Osamu Dazai

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In this Japanese name, the family name is "Dazai".

Osamu Dazai

Dazai Osamu Born 19 June 1909 Kanagi, Aomori, Japan Died 13 June 1948 (aged 38) Tokyo, Japan Occupation Genres Literary movement Writer novels, short stories I novel, Buraiha

Influences[show]

Thanks to the compassion of others.. was left to wander the streets. ” —Seascape with Figures in Gold (1939). my mental anguish and exhaustion were such that the oleanders blooming in one corner of the garden appeared to me merely flicking tongues of flame. The cold half pint of milk I drank each morning was the only thing that gave me a certain peculiar sense of the joy in life.Osamu Dazai (太宰 治 Dazai Osamu?.5 Major works 1. 1909 – June 13. 1948) was a Japanese authorwho is considered one of the foremost fiction writers of 20th-century Japan. I had no choice but to press ahead with my work. Osamu Dazai [edit]Early life . Contents [hide]  1 Biography o o o o o o o 1. I was able to rent a small house in Funabashi..7 Selected bibliography of English translations   2 References 3 External links [edit]Biography “ The year before last I was expelled from my family and. Chiba. and just when I'd begun to think I might be able to support myself with my writing. Though battling an illness that each and every night left my robe literally drenched with sweat. begging help for various quarters. I came down with a serious illness.4 Postwar career 1. reduced to poverty overnight.2 Early literary career 1. and spent the summer there alone.3 Wartime years 1. June 19. barely managing to stay alive from one day to the next. next to the muddy sea.6 Legacy in Japanese pop culture 1.1 Early life 1. convalescing.

but he survived and managed to graduate the following year. An excellent student and an able writer even then. at the time heavily suppressed by the government. He frequently expressed guilt in his earliest writing about having been born into what he thought of as the incorrect social class. His life only started to change when his idol writer Ryūnosuke Akutagawacommitted suicide in 1927. he ran away with geisha Hatsuyo Oyama (小山初代Oyama Hatsuyo) and was formally expelled from . Tsushima was sent to Aomori Prefectural Aomori High School and Hirosaki for higher school. spending his allowance on clothes.Dazai was born Shūji Tsushima (津島修治 Tsushima Shūji?). the eighth surviving child of a wealthy landowner in Kanagi. the night before year-end exams that he had no hopes of passing. he edited student publications and contributed some of his own works. In October. His father was a member of the House of Peers and was thus often away from home. a remote corner ofJapan at the northern tip of Tōhoku in Aomori Prefecture. Tsushima enrolled in the French Literature Department of the Tokyo Imperial University and promptly stopped studying again. and his mother was chronically ill after having given birth to 11 children. Tsushima in an undated high school yearbook photo. Tsushima attempted to commit suicide by taking an overdose of sleeping pills.[citation needed] On 10 December 1929. so he was brought up mostly by the servants. alcohol and prostitutes and dabbling with Marxism. Tsushima started to neglect his studies.

