They are an LSE-listed diversified FTSE 100 metals and mining company, and India’s largest non-ferrous metals and mining company based on revenues. Its business is principally located in India, one of the fastest growing large economies in the world. In addition, they have additional assets and operations in Zambia and Australia. We are primarily engaged in copper, zinc, aluminum and iron are businesses, and are also developing a commercial power generation business. FOUNDER: Founder of this recognition is Mr. ANIL AGARWAL, who is chairman of this group, a simple person without any special degree in management field but have a great experience in this field and a sharp sight of the future conditions and requirement.

Be a world-class zinc company, creating value, leveraging mineral resources and related core competencies.

1.2.2. MISSION
     

Be a lowest cost Zinc producer on a global scale, maintaining market leadership Be innovative, customer oriented and eco-friendly, maximizing stake-holder value

The only integrated Zinc producer in India Refined Zinc production capacity 230,000 TPA Refined Lead production capacity 35,000 TPA Ore treatment capacity 4.6 Mtpa

Continuous operational improvements, meticulous planning, constant innovation, extensive R&D, technological upgradation and so much more - HZL has come a long way and grown into a multi-unit and multi-product company. Competitive position – Zinc




Hindustan Zinc Ltd. was created from the erstwhile Metal Corporation of India (MCI) on 10th January, 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking. In April 2002, the Government of India, disinvested its majority stake in HZL , and it became a part of the fast growing Sterlite group. Sterlite Opportunities and Ventures Ltd. (SOVL) India was founded in 1986, bringing together several metal related activities managed by the Agarwal family. In April 2002, acquired 26% stake and management control in HZL from the Government of India in privatization. Since the technology and costs were not in line with the global markets it was the right time for the Government to sell and SOVL to buy HZL. Since then HZL has been growing from strength to strength. HZL produces Zinc, Lead and other by-products including Sulphuric Acid, Silver and Cadmium. HZL achieved an all-time high with a record output of 2,61,226 tonnes Zinc and 6,14,938 tonnes of record production of Zinc concentrate during 2003-04. Today HZL is India’s leading base metal producer. HZL is a vertically integrated Mining & Smelting company, gearing up to:


  

Harnessing mining resources to help India achieve self-sufficiency in Zinc. Become a global leader in Zinc. Create value for all entities whether it is Customers, Investors or Employees.

Constant innovation, meticulous attention to detail, extensive investments in R&D and technology are the hallmarks of HZL making it a multi-unit and multi-product company.


HZL milestones at a glance:

2002-03 Sterlite acquires 26% and management control in HZL from the Government of India in privatization. A further 20% is bought from market through open offer and 18.92% from Government of India under call option. 1991 Chanderiya pyrometallurgical lead-zinc smelter and Rampura Agucha mine begin production. 1983 1977 1971 1968 1942 Rajpura Dariba Mine starts production. Vizag zinc smelter and second set of Zawar mine facilities commissioned. First expansion of Zawar mine commissioned. Debari smelter commissioned. Commencement of mining at Zawar.

HZL is a vertically integrated company with Mines and smelters spread across multi-locations






Chanderiya Lead Zinc smelter, Chittorgarh
1991 120 km east of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India 100,000 tpa of refined Zinc, 35,000 tpa of refined Lead

Commissioned Location Capacity Details

A pyrometallurgical smelter using ISP technology. Main by-products are Sulp Acid and Silver and one of the by-product is Cadmium.


ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001:1996, OHSAS 18001:1999





ZAWAR MINES Commissioned: 1942 RC: 1.2 MTPA ore

RAMPURA AGUCHA Commissioned: 1991 RC: 3.75 MTPA ore

VIZAG ZINC SMELTER Commissioned: 1977 RC: 56000 TPA Zinc CHANDERIYA LEAD ZINC SMELTER Commissioned: 1991 RC: 275000 TPA Zinc

RAJPURE DARIBA MINES Commissioned: 1983 RC: 1 MTPA ore

DEBARI ZINC SMELTER Commissioned: 1968 RC: 80000 TPA Zinc







ISF Technology Commissioned: 1991 RC: 105000 TPA Zinc 40000 TPA Lead

AUSMELT Technology Commissioned: 2005 RC: 50000 TPA Lead OUTOKUMPU Tech. Commissioned: 2005 RC: 170000 TPA Zinc

CAPTIVE POWER PLANT Commissioned: 2005 RC: 154 MW

RC ~ Rated Capacity as in July 2006


2. Zinc Hydro Plant Projects: Phase 1: Phase 2: 1,70,000 TPA Zinc plant commissioned in 2005 1,70,000 TPA Zinc plant project in progress, to be commissioned in 2007. 3. Ausmelt Lead Project: 50000 TPA Lead plant commissioned in 2005. 4. Debottleneckking and Modification of already existing Unit-1 Pyro Plant from 85,000 TPA Zinc to 1,05,000 TPA in 2005.


5. CPP Captive Power plant Projects: Phase 1: 154 MW plant commissioned in 2005 Phase 2: 80 MW power project in progress, to be commissioned in 2007.

2. Introduction to Zinc & Applications
Zinc or spelter (which may also refer to zinc alloys), is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most exploited zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide. The largest exploitable deposits are found in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC. Impure zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 13th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance". Zinc

deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children it causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea, contributing to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.

2.1. Applications of Zinc
Over 11 million tonnes of zinc is produced annually worldwide. Around 48% of the amount is used for galvanizing to protect steel from corrosion. Approximately 17% is used the production


of zinc base alloys like die castings etc. Nearly 10% of the zinc is also utilized for compounds such as zinc oxide and zinc sulfate and about 11% is used in the alloys especially brass.

Galvanising: Zinc is one of the best forms of protection against corrosion and is used extensively in building, construction, infrastructure, household appliances, automobiles, steel furniture, and more. Galvanising accounts for around 48% of global zinc usage.

Zinc Oxide: The most widely used zinc compound, zinc oxide is used in the vulcanisation of rubber, as well as in ceramics, paints, animal feed, pharmaceuticals, and several other products and processes. A special grade of zinc oxide has long been used in photocopiers. 10% of global zinc usage is in this segment.

Die Castings: Zinc is an ideal material for die casting and is extensively used in hardware, electrical equipments, automotive and electronic components. 17% of zinc used in the word is through Die Castings.

Alloys: Zinc is extensively used in making alloys, especially brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc. Alloy accounts for around 11% of global zinc usage.

Rolled Zinc: Zinc sheets are used extensively in the building industry for roofing, flashing and weathering applications. These are also used in graphic art to make plates and blocks, as well as battery callouts and coinage.


Properties of Zinc (metallic) at 293K


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Density Melting Point

: :

7140Kg./m3 693K

Specific Latent Heat of Fusion: 10 J/ Kg Specific heat capacity Linear expansivity Thermal conductivity Electric Sensitivity : 385 J/Kg/K : 31/K

: 111 W/m/k : 5.9 ohm –meter

Temp. Coefficient of resistance : 40/k Tensile Strength : 150 Mpa Elongation Young’ modulus Passion’s Ratio : : 50% : 110 Gpa 0.25

3. Safety Department
Safety is a degree of control over hazards. Workers working in the factory are exposed to all sorts of dangers so some personal protective equipment are available to protect them head to toe such as1. Ear Muff 2. Dust Mask 3. Face Shield 4. Gas Mask 5. Gloves 6. Goggles 7. Helmets 8. Leg Guard 9. Respirators 10. Rubber Apron 11. Rubber Gum Boots 12. Safety Ball


13. Safety shoes Factorizing the entire operation to safe sequence, efficiency in carefully performing the work for the welfare of group in which the worker attached, you and protection of your own job. Accidents are caused due to following reasons 1. Unsafe Condition 2. Unsafe Act Unsafe Condition: such condition includes leaking gases & unprotects able machines, not furnace, professional hazard, occupational diseases prevailing in the industry. Unsafe act: These accidents happen due to laziness and negligence of the rules while he is on duty


General Rules and Safety

1. Be alert on work & do it in attention. 2. Working place path should be clean. 3. Always use safety belt while climbing up ladders. 4. Take help from skilled worker to start machine. 5. Waste dirt should not be scattered in Narrow Street. 6. Scattered thing stored in proper place. 7. Before eating meal, wash hands & clean nail. 8. While working in hot place put on asbestos gloves. 9. Don't store guiding wheel at moisturized place, don't use them at higher than rated speed. 10. Don’t pass beyond the chain block or come when heavy loading is being done.

The hydro plant consists 3 main sections namely;    The roaster & acid plant The leaching plant The cell house

At the roaster, zinc concentrate from the mines is converted into its oxides and the SO 2 gases from the roasting process are converted to sulphuric acid. The purpose of leaching is to extract maximum zinc from the calcine (ZnO), discharged from the roasting process, into zinc sulphate form and to purify the solution from all other impurities like copper, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic, nickel etc.


At the cell house, the zinc sulphates containing impurities is treated and zinc is extracted by the process of electrolysis. Zinc sheets thus formed on cathodes are melted and cast into ingots ready for transportation. The total area of the whole plat is 334.85 hectares and the total number of executives in the hydro plant is 322.

Process Description


Preliminary production and consumption figures:

All production and consumption figures shown below are based on preliminary process. 5.1.1. Production figures: Calcine: Sulphuric acid (100%) Typical analysis: HP Steam 907 tpd 860 tpd 98.5% H2SO4 47.2 tpd 40 bar 400ºC Weak acid
5.1.2. Consumption figures:

approx. 4-6 m3ph

Zinc concentrates Cooling water Fresh water

nom. 954 tpd 3000 m3ph 10-15 m3ph


Demineralised water

55 tph

The power consumption for the roasting, gas cleaning and acid plant will be 220 kW/tcath.Zn

5.2. Concentrate Storage
The zinc concentrates from various mines (Rajpura Dariba (RDM), Rampura Agucha(RAM) and Zawar) are delivered by trucks and are discharged into two underground bins. Several belt conveyors transport the concentrate from the underground bins to the concentrate storage blend yard. There, the concentrates are mixed in a required ratio to maintain the zinc percentage. A Pay loader feeds the materials into two hoppers. By means of discharging and transport belt conveyors including an over-belt magnetic separator, a vibrating screen and a hammer mill (which reduces the size of the oversized particles of the vibrating screen to a required size and the material again taken in to the loop), the materials are transported to the concentrate feed bin.

Figure 1: Storage blend yard


Figure 2: Feed bin and conveyor belt

Dross material from the cathode melting and casting process will be added to the feed material before the vibrating screen. For moistening of the concentrate, several spraying nozzles are foreseen in the concentrate storage hall, as well as on the conveying belt before the concentrate feed bin.


Roaster & Acid Plant
DM Water
Concentrates & Recycles



Fluo - Solid Roaster


Waste Heat Boilers Calcine

Waste Gas Cyclones

Hot Gas Precipitator Calcine to Storage/ Leaching Plant Gases Quench tower

Packed tower

Wet ESPs (4 no.) Chlorine Calomel Acid Plant Drying Tower Mercury Removal System

Gases to Stack

Converter (Catalyst Beds)

Absorption Towers Product Acid

Figure 3:flowsheet of roaster and acid plant


5.3. Material Feeding System and Fluid Bed Furnace
The roaster is designed to treat concentrates of varying compositions. The produced calcine has the following characteristics:   Sulphide sulphur in calcine Sulphate sulphur in calcine approx. 0.3% approx. 1.8%

Blended feed from the concentrate feed bin is discharged onto a discharge belt conveyor, which in turn discharges onto a rotary table feeder.

Figure 4: Feeding to the roaster through belt conveyors The rotary table feeder supplies concentrates to the slinger belts, which directly feed it into the roaster. The slinger belts provide a very soft, equal, and fine distribution of the concentrates in the bed area, and prevent local material deposits and the development of gas zones of varying S02 concentration.


Figure 5: Slinger belt feeding into the roaster bed To charge the concentrates i.e., before the first start-up, as well as for start-ups after extended shut-downs, the fluid bed furnace and the waste heat boiler have to be preheated. For this purpose, the roaster is equipped with a preheating unit for start-up purposes, which consists of 4 oil burners and 12 oil lances with accessories. The necessary combustion air is taken from the main roaster air fan. The combustion air serves as a carrier medium for the fluid bed as well as a source of oxygen for the predominant reaction, which converts zinc sulphide to zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide.

ZnS + 1.5 O2 -> ZnO + SO2

H = -446 kJ/mol

The fresh concentrate fed into the roaster by slinger belt thus meets a fluidized bed of finegrained roasted material at a temperature of 900°C to 975 °C consisting mainly of zinc oxide. The combustion air for the roasting process is provided by a high-pressure air fan.


The reaction in the roaster is strongly exothermic, and the gases leave the roaster with a temperature of approximately 930°C - 975°C and with an S02 concentration of approximately 10.2% by volume, dry basis. Part of the reaction heat is absorbed by cooling coils installed in the fluid bed, thus cooling the fluid bed by indirect heat transfer. The flexibility needed for the operation of treating concentrates with varying calorific values is provided by the combined direct/indirect cooling of the turbulent layer. A portion of the feed charged into the roaster agglomerates in the bottom of the fluid bed and would result in a continuously increasing pressure loss in the roaster if an appropriate quantity of material were not withdrawn.

Bed material is withdrawn via:  The continuous roaster overflow.

The roaster overflow functions by gravity and its barrier rim can be raised or lowered by the insertion of weir plates.  The purge device for coarse agglomerates.

The purge-discharging device is operated manually and withdraws the material from the grate level and thus prevents the accumulation of the coarser-sized particles. The operation frequency depends on the formation of coarse agglomerates. The roaster has a cylindrical bed section, a conical intermediate section, a cylindrical enlarged top section, and a grate area of 123 square meters. The enlarged cylindrical section enables a complete roasting of even the finest calcine particles without the occurrence of a secondary combustion phenomenon. For process optimisation, 10 secondary air nozzles are installed to be able to distribute additional roasting air above the bed. A slight draught is maintained at the roaster gas outlet to ensure the safety of the roaster operation.

5.4. Calcine Discharging System
The calcine is discharged at four points during normal operation: 1.) Roaster


2.) Waste heat boiler 3.) Cyclones 4.) Hot electrostatic precipitator

The cyclone and precipitator dust is received relatively cold (300-350°C) and sufficiently fine in size, whereas the calcine of the roaster and waste heat boiler requires primary cooling as well as grinding to the size required for leaching. This results in the following arrangement of the calcine handling. Roaster calcine and boiler dust are combined in a common chute and passed to a drum cooler. A water-cooled rotary valve provides the gas seal of the boiler chain conveyor. The cooling air blower cools the boiler chain conveyor. The material temperature at the drum cooler outlet is below 150°C. The pre-cooled calcine is transferred into a ball mill via an inclined chain conveyor. This ball mill is designed to achieve the desired grain size, which is 90% below 0.075 mm and 70% below 0.050 mm for the total calcine. The finest dust precipitated in the hot gas ESP is combined with the mill discharge and transferred to the calcine silos via the pneumatic transport system. Screw type compressors provide the air for the pneumatic transport pumps A bag filter is provided to capture fugitive dust from the calcine handling ventilation system. Furnace heating occurs prior to start-up of normal roasting operation with Zn-concentrate. Pre start-up activities contain basically:  Grate drying  Dry firing of roaster and waste heat boiler  Cleaning of boiler  Filling of boiler system  Feeding of inert material (calcine) and heating up of system  Feeding of Zn-concentrate As combustion medium during the above described preheating diesel oil is used. The maximum flow of diesel oil amounts to 3000 kg/h.


