C A S T I N G D E F E C T S

CASTING DEFECTS

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S

Basic categories of casting defects:
· Metallic projections · Cavities · Discontinuities · Defective surfaces · Incomplete casting · Incorrect dimension · Inclusions or structural anomalies

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S

Metallic projections

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Metallic projections in the form of fins or flash • Metallic projections in the form of fins (or flash) without change in principal casting dimensions • Joint flash or fins Thin fins (or flash) at the parting line or at core prints .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Veining or finning Projections in the form of veins on the casting surface • Heat-checked die Network of projections on the surface of die castings .

in re-entrant angles • Fillet vein Thin metallic projection located at a re-entrant angle and dividing the angle in two parts .• Fillet scab C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Thin projection parallel to a casting surface.

or wash Excess metal in the vicinity of the gate or beneath the sprue . principal casting dimensions change • Erosion. cut.• Cracked or broken mold C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Formation of fins in planes related to direction of mold assembly (precision casting with waste pattern).

• Crush C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Metal projections in the form of elongated areas in the direction of mold assembly • Mold drop or sticker Projections with rough surfaces on the cope surface of the casting .

• Raised core or mold element cutoff C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Projections with rough surfaces on the drag surface of the casting (massive projections) • Raised sand Projections with rough surfaces on the drag surface of the casting (in dispersed areas) .

• Mold drop C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Projections with rough surfaces on other parts of the casting • Corner scab Projections with rough surfaces over extensive areas of the casting • Broken or crushed core Projections with rough surfaces in an area formed by a core .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S ·Cavities .

) . pinholes Internal. chills. adjacent to inserts. etc. but limited to the vicinity of metallic pieces placed in the mold (chills. inserts. As above. of varied size. chaplets. chaplets.C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Blowholes. isolated or grouped irregularly in all areas of the casting • Blowholes. usually smooth-walled. rounded cavities. etc.

draws • Open or external shrinkage .• Slag blowholes • Surface pinholes C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Surface or subsurface blowholes • Dispersed shrinkage • Corner blowholes.

leakers • Core shrinkage • Internal or blind shrinkage • Centerline or axial shrinkage .• Corner or fillet shrinkage C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Macro. shrinkage porosity.or microshrinkage.

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Discontinuities .

sometimes with adjacent indentation marks • Hot cracking Fracture surface oxidized completely around edges • Cold tearing Discontinuities with squared edges in areas susceptible to tensile stresses during cooling.• Breakage (cold) C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Normal fracture appearance. surface not oxidized .

• Hot tearing C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Irregularly shaped discontinuities in areas susceptible to tension. oxidized fracture surface showing dendritic pattern • Quench cracking Rupture after complete solidification. often in a vertical plane . either during cooling or heat treatment • Cold shut or cold lap Complete or partial separation of casting wall.

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S •Interrupted pour Separation of the casting in a horizontal plane •Chaplet or insert cold shut. unfused chaplet Local discontinuity in vicinity of metallic insert • Conchoidal or "rock candy" fracture Separation along grain boundaries of primary crystallization • Intergranular corrosion Network of cracks over entire cross section .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Defective Surface .

elephant skin. edges of folds at same level. casting surface is smooth • Flow marks Casting surface markings showing direction of liquid metal flow (light alloys) . laps Surface shows a network of jagged folds or wrinkles (ductile iron) • Seams or scars Wavy fold markings without discontinuities. gas runs C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Fold markings over rather large areas of the casting • Cope defect.• Surface folds.

often branched.• Rough casting surface C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Depth of surface roughness is approximately that of the dimensions of the sand grains • Severe roughness. high pressure molding defect Depth of surface roughness is greater than that of the sand grain dimensions • Buckle Grooves of various lengths. with smooth bottoms and edges .

