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Charging and Discharging Processes
5121 A large reservoir supplies steam to a balloon whose initial state is specified. The final temperature in
the balloon and the boundary work are to be determined.
Analysis Noting that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the final volume and the initial mass
are determined from
(Table A6) /kg m 9367 . 1
C 150
kPa 100
3
1
1
1
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
v
T
P
Steam
50 m
3
100 kPa
150°C
Steam
150 kPa
200°C
3 3
1
1
2
2
m 75 ) m 50 (
kPa 100
kPa 150
= = = V V
P
P
kg 82 . 25
/kg m 1.9367
m 50
3
3
1
1
1
= = =
v
V
m
The final temperature may be determined if we first calculate specific
volume at the final state
/kg m 4525 . 1
kg) 25.82 ( 2
m 75
2
3
3
1
2
2
2
2
=
×
= = =
m m
V V
v
(Table A6) C 202.5° =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
=
2
3
2
2
/kg m 4525 . 1
kPa 150
T
P
v
Noting again that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the boundary work can be determined
from
kJ 3125 = −
+
= −
+
=
3
1 2
2 1
m ) 50 75 (
2
kPa ) 150 100 (
) (
2
V V
P P
W
b
5122 Steam in a supply line is allowed to enter an initially evacuated tank. The temperature of the steam in
the supply line and the flow work are to be determined.
Analysis Flow work of the steam in the supply line is converted to sensible internal energy in the tank.
That is,
4 MPa
Initially
evacuated
Steam
tank line
u h =
where (Table A6) kJ/kg 5 . 3189
C 550
MPa 4
tank
tank
tank
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
u
T
P
Now, the properties of steam in the line can be calculated
(Table A6)
kJ/kg 5 . 2901 kJ/kg 5 . 3189
MPa 4
line
line
line
line
=
° =
)
`
¹
=
=
u
T
h
P C 389.5
The flow work per unit mass is the difference between enthalpy and internal energy of the steam in the line
kJ/kg 288 = − = − = 5 . 2901 5 . 3189
line line flow
u h w
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
578
5123 A vertical pistoncylinder device contains air at a specified state. Air is allowed to escape from the
cylinder by a valve connected to the cylinder. The final temperature and the boundary work are to be
determined.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K (Table A1).
Air
Air
0.25 m
3
600 kPa
300°C
Analysis The initial and final masses in the cylinder are
3
3
1
1
1
m 9121 . 0
K) 273 00 kJ/kg.K)(3 287 . 0 (
) m kPa)(0.25 600 (
=
+
= =
RT
P
m
V
kg 2280 . 0 kg) 9121 . 0 ( 25 . 0 25 . 0
1 2
= = = m m
Then the final temperature becomes
K 458.4 = = =
kJ/kg.K) 287 . 0 ( kg) 2280 . 0 (
) m kPa)(0.05 600 (
3
2
2
2
R m
P
T
V
Noting that pressure remains constant during the process, the boundary work is determined from
kJ 120 = − = − =
3
2 1
0.05)m kPa)(0.25 (600 ) ( V V P W
b
5124 Helium flows from a supply line to an initially evacuated tank. The flow work of the helium in the
supply line and the final temperature of the helium in the tank are to be determined.
Properties The properties of helium are R = 2.0769 kJ/kg.K, c
p
= 5.1926 kJ/kg.K, c
v
= 3.1156 kJ/kg.K
(Table A2a).
Analysis The flow work is determined from its definition but
we first determine the specific volume
200 kPa, 120°C
Initially
evacuated
Helium
/kg m 0811 . 4
kPa) 200 (
K) 273 20 kJ/kg.K)(1 0769 . 2 (
3 line
=
+
= =
P
RT
v
kJ/kg 816.2 = = = /kg) m 1 kPa)(4.081 200 (
3
flow
v P w
Noting that the flow work in the supply line is converted to
sensible internal energy in the tank, the final helium
temperature in the tank is determined as follows
K 655.0 = ÷→ ÷ = ÷→ ÷ =
= + = =
=
tank tank tank tank 
line line
line tank
kJ/kg.K) 1156 . 3 ( kJ/kg 7 . 2040
kJ/kg 7 . 2040 K) 273 20 kJ/kg.K)(1 1926 . 5 (
T T T c u
T c h
h u
p
v
Alternative Solution: Noting the definition of specific heat ratio, the final temperature in the tank can also
be determined from
K 655.1 = + = = K) 273 120 ( 667 . 1
line tank
kT T
which is practically the same result.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
579
5125 An evacuated bottle is surrounded by atmospheric air. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill
the bottle. The amount of heat transfer through the wall of the bottle when thermal and mechanical
