70201196 Michel de Certeau the His to Rio Graphical Operation

The Historiographical Operation

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The Historiographical Operation

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. h th "ake history"? do historians really abncate w en ey m What are they "working on"1 What do they producd Inter~ ru tin their erudite perambulations around the rooms 0 the National kchYvcs, for a moment they detach ~hemselves from ~~e monumental studies that will place them among t.h~lrthiP~erbs, w alkiWha~ a:'d ) ''Wh . God's name IS s usmes. S out into the street, they ask, at 10 . d th ough about the bizarre relation I am keeping. ,:ith c~rrent ~lCty an, r . 'termediary of my technical activities, With death. h t h em. . . be no thoug t or To be sure however general or extensive it may, .' f y" , . h ci"rity of the place the ongm 0 m reading is capable of effaCl~gt e spe 'J-' . h's'mark is indelible. ech or the area in whlCh I am rescarchlOg. T 1. .. spe .' di . hich I am putting global questions on stage, .. Within the scourse m w . cnts m an "idiotism" comes forth: my way of speaking, my patOiS,repres y.
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relation to a given place. . . h hi ., But the gesture which attaches ideas to places is precIsely t e srorians

. . all .tled "The Historical Operation," was pu~study, ongm y ~ntl eds. Faire tk Phistoire (Paris: Galli" lished in Jacques Le Goff and PIerre Nora,. '. d d corrected form. mard, 1974), 1:3-41. It is presented here III reviewe an . Part of
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gesture. For them, comprehension is tantamount to analyzing the raw data-which every method first establishes according to its own criteria of relevance-in terms of productions whose locality can be determined. I VVhenfor its practitioners history becomes the very object of their reflection,' can they ever invert the process of comprehension which relates a product to a place? Historians would then be rogues; they would give way to an ideological alibi if, in order to establish the correct status of their work; they were to have recourse to a philosophical elsewhere, to a . truth formed and received outside of the channels through which, in his" ....tory, every system of thought is referred to "places"-social, economic, cultural, and so on. Such a dichotomy between what they practice and what they preach might, besides, serve the reigning ideology by isolating it from effective praxis. The dichotomy would also relegate the historians' experiments to a theoretical sonambulism. Even more, in history as in other fields, one day or another a practice without theory will necessarily drift into the dogmatism of "eternal values" or into an apology for a . "timelessness." Suspicion could never be extended over every theoretical analysis. In this sector, Serge Moscovici, Miche] Foucault, Paul Veyne, and many .others point to an epistemological awakening." A new urgency is becorning manifest in France. But only a theory which articulates a practice can be accepted, that is, a theory which on the one hand opens the practices to the space of a society, while on the other it organizes the procedures belonging to a given discipline. On a necessarily limited scale, envisaging . history as an operation would be equivalent to understanding it as the relation between a place (a recruitment, a milieu, a profession or business, etc.), analytical procedures (a discipline), and the construction of a text (a literature). That would be to admit that it is part of the "reality" with whichit deals, and that this reality can be grasped "as a human activity," or 'I'asa practicer" From this perspective I would like to show that the historicaloperation refers to the combination of a social place, "scientific" . ,5 and writing. Such an analysis of the preconditions that its dis" does not take up will allow us to specifY the silent laws which ~'M'-'~J- the space produced as text. Historical writing is constructed as Junction of an institution whose organization it apparently throws into .. . it effectively obeys its own rules, which demand to be examined for themselves.

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The Historiographical Operation
59 categories into the underground of history, just as in the cases of exegesis or sociology. . Today, t?e lesson is at our. fingertip~. "Historical facts" have already been established through the IntroductIon of a meaning into "objectivity." In the language of analYSIS, facts" speak of "choices" which are " precedents, and which are therefore not the result of observation-and which are not even verifiable but, thanks to critical examination, are only 'falsifiable=" "Historical relativity" thus forms a grid from which, over the background of a totality of history; multiple individual philosophies can be differentiated, especially those of philosophers dressed in historians' garb. The return to personal "decisions" takes place on the basis of two asOn the one hand, in isolating a philosophical element from the historiographical text, an autonomy had been presupposed for ideology: such w~s e conditi?n of its extraction. An order of ideas was set apart from historical pracnce, On the other hand (but the two operations go together), while underscoring divergences among "philosophers" discovered in historians' clothing, by referring to the unfathomed dimensions of their rich intuitions, these thinkers were considered as a group that could be isolated from society by virtue of their direct relations to reflection. Recourse to personal options short-circuited the role practiced upon ideas by social localizations. 8 The plurality of these philosophical subjectivities ~ad from that point the discreet effect of retaining a singular position for mtellectuals. As questions of meaning had been discussed anwng them, the clarification of their differences of thought came to bestow upon the entire group a privileged relation to ideas. None of the interference of prO~~lCtion, f technique, of social constraint, of professional or political o poSitIon could bother the harmony of this relation: a silence was the postulate of this epistemology.
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historiographical research is articulated over a socioeconomic, ~olitical, and cultural place of production. It implies an area of e1abor~~on that peculiar detenninations circumscribe: a liberal profession, a position as an observer or a professor, a group of learned people, and so forth. It is therefore ruled by constraints, bound to privileges, and rooted in a particular situation. It is in terms of this place ~at i~s meth?ds are ~stablished, its topography of interests can be specified, its dossiers and Its interrogation of documents are organized. The Unspoken
FOR T Y years ago a first critique of "scientism" revealed the relation of. "objective" history to a place, that of the subject. In analyzing what Raymond Aron has termed a "dissolution of the object," this critique took from history the privilege in which the discipline had taken so much pride when it claimed to reconstitute the "truth" of events. Moreover, "objective" history upheld with this idea of truth a model derived from a former philosophy, or from a theology dating from an even earlier time. It limited itself to translating truth in terms of historical "facts"-and the happy days of this positivism are over. Since then an era of suspicion has reigned. It has been shown that all historical interpretation depends upon a system of reference; that this system remains as an implicitly particular "philosop.hy"; that, seepin? into the work of analysis, it organizes the work surreptitiously by referrmg to an author's "subjectivity." In popularizing the themes of German historicism, Raymond Aron taught an entire generation the art ~f e?umerating the "philosophical decisions" through which the orgamzanons of raw data were ordered, as well as the code of their decipherment and the order of their exposition." This "critique" represented a theoretical effort. It marked an important step in relation to a French situation where positivistic research prevailed and where there reig~ed skepticis~ with regard to German "typologies." It e~umed un.admitted drmenslo~s as well as the philosophical presupposmons of nrneteenth-cen~ historiography. It already referred to a circulation of concepts, tha~ is, to ~e movements which throughout the century had transported philosophical

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Raymond Aron granted a reserved status to both the rule of ideas and the kingdom of intellectuals. "Relativity" was at stake only within the clos~d.pe~imetcrs of this' field. Far from calling the area into question, relanviry indeed defended it. Based on the distinction between the scientist and the political figure, one of the weakest links in Weber's theory,9 such theses demolished a pretension of knowledge, but they also reinforced the "exempted" power belonging to the knowledgeable. A place was marked "off limits" just when the fragility of what was being produced therein was revealed. The favor taken away from works that could be controlled reverted to a group which could not be controlled.

." those of "engineers.·. Whence the persistence of the gesture which circumscribes a "doctrine" by dint of an "institutional basis. that+-in all 0 Its tnum . the inheritor and equivalent of yesterday's correspondence). d 13 The birth of "disci' ith demies WI W hich Leibniz was so preoccuple . Thus. nowled e (1969) marks a rupterns. and ecclesiastical institutions become distinctly specialized.ing established at the moment when it allowed doctrines to lead history . y relevance fro~ th~ study 0 e s:erall b intellectuals). f ' t rnological structure.es. . f thc " ' S". by ItS mtervennon in so on. .' th way 0 co erence 0 . all through the faculties of the nineteenth century. scientific.. Political. f literary genre an .12 or even more f d b a milieu 0 e cunou . .. ." of pensioned needy intellectuals. pared to a biological change in the human body: like the biological change. th 'non 0 an epls e discipline mto c . In this way a social change can be com.by the hand. onwar f th ial function exercised by history. he still. in which none can be either the reality or the cause of another.•." It is a sign of an ongoing global reclassification. tions."15 The social institution ("A Society for the Study of.e fC ce the historian's pleasure I-a . plines" is linked to the creation of ~ualC? gt~Otuutl~Os~ the definition of a and ' I' b tween a SOCI lOS I From this re anon e h ' of Bacon or Descartes th fi re coextends from t e time . each "discipline" maintains its ambivalence of being at once the law of a group and the law of a field of scientific research.. Since that time this originary model has become ubiquitous." laws are developed acof the theoretical place were: in C and combine in global sys' hi h ' tific discourses lorm cording to w lC men .within it. t has been terme onward. The same movement organizes society and the "ideas" that circulate . But it is far from being the case that one could be the cause of the other! The terms could never be easily inverted (the infrastructure becoming the "cause" of ideas) in assuming unchanged between them the type of relation that liberal think. a "scientific" place is established. takes for g~an . " I' on intact From the theses 0 ' th h presupposltlon lves. of travels that were orme y ith h learned circles and the Acaclearly in the eighteenth century..cx~ma h Likewise when Paul Veyne suethat of history (which IS. erudite. by this group's the group of historians more g . . and so forth) which make up overJapping but differential func. It is necessary rather to challenge the isolation of these terms. b" .•.") provides the ground for a scientific language (the review or the "bulletin". fro~ ~lv~7privilege accorded to a place for Aron had taken by substituting t e si e of a product While Michel ' f' . bl~k The institution does more than give a doctrine a social position. m with the assemblies of erudites (for example in the seventeenth century ith th rworks of correspondences and ' d P' s). the most rem th strong position that Raymond sociated with great diffic~lty. d as a pOint 0 rereren . at a time when universities fall into sclerosis as they become secluded. A rupture provides the basis for a social unity which will then become "science. and hence the possibility of turning a correlation back into a relation of cause and effect.tiped . WI e ne at Saint-Germain.'its "narrative. social.re . . knowledge. It is seen also in the form of subgroups or of schools. throu h an analysis which overvalued or hld?e~s to th~ir object might be called an inthe relation of individual subJec " f modern sciences as shown h Id It arks t e ongm 0 . no~ by c anhcet)R' mond Aron's passage had still in d ' ithin history w a ay ceeds 10 estroYlOg WI h ' hi work interpretive systems " I' ce"-w en m IS retained as a causa scicn al 'and personal decisions. while inside is sketched the foundation of a knowledge that cannot be dissociated from a social institution. In the fashion of a withdrawal relative to public and religious affairs (which are themselves also organized in particular bodies). id f ociety 14 but rather the founB that we mean not an exile outsi e 0 s . . 10 In this respect The Archthaeolo~ 10/ K flicts ~d the techniques of a ' duci ce bo socia con ture "by mtro uclOg at on. y . Outside of this break is outlined a place which is connected with others within a new whole. It is parceled into orders of manifestation (economic. We have therefore not an absence. stitution of know e [qe. thanks to the school of Annales (1947). I T HIS place left. notably . ing nothing subsisting 10 . leavcrumble into a dust of person percfepnhons ther than the rules of a . ith e h 19u d a "depoliticization" of intellectuals. but a particular place in a redistribution of social space. WI Wa . I (:m~ The Historical Institution . the "thought" of an ' all f e to the su jecnvity or Foucault de~les re erenc ted at least in his first books. . still appears at t e '" I' itly withdrew all epistemological 38 d that presupposlt!on Imp lCl istorvv b 19. y the play of public forces. and ' practices and laws . From the "Students of Man" of the Enlightenment up to the creation of the sixth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. ph and controversy .60 PRODUCTIONS OF PLAC~S The Historiographical Operation arkable works on history seem to be disEven nowadays. Wit t e . socioeconomic and symbolic systems combine without being idenor ranked in hierarchies. It makes it possible and surrepticiously detennines it. 61 dation of professional "bodies. and so on. the autonomy author.

his personal philosophy. This re anon WI • itho t also calling into question the tory and could not be take~ up WI u f hi . as IO~. a ' wer which has its own logic.. 1 d b t (historians fight either for or . the question at which Habermas' critical sociology is aiming has already been traced in historical·discourse. an w lC IS . expenence a rcmar a. f n on th c scicnn lC 20 and stratific msntu 10 illity' C three-quarters of a century. juridically defined or spontaneously accepted right to profess a . h f: peditions to the nearest reg10ns F h cult re whic avors ex vinisrn of rene cu u. f fact matron 0 W a ill .provided with . a "repoliticization" of the human sciences is needed: progress may never be measured or attained without a "critical theory" of the current status of these sciences in society. A "we" takes hold of language for itself by virtue of being placed in the speaking subject's po_ sition. which would attribute history either to an individual (the author.. If it is not "received" by the group. ld Spain Italy Latin Arnerof Latin refcren~e ~th~ M~dltedrdir~~ean~t: finanCial meads. .). society. . even jf it may be its financial and moral support. . an ideological passages from soma~]zanon to sy~ I order iust as every individual utdiscourse is proport~oned t? a soc~~ t org~izations of the body. '''.. etc. such as th~ ver 'tin which does not take into account suits from an interpr~t1v~ brackc ~olization. h tonograp y consun . as semiotics would cast the formula.L Ell dE L ..21 Moreover. in the aca eITllCwor rose to th: hIg?est POSlt1. It dentes :.J:} ." in which a plural subject "utters" the discourse.~~~the constraint exercised by the social taboo others' umverslty careers. It replaces these subjective pretensions or editying generalities with ." It has to be "accredited" in order to accede to historiogtaphical enunciation. ld and who "ruled over ' . it refers to an "enunciative verisimilitude"). eory an . The authorial "we" corresponds to that of true readers. 'bed by the linguistic c au. efer the "state of a science" to a thers these traits r l' ibl Among many 0 . There are laws of the milieu. Without waiting for the theoretician's denunciation. d. to SOCIetym~st In history every 0 . As the student but lately spoke to his class but had his teacher behind him.' against Scigno os or .) or to a global subject (the time. In the text. d d "maintains kf whl~h graun s an f rth "Scientific" discourse which does not spea a cessive ~orks. could never qualify a study as being "historiographical. but which are decisive for authors as soon as they wish to write a work of historiography. t of "scholars . The mediation of this "we" eliminates the alternative. exclusively national of a hisd e the interests too We must also un erscor. . 1-.19 the effects of a strongly centralize tenured chairs and preslden cles " 'fi evolution of history.ra dl's'cI'pline in its development in sue. etc.. vteryf distortion owing to the elim. but whose constraints do not. "d ctrine" which represses its relation. expressed it . h an obey Its own aw ." :." and so does the relation of this discourse to a social instirution.. : ica). i~ f. The public is not the veritable recipient of the history book."r . d Th 't undergoes errec s 0 it ISelaborate.d of Marxist t.i . the positivity of a place over which discourse is articulated. considered more or less benevolently. etc.. as Jurgen Habermas' research has shown. .h t i us I. and so. 18 he link between the weak influence of the monumental doctoral th. the book falls into the category of a "popularization" which. a place. . b Febvre) or clrcumscn . h d the SOCIalrecnntmen . Ian ua e which is proportioned to other types the SOCIalchange forms a .esls. or brought to consCI~us~ess. the text in itself avows its relation with the institution.&22_ 62 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES I The Historiographical Operation analyze historical discourse independently of the instirution in respect to which its silence is organized.. t. which has ' d i . It w?ul~ its relation to ~e S~C1 we face a uestion central to the histon. aphical discourse. f: hi 16 . status 0 Istonogr t" f 1965 on French historiography. From this standpoint. ienced k ble "tranqui 1 lor .F !i .al°"OC:dy" could never establish a practice. That terance is produced In relan?n to silen s does not impede it from being . They organize a "police" around the work." In this way historical discourse takes priority over every particular historiographical work. . th matter with respect to which be regarded as abstract. " discourse as suc c h b d which speaks 10 Its own linked to what it does not say-to teo y. a work is valued less by its buyers than by the author's peers or colleagues. situates It but w ithout its either being . Jean In his "General Repor tho discreet connections existing between a Glenisson evoked some of e" f search by some professors who knowledge and a place: the supervision aderni '. It is therefore impossi e to situation which is its unspoken con tl0n. who rank it according to scientific criteria different from those of the public...al ~he "medical" isolation of the body reof language. They circumscribe possibilities whose Contents vary. h led by mterna e a es . .u: s no longer ~e s~le~tlfic" ~~~e social bod~ is specifically the object of hislabors. the ''we'' stages a social Contract "among ourselves. the author's "we" refers to a convention (or. Or to dream of a renewal in the discipline that would be assured by the mere modification of its concepts without an intervening transformation of acquired situations. Inversely. For example. What Foucault calls "the status of individuals who are the only ones to have the formal or traditional. d hi h limited III a non . but without the latter being reduced to the former.