1 mm (0. crow's feet Irregularly distributed depressions of various dimensions extending over the casting surface.• Rat tail C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Grooves up to 5. metal mold reaction. alligator skin Casting surface entirely pitted or pock-marked .2 in. one edge forming a fold which more or less completely covers the groove • Flow marks.) in depth. usually along the path of metal flow (cast steel) • Orange peel.

generally graygreen in color . superficial cavities in the form of droplets of shallow spots.• Soldering. draw or suck-in Casting surface depressions in the vicinity of a hot spot • Slag inclusions Small. die erosion C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Grooves and roughness in the vicinity of re-entrant angles on die castings • Sink marks.

often over large area of drag half of casting • Burn on Sand layer strongly adhering to the casting surface • Burn in Very adherent layer of partially fused sand • Metal penetration Conglomeration of strongly adhering sand and metal at the hottest points of the casting (re-entrant angles and cores) • Dip coat spall. clamp-off C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Deep indentation.• Push-up. scab Fragment of mold material embedded in casting surface .

expansion scabs C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Plate-like metallic projections with rough surfaces parallel to casting surface. metallic projections on the casting where mold or core washes or dressings are used . erosion scab As above. wash scab Flat. but impossible to eliminate except by machining or grinding • Blacking scab. boil scab. removable by burr or chisel • Cope spall.• Scabs.

• Oxide scale C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Adherence of oxide after annealing • Adherent packing material Adherence of ore after malleablizing (white heart malleable • Scaling Scaling after anneal .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Incomplete Casting .

• Misrun C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Casting is essentially complete except for more or less rounded edges and corners • Defective coating (teardropping) or poor mold repair Deformed edges or contours due to poor mold repair or careless application of wash coatings • Poured short Casting incomplete due to insufficient metal poured .

fractured surface not oxidized • Broken casting (at gate. riser. vents. large piece missing.C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Runout Casting incomplete due to loss of metal from mold after pouring • Fusion or melting during heat treatment Casting partially melted or seriously deformed during annealing • Fractured casting Casting broken. etc. or vent) Fracture dimensions correspond to those of gates. .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Incorrect Dimensions or Shape .

• Improper shrinkage allowance C A S T I N G D E F E C T S All casting dimensions incorrect in the same proportions • Hindered contraction Distance too great between extended projections • Irregular contraction Certain dimensions inexact • Excess rapping of pattern Dimensions too great in the direction of rapping of pattern .

mold-wall movement Excessive metal thickness at irregular locations on casting exterior(a) • Distorted casting Thin casting walls over general area.C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Soft or insufficient ramming. pattern is correct(d) a b c d . same is true of pattern (c) • Pattern mounting error Casting shape is different from drawing in a particular area. especially on horizontal surfaces(b) • Pattern error Casting does not conform to the drawing shape in some or many respects.

• Shift C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Casting appears to have been subjected to a shearling action in the plane of the parting line • Shifted core Variation in shape of an internal casting cavity along the parting line of the core • Ramoff. generally on one side only in the vicinity of the parting line . ramaway Irregular projections on vertical surfaces.

pattern and mold conform to drawing(c) • Warped casting Casting deformed with respect to drawing after storage. mold creep. springback Deformation with respect to drawing proportional for casting and mold.• Deformed pattern C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Deformation with respect to drawing proportional for casting. pattern conforms to drawing (b) • Casting distortion (d) Casting deformed with respect to drawing. mold. machining(d) (a) (b) (c) . annealing. and pattern(a) • Deformed mold.

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S Inclusions or Structural Anomalies .

phosphide sweat (c) • Slag. dross or flux inclusions.C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Metallic inclusions (a) • Cold shot (b) (a) • Internal sweating. ceroxides (d) • Slag blowhole defect (e) (b) (c) (d) (e) .

or kish tracks (e) • Hard spots (f) (b) (c) (a) (d) (e) (f) . seams (d) • Lustrous carbon films.• Sand inclusions (a) C A S T I N G D E F E C T S • Blacking or refractory coating inclusions (b) • Black spots (c) • Oxide inclusion or skins.

Summary C A S T I N G D E F E C T S .

C A S T I N G D E F E C T S .

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