The total duration of first drying, boiler cleaning and preheating takes approx. 3 weeks. The duration of preheating after shut down of the roaster depends on the furnace temperature. If the furnace is cooled down to ambient temperature preheating and restart takes approx. 2-3 days.

5.5. Waste Heat Boiler
The hot dust laden gas stream leaving the roaster is drawn into the waste heat boiler under suction from the SO2 blower. The waste heat boiler is a horizontal-pass boiler, gas-tight welded, membrane wall-type, directly connected with the gas outlet flange of the roaster by means of a flexible fabric expansion joint. In the boiler, the dust-laden gases are cooled down from the roasting temperature to about 350°C before entering the dust precipitation system. The waste heat boiler is a forced-circulation-type boiler for the production of superheated steam. The convection heating surfaces of super heaters and evaporators are combined in bundles in a suspended arrangement. The waste heat boiler is equipped with a membrane tubed settling (drop-out) chamber ahead of the front convection bundles. In the settling chamber, part of the dust carried along with the gas is separated. Since the waste heat boiler handles roasting gases having very high dust content, a mechanical rapping device has to be provided. Pneumatic cylinders drive these rappers. Depending on the degree of fouling, the rappers can be actuated by a cylinder controller from a switching cabinet. The pneumatic cylinders are operated by compressed air, which can be taken from the plant air system. The gas-flow velocity through the tube banks was designed to be very low to avoid erosion. The tube banks can be easily removed for maintenance after the plant has been taken out of operation. The rapping device is automatically actuated at certain time intervals. The dust separating out in the boiler is collected in a chain conveyor and fed to the rotary drum cooler. The combined system of cooling coils in the roaster, superheated tube bundles, evaporator tube bundles, and


membrane wall casing is designed for the maximum load of the boiler. The boiler produces steam in a forced circulation system and is equipped with two circulating pumps, one motordriven and one turbine-driven. The stand-by steam-driven circulating pump will start automatically when the electric power supply fails or when the flow of circulating water falls below a preset quantity. A pressure relief system is included to exhaust steam directly to the atmosphere via a noise damper in the event of curtailed steam usage in the leaching plant. The steam relief system is designed for the full waste heat boiler production of 49 metric tons per hour. The level-control valve installed in the incoming demineralised water line controls the feed water tank level. The demineralised water is deaerated in the deaerator on top of the feed water tank. Deaeration is accomplished by means of steam from the saturated steam line. The feed water tank pressure is maintained by the pressure control valve. The deaerated feed water is preheated and fed to the steam drum via the feed water pumps, one motor-driven and one steam-driven. The steam drum level is controlled using a three-element control system. An additive preparation and dosing station for the boiler feedwater is included in the system. Cooled gases leaving the waste heat boiler flow into the hot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for final dust removal.

5.6. Hot Gas Cleaning
Hot gas cleaning comprises of: two hot gas cyclones for roaster gas pre-dedusting one single line three field hot ESP

5.6.1. Cyclones
The cooled and dust loaded gas enters the two parallel cyclones for pre-dedusting with a temperature of approx. 350 °C. The gas leaves the cyclones at the top whereas the dust is


collected in the lower part of the cyclones and removed via rotary valves. Final dedusting of the hot gas is achieved in the hot ESP.

5.6.2. Hot Gas Electrostatic Precipitator
The gas leaving the cyclones enters a three field hot gas ESP. The ESP consists of the discharge electrodes, the collecting electrodes, gas distribution walls, casing, roof, hoppers, horizontal inlet and outlet nozzles, pressure relief system, rapping systems, sealing air system for the insulators with electric heater and transformer rectifiers with control cabinet for the electrostatic fields. In this system the dust particles are being charged up so that they can stick to the collecting electrodes. The precipitator is insulated. The collected dust is removed from the ESP via the chain conveyor and the rotary valves. Rapping systems are installed at the gas distribution plates in the inlet cone of the precipitator and at the discharge and collecting electrodes. At their bottom end, the collecting electrodes run through rapping bars, so that the rap is affected at the lower side end in the plate plane. A hammer shaft rotates at the end of each electrostatic field, lifting the rapping hammers which drop down in a free fall when the vertical position is exceeded. The acceleration amounts to more than 200 g (200 x 9.81 m/s2) at the total collecting electrode area. During start-up and shut-down the gas temperature in the precipitator can fall below the dew point. To prevent condensation on the insulator a heating system is installed.


Figure 7: Roaster plant: A) air blower, B) roaster bed, C) waste heat boiler, Hot gas cleaning section: a) cyclones, b) hot gas precipitator

5.7. Fuel Oil Supply
The fuel oil supply for heating up of the roasting and acid plant is provided by a fuel oil storage tank. The capacity of the tank with 100 m³ is designed for one start-up procedure from cold conditions.

5.8. Wet Gas Cleaning System
The gas cleaning system (gas washing and cooling section) described here is installed for purification of SO2-Gas from a Zinc roaster. The SO2-gas shall be processed to sulphuric acid. To allow the production of sulphuric acid, the SO2-gas must be cleaned (removal of dust, aerosols and unwanted gaseous compound) and water vapor must be removed (condensed). This is achieved by the application of a multistage process. In the first step, the SO2-gas is adiabatically cooled (quenched) and partly cleaned in a scrubber. Then the water vapor in the gas is condensed in a packed gas cooling tower. The packed gas


cooling tower is also used for halogenide removal. In the next stage, the SO2-gas is demisted in wet electrostatic precipitators. In the last cleaning step, the gaseous mercury is removed.

Figure 8: Wet gas cleaning section

5.8.1. Quench with settling tank and stripper
In the quench tower, the hot gas is cooled by the evaporation of water. The heat of the incoming gas (Temperature: > 300°C) is used for the evaporation of water that is sprayed into the Quench Tower. The sensitive heat of the gas is converted into water vapor (latent heat). This type of “cooling” can be considered as an adiabatic process. Adiabatic means, the process step is operated without energy exchange with the environment. But besides this quenching, also a part of the dust and condensable impurities in the gas will be scrubbed in the quench tower. At the outlet of the tower, the gas contains water vapor. If the temperature is lowered, water vapor will condense. The Quench Tower is designed as counter current flow type quencher. The gas inlet is at the bottom part of the casing. The gas outlet is at the top of the quench tower.


The liquid is sprayed into the quench tower in counter-current flow to the gas. A part of the spray does evaporate, but the biggest portion will be collected in the lower part of the tower which does serve as pump tank. A side stream of the spray circuits is guided through a settling tank for removal of suspended solids. Excess liquid from the washing and cooling system is discharged from the quench tower circuit via strippers.

5.8.2. Weak Acid Bleed
The weak acid bleed which will be handled in the effluent treatment plant (by client) contains impurities and SO3/H2SO4, which have been removed from the process gas. In order to ensure a correct and reliable operation of the wet gas cleaning system, the concentration of these impurities in the weak acid bleed should not exceed certain limits. According to our experience following values of impurities should not be exceeded: Acid concentration: Solids: Chlorides Fluorides: < 6-7 g/l < 5 g/l <1 g/l <1 g/l

Considering design conditions, these values should be realized with a bleed flow rate of 4 m3/h.

5.8.3. Packed Cooling Tower (water vapour condenser) with silicate dosing
The adiabatic cooling in the quench tower does result in water saturated gas and consequently in a high content of gaseous water in the SO2-gas. If the water vapour would not be lowered prior to the drying tower, the concentration of the sulphuric acid would be lower than acceptable limits.


Removal of water vapour is done in a packed gas cooling tower. The gas enters the tower from the bottom and flows upwardly through the packing. In counter current flow to the gas, cold cooling liquid (weak acid) is distributed over the packing. The downward flowing cold liquid does cool the SO2-gas and water vapour is condensed. While flowing downward, the cooling liquids heats up. The lower part of the tower serves as a pump tank. From this pump tank, the cooling liquid is circulated via pumps and plate heat exchangers back to the liquid distribution system. The plate heat exchangers are cooled with cooling water which is circulated via evaporative type cooling towers. The packed gas cooling tower is designed as cylindrical vessel made of FRP. Diameter and packing height are calculated in a way, that filling bodies made of plastic (PP, PVC) with a diameter of 2 inch and a specific surface of more than 90 m2/m3 are to be used. The gas side pressure drop does not exceed 4 mbar under full gas load. The liquid distribution system shall ensure an equal distribution of the liquid on the upper surface of the packing. The liquid distribution system will have two feed points for cooling liquid. The liquid distribution system will be made of FRP. Plastic pumps (material: HP PE) will be used. The pipes will be made of FRP.

5.8.4. Sodium Silicate Dosing System
In the gas entering the gas cleaning system, hydrogen fluoride is present. If this fluoride will enter the sulphuric acid section, even very low contents of fluoride may lead to damages at the candle filters. The reason for this is that fluoride does eat up the glass fibres of the candle filters. Hydrogen fluoride is easily scrubbed from the gas and transferred into the liquid. But with higher temperatures and higher acidity, the hydrogen fluoride will again evaporate from the liquid. In order to minimize the content of hydrogen fluoride in the SO2-gas, a sodium silicate dosing system is provided. By the means of silicate dosing, the hydrogen fluoride in the liquid is transferred into a form that will not evaporate.


The amount of sodium silicate should be fed in such a way that the level of HF in the gas outlet of the wet gas cleaning plant will be below 1 mg /Nm3. On the other hand it is important to dose the sodium silicate carefully in order to avoid silicic acid precipitation in the washing liquid. This has to be controlled by regular analyses of the circulation acid of the cooling tower. The quantity of sodium silicate to be dosed will be settled during the commissioning of the plant. Sodium silicate is continuously added into the pump tank of the packed gas cooling tower in the form of a weak solution (approx. 5 % concentration of sodium silicate). This weak solution is prepared from a commercially available concentrated solution (e.g. 35% of liquid sodium silicate, other concentrations to suppliers) by the addition of water into an agitated tank. The concentrated solution is stored in a barrel as delivered by the supplier. The silicate solution mixing and storage tank is made of FRP and equipped with a vertical impeller type agitator. The storage capacity of this tank is sufficient for 1 day of operation under full gas load. Membrane dosing pumps and plastic pipes will be used for liquid dosing into the packed gas cooling tower sump tank.

5.8.5. Wet Electrostatic Precipitators
Final removal of dust and aerosols will be carried out in the wet electrostatic precipitator system which consists of two stages of precipitators. Downstream of the second stage of the wet electrostatic precipitators, the SO2-gas will be optically clean. The wet ESP’s will be of the tube type with gas flow in vertical direction. While flowing through the wet ESP tubes, the aerosols and particles are electrically charged due to high tension and migrate to the collection tubes.

Particles and aerosols separated from the gas will be removed continuously together with the condensate at the bottom of the ESP’s, respectively from the connected gas ducts. The liquids will be directed to a tank, which does also serve for wet ESP flushing.


Normally wet ESPs do have a good self-cleaning. This self cleaning can be improved in the second stage wet ESP’s by the installation of a continuous spraying system But from time to time, depending on the operating conditions, each precipitator must be flushed. This is done with liquid, that is withdrawn from a tank and that is pumped to the flushing nozzles installed in the top part of the wet ESPs.

All parts of the wet electrostatic precipitators in contact with the gas stream will be made of the following acid resistant materials:

Homogeneously lead lined steel PVC, PP, FRP or FRP with PVC-lining

The materials are selected in accordance with the operating conditions and mechanical loads to which the equipment is subjected.

The precipitators consist of the following major items: Collecting Electrodes The collecting electrodes are extruded circular PVC or PP tubes with a diameter of 240 mm. The tubes are bounded together to form a tube bundle. The tube bundles are equipped with a flange for upper support. Both tube ends and the upper tube plate will be provided with a grounding/earthing system consisting of graphite conductors. Discharge System The discharge electrodes consist of wires made of lead with a steel core, suspending from the upper support and guiding frame and held firm at the tube centreline. A lower guiding frame ensures the exact spacing of the discharge electrodes and does not serve as a support. Both frames will be made of homogeneously lead lined steel and supported by one lateral air-flushed insulator each. Flushing and Spray System The upper part of each precipitator will be equipped with a flushing system to enable periodic cleaning of the internals. Circulating liquor from the wet ESP flushing tank is used.


The spray system installed for the second stage wet ESPs will improve the self-cleaning and will reduce the acid content in the wet ESP flushing tank. Excess liquid will be discharged from the tank by the means of bleed pumps. Discharge will be done level controlled.

The common gas ducting at the exit of the secondary ESPs will be equipped with an inspection sight glass and light source for visual inspection of the mist content of the exit gas (lantern). This gas will be optically clean under normal operating conditions. This gives the operator a quick, convenient and reasonably accurate method of checking the correct operation of the plant. (REMARK: Alternatively to the lantern, an opacity meter could be installed in the gas duct. This instrument will produce a remote indication of the mist content of the gas. By this, a perfect operation of the Wet Gas Cleaning System and in particular of the wet ESPs will be ensured.)

5.8.6. Mercury Removal
For the production of sulphuric acid with a low mercury-content, so-called Norzinc Mercury Removal Process (Calomel Process) is in foreseen. This process allows a cost efficient removal of metallic mercury vapours from SO2-gases upstream of sulphuric acid plants. The ingress of mercury into the sulphuric acid is prevented and a safe and reliable production of a sulphuric acid with low mercury contents is achieved. In the Norzinc Mercury Removal Process, Calomel (Hg2Cl2) is produced. By installing another special process, also developed by Norzinc, it is possible to process the calomel into saleable metallic mercury. Principle of the Norzinc Mercury Removal Process: Gaseous metallic mercury (Hg-O) in the SO2-gas reacts with mercury chloride (HgCl2, resp. Hg++) dissolved in a reaction liquid and forms a solid mercury chloride compound (Hg2Cl2), the so-called Calomel. Calomel is removed from the reaction liquid circuit by liquid/solid separation in a settling tank. For each of the 3 roaster trains respectively the 3 sulphuric acid plants, separate reaction towers with attached settling tanks are provided.


For the production and the storage of the reaction agent (high concentrated dissolved HgCl2), one common installation for the 3 lines is foreseen. Process Description Reference is made to the attached Process Flow Diagram and Plot Plan. The Norzinc Process for the removal of mercury from SO2-gases, is a continuously operated wet chemical process installed upstream of the drying tower of a sulphuric acid plant. The main reaction equation is: Hg (0) (gaseous) + HgCl2 (dissolved as complex) Hg2Cl2 (solid) This reaction happens in a reaction tower. The gas enters the reaction tower from the bottom and flows through a packing. The packing is irrigated with the reaction liquid. The reaction agent is mercury chloride dissolved in a acidic aqueous solution. The gas flows upstream in countercurrent flow to the downwardly flowing liquid. The above described chemical reaction happens in the area of the packing. A packing is used, which provides a high specific surface, has a reasonably low pressure drop, but also is resistive against blockages. In the exit section of the tower, very efficient droplet elimination systems are installed. These systems shall eliminate particle and mist carry-over.

Settling Tank:
The solids (Hg2Cl2, Calomel) which are formed due to the above described chemical reaction are discharged from the reaction circuit by the means of a settling tank. In this settling tank, the solids accumulate in the bottom of the cone. The liquid overflow is guided back to the reaction tower. From time to time, the solids (Calomel) accumulated in the settling tank are discharged into the zinc dust tank arranged below the settling tank. Together with the Calomel, also condensate and the excess liquid, which happens due to the filling of the reaction tower circuit with strong liquid, is discharged. The discharged liquid is called “Bleed”.


In order to maintain the concentration of Hg++ in the reaction liquor, additional Hg++-solution must be added to the reaction liquid. This is done as strong liquid. Strong liquid means, that the concentration of Hg++ is higher than in the reaction tower circuit.