equilibrium is established is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the air in the bottle (will be
verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K (Table A1).
Analysis We take the bottle as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance: ) 0 (since
initial out 2 system out in
= = = → ∆ = − m m m m m m m
i
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
initial out 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ = = ≅ = +
∆ = −
pe ke E E W u m h m Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
100 kPa
17°C
8 L
Evacuated
Combining the two balances:
Q ( )
i
h u m − =
2 2 in
where
kJ/kg 206.91
kJ/kg 290.16
K 290
kg 0.0096
) K 290 )( K /kg m kPa 0.287 (
) m 0.008 )( kPa 100 (
2
17  A Table
2
3
3
2
2
2
=
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ = =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
u
h
T T
RT
P
m
i
i
V
Substituting, Q
in
= (0.0096 kg)(206.91  290.16) kJ/kg =  0.8 kJ → Q
out
= 0.8 kJ
Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. Therefore, we
reverse the direction.
5126 An insulated rigid tank is evacuated. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill the tank until
mechanical equilibrium is established. The final temperature in the tank is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The specific heat ratio for air at room temperature is k = 1.4 (Table A2).
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass
crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and
nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively,
the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as
Mass balance: ) 0 (since
initial out 2 system out in
= = = → ∆ = − m m m m m m m
i
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
initial out 2 2
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ = = ≅ ≅ =
∆ = −
pe ke E E W Q u m h m
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
Air
initially
evacuated
Combining the two balances:
i i p i p i
kT T c c T T c T c h u = = → = → = ) / (
2 2 2 v v
Substituting, T
2
= × = = 1.4 290 K 406 K 133 C
o
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
580
5127 A rigid tank initially contains air at atmospheric conditions. The tank is connected to a supply line,
and air is allowed to enter the tank until mechanical equilibrium is established. The mass of air that entered
and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4
There are no work interactions involved. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K (Table A1). The properties of air are (Table A17)
kJ/kg 02 . 250 K 350
kJ/kg 49 . 210 K 295
kJ/kg 17 . 295 K 295
2 2
1 1
= ÷→ ÷ =
= ÷→ ÷ =
= ÷→ ÷ =
u T
u T
h T
i i
Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = +
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial and the final masses in the tank are
kg 11.946
) K 350 )( K /kg m kPa 0.287 (
) m 2 )( kPa 600 (
kg 2.362
) K 295 )( K /kg m kPa 0.287 (
) m 2 )( kPa 100 (
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
Q
·
V
1
= 2 m
3
P
1
= 100 kPa
T
1
= 22°C
P
i
= 600 kPa
T
i
= 22°C
Then from the mass balance,
m m m
i
= − = − =
2 1
11946 2 362 . . 9.584 kg
(b) The heat transfer during this process is determined from
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
kJ 339 = → − =
− + − =
− + − =
out
1 1 2 2 in
kJ 339
kJ/kg 210.49 kg 2.362 kJ/kg 250.02 kg 11.946 kJ/kg 295.17 kg 9.584
Q
u m u m h m Q
i i
Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. Therefore, we
reversed the direction.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
581
5128 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R134a liquidvapor mixture. The tank is connected to a
supply line, and R134a is allowed to enter the tank. The final temperature in the tank, the mass of R134a
that entered, and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A11 through A13)
( )
kJ/kg 335.06
100
MPa 1.0
kJ/kg 246.79
/kg m 0.02562
vapor sat.
kPa 800
kJ/kg 182.92 19 . 172 0.7 62.39
/kg m 0.03717 0.0007887 0.052762 0.7 0.0007887
7 . 0
C 8
kPa 800 @ 2
3
kPa 800 @ 2 2
1 1
3
1 1
1
1
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
= × + = + =
= − × + = + =
)
`
¹
=
° =
i
i
i
g
g
fg f
fg f
h
C T
P
u u
P
u x u u
x
x
T
v v
v v v
R134a
0.2 m
3
R134a
1 MPa
100°C
