Robert Mills Gagne

Born in 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts, Gagne attended Yale University where he obtained an A.B. in 1937. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from Brown University in 1940 and taught at Connecticut College for Women from 1940-49 and at Pennsylvania State University from 1945-46. From 1949-58 Gagne was research director of the perceptual and motor skills laboratory of the US Air Force, at which time he began to develop some of the ideas that would go into his comprehensive learning theory called the "conditions of learning". His research on military training problems while working for the Air Force and his experience as consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense (1958-61) helped him see that the "grand learning theories" of his predecessors were in adequate for the design of instruction. Since 1969 Gagne has been a Professor in the Department of Educational Research at Florida State University in Tallahassee Around this time Gagne began to formulate three principles that he saw as contributing to successful instruction: (1) providing instruction on the set of component tasks that build toward a final task, (2) ensuring that each component task is mastered, and (3) sequencing the component tasks to ensure optimal transfer to the final task. He published an article in 1962 entitled "Military Training and the Principles of Learning" that discussed these ideas. Gagne first published his best-known book The Conditions of Learning in 1965. Gagne's early investigations into the psychological bases of effective teaching led him to believe that an instructional technology or theory must go beyond traditional learning theory. Gagne concluded that instructional theory should address the specific factors that contribute to the learning of complex skills. He described these factors in a 1968 article entitled "Learning Hierarchies". Gagne next identified five unique categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, attitudes, motor skills and cognitive strategies. These categories represent different capacities and performances and are learned in different ways. They are outlined in Gagne's 1972 article, "Domains of Learning". After establishing his domains of learning Gagne went on to describe the environmental events and stages of information processing required for each of these domains in the 1977 edition of his book, The Conditions of Learning. The main aim of Gagne's theory is to assist in classroom instruction, The skills to be learned are written in the form of

M. R. R. (1975) (Author) Essentials of Learning for Instruction Holt. (1984) Learning Outcomes and Their Effects: Useful Categories of Human Performance American Psychologist 39(4) 377-385 Gagne. R. M. (1968) (Editor) Learning Research and School Subjects F. M. L. Rinehart and Winston Gagne. Gagne. M. (1968) (Editor) Learning Research and School Subjects F. R. (1983) A reply to critiques of some issues in the psychology of mathematics instruction Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 14(3) 214-216 Gagne. The major contribution of Gagne's approach is that it operationalizes the notion of cumulative learning and offers a mechanism for designing instruction from simple to complex levels. M. R. Editor) Defining Educational Objectives University of Pittsburgh Press. M. R. J. M. R. R. Gagne. R. Rinehart and Winston Gagne. (1988) Some reflections on thinking skills Instructional Science 17(4) 387390 Gagne. (1982) Learning from the top down and the bottom up Florida Journal of Educational Research 24 1-10 . Peacock. R. A.E. And his theory provides a unified framework for a wide range of findings about learning such as those from information processing studies. Task analysis is then employed to identify prerequisite skills and "instructional events" are chosen for each learning objective. & Briggs. Peacock. (1979) Principles of Instructional Design Holt. A. R.E. Gagne. Gagne. M. R. E. M. M. Gagne's concept of hierarchies has become a standard component of curricula in a variety of subject areas. Gagne. Gagne. BOOKS Gagne. R. (1965) (Author) The Conditions of Learning Holt. & Fleishman. ARTICLES Gagne. (1964) (Contributor. (1983) Selecting Media for Instruction Educational Technology Publications. & Reiser. R.performance objectives and the specific type of learning is identified. M. M. (1959) Psychology and Human Performance: An Introduction to Psychology Holt. M. (1962) (Editor) Psychological Principles in System Development Holt.

(1959) Problem solving and thinking Annual Review of psychology 10 147-172 Gagne. M. Rinehart & Winston.) Review of Research in Education Itasca. (1980) Learnable aspects of problem solving Educational Psychologist 15(2) 84-92 Gagne. R. M. (1973) Learning and instructional sequence IN Kerlinger. Peacock. (1962) The acquisition of knowledge Psychology Review 69(4) 355-365 Gagne.. M. III: F. (1962) Factors in acquiring knowledge of a mathematics task Psychology Monographs 76(14) 23 . R. R. R. R. M. R. Craig. R.Gagne. J. M. M. M.. (1975) Observing the effects of learning Educational Psychologist 11(3) 144-157 Gagne. N. M.E. M. M. isolation. W.. R. 83-91 Gagne. F. R. A. (Eds. R.) Contemporary Issues in Educational Psychology 230-237 Boston: Allyn & Bacon. H. 15 1-4 Gagne. Gagne. and interference effects on the retention of fact Journal of Educational Psychology 60(4) 408-414 Gagne. (Ed. M. (1968) Contributions of learning to human development Psychological Review 75(3) 177-191 Gagne. Gagne. Harstens. & Mehrens W. (1969) Context. M.. R. R. R. F. C. (1968) A systems approach to adult learning Washington University Department of Psychology Technical Report NO. N. (1962) Military training and principles of learning American Psychologist 17. M. (1970) The learning of concepts IN Clarizio. Mayor. (1973) Observations of school learning Educational Psychologist 10(3) 112-116 Gagne. & Paradise. R. L. (1980) Is educational technology in phase? Educational Technology 20(2) 7-14 Gagne. Gagne. M. (1962) Psychology Principles in Systems Development New York: Holt. (1972) Domains of learning Interchange 3(1) 1-8 Gagne. & Dick. R. R. R. H. R. M. M. (1983) Instructional psychology Annual Review of Psychology 34 261-295 Gagne. E.

R. & Gagne. M. T. (1976) Retention of related and unrelated sentences Journal of Educational Psychology 68(6) 832-852 Gagne. & White. W. T. & White. T. M. & Rohweer. M. (1961) Abilities and learning sets in knowledge acquisition Psychology Monographs 75(14) 23 Gagne. & Paradise. (1968) Some factors in children's learning and retention of concrete rules Journal of Educational psychology 59(5) 3550365 Lee S. (1969) Instructional psychology Annual Review of Psychology 20 381-481 Gagne. R. M. R. K. V. M. (1982) Characteristics of media selection models Review of Educational Research 52(4) 499-512 Gagne. R.Gagne. & White. (1978) Formative evaluation applied to a learning hierarchy Contemporary Educational Psychology 3(1) 87-94 Gagne. R. E. A. V. (1978) Memory structures and learning outcomes Review of Educational Research 48(2) 187-222 Gagne. (1969) Effects of chaining cues on the acquisition of a complex conceptual rule Journal of Experimental Psychology 30(3) 468-474 Retun to the top . M. & Gagne. R. S. & Reiser. R. M. & Wiegand. R. M. R. D. M. R. K. N. R. (1970) Effects of a superordinate concept on learning and retention of facts Journal of Educational psychology 61(5) 406-409 Gagne. R. (1970) Effects of degree of component learnings on the acquisition of a complete conceptual rule Journal of Experimental psychology 83(1) 1318 Lee S. M. R. & Wiegand. R. S.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful