The more reader knows of Dazai's life. All three of the books I read where. who became at the end of World War II the literary voice and literary hero of his generation. however.blogspot. For a time he joined the communist movement." (J. even after their money was gone.html Osamu Dazai (1909-1948) . And the fire scene was truly beyond my experience. They still seemed like spoiled rich kids. Thomas Rimer . In many books Dazai used biographical material from his own family background.Thanks for the review. The review is very interesting in pointing out how much our cultural perspectives are a part of our interpretations when we read anything.com/2008/01/book-review-setting-sun-by-osamu-dazai. the more Dazai can and should be admired for finding a literary means to bare his soul. Kay It was especially true for this book. and made his selfdestructive life the subject of his books.. His opposition to the prevailing social and literary trends was shared by fellow members of Burai-ha (Decadents).. are closely intertwined. Setting Sun sounds like an interesting book.Pseudonym of Tsushima Shuji Japanese novelist and a master storyteller. 1/6/08 5:12 PM cj said. Dazai's life ended in double-suicide with his married mistress. cjh 1/7/08 5:07 AM http://cjreading. many Japanese critics have pointed out.

Shimeko drowned. 1999) "Mine has been a life much shame. After attending the Hirosake Higher School. among them 'Doke no hana' (1936. the tenth of eleven children. His father was a wealthy landowner and politician. Suppose we have a try at the panoramic method. In 1931 he married Oyama Hatsuyo. The Salamander). which Dazai published during World War II. They spent two days drinking." (The opening sentence of No Longer Human. he entered in 1930 the University of Tokyo. Dazai wrote in a simple and colloquial style. and spent my time lying around watching H[atsuyo] indifferently. The subject was also brought up many of his short pieces. among them the poet Friedrich Schiller. though his commitment to politics ended in distrust in all social institutions. 1848) Dazai Osamu was born Tsushima Shuji in Kanagi. that one didn't work. in northern Honshu. saying later that it "was truly a shameless." In 1939 Dazai married Ishihara Michiko and turned a new leaf in his life. While at the university. a suffering clown and a misfit. A number of the stories. Dazai had read at the age of fourteen Ibuse's Sanshouo (1929. in BANNEN) and 'Tokyo hyakkei' (1941). Many of his stories were based on his own experiences and were . imbecilic time. Dazai was brought up mainly by servants. Dazai met the writer Masuji Ibuse. who saw through the hypocrisy and shallowness of others. he had met a nineteen year old bar hostess. Tanabe Shimeko. Between the years 1930 and 1937 he made three suicide attempts. and then threw themselves into the sea.in Reader's Guide to Japanese Literature. I scarcely showed up at school at all. of course. anonymous genius. "Well. took sleeping pills. Also German authors. were retellings of stories by Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693). where he studied French literature. Dazai first attracted attention in 1933 when his stories began to appear in magazines." Before marrying Hatsuyo. his literary hero and mentor. and developed a persona that in his novels appeared both sensitive and cynical. I abhorred all effort. "I felt with excitement that I had discovered a hidden. inspired Dazai's work. During this period Dazai came into contact with Marxism. 'A Clown among Clowns' describes Dazai trying to describe his first suicide attempt." Dazai gradually dropped his studies.

covering those whose world died in the war. in Naoji's words. Her brother Naoji is caught in the web of his own and society's failures. He does return.classified in the category known as the watakushi shosetsu. such as SHAYO (1947. it is as Mother does. sitting serenely erect. love affairs. but to me it is most appealing and somehow really genuine. "I never personally met the madman who wrote these notebooks... She is evacuated from Tokyo during the war with her mother. human and philosophical issues. wears Western clothes. despair. and spirit of rebelliousness touched the lost generation of youth. hoping that the child will be her moral revolution. "This may not be the way of eating soup that etiquette dictates. a young woman." The protagonist." begins the epilogue of the story. about the decline of an aristocratic family. NINGEN SHIKKAKU (1948. It deals with the fall of an aristocratic family. drug addiction and alcoholism. and how traditions or "proper etiquette" is destroyed by the war. that when you look down to it. who feel himself alienated from society but reveals his true thoughts to the reader. They look hopefully to the return of the son from southeast Asia. or "I-novel". I bend over the plate in the gloomy fashion prescribed by proper etiquette. but her outlook is Japanese. but his scandalous life. Kazuko loses her mother. but as a drug addict. In his masterpieces. No Longer Human (its actual Japanese title is "Disqualified as a Human") was Dazai's second novel. He also wrote children's stories and historical narratives. "I have . The protagonist is a young man. autobiographical / confessional fiction. No Longer Human) was an attack on the traditions of Japan. The story also gives an account of the author's personal decline and his relationships to women. But being. The tone of Dazai's postwar fiction was dark. Dazai addressed many social. As a matter of fact. a high-class beggar and unable to eat with Mother's effortless ease. At the end of the war. capturing the postwar crisis of Japanese cultural identity. Shayo is a tragedy in postwar Japan. The word 'shayo' (setting sun) gave rise to the word 'shayozoku' (impoverished aristocracy). Kazuko. driving him eventually to kill himself. The book is one of the classics of Japanese literature and has been translated into several languages. Kazuko decides to have a child with the disillusioned intellectual Uehara. The Setting Sun).