Chlorination Tank / Preparation and storage of strong solution:
The strong liquid is produced in the chlorination tank. In this tank circuit, Calomel reacts with chlorine gas and forms dissolved mercury chloride (HgCl2) according to the following reaction equation. Hg2Cl2 (solid) + Cl2 (gas)  2 HgCl2 (dissolved) The strong solution produced in the Chlorination tank is stored in a storage tank for usage in the reaction towers of the three mercury roaster trains. By addition strong solution into the reaction circuits, the HgCl2 that is consumed shall be replaced. For a good operation of the mercury removal system it is necessary, that the concentrations of the different compounds in the reaction liquid are kept strictly within a given range. The presence of other media, which may react with the reaction compounds, must be prevented. This especially does apply for chemical reactions that do occur in competition with the desired reactions. (That means that the upstream gas cleaning system with wet electrostatic precipitators must work perfectly to make sure, that the operation of the Norzinc Mercury Removal System is not negatively influenced by dust particles, which may contaminate the reaction liquid.)

Zinc Dusting Tank:
Due to condensation and because of the addition of highly concentrated reaction liquid from the preparation tank there is excess liquid in the reaction circuit. This excess liquid has to be discharged from the reaction circuit. The liquid is discharged from the settling tank and is collected in a zinc-dusting tank. In the liquid, the concentration of dissolved mercury is approx. 1-3 g/l. By adding zinc dust, the dissolved mercury is precipitated as calomel according to the following reaction equation.


HgCl2 (dissolved) + Zn (solid)  Hg2Cl2 (solid) + ZnCl2 (dissolved) The calomel is discharged from the cone of the zinc dust tank and is collected in containers for further usage or storage. The bleed containing dissolved zinc chloride and a very low mercury content, then can be discharged to an effluent treatment system. The precipitation of dissolved mercury prior to the discharge of the liquid is important to minimize the drain of mercury from the systems during periods with low mercury content in the SO2-gas. During periods with high mercury content in the SO2-gas, the precipitation of mercury in the liquid can be considered an additional environmental protection system to minimize the drain of mercury from the gas cleaning system. All Parts of the plant are made in fully acid proof materials. This is either plastic (polyproylene, polyethylene, polyvinylchloride) fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) or rubber lining.

6. Acid Plant
6.1. Sulphuric Acid
In all heavy industrial chemicals, sulphuric acid is perhaps the most fundamentally important, in that it has a number of large-scale uses not only within the chemical industry but in other industries as well. By far the most important user is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Other important uses of sulphuric acid are in petroleum refining, pigment production, steel pickling, non-ferrous metals extraction and in the manufacture of explosives, detergents, plastics and man-made fibres. Many special areas of the chemical industry also use varying amounts of sulphuric acid - for example, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals and fluorine chemicals production. Sulphuric acid is manufactured from sulphur dioxide. The predominant primary raw material for producing this intermediate is elemental sulphur. To a declining extent, pyrites are still used in a number of countries as a raw material for sulphuric acid


production. A large involuntary producer of sulphur dioxide is non-ferrous metals industry, the roasting and smelting processes of which generate off-gases having a high enough concentration of sulphur dioxide to be processed directly to sulphuric acid as a byproduct. Sulphur dioxide is also produced in the thermal decomposition stage of the regeneration of clean sulphuric acid from heavily contaminated sulphuric acid ("spent acid") remaining after certain industrial processes in which sulphuric acid has been used. A further source of sulphur dioxide for sulphuric acid production is the combustion of waste gases containing hydrogen sulfide. Effectively all sulphuric acid is manufactured by the contact process. The contact process technology is very mature. Some important improvements in the detailed arrangement of the conversion and absorption stages were introduced commercially in the 1960s to increase sulphur dioxide conversion efficiency, primarily in the interest of environmental protection. Nowadays sulphur-burning plants are even designed for a sulphur dioxide conversion efficiency of more than 99.7 %. On the other hand, basic principle of the process remains the same today as it was when 1930s. Modern plants can be designed to be extremely efficient in terms not only of sulphur dioxide conversion but also energy recovery. It has been common practice for many years to recover energy released in sulphuric acid production to superheat high pressure steam. Another aim of current development work is to apply the contact process for converting lowgrade sulphur dioxide gases to sulphuric acid so as to extend further its use as a desulphurization system for metallurgical smelters. An objective for the future is to process sulphur dioxide gas streams of as high a concentration as possible in the interests of reducing capital and operating costs and increasing further the hightemperature energy recovery. Yet another important challenge facing sulphuric acid makers is the reprocessing of acid wastes from user industries. It is a peculiarity of sulphuric acid that very little of it actually ends up in the products such as pharmaceuticals. The only end products that contain the process was first introduced in the


sulphur values of sulphuric acid are synthetic detergents -- and even they are ultimately destined for the drain. In many processes so-called "spent acid" is produced: sulphuric acid in varying states of dilution and contamination with organic and inorganic impurities. Environmental

authorities are in with organic and inorganic increasingly intolerant of the sometimes rather casual methods used for disposing of these wastes in the past, and the industry is under

pressure to accept greater amounts of used acid for reconcentration, purification and regeneration. Although the technology in this field is already quite extensive, further development can be expected in the use of recovered heat from spent sulphuric acid plants.

6.2. Design Basis
6.2.1. Function / Capacity
The Sulphuric acid plant is designed to produce max. 900 mtpd as (100 % H2SO4 basis) of 98,5 % H2SO4 using the 3 + 1 Double Absorption System. The plant design is based on an SO2-content of approx. 7,65 vol.-% of the gas feed to the first catalyst bed in the converter. The plant will be operated at approx. 102000 Nm³/h, 7.65 vol.% SO2 producing approx. 840 mtpd H2SO4 (100 %).

6.2.2. Feed Material
The plant will be fed with off-gases from a zinc roasting plant. This off-gas will be dedusted, cleaned and cooled in a waste heat boiler, hot gas precipitator and wet gas cooling and cleaning plant before the process gas enters the sulphuric acid / contact section.

Process Description
Plant Description
The sulphuric acid plant mainly consists of 2 plant sections: the drying and absorption section


the converter section with the gas to gas heat exchangers

6.3. Drying and Absorption Section
The drying and absorption section mainly consists of the drying tower, the intermediate absorber, the final absorber with individual acid pumps, the acid coolers and the acid piping. Drying Tower Intermediate Absorber Final Absorber

Figure 9: Acid Plant These towers are of identical construction: each tower consists of a bricklined steel shell with a filling of ceramic Intalox saddles. The layer of Intalox saddles is supported by a supporting structure made of acid resistant stoneware. The irrigated acid is distributed uniformly over the packing by the irrigation system. At the gas outlet of each tower gas filters are installed, for the drying tower a wire-mesh filter, for the intermediate and final absorber candle type filters made of a casing plugged with special glass wool. Most part of the acid mist and all acid droplets will be removed from the gas by the filters.


The gas flow through the towers is countercurrent to the acid flow, i.e. the gas flows from the bottom to the top of the tower. From the bottom of the tower(s) the acid flows to the pump sump and is pumped from there by the acid pumps (via the acid coolers) back to the irrigation system. Acid transfer lines between the drying tower, the intermediate absorber and the final absorber and injection lines for dilution water at the intermediate absorber and final absorber enable to control the necessary acid concentration for each of the towers. The acid cooler for the drying tower, intermediate and final absorption as well as for the product acid system are plate-type acid coolers.

6.3.1. Converter System
The converter system consists of a stainless steel 4-layer converter. The arrangement of the catalyst beds is 3 + 1, i.e. the intermediate absorption is after the 3rd layer. The converter itself is an insulated, vertical and cylindrical vessel divided in four sections: called layers or trays. The catalyst required for the conversion of SO2 to SO3 is arranged on these layers.

6.3.2. SO2 Gas Blower
The SO2 gas blower is arranged downstream the drying tower and transports the gas from the roaster section via the gas cleaning plant through the sulphuric acid plant. The blower will be provided with an electric motor.

6.3.3. Preheater
The preheating is needed to preheat the converter system (e.g. catalyst and heat exchangers) from cold conditions to operating conditions and low SO2-strength, whereas during normal operation of the plant the heat released within the process allows autothermal operation of the plant. In addition lower or varying SO 2- concentrations can be compensated. The separate preheater preheats air or, in start- up phases, SO2-gas to the


required temperatures.

6.3.4. Important Process Criteria
For production of sulphuric acid SO2 containing gases from the zinc roasting are used. There are four main process criteria in the production of sulphuric acid from this kind of gases by the contact/converter process. They are: gas drying and water balance (energy) heat balance conversion of SO2 to SO3 with the required O2/SO2 ratio


Gas Drying

Gas drying is an important process step in this type of contact plant. Gas drying protects cooler parts of the plant, such as heat exchangers, against corrosion by acid condensation. It safeguards against formation of acid mist which can be very difficult to absorb in a later stage of the process. It also protects the catalyst from acid condensation during plant shut-downs. Therefore, the life of the plant and also the tail gas purity depend in large measure on a sufficient gas drying. A substantial amount of heat - not just the heat of dilution of the sulphuric acid but also the heat of condensation of the water - is liberated in the gas drying stage. For that reason the circulated acid is generally cooled by indirect heat exchange before being recycled to the dryer. b) Water Balance The water balance of contact sulphuric acid plants in general may simply be defined by the specific amount of process water required for achieving the desired product acid strength from the amount of SO2 converted to SO3. In the case of cold gas acid plants (like roasting plants) the process water requirements are


usually balanced nearly completely by the water vapor content of the SO2-feed gases entering the drying tower except for a small margin necessary for the automatic acid strength control. Thus at a given SO2 gas concentration and SO2 conversion rate as well as at a fixed product acid strength, the only variable that can and has to be controlled or limited is the water vapor content of the feed gases entering the drying in order not to exceed the water balance of the whole system. This is done in the wet gas purification system by cooling the SO2 gases down to the dew point temperature corresponding to the maximum allowable water vapor content. When evaluating the required dew point temperature, it is important not only to consider the designed suction pressure of the gas purification system but also the external barometric pressure which depends largely on the elevation of the plant above sea level.

c) Absorption of SO3
Sulphur trioxide formed by the catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide is absorbed in sulphuric acid of at least 98 % concentration, in which it reacts with existing or added water to form more sulphuric acid. The process gas leaving the converter system is cooled, first in a gas-gas heat exchanger to a temperature of about 180°C before entering the absorber. The gas entering the absorber is therefore not completely cold and it passes heat to the absorber acid as it passes through the absorber; by the time it reaches the outlet it is virtually at the same temperature as the incoming absorber acid. A substantial amount of heat is also generated in the absorber acid from the absorption of sulphur trioxide and the formation of sulphuric acid, and the acid temperature rises in consequence by a margin which depends on the acid circulation rate. The acid concentration is maintained constant by adding process water to the acid leaving the absorber and the acid crossflow from the dryer at a rate controlled by a concentration measuring device. The circulated acid is cooled by indirect cooling.

d) Energy (Heat) Balance


The SO2 gases leaving the wet gas cleaning system enter the acid plant at temperature of max. 38°C in this case for reasons of the water balance. After removing the rest water content in the dryer, the process gases must be heated up to the required converter inlet temperature of min 396°C. This is achieved by indirect heat exchange with the available sensible gas heat released from the SO2 oxidation in the converter. The main objective in designing such a cold gas plant is the attainment of autothermal operation conditions which becomes primarily a question of the required gas heat exchanger surface depending on the feed gas SO2 concentration. The reaction heat in a double catalysis plant based on roaster gases is released from: the catalytic oxidation: SO2 + 1/2 O2 SO3

the sulphur trioxide absorption and sulphuric acid formation: SO3+ H2O H2SO4

the dilution to acid production strength of 98,5 % H2SO4 and condensation heat for the water content of the gases entering the drying tower system.

e) Conversion of SO2 to SO3
The catalytic oxidation of sulphur dioxide (SO2) with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of a solid catalyst to form sulphur trioxide (SO3) can, in fact, be described as the classical example for an exothermal, reversible reaction: SO2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) ↔ SO3(g) + 98.2 kJ The chemical equilibrium between SO2 and SO3 depends, on the one hand, on the

concentration and partial pressure of the individual reactants in the gas phases (p SO2, pO2 and pSO3) and, on the other, on the equilibrium constant Kp, corresponding to the chemical law of mass action: A decisive factor for conversion is in each case also the O2 concentration of the feed gas. Although, under stoichiometric aspects, an SO2/O2 ration of 1 : 0,5 would be sufficient, it


results already from the consideration of the chemical equilibrium that oxygen in excess will have a favourable influence on SO3 formation. In practice, the O2 content of the gas entering the converter corresponds to 1,0 up to 1,8 times the SO2 content, this being especially due to the influence of the O2/SO2 ratio on the activity of the catalyst. The heat of reaction liberated by SO2 oxidation (1) leads to a temperature rise of the gas on its adiabatic passage through the catalyst layer so that the conversion is limited in accordance with the temperature equilibrium curve. With respect to obtaining a conversion efficiency, it is convenient to perform the catalytic SO2

maximum SO2

oxidation in several steps and to cool the gas to the most favourable temperature before it enters the next catalyst layer. Final conversion of 98 % can be reached in a 4-tray converter. It can be seen that no substantial increase in conversion would be obtained by adding further catalysis steps. The theoretical bases of the principle of the double catalysis process are relatively simple and can be derived from the law of mass action (2). After a defined preliminary SO2 conversion, say after the second catalyst layer, the SO3 removed formed at this stage is

from the chemical equilibrium by intermediate absorption so that the

equilibrium is shifted in favor of SO3 formation.

f) O2/SO2 Ratio
For conversion of SO2 to SO3 the proportion of O2 volume to SO2 volume in the feed gas to converter, called O2/SO2 ratio, is an important factor for the conversion rate. The design of the contact plant is based on a gas composition which is calculated on the basis of analyses of the roaster gases be processed. However, in practice other gas compositions may occur and their different water content may lead to substantial fluctuations in the gas composition. Considering the SO2 concentration determined for the design of the double catalysis plant, this may often mean an essential shifting of the expected O2/SO2 ratio towards lower values. On the other hand, the O2/SO2 ratio of the


gases has a decisive influence on the final conversion efficiency achievable in the contact plant.

Process Description
6.4. Drying Tower and Blower Section
The wet SO2 gas leaving the gas cleaning plant enters the drying tower at a temperature of max.38°C and at a normal operating pressure of 910 mbar. The gas is dried to approximately 50 mg of water/Nm³ by contact with 96,0 % sulphuric acid. The absorption of water will be accomplished in the packed section of the drying tower by means of 96 % sulphuric acid in countercurrent flow to the process gas. The dried gas then enters a PTFE wire mesh filter to eliminate any acid mist carry-over into the downstream equipment. The gas will then be routed to the suction side of the SO2 blower which will be of the single stage centrifugal design. The blower utilizes stainless steel inlet guide vanes to control process gas flow through the acid plant. The guide vanes will be electrically operated and controlled by measuring and maintaining a pressure of 1–2 mbar g inlet Quench tower. As the absorption of water from the gas into the acid generates heat, the * * * circulating acid must be first cooled before reentering the drying tower. The acid will be pumped via the externally mounted drying tower pump , through a drying tower plate type acid cooler back to the acid distribution system located in the upper section of the tower. A bypass located around the cooler ensures a constant temperature of 55°C to the drying tower. The concentration of the circulation acid, measured at the outlet of the cooler, will be maintained at a concentration of 96 % by crossbleed acid from the intermediate absorption tower which is introduced into the pump tank of the drying tower. The level in the drying tower and the pump tank will be controlled by acid transferred to the intermediate absorption tower pump tank . An air filter will be located at the inlet of the drying tower, which will be used for preheating the converter system during cold start-up and if necessary for maintaining


the desired O2/SO2 ratio.