as Tsushima was arrested for his involvement with the banned Communist Party of Japan and. and tried to hang himself on 19 March 1935 failing yet again. intended to be his farewell to the world. and who helped establish his reputation. his elder brother Bunji promptly cut off his allowance again. locked in a room and forced to quit cold turkey. in October 1936 he was taken to a mental institution. Tsushima attempted suicide by drowning off a beach in Kamakura with another woman (whom he barely knew). Nine days after the expulsion. He managed to obtain the assistance of established writer Masuji Ibuse. Tsushima wrote at a feverish pace and used the pen name "Osamu Dazai" for the first time in a short story called Ressha (列車 Train 1933): his first experiment with the first-person autobiographical style that later became his trademark. it started to become clear that Dazai could not graduate. but Tsushima lived. They both took sleeping pills. this time to a middle school teacher named Michiko Ishihara . After fighting the addiction for a year. Tsushima's family intervened to drop a police investigation. but Bunji managed to get word to him that charges would be dropped and the allowance reinstated yet again if he solemnly promised to graduate and swear off any involvement with the party. Tsushima went into hiding. so he divorced her. This eventually came to light and Dazai attempted to commit double suicide with his wife. 19-year-old bar hostess Shimeko Tanabe (田辺シメ子 Tanabe Shimeko). He finished The Final Years. his allowance was reinstated and in December Tsushima and Oyama were married.his family. Worse was yet to come. and Tsushima took up the offer. The "treatment" lasted over a month. This moderately happy state of affairs did not last long. leaving him with a strong sense of guilt. upon learning this. He quickly remarried. but neither one died. The next few years were productive. Tsushima kept his promise and managed to settle down a bit. But in 1935. as less than three weeks after his third suicide attempt Dazai developed acute appendicitis and was hospitalized. during which time Dazai's wife Hatsuyo committed adultery with his best friend Zenshirō Kodate. a morphine-based painkiller. Shocked by the events. [edit]Early literary career In what was probably a surprise to all parties concerned. whose connections enabled him to get his works published. having been rescued by a fishing boat. and he failed to obtain a job at a Tokyo newspaper as well. during which time he become addicted to Pabinal. Shimeko died.

remaining one of the very few authors who managed to turn out interesting material in those years. Their first daughter. born in 1944. later became a famous writer under the pseudonym Yūko Tsushima (津島佑子). Sonoko (園子). [edit]Postwar career In the immediate post-war period. She takes a job for a tavern keeper from whom her husband has stolen money. but Dazai's family escaped unscathed. Other stories written during this period include Dōke no hana (The Flowers of Buffoonery. In July 1947 Dazai's best-known work. Masaki (正樹). which Dazai published during World War II were retellings of stories by Ihara Saikaku (1642–1693). Gyakkō (逆行 Against the Current. 1945) in which he retold a number of old Japanese fairy tales with vividness and wit. Pandora no hako (Pandora's Box. but her will is not broken. rape and her husband's self-delusion. who has abandoned her. [edit]Wartime years Japan entered the Pacific War in December. 1943). Her determination to survive is tested by hardships. was born in June 1941. His first story. His house was burned down twice in the American air raids against Tokyo.(石原美知子 Ishihara Michiko). translated 1956) depicting the decline of the Japanese nobility after World War II was published. The censors became more reluctant to accept Dazai's offbeat work. and those published in his 1936 collection Bannen (Declining Years). His third child. and the delightful Otogizōshi(Fairy Tales. 1936). Dazai wrote a number of subtle novels and short stories that are frequently autobiographical in nature. 1945–46). with a son. propelling the already popular writer into a celebrity. 1935). In the 1930s and 1940s. The narrator is the wife of a poet. was born in May 1947. but Dazai was excused from the draft because of his chronic chest problems (he was diagnosed with tuberculosis). Kyōgen no kami (狂言の神 The God of Farce.Gyofukuki (魚服記 1933).[citation needed] A number of the stories. Dazai reached the height of his popularity. 1935). which describe his sense of personal isolation and his debauchery. Shayo (The Setting Sun. Wartime works included Udaijin Sanetomo (Minister of the Right Sanetomo. He depicted a dissolute life in postwar Tokyo in Viyon no Tsuma (Villon's Wife. but he managed to publish quite a bit anyway. This work was based on the diary . is a grim fantasy involving suicide. 1947). daughter Satoko (里子). Tsugaru (1944).

