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INTRODUCTION

Brain Gate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyber kinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands. Cyber kinetics describes that, "Such applications may include novel communications interfaces for motor impaired patients, as well as the monitoring and treatment of certain diseases which manifest themselves in patterns of brain activity, such as epilepsy and depression." According to the Cyber kinetics' website, three patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate system. The company has confirmed that one patient (Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, while another has advanced ALS. The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralyzed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs, computers or wheelchairs. The implant, called Brain Gate, allowed Matthew Nagle, a 25-yearold Massachusetts man who has been paralyzed from the neck down since 2001, to control a cursor on a screen and to open and close the hand on a prosthetic limb just by thinking about the relevant actions. Professor Donoghue's work is published today in Nature. He describes how, after a few minutes spent calibrating the implant, Mr. Nagle could read emails and play the computer game Pong. He was
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able to draw circular shapes using a paint program and could also change channel and turn up the volume on a television, even while talking to people around him. After several months, he could also operate simple robotic devices such as a prosthetic hand, which he used to grasp and move objects from his wheelchair. This marks the first time that neural movement signals have been recorded and decoded in a human with spinal cord injury. The system is also the first to allow a human to control his surrounding environment using his mind.

1.1. Mathew Nagle using Brain Gate
NAGLE’S STATEMENT: “I can't put it into words. It's just—I use my brain. I just thought it. I said, "Cursor go up to the top right." And it did, and now I can control it all over the screen. It will give me a sense of independence.”

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In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the Brain gate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy. The 'Brain Gate' device can provide paralyzed or motorimpaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. The technology driving this breakthrough in the BrainMachine-Interface field has a myriad of potential applications, including the development of human augmentation for military and commercial purposes. The Brain Fate Neural Interface device consists of a tiny chip containing 100 microscopic electrodes that is surgically implanted in the brain's motor cortex. This tiny chip contains tiny spikes that will extend down about one millimeter into the brain after being implanted beneath the skull, monitoring the activity from a small group of neurons. The chip can read signals from the motor cortex, send that information to a computer via connected wires, and translate it to control the movement of a computer cursor or a robotic arm. It will now be possible for a patient with spinal cord injury to produce brain signals that relay the intention of moving the paralyzed limbs, as signals to an implanted sensor, which is then output as electronic impulses. These impulses enable the user to operate mechanical devices with the help of a computer cursor. The whole apparatus is the size of a baby aspirin. According to Dr. John Donaghue of Cyber kinetics, there is practically no training required to use Brain Gate because the signals read by a chip implanted, for example, in the area of the motor cortex for arm movement, are the same signals that would be sent to the real arm. A user with an implanted chip can immediately begin to move a cursor with thought alone. However, because movement carries a variety of information such as velocity, direction, and
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making it safer and less visible and once the basics of brain mapping are worked out there is potential for a wide variety of further applications.acceleration. "If you could detect or predict the onset of epilepsy. But with practice. Cyber kinetics hopes to refine the Brain Gate in the next two years to develop a wireless device that is completely implantable and doesn't have a plug." 4 . Surgeon explains. So eventually people may have this technology in their brains and if something starts to go wrong it will take a therapeutic action. there are many neurons involved in controlling that movement. Brain gate is currently recruiting patients with a range of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in the United States. That could be available by 2007 to 2008. which would be a huge therapeutic application for people who have seizures. Without all of the information. which leads to the idea of a 'Pacemaker for the Brain'. bypassing the route through the nerves to the muscles that cannot be used in paralyzed people. therefore. the user can refine those movements using signals from only that sample of cells. only receiving a fraction of the instructions. The Brain Gate technology platform was designed to take advantage of the fact that many patients with motor impairment have an intact brain that can produce movement commands. Brain Gate is only reading signals from an extremely small sample of those cells and. This may allow the Brain Gate system to create an output signal directly from the brain. the initial control of a robotic hand may not be as smooth as the natural movement of a real hand.