Converter Group

After being discharged from the SO2 blower the gas will be then routed to the shell side of heat exchanger IV . In this heat exchanger, the main part of the SO2 gas will be preheated to a temperature of about 255°C. A small part of the cold SO2 gas will be withdrawn from the lower part of the heat-exchanger IV and routed to the tube side of heat exchanger II where it will be preheated to a temperature of about 255°C while cooling the gas between layer II and III. SO2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) ↔ SO3(g) + 98.2 kJ Both gas streams will be collected at the entrance of heat exchanger I. Before entering the first bed of the converter the gas will pass first through the shell side of that heat exchanger. The gas exits this heat exchanger at a temperature of approx. 400°C and enters the first catalyst bed. Bypass lines will be located around heat exchangers IV and I to the inlet of the first bed. These bypass-streams will be utilized for adjusting the gas inlet temperature to the first and third bed of the converter. The gas leaving the first pass will be cooled in the tube side of the heat exchanger I to approx. 425°C and enters the second bed. After passing through the second bed the gas will be routed through the tube side of heat exchanger II thus cooling the SO3 gas to approx. 433°C by

preheating the SO2-gas coming from the drying tower. The gas will be fed to the third pass of the converter. After the third layer the temperature of the gas is approx. 443 °C. The gas will be cooled will be cooled in the heat exchangers III A/B to temperature of 165 °C and leaving to the intermediate absorption. After the SO3 has been absorbed in the intermediate absorber, the gas is returned to the converter via the shell side of heat exchanger III A and III B where it will be preheated to a temperature of approx. 400°C before entering the fourth catalyst bed Gas leaving the fourth bed at a temperature of approx. 410°C, passes through the tube side of heat exchanger IV where it will preheat the cold SO2 gas before entering the first bed.


After being cooled to 271 °C, the gas enters the economizer. The gas leaving the economizer at approx. 180°C will then passed to the final absorber where the remaining SO3 will be absorbed. A preheater system is installed for heating up the converter system to ignition temperature of the catalyst. The preheater is required for heating the converter system after long term shutdown and cold start-up.


Intermediate Absorber Section

After the SO3 gas has passed through the tube side of heat exchangers III A/B this gas will then pass through the packed tower section in countercurrent to the acid. After passing through the candle filter, the gas enters the shell side of heat exchangers III A/B leaving them preheated by the hot SO3 gas at approx. 400°C. As the absorption of SO3 generates heat, the circulating acid at a temperature of 87°C will be cooled before returning to the absorber distribution systems as described before. The acid collected in the sump of the intermediate absorber will be pumped through plate type acid coolers by the vertical intermediate absorber pump, back to the absorber distribution system. H2SO4 + SO3 ↔ H2S2O7 H2S2O7 + H2O ↔ 2 H2SO4 A bypass located around the cooler ensures a constant temperature of approx. 70°C to the absorber. The concentration of the circulating acid, measured downstream of the cooler, will be maintained by the addition of 96 % acid from the SO2 drying tower and by addition of dilution water. The level in the absorber will be controlled by transferring 98,5 % acid to the final absorption system


Final Absorber Section

The SO3 gas routed from the economizer will enter the final absorption tower. The gas at a temperature of 180°C will flow through the packed tower section. 98,5 % circulating


acid will be introduced counter-currently to the SO3 gas through an acid distribution system located in the upper part of the absorber section. After passing through the packed bed and candle filter assembly, the gas will be routed to the tail gas scrubbing system. As the absorption of SO3 generates heat, the circulating acid at a temperature of 85°C will be cooled before returning to the absorber. The acid collected in the pump tank will be pumped through a plate type acid cooler by an vertical mounted final absorber pump. A temperature-controlled bypass located around the cooler ensures a constant temperature of approx. 75°C to the absorber. The concentration of the circulating acid, measured downstream of the cooler, will be maintained by the addition of process water. The level in the absorber pump tank will be maintained by transferring product acid to the to the client’s storage facilities by the product acid pump. In the product acid cooler the temperature will be reduced from approx. 85 °C to 40 °C.


Leaching and Purification Plant

Figure 10: Process flow sheet of leaching and purification

7. Leaching Plant
7.1. Preliminary production and consumption figures All production and consumption figures shown below are based on preliminary process for leaching and cell house



Production figures:

SHG slab Zinc (25 kg ingots) One ton SHG Zinc blocks Leaching residue (jarosite) Cadmium sponge Lead-Silver Residue
7.1.2. Consumption figures:

273 273 approx.240 approx. 1.8 approx.120

tpd SHG Zn slab tpd SHG Zn blocks tpd Dry Basis tpd tpd Dry Basis

Calcine Process water Low pressure Steam Conc. H2SO4 (96%) Flocculants Cu SO4 + H20 MnO2 (85%) Na2SO4 * 10H2O

870 tpd 40 m3/h 28 t/h 1.2 t/h 6.7 kg/h 1.6 kg/t Zn 24 kg/t Zn 80 kg/t Zn

The power consumption for the leaching, purification and cadmium plant will be 379 kW/tcath.Zn

Process Description

The leaching plant’s main task is to dissolve and to recover the zinc contained in the calcine as a solid free, pre-purified neutral zinc sulphate solution. The iron, which is also dissolved during the calcine leaching process, is discharged as a jarosite cake with an iron content of approx. 22 - 28 %. All other impurities go along with the jarosite cake. The feed

material to the leaching plant is calcine, which is produced at the roasting plant.


The leaching plant is a continuous operating plant and can be divided into the following main process steps: 1) Storage - calcine storage and feeding 2) Neutral leaching - To convert zinc oxide into ZnSO4 solution at ~4.9-5 pH in presence of excess calcine so as to get minimum impurities in neutral overflow solution. 3) WAL - The zinc oxide remaining un-dissolved during neutral leaching is leached at higher temperature (90-95°C) and acidity (35-40 gpl) known as Weak Acid Leaching (WAL ). Zinc Ferrite (ZnO Fe2O3) formed during process is not leachable even during HAL I. To dissolve zinc contained in zinc ferrite, more aggressive leaching (98-100°C, 75-85 gpl acidity) is adopted wherein both zinc and iron go into solution. 4) Jarosite precipitation - It is required to remove the iron from ZnSO4 solution, which has leached during hot acid leaching II-stage. Ferrous is converted into ferric. This is done at high temp (100°C) and sodium sulphate addition is done as the result one complex of iron and sodium is formed known as Jarosite by adding sodium. The other impurities are also precipitated along with jarosite during this stage. 5) Pre-Neutralisation – This stage is to separate the residual iron in clear solution from jarosite before entering the neutral leaching. Leaching precipitate impurities carried over from Jarosite and neutralize the residual acid content. Calcine is added and pH ~4.5-4.9 is maintained to precipitate iron as ferric hydroxide.


Spent Calcine MnO2 O/F Calcine Pre Neutralisation Thickening To Purification Spent Sodium Sulphate Neutral Leaching

Thickening Acid


Hot Acid Leaching I & II O/F Thickening U/F Filtration


Jarosite Precipitation Gypsum from Electrolysis Thickening U/F Filtration Lime

O/F Cell Acid

Mg Bleed treatment

Pb-Ag residue to ISF


Neutralization Cake Filtration Filtrate To ETP


Jarofix Jarofix for disposal

Figure 11: flowsheet of leaching section

7.2. Calcine Storage & Feeding (SC)
The calcine storage system consists of two silos, one MnO2-bin, one Na2SO4-bin and two storage day bins.


Calcine produced at the roasting section is conveyed to the two calcine bins by a pneumatic calcine transport system. Chain conveyors do the transport between the storage bins and the day bins. The bins and conveyors are connected to the de-dusting units, which are located on to and storage bins, thus avoiding calcine-loaded air to escape to the atmosphere. During normal operation the filling of the storage bins is done via pneumatic calcine transport system, whereas the bins are filled with calcine via chain conveyors and the bucket elevator system. These mechanical calcine transport systems consist of four chain conveyors, each of which is fed with calcine via three chutes. Each chute is equipped with an isolation calcine gate valve to reduce and or stop calcine flow in case of need. Two of these conveyors are located beneath each of the two calcine storage bins. The four chain conveyors discharge the calcine onto the collecting chain conveyor. This chain conveyor carries the calcine onto the chain conveyor, which discharges the calcine onto the bucket elevator. The bucked elevator will lift the entire calcine onto the bin feed chain conveyor. This bin feed chain conveyor, which is located on top of the Na2SO4 and calcine day bins is equipped with 5 discharge chutes, one for each bin. The chutes are all equipped with a motor driven shutoff gate valve. These motor driven discharge gates are equipped with limit switches indicating the gate position on the DCS system. The calcine transport rate of the chain and bucket elevator system is approximately 150 t/h, thus allowing to fill the storage day bins in a short period of about 5 hours, resp. 3 hours. The Na2SO4-bin is filled with sodium sulphate salt using the calcine transport system. MnO2 is delivered to the plant by pneumatic conveying system. MnO2, a reagent that is required in the leaching plant, is stored in one 50 m³ storage bin equipped with two discharge cones. The MnO2 transport air is de-dusted in a bin bag house filter located on top of the bin. Each of the above bins (for calcine, Na2SO4 & MnO2) are equipped with a level indicator, which is located in the control room. The extracting of calcine from the bins is done with three units, each consisting of a rotary valve, a weighing belt conveyor and screw conveyor. The rotary valve is driven by a variable speed drive, which is controlled by the corresponding calcine flow controller. The actual calcine flow is measured on the weighing belt conveyor, whereas the screw conveyor, which discharges the calcine into the different leaching tanks, runs always at a constant speed. Each weighing belt conveyor is equipped with a calcine


flow indicator, registration and a calcine totaliser. The totaliser gives an exact indication of the amount of calcine consumed in each leaching tank per shift or day. To avoid calcine dust emissions to the atmosphere all the weighing belt conveyors are encapsulated and connected to the de-dusting bag house MnO2 as well as Na2SO4 is extracted from the corresponding bin by a variable speed driven star feeder and a pipe type chute that guides the material to the leaching reactors. Control of the star feeder speed is done from the control room.

7.3. Neutral Leaching (NL)
The neutral leaching is the most important section from the leaching plant, because approx. 65% of the total dissolved Zn is dissolved in this single leaching step. In addition of being the biggest zinc leaching step the neutral leaching step is also an important purification step. Impurities like Fe, As, Sb, and Ge are precipitated as hydroxides in the last tanks of the neutral leaching step. After the receiving tank(NL-1) the spent mixed with MnO2 is pumped to NL-2 tank. The remaining four leach tanks are arranged in a cascade and are interconnected with an overflow launder, so that the solution fed to the one tank can flow by gravity to all the tanks and to the thickener without the need of pumps. Calcine from the two calcine storage day bins is fed via belt weigher and screw conveyor into the second and fourth tank. The second and fourth tank are equipped with an online pH meter. The main acid bearing solution, which are used to leach the calcine added into the neutral leach step, is the spent electrolyte from tank house with approx. 180 g/l free H2SO4 and the thickener overflow from the preneutralization step with approx. 1 g/l free H2SO4. In addition, cell slurry consisting of spent electrolyte containing the MnO2 from the tank house cell cleaning is also added to the neutral leach-receiving tank to support the iron oxidation The automatic level controller of the preneutralization thickener overflow tank controls the preneutralization solution flow to the receiving tank, whereas the amount of spent electrolyte fed into the same tank is indicated in the control room and is manually set with the flow control valve by the operator. The set point of the spent flow will be set according to the envisaged zinc production.


Both of these solution streams are collected in the receiving tank from where the solution mixture with a free acidity of 50-60 g/l H2SO4 is pumped to the first NL tank via a flow indicator and controller. This flow controller will add solution from the receiving tank to the first neutral leaching tank at a fixed ratio of say, 11 m³ solutions per ton of calcine added to this tank. The operator defines the calcine addition to the second NL tank according to the envisaged zinc production. This calcine flow is maintained at a constant flow by the calcine weighing bet conveyor. Should the operator change the calcine flow to the first neutral leaching tank, the solution from the receiving tank will automatically adjust accordingly. The ratio between solution and calcine of 11 m³/t of calcine can be manually changed to compensate for acid content variations in the feed solution. If a reliable pH meter is installed in the overflow of the first neutral leaching tank, it is also be possible to connect the pH meter outgoing signal to the solution / calcine ratio controller thus obtaining an automatic pH control loop. The set point for the “solution calcine ratio” shall be such that the remaining free acidity in the first neutral leach tank over flow stabilizes at 8 to 10 g/l of H2SO4. To control the ferrous iron content in the last neutral leaching tank at a level of less than 5-10 ppm, MnO2, an oxidizing agent, is added to the receiving tank to oxidize the ferrous iron to ferric iron. The amount on MnO2 is manually adjusted by the operator by changing the speed of the MnO2 rotary feeder. 2FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2 --> Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O The suspension leaving the overflow of tank NL_01 C002 flows via launder into the second leaching tank NL_01 C003 to complete the leaching of zinc oxide from the calcine and oxidation of the ferrous iron to the ferric state. Calcine is again added to the fourth neutral leaching tank to raise the pH of the incoming suspension to pH of 4.5. The calcine flow to this tank is manually set on the calcine weighing belt flow controller. An online pH meter is installed in the tank overflow. It is also be possible to connect the outgoing signal of this pH meter to the calcine weighing belt flow controller, thus obtaining an automatic pH control loop. It is of utmost importance not to overfeed calcine into the third neutral leaching tank. This would lead to an excess of un-reacted calcine in the neutral leach thickener underflow causing a reduction in the zinc recovery and operational problems in the entire down stream leaching plant sections.


To reduce the consumption of MnO2 as well as to limit the Mn level in the electrolyte and to support the ferrous iron oxidation in neutral environment, low-pressure air is injected into the last two neutral leaching tanks 2 FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4 + ½ O2 +ZnO  Fe2(SO4)3 + ZnSO4 +2 H2O

To obtain the required retention time the, suspension flows after leaving the neutral leaching Tank-4 into the neutral leaching Tank-5, where due to the high pH the ferric iron is precipitated as iron hydroxide. This suspension flows then to the NL thickeners for solid liquid separation. To accelerate the separation, diluted flocculents are added to the solution. The solids consist mainly of zinc ferrites, some unreacted calcine, insolubles and precipitated iron hydroxides. These solids, which will settle on the thickener conical bottom, are pushed toward the centre by the thickener rack mechanism, from where they flow by gravity towards the thickener underflow tank. This tank acts as a buffer and slurry pumping tank to get a constant slurry flow from two NL thickeners with only one running thickener underflow pump. The underflow slurry is pumped to Hot Acid Leaching step. The discharge lines of the neutral leach thickener underflow pumps are equipped with a slurry density measuring device. This density-measuring device will give an indication to the operator of the actual solid content in the thickener underflow. The operator can, then, increase or decrease the solid content in the thickener underflow by changing the underflow pump speed set point. The overflows of the two NL thickeners are collected in one 350 m³ neutral leach overflow tank from where the solid free neutral solution is pumped to the next process step, the cold purification. This overflow tank serves as a buffer between the leaching and the purification plant sections. The basic chemical reactions in the neutral leaching process are: In the tanks NL2 and NL3;


ZnO + H2SO4 CuO + H2SO4 CdO + H2SO4 PbO + H2SO4 2 FeSO4+ 2 H2SO4 + MnO2

 ZnSO4  CuSO4  CdSO4  PbSO4

+ H2O + H2O + H2O + H2O 2 H2O

 Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 +

In the tanks NL4 and NL5; ZnO CuO CdO PbO + + + + H2SO4  H2SO4  H2SO4  H2SO4  ZnSO4 + CuSO4 + CdSO4 + PbSO4 + H2O H2O H2O H2O

2 FeSO4+2 H2SO4 + ½ O2 +ZnO Fe2(SO4)3 +3ZnO+3H2O 4 Fe(OH)3 + Sb/As/Al/Ge-complex

 Fe2(SO4)3+ZnSO4+2 H2O 2 Fe(OH)3+3 ZnSO4  Fe-O-H-Sb-As-Al-Ge-complex

The end acidity in the overflow of neutral leaching Tank-5 should be maintained very exactly at a pH of 4.9 to 5.2. At this pH the calcine added in the Tank-5 has been minimized, thus obtaining a very small amount of unreacted calcine in the neutral leach residues. All the ferric iron in solution will precipitated at this pH completely as Fe(OH)3. Iron hydroxide has the property absorbing elements like Sb, As, Al and Ge, thus, acting as an important purification agent. If the pH of 5.2 is exceeded, copper will precipitate as copper hydroxide and basic copper sulphate, and the zinc leaching efficiency of the neutral step will decline rapidly. If the final pH is below 5.0, the precipitation of iron will not completed and it will cause trouble with the settling of solids in the thickeners NL6/7. Due to the heat of reaction the temperature will raise to 65 to 70°C in the neutral leach tanks. Before the solution enters to the thickener, flocculent is added to the solution, which results the separation of the solid and liquid by forming the flocks of the solids.


7.4. Weak Acid Leaching, WL
The main task of the Weak Acid Leaching step is to dissolve the remaining zinc oxide, which was not dissolved during neutral leaching 1, and to reach a zinc oxide leaching efficiency of more than 95 %. Neutral leaching 2 consists of the following main equipment: o Four 200 m³ leaching tanks (WL_02 C001 – C004) o One 25 m diameter thickener (WL_02 C030) o One 50 m³ overflow tank (WL_02 C036) All leaching tanks are covered and equipped with agitators, indirect steam heating elements and stacks with air ejector fans. The steam heating elements are to maintain a temperature of about 80°C in the leaching tanks. Each tank is equipped with a temperature measurement and a temperature control loop for the steam flow. The four leaching tanks are arranged in a cascade and are interconnected by an overflow launder, which enables the bypass of any single tank. The solution, fed into the first tank, flows by gravity through all the leaching tanks, the thickener and the overflow tank. Prior entering the thickener a defined amount of diluted flocculant solution is added to the thickener feed suspension to accelerate the solid liquid separation. The feed to neutral leaching 2 is the underflow from neutral leaching 1 and spent electrolyte. The amount of NL1 underflow is dictated by NL1 thickener operation, whereas the spent electrolyte amount is measured and controlled by a valve, and is set to achieve the desired acidity in this leaching step. The spent electrolyte flow shall be adjusted so that the pH in the overflow of the last tank is about 1.5 (1.2-1.8). The thickener shall be operated in such a way that the rack mechanism is more or less at the lowest position. To measure this, the underflow lines are equipped with density meters. The thickener underflow pump flows should be adjusted in such a way as to maintain a solid content of about 200 g/l in the underflow. Too low solid content in the thickener underflow implies excess carryover and unnecessary recycling of solution. Too high solid content will lead to problems in thickener operation and increasing amount of solids in the overflow. The underflow is pumped (WL_02 G010/11) to the last leaching step, the conversion process. The overflow of the thickener is collected in 50 m³ overflow tank (WL_02 C036) from where the almost solid free solution is pumped (WL_02 G020/21) back to neutral leaching 1. The pump is controlled by means of the level measurement in the overflow tank, and the level should normally be kept at about 50%. The main chemical reactions in the WAL are:


ZnO + H2SO4 CuO + H2SO4 MeO + H2SO4 Fe2O3 · ZnO Fe2O3 · CdO Fe2O3 · CuO + 4 H2SO4 + 4 H2SO4 + 4 H2SO4

      

ZnSO4 + H2O CuSO4 + H2O MeSO4 + H2O (Me = Cu, Cd etc.) Fe2(SO4)3 + ZnSO4 + 4 H2O Fe2(SO4)3 + CdSO4 + 4 H2O Fe2(SO4)3 + CuSO4 + 4 H2O 2 FeSO4 + ZnSO4 + S0

Fe2(SO4)3 · ZnS

7.5. Jarosite Precipitation (JP)
The jarosite precipitation main function is to precipitate all the iron, which has been dissolved during the entire leaching process as jarosite, i.e. this step is an iron purification step.

Figure12: Horizontally arranged jarosite precipitation tanks

The seven jarosite precipitation tanks are arranged in a cascade and are interconnected with an overflow launder. The solution flows by gravity from the first leaching tank down the


cascade through all leaching tanks into the separation thickener without the need of pumps. Each tank is equipped with steam operated heating elements. The ideal process conditions for the formation of jarosite are:       The acidity should be between 8 - 10 g/l. The iron must be in ferric state. The Na+1 iron concentration should be between 3 - 4g/l. The solution temperature must be above 98°C. Long retention time. Presence of jarosite seed material.

Calcine is added into the first jarosite leaching tank to reduce the acidity of incoming HAL I thickener overflow solution from 50 g/l to 8-10 g/l and to precipitate the Fe3+ iron as jarosite. MnO2 for iron oxidation and Na2SO4 jarosite formation are both added to the same tank from the bins via speed controlled rotary feeders. The amount of MnO2 and Na2SO4 added to the first tank will depend the ferrous iron and Na+ content in the jarosite thickener overflow solution. The operator can change the set point of the rotary feeder speed controller to manually adjust the flow of these reagents. Temperature controllers installed in each tank automatically hold the desired temperature of 98–100°C by automatically controlling steam flow to the heating elements.


Figure13: Jarosite precipitation thickner

The produced condensate is collected in the condensate tank. This tank will also receive the condensate from all the heat exchangers of the hot purification plant. The hot condensate collected in this tank will be used as wash water on the jarosite vacuum belt filters The main chemical reactions while adding calcine into the jarosite solution will be: 2FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2  Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O MO + H2SO4 Fe2O3 + 3 H2SO4 Fe2O3 · ZnO + 4 H2SO4 Fe2O3 · CdO + 4 H2SO4 Fe2O3 · CuO + 4 H2SO4  MSO4 + H2O Where M is Zn,Fe,Ca,Pb,Me  Fe2(SO4)3 + 3 H2O  Fe2(SO4)3 + ZnSO4 + 4 H2O  Fe2(SO4)3 + CdSO4 + 4 H2O  Fe2(SO4)3 + CuSO4 + 4 H2O

2 FeSO4 + 2 H2SO4 + MnO2  Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + 2 H2O

During the formation of jarosite for each precipitated iron an equivalent of 1, 0.75 of H2SO4 is liberated as per the following reaction.


3 Fe2(SO4)3 + 12 H2O + Na2SO4 --> Na2(Fe6(SO4)4(OH)12) + 6 H2SO4 To keep the free acidity at the desired 8-10 g/l of free H2SO4, additional calcine is added into the third jarosite tank. The addition of this calcine is done from the calcine bin via the weighing belt conveyor. The slurry from the magnesium removal plant (vacuum belt filter cake) containing basic zinc sulphate and gypsum crystals is added to the forth jarosite tank. The basic zinc sulphate will help to neutralize the jarosite solution whereas the gypsum will remain as a solid and end up in the jarosite cake. From time to time cadmium free zinc bearing solution is recycled from the cadmium plant to the leaching plant. This solution, which is pumped over in batches, is recycled to the first jarosite tank. After a retention time of approximately 15 hours at the above mentioned leaching conditions, 90% of the incoming dissolved iron will have precipitated as jarosite. The

suspension from the last jarosite tank will flow via the launder to the separation thickener for solid liquid separation. To improve the solid liquid separation flocculent solution is added to the thickener feed launder. The separation thickener flow over with a free acid content of 8 - 10 g/l and an iron content of 2 g/l is collected in the over flow tank from where it is then pumped to the first tank of the pre-neutralization step via the level controlled pumps. A small flow controlled bleed stream of this solution is sent to the magnesium removal plant for cake repulping. The thickener under flow is pumped directly from the thickener under flow cone to the feed launder of the jarosite wash thickener. To improve and accelerate the jarosite formation, a manually adjusted small thickener under flow stream is recycled to the first jarosite tank. These solids will act as seed material accelerating the jarosite formation. Diluted filtrate from the jarosite filtration section is also added to the wash thickener feed launder to dilute the zinc content of the incoming liquor of the jarosite slurry. As in the other thickeners a diluted flocculent solution is added to this jarosite wash thickener feed steam to improve solid sedimentation. The wash thickener is arranged at a higher level then the separation thickener. The overflow of this wash thickener can therefore flow by gravity via the launder directly to the centre of the separation thickener where it is mixed with the suspension from the jarosite tanks.


The jarosite slurry collected in the wash thickener underflow cone is pumped with speed controlled thickener underflow pumps directly to the feeding box of the two horizontal vacuum belt filters. The operator shall always maintain a constant slurry flow with a high and constant solid content in the thickener underflow, by manually adjusting the speed pump. Variations in solid and or slurry flow will disturb and complicate the operation of the jarosite vacuum belt filters.

7.6. Pre Neutralisation (PN)
The pre-neutralisation is a leaching plant section to neutralize and pre-purify the jarosite thickener overflow solution. The purification of this solution stream will considerably reduce the impurity load on the neutral leaching section thus improving operational safety considerably. This plant section comprises of the following main equipment:     Two 200 m³ leaching tanks One 21 m thickener One 14 m³ underflow tank One 13 m³ overflow tank

The jarosite thickener overflow solution containing approx. 2 g/l of iron, 15 g/l of free acid and all the remaining impurities, which were not precipitated together with the jarosite, is pumped with the jarosite thickener overflow pumps via a flow control valve to the first preneutralization tank. The pre-neutralisation leach tanks are arranged in cascade and are connected with an overflow launder, so that the solution fed to the first tank, can flow by gravity through the leaching tanks into the thickener without the need of pumps. The calcine fed into the first pre-neutralization tank is extracted from the calcine storage bin via rotary valve, dosing belt weigher and screw conveyor. The calcine flow will be manually set by the operator on the calcine flow controller is such a way that the final acidity in the pre-neutralization thickener overflow stabilizes at pH of 4.8 to 5.0. Manual adjustments to the calcine flow shall be done following the pH indicator installed between the two pre-neutralization tanks. At this final pH all the dissolved ferric iron will precipitate as iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3, co-precipitating and absorbing impurities like As, Sb, Ge, Al, etc., thus acting as an important purification agent. The main chemical reactions will be:



+ H2SO4  ZnSO4

+ H2O

All the precipitated iron hydroxides and the neutral leaching residues from the calcine added into this step will be separated from the main stream in the pre-neutralization a thickener. Diluted flocculent solution is added to the thickener feed stream to improve the solid flocculation and settling speed. These residues will be treated in the HAL I & II to recover the zinc from the zinc ferrites. The thickener underflow slurry is pumped by the variable speed driven thickener underflow pumps at a constant rate from the thickener underflow tank to the first tank of the hot acid leaching section. The purification of neutral leach solution is necessary because this solution contains copper, cadmium, cobalt, and nickel as major impurities and also small amounts of arsenic and antimony, which enhances or impeded the electrolytic winning of zinc. As far as these impurities have not been completely removed during the ferric hydroxide purification in the neutral leaching plant. The purification is carried out by addition of zinc dust. The basic reaction is that of electrolytic reduction of those metals, whose positions in the electromotive series for sulphate are below that of zinc: CdSO4 + Zn0  ZnSO4 + Cd0 CoSO4 + Zn0  ZnSO4 + Co0 CuSO4 + Zn0  ZnSO4 + Cu0

Zinc metal tends to protect itself against corrosion by forming of an inert zinc oxide film. Any factor, which tends to dissolve the oxide film, will cause the zinc dust to become more active. For that reason, copper in case of need, and antimony will added as activators in order to increase the activity of the zinc dust and speed up the precipitation of the impurities. The purification of neutral solution will be carried out in three steps:  First step or cold purification for the removing of copper and cadmium.


Second step or hot purification for removing of cobalt and nickel as guide impurities.

Third step or polishing step to ensure top quality of purified solution
For all the three purification steps one big elevated zinc dust bin has been provided. This

zinc dust bin is located above all the purifications tanks in such a way that zinc dust can be drawn from this bin via steep inclined pipe chutes to the individual zinc dust dosing equipment installed on all the main purification tanks. The zinc dust flows from the zinc dust bin to the dosing units is by gravity. This zinc dust bin is internally divided into two compartment, one for coarse and one for fine zinc dust. Filling of this zinc dust bin will be accomplished by two pneumatic operated zinc dust transport lines which will discharge the fine and coarse zinc dust into the corresponding bin compartment. Zinc dust transport air will be vented to the atmosphere via a bag house installed on top of the zinc dust bin.

7.7. Jarosite Filtration (JF)
In the jarosite filtration section the jarosite slurry is filtered and washed on two horizontal vacuum belt filters to maximize water-soluble zinc recovery. The solids from the jarosite wash thickener underflow are pumped via to the vacuum belt filters and, where the supplied slurry is separated into filter cake (moisture content 35 - 45%) and the mother liquor. The vacuum belt filters are parallel arranged. The operator will manually control the speed of the thickener under flow pumps in such a way as to obtain a continuous and steady slurry flow with a constant solid content. To minimize the soluble zinc content in the final jarosite, the jarosite cake is washed on both filters on two in counter current arranged washing steps. The expected water-soluble zinc content in the dry jarosite cake can be reduced to 0,3 % with a wash water ratio of 1,4 m³ wash water per ton of dry cake. This wash water is added in counter current to the cake flow. For proper vacuum control each horizontal belt filter will be equipped with its own water-ring type vacuum pump system. The cake discharge from the filter is transported to the repulping tank via a screw conveyor where it is mixed with a constant flow of jarosite-pond water to obtain a diluted suspension of solids.


Figure14: Horizontal bed filter

This suspension (150 g/l solids) is then pumped with the pumps to the jarosite pond. The pump operation will be of the stop & go type, controlled by the level contacts of the level probe. The mother liquor (filtrate) containing all the water-soluble zinc is collected in the filtrate tank from where it is pumped with the level controlled variable speed filtrate pumps to the feed launder of the jarosite wash thickener. This filtrate will mix with the jarosite separation thickener underflow slurry thus diluting the zinc content in this launder feed suspensions.

7.8. Cadmium Plant (CD)
The cadmium plant is designed to recover the zinc from the hot and polishing purification. The cakes from hot and polishing step is collected CD-01 tank , where it is agitated for leaching and overflow of the tank passes through launder to CD-02 and then CD-03. Then it is pumped to filter press. There are two filter presses, the filtrate of the cadmium plant is sent to Jarosite section and the discharged cake is being sent to existing pyro plant.