The book is one of the classics ofJapanese literature and has been translated into several foreign languages. No Longer Human. and his health was also rapidly deteriorating. which by eerie coincidence was his 39th birthday. While providing a plot for various subsequent fictional novels and a Japanese TV drama. drowning in the rain-swollen Tamagawa Canal near his house. in Mitaka. Tokyo. but that he was murdered by Tomie Yamazaki. he became an alcoholic. Ōta was one of the fans of Dazai's works and first met him in about 1941. She bore him a daughter Haruko (治子) in 1947.of Shizuko Ōta (太田静子). titled Guddo bai (Goodbye). Their bodies were not discovered until June 19. At this time Dazai met Tomie Yamazaki (山崎富栄). successful suicide attempt was not a suicide at all. Dazai effectively abandoned his wife and children and moved in with Tomie. all the while despairing of the seeming impossibility of changing the course of his life. The novel is told in a brutally honest manner. a beautician and war widow who had lost her husband after 10 days of married life. he had already fathered a child out of wedlock with a fan. Dazai and Tomie finally succeeded in killing themselves. Ningen Shikkaku deals with a character hurtling headlong towards self-destruction. On 13 June 1948. Always a heavy drinker. [edit]Major works . Dazai and Tomie's bodies discovered in 1948 In the spring of 1948. translated. writing his quasi-autobiography Ningen Shikkaku (人間失格. 1948. there has been no proof that there is any veracity in this rumor. 1958) at the hot-spring resort Atami. he was working on a novelette scheduled to be serialized in the Asahi Shimbun newspaper. who then killed herself after dumping his body in the canal. There has been a persistent rumor that his final. His grave is at the temple of Zenrin-ji. devoid of all sentimentality.

Melos! 1941 新ハムレット Shin-Hamuretto New Hamlet .Major works by Dazai include: Year Japanese Title English Title Comments 1933 思い出 Omoide Memories in 'Bannen' 1935 道化の華 Dōke no Hana Flowers of Buffoonery in 'Bannen' 1936 晩年 Bannen The Late Years Collected short stories 1937 二十世紀旗手 Nijusseiki Kishu A standard-bearer of the twentieth century 富嶽百景 Fugaku Hyakkei 1939 女生徒 Joseito One hundred views of Mount Fuji Schoolgirl 女の決闘 Onna no Kettō Women's Duel 1940 駈込み訴え Kakekomi Uttae An urgent appeal 走れメロス Hashire Merosu Run.

1942 正義と微笑 Seigi to Bisho Right and Smile 1943 右大臣実朝 Udaijin Sanetomo Minister of the Right Sanetomo 1944 津軽 Tsugaru Tsugaru パンドラの匣 Pandora no Hako Pandora's Box 新釈諸国噺 Shinshaku Shokoku Banashi 1945 惜別 Sekibetsu A new version of countries' tales A farewell with regret お伽草紙 Otogizōshi Fairy Tales 1946 冬の花火 Fuyu no Hanabi Winter's firework Play ヴィヨンの妻 Viyon No Tsuma 1947 斜陽 Shayō Villon's Wife The Setting Sun 如是我聞 Nyozegamon 1948 桜桃 Ōtō I heard it in this way Essay A Cherry .

   [edit]References  Lyons. 1956. Norfolk. Crackling Mountain and other stories. Phyllis. Rutland. Tokyo and New York. [edit]Selected  The Setting Sun (斜陽 Shayō). Norfolk. The Saga of Dazai Osamu: A Critical Study With Translations. New York: One Peace Books. Ralph F. translated by James O’Brien. Tokyo: Kodansha International. Melos! and Other Stories. Vermont. Blue Bamboo: Tales of Fantasy and Romance. Dazai Osamu. translated by Donald Keene. Dazai Osamu. 1988.人間失格 Ningen Shikkaku No Longer Human グッド・バイ Guddo-bai Biography portal Novels portal Japan portal Good-Bye Unfinished [edit]Legacy in Japanese pop culture bibliography of English translations A haiku of his is featured at the end of the last episode of Space Pirate Captain Harlock. Ithaca. translated by Allison Markin Powell. Kodansha International. Selected Stories and Sketches. New Directions Publishers. 1983? Return to Tsugaru: Travels of a Purple Tramp (津軽). translated by James Westerhoven. (Japanese publication: 1947). Connecticut. Cornell University. James Laughlin. 1958. McCarthy. 1985. No Longer Human (人間失格 Ningen Shikkaku?). ISBN 0-8047-1197-6 O'Brien. Kodansha International Ltd.. 1988. 2011. 1989. New York. translated by Ralph F. China-Japan Program. James A. New York: Twayne Publishers.  .     Run. Tokyo: Kodansha English Library. Tuttle Company. Stanford University Press (1985). Connecticut. Charles E. New York. translated by James O’Brien. translated by Donald Keene. 1975. Schoolgirl (女生徒 Joseito). Trans. McCarthy. 1993.