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume
since mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies
of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this
uniformflow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = +
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
(a) The tank contains saturated vapor at the final state at 800 kPa, and thus the final temperature is the
saturation temperature at this pressure,
31.31ºC = =
kPa 800 @ sat 2
T T
(b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
kg 7.81
/kg m 0.02562
m 0.2
kg 5.38
/kg m 0.03717
m 0.2
3
3
2
2
3
3
1
1
= = =
= = =
v
V
v
V
m
m
Then from the mass balance
2.43 kg = − = − = 38 . 5 81 . 7
1 2
m m m
i
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )(
kJ 130 =
− + − =
− + − =
kJ/kg 182.92 kg 5.38 kJ/kg 246.79 kg 7.81 kJ/kg 335.06 kg 2.43
1 1 2 2 in
u m u m h m Q
i i
)
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
582
5129E A rigid tank initially contains saturated water vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and
water vapor is allowed to enter the tank until onehalf of the tank is filled with liquid water. The final
pressure in the tank, the mass of steam that entered, and the heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4E through A6E)
Q
Steam
Water
3 ft
3
300°F
Sat. vapor
200 psia
400°F
Btu/lbm 1210.9
F 400
psia 0 20
Btu/lbm 1099.8 , 51 . 269
/lbm ft 4663 . 6 , 01745 . 0
mixture sat.
300
Btu/lbm 1099.8
/lbm ft 4663 . 6
vapor sat.
F 0 30
3
2
F 0 30 @ 1
3
F 0 30 @ 1 1
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
= =
= =
)
`
¹ ° =
= =
= =
)
`
¹ ° =
°
°
i
i
i
g f
g f
g
g
h
T
P
u u
F T
u u
T
v v
v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = +
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
(a) The tank contains saturated mixture at the final state at 250°F, and thus the exit pressure is the
saturation pressure at this temperature,
psia 67.03 = =
°F 300 @ sat 2
P P
(b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
lbm 20 . 86 232 . 0 97 . 85
/lbm ft 6.4663
. ft 1.5
/lbm ft 0.01745
ft 1.5
lbm 0.464
/lbm ft 6.4663
ft 3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
1
1
= + = + = + = + =
= = =
g
g
f
f
g f
m m m
m
v
V
v
V
v
V
Then from the mass balance
= − = − = 464 . 0 20 . 86
1 2
m m m
i
85.74 lbm
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
( )( ) ( )(
Btu 80,900 , = → − =
− + − =
− + − =
out
1 1 2 2 in
Btu 900 80
Btu/lbm 1099.8 lbm 0.464 Btu 23,425 Btu/lbm 1210.9 lbm 85.74
Q
u m u m h m Q
i i
)
since Btu 23,425 1099.8 0.232 269.51 97 . 85
2 2 2
= × + × = + = =
g g f f
u m u m u m U
Discussion A negative result for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong, and should be
reversed.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
583
5130 A cylinder initially contains superheated steam. The cylinder is connected to a supply line, and is
superheated steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until the volume doubles at constant pressure. The final
temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 The expansion process is quasiequilibrium. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3
There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible.
Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A4 through A6)
kJ/kg 3158.2
C 350
MPa 1
kJ/kg 2643.3
/kg m 0.42503
C 200
kPa 500
1
3
1
1
1
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
=
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
i
i
i
h
T
P
u
T
P
v
Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the
boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by
enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system
can be expressed as
P
i
= 1 MPa
T
i
= 350°C
P = 500 kPa
T
1
= 200°C
V
1
= 0.01 m
3
Steam
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 out b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − + =
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m W h m
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
Combining the two relations gives ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 out b,
0 u m u m h m m W
i
− + − − =
The boundary work done during this process is
( ) ( )( ) kJ 5
m kPa 1
kJ 1
m 0.01 0.02 kPa 500 P
2
1
3
3
1 2 ,
=


.

\

⋅
− = − = =
∫
V V V d P W
out b
The initial and the final masses in the cylinder are
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
m 0.02
kg 0.0235
/kg m 0.42503
m 0.01
v v
V
v
V
= =
= = =
m
m
Substituting, ( ) ( )( ) 3 . 2643 0235 . 0
02 . 0
2 . 3158 0235 . 0
02 . 0
5 0
2
2 2
− +


.

\

− − = u
v v
Then by trial and error (or using EES program), T
2
= 261.7°C and v
2
= 0.4858 m
3
/kg
(b) The final mass in the cylinder is
kg 0.0412
/kg m 0.4858
m 0.02
3
3
2
2
2
= = =
v
V
m
Then, m
i
= m
2
 m
1
= 0.0412  0.0235 = 0.0176 kg
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
584
5131 A cylinder initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of water. The cylinder is connected to a
supply line, and the steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until all the liquid is vaporized. The final
temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 The expansion process is quasiequilibrium. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3
There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible.
Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A4 through A6)
kJ/kg 3168.1
C 350
MPa 0.5
kJ/kg 2706.3
vapor sat.
kPa 00 2
kJ/kg .6 1825 2201.6 0.6 504.71
6 . 0
kPa 00 2
kPa 200 @ 2
2
1 1
1
1
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
= =
)
`
¹ =
= × + = + =
)
`
¹
=
=
i
i
i
g
fg f
h
T
P
h h
P
h x h h
x
P
P
i
= 0.5 MPa
T
i
= 350°C
(P = 200 kPa)
m
1
= 10 kg
H
2
O
Analysis (a) The cylinder contains saturated vapor at the final state at a pressure of 200 kPa, thus the final
temperature in the cylinder must be
T
2
= T
sat @ 200 kPa
= 120.2°C
(b) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. Noting
that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal
energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 out b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − + =
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m W h m
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
Combining the two relations gives ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 out b,
0 u m u m h m m W
i
− + − − =
or, ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2
h m h m h m m
i
0 − + − − =
since the boundary work and ∆U combine into ∆H for constant pressure expansion and compression
processes. Solving for m
2
and substituting,
( )
( )
( ) kg 9.07 2 kg 10
kJ/kg 2706.3 3168.1
kJ/kg .6 1825 3168.1
1
2
1
2
=
−
−
=
−
−
= m
h h
h h
m
i
i
Thus,
m
i
= m
2
 m
1
= 29.07  10 = 19.07 kg
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
585
5132 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R134a vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and R
134a is allowed to enter the tank. The mass of the R134a that entered and the heat transfer are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A11 through A13)
Q
R134a
R134a
0.12 m
3
1 MPa
Sat. vapor
1.2 MPa
36°C
kJ/kg .30 102
C 36
MPa 1.2
kJ/kg 116.70
/kg m 0.0008934
liquid sat.
MPa 1.2
kJ/kg 250.68
/kg m 0.02031
vapor sat.
MPa 1
C 36 @
MPa 1.2 @ 2
3
MPa 1.2 @ 2 2
MPa 1 @ 1
3
MPa 1 @ 1 1
= =
)
`
¹
° =
=
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
° f i
i
i
f
f
g
g
h h
T
P
u u
P
u u
P
v v
v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = +
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
(a) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
kg 134.31
/kg m 0.0008934
m 0.12
kg 91 . 5
/kg m 0.02031
m 0.12
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
= = =
= = =
v
V
v
V
m
m
Then from the mass balance
kg 128.4 = − = − = 91 . 5 31 . 134
1 2
m m m
i
(c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )(
kJ 1057 =
− + − =
− + − =
kJ/kg 250.68 kg 5.91 kJ/kg 116.70 kg 134.31 kJ/kg 102.30 kg 128.4
1 1 2 2 in
u m u m h m Q
i i
)
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
586
5133 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid water. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened, and
half of the mass in liquid form is withdrawn from the tank. The temperature in the tank is maintained
constant. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6)
Q
H
2
O
Sat. liquid
T = 200°C
V = 0.3 m
3
kJ/kg 852.26
liquid sat.
C 200
kJ/kg 850.46
/kg m 0.001157
liquid sat.
C 200
C 200 @
C 200 @
1
3
C 200 @
1 1
= =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
= =
= =
)
`
¹ ° =
o
o
o
o
f
e
e
f
f
h h
T
u u
T v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − + =
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial and the final masses in the tank are