7.9. Magnesium Removal Section
The magnesium removal plant is required to maintain a magnesium tenor at 10 g/l Mg in process solutions. For the separation of Zn from the Mg lime milk is used. The lime milk solution is prepared in the lime milk tank. The Ca(OH)2 is fed from a lime bin via a screw conveyor into this tank. Into the first precipitation tank the spent electrolyte with 10 g/l magnesium is fed. The lime milk is transported over a ring line with two branching off for the precipitation tanks. The two precipitation tanks are arranged in cascade and connected with a launder. The neutralization process is continuous and dimensioned for about one and half hours retention time. Reactors, where lime slurry and bleed are mixed, have pH control. In these reactors pH is 7.5 – 7.8. Zinc is precipitated together with gypsum as basic zinc hydroxide. The lime feed is arranged by such a way that the pH is 7.0 in the first neutralization reactor and adjusted to its final value, 7.8 in the second one. If the pH rises between 8 and 9 magnesium begins to precipitate which is not a desired situation. The following curves show solubility of metal hydroxides depending on pH. In pH 8 Zn is almost totally precipitated and Mg has not started to precipitate. The zinc concentration will be below 10 mg/l after neutralization. Samples will be taken and analysed once/shift and correction in lime feed made if too much zinc is going trough. The theoretical data about dissolved zinc vs. pH are only suggestive since the process cannot be in balance because of limited retention times in the process. Additionally the pH measurements may creep in the process. ZnSO4 + Ca(OH)2 + 2 H2O -> Zn(OH)2 + CaSO4  2 H2O MgSO4 + Ca(OH)2 + 2 H2O -> Mg(OH)2 + CaSO4  2 H2O H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 -> 2 H2O + CaSO4  2 H2O


0.8 Metal Content (g/l) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 6 7 8 pH Value9 10 11
Zn Cd Mn Mg

Figure 15: Solubility of Metal Hydroxides

The solution flows over through the two precipitation tanks into a launder and after that into the thickener. In addition to the reactor fluid, the filtrate from the band filter is fed into the launder. The precipitate of the Mg removal is settled easily. However, flocculent will be fed according to the amount of solids in the launder. The flocculent dosage is determined according to solid material in the thickener. The overflow will be directed to the overflow tank from where it is pumped to the Effluent Treatment Plant. The thickener underflow is pumped to a vacuum belt filter where it is filtrated. The filtrate of the vacuum belt filter is sent back to the launder, while the filter cake is sent to the gypsum repulper tank. The filter cake with 40 - 45% moisture is mixed in the gypsum pulper with a solution from the thickener overflow of the jarosite precipitation step and after that pumped to the leaching tank in the jarosite precipitation step.

Process disturbances and correction measures:


A short term Zn peak will attenuate in the thickener. If the peak is long term unnecessary amount of zinc will get to the effluent treatment. In this case the pH measurement shall be checked and the pH of the first neutralization tank risen.

In case the pH in the tank 2 is low, Mg has also precipitated and lime consumption has been unnecessary high. The pH measurements shall be checked and instruments cleaned and repaired.

In case the thickener overflow is not clear or the precipitate level in the thickener is rising, the flocculent dosage has been too low. The most probable reason, however to the rising precipitate level and high torque in the rake is too low underflow take off.

If the filtrate is not clear there are holes in the filter cloth

8. Purification Plant
8.1. Cold Purification (PC) (Presently out of line)
The three purification tanks, which are arranged in cascade, are interconnected by an overflow launder. Each tank is covered and equipped with an agitator and a forced ventilation chimney. The un-purified neutral solution is pumped from the 350 m³ neutral leach thickener overflow tank of the neutral leaching section via one of two flow controlled pumps into the first cold purification tank. The optimum temperature for the cold purification is approximately 60 - 70°C, thus no heating or cooling of un-purified solution is required. Zinc dust addition is done continuously via the dosing belt conveyors. The amount of zinc dust fed into tanks depends on the Cu- and Cdcontent of the un-purified solution. At nominal solution flow (225 m³/h) the zinc dust consumption will be approximately 360 - 450 kg/h. To achieve good cadmium and copper cementation, the pH in the overflow of the first tank of the cascade must be maintained 4.8 (20°C). The control of the pH is then done manually by increasing or decreasing the spent


electrolyte addition into tank. The second cold purification tank is also equipped with a zinc dust and spent electrolyte addition system for final cadmium control and pH-adjustment. From the last tank of the purification cascade the solution containing the cemented cadmium and copper as well as some excess of zinc dust is pumped to the four parallel working filter presses for separation of the above mentioned solids from the now Cd- and Cu-free zinc sulphate solutions. Three filter presses are normally in operation; the fourth one is in cleaning cycle or as stand-by for operation. When a cleaned filter press is taken into operation, the filtrate must be recirculated into tank until the filtrate is absolutely clear, i.e. no solids are passing the filter press. Once the filtrate is clean, it is sent to the filtrate collecting tank. From there the solution is pumped to the hot purification step. During filter press-cleaning operation the Cu-Cd-filter press cake will be discharged onto a screw conveyor located beneath each filter press. This screw conveyor will then move the cake to a collecting chain conveyor which will then transport the cake into the first of three in cascade arranged cadmium and zinc leaching tanks of the Cd-plant. Solution drippings from the operating filter press and from filter cloth wash water will flow through the same screw and chain conveyor to the cadmium plant tank Presently cold purification is out of stream, there is no addition of zinc dust in the reaction tanks, only the neutral overflow is being circulated and cleaned through filter presses.

8.2. Hot Purification (PH)
Cobalt and nickel as well as traces of antimony and arsenic are the main impurities that will be removed in the hot purification step. This hot purification step is based on the antimony purification process. The hot purification section consists of the following main equipment:      Two 85 m² spiral heat exchangers. Two 17 m³ reagent preparation tanks for PAT. Two 5 m³ reagent preparation tanks for CuSO4. Five 150 m³ purification tanks Three 0.18 m³ zinc dust bins with 400 mm zinc dust dosing belts.


 

Five 120 m² chamber filter presses. One 20 m³ condensate tank.

The five purification tanks are arranged in the same way as in the cold purification section. The tanks are also equipped in the same way as in the cold purification section except for steam heating coils in the first four tanks, which are required to keep solution temperature constant during stops and start-ups. The zinc sulphate solution, which has been purified for Cu and Cd is pumped with the speed controlled pumps from the filtrate tank through the spiral heat exchangers into the first hot purification tank. The heat exchangers, which are connected parallel, will automatically heat up the incoming solution to a constant temperature of 87°C.

Main cobalt and nickel purification reagent is zinc dust, which is dosified into the first hot purification tank via the zinc dust dosing belt. The amount of zinc dust can be manually adjusted to the required flow, which at nominal capacity will be approximately 150 - 200 kg/h. To improve the reactivity of the zinc dust, copper sulphate and potassium antimony tartrate (PAT) must be added. The amount of copper and antimony added to the first hot purification tank shall be such as to obtain a copper and antimony concentration of 30 to 40 ppm and 0.5 to 1.0 ppm respectively. Copper sulphate and antimony PAT will be mixed with water in the reagent preparation and dosifying tanks at a concentration of 40 g/l for copper and 1 g/l for antimony. This Cu and Sb solution is then pumped into the first hot purification tank at a rate of approximately 0,7 m³/h PAT-solution and 0.18 m³/h cupper sulphate at a purified solution flow of 226,6 m³/h. The optimum pH for Co- and Ni-cementation is pH 5.0 (20°C). The overflow solution from tank flows via a launder through the tanks into the tank, from where it is pumped to six chamber filter presses for separation of cemented Co, Ni and excess of zinc dust from the now purified neutral zinc sulphate solution. The tanks and are also equipped with zinc dust-dosing belts and spent electrolyte addition as well as online pH meters for final Co- and Ni-control. The filter presses of the hot purification are of the same type as of the filter presses from the cold purification. The cake from the hot purification filter presses contains a big amount of cupper and cobalt is therefore sent to cadmium recovery plant. The copper cake is directly


discharged from the filter press via a conveyor in to cadmium plant. The final solution quality check is done from the filter press filtrate, which if solid free, is collected in the first purification tank of the polishing step. If solids are detected in the filtrate it must be returned to the last hot purification tank, until it is solid free.

8.3. Polishing Step (PS)
The polishing step is a safety and quality insurance purification process step. Mainly cadmium that may have slipped through in the two prior purification steps will be definitely be removed in this purification step. The two purification tanks, which are arranged in cascade, are interconnected by an overflow launder, thus permitting the solution to flow through the tanks without the need of pumps. The first tank is equipped with a temperature indicator and with an online pH meter, the last tank which is also a pumping tank is equipped with a local level indicator. The pre purified solution (filtrate from the five hot purification filter presses) flows to the first polishing step tank by gravity. The process temperature for the polishing step is approximately will stabilize at approximately 75-80°C. No heating or cooling of the solution is required. As in he other purification steps, zinc dust continuously added into the first tank via the dosing belt conveyors. The amount of zinc dust, which is fed into the tank, depends on the remaining cupper- and cadmium-content of the solution after the hot purification. At nominal solution flow (228 m³/h) the zinc dust addition will be approximately 80 - 150 kg/h. To achieve good cadmium and copper cementation, the pH in the overflow of the first tank of the cascade must be maintained 5.1 (20°C). From the second tank of the polishing step the solution containing the cemented cadmium and copper as well as some excess of zinc dust is pumped to the five parallel working filter presses for separation of the above mentioned solids from the now fully purified zinc sulphate solutions. Four filter presses are normally in operation; the fifth one is in cleaning cycle or as standby for operation. When a cleaned filter press is taken into operation, the filtrate must be recirculated into tank until the filtrate is absolutely clear, i.e. no solids are passing the filter press. Once the filtrate is clean, it is sent to the filtrate tank. Final solution quality check is done in this


tank. If the analysis indicates an impurity level equal or below the following standards, Co 0.2 ppm, Ni 0.05 ppm, As + Sb 0.04 ppm, the solution is pumped to the cooling towers of the gypsum removal plant. The cake collected in the polishing filter presses will mainly consist of zinc dust and some amounts of cadmium and copper. During filter-press cleaning operation the Zn-Cu-Cdfilter press cake will be discharged onto a screw conveyor located beneath each filter press. This screw conveyor will then move the cake to a collecting chain conveyor, which will then transport the cake into the second of three in cascade arranged zinc and cadmium leaching tanks of the Cdplant. Solution drippings from the operating filter press and from filter cloth wash water will flow through the same screw and chain conveyor to the cadmium plant tank.

8.4. Enrichment Plant
The enrichment plant is designed to recover as much as possible of the zinc from the hot purification filter press cake and to keep all other unwanted impurities in the cake. The amount of treated cake will depend on the impurities content of the calcine leached in the leaching section. The enrichment plant can be operated continuously or as a batch process. The enrichment plant consists of following main equipment: o Four in cascade arranged leaching tanks o One NaOH solution storage tank o Four filter presses o One filtrate tank The four enrichment plant tanks EP_02 C005 - EP_02 C008, which are arranged in cascade, are interconnected by an overflow launder EP_02 W001, thus permitting the solution to flow through the tanks without the need of pumps. Each tank is covered and equipped with an agitator and a forced ventilation system. All tanks have following inlets: o Spent electrolyte o Steam o Slurry from the hot purification slurry tank o NaOH-solution o Process water


o Oxygen The oxygen and spent electrolyte addition to the tanks is flow controlled and can be adjusted in the control room. Every tank is equipped with a pH-indicator. The NaOH-addition shall only be used for emergency reasons. All tanks are connected by an outlet at the bottom of the tank to the centrifugal pumps EP_02 G010 and EP_02 G011. The possible chemical reactions in the enrichment plant are: Zn + H2SO4 + ½ O2(g)  ZnSO4 + H2O Zn + H2SO4  ZnSO4 + H2(g) Cd + H2SO4 + ½ O2(g)  CdSO4 + H2O Cd + H2SO4  CdSO4 + H2(g) Co + H2SO4 + ½ O2(g)  CoSO4 + H2O Co + H2SO4  CoSO4 + H2(g) Ni + H2SO4 + ½ O2(g)  NiSO4 + H2O Ni + H2SO4  NiSO4 + H2(g) Cu + H2SO4 + ½ O2(g)  CuSO4 + H2O Cu + H2SO4  CuSO4 + H2(g) The oxygen addition shall oxidize the metals but it is also possible that the elements will be leached with the sulphuric acid and producing hydrogen. Hydrogen is generated by contact of metals with dilute sulphuric acid. Zinc sulphate is formed in solution and the hydrogen is produced as unwanted by-product. a mixture of hydrogen with oxygen is highly explosive. Don’t add oxygen into the tank while free acid is in the same time in the tank. To avoid any explosion add only oxygen into a neutral solution and wait 10 Minutes before starting the spent addition. All the time the ventilation system over the stack must be in operation. The reactions already show the main components in the hot purification cake. The concentrations and the arrangement of the metals in the electromotive series shows the following table. Element E° 25°C [V] Mass.-% 2+ 1. Zn /Zn - 0,763 60 - 75 2. Cd2+/Cd - 0,400 15 – 25 2+ 3. Co /Co - 0,283 0,1 - 0,5 2+ 4. Ni /Ni - 0,236 0,1 - 0,5 5. Cu2+/Cu + 0,345 7 – 12 Tab. 1: Electromotive series and HP cake composition The electromotive series shows that if all impurities would have the same concentration the zinc metal would be leached first, next cadmium and at least copper. Beside the electromotive voltage also the concentration of the elements in the cake has an impact on the leaching sequence. The leaching process of the metals is overlapping each other. The following figure shows qualitatively the leaching sequence of the above shown elements versus time. At the beginning zinc is leached. While the zinc is leached, the zinc concentration in the cake decreases and the acid finds more and more cadmium in higher concentration for the leaching reaction. For cobalt and nickel the concentration and the voltage are similar. Thus the leaching reaction starts nearly at the same time. The last element, which will be leached, is copper. The purpose of the enrichment plant is to leach as much as possible of the zinc in the hot purification AND to avoid the re-leaching of the unwanted impurities. The conditions show that the leaching process has to


be observed very carefully and the process parameters have to be checked all the time to avoid the re-leaching of the impurities in the filter cake.

Figure 15: Qualitative leaching sequence in enrichment plant The pH in the enrichment plant tanks should be in the range of 3,5 - 4,5 (at 20°C). Below 3,5 the reaction velocity increases rapidly and beside the Zn also Cd would be leached very fast. If in one tank the pH drops below 3,5 than it is possible to add some NaOH from the tank EP_02 C028. A pH higher than 4,5 would decrease the leaching velocity and could produce precipitates in form of hydroxides. For a good process control with approximately pH 4 - 4,5 gives the operator the best possibility to control the process. By leaching as much as possible of the zinc metal and in the same time to avoid the leaching of cadmium and the other impurities. This however causes a high retention time. The leaching process should be stopped as soon as the cadmium of cake is leached. The start of the Cd-leaching is shown when the cadmium concentration in the solution increases. In that moment the spent electrolyte addition should be stopped immediately and the suspension should be sent to the filter. The following table shows the process parameters for the enrichment plant tanks: o pH: 3,5 - 4,5 (never go below 3,5, exceeding 4,5 is allowed for a short time) o Temperature: 50 - 70°C o Solid content: 30 - 100 g/l (it is possible to increase the solid content up to 200 g/l but not recommendable) o Retention time: 1 - 14 h Depending on the amount of filter cake, the solid content in the suspension and the needed retention time, the process can be operated continuously or as a batch process. For the continuous operation up to four tanks are used in cascade. For the batch process the tanks are used in parallel. All tanks can be used as pump tank, which gives the operator the possibility to send the solution from every tank to the filters.


For the preparation of the suspension in the slurry tank PH_02 C017 following solutions can be used: o Cleaning water from the Hot Purification filters o Suspension from the sumps in the Purification plant. Don’t use the sump of the acid corner of the purification, where also the solution from the cloth and plate washing is added. o Recycling of the filtrate from the Enrichment plant filters o Process water Before filling any filter cake into the slurry tank PH_02 C017 it must be ensured that the mixer is more than only covered by solution. Otherwise the cake could damage the agitator. The pH in the slurry tank should never become lower than 3,5 to avoid any leaching reaction in this tank. Under normal conditions the above-mentioned solutions should have following pH ranges: Cleaning water of filters pH = 5,0; suspension from the sumps in purification pH = 4,8 - 7,0; recycling of the filtrate from the enrichment plant filters pH = 4,0 - 4,5, process water pH = 5,5 8. This mixture finally should give a pH value of approximately 4,5 - 7,0. After the leaching step the suspension is sent via pumps to the filters. The level of the purification tanks are controlled by means of suspension discharge. Controlling the speed of the centrifugal pumps EP_02 G010 and EP_02 G011 regulates the discharge flow rate. High level and low level will generate only an alarm when activated. Low low level stops the pumps EP_02 G010 or EP_02 G011 for rundry protection. After the filter the solution is collected in the filtrate tank EP_02 C030. The level of the filtrate tank is controlled by means of suspension discharge. Controlling the speed of the centrifugal pumps EP_02 G032 and EP_02 G033 regulates the discharge flow rate. High level and low level will generate only an alarm when activated. The low low level stops the discharge pumps EP_02 G032 and EP_02 G033 for run-dry protection. The solution in the filtrate tanks can be sent to following destinations: slurry tank in the hot purification (PH_02 C017); conversion process (CN_02 C001) or enrichment plant tanks (EP_02 W001). The flow is measured in the supplying line and is adjusted by means of the controller and the speed of the centrifugal pumps EP_02 G032 and EP_02 G033. The controller will adjust the control valve position to achieve the desired flow. The flow ratio to the flow measurements will be adjusted in the DCS. The next chapters will describe how to run the plant continuously or as a batch process.

9. Cell house Process Description
9.1. Gypsum Removal (GR) The gypsum removal system will be necessary to remove gypsum from hot neutral solution before it is taken to the cell house in order to reduce gypsum precipitation in electrolytic cells, piping, launders and cooling towers. The neutral solution that is saturated with gypsum will


be cooled in three atmospheric cooling towers from 86°C to 34°C. This causes crystallization of gypsum from the solution still remains saturated with gypsum. The gypsum will be then removed in a thickener. Spent acid will be fed for pH adjustment and flocculent (1 g/l aqueous solution) into the thickener. The thickener overflow will be taken to the purified solution storage tanks. The underflow will be pumped to the jarosite step. Prior to be directed to the cooling towers the pH of the solution will be adjusted to 4.9 to prevent formation of basic zinc sulphates. The pH adjustment is made in the filtrate collecting tank of the polishing purification step by adding a controlled amount of spent electrolyte. The solution is fed to the top of the tank through nozzles. The falling solution meets the air produced by the fan and solution will cool down when water is evaporated. The cooled solution is collected on the bottom of the tower and leaves the tower trough an overflow box, which is provided with temperature control and level detection The overflow from the thickener flows by gravity via the launder to the selected purified solution storage tank. In this whole process, a part of gypsum, about 157 kg/h is removed from the solution.


Electrolyte storage (ES) For the sake of storage of electrolyte four-solution storage tanks have been provided, two

for purified solution and two for spent electrolyte. Each of these tanks has a holding capacity of 1500 m³. All four tanks are equipped with a cover to avoid solution contamination and dilution during the rainy season. 9.3. Cell house Electrolyte Circuit I & II (EC) In the tank house zinc form the purified solution is deposited as metallic zinc on the aluminium cathodes. This cathode zinc is then removed from the cathodes and sent to the melting and casting plant where the cathodes are melted and cast to SHG/HG zinc ingots. The cell house consists of the following main plant sections and or equipment:


2 electrolyte circulation systems consisting of:o 124 electrolytic cells, each equipped with    114 aluminum cathodes 115 lead silver anodes 1 water cooled intermediate bus bar

     

2-electrolyte return launders systems (one for each cell row). 2 concrete electrolyte circulation tanks. 12 atmospheric cooling towers. 2 electrolyte feed launder systems (one for each cell row). 2 transformer rectifiers with the corresponding bus bar system. Electrode handling system consisting of: o 2 cathode stripping machines o 2 stripping cranes o 1 anode cleaning and flattening machine

 

Reagent preparation station Cell cleaning system


Fig. 16: Cell house, the electrolytic cells Warm spent electrolyte (38°C) overflowing from the cells belonging to one cell row is collected in the electrolyte return launder. This spent electrolyte (50 g/l Zn and 180 g/l H2SO4) flows by gravity to the circulation tank. A controlled amount of purified neutral solution is continuously added to the circulation tank to raise the zinc content in the electrolyte to 55 g/l. The flow of the added purified solution will be adjusted on the automatic flow control valve according to the actual cathode zinc production. A level probe installed in this circulation tank controls the amount of spent electrolyte withdrawn from this electrolyte circuit. This level control will keep the electrolyte level constant at a preset level. The empty volume maintained in the circulation tank with this level control is required to absorb backflow of electrolyte in case of a general power failure.


Figure 17: flowsheet of cell house

Consumption figures:

Ammonium Chloride

2 kg/t Zn


Sr CO3 Animal glue Crecilic Acid Natural Gas

3 kg/t Zn 3 kg/t Zn 100 kg/t Zn 100 kg/t Zn

The power consumption for the tank house will be 3175 kW/tcath.Zn


Electrolyte cooling To cool down the enriched electrolyte to cell feed temperature of 34°C, Cooling is

archived by evaporating water from the warm electrolyte in the atmospheric cooling towers. This is accomplished by passing atmospheric air through the cooling tower in counter current to the warm electrolyte. 9.5. Cell feeding system The cooled electrolyte will leave the cooling tower basin via 2 solution siphons which discharge the electrolyte into 2 small launders. The siphons prevent acid mist from escaping to the atmosphere. These launders, 2 per cooling tower totalling 12 per electrolyte circulation circuit, do all discharge into the electrolyte collecting feed launder. These 12 small launders are evenly distributed over the total length of the electrolyte collecting feed launder, implying a very small axial flow velocity of the electrolyte in the collecting feed launder. This low velocity will guarantee an even electrolyte overflow stream to all and each of the 62 cells.


Zinc electro winning The recovery of metallic zinc by electrolysis is accomplished by the application of a

direct electrical current through insoluble the lead-silver anodes, the electrolyte to the aluminium cathodes, resulting in a decomposition of the aqueous zinc sulphate electrolyte, the deposition of Zn++ at the cathode and the deposition of O2 at the anode. All the electrolytic cells (124) are electrically connected in series, whereas the electrodes (anodes & cathodes) of each cell are connected in parallel

Dissociated elements:


ZnSO 4  SO 2   Zn 2  4 SO 2   H2O  H2SO 4  ½ O2 4

Reaction ions: Zn2+ + 2e-  Zn°

General formula: ZnSO4 + H2O  H2SO4 + Zn + ½ O2 The oxygen, which is liberated at the anode, will oxidize Mn-ions from the electrolyte to MnO2. MnSO4 + ½ O2 + H2O MnO2 + H2SO4 This manganese dioxide will deposit as solid chips on the anodes and must be removed from the anodes every 30 days to avoid short circuits between the electrodes. The electrochemical process will heat up the electrolyte flowing through the cells by 4 to 6°C depending on the current density The main design and operating data of the cell house are:        Number of cells Current setting Current density Current efficiency Stripping cycle Delta Zn of electrolyte Spent electrolyte 124 cells 160 KA 400 A/m²(design 480 A/m²) 90 % 48 h 5 g/l Zn 50 g/l Zn 180 g/l H2SO4 38°C


All these contact, 114 cathodes of one cell and 115 anodes of the adjacent cell will rest on the intermediate bus bar. To avoid overheating of these intermediate cell bus bars and to increase its lifetime, a bus bar cooling system is provided. This cooling system consists of a closed cooling water circuit, which provides full de-mineralised cooling water to all the intermediate bus bars.. The collected warm de-mineralised cooling water is re-cooled to the required temperature in a de-mineralised cooling water heat exchanger and then to the cold demineralised water manifold.


Cell cleaning During the electro winning process some solids will be generated on the anode, which

will settle in the cell bottom. These solids will mainly consist of MnO2, CaSO4 * H2O and or other precipitated impurities such as PbSO4, PbCO3, SrSO4, SrCO3. Sufficient free space has been provided between cell bottom and the lower edge of the electrodes in a cell to accumulate a certain amount of cell slurry, however this slurry must be removed from time to time to prevent electrical short circuit between anodes and cathodes, which would destroy the anodes and contaminate the cathode zinc.


Anode cleaning As already mentioned above, MnO2 and some gypsum will deposit on the anode surface

during the electro winning process. To avoid short circuits between anodes and cathodes due to too much MnO2 and or gypsum deposit, anodes must be removed from the cells for cleaning(with the help of high pressure water jet nozzles). Anodes are made of a lead silver alloy that is not very stiff due to the softness of the lead. During the anode cleaning process the anode plate is mechanically straightened. This is necessary to obtain an almost constant distance between the cathode and anode surface, which ensures an even current density and reduces short circuit caused by bend anodes. The anode cleaning cycle will be 30 calendar days, which means that 475 anodes must be cleaned and straightened every day (including weekends). The cell slurry from the cell cleaning operation and the ground MnO2 anode slurry from the anode cleaning is stored in the MnO2 slurry buffer tank, which is equipped with an agitator to keep the solids in suspension. From this tank a controlled amount of MnO2 suspension is


continuously pumped to the head tank of the neutral leaching section to support oxidation of the ferrous to ferric iron.


Cathode handling and stripping After a deposition period of 48 hours at a current density of 400 A/m² the cathodes must

be removed from the cells, brought to the stripping machines where the zinc is stripped, the aluminium cathode brushed and then returned to the cell. This so called stripping operation is done with two full mechanized stripping cranes and stripping machines. Each cell row is serviced by one dedicated stripping crane that transports cathodes between the cells and the stripping machine. Cathode zinc sheets are stacked, weight and delivered as cathode stacks to a forklift pick up station.

Fig18: The cathode stripping section consisting of the stripping cranes. The stripping crane and cathode stripping operation are fully automated. At the beginning of the shift the operator will select the cell stripping sequence (cells to be stripped) on the stripping crane control system. During the first day only odd cathodes from each cell are stripped whereas on the second day only even cathodes of the same cell group will be stripped.


.Zinc loaded cathodes will be rinsed with water before they enter the stripping station to reduce the adhering spent electrolyte. The dirty cathode wash water is sent to the effluent treatment plant. If during the stripping operation a cathode could not be stripped due to sticky zinc or damaged side strip, the stripping machine operator can reject this cathode, which will automatically be replaced by a new or repaired one. The stripped zinc sheets are mechanically stacked on the stacking table located beneath the stripping machine floor. These cathode zinc sheet stacks are then weighed on a weighing station, moved to the stack lift to lift the cathode stacks to the forklift pick-up position.

9.10. Reagent preparation (RP) Three different chemical reagents are added to the electrolyte circuit to improve the cathode zinc quality. These reagent solutions are prepared in the reagent preparation section located on the east side of the cell house building. Each electrolyte circuit is equipped with its own reagent dosing pumps. The following reagents are added:

Strontium carbonate:  Purpose: SrCO3 precipitates dissolved lead thus reduces lead in the cathode zinc  Characteristics: fine ground white powder

Gelatine(glue Arabic):  Purpose: gelatin (glue arabic) solution is added as an impurity suppressor  Characteristics: fine galantine granulate  If added in excess will make cath. zinc brittle and hard and tends to make zinc sticky


Gelatine is first dissolved in agitated dissolving tanks and then the prepared solution is drained into the reagent storage and pump tanks for final concentration adjustment. Strontium carbonate is prepared directly in the corresponding mixing tank. 9.11. House keeping The key to a successful cell house operation is house keeping. The following house keeping tasks must be scheduled and strictly followed:     Cooling Tower Cleaning Piping cleaning Tank cleaning Feed launder cleaning

Spent electrolyte has up to 1 g/l of solids in suspension. These solids tend to settle in all the big storage tanks. As in the process piping, gypsum will also precipitate and adhere to the walls bottom and suction pipelines of the storage tanks. These solids and accretions must be removed from the tanks at scheduled intervals. If accretions are not removed at regular intervals it will lead to accretion hardening making cleaning operation extremely difficult.

9.12. Casting, Zinc Dust Plant and Dross Plant The conceptual engineering for the cathode melting, casting and dross separation plants has been carried out with the objective of providing a modern plant with the maximum of automation to minimize labour requirements and employing the most modern methods and equipment to maximize process efficiency. A maximum of 2% of cathode converted to recycled dross oxide is guaranteed. Metallic zinc separated from the dross oxide and skims produced from the casting lines will be melted in the cathode melting furnaces by feeding through the cathode charge chutes. Zinc dust will be produced from molten metal transferred to the zinc dust plant or alternately, rejected ingots from the casting machines.



Design Criteria and Capacity

The melting plant is to be operated 330 days, 16 hours per day to process the cathode produced in the cell house. The cell house is designed to operate continuously, 24 hours per day, with the stripping function taking place 16 hours per day. The cathode is to be melted in two electric induction furnaces and cast into SHG ingots on two automatic casting lines. Equal tonnages of 1000 kg and 25 kg ingots will be produced. 9.12.2. Cathode Transport to Melting Plant

Zinc cathode bundles with a nominal weight of 3000 kg (2000 kg - 5000 kg) will exit the cell house on conveyors and be placed by HZL’s lift trucks into either ground level storage or the automatic cathode transfer system feeding the melting and casting plant. The Automatic Cathode Transfer System receives the cathode bundles from the fork lifts, records the bundle weight, hoists the bundle to the melting furnace charge floor (approx. 8 m) and distributes the bundle to the automatic furnace feeding systems. The system capacity is 16 bundles per hour (48 t/h while handling 3000 kg bundles) The system is comprised of the following equipment:     A chain conveyor A bundle hoisting system. A bundle distribution hoist-grab assembly.. A state of the art PLC system interfacing with the customer’s DCS and the furnace feeding system.


Automatic Furnace Feed System

The Automatic Furnace Feed System receives individual cathode bundles with a nominal weight of 3000 kg (2000 kg - 5000 kg), in a horizontal orientation, from the Automatic Cathode Bundle Transfer System. The bundles are conveyed to the furnace feed chutes, rotated 90° to a vertical orientation, picked up by a powered gripping device and lowered into the melting furnace bath in a gentle and controlled fashion at a rate determined by the PLC control system. The automatic feed system has sufficient internal bundle storage capacity (22 operating positions @ 3000 kg) to support a 90 minutes interruption in bundles fed from the cell house.


Additionally, provision is made for storage of 600 tonnes (one day’s production) of bundles on the charging floor. Removing excess bundles from the feed system by forklift will fill this storage. In the event of failure of the Cathode Bundle Transport System, the Automatic Furnace Feed System is designed to receive bundles of cathode, by forklift, from the charge floor storage area.