Stanford University Press.03. James A. O'Brien. ISBN 1-901903-11-7. ISBN 0-691-06774-0 "Nation and Region in the Work of Dazai Osamu. 1976. Suicidal Narrative in Modern Japan: The Case of Dazai Osamu." Jorge Luis Borges (1890-1996) 1. Snow Country was a lyrical. London: Global Oriental." in Roy Starrs Japanese Cultural Nationalism: At Home and in the Asia Pacific. Wolf. Allan Stephen. hosted by Bellezza. 1983.    [edit]External    links e-texts of Osamu's works at Aozora bunko Osamu's Short Story Waiting Osamu Dazai's grave My Years of Reading Seriously "I have always imagined that Paradise will be a kind of Library. Ueda..2008 Book Review: Setting Sun by Osamu Dazai The Setting Sun by Osamu Dazai New Directions books 175 Pages Copyright 1956 This is my final selection for the Japanese Literature Challenge. 2004. I thoroughly enjoyed the two previous books. Princeton University Press (1990). ed. poetic journey into . Makoto. Cornell University Press. Akutagawa and Dazai: Instances of Literary Adaptation. Modern Japanese Writers and the Nature of Literature. Snow Country and The Woman in The Dunes.

She struggles to accept her new role but. she accepts it without question. As part of the aristocracy of Japan. it is a novel about a post World War II Japan and ―it probes the destructive effects of the war and the transition from a feudal Japan to an industrial society. Kazuko. polite society is being replaced but no one seems to be certain as to what comes next. was different. however. After their mother dies. According to the back of the book. drunken shell. At the beginning of the novel. grit. They are forced to sell their home in Tokyo and move to a small house in a remote village.the life of a geisha and the snow country of Japan.‖ Osamu Dazai committed suicide in 1948. it is World War II and Japan is beginning to change. Naoji returns from the war an opium addict. and their mother. The rigid. while Kazuko is in Tokyo. Naoji. she lives with her mother and servants in Tokyo. at first to feed his opium habit and then to drink. who has already abandoned a great deal of her up-bringing. a year after Setting Sun was published and after several unsuccessful attempts. brings changes and they wind up impoverished. He continually takes what little money they have and disappears to Tokyo for weeks on end. The principal characters of the story are Kazuko. leaving behind a note . has decided to revolt in her own way by becoming Uehara’s mistress and having a his baby. For the first time in her life. Kazuko returns to Tokyo in search of a man she had a brief affair with years before. a man of wealth who has chosen to spend his days drinking and carousing with others who are just like he is –disillusioned and adrift. The war. commits suicide. She finds him a wasted. however. This book. They are caught by the changes taking place and they do not know how to handle those changes. and the will to survive. Kazuko finds herself having to take care of her mother without the help of servants. her brother Naoji. Kazuko has returned home after leaving her husband and getting a divorce. The Woman in The Dunes was a bizarre journey into sand. when her mother becomes ill.

Kazuko accidentally sets a wood pile located just outside the house on fire. The Setting Sun is the only one of the three books that I did not feel a connection to. I don’t understand the rigid politeness of the Japanese society. He also reveals his contempt for himself. Kazuko is told to go and apologize to the various leaders of the village for her actions that led up to the fire. I think it’s because I lack the basis for understanding exactly what was going on. It’s simply the difference of my reality. It was an interesting read and if it peaks your interested. I could foresee thanking my neighbors and the fire department for their efforts on my behalf but an apology? I don’t see that happening in this country and I don’t understand a society that would demand such actions. however. But. Recommendation: The book never grabbed me like the previous two did. after it had changed.. There was a section of the book the highlights the vast difference between my culture and Japanese culture very clearly. I’d say give it a read Posted by cj at 3:15 PM Labels: book review 2008 2 comments: reader kay said. The fire is vanquished by the villagers and the fire department with only the wood being damaged. That’s not a criticism of the society by any means. The next day. the aristocracy. and the life he has been living. . The novel ends with Kazuko’s last letter to her lover. it is well written.. either pre-war or post-war. and I did feel a sense of the displacement Kazuko and Naoji felt.explaining that he is hopelessly in love with a married woman. where she reveals she is pregnant and has declared that her bastard child shall be her revolution.