( ) kg 129.7 kg 259.4
kg 259.4
/kg m 0.001157
m 0.3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
3
1
1
1
= = =
= = =
m m
m
v
V
Then from the mass balance,
kg 129.7 7 . 129 4 . 259
2 1
= − = − = m m m
e
Now we determine the final internal energy,
( )( ) kJ/kg 866.46 7 . 1743 009171 . 0 46 . 850
009171 . 0
C 200
009171 . 0
001157 . 0 12721 . 0
001157 . 0 002313 . 0
/kg m 0.002313
kg 129.7
m 0.3
2 2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
= + = + =
)
`
¹
=
° =
=
−
−
=
−
=
= = =
fg f
fg
f
u x u u
x
T
x
m
v
v v
V
v
Then the heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance by substitution to be
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
kJ 2308 =
− + = kJ/kg 850.46 kg 259.4 kJ/kg 866.46 kg 129.7 kJ/kg 852.26 kg 129.7 Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
587
5134 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of refrigerant134a. A valve at the
bottom of the tank is opened, and liquid is withdrawn from the tank at constant pressure until no liquid
remains inside. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of R134a are (Tables A11 through A13)
R134a
Sat. vapor
P = 800 kPa
V = 0.12 m
3
Q
kJ/kg 95.47
liquid sat.
kPa 800
kJ/kg 246.79
/kg m 0.025621
vapor sat.
kPa 800
kJ/kg 79 . 246 = kJ/kg, 79 . 94
/kg m 0.025621 = /kg, m 0.0008458 kPa 800
kPa 800 @
kPa 800 @ 2
3
kPa 800 @ 2 2
3 3
1
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
=
= → =
f e
e
g
g
g f
g f
h h
P
u u
P
u u
P
v v
v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − + =
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
( )( ) ( )( )
kg 684 . 4
/kg m 0.025621
m 2 0.1
kJ 2 . 4229 246.79 3.513 94.79 35.47
kg .98 38 .513 3 .47 35
/kg m 0.025621
m 0.75 0.12
/kg m 0.0008458
m 0.25 0.12
3
3
2
2
1 1 1
3
3
3
3
1
= = =
= + = + = =
= + =
×
+
×
= + = + =
v
V
v
V
v
V
m
u m u m u m U
m m m
g g f f
g
g
f
f
g f
Then from the mass and energy balances,
kg .30 34 684 . 4 98 . 38
2 1
= − = − = m m m
e
( )( ) ( )( ) kJ 201.2 = − + = kJ 4229 kJ/kg 246.79 kg 4.684 kJ/kg 95.47 kg 34.30
in
Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
588
5135E A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of R134a. A valve at the top of the
tank is opened, and vapor is allowed to escape at constant pressure until all the liquid in the tank
disappears. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved.
Properties The properties of R134a are (Tables A11E through A13E)
Q
R134a
Sat. vapor
P = 100 psia
V = 4 ft
3
Btu/lbm 113.83
vapor sat.
psia 100
Btu/lbm 104.99
/lbm ft 0.4776
vapor sat.
psia 100
Btu/lbm 99 . 104 Btu/lbm, 623 . 37
/lbm ft 0.4776 /lbm, ft 0.01332 psia 100
psia 100 @
psia 100 @ 2
3
psia 100 @ 2 2
3 3
1
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= = → =
g e
e
g
g
g f
g f
h h
P
u u
v P
u u
P
v
v v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
( )( ) ( )( )
lbm 8.375
/lbm ft 0.4776
ft 4
Btu 2962 104.99 6.70 37.623 60.04
lbm 66.74 6.70 60.04
/lbm ft 0.4776
ft 0.8 4
/lbm ft 0.01332
ft 0.2 4
3
3
2
2
1 1 1
3
3
3
3
1
= = =
= + = + = =
= + =
×
+
×
= + = + =
v
V
v
V
v
V
m
u m u m u m U
m m m
g g f f
g
g
f
f
g f
Then from the mass and energy balances,
lbm 58.37 375 . 8 74 . 66
2 1
= − = − = m m m
e
( )( ) ( )( )
Btu 4561 =
− + =
− + =
Btu 2962 Btu/lbm 104.99 lbm 8.375 Btu/lbm 113.83 lbm 58.37
1 1 2 2 in
u m u m h m Q
e e
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
589
5136 A rigid tank initially contains superheated steam. A valve at the top of the tank is opened, and vapor
is allowed to escape at constant pressure until the temperature rises to 500°C. The amount of heat transfer
is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process by using constant average properties for the
steam leaving the tank. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions
involved. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Q
STEAM
2 MPa
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6)
kJ/kg 3468.3 , kJ/kg 3116.9
/kg m 0.17568
C 500
MPa 2
kJ/kg 3024.2 , kJ/kg 2773.2
/kg m 0.12551
C 300
MPa 2
2 2
3
2
2
2
1 1
3
1
1
1
= =
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
= =
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
h u
T
P
h u
T
P
v
v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The state and thus the enthalpy of the steam leaving the tank is changing during this process. But for
simplicity, we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values. Thus,
kJ/kg 3246.2