Dazai himself had said after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 that he was "itching to beat the bestial. in 1948. Dazai drowned himself in Tokyo and left behind unfinished the novel GUTTO BAI (Goodbye). starring Toshiro Mifune. Dazai's story 'Hashire Merosu' (Run. The film. insensitive Americans to a pulp. some claimed." Dazai's daughter Yuko Tsushima also became a writer and published her first short story in 1969. In the story." Among Dazai's finest short stories is 'Viyon no tsuma' (1947. Merosu!) was adapted into screen in 1966 by the director Senkichi Taniguchi under the title Kiganjo no boken (Adventures of Takla Makan). and her husband's self-delusion. Villon's Wife). She finds meaning in her existence by taking a job for a tavern keeper. and she possibly wrote the note in question. and this revelation of human dullness stirred dark depression in me. After the war. It wasn't until I was about twenty that I realized that they actually served a practical purpose. Dazai wrote a letter in which he described Ibuse as an "evil man"." On June 13. He made observations of those who had supported the militaristic regime before but in the new political situation embraced democracy. Yamazaki Tomie. set in the distant past. was partly shot in Iran near Isfahan and at Toho Studios (Tokyo). from whom her husband has stolen money.been sickly ever since I was a child and have frequently been confined to bed. and Makoto Sato. 1958). but her will is not broken. There is a theory that the lady. Ibuse insisted in 'Parting Regrets' (1948). How often as I lay there I used to think what uninspired decorations sheets and pillow cases make. who drowned with Dazai actually pushed him in. the wife revals the disparity between the writer's reasons and his actual reasons for suicide. Tadao Nakamaru. Tatsuya Mihashi. a Japanese adventurer and a priest travel the silk road in their search for Buddha's ashes. The narrator is the wife of a poet. in which vivid descriptions of the mundane reality of the author's own private world predominate. . rape. Shortly before his death. that Dazai died "without leaving behind anything written for me. Dazai's alienation continued. translated in Japan Quarterly (October-December. Her works in the 1970s arose from the collapse of the economic bubble and coincided with a return to the Japanese variant of the first-person novel. Her determination to survive is tested by hardships. who has virtually abandoned her. In 'O-san'.

1947 . Thomas Rimer (1978). by James O'Brien (1988). 1940 DASU GEMAINE. 1944 . Donald Keenen engl. 35 (1969).The Declining Sun (tr. 1937 NIJUSSEIKI KISHU. Modern Japanese Fictioin and Its Traditions by J. 1950) / The Setting Sun (trans. 1940 HASHIRE MEROSU. ed.See also: Yukio Mishima. 1941 (in Japanese) SEIGI TO BISHO. 1965) . 1936 DOKE NO HANA. 1939 FUGAKU HYAKKEI. 1941 KAKEKOMI UTTAE. 1941 HUMAN LOST. 1946 FUYU NO HANABI. Suicidal Narrative in Modern Japan: The Case of Dazai Osamu by Alan Stephen Wolfe (1990). 1945 SHINSHAKU SHOKOKU BANASHI. 1947 SHAYO. Kyllikki Härkäpää. Donald Keene. O'Brien (1975). 1939 JOSEITO. 'Schiller and Dazai Osamu' by Okumura Atsushi (2000) . in Japan Christian Quaterly. 1937 KYOKO NO HOKO. Traditions and Modernity in Modern Japanese Fiction by G. 1956) . Lyons (1985). 1942 UDAIJIN SANETOMO. Brudnoy (Monumenta Nipponica. Keene (1971).Laskeva aurinko (suom. 1941 TOKYO HAKKEI.B. Dawn to the West by Donald Keene (1984). Dazai Osamu by J. 1940 ONNA NO KETTO. 1937 AI TO BI NI TSUITE. Akutagawa and Dazai: Instances of Literary Adaptation. Accomplices of Silence: The Modern Japanese Novel by Masao Miyoshi (1974). 23/1968). Gunn. 1941 KOJIKI GAKUSEI.For further information: The Immutable Despair of Dazai Osamu by D. 1996) OTOGI ZOZHI. 1945 [Fairy Tales] SEKIBETSU. Landscapes and Portraits by D. 1946 KYOSHIN NO KAMI.Return to Tsugaru: Travels of a Purple Tramp (translated by James Westerhoven) Tsugaru: kulkija käy kotona (suomentanut Kai Nieminen. 1943 TSUGARU. The Origins of Modern Japanese Literature by Kojin Karatani (1993). käännöksestä. 1945 PANDORA NO HAKO. The Saga of Dazai Osamu by Phyllis I. who committed suicide in 1970 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:                          BANNEN. 1940 SHIN HAMURETTO.

1952 (10 vols. 2003 (trans. 1947 . Aapo Junkola. toim.Masayuki Mori. 1989 (trans. 1955-56 (12 vols. Masao Wakahara. 1979) Crackling Mountain and Other Stories. Donald Keene.'Villon's Wife' (trans. 1993 (trans.fi/dazai. Ralph F.Vasaroinnin ääni (teoksessa Shosetsu: japanilaisia kertojia.MIHAPPYO SAKUHIN SHU. käännöksen mukaan suom.Ei enää ihminen (Donald Keenen engl. in 1956) . Tamae Kiyokawa JINUSHI ICHIDAI . James O'Brien) Self-portraits: Tales from the Life of Japan's Great Decadent Romantic. 1969) GUTTO BAI.sci. starring Hideko Takamine. McCarthy) Blue Bamboo: Tales of Fantasy and Romance. ed. by Kichitaro Negishi.htm .kirjasto. 1947 . 1949 DAZAI OSAMU ZENSHU.) DAZAI OSAMU ZENSHU. James O'Brien) http://www. Veikko Polameri. Goodbye. 1967-68. 1948 (unfinished) . dir.film 1949. 1953) . by Koji Shima.No Longer Human (trans. screenplay by Yôzô Tanaka            TOKATONTON.. 1948 . 1991 (trans. 1948 NINGEN SHIKKAKU. BIYON NO TSUMA. Ralph F. 1983) NYOZE GABUN. dir.film 2009. rev. McCarthy) Crackling Mountain and Other Stories.