by simply using their thoughts. a television and lights. The system is designed to restore functionality for a limited. Brain Gate senses. immobile group of severely motor-impaired individuals. analyses. 5 . assistive technologies and medical devices. The ultimate goal of the Brain Gate System development program is to create a safe. communication) to include the control of objects in the environment such as a telephone. including computers. BRAIN GATE 2.. This allows the user to interact with the outside world in a more independent way. smaller than a baby aspirin.2. These activities may extend beyond typical computer functions (e. It is expected that people using the Brain Gate System will employ a personal computer as the gateway to a range of selfdirected activities. The sensor consists of a tiny chip. The Brain Gate System is a hardware device that uses software.1. NEURAL INTERFACE SYSTEM DEVICE The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is currently the subject of a pilot clinical trial being conducted under an Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) from the FDA. and transmits the data from the brain to an outside system. The Brain Gate Neural Interface Device is a proprietary brain computer interface that uses an internal sensor to detect brain activity and external processors that convert these brain signals into a computer-mediated output under the person’s own control. effective and unobtrusive universal operating system that will enable those with motor impairments to control a wide range of devices. which contains one hundred electrode sensors that each tap into a separate neuron.g.

scientists are developing the Brain Gate System’s underlying core technology in the NeuroPort System to enable improved diagnosis and treatment for a number of neurological conditions. The computers translate hard-to detect brain signals to create the communication output using custom decoding software. It has been thoroughly researched and will contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological 6 . He then started research on combining both body and machine. Brain Gate will be the first human device that has been designed to record. Hugh Herr. The NeuroPort System is a neural monitor designed for acute inpatient applications and labeled for temporary recording and monitoring of brain electrical activity. filter. Also. When the patient is connected to the system he or she can mentally move the cursor just like a mouse would do. a cable connects the sensor to an external signal processor in a cart that contains three computers. led the original project research and went on to co-found Cyber kinetics.Brain Gate contains a chip that is implanted on the surface of the motor cortex area of the brain. Herr lost both legs at a young age from frostbite. such as epilepsy and brain trauma. Herr became very passionate about the development of a technology that would give independence and movement back to people that were physically impaired. John Donoghue. He has helped in the development of many prosthetics. where he is currently chief scientific officer overseeing the clinical trial. The development of the Brain Gate System brain-computer interface is to enable those with severe paralysis and other neurological conditions to live more productively and independently. and amplify multiple channels of simultaneously recorded neural activity at a very high spatial and temporal resolution. another scientist. In the pilot version of the device. the chair of the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University. his research has already made a significant impact for people that are physically challenged. also helped in the development of a neural interface system.

2. The M*Power Controller is designed to allow a Brain Gate System patient to control a standard wireless computer device. transmit and analyze neural activity. Brain Gate Technology Dr. use of the M*Controller as an 7 . Steve Williams. The development of this system would replace the initial prototype controller which has been used in the Brain Gate trial until now. For example. presented a description of the Brain Gate Controller. The new interface is also intended to be easier to use for patients and their families. This will give neurologists and neurosurgeons a new resource to detect. the ability to readily perform numerous daily activities that are currently beyond their reach. so they can access the capabilities of the system on a routine basis without reliance on a technician.1. a clinical advisor to Cyber kinetics. a next generation.conditions in patients who have undergone a craniotomy. These two closely linked efforts are intended to yield a Brain Gate System allowing patients significant control over their environment. standardized interface system that is under development. and vastly enhance communications opportunities.

interface control. Above. it helps give them the independence and the capabilities of the norm. 8 . and communicating via e-mail. The scientists working on Brain Gate hope to create an operating system that is safe. With the development of devices such as these. The neurologists are constantly trying to come up with more ideas to push this form of emerging technology further. The Brain Gate system includes hardware and software and may be used as a telecommunication device in the future. discussed how it could impact a business or organization. It will give people with disabilities a chance to work at a business just like anyone else. Here is a recap of the main points:  Brain Gate is a neural interface system device that has a chip that reads brain activity through the use of sensors and then transmits the activities to three computers which convert the thoughts into actions. by thought alone would allow patients to perform a range of tasks including: making and receiving telephone calls. and how the developers are planning to take this technology to the next level. This could greatly impact a business or organization. controlling remote devices. With this technology they will be able use a wide variety of devices and may also lead to a decline in the use of hands on activities.  This system is used for people that are physically impaired. We have presented to you an overview of the technology known as the Brain Gate System. accessing the internet. effective and unobtrusive. one day everyone may have chips in their brain that will allow them to perform tasks without the use of their body. we have described the technology.