with a "state of the question.tt-makes the' historian at the same time that the atomist ideology of a "liberal" profession maintains the fiction of the authorial subject and leads everyone to believe that individual research constructs history. These constraints are not accidental.constltu~e.24 depends upon an advanced degree (the au:tgation) . a characteristic mode of organization. . 25 Despite attempts to break these barriers..) expresses . its own type of psychosocial recruitment. the application of sr:ecific mcth~.!'I!'IJ. etc. They are part of research. In a more general fashion.It is a work. "M e.:tth It.!!I'!"".I' discourse of this SOrt'..#. a w?rk that represents some progress in respect to the current st~~us <_>f hlst?nc~ "objects" and methods.g!!l!. Every individual result IS inserted into a netwo~k whose elements narrowly depend upon one another.3_!!!.l individual must learn or practice "good" methods). a "historical" text (that IS to.. leaders. s . It is also organiu:d by a profession which has its own hierarchies. recogmzed as such by peers. and whose dynamic combination forms history at a certain time. and Its (educated) public. A particular study will be defined ~y ~e relation that it upholds with others that are cont~m~oraneous . Is It by chance that we move from "social history" to "economic history" between the two wars. Far from representing the shameful and unwarrantable interference of a foreigner in the Saint of saints of intellectual life. even where it is unspoken: Hidden connections can be recognized among sectors first assumed to be.. These methods defme the parameters of institutional behavior." Because of this dichotomy. A social situation changes at once the mode of work and the type of dlScourse. . foreign. and made manifest).. on favors that social or political proximities bring to this Or that study. manuscnpts.26 around the time of the Great Depression of Historians in Society ACCORDING to a rather traditional concept amo~g.III thus . has been elaborated. They are nonetheless scientific." -o PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operatum . while the specialist is exiled from circles of consumption. they also consider the analysis of social determinations as irrelevant. . .: ligentsia since the elitism of the eighteenth century. nor IS their relarion] . when they begin to move or become immobilized together. thods' W. . Its objects (books. -~'-~-.to a social force ever expressed (the methods }. say. . and :vtth th~ outposts and divergences thus determined or g1V~npertmen~e in relation to a work in progress. It is basic in scientific research. !!'lI."~~III. that no element relative to practlCe WIll enter t h eory." It is the product of a place.to a ?roup" an . what is a "valued work" in history? . ll11!_MQII!!!'_.A!I!J~$IJ. This discourse-and the group which produces . differentiated. ._':'!!·. a displacement 10 the definition and use of d?cume~ts. be discussed.. the intellectual labor is established within the circle of writing.. and the laws of a milieu..I. that students' evolution and movements provoke among teachers. 65 are the means thanks to .. Can we say that this is "good" or "bad"? First and foremost . the acts of authority Or of withdrawal.!I!I~~I!!'!t. Akin to a car produc~d by a factory~ the hl~. Labor is based more and more on teams." . etc. in turn makes new research possible. To suppose that an antinomy exists between a social analysis of science and its interpretation in terms of the history of ideas is the duplicity of those who believe that science is "autonomous. collective body w hi1Ch categonzes the writer's "I" within the "we" of a '" " ~ of work. or which enables a speaking subject to utter his~onographlCal discourse. but without risking the imp~dence of e~oking their irnportance as initiation into a group (to be mtroduced m. ?!'J!Il! . This work is attached to a teaching activity.it is a fact. The professor is pushed toward popularization aimed at "the greater public" (students Or no). It can be discerned everywhere. Finally. the French intel.. """"""""'"'" o"":--·.:hich the power of an academic Or clerical body is defended. It is generally ~greed : ." with the problem~tlc Issues e~plO1ted by the group and the strategic points that they .!I!!L. too.cal book or article is together a result and a symptom of the group whl~h functions as a laboratory.:::rn~i#'~. in the history that is being written. The hlston. they form the texture of scientific process..an op~r~t~on which is situated within a totality of practices. !!i$!lII .). the e1abora~on of other kinds of relevance.§!!I!!~gl!ll!.~i""4i. and one that. th cation more than it is the effect merely of a personal philosophy or c resurgence of a past "reality. a work that can be situated WIthin an operative set. a new interpretation. its centralizing norms... bound to" the milieu 10 . through the mediation of credits. This aspe~ is the initial one. to the introduction of mass culture within a diversified university that is no longer an intimate area reserved for exchanges between research and teaching. to the defensive reactions. tone al stu dv IS bound to the complex of a specific and collective fabnyi . hence to the flUctuations of a clientele' to pressures that it exerts while expanding. Historical production finds itself shared between the literary work which is "authoritative" and the scientific esotericism which "produces research.:hlC~ It ."'~~.- ~. and the constraints it unveils as foreign or accessory.t!!!!!A. by priority the labor ranks the very ones who have written in such a way that the historical work ~e~nforces a sociocultural t~utology betwe~n its authors (a learned group). and therefore.!!O!I. and financial means.

clients.." the "sovereign" figure at the center of the universe of his bourgeois milieu/9 when he calls "global history" the panorama which is offered to the scrutiny of the regents of a university. wars betwe~n Catholics and Prorestanrs. explicitly associated with a sociology bas~d on the figure Tarde called the"~itiator" ~d wi~ a ':sci~~~eof p~ychI~ facts" (breaking down the mind mto rub~1Csof ~otIf~.?. when "gatherings" or common "fronts" were formed. And also when Lucien Febvre between the two world wars stated that he wished remove from sixteenth-century history the "frock" of former quarrels and take it out of the categories produced by the. Only then did it become possible to treat Rabelais as a Christian-that is. '. It is doubtless no longer a question of a war between the parties or great bodies of yesterday (the army. but of such kind that cc~nonu~ ennchm~nt c~eates.a 2!!22 JUJU: 66 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The H istoriographicai Operation for a long time. 27 was combined WIth the hberalI.}: tile hemorrhage of their forces has brought with it a folklorizing of their programs. and if he is able to go beyond them. the church. and "representations").~ssumpt~o~sof their group.. and political ~port~ce of "culture" is felt." ." which functions as the antidote to Marxist analysis and . . A social change pro~ldes historical distance 1I1 relation to what is becoming an entirely past tune. but the scholarly. and when the. econ~mic. Zambia." and aU the equipment of Zusammenhang." "Neutrality" refers to the metamorphosis of convictions into ideologies. This brings neither better nor more objective c?ncep~ons: but . the religious quarrels contmued to be waged . the same issues are ubiquitously at stake today-even if we leave aside the role of the social and political rifts which extend to publications or nomina~ons. they adopted the social structure and. is'implicated?3! However genial and new it may be. it is only because they correspond to past situations. in a technocratic and anonymously produc- 1929' or that cultural history wins out at the moment when the social. historical practIce IS entirely relative to the structure of society. In this way Lucien Febvrc follows in the footsteps of his forebears. With or without the fire that burns through Lucien Febvre's books. where tacit interdictions arc in play..~elJ"':'here thr~u~ mass media and leisure tune? Is It by chance that the historical atomism of Langlois and Seignobos. and so on. of authorities who signed with their proper names to protect a patnmony. before its power enlarges WIth the centralizing ~x~ tension of the university and it imposes the norms and codes of lay.0 . when the forces that had been opposed were dispersed into difterent categories. and patriotic evangelism developed in the nineteenth century by the '. 1ffipUlsIO~S. Doesn't the founder of the Annales do as much when he promotes a hisitorical quest and Reconquista of "Man. then the university intelligentsia. etc. the existence of firmly constructed social units defined the diverse levels of research: there were archives circwnscribed within the events of the group and still close t~ famil~ papers.another ready-made "frock" is cast over him by the place he fills in the conflicts of his present time.hides under a "cultural" homogeneity the class conflicts in which he. a catego~ of pat~ons or.does in?icate a different situation. and therefore to stop favoring the cause of the Re~ormation or the Christian Democrats in the political or religious histonography of the academy. But these struggles lost their sociopolitical importance after the First World War." "collective psychology. but the SOCIal umt on which they depend is no longer of the same sort: i~ is n~ lon~e~ a locality. with "mentality.. as a witness to a past time-to withdraw from divisions no longer inscribed within the daily life of a society. and ideals. .. .the service of ho. even if it entailed making them undergo a critical deviation. underdeveloped regions. As presuppositions of their understanding. when. although not on religious grounds: between republicans and traditionalists. vis-a-vis their motherland g~eat or sm:tI. the university. liberal. no longer settled there. and because . In fact. from Lo~re to. the runeteenth century bore the flags of religious "parties" 10 . and the true battles are . the motto ~f ~e Monumenta Germaniae: Sanctus amor patnae dat anzmum. he founds one more "ide.r" from the outset he was attestmg to the ~sappearance of those ideological and social struggle~ which in. From collecting documents to wntmg books. works dedicated" to subjects of local interest that furnished a language common to limited but faithful readers. too. his history is no less sociallymarked than those which he rejects. or between the leole publique and the ecole fibre. Studies on broader subjects do not escape this law. In the France of a ~ecent past.today historiographical topography and ordermg WIthout having either Its origin avowed or its relevance assured. mologous campaigns. "conquering bourgeois.~st" structure. economy began to organize the language of French life. ~h~c~ distinguishes itself at once from the "petty history" and ~rom provmcl~I~m and the common people..sm of the reIgning bourgeoisie at the end of the ninetec?th century? Is It by c?ance that the dead spots of erudition-those which arc neither an object nor a place for research-happen to be. a recruitment of erudite scholars devoted to a cause and adopting.

by moving discourse into a non-place] ideology forbids history from speaking of society and of death-iri other words. is now left open to orders and pressures coming from without. etc. musicology] "folklorisrn. all theory is excluded. diplomatics. research is circumscribed by the place that a connection of the possible and impossible defines. there can be no analysis which does not depend wholly upon the situation created by a social or analytical relation. the exteriority of what is done in relation to what IS sal~. History would only begin with the "noble speech" of interpretation. Even more..It is equally within this combination that work destined to modify it plays its role. economic. It makes possible certain researches through the fact of common conjunctures and problematics. today. political-postulates of anal~sIs. and the disappearance of a place where a force is connected to a certain language. would be substituted for the c~nnectl~n of dls-. it is determined by the fact of a localized fabrication at such and such a point within this system. it plays the role of a cens~r Wl~ respect to current-social. Discourse takes on the color of the walls. If it were envisaged solely as "saying. The historiographical institution is inscribed within a complex that permits only one lOnd of production for it and prohibits others. . Besides.a . unexpressed is at once the unavowed dimension o~texts that h~ve ~ecome pretexts. codicology. and therefore by Its relation to the limits that the body assigns either in respect to the particular place whence one speaks. It is known for a fact that. it excludes from dlscou~se what is its basis at a given moment. just anything . Connecting history to a place is the condition of possibility for any social analysis. that is.non-pla~e. Denial of the specificity of the place being the very principle of ideology.them). this meant epigraphy. dead) that is spoken about. From this point of view we can now move to a more programmatic perspective. ' In any event. Therefore. Insofar as the university is foreign to practice and to technicalities. But it makes others impossible. In matters of options." Formerly. taking account of the place where it is produced only allows historiographical knowledge to escape from the unawareness of a class that would fail to recognize itself as a class in relations of production. colonized university. the." to affirm a power that everyone "surely knows" has already vanished!" What Permits and What Prohibits: The Place BEFORE knowing what history says of a society." computer science. ctc. silence replaces affirmation. Discourse can no longer speak of the elements which specify it. But taking the place seriously is [he condition that allows something to be stated that is neither legendary (or "edifying") nor aropical (lacking relevance). Within it the scientistic expansionism or the "humanistic" crusades of earlier times are replaced by retreats. or in respect to the other object (past. Nothing of what is produced in it is yet said about it.This combination of permission and interdiction is doubtless the bhnd spot of historical research. paleography. To the contrary. history is ~ef1Oed.of positions to be respected and of patronizing practitioners to be solicited. we have to analyze how history functions within it.34' everything that places history in rapport with techniques is classified as '''auxiliary science. "all the same. Thus. in Marxism as in Freudianism.entlrd~ by a relation of language to the (social) body. it i~ "neutral. from being history."-~~~ I 'I 68 PROD UCTION S OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation ! 69 tivist society that can no longer either designate its choices or keep track of its powers (in order to avow or to denounce . envisage paths that are opened. or an imaginary place. Today as yesterday. d cease to pursue the epistemological situation that thus far a sociology of historiography has been revealing. History is entirely shaped by the system within which it is developed.. a labyrin~ ." legend would be reintroduced into history." It even becomes the means of defending places instead of bemg the statement of "causes" which might express a desire.u: . a body deprived of autonomy 10 measure WIth Its expansion. course to social places. A PRACTICE "MAKING history" is a practice. . and that would likewise fail to recognize the society in which it is inserted. In fact] there is a decisive option here: the importance that is accorded to technicalities turns history either in the direction of literature or the direction of science. the . papyrology. Here. and also the reason why it is incompatible with n)importe quai. would this unexpressed not betray the refere~ce of co~servative historiography to an "unconscious" both endowed WIth a magic stability and transformed into a fetish by the need one has. It would finally be an art of discourse delicately erasing all traces of labor. Such is the double function of the p~ace. To take seriously the site of historiography is still not tantamount to expounding history.

activity. History as such becomes involved in this . In "life. A comparable manipulation would be the manufacturing of goods made of already refined matter." According to their methods.' But the fields open to history can never be solely new objects furnished to an unchanged institution. and so on) that are distinguished within the continuum of perception through the organization of a society and the systems of relevance which belong to a "science. or by making a social institution shift from one status to another (for example. Generally speaking. and finally between nature and culture. Their techniques situate them specifically in this articulation. sounds.l'RODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation 7 I rf" i:·. or into the esthetic (for example. and thus modify the nature of man. Placed as we arc at the level of this practice. that is. From wastes. Tfe Nature-Culture Connection NO doubt it is an overstatement to say that "time" provides the "raw data of historical analysis" or its "specific object. the history of techniques . visage how it deals with "natural" elements in order to change them into :v a cultural environment.tion tha~ was already outli. central sec:or" to be " what Labroussc calls "social history. the history of son a! groups and their relations. a forest that is exploited). relation of discourse with the techniques engendering it. images." biolog_)' discovers a language spoken before speakers ever appear.4o Already history has been directed first toward economy. a "renewal [of nature]. They modify space in the manner of the urban designer who integrates fields into the town's network of transportation.. But historians are not satisfied with translating one cultural language int? another. stones. 43 ~n.: If it is true that the organization of history is relative to a place and a time. the work of tile historian carries it from one region of culture ("curiosities. and so forth. An orienta. Historical work participates in the movement through which a society transforms its relation to nature by changing the "natural" into the utilitarian (for example.) to another (history). . papers. w hi h i " at once a glVen an d a or k .45 . like others. then toward "mentalities. is subject to rules.?~ring the period between the wars. sounds.lstory of men in their close relations with the earth. medicine. as Moscovici has said.ned .36 IC IS Research follows along this changing border between the glVen and the created. PsychoanalYSIS discerns the articulation of a desire in discourse that is organized in ways other than those expressed through consciousness. In this fashion is relativized the privilege invested in social history throughout the nineteenth century. and glaciers acquire the status of symbolic objects).. collections. a mountain turned into a landscape). From their documentation (in which they include pebbles. Serge Moscovici has most convincingly shown35~although from another perspective-that history is mediated by technique." with the instruments that pertain to it. They fashion an artifice of nature. every society thinks of itself "historically. no longer do we face the dichotomy which opposes the social to the natural. on sickness. social productions into historical objects. But the term "instrument" is equivocaL At stake are not only means. vegetables.39 All of this will modify profoundly a history that assumed its -. The signs are multiplying. They can change elements into culture that they have extracted from natural areas.44 on mutations of sexuality. history of the body.. is combined with what is crucial to current scientific . but it can no longer isolate the indefinite extension of social constructions from the natural structures that it changes." archives.. This immense work site promotes. ctc..I'" In this way "the social order is marked as a form of the natural order. a: church that is converted into a museum). First transforming the raw material (a primary source) into a standard product (secondary source). Here they undertake a practice of manipulation which. They participate in the work that changes nature into ·environment." They work on materials in order to transform them into history. the becommg of nature. the interest III geogr~phy and ~l a h.) to their books (where plants.. A ~ociety's relation with itself. and how it makes transformations effected within · the relation of a society and its nature accede to literary symbolization. etc. they proceed to a displacement of the separation be· tween nature and culture. instigated through our intervention." thus oscillating between the twO terms of the relation that research is increasingly honoring: nature and culture. environmental science modifies the moving combinations of nature and industry. and the . that is.. microbes. this is first of all because of its techniques of production..."?' is emphasized with studies on the construction and the combinations of urban spaces. historians deal with the physical objects (papers. but the connection between a socialization of nature and a "naturalization" (or a materialization) of social relations. In a different field. .>46 historians make something different: they make history. .37 It "reunites humanity to matter differently. and often enough today.. and not as an entity opposed to it.42 on the migrations of plants and their socioeconomic effects.. irideed from glaciers and "eternal snows. the "becoming other" of the group according to a human dialectic. We must en.