2
kJ/kg 3468.3 3024.2
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
≅
h h
h
e
The initial and the final masses in the tank are
kg 1.138
/kg m 0.17568
m 0.2
kg 1.594
/kg m 0.12551
m 0.2
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
= = =
= = =
v
V
v
V
m
m
Then from the mass and energy balance relations,
kg 0.456 138 . 1 594 . 1
2 1
= − = − = m m m
e
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )(
kJ 606.8 =
− + =
− + =
kJ/kg 2773.2 kg 1.594 kJ/kg 3116.9 kg 1.138 kJ/kg 3246.2 kg 0.456
1 1 2 2
u m u m h m Q
e e in
)
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
590
5137 A pressure cooker is initially halffilled with liquid water. If the pressure cooker is not to run out of
liquid water for 1 h, the highest rate of heat transfer allowed is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions involved.
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6)
Q
&
kJ/kg 2700.2
vapor sat.
kPa 175
kJ/kg 2524.5
/kg m 1.0036
vapor sat.
kPa 175
kJ/kg 5 . 2524 kJ/kg, 82 . 486
/kg m 1.0037 /kg, m 0.001057 kPa 175
kPa 175 @
kPa 175 @ 2
3
kPa 175 @ 2 2
3 3
1
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= =
)
`
¹ =
= =
= = → =
g e
e
g
g
g f
g f
h h
P
u u
P
u u
P
v v
v v
Pressure
Cooker
4 L
175 kPa
Analysis We take the cooker as the system, which is a control volume since
mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing
and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u,
respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can
be expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke W u m u m h m Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial mass, initial internal energy, and final mass in the tank are
( )( ) ( )( )
kg 0.004
/kg m 1.0037
m 0.004
kJ 926.6 2524.5 0.002 486.82 1.893
kg 1.895 0.002 1.893
/kg m 1.0036
m 0.002
/kg m 0.001057
m 0.002
3
3
2
2
1 1 1
3
3
3
3
1
= = =
= + = + = =
= + = + = + = + =
v
V
v
V
v
V
m
u m u m u m U
m m m
g g f f
g
g
f
f
g f
Then from the mass and energy balances,
kg 1.891 004 . 0 895 . 1
2 1
= − = − = m m m
e
( )( ) ( )( ) kJ 4188 kJ 926.6 kJ/kg 2524.5 kg 0.004 kJ/kg 2700.2 kg 1.891
1 1 2 2 in
= − + =
− + = u m u m h m Q
e e
Thus,
kW 1.163 = = =
s 3600
kJ 4188
t
Q
Q
∆
&
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
591
5138 An insulated rigid tank initially contains helium gas at high pressure. A valve is opened, and half of
the mass of helium is allowed to escape. The final temperature and pressure in the tank are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process by using constant average properties for the
helium leaving the tank. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions
involved. 4 The tank is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible. 5 Helium is an ideal gas with constant
specific heats.
Properties The specific heat ratio of helium is k =1.667 (Table A2).
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
m m m m
e 2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1
= ÷ → ÷ = = (given) m
He
0.08 m
3
2 MPa
80°C
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke Q W u m u m h m
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
Note that the state and thus the enthalpy of helium leaving the tank is changing during this process. But for
simplicity, we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values.
Combining the mass and energy balances: 0
1
2
1
1
2
1 2 1 1
= + − m h m u m u
e
Dividing by m
1
/2
1 2
2 1
1 2
2
2
0 2 0 T c T c
T T
c or u u h
p e v v
− +
+
= − + =
Dividing by c
v
: ( )
v
c c k T T T T k
p
/ since 4 2 0
1 2 2 1
= − + + =
Solving for T
2
:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) K 225 =
+
−
=
+
−
= K 353
1.667 2
1.667 4
2
4
1 2
T
k
k
T
The final pressure in the tank is
( ) kPa 637 = = = ÷→ ÷ = kPa 2000
353
225
2
1
1
2 1
2 2
2
2 2
1 1
2
1
P
T m
T m
P
RT m
RT m
P
P
V
V
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
592
5139E An insulated rigid tank equipped with an electric heater initially contains pressurized air. A valve is
opened, and air is allowed to escape at constant temperature until the pressure inside drops to 30 psia. The
amount of electrical work transferred is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 The tank is insulated and thus heat
transfer is negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.
Properties The gas constant of air is R =0.3704 psia.ft
3
/lbm.R (Table A1E). The properties of air are
(Table A17E)
T h
T u
T u
i i
= ÷ → ÷ =
= ÷ → ÷ =