which connects the chip to the computer. a cart which consists of the signal processing unit. Massachusetts.2. but have shown that it can safely be removed as well. ABOUT THE BRAINGATE DEVICE The Brain gate pilot device consists of a Sensor of the size of a contact lens. director of the brain science program at Brown University. 2. Cyber kinetics. He studied the functioning of Brain gate in monkeys and proved that they were able to control a cursor on a computer monitor with their thoughts. the company behind the brain implant.3. has developed Brain Gate in 2003. lead the team to research and develop this brain implant system. Dr. and chief scientific officer of Cyber kinetics. a biotech company in Foxboro. HISTORY After 10 years of study and research. a cable and pedestal.2. 2. Rhode Island. They have not only demonstrated in preclinical studies that brain gate can remain safely implanted in the (monkey) brain for at least two years.2. John Donaghue. Brain Gate Pilot Device 9 .

A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy. The activities are translated into electrically charged signals and are then sent and decoded using a program. NEURO CHIP: Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that 'hear' neurons firing in specific areas of the brain. which can move either a robotic arm or a computer cursor. the Brain gate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis.4.2. 2. for example.3.4. Brain Gate Chip 2. the area that controls arm movement. 96 electrode sensors In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement. 10 .

BCI TECHNOLOGY Brain computer interfaces determine the intent of the user from a variety of different electrophysiological signals which include slow cortical potentials. Following years of animal experimentation. The common thread throughout the research is the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain. BCI Working 11 . Research on BCIs began in the 1970s. which often adapts to BCIs. early working implants in humans now exist. P300 potentials or beta rhythms recorded from the scalp. previously only the realm of science fiction.1. but it wasn't until the mid-1990s that the first working experimental implants in humans appeared. treating prostheses controlled by implants as natural limbs. pioneering researchers could now conceivably attempt to produce BCIs that augment human functions rather than simply restoring them. sight and movement.3. With recent advances in technology and knowledge. 3. designed to restore damaged hearing.

Both use similar experimental methods and surgical techniques. The differences between BCIs and neuroprosthetics are mostly in the ways the terms are used: neuroprosthetics typically connect the nervous system. movement.1. hearing. ability to communicate. whereas the term “BCIs” usually connects the brain (or nervous system) with a computer system. Neuroprosthetics and BCI seek to achieve the same aims. such as restoring sight. Based on the communicative Pathway BCI is classified as follows: 3. for example peripheral nerves. There are also several neuroprosthetic devices that aim to restore vision. and even cognitive function. to a device. although this article only discusses implants directly into the brain. The most widely used neuroprosthetic device is the cochlear implant. BCI v/s NEUROPROSTHETICS Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses — using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems or sensory organs.1. to restore vision) but not both.1.000 people worldwide as of 2006. which was implanted in approximately 100. One Way BCI: Computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it (for example. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably and for good reason. 12 . Practical neuroprosthetics can be linked to any part of the nervous system. while the term "BCI" usually designates a narrower class of systems which interface with the central nervous system. including retinal implants.3.

2.2 Partially Invasive BCI 3.3 Non Invasive BCI 13 .2.1 Invasive BCI 3.2.3.2.1. Two Way BCI: Brains and external devices can exchange information in both directions but have yet to be successfully implanted in animals or humans Brain Computer interface is of three types based on its features and are 3.

hands and legs.1. Receptors sense things like chemicals." 4. PRINCIPLE "The principle of operation of the Brain Gate Neural Interface System is that with intact brain function.4. The brain encodes information not by relying on single neurons. These signals are interpreted by the System and a cursor is shown to the user on a computer screen that provides an alternate "Brain Gate pathway". but by spreading it across large populations of neurons. while sensory neurons carry signals from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system. 14 . light. IMPLEMENTATION OF BRAIN GATE 4. Motor neurons carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles. The user can use that cursor to control the computer. The electrical patterns are called brain waves.2. just as a mouse is used. Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer. The part of the brain that controls motor skills is located at the ear of the frontal lobe. and by rapidly adapting to new circumstances. which are made by billions of neurons that make electricity whenever they are stimulated. skin and glands of the body. neural signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms. and sound and encode this information into electrochemical signals transmitted by the sensory neurons and interneuron tie everything together by connecting the various neurons within the brain and spinal cord. HOW DOES THE BRAIN CONTRAL MOTOR FUNCTION? The brain is "hardwired" with connections. gathering and transmitting electrochemical signals over distances as far as several feet.