cjh 1/7/08 5:07 AM http://cjreading. many Japanese critics have pointed out. The more reader knows of Dazai's life. For a time he joined the communist movement.Thanks for the review. His opposition to the prevailing social and literary trends was shared by fellow members of Burai-ha (Decadents). the more Dazai can and should be admired for finding a literary means to bare his soul. I kept wondering where all the angst was coming from. They still seemed like spoiled rich kids. Kay It was especially true for this book. All three of the books I read where.. so the argument goes. however.blogspot." (J.Pseudonym of Tsushima Shuji Japanese novelist and a master storyteller.com/2008/01/book-review-setting-sun-by-osamu-dazai. Setting Sun sounds like an interesting book. Thomas Rimer . and made his selfdestructive life the subject of his books.html Osamu Dazai (1909-1948) . are closely intertwined. who became at the end of World War II the literary voice and literary hero of his generation. Dazai's life ended in double-suicide with his married mistress. "Dazai's life and work. It was interesting. even after their money was gone. In many books Dazai used biographical material from his own family background. 1/6/08 5:12 PM cj said. And the fire scene was truly beyond my experience.. The review is very interesting in pointing out how much our cultural perspectives are a part of our interpretations when we read anything.

Tanabe Shimeko. "I felt with excitement that I had discovered a hidden. and spent my time lying around watching H[atsuyo] indifferently. 'A Clown among Clowns' describes Dazai trying to describe his first suicide attempt. his literary hero and mentor. imbecilic time. Dazai was brought up mainly by servants." (The opening sentence of No Longer Human. Between the years 1930 and 1937 he made three suicide attempts. which Dazai published during World War II. inspired Dazai's work. anonymous genius. I scarcely showed up at school at all. and then threw themselves into the sea. Shimeko drowned. who saw through the hypocrisy and shallowness of others. Dazai met the writer Masuji Ibuse. in northern Honshu. of course. 1999) "Mine has been a life much shame. he had met a nineteen year old bar hostess. Suppose we have a try at the panoramic method. A number of the stories. where he studied French literature. he entered in 1930 the University of Tokyo. Many of his stories were based on his own experiences and were . Also German authors. While at the university." Dazai gradually dropped his studies. a suffering clown and a misfit. Dazai first attracted attention in 1933 when his stories began to appear in magazines. saying later that it "was truly a shameless." Before marrying Hatsuyo. Dazai wrote in a simple and colloquial style. in BANNEN) and 'Tokyo hyakkei' (1941). that one didn't work. His father was a wealthy landowner and politician. I abhorred all effort. took sleeping pills. though his commitment to politics ended in distrust in all social institutions. were retellings of stories by Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693). After attending the Hirosake Higher School. among them the poet Friedrich Schiller. "Well. In 1931 he married Oyama Hatsuyo. and developed a persona that in his novels appeared both sensitive and cynical. The Salamander). They spent two days drinking. During this period Dazai came into contact with Marxism. Dazai had read at the age of fourteen Ibuse's Sanshouo (1929." In 1939 Dazai married Ishihara Michiko and turned a new leaf in his life. The subject was also brought up many of his short pieces. 1848) Dazai Osamu was born Tsushima Shuji in Kanagi. the tenth of eleven children.in Reader's Guide to Japanese Literature. among them 'Doke no hana' (1936.