The power consumption for the melting and casting plant including dross plant will be 126 kW/tcath.Zn

Design Considerations: The automatic furnace feed system feeds bundles of cathode to two identical electric inductions, cathode melting furnaces. These furnaces operate on the basic principle that zinc cathodes may be melted in the furnace bath by continuously adding energy to the liquid metal in the furnace bath via inductors. Simultaneously, an amount of molten metal equal to that melted is continuously transferred to the casting machine to maintain the furnace at a constant bath level and temperature. Several key design factors must be considered in order to maximize the efficiency and operating life of the melting furnaces: The furnaces are equipped with an automatic temperature control system that maintains the bath at a constant temperature (approximately 530C). This temperature is maintained by varying the electrical power fed to the inductors. The Automatic Furnace Feed system automatically controls the level of the bath by adjusting the rate of cathode bundle immersion into the bath to equate the rate that molten metal is withdrawn from the furnace. This control system operates in exactly the same manner to allow the operator to “instantly change” from one production rate to another within the maximum melting rate of the furnace. 1.1.4 Cathode Melting Furnaces


As described above, cathode melting will be carried out in two identical electric induction furnaces. The furnaces will have a guaranteed average melting rate of 22 tonnes per hour of zinc cathodes (maximum ~ 24 tonnes per hour). The melting rate is infinitely variable between 0% and 100% of the maximum melting rate and is controlled by the automatic control system to match the rate that molten metal is removed (pumped) from the furnace. Each furnace is equipped with a still well equipped with one or more molten metal pumps. The pump delivers molten zinc to a launder system feeding the casting machine. Each furnace feeds a single casting line. In addition, provision is made to pump molten zinc from one of the furnaces to the zinc dust production plant. In addition to cathode bundles, the furnace chutes are designed to receive metallic zinc from the dross separation plant and metallic zinc “skims” from the casting machines. This material is fed to any chute (normally one dedicated chute) from forklift transported to hoppers that have been raised to the charging floor by the freight elevator (lift). The required amount of NH4Cl to enhance the melting of this material is manually added to each hopper prior to dumping in the charge chute. When cathode zinc is melted, a layer of dross comprised mainly of zinc oxide entrained molten zinc droplets is produced. This dross must be removed from the furnace once in every 24 hours by manually skimming the dross from the surface of the bath in a process called drossing. This process consists of opening one of the doors on the side of the furnace, manually spreading a few kg of NH4Cl onto the dross layer, manually agitating the dross layer with a steel “rake” and finally using the “rake” to drag the dross through the open door of the furnace into a forklift tote bin. During the drossing process, the furnace is operated under conditions of increased ventilation to contain the fumes and dust that are generated by the agitation and dross removal processes. The totes of furnace dross are transported by lift truck to the dross cooling area, to await treatment in the dross separation plant 9.12.4. Ingot casting System

Melting furnaces feed the molten metal to the jumbo casting system (1000kg jumbo ingots) and the slab casting system (25 kg slab ingots)


Fig.19: The casting system (the casting wheel and furnaces in the background) The casting system utilizes the latest technology to automatically pour molten zinc into moulds, solidify the molten zinc in a controlled manner to eliminate voids, remove the ingot from the mould, weigh and mark each ingot, strap the bundles(25 kg ingots into bundles of 1000kg) and report the product data to the customer’s DCS.

Fig.20: The robot transferring ingots from the conveyer at the melting and casting section.


Ingots are removed from the casting system accumulation conveyor by the client’s lift truck and placed in the product storage/shipping area east of the casting plant building. Bundles of product are removed from the slab casting system accumulation conveyor by the client’s lift truck and placed in the product storage/shipping area east of the casting plant building.

Fig.21: Strapped zinc bundles ready for transport


Zinc Dust Plant

The plant consists of 4 nos. channel type, twin chamber induction furnace of 100 KVA rating in which the solid virgin zinc ingots are melted at 500-550 degree temperature to make free molten metal bath up to desired level in the furnace. The molten metal is drawn out through specially made high alumina ceramic disk having an orifice of 3.5 mm dia to form a circular metal jet. this metal jet is atomized with high pressure compressed air passing through a specially made atomizer fixed to the furnace through a flexible hose. the metal jet is atomized into fine zinc dust particles passing through a duct line which is connected to composite air separating cyclone and the cooled dust is collected in the cyclone. Further zinc dust collected in the cyclone will be fed into a rotary screen through a rotary air lock valve, which fitted below the cyclone.


The fine particles pass through the screen and get collected in the storage bin for further conveying/bagging. The oversize from the screen collected separately for re-melting. Very fine zinc dust particles will pass through a pulse jet automatic cleaning bag filter and clean air will pass through the ventilation fan to the stack.

Figure 22: zinc dust process flowsheet 9.12.6. Dross Plant

Due to oxidation and other chemical reactions taking place during the cathode melting process, approximately 2% of the cathode metal is converted to a dross product composed mainly of zinc oxide (ZnO). This dross product is a dense powdery material that forms on the surface of the furnace bath. As melting proceeds, dross is continuously being formed and accumulates on the bath surface. The accumulated dross layer must occasionally be removed to


allow more cathodes to be melted. Entrained in this dross layer are molten droplets of metal, which are removed from the furnace with the dross. Once removed from the furnace the dross begins to cool. As the furnace dross cools, the molten droplets of zinc freeze into small “beads” of solid zinc. During the cooling process some of the molten zinc droplets coalesce to form lager particles of solid metal or drain to the bottom of the hopper to form a “puddle” that freezes into a larger piece of solid zinc. Cold furnace dross is a non-homogeneous mixture of metallic zinc particles and zinc oxide (ZnO) powder. The ZnO portion of the furnace dross is a dry, powdery substance similar in appearance to zinc calcine produced by the roaster plant. In order to recover the zinc present in the metallic particles, they must first be separated from the dross oxide, melted and cast into ingots. The dross oxide portion of the furnace contains 80% zinc. In order to recover the zinc present in the dross oxide it must be separated from the metallic zinc particles and recycled through the roaster, leaching and electrolytic plants. The separation of the metallic zinc particles from the dross oxide is carried out in the dross treatment plant. In this plant, the furnace dross is cooled and treated in a rotary grinding and dust removal system (air swept ball mill). The milling system produces a metallic zinc stream into hoppers while the dross oxide stream is removed as a dust and captured in a bag house. The dross oxide is then conveyed to the roasting plant by a pneumatic conveying system. The hoppers of metallic zinc are conveyed by lift truck to the charge floor and fed to the cathode meting furnace(s) for recovery of the contained zinc.


Fig.23: Feed hopper and the ball mill The dross treatment plant is comprised of:   Cooling bays where the hot furnace dross is deposited by lift truck A ventilated, tilting feed hopper system that receives cold furnace dross from the dross cooling bay(s) and delivers it to the air swept dross grinder.  An air swept, rotating dross grinder (ball mill). Furnace dross is fed to the grinder in approximately 5 t batches. The grinder rotates to tumble the furnace dross charge. In a similar manner to an autogenously grinding mill, the heavier metallic zinc pieces act as grinding media to break up lumps of oxide and the tumbling action removes oxide particles from the zinc particles. As the grinder rotates, air is simultaneously injected into the grinder by a blower and withdrawn from by the dross system bag house. This air stream sweeps the light dust particles of dross oxide from the grinder while the zinc particles, because of their much higher density, remain in the grinder. When processing of the batch is complete, the direction of rotation of the grinder is reversed to eject the zinc metallic particles from the grinder. The zinc metallic particles exit the grinder onto a conveyor belt with a magnetic head pulley that removes any tramp iron that may have entered the dross stream (or in case of non-


functioning of the conveyer, the metallic is removed from the mill manually and fed into bags).


Principle: The principle behind the compressor is increasing the velocity and the pressure of the atmospheric air.Impeller imparts velocity to the atmospheric air. In the diffuser the pressure of the air coming from the impeller increases but along with pressure the temperature also increases.To reduce the temperature of the air cooling is required, which is done with the help of cooler.

Process diagram:


Figure 24 process flow sheet of compressor

The atmospheric air contains some particulate matter.In the primary air filter (PAF) particles of size up to 8 microns and in the secondary air filter (SAF) particles of size up to 2 microns are removed.The outlet air from the SAF while going through each stage the velocity and the pressure both are increased ,followed by cooling after every stage.After the third stage cooling some amount of air goes to plant air receiver for plant air supply and the remaining goes to instrument air receiver after drying for instrument air supply.Plant air is used in the process and instrument air is used in the insruments of roaster,leaching,cell house and DM plant.

Salient features:  Total production capacity of both plant air and instrument air is 7955 nm3/hr at
7.5 kg/cm2 pressure.

 PAF contains cloth wire mesh and SAF contains aluminium fines.  Impeller speed is 45000 revolutions per minute.


 At every stage cooling the temperature of the air reduces from 65 to 32 degree
Celsius.  Range of outlet temperature of the dryer air is 3-10 degree Celsius.

Air consumption (daily basis) :











Shift-A Shift-B Shift-C

6526 6480 6190

6324 7064 9158

2000 2000 2000

814 772 727

1695 1747 1647

3781 3694 3577

500 500 500

21640 nm3 22257 nm3 23799 nm3

NZP: New Zinc plant I.A : Instrument Air CPP : Captive Power Plant NLP : New Lead Plant B.A : Baggage air

The main purpose of the cooling towers is reduce the temperature of the incoming water by maintaining a particular temperature difference between the incoming and the outgoing water.  Number of cooling towers: 5 (CT-1, CT-2, CT-3, CT-4, CT-5)  From Gosunda dam nearly 430 m3/hr of water is required for hydro plant.  Consumption is 5000 m3/day.  All cooling towers are induced draft cross flow towers.


 Approximately 10500 m3/hr of water running in circulation every time at the time of running all cooling towers.  Evaporation loss in all cooling towers is approximately 140 m3/hr.  Bleed off’s in all cooling towers is nearly 23 m3/hr.  Make up water required in all cooling towers is nearly 160 m3/hr.  Total side stream filter water required is approximately 310 m3/hr.  Differential pressure in side stream filter is 0.8 kg / cm2  Source of Water supply for the first four cooling towers is preheated filter water from DM plant.  Source of water supply for the fifth cooling tower is soft water from DM plant.  CT-1 water goes to New Acid Plant.  CT-2 water goes to New Gas Cooling Plant.  CT-3 water is used in Turbo Generator & Utilities.  CT-4 water is used in cell house and in melting & casting.

In Cell house :     For bus bar cooling : 60 m3/hr For rectifier cooling : 50 m3/hr For Inductor cooling : 60 m3/hr For Ingots cooling : 120 m3/hr

In melting and casting:

 CT-5 water is used in Roaster & centac air compressor.   In centac air compressor 150m3/hr of water is in use. Roaster requirement is 310 m3/hr of water.

For Roaster cooling drum, nearly 295 m3/hr is used and the remaining goes to Roaster air blower.





CT-1 CT-2 CT-3 CT-4 CT-5

350 300 450 460 200

4.5 4.0 3.2 3.5 3.5


Parameter Water holding capacity













Circulation rate Temperature difference Evaporation loss







Degree Celsius M3/hr



















Cycle of concentration Make – up Water Side stream filter water M3/hr M3/hr

















10.3. DM Plant:

Figure25: Flow Diagram of dm plant

CWST: Cold Water Storage Tank PSF: Primary Sand Filter

FWST: Filtered Water Storage Tank ACF: Activated Carbon Filter

SWST: Soft Water Storage Tank NLP: New Lead Plant

WAC: Weak Acid Cation SAC: Strong Acid Cation

WBA: Weak Base Anion SBA: MB: Strong Base Anion Mixed Bed


DMWST: De-mineralized water storage tank

Pretreatment: Clarification involving coagulation, flocculation followed by filtration is called Pre- treatment. Coarse screen is provided at the storage water intake to prevent floating materials of fairly large in size. Alum added acts as a flocculent and poly electrolyte acts as a coagulant. The over flow of the clarifier goes to CWST and the underflow goes to N-pit.

Filter-Water system: With the help of pump (pumping capacity 90 cubic meter/hour) water from CWST is send in to PSF.PSF contains different layers of sand in the form of beds. The water from he PSF after removing the turbidity is stored in FWST.

DM water Production:

Major amount of FWST water is used for cooling towers and the remaining is send to ACF.ACF is used in water treatment to remove organic compounds that imparts colour, taste and odour to the water. From the ACF large amounts of water goes to Cation exchange unit (WAC & SAC) containing resin in H+ form to remove the cations like calcium, Magnesium, Sodium etc from the water. This water is passed through the degasser where the free carbon dioxide is blown away by blowing air at high flow & low pressure. The degassed water is then passed through anion unit containing resin OH- form to remove anions such as chlorides,sulphates,Nitrates etc.This water is then passed through mixed bed to remove left over ions and stored in D.M water storage tank. Soft water Production:


From the ACF, some portion of water goes to the softner.In the softener the hardness of water is completely removed (limit 0-5 ppm).The softwater is stored in soft water storage tank. That soft water is used in CT-5, NLP. Potable Water Production:

The water coming from WTP is treated with hypo and stored in PWST ,which is used for drinking purpose.

Salient Features:  The velocity of the water through the screen openings should not exceed 0.5 m/sec.  Check the levels of DMWST, SWST, FWST, PWST, alum, polyelectrolyte morphelene and the service time of various units i.e. PSF, ACF, Cation exchange unit anion exchange unit and softener. If levels of DM water, SW, FW are low and

the service time is near about 1200 min (1100 above) then increase time of service in PLC by setting parameter as per quality of water.


 During regeneration and back wash make high levels of DM, SW and FW for smooth plant operation.  During back wash   Set flow in ACF as 150 meter cube /hr Set flow in PSF as 40- 70 meter cube /hr

 In regeneration of cation exchange unit take water up to the mark, then add sulphuric acid up to the mark to make 20 % solution. During regeneration the addition of sulphuric acid should be done in balance with water. Maintain flow of water as 22 cubic meter /hr.Discharge should be taken 40 mm/min.  While regenerating anion exchange units add 200 kg of NaOH or 8 bags of caustic soda after taking water up to the mark. Then agitate for one hour for better regeneration.  Solution should be prepared before 100 min of regeneration time.(e.g. if service time is 1200 min prepare the solution at 1100 min)  When PWST level reaches up to 40-50 % inform to WTP to open valve of filter water supply.  The softner should start from PLC.Adjust flow by valve manually to 32 meter cube/hr. During regeneration set flow of discharge as 40 mm/min .Prepare the brine solution earlier. After taking water up to the mark add 300 kg of Nacl and mix it with air scoring.  Check hardness of water at outlet. It should be zero (between 0-5 is the allowable limit).  If flow of raw water is 425 meter cube/hr doze polyelectrolyte 50 lit/hr and alum 160 lit/hr.


 Prepare solution of polyelectrolyte in full tank with 2 kg of polyelectrolyte and add alum with full tank of water up to 500 kg of aluminium sulphate.  The pH of DM water should be between 8.2-9.5 for supplying to roaster.pH can be maintained by dosing morphelene(pH booster).Prepare solution by taking water to morphelene in the ratio 1:4.  Check inlet and outlet pressures of PSF, ACF, WAC, SAC,WBA, SBA. If difference is high between them do backwash of PSF and ACF before service time. Difference should not exceed 4.  Water characteristics are: 

Filter water:

pH: Total hardness: Ca. hardness: Magnesium hardness: P.alkalinity: M.alkalinity: Sulphates: Silica: Chlorides: Turbidity Iron: Total dissolved solids: Cond:

8.5 174 98 76 10 202 20 5.5 50 <2 0.1 200 300


 Soft water:

pH: Total hardness Calcium hardness: Magnesium hardness: P. alkalinity: M. alkalinity: Sulphates: Silica: Chlorides: Turbidity Iron: TDS: Cond:  DM water: pH: Hardness: Chlorides: TDS: Silica: Cond:

8.5 <5 3 2 10 202 20 5.5 50 <2 0.1 200 300 6.8 – 7.2 nil nil < .1ppm < .02ppm < .2 microsiemens/cm

All the values are in ppm unless mentioned other units.

The power consumption for the total core process plant sections will be 3918 kW/tcath.Zn


12. REFERENCES: 1. Hindustan Zinc Ltd.
http://www.hzlindia.com/ 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc

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