In history. in effect.. a mortuary circulation which engenders as it destroys. They passively receive objects distributed by producers. or of the poet who completely transforms the relations between a "noise" and a "message. etc. classification. .>47 other words. prmtmg. order to confer upon them tile status of "abstract" objects of knowledge. bmding." A technical operation is necessary. bureaucrats. Louis XII. Far from accepting "data. at one of its strategic points. conserved. First linked with juridical activity among men of letters. redefines elements of knowledge. and copied) whose meanmg IS hereafter defined by the relation of every item to the whole set (the collection). Such books no longer produce these transformations in the fields of culture. of putting together. . they are a token of a techmcal system which was inaugurated in the West with "collections" assembled in Italy. the operation establishes a "government of nature" in a way that concerns the relation of the present to the past-insofar as the latter is not so much a "given" as a product. This gesture consists in "isolating" a body-as in physics-and "denaturing" things in order to turn them into parts which will fill the lacunae inside an a priori totality. To be sure. The. and "property rights") and with the producnon of new ~bJe~ (documents that arc set aside. as it topples the instruments of work. classlfymg-and with the products he multiplies. redistributes things.. then in France. ma~erial is created through concerted actions which delimit it by carvrng It out from the sphere of use. of transforming certain classified objects into "documents. the enterprise expands and conquers as soon as it passes into the hands of specialists. Here I do not wish to hark back to historical methods. mg. It becomes the vestige of actions which modify a received order and a social vision. this rupture is therefore neither uniquely nor from the first the effect of a "gaze. From this feature common to all scientific research we can specify precisely those points where technique is marked. the cornbma~lon of. places ("libraries")."48 It exiles them from practice in. while in contrast "literature" intends to work upon languge and make a "text" stage what Raymond Roussel describes as a "movemen» of reorganization. In the words of Jean Baudrillard.). The science that is born (the "erudition" of the seventeenth century) inherits with 'these "establishments of sources" -technical institutions-its basis and rules. or photographing these objects. actions which seek also to know it beyond the limits of use. transcribing. In fine point." Historians metamorphose the environment through a series of transformations which change the boundaries and the internal topography of culture. it displaces the connection tying culture to nature. In a society. From 1470 on it is allied with ~rinting.¥.50 It is productive and rcproductive.i PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation of the architect who regulates the lake with dams. tides. the "collection" becomes a "library. and recorder-keepers." The establishment of signs offered for specific treatments. and which aim at giving it a coherent new use. What is "scientific" in history and in other disciplines is the operation that changes the "milieu" -or what makes an organization (whether social. I intend only to raise the type of theoretical problem that an examination of its "apparatus" and technical procedures can open in history. the dukes of Milan. of Pierre Henry. co~unication. By means of several probings.) the condition and place of a transfimnation. the c01lector becomes an agent in the concatenation of a history to be made (or remade) according to new intellectual and social relevances." while literature becomes more and more so. and so on). literary. Th~ origins of our National Archives already imply. they align themselves all the more with the consumer's behavior."sl "ColJe~ting" . in this form In history ceases to be "scientific. When historians suppose that a past already given is unveiled in their text. lawyers. simultaneously changing their locus and their status. :or a l?n~ time ac~~y means manufacturing objects: copying or print. and practices (of copyrng. we can observe nowadays that an increasing mass of historical books arc becoming novelistic or mythic. Charles of Orleans. it places things in a "marginal system. In these areas the creation of a new task ("collecting") is combined with the satisfaction of new needs (justification of recent and familial groups thanks to the establishment of ~eir own tra~tions. In reality it consists in producing such documents by dint of copying. etc. a -?roup (the "erudite"). It observes the laws of multiplication." This new cultural distribution is the first task. They "civilize" nature-which has always meant that they "colonize" and change it. 73 The Establishment of Sources or the Redistribution of Space I N history everything begins with the gesture of setting aside. who changes a squeaking door into a musical motif. ." this gesture forms them. and inaugurates a place for a new begin. It forms the "collection" of documents. from the fifteenth century ~nwar? They were financed by great patrons who wanted to appropnate history for themselves (the Medici family. Hence the collection.

. they only show the gap between received "ideas" and practices which will change them sooner or later.53 But on the other side. songs." is opposed the symbol.. particular element and.en erudition and mathematics are crucially important. the iii. to life. as in former times. the situation is the inverse: from now on. urban topography. also a founding g:sture.. as Andre Regnier says. the layou~ of fa._- production of techniques and objects prope. In fact. .asslfications. means. or of lending curre~cy to a pOSSibility . an ideology of "real" or "true" historical "facts" still hovers in the air of our time. emblem. signified. If one can judge from the evolution of their work. on~ of bringing these "inunense dormant sectors of documentatl. which sticks to the Limits posed for example by ."S8 Its practice consists in constructing "models" that are posited deliberately. and not in relation to a "reality. Contemporary analysis upsets procedures linked to the "symbolic analysis" which had prevailed since the time of romanticism and which sought to recognize a given and hidden meaning. The Issue IS ~ot .. etc. To be sure] to the ClP?er] a code destined to construct an "order.57 Yet this is nothing more than a . recipes. or "strucrure. the work shapes tools. Certainly. It is destined to play the same role . a symptom of a larger scientific institution.74 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES Tfe Historiographical Operation 75 ning through the building of wha~ Pierre C:haunu call~ a "gigantic machine" that will make an entirely different history possible. ." judging the scientific value of this object according to the "field of questions" to which it al- .rmtands.r to it. of giving a voice to silence. Analysis regains the confidence in abstraaion which characterized the classical period-but an · abstraction which today is a formal set of relations. and result of a displacement. 56 Similar to palcorechnical factories.!. other kinds of «apparatus" allow the study of new questions and answers. for example. these sc?olars arc oriented toward the methodical invention of new systems of signs 52 thanks to analytical procedures. .:omt~ thing else which functions differently.: ~. and so forth." The objects of investigation can only be those which can be constructed formally before programming takes place. through an institutionalizing ·action and through transformational techniques. "replacing the study of concrete phenomena by that of an object shaped through its definition.o~. Nowadays the institutional procedures raise more fundamental problems than are indicated by these initial signs. in the name of new relevance. Today the establishment of sources requ!res. . first of all. Any change in the use of archives cannot be foreseen without their overall form being changed. in ascribing a place for itself through the "establishment of sourees"-that is to say. . ~oo. A work is "scientific" when it produces a redistribution of space and when it consists.senes H 10 the National Archives. and so on. by the co~bl~atlon of a place] ~n apparatus" and techniques. blazon. ! I ~ ' ~' . even if the thresholds and deto~rs arc numerous. Th~ arc preoccupied by the dream of a totalizing taxono. the use of the computer. The transformation of "archivistic" activity is the point of departure and the condition for a new history. in part.:that the erudite "machine" had played in the seventeenth and eighteenth ·centuries. A first sign of this displacement: there IS no task which does not have to use common sources otherwise and. For every historical practice establishes its place only thanks to the apparatus which is at once the condition. Linked to a received text which refers to a hidden meaning within the figure (allegory. I will choose only one example. and which therefore does not define Its own field of study. symbol implies the necessity for an authorized commentary by whomever is "wise" or profound enough to detect this meaning. Yet this is tantamount to folklorizing former practices: such frozen words outlive battles long ended. fr?m the .~nly. The same technical institution prohibits formulation of new answers to different questions. It means changing something which had its own definite status and"role mto. especially analysis and synthesis. national or municipal archives formed a segment of the apparatus that formerly determined operations adopted to a system of research. they want to invent languages that will assure their understanding of them. . Through the intermediary of the ~pher. the label research c~ not be applied to a study that purely and Simply adopts fo~mer cl.end of the sixteenth century up to Leibniz through Peiresc and Kircher. Erudite scholars want to develop into a whole the innumerable "ranties" that the endless trajectories of their curiosity bring back to them. And." homologies betwe. it even proliferates in a literature on history. into documents.). popular imagery.". the systems made possible by the cipher-fr?m the series of "curiosities" to the artifical or universal languages (we might say from Pciresc to Leibniz)-are however inscribed along the line of development that establishes the construction of a language and. therefore. Francois Furet has shown several of the effects produced by the "constitution of new archives recorded on perforated tapes": meaning is made only as a function of seriality. which pl~y~ a central role in this "art of decipherment.my an~ by the Will to create universal instruments proportioned to their passlo~ for comprehensiveness.54 Accordingly. change the function of archives formerly defined by a religious or "familial" use. .

contemporary scientific analysis aims at reconstructmg objects from "simulacra" or "scenarios. which is still the placewhere researchers circulate. and. In relation to material produced through the advent of serial constructs and their combinations. the incoherences. in this form of a limit r~latIve to models.re~atIon between reason and the real. and whose qiling they accept. at providing itself through the relational models and languages (or metalanguages) it produces wi~ the. . it seems.e of programmmg that ~e use of the apparatus necessitates.(~hether physical. former "interpretation" becomes the manifestation of a deviation relative to these .e?eralized system could be mixed in the regional sys~e~ of fo~cr erudition. Libraries of the past also exercised the function of "placing" erudition within a system of research. So we ought first of all to account for the technical institution which. strictly speaking. through the objects of research that have to be construc~ed. before we analyze in depth the operational trajectories that history maps over this new space.Thus the epistemological moments (of conceptualizati0r:' .ther end.. In this way.s. but a different one. In the seventeenth century. It.. It also imposes its law on practice. history. or biological). organizes the locus where from now on all scientific research circulates.61 What is important is not the combination of series obtained thanks to a preliminary isolation of significant points according to preconceived . literary." that is. "establishing . and It IS r~Jected at the o. the library of Colbert's deSIgn-or Its . the computer) which places hlsto~ l~tO ~ ne. A science grew around this apparatus.do~mcnt~tl~n. IS ~e principle of an epistemological redistribution of the moments of scientific research. the limits of the model's range of meanmg. nor even proof of a survival of the ancien regime in postrevolutionary France.PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation lows response and the answers that it furnishes. or between culture and nature. But it was a regional system". which doubtless always remains to b. history tends to manifest the limits of the . ir: a broad fashion. means .m()dels. The establishment of sources (through the mediation of Its current ~pparatus) therefore involves not only a new delimitation of the . but only the unforeseen coincidences. or refined material) and their arrangement in places where they can be categorized and shifted. This schema is probably still quite abstract. "Going to the archives" is the statement of a tacit law of history. geneity that can be o~ technical Use... ar:d in relation to what this machine permits.rar:ge of ~eaning" of these models or languages. in the construction of models. in the relation between the extreme poles of the entire operation: on the one hand. In this way historical research is staged. to which they make reference. It IS developed in relation to the prohibitions that the machme establishes. in the attachment of a "degree of meaning" to the results obtained after all of the combinations of processed information have been completed. it meets again what formerly appeared as a pa~t r~la~ve ~o an epistemology of origins or ends.e defined-but we must already note that this purpose links history SImultaneously to the real and to death. historical analysis does not have as an essential result a quantitative relation between the size and the degree of literacy among men drafted into the armed forces from 1819 to 1826. Many current studies make the movement and meaning more comprehensible. As an example. in the time of exploitation yielded by the obtal~ed resul~s. IS faithful to its fundamental purpose. in discovering hetero. But these two operations are necessaril~ base~ on the technical institution which inserts every piece of research into a generalized system. or the unknowns that this inquiry brings forth. . and on the other. 77 dition developed. "59 This last point is crucial for history.' . For if it is true that. The specification of its role is not deter~ined ~y the apparatus Itself (for example. like a monument. Now another institution is replacing this central locus.60 the exploitation made possible by the diverse operations to which this material is susceptible. finally. .tw~rk of co~straints and possibilities born of the present scientific msntunon. The most visible form of this relation ultimately consists in granting relevance to dijferences proportioned to the formal units built beforehand. through a way of dealing WIth the st~dard products of the computer. for multiplying or transforming giv~n systeo. of treatment or interpretation) that are currently distinguished inside a g. homologues-was the common ground on which the very rules of eru. the accumulation of "data" (secondary sources. ElUCIdation of what is proper to history is marginalized in respec~ to the apparatus: it flows back into the preparat~~ tim. Bringing Forth Differences: From the Model to Its Deviation THE use of current techniques of information retrieval brings historians to the point of separating what until now was combined in their work: the construction of objects of research and hence also of units of comprehension.

!he coherence is initial. He or she works in the margins. but. Based on formal entities that are deliberately put. . The often monstrous quantitative development of the search for documents had the result of introducing into the interminable process of research the very law that made it obsolete as soon ~s it :-vas . which . lacunae-that may be put to scientific use. ! .Research on the Borderlines THIS strategy of historical practice prepares it for a theorization that . . the historian moves in th~ direction of the frontiers of great regions already exploited. . forward.co~plcted.asio? t~ "remainders" (signs of limits and. of models. the forgotten world of the peasant.lS to say popularizations-one of supplying society with global repre- . These two aspects are moreover coordinate~. and beyond it this.65 popular literature.conforms better to the possibilities offered by the sciences of information . we might say that research no longer begins with. become-~apable of choosing a priori its objects. it is drawn toward the deviations that are revealed through log-.ractIce: th~y ~:msh It With the means of bringing forth differences rela~ve to connnuines or to elements from which analysis proceeds." ctc. a person who s~apes an empire. • It could be that more and more this strategy specifics not only the methods but also me function of history within the totality of sciences today.has been practiced in the past.63 madness. and taxono~es of ~alysls. and on me other. where "borderline" "borrowed" or "rejected" phenomena can be perceived. the quantity of information that can be studied in relation to these norms has become endless. With the computer. a former vocabulary that no longer corresponds to its new trajectory.PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation gi~e oc. From quantitative development according to a stable model. Even biography pl~ys a role of a distance and a margin proportioned to global ~onstruc~Ions. A strange phenomenon m contemporary histOriography must be observed.:ed With powerful centralizing strategies." Today. all these zones of silence. for if the difference is made obvious by virtue of the rigorous extension of constructed models. in time"-and to the corrective that they allow to be brought to them. It customarily began WIth limited evidence ~m~uscripts rarities etc.. But e value of this inductive totalization depended then on the quantity of accumulated information. Researc? a~crib~ objects for itself that take me shape of Its p. its social role is no longer-except in specular literature. . it is significant thanks to the relation that it keeps with them in the form of a deviation-and through this it leads to a return to these models with the aim of correcting them. synthesis (present und~rstanding). Research-and its prototype.many types of current research.) and it took as its task the sponging of all diversity . Research has totally changed.. The historian is no . He or she no longer envisages the paradise of a global history. on the one hand. 62 th off of them. No doubt we must envisage in this perspectiv~ . To usc. Thus Fernand ~raudeJ ~as shown how s~dies on "cultural areas" benefit when being SItuated 10 places of transit.longer. In this respect the hlStOCl~ becomes a prowler. It ~rec~ded it-just as a technical organization preceded the comp~ter. In a society gifted at generalization e~do. levels. It plays on the limits of models. This way of proceeding appears to overtu~n hi~t~ry as it. situanon IS i?Verte~..v" festival. He or she "deviat~' by going back to sorcery. These new objects of research attest to a movement which has been clearly visible for several years in the strategies of history.67 Occirania. unitying everything into coherent comprehension . the relation among these models and the limits that their systematic use brings to light. which IS but one more of its symptoms. the study is initially developed over unrts that It has Itself defined. history IS turning to endless changes of models. insofar as research becomes-and must. 79 this logic. through a past' which is the product of historical work)."rarities" (remainders ~rom past time) in order to advance t~ a. the capacity to transform these limits into problems with which available techniques can deal. A threshold has been passed.· but that it begins from a formalization (a present system) m order to This movement has doubdess been accelerated through the use of the computer.69 The sCienofic interest of these works cons~s~s of the relation that they keep with supposed Or posited totahtIes-"a coherence in space.:: ." "a permanenq:. The historian comes to circulate around acqui~ed retionalizarions. It might be said that the formalization of research has as its goal precisely the production of "errors"-insufficiencies. the thesis-tended to prolong the time of information-gathering indefinitely. leal combinations of series. Its methods no longer consist in providing knowledge with "authentic" ?bjccts. in view of deferring the nonethel~ss inevitable moment when unknown elements would come and demolish its basis. It vacillated when its docrunentary basis was compromised by the results harvested from new investigation~.