As a matter of fact. driving him eventually to kill himself.. such as SHAYO (1947. She is evacuated from Tokyo during the war with her mother. Her brother Naoji is caught in the web of his own and society's failures. The Setting Sun). sitting serenely erect. about the decline of an aristocratic family. He does return. but as a drug addict. No Longer Human (its actual Japanese title is "Disqualified as a Human") was Dazai's second novel. "I have . autobiographical / confessional fiction. "I never personally met the madman who wrote these notebooks.. Dazai addressed many social. No Longer Human) was an attack on the traditions of Japan. or "I-novel". NINGEN SHIKKAKU (1948." begins the epilogue of the story. and spirit of rebelliousness touched the lost generation of youth. but her outlook is Japanese. capturing the postwar crisis of Japanese cultural identity. It deals with the fall of an aristocratic family. and how traditions or "proper etiquette" is destroyed by the war. He also wrote children's stories and historical narratives. that when you look down to it. Shayo is a tragedy in postwar Japan. The protagonist is a young man. The word 'shayo' (setting sun) gave rise to the word 'shayozoku' (impoverished aristocracy). but his scandalous life. In his masterpieces. in Naoji's words. The tone of Dazai's postwar fiction was dark." The protagonist. The story also gives an account of the author's personal decline and his relationships to women. despair. drug addiction and alcoholism. human and philosophical issues. who feel himself alienated from society but reveals his true thoughts to the reader. At the end of the war. "This may not be the way of eating soup that etiquette dictates. Kazuko decides to have a child with the disillusioned intellectual Uehara. The book is one of the classics of Japanese literature and has been translated into several languages.classified in the category known as the watakushi shosetsu. They look hopefully to the return of the son from southeast Asia. But being. hoping that the child will be her moral revolution. a young woman. it is as Mother does. love affairs. Kazuko. wears Western clothes. covering those whose world died in the war. a high-class beggar and unable to eat with Mother's effortless ease. I bend over the plate in the gloomy fashion prescribed by proper etiquette. Kazuko loses her mother. but to me it is most appealing and somehow really genuine.

Tatsuya Mihashi. Tadao Nakamaru. a Japanese adventurer and a priest travel the silk road in their search for Buddha's ashes. and her husband's self-delusion. Her determination to survive is tested by hardships. It wasn't until I was about twenty that I realized that they actually served a practical purpose. There is a theory that the lady. Shortly before his death. set in the distant past.been sickly ever since I was a child and have frequently been confined to bed. After the war. The film. How often as I lay there I used to think what uninspired decorations sheets and pillow cases make. Dazai wrote a letter in which he described Ibuse as an "evil man". insensitive Americans to a pulp." Among Dazai's finest short stories is 'Viyon no tsuma' (1947. In 'O-san'. Dazai's alienation continued. but her will is not broken. She finds meaning in her existence by taking a job for a tavern keeper. starring Toshiro Mifune. and this revelation of human dullness stirred dark depression in me." Dazai's daughter Yuko Tsushima also became a writer and published her first short story in 1969. that Dazai died "without leaving behind anything written for me. Dazai drowned himself in Tokyo and left behind unfinished the novel GUTTO BAI (Goodbye). who drowned with Dazai actually pushed him in. Her works in the 1970s arose from the collapse of the economic bubble and coincided with a return to the Japanese variant of the first-person novel. In the story. Villon's Wife). Dazai himself had said after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 that he was "itching to beat the bestial. Merosu!) was adapted into screen in 1966 by the director Senkichi Taniguchi under the title Kiganjo no boken (Adventures of Takla Makan). some claimed. rape. . and Makoto Sato. He made observations of those who had supported the militaristic regime before but in the new political situation embraced democracy. from whom her husband has stolen money. Ibuse insisted in 'Parting Regrets' (1948). The narrator is the wife of a poet. the wife revals the disparity between the writer's reasons and his actual reasons for suicide. and she possibly wrote the note in question." On June 13. was partly shot in Iran near Isfahan and at Toho Studios (Tokyo). Yamazaki Tomie. 1958). who has virtually abandoned her. in which vivid descriptions of the mundane reality of the author's own private world predominate. in 1948. translated in Japan Quarterly (October-December. Dazai's story 'Hashire Merosu' (Run.