The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain.4.3. HOW DOES THIS COMMUNICATION HAPPEN? Muscles in the body's limbs contain embedded sensors called muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and contract as you move. Other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. These changes in brain wave patterns indicate whether someone is concentrating or suppressing his impulses. hands and legs. the brain still makes neural signals. They're just not being sent to the arms. Even if paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that processes movement. 15 . or whether he is relaxed or tense. A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain waves into information a person can learn from.

g.5. DETECTION The detection of the input from the user and them translating it into an action could be considered as key part of any BCI system. both partners gradually learn more from each other and improve the overall performance. e. 5. This detection means to try to find out these mental tasks from the EEG signal. This preprocessing includes removing unnecessary frequency bands. transforming the measured scalp potentials to cortex potentials and denoising. These classification algorithms include simple comparison of amplitudes linear and non-linear equations and artificial neural networks. This involves usually digital signal processing for sampling and band pass filtering the signal.1. 16 . By constant feedback from user to the system and vice versa. PREPROCESSING The raw EEG signal requires some preprocessing before the feature extraction.2. 5. It can be done in time-domain. averaging the current brain activity level. The user usually generates some sort of mental activity pattern that is later detected and classified. then calculating these time -or frequency domain features and then classifying them. by comparing amplitudes of the EEG and in frequency-domain. WORKING Operation of the BCI system is not simply listening the EEG of user in a way that let’s tap this EEG in and listen what happens.

which is then detected and classified to corresponding action. Feedback is provided to user by audio-visual means e.3. Java and MATLAB. letter appears to the message box etc. CONTROL The final part consists of applying the will of the user to the used application. The software is a BCI based on trials which is a time interval where the user generates brainwaves to perform an action. 5. SIMULATION & RECORDING The simulation mode is used to test the BCI. when typing with virtual keyboard. The user chooses an action by controlling his brain activity. The software has three operating modes and they are Simulation. Further the neural net’s output is processed and this final output corresponds to the given class. 17 . Recording and Training. Recording is the same as simulation.5.g. The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software and the algorithms are written in languages like C. SOFTWARE BEHIND BRAIN GATE Software is necessary for transmission of the signals from the chip implanted on the brain to the machine and for decoding these signals and to convert it to corresponding action by the machine. 5. The signals are processed and associated to a given class and is done by feeding a neural net with the preprocessed EEG data.1.4.4. with the difference that the EEG data is recorded and used as training examples.

Our platform technology is based on the results of several years of research and development at premier academic institutions such as Brown 18 . the user sees cursor moving up or down or letter being selected from the alphabet. TRAINING The training is the part where the user adapts to the BCI system. At Cyber kinetics. etc. detect. analyze and apply the language of neurons. BIO FEEDBACK The definition of the biofeedback is biological information which is returned to the source that created it. 5.It further has 3 operations within and they are Preparation. transmit.6. fatigue. e. 5. This training begins with very simple exercises where the user is familiarized with mental activity which is used to relay the information to the computer. analyze and apply the language of neurons in both short and long-term settings. as well as to monitor. so that source can understand it and have control over it. Prerecording and Recording. 5.5.g.4. transmit. PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of the body.2. This biofeedback in BCI systems is usually provided by visually. Motivation. Cyber kinetics offers a systems approach with a core technology to sense. We are developing products to restore function. we have the technology to sense. frustration. and respond to a variety of neurological diseases and disorders. apply also here and their effect should be taken into consideration when planning the training procedures.

In the current Brain Gate System. each thinner than a human hair. the array is implanted in the area of the brain responsible for limb movement. Our sensor consists of a silicon array about the size of a baby aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes.University.8. 19 . The array is implanted on the surface of the brain. 5. SENSE Cyber kinetics unique technology is able to simultaneously sense the electrical activity of many individual neurons. a bundle consisting of one hundred gold wires connects the array to a pedestal which extends through the scalp. The pedestal is connected by an external cable to a set of computers in which the data can be stored for off-line analysis or analyzed in real-time.7. In the Brain Gate Neural Interface System. and the University of Utah. TRANSMIT AND ANALYSE The human brain is a super computer with the ability to instantaneously process vast amounts of information. Signal processing software algorithms analyze the electrical activity of neurons and translate it into control signals for use in various computer-based applications. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Emory University. In other applications the array may be implanted in areas of the brain responsible for other body processes. 5. Cyber kinetics technology allows for an extensive amount of electrical activity data to be transmitted from neurons in the brain to computers for analysis.