= ÷ → ÷ =
580 R 138.66 Btu / lbm
580 R 98.90 Btu / lbm
580 R 98.90 Btu / lbm
1 1
2 2
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in e,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m h m W
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial and the final masses of air in the tank are
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
lbm 8.38
R 580 R /lbm ft psia 0.3704
ft 60 psia 30
lbm 20.95
R 580 R /lbm ft psia 0.3704
ft 60 psia 75
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
V
V
W
e
AIR
60 ft
3
75 psia
120°F
Then from the mass and energy balances,
m m m
e
= − = − =
1 2
20 95 8 38 . . 12.57 lbm
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
Btu 500 =
− + =
− + =
Btu/lbm 98.90 lbm 20.95 Btu/lbm 98.90 lbm 8.38 Btu/lbm 138.66 lbm 12.57
1 1 2 2 in e,
u m u m h m W
e e
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
593
5140 A vertical cylinder initially contains air at room temperature. Now a valve is opened, and air is
allowed to escape at constant pressure and temperature until the volume of the cylinder goes down by half.
The amount air that left the cylinder and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 3 There are no work interactions. 4 Air is
an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the cylinder (will be
verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K (Table A1).
Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the
boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by
enthalpy h and internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system
can be expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ − = − +
∆ = −
pe ke u m u m h m W Q
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
AIR
300 kPa
0.2 m
3
20°C
The initial and the final masses of air in the cylinder are
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
1
2
1
3
3
2
2 2
2
3
3
1
1 1
1
kg 0.357
K 293 K /kg m kPa 0.287
m 0.1 kPa 300
kg 0.714
K 293 K /kg m kPa 0.287
m 0.2 kPa 300
m
RT
P
m
RT
P
m
= =
⋅ ⋅
= =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
V
V
Then from the mass balance,
m m m
e
= − = − =
1 2
0 714 0 357 . . 0.357 kg
(b) This is a constant pressure process, and thus the W
b
and the ∆U terms can be combined into ∆H to yield
Q m h m h m h
e e
= + −
2 2 1 1
Noting that the temperature of the air remains constant during this process, we have h
i
= h
1
= h
2
= h.
Also,
1
2
1
2
m m m
e
= = . Thus,
( ) 0 = − + = h m m m Q
1 1
2
1
1
2
1
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
594
5141 A balloon is initially filled with helium gas at atmospheric conditions. The tank is connected to a
supply line, and helium is allowed to enter the balloon until the pressure rises from 100 to 150 kPa. The
final temperature in the balloon is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant. 2 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 3 The expansion process is quasi
equilibrium. 4 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 5 There are no work interactions involved
other than boundary work. 6 Heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The gas constant of helium is R = 2.0769 kJ/kg·K (Table A1). The specific heats of helium are
c
p
= 5.1926 and c
v
= 3.1156 kJ/kg·K (Table A2a).
Analysis We take the cylinder as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy
balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 out b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − + =
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m W h m
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
He
25°C
150 kPa
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
kg
7041.74
K K /kg m kPa 2.0769
m 97.5 kPa 150
m 97.5 m 65
kPa 100
kPa 150
kg 61 . 10
K 295 K /kg m kPa 2.0769
m 65 kPa 100
2 2
3
3
2
2 2
2
3 3
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
3
3
1
1 1
1
T T RT
P
m
P
P
P
P
RT
P
m
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
= = = ÷→ ÷ =
=
⋅ ⋅
= =
V
V V
V
V
V
He
22°C
100 kPa
Then from the mass balance,
m m m
T
i
= − = −
2 1
2
7041 74
10 61
.
. kg
Noting that P varies linearly with V, the boundary work done during this process is
( )
( )
( ) kJ 4062.5 m 65 97.5
2
kPa 150 100
2
3
1 2
2 1
= −
+
= −
+
= V V
P P
W
b
Using specific heats, the energy balance relation reduces to
W
1 1 2 2 out b,
T c m T c m T c m
i p i v v
+ − =
Substituting,
( )( ) ( ) ( )( )(295 1156 . 3 61 . 10 1156 . 3
74 . 7041
298 1926 . 5 61 . 10
74 . 7041
5 . 4062
2
2 2
+ −