and the limits of validity. To be sure. by analogy.l m?d. It also might put into dynamic relation the limits proper to every system or "level" of analysis (economic.els. hoi f difference.. ogeneity relative to the homogenous wholes established by each discipline. many ~ormalisms can furmsh new reI. the other. a marvelous of abstract heads. for example. In his opinion. it no longer cuts through the thickness of a reality whose ground we would see across a transparency of language. sou~t to re~s~over. it tests these tools by transferring the~ to ~fferent areas. And.i monic levels that a rare piece awakens within a broad networ~ of know! edge. for some time. bear the venerable name of the "fact". history becomes an "auxiliary.to be precise. . the mode of the historical fact. and of situating a function of history in respect to these sciences. social. to quote Pierre Vilar. that d II . This already implies a "historical" way of using models that arc taken from other sciences. specifYing the "exact limits of . the relation with the real becomes a relation among the tenus of an operation. But. the economist is characterized by the "construction of a system of references.-c. on the thousand . Vilar has shown the errors that would be encountered with the systematic "application" of our contemporary economic concepts and models to the ancien regime. or cultur.systems of interpretation in a fashion accounting for all of their informati?n. that it uses "borrowed tools. If.as it did in the nineteenth century this central locus organized by an ep~stemol?g_y that. For the "fact" hereafter ill question IS . It IS said. In this way the area in which they are settling can still. they hoped for a "totalization" and believed that they could reconcile diverse . conditions of possibility. be recruited into a campaign against the structuralist "monstert nor it be pressed into the service of a regressi. Fernand Brandel has already given an entirely functional meaning to the analysis of borderline phenomena. history has assigned itself the task of analyzing the "conditions" in which these models are valid and.: evance for the exceptional detail. to models which. who indeed is "using" whom? Pierre Vilar shifts a similar conception. in turn. the "fact" is the designation of a . 70 . but as a development. economic. For Marczewski.ffic)Velmelllt} that has preceded him-not just because eve~ ~rue historian IS apoet ••. HIStory becomes a . IS put t ~ wo rk . Apropos of the work on." and the historian is the individual "who uses economic theory." To say this is to pose a problematic which makes one science into the instrument of another." In it a "function of falsif icanon ". speeds and in conditions which exceed the norms." A result of this enterprise. nowadays. analysis. Toutain. he raises the ~ag ?f a. But the problem is much more vast. The objects that he proposed for research were determined in relation to an operation to be undertaken (not to a reality to be rejoined). wh.t 10 ~e form of historical force. but also because. To the contrary.80 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation sentations of its genesis. at. effaced from contemporary epistemology). or which would rise to the surface of Our knowledge in the form of fragments. 74 '. The event pertains entirely to combinatory relations of rationally isolated series within which it serves to mark in turn crossing points.. T~ls IS true. meticulous detail who plays. as does the csthetician. on racetracks.n .Ile ~~ latter takes up the connection of these procedures with different scientific fields. the fact.75 In consequence. Put otherwise. are "essayed" by history in areas foreign to that of their elaboration. 10s-·· ing reality as an ontological substance.'their models a means to make deviations visible. .on t~ward f~rmer and practices.' raisi it the limits of what might be significant can be made obVIOUS relative. by virtue of example: in two of Its essential moments: one aims at the relation with the real ill. ill the same way that a touring car is "tested" by being dnven. As is always the case." History manifests a heter. too. such a return to facts .by priority hi~torians are now concerned with the complex ma11lfestatlons of these differences. History now intervenes 10 the mode of a CrItIcal expenment~tlo~ With sociological. Historians III 8r . the one which offered to an observer's knowledge the emergence of lity Combined with a constructed model. it assumes the form of real." in the words of Pierre Chaunu.ective econometrics.•. Facts have found their champion in Paul Veyne. it is inscribed 10 the ~ille of . One of Pierre Vilar's studies helps to make the principle explicit. . such is the difference. at the use of received "models" and hence the relation of history to a contemporary form of reason.?? not that . It no longer has the totalizing function which conslste~ ill taking the place of philosophy in its ~ole of stating sens~ :rod me~ng.the "law" or the "fact" (two 71 concepts. psychological. The historian is therefore not faced WIth the c oice 0 f money or your II' c" . Marczewski and J. This functioning can be shown. The "event" can also in this way recover its definition of being a caesura. and which can be inverted infinitely: finally. In place of "control. Zeitgeist and the future hidden illsl~e th~ SoCl~ body.relation. History no longer occupies .. The ~orme~ deals with the internal organization of histOrical proce?ures. fi moreover. . and in respect to existing models. and so forth).p0ssibility" of a "retrosp. .

.kn~wledge restored the same through their common ground of an evotutwn. or thought possible. and the composition of a place which esa tablishes WIthin present tune the ambivalent figuration of the past and fu- ltn: longing to the.P '. an~ so on).ences-v-in relation to current formal constructs. !hus they cre~te labor~tor~es . psychoanalytical.82 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES it is "in the service" of economy. A brief study of historical practice seems to allow three connected aspects to b~ specified: the mutation of "meaning" or of the "real" in the pr~~ction of significant. outlives each of them (somewhere) and that keeps a merely accidental relation with practice. cultural. Currently. ercised over the centuries in regard to many different "reasons. Scientific interest exterior to history defines the objects that the discipline ascribes for itself and the areas. but the relation that it maintains with diverse sciences allows it to hold. . salary. The first aspect presupposes a sudden change in historical knowledge III the last ~entury. of deviati?n would specify the intervention of history.-. It is true that .become ~e most decisive ones. the position of a particular event as tt ofw~at_ can be tho~ght." which concerns each of the established sciences: namely.meaning-that is. every discipline would be associated With an essence that presumably exists within its successive technical reincart_lations.i" The past up first. of an orientation-and by evincing in a more or less teleological writing the interior unity of a direction or a developmenr. gUl. ~ing. So it is hardly surprising to note that the nature of a science is the presupposition which must be exhumed from its effective procedures." In effect. the epiStemology of sciences begins with a present theory (in biology. But historians accept responsibility for this interest as a task be- Criticism and History W 0 R ~ on the limits . however. In other words the con'elusion of history is what used to take the form of the incipit in former historical narratives: "In times past. to permit "a radical critique of the operative concepts of urbanism". history is judged rather according to its capacity to measure ·fiev!ations exactly-not only of a quantitative nature (statistics of population. ~ «w~at lacks. ture. and not exclusively where there 15 recourse to histoncal ''facts'' or a treatment of theoretical "models.ar~ a d~fmition of research as a whole. The strategy of historical pracriceimplies a status of history. deviations. history seems to have a fluctuating objea whose determination comes less from an autonomous decision than from its interest and importance for other sciences. and.t " Atactic. This relation also suggests the purpose of connecting . Without this. as among «the differentiated cycles that characterized each one of them.them as If they were the successive or coexisting figures of a same . in respect to the models of a new spatial organization. ." Intelligence of history is linked to the capaCIty of Qrgaruzmg differences or absences that are pertinent. history represented a society ~ a collection and recollection of its entire development. One hundred years ago.) which have ~ tum . and that this is the means to make these proccd~res more precise. In other sectors the same complementarity is also found. In urban studies. life was not the way it is today.. 81 ' . to give an account of social resistances through analysis of "deep structures with slow evolution. according to the fields (sociological.· sectors of their documentation about a society.. demographic. for example) and meets history in the fashion of what was not clarified." .that. a necessary critical function. its function as form of criticism. the specificity of the space that we have reason to require of contemporary developers". History thus continues to maintain no less than ever the function that it has 0. that can be ranked.If they are accepted. =s= . inversely. of epistemological expenmentanon. to which it is successively drawn.stlc. Certainly they can gIve an ?bJectIve form to these investigations only by combining the models WIth other. in respect to each of them.history was fragmented into a plurality of histories (biological economic lin .. But among these scattered positivities. already these few indications direct us to. they put scientific formalizations into play in o~der to test _them. the limits thus made obvious. or even formerly articulated. etc. and in conformity to the problematics which orgamze them. It ~ewed all of these discontinuities together by running through . greater ~ntity o~ Re::arch... From its standpoint..· the nonscientific objects with which they practice such testing." .coul~ be located elsewhere. economic. or publication) but also qualitative (structural) differ. Choay remarks that history might be able "to have us comprehend. Whence their paradox: . because they are relative to current scientific formalizations. One of Georges Canguilhem's remarks about the history of science can be generalized to give breadth to this "auxiliary" position. through difference. historical .

. Historical knowledl?c ~oes not reveal a meaning. in opposinon to a "past. an aberrant toponymy. but rather the exceptions that the apphcatlO? of economic. and not a Versteben. this figure also introduces the rift of a future. to the contrary.. in the first case.e . On the one hand it histo.law ~at IS dIstmgUlshed from its "other" (the past)..curr~nt time.by playing on the borderlines of regularity-represents a rd ~spect of ~ts definition. In reali~~ particu1:u-i~eshave as their jurisdiction a play Over the base of. It specializes in forging pertin~nt diffe~en~eswhich ~ncre~ed." To designate th. factors. ~hose ~ctIO~ IS ~o mdicate altenty? Even if ethnology has partially re~evedhistory in this task of establishing a staging of the other in present nme-c-the reason why these two disciplines have been in intimate rapport-the past is first of all the means of representing a difference. becomes the present. Certainly this experience must be attached to th~ prag. Thus.~atlsm that in all historians..:I~~l<UJ""L4VJl" (although that may be its "basis").84 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation I Cultivated methodically. . Only universal issues are thought. The place that history creates by combining the model with its de. is ~ot within the tautology of legend or has not taken flight into ideology. A gap is folded mto the SCientificcoherence of a present time. this distance ("life was not . through hypothesis.first of all to an absence.. ~he se~o~d . The historian settles on the frontle~ where the law of an" intelligibility meets its limit in the form of w?at it must endlessly ~vcr·. fact" or "it happened" is equivalent to an understand1O~. and thus in marking through a dIsco~rse the ~ffectlve change that precipitated this distancing..fJotl!Zm· wlimits and thus of enabling us to go beyond those limits. but rather because It IS.. This operation has a double-edged effect. symbolized m history by the ranee of the proper name.moIDles belong to a rhetoric of the exceptionaL It falls into the platitude of 85 etition.••.~icizes .. effectivelr.. "meaning" is eliminated from scientific fields all the while that they are being established. Elton correctly distinguishes from the "individual"). nation and the always unexplained "that. either legendary or polemical. A reciprocal relation between the law and its limit . 84 which organizes it.. It necessitates clarification of the relation of dominant 'forms of reasoning to a pr~per place which." .. and to everyth10gthat remains outside of both knowledge and discourse. . With a material which in order to be objective is necessarily there. Like that of haglog:aphy or news Items~ s~ch course only illustrates in a thousand vanants th~ general ant. new and different shapes. ") h~s become the result of research instead of being its postulate and question. . Chronicle erudition limited to collecting particular information only Ignores the ."iations-or . but which connotes a past insofar as it refers . and that drives them to tum theory into n~cule SO But it would be illusory to believe that the mere me~tlon of .. ~ess ~r~ugh som~thing that can be objectified.meets agam.. It IS a ••.. In proximity to this first aspect. the figure of the past keeps its primary value But 'of representmg what ts lacking.. a lo~al d~op m salary.. or sociological models uncovers .and"What it end. gor in programming and its systematic exploitation allow It to bring out. n-' . the limit of what can be thoug~t."that" ~.fro~ vanous ar~as of documentation. that ::OLS'}'ffl'.element which i has rightfully established the historical discipline: the part~l~r (what G... come through its own movem~nt.. Research consists in producing significant negatI~e ..•.op~ra~ion~onsists in classifying the given according to a present .. referring back to acts.. but rather never den?mg the that these "regularities" keep with "particularities" ':Yhl~hescape Biographical detail. As it vacillates between exoticism and criticism a f'ltaging of the other. 83 . The historical. in the it becomes reactionary or revolutionary. the past. on ~e other h.and. Thus history is always . In these extreme it becomes. It is well known that a group can express what it faces-what is still through a redistribution of its past. the locus that it carves for the past is equally a fashion of . to persons. in assuming a dist~ce 10 respect to ~ acquired situation.an explicir . ~lSO: is not insofar as it is an object actually thought.simultaneouslyengenders the differentiation of a present from a past time. it oscillates between conservatism and ::Ut1oplanism through its function of signifying a lack. But it is also tantamount to maintanung as what is still unthought.•.UUU<. renew the tension between systems of . and how could this be.. they fimction by investing it with interroga~lOn.involves the . they Slg~lIfyby. "fact" is only a way of naming what cannot be unde~stD?~. More important than reference to the past ISthe I~troductlo~ the past by way of an assumed distance. But these excesses could allow us to forget what is written in its most rigorous practice. R. it stages the present time of a lived situation.:making a place for a future. demographic. The slogan about "the lessons of history" acquires new meaning in this ?U 0: I .1~ss:r.fo~ahzatlon.. and forth: all these forms of exception. . If historical comprehe~slon. Properly speaking.." . primary characteristic is not making series of selected data . If it IS true th~t: the particular designates at once both historical scrutiny and research.

it is itself a social practice which establishes a well-determined place for readers by redistributing the . and not .no historical narrative where the relation to a social body and an insntunon of knowledge is not made explicit. properly spe~g. Nonetheless there has to be a for~ of "repres~tation. A WRITING REPRESENTATION-literary staging-is "histo.I . it is didactic and magisterial.oer'aoJlv the ambivalent status of "producing history" (as Jeanhas Faye has shown). in :hlS1tori. they set apart something foreign to .. .. ~.. the text ~ust hav~ ending. what practice seizes as its limit. rts begmnmg.. The priority that practice gives to a tactic of deVl~tlOn (in respect to base furnished by models) appears to be contradicted by the closure the book or article. but in using a past in order to .or in counterfeiters' imitations of coins. is . Scriptural I 'nvenion W RITIN " T ti:" G] Or the construction of an icriture (in the broad "!~aning of the organization of signifiers).the "servitude" of writin 87_ "servitude" because. the present that they repeat. both performative writing ·~'"""""~. it represents through an en. and the substitution of a presence of meaning where lacunae were at work: perspective.' Could writing therefore be the inverted image of practice? It would have the merit of mirror writing. in children's games. and proper names. Yet at the same time. as we leave an id~o~ogyo~ inheritors as~de~ can identify . at_'ld. historical writing-or historiography-has been controlled by the practices from which it results. it imposes .>r obliterates the lacunae that arc to the contrary . It lea~ from practice to text." A space of figuration must ~e co~posed. onl~ If linked both institutionally and technically to a practice of ~evlatlO. The "servitude" that discourse imposes on research is measured with these few features-the inversion of the order.~ uncanny sort of passage. Even If we c~t asl~e everything that deals. their games designate a withdrawal that can be told in legends inverting the normal Channelsof research and superseding them. . in effect.' semble of figures. spaceof symbolic references and by thus impressing a "lesson" upon them. for research is always sharpened through lack. they produce secrets within language.. and this structure of finality bends back upon the mtrod~ctl0n. ~ ij. While the latter beg~s i~ ~e currency of a certain social place and a certain conceptual or institutional apparatu~. as exception Or as difference] as past.rical" only if i~c~ be articulated within a social place of scientific operatlon. stories. if. what it subtracts from it. the ~xposition follows a chronological order. current social relations. While research is interminable.88 as in all cryptographies. rules] and historical concepts which form a system among themselves] and whose coherence is owing to a unity designated by the author's proper name.n m. it is illusory only insofar as. which is already organized by the need to finish.85 we still must envision the operanon that turns the practice of investigation into writing. we the "moral of history" with this mterstice created within the events of the day through the representation of differences.. limited field of research to what Marrou calls". fictions forging deceit and •. In becorning a text '. the text makes present... Playing on sides. Mirror writing is serious because of what it does-it states something other through the inversion of the code of practice. it exorcisesand confesses a presence of death amidst the living. it gives way to lack and yet hides it. they hide their relation to practices that are no longer historical but now political and commercial.u the final two sections of this chapter) and mirror writing. Put otherwise. the very principle of research." be sure. . tracing the sign of a silence through the inversion of a nonnative practice and its social coding. it creates these narrativesof the past which are the equivalent of cemeteries within cities.. A transformation assures the passage from the un '.89 and also of "telling stories"-that is. history conforms to a second constraint. at once contractual and legendary. ~her~ IS. the closure of the text. secrets. the foundation o~ a textual space carrie. one takes its secret to be what it puts into language. scriptural representation 'becomes "full".86 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The H istoriographicai Operation sented as a stable architecture of elements. This is the case for the "mirrors of history. Finally] in order to • maintain itself by means of some few examples. it functions as an inverted image. With a stru~ral analysis of hIStorical discourse. not realizing what it is doing. with it a series of distortions in respect to at_'laJ~caJpr?cedU:~ • With discourse a law contrary to the rules of pracnce IS seerrungly . It takes the oldest pomt as. In fact. I I 1 j Ii: po~~~ first constraint of discourse consists in prescribing for beg~gs' what is in reality a point of arrival] and even what would be a van1Shl~g point in research. respect to contemporary theoretical or cultural models. even more. Thus the whole 15 pre- . it fills <.

