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Hofstede Ppt

Hofstede Ppt

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Published by Bhavna Shandilya

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Published by: Bhavna Shandilya on Mar 26, 2012
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Cross cultural management


How Cultures View Each Other

 Stereotyping: assumes that all people within

one culture or group behave, believe, feel, and act the same.  Ethnocentrism: occurs when people from one culture believe that theirs are the only correct norms, values, and beliefs.  Self-reference criterion: the assumption that people in another culture will behave like people in your culture

000 employees in more than 70 countries  Created maps of pairs of dimensions .Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions  Work-related value dimensions  Most influential effort to group by cultural values  Surveyed over 116.

Asian vs Latin American collectivism .e.Individualism-Collectivism  Self-perception as individual or part of a group  Most widely studied  Most complex  Dimensions different across cultures  i..

organization  Loyalty  Devotion  Conformity .Individualism-Collectivism (cont’d) Individualism  High value on autonomy  Individual achievement  Privacy Collectivism  High value on group  Family. clan.

Masculinity-Femininity Describes Importance of Achievement versus Relationships  Success  Equality of genders  Assertive acquisition of  Caring for disadvantaged  harmony money/power  achievement .

Power Distance Acceptance of differences in power High-Power Distance  Accept position  Follow authority  Concentrated & Low-Power Distance  Avoid concentration of authority  Decentralized centralized authority  Hierarchical  Fewer layers of management .

High Uncertainty Avoidance  Threatened by ambiguity  Need stable & procedures.Uncertainty Avoidance Reaction to ambiguous events Low Uncertainty Avoidance  Embrace unpredictable  Less adherence to rules. or hierarchies  Risk taking desirable predictable workplace  Reliance on rules .

Cultural Maps  Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance  Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity  Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance .

Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance  Large power distance and collectivism  Asia and Latin America  Small power distance and individualism  Northern Europe and Anglo countries .

Synthesis of Country Clusters Adapted from Figure 4–8: A Synthesis of Country Clusters .

Culture Map for Power Distance and Individualism .

Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity  Achievement oriented-weak uncertainty avoidance & masculine values  Security Motivation-high uncertainty avoidance & masculinity  Social Motivation-feminine values & high uncertainty avoidance .

Culture Map for Uncertainty Avoidance and Masculinity -Femininity .

Uncertainty Avoidance & Power Distance  Family-large power distance & weak uncertainty avoidance  Pyramid of People-large power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance  Well-Oiled Machine-small power distance & strong uncertainty avoidance  Village Market-small power distance & low uncertainty avoidance .

Culture Map for Power Distance and Uncertainty Orientation .

Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions  Missing countries  Estimates values  Ignores differences within clusters .

000 managers  Over 10-year period  From 28 countries  Bipolar cultural dimensions .Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions  Focus on values and relationships  Survey of  15.

Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions  Outer-directed—Inner-directed  Universalism—Particularism  Neutral—Emotional  Specific—Diffuse  Achievement—Ascription  Individualism—Communitarianism .

Particularism – the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied and some things cannot be done the same way everywhere. People tend to focus on relationships.Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions  Universalism vs. particularism   Universalism – the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere in the world without modification. working things out to suit those involved. . People tend to focus on formal rules and expect business partners to do the same.

show happiness or unhappiness.Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions (2)  Neutral vs. greet each other with enthusiasm. People smile. People try not to show their feelings  Emotional culture – a culture in which emotions are expressed openly and naturally. . may talk loudly. Emotional Cultures  Neutral culture – a culture in which emotions are held in check.

culture in which people are accorded status based on how well they perform their work and what they have accomplished  Job. tribe. work performance. Ascription n  Achievement culture . family. education.culture in which status is attributed based on who or what a person is  For example.Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions (3)  Achievement vs. gender. etc. status may be accorded on the basis of age. . ethnic group.  Ascription culture . etc.


Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions (4)  Use of time  Sequential use of time .people do more than one thing at a time. appointments are approximate . follow plans to the letter  Synchronous use of time .people do one thing at a time. keep appointments strictly.

. People are less likely to believe that they can control what happens to them.Trompenaars' Research on People and the External Environment  Inner-directed: People believe in controlling environmental outcomes and think that they can control what happens to them  Outer-directed: People believe in allowing things to take their natural course and living in harmony with nature.

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