B. O'Brien (1975). 1947 . in Japan Christian Quaterly. 23/1968). Akutagawa and Dazai: Instances of Literary Adaptation. Keene (1971). 1937 KYOKO NO HOKO. 1950) / The Setting Sun (trans. 1941 (in Japanese) SEIGI TO BISHO. 1941 KOJIKI GAKUSEI. Traditions and Modernity in Modern Japanese Fiction by G. 1944 . Kyllikki Härkäpää. 1940 DASU GEMAINE. 1940 ONNA NO KETTO. by James O'Brien (1988). 1945 SHINSHAKU SHOKOKU BANASHI. The Saga of Dazai Osamu by Phyllis I. Donald Keene. 1946 FUYU NO HANABI. who committed suicide in 1970 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:                          BANNEN. Donald Keenen engl. ed. Lyons (1985). 1965) . 1937 AI TO BI NI TSUITE. Landscapes and Portraits by D.For further information: The Immutable Despair of Dazai Osamu by D. 1946 KYOSHIN NO KAMI. 1941 HUMAN LOST. 1996) OTOGI ZOZHI. 'Schiller and Dazai Osamu' by Okumura Atsushi (2000) .Laskeva aurinko (suom. 1939 JOSEITO. 1941 TOKYO HAKKEI. 1937 NIJUSSEIKI KISHU. The Origins of Modern Japanese Literature by Kojin Karatani (1993). 1945 PANDORA NO HAKO.Return to Tsugaru: Travels of a Purple Tramp (translated by James Westerhoven) Tsugaru: kulkija käy kotona (suomentanut Kai Nieminen. 1947 SHAYO. Dawn to the West by Donald Keene (1984). Thomas Rimer (1978). 35 (1969). 1942 UDAIJIN SANETOMO. 1940 HASHIRE MEROSU. Brudnoy (Monumenta Nipponica. 1939 FUGAKU HYAKKEI. 1943 TSUGARU. 1956) . käännöksestä.See also: Yukio Mishima. Accomplices of Silence: The Modern Japanese Novel by Masao Miyoshi (1974).The Declining Sun (tr. Suicidal Narrative in Modern Japan: The Case of Dazai Osamu by Alan Stephen Wolfe (1990). 1936 DOKE NO HANA. Dazai Osamu by J. Modern Japanese Fictioin and Its Traditions by J. 1941 KAKEKOMI UTTAE. 1945 [Fairy Tales] SEKIBETSU. 1940 SHIN HAMURETTO. Gunn.

1955-56 (12 vols.No Longer Human (trans. 1989 (trans. 1949 DAZAI OSAMU ZENSHU. Masao Wakahara. in 1956) .Masayuki Mori. toim. dir. starring Hideko Takamine. 1991 (trans. 1979) Crackling Mountain and Other Stories.kirjasto. 1948 (unfinished) . by Kichitaro Negishi. 1948 . Veikko Polameri. McCarthy) Crackling Mountain and Other Stories. Ralph F. BIYON NO TSUMA. dir. 1947 . Tamae Kiyokawa JINUSHI ICHIDAI . 1983) NYOZE GABUN.Vasaroinnin ääni (teoksessa Shosetsu: japanilaisia kertojia.MIHAPPYO SAKUHIN SHU.) DAZAI OSAMU ZENSHU. McCarthy) Blue Bamboo: Tales of Fantasy and Romance. 1948 NINGEN SHIKKAKU. rev.fi/dazai. 1952 (10 vols. 1967-68. James O'Brien) Self-portraits: Tales from the Life of Japan's Great Decadent Romantic. 2003 (trans.sci.film 1949.Ei enää ihminen (Donald Keenen engl. 1993 (trans.film 2009.htm . käännöksen mukaan suom. 1969) GUTTO BAI. Aapo Junkola. 1947 . Donald Keene. James O'Brien) http://www. ed. by Koji Shima. screenplay by Yôzô Tanaka            TOKATONTON. 1953) . Goodbye..'Villon's Wife' (trans. Ralph F.

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