. It edifies as it amuses. the weather is bad. It allows for play and furnishes an area of knowledge with the possibility of being produced in a "discursive" time (or a "diegetic" time." it t ISnow legitimate to maintain them together.. we can better clarify the relations of difference and continuity that writing keeps with the discipline of research.. The service that allusion to this re~erential time renders to historiography can be envisaged under three diverse aspects.91 Among a thousand other examples. out of touch and reductive in respect to the Cahier.92 produce effects of meaning. tam~g the rcJ~tion of a rationality with what takes place outside of it. By specifying a few aspects of historiographical construction.?e weather. the conflicts. the gaps in lOgIC.. skittering away as it does from rigorously un~sed limits. the isolation of global "conjunctures.self in respect to his readers." just like narrative or cinematic techniques. it is separated from passing time. scrip~ral. indeed has to be paid for with its counterpart. redistribute and codify the uniformity of flowing time. This IS a general problem. where it explicates. but only one or the other. is in its turn a simplification. if we introduce temporal difference so as to transform the propositions into :'Yesterday.enthymematlc. and.rranvecan ke~p9~~\the appe~ance of syUo?ism. it occupies their place and hides their absence. . . To be sure. it IS a narrative that functions as a discourse organized by the locusof "interlocutors" and based on what the "author" ascribes for him'. so to speak. in order to furnish models within the fictional cadr~ ~f past time. This difference already takes the form of a splitting in two. In contrast.. more broadly.the system to . Thus it is the instrument par excellence of all discourse that alms to "understand" antinomical positions (it sufficesthat one of the terms of conflict be classified as past). on. it pretends to be reasomng. Thus..91 and also its social function as a practice.:as . and the combinations of microdecisions that characterize concrete research.Its borderlines. but. from the same place and within the same text. as Gerard Genette .).fact. In respect to the flat space of a system nar. Claude Bernard's Cahier rouge (1850-~860) represents a chronicle that is already distinct from the actual expenmentation in his laboratory.ranVIZatlOn reates a "depth" which allows the contrary or the re~ c mamder Of. . permitting the innovation of synchronic tables and renewing the traditional means of putting different moments into play with one another. ~~. .good. overcomes the difference between an order ~d what it lea~es aside. . slowing down or rushing ahead). What do historians fabricate when they become writers? Their very discourse ought to betray what they arc doing. the composition of series. Bur thi~ temporalizanon. A simple example: we can say that "the weather is ~" or "the weather is bad.. or to maintain as "lacking" (pertainillg to an~ther penod) what does not fit into a present system and there<fore acquires an uncanny appearance." These two propositions cannot be main~amedat the Same time. oblivious to the flow of everyday labor. says) placed at a distance from "real" time. if this is not a rational stricture. .. . By means of this referential time. which substitutes the authority of a knowledge for the labor of a gIven research. It is the locus whence the text is being 0" • I • Chronology. as such. Historical perspective therefore authonzes t?e operation which.94' . In effect. >Itls. To be sure. . substitutes conjunction for disjunction." its irregularity. narrative preserves the possibility of a science or a phl~osophy(it is heuristic). ~e.88 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The H istoriographicaJ Operation 89 the constraints of a power. and his theory.We can therefore wonder what authorizes historiography to ~ synthesized from contraries. Only a distortion allows the introduction of "experiment" into another practice equally social but symbolic. the Introduction a Ntude de la medecine expmmentale (1865).If we adopt Benveniste's distinctions between "discourse" and "nar. this one shows the passage from practice to chronicle and from chronicle to a didactics. What is arbitrary in this construction has been shown. .be placed near it. first (whi~h can also be located in other forms) is one of making opposttwns compattble. Contraries are therefore compatible within the same text under the condition that it is nan-alive !emporalization creates the possibility of making coherent an order and I~/'h~t~ro~lite. have made this order more flexible. holds contrary statements together.ranve.. and it provides loopholes. every historiography puts forward a time of things as the counterpoint and condition of a discursive time (discourse "advances" at different speeds. discourse is located outside of the experience that gives it credibility. it can condense or stretch its own time. THE M" the Masked Law I \." and "today. In . in main. Nonetheless. to "reduce" the aberrant element (it becomes a "particular" case which is marked as ~positive detail w~thin a narrative). " results of research arc clarified according to a chronological order. creatmg a stage on which incompatible elements can be put m~o play together. by being dissociated from the daily work.

set . the postulate of discourse.1). it presupposes a finite series whose terms are always uncertain. of a period. . the abc solute condition fo~ ~y possibility ?f its historicization. a distance-the right half of the line left blank. It is the threshold which leads from. Whether or not it participates in a thematic of progress. But only a silent passage to the borderline effectively poses their difference. In the form of a past which has no locus that can be designated-but which cannot be eliminated-it is the law of the other. T?IS. I 15th c. Historical exposition supposes the choice of a new ''vector space" which transforms the direction of the path marked by the temporal vector and inverts its ~rientation: !his reversal alone appears to make the connection of pracnce and wnttng possible.•. By allowmg the present to be situated m·.. in the geometric sense.. apart first on a longer axis that exceeds it on one end and the other.• verys~ple.~e . .98 . to '~co~e down" to present time.90 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical OperatUm produced that authorizes it. (figure 2.a .. Chronology follows this path in reverse. . .'. lffiposslble to elimmate..othe~.. a deployment which.m Expulsed from knowl'edge.out the disguised return of an uncanny past.the . A zeropoint in time connects one to the other. ThIS initial nO.•• ' relation to a "beginning" which is nothing. a~firs~sight appears to be . has it duplicity. one that is impossible to date or to represent. and which valorizes your position-with i· the shadow of a forbidden time. 16th c. mately postulates recourse to the empty and necessary concept of a zero.. a ghost insinuates itself into historiography and detennines its Organization: it is what we do not know. finally...: 91 to some~ing whi~h cannot have a place in history-an originary nonp~ace-wlthout w~ch. an origin (of time)... (1988) FIGURE 2.. The present. On one side. From the depths of the ages." Maurice Blanchot ~a~sai~. The absence through which all literature so. Chronology indicates a second aspect of the service that time renders to history. a beginning presupposed by the de. two are combined. and we can see that historiography acquires its (0)· . and before any other sign.. historiography attempts to rejoin a present which is the end of a more or less protracted course along a chronological trajectory (the history of a century.. narrative posits it within .•. the recourse to chronology avows it. But. The anchoring of the narrative conveys everywhere a tacit relation." is still inscribed in the narrative content with all the transf~rma~ionsof genealogy] with all the modulations of dynastic or familial histories concerning politics.. to this mythic "zero. It ulti. whether it drains long durations or relates a succession of epistemes. Hlstonography doubles the gratifYingtune-the time which comestoward you. . It could be said that It IS myth transformed into a chronological po~tu1. "Law always takes advantage of what is written.. In order for the .. what is not endowed with a proper name. The chronology of the historical work is only a limited segment (for example. ··..thmgtra~es..n~rrati~. 17th c. begins inverts-and allows-:-the manner by which narrative is filled with ineaning. A necessary relation to the other. chronology aims at the present mo~e. ·1 I ." it posits first of all the problem of a re-commencement: where does writing begin? Where is it established so that historiography can exist? At first sight writing leads time toward the moment of the individual receiver. it applies the inverted image of time upon the text.. indispensable for any orientation. If it indicates an ambivalence of time. The qualitativegap ~tween one and the other is doubtless manifested through th~ fact that wntmg de-natures and inverts the time of practice.. an image that in research proceeds from the present to the past. or of a series of cycles). It thus constructs the locus of readers in 1988. I 1·.nt ac:~s . the en"ti~e) surface of its orgamzatlon.ate-a~ once er~e~ from the narrative but everywhere presupposed ill rt... ···.· point. we describe the evo.. or mentalities.. time and.wntmg hlstonography reiterates another beginning.. or which serves merely as a" limit.. to be symbolized. and by which discourse establishes a position for the reader.·.. it comes to them..one knows by himself who his father really is.non-place marks the interstice between practice and writing. however.~ If i~ res~lts from a current and localized operation.there would be no historiography. defined only in Its ongm (from the eighteenth century up to contemporary times).·····.... The narrative. ~~. insofar as It IS.. however. Writing dIspersesthrough Its chronologIcal staging the reference of the entire narrativ~ to something unspoken that is its postulate. . plo~ent 0f~hr~nol~gy." The narrative therefore masks this initial and unassignable reference. It is the condition that allows a classification by periods. 18th c. the readers.. On . lution of Languedoc from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century). .f~bricati~n of the object to the construction of the sign. becomes the profit of the scriptural operation: the place of the production of the text is transformed into a place produced by the text. . it must be authorized by this higher nothmg whose formula the Odyssey has already provided: "No . economy. no matter what its content may be. ..

rom one genre to another" is eff . and second. from nonchronolo ieal rno ove m t e ~rec~lOn a doctrine to a manifestatio gf del~ to a chronoJoglZatlOn. sequences. p c. .. In logical dis·th··· e status of truth (and/ f if .. the language of the writer "does not present by rendering present what he is showing..i.. .l02 It does not state what it presupposes. Indeed. ur~e c alms to provide a (figure 2.. a first aoproximano concerns the mode through which every discourse organizes the i" FIGURE 2. n. ." Yet it does witness to it.true content (which pertains to verifiabili . gether without the need for resolving them.Q. metaphor is 00111'. In narrative both refer to an . ity) but in the form of a narCombining heteroclite system thi .1!) L. . Unlike myth.). message and by being situated "higher" than the reader. and of directing an telligibility toward a rwrmativity.. The text holds together the contradictions of this unstable time.propositions syllogism (induction. D ..t· ak ccor 109 to two con. This "globalizing" is at work everywhere in the historiographical work. osmon referential t' ( . Here too.~ successivity ipost hoc. e c. as both the meaning and the absence of that everything... ... B. expansion I·· ) "truth" truth of . this writing does not acknowledge that it is the "labor of negation.... allowing a sum of contradictions to be held . with the organization of its tents. It carries ca r ff i . The law is conveyed only through a particular study. ron m es content m . order of succession' in exp . the present time) left out!'. But these generative procedures oefn~ programmed . mm"tu~l1~tio' f -n n 0 a narrative type' inverse] as_ '1' k 0 raw data makes descriptive elements mo~e towa e rain. It brmgs to historical ex Ja. as Blanchot remarks. etc. or 0 veri iabiliry] and relations between statement. narrative will offer an order of E E e.2).. ... B.. . can be subject to 0 . . capable of producing effects f' rrussions and lnversions .histhe metaphorical sli a e .2 COntent temporal series (A. foHoWIng Aristotle's definitio sage . C.. ~cted. '« Operation 93 force by transfonning genealogy into a. Split Constructions AM 0 N G the problems related to narrative envisioned as a form.~X4f : 92 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical be. .rmlm~ the mode of the exposition ·. content is defined by th " A. whose organization sures the relation among the terms (the origin.% _.-Ull1'-<lLLlVl of a system of meaning) with a selection (a sorting having its basis in place where a present is separated from a past). e text cannot entirely "pas f pp g where. tween Its content" and its "ex ansio " .. ipresene.. irne a series of moments · .. . . It discreetly restores its ambivalence.Implies syllogistic (or "legal") (induction and deduction) No IC . Iterary?r cine·course.I ".. . narrative nevertheless resists the seduction of beginning. . It secretly betrays the contrary of "meaning" by which the present time claims to understand the past. In developing a general typology of discourse.. simply because it is nearer to that which authorizes. . of view.. ymernanc character. nanc In age of utterances and an establishm f r a syn0 • . unlike what it does when it assumes itself as its object.. 0 mearung (for exampl l' . . .._. at can be assigned to stat ". a typology of discourses. it does not assume as its goal the staging of a necessary and lost authority i in the guise of an event that never took place. . n. deduction) .. They concern a will for which ternporalization provides a frame. ergo propter hoc) It usa Ity? III the dl~ectlon ... It ultimately to a political will to manage conflicts and to regulate them from a point of view. . and situated between them) sc' lsbem::eh~ discourse (made of_two othan Las ioned a di movements: a narrati. discourse.•. h di . ete. As a SIgn of this an enth .."IOI When it becomes historical. but in showing it behind everything. for its objective is one of making room for a labor. The mixed function of historiosrapm can be specified by several features that deal first of all with its status . cast as ABC D E t) . it does not yield to the Eros of the origin.103 there are a number that have to do specifically with the struction of historiography. takes relations of coexisreno- X. This purpose literally produces texts which. The construction of meaning is built upon its contrary.:~~t~ d It . w h isrortca diSCO I. in various have the double quality of combining a semanticization (the . Its expansion.

discourse that is organized . Moreover. or o~ a heterology. The status of metalanguage is thus the postulate of a "will to understand. In other words. the question here is one of "interpretation" rather than "explication.107 has as its corollary the possibility of discourse Itself being the equivalent of a semiotics.slowly fill with predicates the proper names (such as "Julien Sorel"). and as it takes hold of its readers right where they are (it speaks their language. Through "quotations.rel~tion between a knowledge and a non-knowledge. though otherwise and better than they do). and so forth. the POSSIbility of transcribing the already coded languages which it interprets. Therefore it cannot control the distance that it claims' to maintain from the level of analysis. the possibility of fashioning a metalanguage through the ~ery . nor establish in its Own field and univocally the concepts that organize it. for all production of "realistic illusion" the muI~plication of proper names. it introduces into the text an effect of reality. . proper names already play the role of quotation in this discourse. As it quotes. a metalanguage of natural languages. as it presents in the form of a referential Janguage (it IS the "real" that is addressing you)." At stake is an a priori rather th~ a pr~du~t. historiography receives proper names already filled (for example. "pressed" (thanks to a "maximum shortening of the passage and of the distance between two functional :'1" . it discreetly refers to a locus of authority. they are reliable. to take J~st one example. Interpretation has the characteristic of reproducing inside of It~ s~ht discourse the relation between a place of knowledge and its extenonty. and does so all the moreas it dissimulates the place whence it speaks (it erases the of the author)." Insofar as historical discourse acquires from its internal relation with "chronicle" its status of being the knowledge of this chronicle. . It is constructed according to a problematic of procedure and trial. and therefore a text which presupposes and manifests ~e transcript~bility of different codifications.in a laminated text in which one continuous half is based on another disseminated half. tl as coherence." Into the singular it combines knowledge citing the plural of the documents that are quoted. and through its crumbling. it introduces the reader into the . or of citation.94 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation 95 r-. notes. and deictics. 106 Yet this external condition of a knowledge o~ the oth~r. that can at the same time "subpoena" a referential language that acts therein as r~a1ity. This discourse has no openings: it is semantically saturated (there arc no gaps in intelligibility). The former is thus allowed to state what the latter is unknowingly signifying. We admit as historiographical discourse that can "include" its other-chronicle' archive. every science) from the language It mterprets. "Robespierre") and is satisfied with working on a referential language. In this respect. It functions as a didactic discourse. and judge it in the name of knowledge. it is built upon a certain number of epistemological presuppositions: the need f~r a referential semanticization which comes to it from culture. of letting it appear t~ r~ay a role in culture. With its referential function. the ~asic tenet and limit of the decomposition of raw data (through analysis or division) is the uniqueness of a textual recornposition. The role of quoted language is thus one of accrediting discourse. This stratification of discourse does not assume the form of a "dialogue" or a "collage. It is narrated in the language of its other. In fact." references. But in this way it places the reader in the position . In these diverse forms. It plays with it. the split structure of discourse functions like a machinery that extracts from the citation a verisimilitude of narrative and a validation of knowledge. In this play. Whence the authority which historical discourse needs in order to uphold itself: what it loses in rigor must be compensated for by an increase in reliability. 105 Th~s.of what ·is quoted.'?' historiographical discourse is constructed as a knowledge of the other. this dIscourse produces an enunciative contract between the sender and the receiver. this discourse transforms every quoted element into a SOurceof reliability and the lexicon of a knowledge. By these divided texts a particular epistemological and literary functioning is also implied. document-s-in other words. this metalanguage IS developed m the very lexicon of the documents it decodes' it is not formally d~stinguis~e~ (in exception to what is the case in. and the whole mechanism of permanent references to a prime language (what Michelet called the "chronicle"). . . quotation is the means of attaching ~e text to its semantic outer surface. as it narrates more than it reasons (one does not debate a story). On the one hand. While the novel must.. to use Karl Popper's categories. the convocation of raw data obeys the jurisdiction which is pronounced upon it in the historiographical staging. quotation introduces a necessary outer text within the text. it produces a sense of reliability. Another form of splitting can be linked to this need for reliabilitv.language of the documents it uses. From all Outer appearances. The likelihood of statements is constantly s~bstituted for their verifiability. that It poses at its beginning. descriptions. From this angle. and of thus giving it the stamp of referential credibility. . quotation is only a particular instance of the rule that necessitates. And reciprocally.