1. Brain Computer Interface-II 20 . Brain Computer Interface-I 5.2.5.

during and after seizures. Under sterile conditions and general anesthesia. using the Brain Gate Neural Interface System. there will be several precautionary measures in order to prevent infection. then monthly and as needed. MRI scans will be done to find the best place on the brain for the sensor. In addition. patients will have daily baths with antimicrobial soap and take antibiotics. IMPLANTING THE CHIP There will be two surgeries. some blood tests. In another example. For example. one of the study doctors will see the patients at least once a week for six weeks. Detailed instructions will be provided so that the patient’s daily care provider can help with skin care.10.9. a person may be able to use his thoughts to control cursor motion and/or replicate keystrokes on a computer screen. Patients will receive post-surgical care including a CT scan. 21 . 5. The skin around the pedestal will need to be carefully monitored during the study. one to implant the Brain Gate and one to remove it. A nurse will also check the patients regularly and will always carry a 24-hour pager. and wound care in the hospital for 1 to 5 days after surgery. APPLY Cyber kinetics ability to generate control signals and develop computer application interfaces provides us with a platform to develop multiple clinical products. After surgery. Before surgery. a doctor may study patterns of brain electrical activity in patients with epilepsy before.5. Doctor will drill a small hole into the skull and implant the sensor using the same methods as in the monkey studies.

The computer translates the signals into a communication output. allowing a person to move a cursor on a computer screen merely by thinking about it. 22 .3. Neuromotor Prosthetic Device The sensor of the size of a contact lens is implanted in brain’s percental gyrus which control hand and arm movements.The sensor implanted in the brain senses these electrical signals and passes to the pedestal through the wire. The brain's 100bn neurons fire between 20 and 200 times a second . A tiny wire connects the chip to a small pedestal secured in the scull. A cable connects the pedestal to a computer. The pedestal passes this signals to the computer through the cable.5.

23 . which decodes signals from the retina. Using mathematical filters. Researchers targeted 177 brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculation nucleus area. BRAIN GATE RESEARCH IN ANIMALS Rats implanted with BCIs in Theodore Berger's experiments.6. 6. Brain Gate Research in Animals Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculation nucleus (top row: original image. and their neuron firings were recorded. Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and without any motor output. researchers led by Garrett Stanley at Harvard University decoded neuronal firings to reproduce images seen by cats. Other research on cats has decoded visual signals. bottom row: recording) in 1999. The team used an array of electrodes embedded in the thalamus (which integrates all of the brain’s sensory input) of sharp-eyed cats. The cats were shown eight short movies.1. Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortexes in order to operate BCIs to carry out movement.

Phillip Kennedy. succeeded in closing the feedback loop and reproduced monkey reaching and grasping movements in a robot arm. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating a joystick while corresponding movements by a robot arm were hidden. John Donoghue. 24 . Later experiments by Nicolelis using rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were later shown the robot directly and learned to control it by viewing its movements. There has been rapid development in BCIs since the mid-1990s. With their deeply cleft and furrowed brains. Several groups have been able to capture complex brain motor centre signals using recordings from neural ensembles (groups of neurons) and use these to control external devices. including research groups led by Richard Andersen. and Andrew Schwartz. Miguel Nicolelis. rhesus monkeys are considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys. The BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements and simultaneously predicted hand gripping force.the researchers decoded the signals to generate movies of what the cats saw and were able to reconstruct recognizable scenes and moving objects.

a processing unit configured to receive the multi cellular signals and produce a processed signal.  BIOLOGICAL INTERFACE SYSTEM WITH SURROGATE CONTROLLED DEVICE Multi cellular signals emanating from one or more living cells of a patient.  LIMB AND DIGIT MOVEMENT SYSTEM Data from the joint movement device is transmitted to the processing unit for determining a value of a configuration parameter of the system and controlled cables that produce the forces required. The processing unit may be configured to transmit the processed signal to a controlled device. APPLICATIONS OF BRAIN GATE  MULTI DEVICE PATIENT AMBULATION SYSTEM A sensor with a number of electrodes for detecting multi cellular signals.  BIOLOGICAL INTERFACE SYSTEM WITH PATIENT TRAINING APPARATUS The system includes a patient training apparatus configured to receive a patient training signal that causes the patient training apparatus to controllably move one or more joints of the patient. and transmit the processed signal to a controlled device. and a processing unit configured to receive the multi cellular signals from the sensor and process the multi cellular signals to produce a processed signal.7. 25 . This helps the patient in achieving movement.

26 .  MENTAL TYPEWRITER This application demonstrates how a paralyzed patient could communicate by using a mental typewriter alone without touching the keyboard. DARPA DARPA has been interested in Brain-Machine-Interfaces (BMI) for military applications like wiring fighter pilots directly to their planes to allow autonomous flight from the safety of the ground.

1. In addition. For example. and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand movement and gestures. ADVANTAGES The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is being designed to one day allow the user to interface with a computer and/or other devices at a level of speed. The Brain Gate System may offer substantial improvement over existing assistive technologies. or even faster than. 27 . accuracy and precision that is comparable to. these devices are often obtrusive and may prevent the user from being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time establish eye contact or carry on conversations with others.8. a process that can be time consuming. eye movements or ambient noise. its potential to be used in an interactive environment. even simple switches must be adjusted frequently. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 8. what is possible with the hands of a non-disabled person. where the user's ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech. Potential advantages of the Brain Gate System over other muscle driven or brain-based computer interface approaches include: its potential to interface with a computer without weeks or months of training. Currently available assistive devices have significant limitations for both the person in need and the caregiver.

 Difficulty in adaptation and learning. 28 . DISADVANTAGES  The disadvantage of the Brain Gate System is that at this time. There is also a worry that devices such as this will “normalize” society. As the device is perfected this will not be an issue. There are no estimates on cost or insurance at this time.8. while still being perfected.  Limitation in information transform rate. the switches must be frequently adjusted which is a time consuming process. The Brain Gate Neural Interface System has not been approved by the FDA. but has been approved for IDE status. which means that it has been approved for pre-market clinical trials.2. The latest technology is 20 bits/min.

 Development of a Brain Gate system which has a wireless interface between the implanted server and the computer. 9. or that quadriplegic people will be able to walk again yet. FUTURE OF NEURAL INTERFACES Cyber kinetics has a vision.if they're willing to be implanted. Their primary goal is to help restore many activities of daily living that are impossible for paralyzed people and to provide a platform for the development of a wide range of other assistive devices. but it is not promising "miracle cures". making it safer and less visible. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  Future Brain Gate system products may control devices that allow breathing. 29 . Scientists have for the first time developed a brain implant that allows people to control electronic devices by thought alone. Surgeon also sees a time not too far off where normal humans are interfacing with Brain Gate technology to enhance their relationship with the digital world . CEO Tim Surgeon explained to Gizmag.9. bladder and bowel movements.  Development of second generation patient interface software that will enable users to perform a wide variety of daily activities without the assistance of the technician.1. Cyber kinetics hopes to refine the Brain Gate in the next two years to develop a wireless device that is completely implantable and doesn't have a plug.

The enormity of the deficits caused by paralysis is a strong motivation to pursue BMI solutions. So this idea helps many patients to control the prosthetic devices of their own by simply thinking about the task. the brain activity of human subjects) has been a fascinated approach. but by mere “thinking” (i.CONCLUSION The invention of Brain gate is such a revolution in medical field. computers or wheelchairs. Microelectronics.1 Advantages of Brain Gate 30 . signal processing. WITH A BRAINGATE YOU CAN:  Turn on or off the lights on your room  Check and read E-mails  Play games in computer  Use your PC  Watch and control your Television  Control a robotic arm 10. This technology is well supported by the latest fields of Biomedical Instrumentation.. The idea of moving robots or prosthetic devices not by manual control. The remarkable breakthrough offers hope that people who are paralyzed will one day be able to independently operate artificial limbs.e. Artificial Neural Networks and Robotics which has overwhelming developments.10. Hope these systems will be effectively implemented for many biomedical applications. Medical cures are unavailable for many forms of neural and muscular paralysis.

BIBILIOGRAPHY Websites:  http://www.wikipedia.com 31 .scribd.com  http://www.com  http://www.org  http://www.com  http://www.com  http://www.com  http://www.bbcnews.cyberkineticsinc.wired.google.howstuffworks.11.