if h ." the "Enlightenment. I n proVliding the uncanny with a place useful . But the system of this drama is the space where the movement . as if it simply arrested research in order to replace it with the moment of addition and to proceed to the summation of acquired capital. perf ora. A dermining concepts built by this discourse. but these are concepts "which we can call. historiography nevert~cless. 108 and tightly organized (a nctwo~k of cataphoras and anaphoras assures endless reference o~ the text to Itself as an oriented totality). they are the rules of a text which organizes places in view of a production. the discourse docs what it says. l' .PRODUCTiONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation focal points of narration").~hlch must jill.".both hi anery and a certain type of reader: that IS." etc." etc.Historical writing indeed assembles a coherent set of great units into . ' In effect.t ~ . tstor: caseqories." the "nation. The question here is hardly one of going back over the social constraints (see "A Social Place. A predictable montage offers the familiar patterns: the life-the work-the doctrine. event names what cannot be understood. the former de. in the storehouse of history. . '" " be meaningful statement." or the "family.110 Th f . ' . through anal. In the lasr resort. or transport them from one regulan~ t~ another: Far being the base or the substantiallan~ark on which mformatl?n be founded. mative discourse in which the apparent declarative element IS in fact no more than the signifier of the speech-act taken to be an act of authority . The structure inherent to." above) Or the theoretical and practical programming necessities (see "A Practice") that intervene in the determination of these units.' ourse exists. the structure establishes a contract and also orders social. . a receiver cited. the units make up the checkerboard of a display in which every square must be filled. the event is ~at which . In this res~ct.. more Or less artificial (finally. The event does not 1. rather. never presentation '(provided that it is clear and classical)." or even the "war. different and complementary. the con~ition o~ a classi . only content counts." the "social class.ed." In reality. Somethmg " have taken place" right there) by means of whl~h one can construct series of facts." the "festival. If ~here IS . Every code has its logic. On ~ very de~~ted bi t I h II make but one point relative to the construction ofwriting.. Fran. by exorcising what IS not understood In order to m e ~ means of comprehension.e ar:d the ~Olnt departure-but also the blind spot-of compreh:nslon. or the relation between the event and the fact. it matters little!). and e si ide that stands before a knowledge." the "people.109 1 97 '" I I' . But this is to make (or to believe) historiographical composition inert. where treasures of information are amassed. c lC taught by the very fact of being placed i~.' be intelligibility. that is. J but permits an intelligibility. su Jec sa....ogy with the epistemology of natural sciences. rather. .. ' riography consists 10 creating what Ba rthes d es~n."". Concepts are packaged. what is an event if not what must be presuppos. third aspect of splitting concerns neither the dcgre~ of ~ixture . h"cal .." the "economic conjuncture. Writing would consist in "coming to an end..identified. From this perspective." etc. It is performative. ligibiliry. or its collective equivalent: economic life-social life-intellectual life. . These units often convey stereotypical combinations.Katlon '. nonetheless constant.l t ere ~s to. it is nothing of the sort from the moment historical dis'. the SItuation 0f th e ch r on . for example. it is one of grasping their scriptuial function.. a discourseak of f for I .tragedy. We can less recognize this return in the process of erosion that never stops c. Sometimes it is no more than a simple localization of disorder: in that mstance." the "heresy.yois Chateler gives the name of "concept" to these units. like a slow hemorrhage of knOWledge. the problematic of Its manifestation." the "city.must de tmtt. In organlzmg textual space. The scriptural staging IS assured by a certain number of semantic choices. in relation to the ?rderlshown by an or?anization of historical units. the "civilization. a structure analogous to the architecture of places and characters in a . To be sure. course. the historical fact IS that ." the "plague. ." the "century. does not avoid surreptitious return of what it effaces from mam~estat1on.be s as "fake ." the "region. fines.. the event is the hypothetical support f~~ an .. According to this conception. m order for an organization of documents to be possible] T~e event IS the thanks to which disorder is turned into order. and the latter spells out." the "ancien regime. The former ~on~lt1o~s the orgaruzanon of ~-. It is the postulat..ordenng a chronological axis. The ruse of histo.I. The writing imposes rules which obviously arc not those c of practice. not to speak of notions such as "antiquity. pro~uces . ey are 0 many diverse types: thus the "period. space. the disc?urse. it works there as a secret movement within the text. and that it is in sum only a frame. ." the "book. In sum. "Levels" are piled up. while the latter provides the slgmfier~ intended to form a sene~ " of significant elements in the mode of narrative. but also the "mentaliry.1l""H. We apprehend it.. these concepts are indifferent to the riches they •'bear.nor' the stratification of discourse but. Occasionally itis said that the organization of these concepts is almost automatically triggered by the very title of the text.

could never be conceived without writing. Place of the Dead and th~ Place of the Reader THIRD of documentation] that is] of smaller units. ". . sows disorder within this ~r" dcr.OI1"PT..~hlch the formation ~f a dom~ant class is linked) and nationalism (an . one another: a strange reciprocity admits each of th:m only in . . and thanks to the system that establishes beforehand. and =preciseiv because It IS not an inert framework." Through the moving and complex mass that it thro~s into ~IStoriographical delimitation and which stirs. which allows the arranging of the unknown within a blank square prepared for it ahead of time and n~ed "event. but it is historic~. take the more precise words of Raymond Roussel.. In this way it is global..Erosion is also the movement that shifts the unit of "the Beauvais reso.produced. escapes from established divisions. paradox of history.m~trument used"by this class WIth the goal of establishing a political do" rrum~n). The comb~atlOn of breakages (macro-units) and erosions (displacements of con~epts) IS. discourse no longer "stands up" if the structural organization falls apart.. These two elements are n~cessary to.ceptual delimitation and certainly not a "global" history. . it does not deal With t?~ structure of discourse itself.PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The H istori<JgraphicaJ Operation 99 it represents. In approximate terms. An economic or demograph~c architec~ure must ". . an authority capable of "understanding" relation between an organization of meaning (of "facts") and its (the "event"). only an abstract schema.blem that a socioeconomic study of this region "brings Jo~ -PIerre VI. A graphic unit (regional or national) must be dehm~ted.death of ~hich the text speaks can be truly staged -. n is the place where a I bor 0f " content " IS exact ed upo" the "form :" To a l' . It shifts the inidrama of ~e text. or prizes.. to the other. Following this procedure.'ntnrp'« of eroslO~ ~hlch works on a strongly erected composition. But . the connection between mercantilism (to '. An economic "place" is the base for a very rich analysis.. however. it conjoins and levels them within the expansion of course."~. can appear. !his is one example among hundreds showing the '. but only at the expense of carnQ"un.. the observation that nationalism ~ows With the unhappy consciousness of a threatened nation. upheld as long as' there a text) to the borderline of the absence that it outlines. insofar as a labor jostles and corrodes the conceptual apparatus that ~s nonetheless necessary for the formation of the space which welcomes this movement. that is. and brings ~bout a slow erosion of organizing concepts. to be sure. A construction and erosion of units: all historical wntmg ~~. it remains linked to its archeology of the beginning seventeenthcentury ("one of the zero-points in the history of France. information appears to involve a wearing out of the class~catory di~Islons that cement the foundation of the textual system.h.one intcn~ed t~ produce meaning authorized by knowledge. with this escape. so that all cannot be enclosed becomes manifest.. In different fashions and with contents.'. tradicts it. and ultimately to another grouping (whether SOCialor cultu~al). a "reason" of history becomes thinkable." .llI This mterventlo~ ~f a.cates Its gaps. but it must "hold" enough so that. move It. It produces ~s It ~estrays. its relation with the past which it is not-~ut WhIC?. Thus ISsymbolized the relation of discourse with what it desIgnates th~ough losing it. posited so that the stirrings that so~en it.lgu11l this difference. But the text at once admits the fulfillment of meanmg its condition. virtue of an acquired place. In order to explain the apparition of a national consciousness in ' Cata~~nia~a pro." and which lets It run toward Beauce. . these two operations. Yet It can be recognized 10 the most important texts of Contemporary French historiography. The orgaruzanon of co.~. A full and saturatmg sernanncization is then possible: the "facts" enunciate this semanticiza?on by accrediting it with a referential language.. mentalities. we might say that the text .-. things u~ ~~re. which artieulates com~sl~Ions of place" Over an erosion of these places. the real'"or the . with a proper name that is added to the contmuous narrative and masks.!" In the text the labor moves the place and mixes what had been excluded back into it . th~ event obrus. firmly traced in Pierre Gaubert's "regional study. but only describes one movement of w~lt1ng. And indeed.' its ruptures.heterogenous element does not inaugurate another con. certaino~ter elements penetrate it: thus.. or toward Picardy. writing places a population of the dead stage-characters.larargues for. In other words." to turn itself into a didactic discourse which suffers neither nor lapsus from erudite authority. the serial architecture plays upon w?at con. '.nceptua I "bodies" through a delimitation is at once the cause and the me~s of slow hemorrhage. namely events.o within the text a disappearance (never total] of concepts as if study led its represe~tation (always. the p~~. The structure of a composition does not retain . as if upon a limit that it als_o nan:es in or?er. Besides.

In reality. for th~ IIVI~g. thus opens to the present a space of its own. On the other hand.one. It does not describe the silent practices that construct it but It eff~cts a new distribution of already scmanticized practices. Naming the absent of the household and inserting them into the language ~he scriptural gallery is equivalent to liberating the apartment for the hvmg. . fo~ example. The past occupies the place of the subject-king in the text. But unlike other artistic Or social "tombs. In th~s way It liberates the present without having to name it.h. Historicgraphy has this same structure. A sc~iptural conversion is effected. to determine negatively what must be done. the multiplication of proper names (personages. in placmg the lack within language. as near as possible to showing. and ~on?equently to use th~ ~arrativity that buries the dead as a way of establishing a pla~e. . in the very same text. and so that It wI~1still be possible to connect what appears with what disappears.IOO PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation 101 notes Philippe Aries). Thus It can be said that writing makes the dead so that the living can exist elsewhere. narrativity.pace opened by this past can be marked. the metaphor .operat~on ?f an order other than that of research. Through its nar~atlVlty.. On the o~e hand. the imp~rtance ?f panorarruc VIews and recapitulative "conclusions. it uses this locus to impose upon the receiver a Will. on~ t~chnical and the other scriptural. Writing is a tomb ill the double . writing constructs a tom beau for the dead. . it both honors and.!ery absence it studied made it turn in the direction where showing' tended to stand for "signifying.extreme. Many signs in history attest to this "gallery" stru~~re.llS and through which saying reache~ It~ l~lt. In fact. coins. by msertl~g It ~nto discourse. It represents the dead along a narrative Itmerary. it possesses a symbolizing function. Must we again recognize in these qualities a literary mversion of procedures belonging to research! Practice in effect discovers the ~ast through a relevant deviation from current models. It allo".the..exorcism against anguish. the hist~ncal te~t plays a performative role. Writing speaks of the past only in order to inter it. etc. it exorcises death. effigies. . etc).ston~g~aphy furnishes death with a representation that. a society to situate itself by giving itself a past through langu~ge. Language exorcises death ~d arranges It m the narrative that pedagogically replaces it with somethmg that . c~ be done except display. Only across this differe~~e of functlOnmg Can an analogy be discovered between the two posinons ~f the past-within the technique of research and within thc representatIon of the text.':" The locus= ascribed to the past thus plays.:s. Language allows a practICe t? be sl. or of graphics.se~se of the word in that." of c~untrysides ~hICh the. in itself it IS a practice." Writing gathers together the products of this !abor. an~ a lesson. a WIsdom. upon two different . The ordering of what is absent is the inverse of a normat~vIty which alms at the living reader and which establishes a didactic relation between the sender and the receiver.tuat~d in respect to its other} the past. but also to redistribute the space of possibility. More exactly. and their duplication in the "Index of Proper Name~. reader must believe and do. through its pcrform.~d qua~l' religious meaning of the term. localities. These are foreign elements in the trcanse of SOCiology or of physics. del~tlc border.e guided VISit). through an act of communication which combines the absence of the living in language with the absence of the dead in the househo~~. it receives the dead that a sociaJ'change has pro~uc~d. fills . "To mark" a past l~ t?_ make a place for the dead." But there are many other indications: :he . at ~ust b~ d." here taking the dead or.what can no longcr be done.. for the absent being.. as if ~e . eliminates.. 113 as the "gallery o~ history:" as can still be se~n in the Beauregard chateau: 114 a line of portraits. but differ~nt and complementary to it. here and there. .the laCl~a tha~ It represents. ~ith these pr~p?r names the ~Igmfymg system is grossly expanded on ItS. of figures. and It -. outside of existence has the value of an . book stakes out. Writing can be specified under two rubnc~. in the eth~610Wcal. of pamtmg lI~ke~ ~ogether through a trajectory. from the funeral eulogy in the streets to burial ceremonies.tivity. of operation. the _past back to a symbolic place is connected to the labor aimed at creating 10 the present a place (past Or future) to be fined a "s _ tho th . It i~ an . HIstonography uses death in order to articulate a law (of the ~resent).." Thus what proliferates in historical discourse are elements "below which nothing ~ore. the specific function of writing is not contrary to that of practice. 0: As a subst~tute. an enclosure of the evil genius of deat~. s~ that the s. In sum. The It~erary founding of this space thus rejoins the labors that historical practice had brought about. writing plays the role of a burial rite. Where research had brought about a CrItIque of current models. A socie~ furnishes itself with a present time by virtue of historical ~rltm~. But.or emblems ?aIDted on the wall before being described by the text orgamzes t~~ relat~on ~etween a space (the museum) and a r~ut~ (th. .. This process is repeated in other u~SClentIfic w~ys.role of maps. orne mg. Here the function of language is to introduce through saYtn{J . historiography .

and the relation "history" I mean a practice (a ISClP ~ne . pp. It P. 510. pp. ~~r~ew~~~r'c:p7~~~r. NOTES . Basic Writio/Js on Politics and Phi/osiJfihy. 6-38. Foucault. (historical saymg opens a prese h fieri f another history). . available in English as The Order of Things (New York: Vintage. Logik der Forschung (Vienna...whose purpose has since been specified and situated (notably in Foucault's remarkable introduction to The Archaeology of Know/edge. . 4..C. historical discourse is the fa~ore~ anguag . 1966). marlon. ith the other It is the mark of this law. At once <~~d tor" a. pp.. and his La Philosophie critique de Phistoire (Paris: Vrin. 1938).27:1317-27. desire that constitutes the re. II. T'hrough all these aspects combined in the un oWlIlg . . Insofar as our relation WIth ~f an °eb!salways a relation with death. See my "Une epistemologie (1972). on these correspondences.1 °th: sense of "historiography. d places of production.. 1972). L'ArchColqgie du savoir (Paris: Gallimar . La Civilisation de t'Europe classique (Paris: Arthaud. . emt (New York: Pantheon. Returning to the Weberian thesis according to which "scientific elaboration begins with a choice whose only justification is subjective" in his Les Etapes de lalpensie sociologique (Paris: Gallimard.102 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation 103 of performative discourse. by using the word hISto~ III di . in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.s.1(5):1008-43." but without cillares between "producing history" and "re mg stones~ can rcco nizc being reducil~l~to ." In other words. dl Co' Wes eyan ruversnv r ress. nn. Le Temps de l'histoire (Monaco: Editions du Rocher. Gti inteiletunJi e PorganizzazionC deUa cultura (Turin: Einaudi." Annales E. p. reissued in 1969). ~~:h ~s the ambiv~lcncc of historiography: it is the cond~tlon of a Pfrocless ir d the a aw and the denial of an absence. S. lege68e)~g~ich~1 . I . ac ing of the relations that a social body keeps With Its langu g . f k be undertaken.' di . It osillusion (the realistic effect creates t e icnon lli . at least insofar as it would refer to "laws.se:t~~ishing tween blasphemy an~ cunosl~. 1966). . 224 [reissued in 1986 by Editions Gallimard. 7. and Pierre Chaunu. 1954). 1 "Making HIStory . 1934). there is a strong tie between a delimitation of correspondents (or of travels) and the development of an erudite language among them. m Jacqu . or the quite expanded and reviewed English translation. If." Many others have noted this situation But only detail can show to what point this social "establishment" marks an epistemological break. In that way he obliterates the influence on intellectuals of their place in SOCiety. See also my "Le Noir soleil du langage: Michel Foucault. Introduction a La philosiJfihie de l'histoire: Essai sur les limites de Pobfectiviti bistorioue (Paris: Vrin. C ment on ecrit l'histoire (Paris: Seuil. 1973). . . hat it ostulates and the social normatrvity that It irnor dlsposseSSlOnknt . between them. 10. especially pp. the first of his Theses on Feuerbach. fi d SItS suppo rt precisdy in what it hides: the m....eir:~~:. 258-73-avaiia ble lnUEt1?1Sh.. and once again holds Weber in the position of the anti-Marx. an of 6. 1959f 5. tstotre uma .'h" h' ine de la nature (Paris: FlamSSM SCOVICI Essat sur. f II th becritical and constructive ~is~ori~l ope~:~:~ :::~a~e~..:s ~ f he following I would like to specify that I am 2. see ·Baudouin de . the basic work concerning "critical rationalism. See chaptc~ . nt to be rna e) an as an . On the theses of Raymond Aron. es Lacan's words of a "science of the subject. representatIon.. adilable in English as TheArchaeoiogy o[Knowledge and Veyne. Feuer. d 1969) . r~:~~t~r:ry drama.J. L. r ) its results (a discourse). by turns 1 acts as d discourse a0realistic alibi . as such into re ations 0 pr . d f which it s eaks become the vocabulary 0 a tas ~o. 1970). See Philippe Aries. However suspect it may be within the ensemble of the "human sciences.. de transition: Paul Vcyne. See Antonio Gramsci.. 1967). 500-22). 115-32 . . . 1949). See Raymond Aron. . see Pierre Vilar's critique "Marxisme et hisroire dans le developpemenr des sciences humaines. For example." With this term we can nonedleless define the possibility of conceiving ensemble of rules allowing control of operations adapted to the production specific objects or ends. as Paul Veyn~ has ~hown ~n asomWritin History: Essay on Epistemology 1971)..ty Press ~984)-historical research is l . 3-17). pp.' . lations between pro u ." in L'Absent de Phistoire (Paris: Marne. It oes not so I' f oductions as it aims at showing the redetermined .117 but with a stagand of the subject "taken in a constituent vIs~on." 8... f 1 ant places that is by a toplCa archaracterized by the determmatJonfu° re ~v 'be uni~ of me~ing (or "facts") . " . lat~~~s :~t sur rising'that something other than destiny or the ~SSlbll~ty " iective science" is in question here. between the privation .. 1959). 404-9.. pp. ." Studi storici (1960). 1. Raymond Aron once again underlines the crisscrossing of "subjective choice" and thc rational system of "causal" explanation in Weber's work (pp. simultane~usly the same sp itnng in . is no less so in the field of the so-called exact sciences. Paris--TR. 1011-19. See Karl Marx. as ast and what It orgamzes ro '.I (Mid etown. 3. ed.' d a. fietw~ethe present. p reader . writing symbolizes the. 12. 9. The Logic Of Scientific Discovery (London: Hutchinson. 1938. on "the establishment of a small world of research throughout Europe. p. See in particular Michel Foucault's Les Mots et les chases (Paris: Gallimard. On the "principle of falsification. (New York: Doubleday." the term "scientific" (where it is replaced by the term "analytical").d much re se to InSCr! rangcmcnt. . Comment on Phistoire." see Karl Popper. J.

" th e locus marked in language for the . therefore. S~e "Les Revolutions du eroyable" in my Culture au plurie! (Paris: Union Generale des Editions. as if the establishment of a "proper" place were not linked to a general redistribution and.es It . See. 1:476-77. the fluctuatmg ~nd rich "theory of Zusammenhang" in Febvre's work." in Vi1jgtcinq ans de recherche historique en France (Paris: CNRS. et critique Ii la fin du XVII' siede (Paris: PUF. Similarly. 29: "~vctything that belo?!?s to man depends on man. even If today the book IS no longer what it had been for an entire epoch. "Je sais bien. See Jean Glcnisson. .to. all thanks to Seignobos. see Hans-Dieter Mann.25.: the statue of the Commander. 1965). 30: 15. see his "Analytische Wissenschaftstheorie und Dialektik. pp. but in order to sustain "a life of its own. .speaker w~o app~opr~at. 17.tastcs and fashions of man's being. xxiv. it can still be read with great interest. Clark. 21.. the restricted number of important positions. expresses man. Alexandre Koyre takes \IP the same thesis." in Zeugnisse: Tbeodor W. 23). 2:73-92. rather in Foucault's perspectIve. 1970). "L'Historiographie francaise contemporaine. Les Nouveaux Intellectuek . in Febvre's VIew." in Livre et sociite dam La France du XVIII' sude (The Hague: Mouton. p. Au coeur religiewe du ~! 105 xvr siede (Paris: Sevpen ' 1957) . Foucault.La Fra"_l'epe~nt LaRivolu~ion. 1967) and Technik und Wissenschaft als Ideowgic (Frankfurt': Suhrkarnp. and the multiplication of the patron's functions. 19~4. who explains the authors' scientific references." Revue franfaise de sociolq_qic (1971). Psychoanalysiswould even say that speech hides and that the body speaks. See Frederic Bon and Michel-Antoine Burnier. with respect to the Annates. xxvi. 350-60. pp. etc. IS. The authors define the "system" through four essential elements: centralization of control. ~es public~tions de l'Education nationale. 3. Introductw~ awe etudes historirues (1898) is still the great work of a histonography. p. :'a . 500-1. Afready 10." . pp. 1969). In sociological theories (we could add: historical theories) of a purely technical and "gnoseological" type. ." in Clifj pour ltmagmmre. and Priscilla P. p. ou. "The scientific citadel is built along the borders of social society" (p. the monopolistic character of the system. But a whole plethora of historians mark this turnmg point: Hauser. 11-34. 1968). 22. 399. on these meetings. apropos of medical discourse. 428. ~1%. 26. a confusion between differentiation and isolation. Glenisson. p. on the bourgeOiSIe-even he does so with a good deal of reticence (see pp. I1lverSlty0 23. himself as speaking subject. 31. 14 of book 3. iruditwn. xxii-xxiii. See also the basic works.de ImgulJttque g_eneraie (Paris: Gallimard." pp.1920 Henri Berr pointed to the "idealist" character of history ill Febvre s work. see also his La Formatwn de Pespris scientifique (Paris: Vrin. Sergio Moravia links the birth of ethnology to the constitution of the group of the "Students of Man. pp. . see Leopold Delisle.. 1966) says." in Etudes d/histoire de la pensee scientijique (Paris: Gallimard. l'1~tre Scene (Paris: Scuil.104 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation Gaiffier. Lucien Febvre. On the role a~d meani. On. Religion. 1968). a perspicacious study that only "outside observers" were capable of writing.12:19-39. which are the Parisian or provincial academics. "L'Historiographie.109-13). 3234. 32. 1971). 1963). 2-9. 93-119. 1971). p. ' 18. sec "Encyclopedisres et acaderniciens. 19. xl. see "Perspectives sur l'histoire des sciences. 28. Italy: Laterza. pp. ~p. ~blemes. 185-99). slw:ufies the presence. Here the essential date is that of George Lefebvre's thesis Paysam du nord de. Its clarity is ad~irable. Zur Logik der Sozialwissemchaft (Tiibingen: Mohr. xxiv.torical practice and concepts.or ~f "we." in La Saenza deU>uo~ net settecento (Bari. see Emile BenveOl~te. 30. . 151-72. 13. The Archaeology C!fKnowledgc.entury-see for example Pour une histoire Iipart et entiere (Paris: Service d'Edinon et de vente. Daniel Roche illustrates the close connection between encyclopedism (a "complex of ideas") and these institutions. III hIS. Le Cabinet des manuscrits de laBibliotheque Nationale (Paris: 1868). !' . the . who in Le Riuionalism« applique (Paris: PUF.ng ~'I". Glcnisson. There is also a tic between the Wednesday "assemblies" at the Bib- . 1974).review of Daniel Guerin's work (in Combats pour Fhisto:re. 1972). s: 33: See Oct~ve Mannoni.27. see Terry N. pp. 258P 66." Febvre declares III Combats poU1~l'htStOtre (Pans: Colin. 54.: f Miami Press. 1963).~Iscursive practice"-"the group of rules that cha:acterize a discursive practice (The Archaeology of Knowledge. His anti-Marxism surfa~es. 1973)." p. a:ov. "L'Historiographie. to its own history". 34. Adorno zum sechzigsten Geburtstag (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. ·1 liotheque Colbertine from 1675 to 1751 and the elaboration of historical research. pp. Febvre refers to "class" in order to explain the Sixteenth c. rnais quand merne. Examples could be multiplied. Sirniand. following Max Weber.lty. and a conception of the "history of ideas" which withdraws all relevance from social partitions. 10 which the convergence of Michelet and Marx is. 9-33. there does not exist concerning the recruitment of his~rIans the e9U1~alentof Monique de Saint Martin's Les Fonctiom sociales de l'ensetgnement sctentifique (The Hague: Mouton. while epistemological divisions are at once social and intellectual. 55 and 127).. incestuous. Available 10 English as Problems in General Linf¥Uistics (Miami: U· . "" I.for example. Since that time the figure create~ by this con~uering optimism has lost much of its credibility. 1966). 8 of book 2 and chs. Despite Gaston Bachelard. 24. pp. But he docs not introduce the problem of his own social localization when he analyzes his o~ his. It seems that here there is. pp. to reciprocal redefinitions. pp. 1970). Ibid. III th~ Revue de synthise historique (1920)." IF :1 :1.. an immanent history" of science which "can only be understood in relation to its own problems. serves man. 1953). Unfo~ate1y. "Le Patron et son cercle: Clef de I'Universire francaise. Jiirgen Habermas criticizes in particular the presupposition of neutrality in respect to values postulated at the epistemological beginnings of research. Lucten Febvr«: La Pemee vivante d'un historien (Paris: Colin 1971). La and behold. Ibid. p. 16. On these two points. especiaily in ch. 14. n. ~y "disc~urse" I mean the historical genre itself or. 20.

see Michel Serres' pointed reflections in Hennis ou fa ~municatu»: (Paris:. but available in English as Impressions of Africa (Berke~eya~d Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. . acterizes a period or a sector of research. (ParIS. 37. 590. (Baltimore: Johns •••. 1963).s. Ibid. 13-37.•• 59. "Les Bibliotheques. Le Dibat Sur les icritures et l'hiiroglyphe aux XVII' et XVIII' siecles (Paris: Sevpen." . pp. Thus. 1963). 38. 1967). "La Productivite dite texte.. pp.Guillaume Fichet and three German printers aun~d toward fow. . Catalogne dam l'EsP"tfne moderne (Paris: Sevpen.manuscnpts that . . Ibid." in Semewtike: Recherches pour un: ~emana!yse. 52. 1974)." 50. ~ ~ols. 47-48. .. 71-108. pp. information science. "L'Hlst01r~ et la methode e. Maurice Daurnas. p. avai~able in En?lish as The B1rtk the Clinic (New York: Vintage. 1968).I06 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation (Paris: Scuil.Impressions_ dAfrique (Pans: Galll~ard. . It orders placements and displacements in a space of information which is not without analogy to the libral'ies of the past. 54.: u~ban. pp. his "library" was what he constituted (and not ~har he recetved.~ isrne. 208-45. ber 1969). Serge Moscovici. l_1fehows that v~g. 1. 1964). Hopkins University Press. 57. 1151.C. Insofar as it is linked to the lise of the computer.066. 1971). and Jean-Pierre Peter. 107 48. Ibid. Les Paysans de Languedoc (Paris: Sevpen. Le Temps de t>histoire. Seuil. Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse (1971). ISalso a fine example of the new in tcresr brought to spatial organizations. Fran\ois Furet. unless through the lessons of our geography teachers.] 44. In La. 1. 1965). Jacques Gadille underscores "the value of these archivesfor historical research" by noting that they allow for the constitution of . whose dominance of our century we could divine marc or less clearly. . edited by Pierre Chaunu. See Emmanuej Le Roy Ladurie and P. Histoire du dimat depuis Pan mtl (Pans: Flammarion. 1: 12. Josue Harari and David Bell. 39. See in particular Francoise Choay. betw~en the production of the collection of texts and the prodUction of ciphers destined to decode them.. 36. pp. .:j I . and Stephan Thernstrorn. 2. ed. 1971). Faire de l'histoire (Paris: Gallirnard. pp. 1980). 53. 40. of the ~endillg changes that man has brought to th~m. 209.ding the o/pogra~hlcal wor~hop of the Sorbonne and relaying caples of. 20.--TR. 180. Philosophy. (1970). (pp. Andre Regnier. Flam marion." organizes arrangements of symbols in reserved within a memory and transfers them to agreed-upon addresses according to that can be programmed. pp. Since. (Nov~mber-Decem. ·... 0t . Science.. s etables are "objects of history" by "the very fact of their plas[lC'~. "Mathematiser Ies sciences de l'Hornrne]" in P. in English." CommunicatWns (1970).. in his Leo» maugur. Pierre VIla~ reminds us that between the two world wars. . The expression is Fernand Braudel's. "input" and "output. 967) introduction. 47.' ill Desire tn Lan· guage: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art (New York: Columbia Press. Richard ·'and R. 1:49. See SemlOl~gledes m~ssages visuels. 359-76. On this subject. See for example the chapter on "vegetal civilization in Emmanuel ~ Roy Ladurie. 1982). . See Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie. 1961). new "series" valuable for both an economic history and a history of mentalities . . 24. as WIll later be the case for the "curators" of the great Ji~ranes created before them). See Madeleine V. 1:26-35." in Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora. .. "La Collection." in La Culture au pluriel. 1 .. 1969).. pp. See tor example the special issue of Annales E." The paperback edition (Pans: Fl~~ marion. at C tu 41. pp. 51. .. 7-14). "HIstory and Urbantzatto~. we can detect a continuity on the grounds of writmg. in L'Histoire sociale (Pans: PUF. in English." in Le Systhne des objets (Paris: Galli. 1968). 58. were scarcely put before us. 111-37.Antlwopologie et calcul (Paris: Union Generale des Editions 1971) t: pp. ~/Enquete sur le bdtiment (The Ha~e~ Mouton. 25'1143-54. Purer. 1963-1968). See the great Histoiregenirale des techniques. By "historical practice" we must understand not methods particular to a given hlstonan but. 214-18. fo~ the eru~lte scholar. eds. "Quantitative and Car· ':_i . . 1969) unfortunately does not include this chapter:. entitled "Biological History and Society". no. . 1973). This very original study on the "biological fundaments" of rural. 36-63. See Gilbert Ouy." Daedtd'us (Spring 1971). the complrx of procedures that char. See Aries. . . n. Dumont. Seen from this angle. no... 45." in LHistoire et ses mithodes: EncyckJpedie de fa Pliiade (Paris: Gallimard. 43.] See als? Juba Kns[e~~. 56.S.Fleher himself partially assured for its library. pp. 16-28. p. • 55. "The Bounded Text. Raymond Roussel. 3. pp. 1967). pp. i~ ~is Guide des archives diocisaines franraises (Lyon: Centre d'Hisroire du Cathohclsme. · 61. rique. "the great questions. 35. Essai sur Pbistoire humame de la nature (Pans. eds. 1966). Naissance de la clinilfue (Paris: PUF. or the works of Bertrand Gille. as in the exact sciences. 42." pp.--TR. "Reflections on the New Urban HIS' to~. 1971). Editions de Minuit. 19-30. 49. 15." Annates E.. vol. Encyclopedie de la Pleiade. 46. Ernest Labrousse. "L'Histoire quantitative. 1950~. Michel Fo~cault. [My translation. . "L'Histoire quantitative et la construction du fait hisro. and my "Les Universites devant la culture de masse. Jaulin. ". p. such as Les Ingemeurs· de fa Renaissance (Paris: Herman. 1968). Hermes: : Ltterature. 60. 53-76. a special issue on. 7 and 21.C. Ibid. (Paris: PUF. 120-50. p. Jean Baudrillard. e au 0 ege de France (Paris: Annuaire du College de France. p.on the agreem~nt passed between. 1962).-D~vid. historical "documents" can be assimilated into "iconic signs" wh~s~ organization Umberto Eco analyzes in noting how they "reproduce som~c?n~tlo~s of common perception on the basis of normal perceptive codes". 44-which was translated from die papcrback. mard. [Nor does the English edition-see ch. Le Corps du delit. From this perspecnve we can add that scientific work is found where there are changes in the "codes of recognition" and in the "systems of expectation.

. I ' " f F . 73." pp. See Pierre Vilar.. 70.." . paperback edition. '. see the works of Jacques Le G~ff and. 103. on the poor. 1968). .. Afte: Mauss.. the current construction of "structures of totalities. "Introduction a l'etude de la litterature orale: Le Conte. In the form of the "moment" of the years 1790-1799. . 64.S. the "synthesis" was not tennmal? It Was elaborated. He wishes for a "total . MagistrRtJ et sorciers en France au steele (Pans. available in English as Rabelais and His World (Cambridge: MIT Press. of "atomist history.lon~ue duree dans I'histoire sociale: L'Exemple chouan. and the abundan~ histo~calliterature on t~e t?PIC. nand Braudel's most important methodological works.rault (Pans: • Gallimard. 1819-:-1~26. Henri-Irenee Marrou rakes up the idea of a "general history" which resists the specialization of methods and the diversification of chronologies according to levels. Pion. rather than a. and proportioned to a "definition" (of civilization). suggests fro~ his standpoint. Paul Veyne op~es it to a history that would be. See Robert Lafont. 288-94 (my emphasis). 1969). 1973). 67.mem ~t .. "Histoire quantitative et histoire serielle.lu a I ~e d· asnque (P'ans: Pion " 1961' new edition . Andre Larzac." Annates ESC. in (h~ last two decades. Ro?ert Mandrou. 69. itself posited not as the truest but as "th_e~asiest to handle in order to pursue our work in the best ways. the event . p. .. In my opinion. > . th d the Primacy of the "social " and the "permanent taste for general Ideas.ill the ~ourse of the manipulation of documents. 1960.to be at o~ce the questron ~osited by the relation between two more rigorously Isolated series (the economic infrastructure of La Sarthe and the mental structure thar divides the country into two political groups) and the means to by articulating them (in order for the relation among them to change. (1969).. assumes the hisfigure of the event. estabin this intersection the locus of what. See in particular Mona Ozouf. a "body of facts" (Writing History: Essa~ on Ep~temnlogy. 1978). 10 Revue hlStortque (1965). Already too. . mea. . 1965). pp. Le Conte pf1Julaire frattfais (Paris: Erasme.. "L'Histoire des civilisations: Le Passe expliquc e pre~ent. available In English as Madness and CiPiJizatWn (New York.~57).." Au swele des Lumiere: (Pans: Se:~en. "Pour une meilleure comprehension entre economisres historiens." Ecrits sur l'hrstowe." See M:mn. or.. L'Oeuvre de Franiois RlWelats et fa cu}ture populaire au Mtryen Age et sous la Renaissance ~Paris: Gallirnard. pp. is a body of laws. 73-92. exhausting crum~hng.~t..' tension of establishing a universal historical discourse. [See especially his Les Pauvres au Mtryen Age (Paris. is re~nnted In Eents sur : l'histoire (Paris: Flarnmarion.of :'~.3:165-75. . 255-314 (see especially pp."s~e his "Ev~ne. -?NIl' . Pierre Chaunu. and also Le Roy Ladurie. pp. (1971).. 397-441. In reality." (Sp~g 1971).: I· lOS PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES . event serves to designate a difference in their relation. . 21-22).. Hachette. and "Le Cortege et la ville: Les Itineraires parlSlens des fetes revolutionnaires " Annates E.. Renaissance du Sud (Pans: Galhmard. the more systematic delimitation of both series has the double effect of on the one hand forth" (as a question) a difference of relation." Cahiers Vilfredo (Geneva: Droz. 75. Choay. object c:f study ~cquites the meaning of being a 'touchstone. "Decoloniser l'hisroire occitane. For Bois. Dur~elm~ " Vidal de La Blache. pp. [0 make their own 'conceptions more relative. 1970). 169). 71 Adopting a rather shopworn conceptlOn of the exact sciences ( PhYSICS.p 1971). 292-96) . .. in De la synthese de fa forme (Paris: Dunod. . In "Theorie er pratique de . 63." Revue histonque (1965). 66. . Les Almanachs pupula~res aw: XVIr et XVIII' siCcles '(The H~gue: Mouton.OVJ'U'-'''UII" has to happen). Marie-Louise Teneze. . to the preconceived ideas that the practice of texts had ~e? ~vellIn~ ~d.. which would be forced to grasp the tangled skein of these particular histories in all its complexity" (p. ).' Mouton. "De Thermidor a B~alre: Les Discours de la Revolution sur elle-rneme. 233:293-312. ." Les Temps modemes (November r. are but two examples among thousands. the research on the poor and poverty in the M~~d1eAge~ directed by Michel Mollat. 74. the idea of organization tends to prevail over that of fact ". It deviated fin~l~yIn re1atl':>ll. . 169-86. See Robert Mandrou." and therefore to a "loss" of thei~ in~itiv~ "i~ocence. 10 Le Territoir« de 1'hlJtorum. Lucien Febvre. Or Histoire science sociale (Paris: SEDES. against the erudite. .. em an a . p. .I . 157-87. 1968). In B. 65. Le Territoire de I historien (Pans: Gallimard. p. 38-87. 1974). 1968). 1970). De Ia culture populaire en France au» XVI~ et XVIII' siides (Pans: Stock 1964)' Genevieve Bolleme. 1151-53 (my emAs ChrIstopher Alexander. not ~o mention the more "literary" works by Marc Soriano.. or Mikhail Bakhtine. Le Roy Ladurie argues for a closely related issue in what he calls "eventual-structural" history. Gallimard . 1971). pp..: Pantheon. in fact. ?ne o. . Paris: Flarnrnarion. shifting in the course of operations themselves set up by an Institutional disclRhne. 61. er-.24:1104-20. It appears to me that apropos of Paul Bois' Les Paysans de l'Ouest (The '. 676-96." that specialists in urban problems disa relevance ill historical dIfferences-either in order to distinguish themfroJ? past conceptions. 26:889-916. 1. . 1970)." he writes).C. fP· 6-9. See Paul Delarue. 1964). or to bind them to complex situations which resist the rigor of a theoretical 78. pp.. a tactical operanon relative to a Situation of research. p. see Francois on the "inexistence of the idea of life" up to the beginning of the nineteenth .-TR·l . See note 7 above. Les C~tes de Pe. On peasants.~~ The H istoringraphical Operation r09 . in La Logique du vivant (Paris: Gallimard. 89:139-70. and on the other. :'L'Histoire et la methode en urbanisrne.~ i I' I . 1969). 76.. 1972)..lhlStOlre. available in as The Logic of Life: A History of Heredity (New York: Pantheon. 160). . in the discourse. 68.'. and also .1 . . life not exist: only living beings" (The Order of Things.. This is especially so SInce Michel Foucault's Histoire de fa fo. 1970). above all see the entire work of Emmanuel L~ Roy Ladurie cited above. irit of besi d this "totalization" has represented a rerum to the s~mt? syn:. pp.I :i ~J Ii tographical Exploitation of French Military Archives. 62. Thus Foucault: "Up to the end of the eighteenth century. Since Henri Berr in his conception of history combined the comp~rauv~ .~audel'~work the. . it is precisely thanks to logical t:XpJanatlOll. .•• 72.

pp. 'n . 1973). Erh. . Hempel. d~a. From this point of view there is.''''-vu. 3(1):20-36. Andre Viel's remarks in "Du chronique au chronolo"HisttJire de notre image (Mont-Blanc. See as an interesting example Gilbert Rouget's "Une experience de cinema synchrone au ralenti. 55. . 1965).." Journal of Philosophy (1942). the eighteen cenn.C.F History (New York: Crowell. des d)histoire et de philo sophie des sciences (Paris: 79.. 18.' . 92. that is to' say.merlc~us:~t~.' langue (Pans: SeUlI.es 0 ?am~~. this topic. In discourse. Ill. for example. ProblCmes de linguistique genera/e. See a so IC IC I Fichant's remarks in Sur Phistoire des sciences (Paris: Maspero. "A field of epIsremolow .an . . Rhapsody 1.. 1. P and probably excessivelymethodoldoglCai. and hence to slow down or accelerate the image." Freud: The Mind of the Moralist (New York: Viking. such as the return oneself. and his "The I r. . 1970). ee Berner. on "nonorienred and ambivalence. available 10 ng IS h 7 b I w "Hagio-graphical Edification. .' . d c Gob'ineau. 90. the instance is made from ··the "terms . [In Leconte de Lisle's translation used above. See also Pierre Schaeffer.: .subJect. characterize the Freudian "model of time". in narrative. See my Absent ge~'h'am pp c." Linguistita Biblita (BoIUl) categories fondamentales d'une Poetique genera IV .ana (Paris: Seuil. 86.. [My translation. pp. 83. 39. 6 ~~:. 99. 1959). mon grounds of POSSlblhty-~lstor~~lty . 32:443-54. the historical narrative also presents these aspects of phantasm. See Benveniste. no. " Gordon Leff calls it.. . especially. Maurice Blanchot.are part of a traditional process in history. . -TR.110 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES .. On this . Georges CanguIlhlemlvf.. 425-26. for verifying the validity and the limits prore:: "Histo "in The Order . See Foucaulr's c1~~elyr~~te~ 7~~c~~:e~~1 the divi~on of History into Things. to 'historical' times and places" (pp. which refer to 'real' objects .This is still the basic reference on the subject. From the says" ~ucccssivdy diverse theories (~~~s ~r~ffith Jones . In The Practice oJ hi I' to icriture-Writing. This highly detailed studyClaude I (. 1 87. J M L' "L'Ecriture en miroir des petIts eco li "Journal de 8S.~~} :e notions of "meaning" or "sigreticence concernmg the dan~~ G d' Theories of History (New York: Free nificance" in hist?ry. the "instance is in the hie and nunc of interlocutors. the reversal into contraries. iers.• SeUlI. historiography would do well to draw on the technical means refined by cinema.diIvers. in Bssais critiques (Paris:. and especially"L de eVYh'I' h I . 171ff. ." Les Temps modema (1964). et Theorie du dcit (Pans: .lllIOU form." . M li wski Freud Parsons). See Henri Meschonnic. (1972) 0 11' and note 103 below.IS. "" a aguerra R Diatkinc. (1956) no 2 pp. p. 3??-7~). 1969). d th e author's Sujet et histoire Semiotica (1971). 89. their comparticular positive hls~on.p~er d Bea~~s "Le Discours de I'histoire. in History and ca SO.. ." LHomme (1971). : University Press. "Fantasme . 81. ormale et . . From this standpoint. see "The Authority of the Past. paragraphs 8 and especially 64. . p. a link between absence of zero in mathematics and the absence of a history which thinks of as a difference. 95. des hfipttaux Jean-Pierre Faye. chez91. pat 0 oatque ( 1935) .:interestgoes far beyond the individual case of Claude Bernard-allows us to grasp immediately the distances that generate movement from experiment (here as it is controlled) to chronicle. See also. . S M D Grmek Raisonnement' expmmen . On the "concept" of zero. M' I "Le Recit historique: L'ega I"ite et signification.. 1984). This study on the "staging of desire" in sequences of images also '~b'''~'''~ the problems broached by historical discourse. Elton dedicates the central part of ~s. p. 1974). Danto. "The subject can be in uCO'UUII"'-I. .rdt ~iittgemans. See Roberto mgl. .] . see also 0 ~n5_75 re 'rinted in t» Bruissemen» de Social Scien~e I njon:natwn (1967). origine du funt3sme.The Historiographical Operation III ." pp. especially "Alterations. projection. L'Entretien inftni (Paris: Gallimard.j 98.11(2):113_ 17. Barthes has noted this in "Le Discours de I'histoire. 80-8 .. :. see Frege's remarks in Les /'lJnJlltmenrs de Parithmitique (Paris: Seuil. De fa ctmnatssance IStonque . . See. pp.". Henri-Irenee Marrou. C Ii ogte n . p. R. Traiti des objets musicaux (Paris: Seuil. '.. . Philip Rieff has especially emphasized recommencement and repetition.nd Hannah More in historical problem (the school camp g d method (p 165) the means .. 0: 94. 1964). . For a lon~ time.. '. d theoreticians have shown their 82. (pp. d P . Rid Barthes "Structure du tart.. G. in the very syntax of the sequence in questhe authors write. Marne . pp. Analytical Phil05Press 1959. on these accelerations and decelerations that . Evangelical." Les Cadit chemin (January 15. text reads. C bridge University ress. "Nul ne sait par lui-meme qui est son pere. ' brid . On I Ir P 279 . ophy of History (Cam n de I tstotre (P ans. . he says. . or the finite nature of man. on the explanatory sketches that historiography fur. J. See 0 a~ . in their act of speech" . (we say: the chief of police leftymerday). r to each of these theories. "T exte et' . . e !glon.lrr. ~4..rushes. see also c . Langages tot al't' aires. 20. 79-116. See e arts t ann 1972) . G.. 6 . . eXafl1 edlsn~Methuen 1969) which "esL R liai d Popular E uauum ( on 0 . D roz . See Patrie ar ~nerd Arthur C. Akin a staged drama. denial" (p. '" ti e. 1973) . 1S68).. A typical Social Theory (Tuscaloosa: Umverslty of Alabra 000 McLeish's original study. 15~. "The Function of General Laws in History. on the Zeitregler. th ) he produces a case stu y . m. repnnted 1967). Press 1969). 19~2). "Maurice Blanchot OU I'ecriulre hors langage. I' .. 1973).le ~'l. ] 96~). pp. 109-41. pp.." 85. 93. vol. and H. an e sam Editions de l'Universite.lOqUlry. 253-54)."--TR. within the Greek epistimi. "Desire is voiced in the phrase of the phantasm which elected place of the most primitive defensive operations. "L'Ecrirure en rruroir.•. see Jean Laplanche and Jean-Baptiste Pontalis. an.. The Odyssey. 625. . which allows sonorous time to be expanded or contracted without deformation..m(gfwI t e o~ riches or of language) and. or "disrender of time" (or "stretcher").. tal et recherches toxlco~rwUirUi. 1965). 1969). fantasme des origines. :-8. E' Ii h in Critical Essays (Evanston." 96.P 1965) pp 7-9. Sec. ~u.~ Vrin.'d (G eneva. 71-72. and from chronicle to didnctic discourse-theory or "history. 1966).

387-405. See for example J. 29-38. Il-16. rt1l'fJ>7J'auJ ..: Cornell University Press. but the··. 18. of science" I esrl96l . pp. u Temps de Phistoir«. ). On this conception of myth. 20. See Tzvetan Todorov. no. Jacques Lacan.e ga enes of hIstory" or collections of 13 115. EreigniS und Erniihlung (Munich: W." Critique (1947). Umversity of Chicago Pr ope. . 1962). the seventeenth cenrury. and Philippe Hamon. 1981). 857. historical portraits. "'Robespierre." p. IS a I' itcrarv and musical . see Harald Weinrich. pp. pp. N. pp.). ~laude Levi-Strauss. pp.Y. no. it is object of a didactic difference: "'Robespierre. cago. see p. Vilar. no. Geschichte.112 PRODUCTIONS OF PLACES The Historiographical Operation . 101. eds. bonus of knowledge that is accredited with a competence. "Un discours contrainr. There are many ways of dealing with it. 103. Aries. The "to m be au ". "Le Discours de l'histoire. p. p. duction ala litteratur« fanttl$tique.--TR. 1. 123-38 and 413-19. Koselleck and W. See Pierre Goubert.Y. 16:426-27. apro s of r . Bachelier's remarks on the "Sur-Nom. Psychoanalysis and History (Englewood Cliffs. so I am going to have you learn about it. "Le Regne animal de l'esprit. it would erase all nomination." the essential mark of fantastic Ul~"U".: Station Hill Press." nications (1972). from the line" which reduces it to a series of "facts. 1974).. 74. On the one hand. 102 in the French (Paris: Seuil. 631-43. "Narrative Strukturen in der Ges. quotation marks. 106. illustrations. pp. 1973). p. Beauvais et le Beaumisis de 1600 a 1730 (Paris: 1960)." pp. See Maurice Blanchot. vol. of quite varied mechanisms: indirect style (historiography states that someone stated that. See my Absent de Pbistoire." in R." It is the evidence . Fink. Ecrits (Paris: Seuil 1966 eo" ongs to this genre. 104." It is bdiePable." to the extraction of data usable a serial history.. 173ff. N. [I have translated the remark quoted in the text. The Gaze of Orpheus and: Other Literary Essays (Barrytown. the "1. 113.. seeClaude Rabant. co~emoratIve genre dating to 117 sronographical narratrv als bel . 'bid'J pp. Hamon. Stempel. La 116 . 109. La Naissance de Fhistoire (Paris: Minuit. the "chronicle" may be or less ground to pieces." notes Roland in 5/Z (New York: Hill and Wang. it . 1969). Ill. "Le Mythe a l'avenir (re)commence. 285 In the French. 95. see p. 5. 23-44. 1962). The hi' . 859). On the other. P: 255. etc. Barthes. "Un discours contraint." From this standpoint. D. . This discourse-a montage of other discourses-is produced by . Y C su jeer.. 519-23. 107. The proper name allows a double effect." (1973). must be avoided. Thus of name creates a serious deflation of the realistic illusion." in Bruce Mazlisch.u~. Il2. and "La Litterature et Ie droit a la mort. The Fantastic: A Structural to a Literary Genre (Ithaca. In The ~avageMind (ChiPensee sauvage (Paris: PIon. On this point. chichtschreibung. p.~~es. .' you know what that is. See. 1l0. 1975). scrences because there exists onl th ' bi ). 1963). in English. There are no human (p. see also ChaiIn Perelman in Les Catfgories en histoire Editions de l'lnstitut de Sociologie. but not the man.-L.: Prentice-Hall. 114. 1970). 440-41. It can be said that the resented "past" is the effect of the manner in which the discourse conducts relations with the "chronicle. 195-214 on thes " II' . 105." Critique (1948).J. . Inversely. La Catalogne dans PEspagne moderne. 19. pp. N. . especially pp. On this topic. 108. articles cited here are available in English in Blanchot.] 102." Esprit (April 1971). Francois Chatelet.. I Meaning of History and Religion in Freud's Thought. 30-47. 00.' that is something other than you know.

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