.

\

− = T
T T
)
It yields T
2
= 333.6 K
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
595
5142 An insulated pistoncylinder device with a linear spring is applying force to the piston. A valve at
the bottom of the cylinder is opened, and refrigerant is allowed to escape. The amount of refrigerant that
escapes and the final temperature of the refrigerant are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process assuming that the state of fluid leaving the device
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The initial properties of R134a are (Tables A11 through A13)
kJ/kg 11 . 354
kJ/kg 03 . 325
/kg m 02423 . 0
C 120
MPa 2 . 1
1
1
3
1
1
1
=
=
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
h
u
T
P
v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2 1 system out in
m m m m m m
e
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 in b,
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − = −
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m h m W
E E E
e e
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial mass and the relations for the final and exiting masses are
2
3
2 1
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
m 0.5
02 . 33
m 0.5
kg 02 . 33
/kg m 0.02423
m 0.8
v
v
V
v
V
− = − =
= =
= = =
m m m
v
m
m
e
Noting that the spring is linear, the boundary work can be determined from
R134a
0.8 m
3
1.2 MPa
120°C
kJ 270 m 0.5)  0.8 (
2
kPa 600) (1200
) (
2
3
2 1
2 1
in b,
=
+
= −
+
= V V
P P
W
Substituting the energy balance,
kJ/kg) kg)(325.03 02 . 33 (
m 5 . 0 m 5 . 0
02 . 33 270
2
2
3
2
3
−


.

\

=


.

\

− − u h
e
v v
(Eq. 1)
where the enthalpy of exiting fluid is assumed to be the average of initial and final enthalpies of the
refrigerant in the cylinder. That is,
2
kJ/kg) 11 . 354 (
2
2 2 1
h h h
h
e
+
=
+
=
Final state properties of the refrigerant (h
2
, u
2,
and v
2
) are all functions of final pressure (known) and
temperature (unknown). The solution may be obtained by a trialerror approach by trying different final
state temperatures until Eq. (1) is satisfied. Or solving the above equations simultaneously using an
equation solver with builtin thermodynamic functions such as EES, we obtain
T
2
= 96.8°C, m
e
= 22.47 kg, h
2
= 336.20 kJ/kg,
u
2
= 307.77 kJ/kg, v
2
= 0.04739 m
3
/kg, m
2
= 10.55 kg
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
596
5143 Steam flowing in a supply line is allowed to enter into an insulated tank until a specified state is
achieved in the tank. The mass of the steam that has entered and the pressure of the steam in the supply line
are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid entering the tank remains
constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The initial and final properties of steam in the tank are
(Tables A5 and A6)
400°C
Sat. vapor
2 m
3
1 MPa
Steam
kJ/kg 8 . 2582
/kg m 19436 . 0
vap.) (sat. 1
MPa 1
1
3
1
1
1
=
=
)
`
¹
=
=
u
x
P
v
kJ/kg 2 . 2773
/kg m 12551 . 0
C 300
MPa 2
2
3
2
1
2
=
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
u
T
P
v
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume
since mass crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies
of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this
uniformflow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ ≅ − =
∆ = −
pe ke Q u m u m h m
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
The initial and final masses and the mass that has entered are
kg 5.645 = − = − =
= = =
= = =
29 . 10 94 . 15
kg 94 . 15
/kg m 0.12551
m 2
kg 29 . 10
/kg m 0.19436
m 2
1 2
3
3
2
2
3
3
1
1
m m m
m
m
i
v
V
v
V
Substituting,
kJ/kg 3 . 3120 kJ/kg) kg)(2582.8 29 . 10 ( kJ/kg) kg)(2773.2 94 . 15 ( kg) 645 . 5 ( = ÷→ ÷ − =
i i
h h
The pressure in the supply line is
(determined from EES) kPa 8931 =
)
`
¹
° =
=
i
i
i
P
T
h
C 400
kJ/kg 3 . 3120
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
597
5144 Steam at a specified state is allowed to enter a pistoncylinder device in which steam undergoes a
constant pressure expansion process. The amount of mass that enters and the amount of heat transfer are to
be determined.
Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid entering the device
remains constant. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Properties The properties of steam at various states are (Tables A4 through A6)
1 2
3
3
1
1
1
/kg m 16667 . 0
kg 0.6
m 0.1
P P
m
=
= = =
V
v
Q
Steam
5 MPa
500°C
Steam
0.6 kg
0.1 m
3
800 kPa
kJ/kg 4 . 2004
/kg m 16667 . 0
kPa 800
1
3
1
1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
=
=
u
v
P
kJ/kg 9 . 2715
/kg m 29321 . 0
C 250
kPa 800
2
3
2
2
2
=
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
u
T
P
v
kJ/kg 7 . 3434
C 500
MPa 5
=
)
`
¹
° =
=
i
i
i
h
T
P
Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and
internal energy u, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
1 2 system out in
m m m m m m
i
− = → ∆ = −
Energy balance:
) 0 (since
1 1 2 2 out b, in
energies etc. potential,
kinetic, internal, in Change
system
mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
out in
≅ ≅ − = + −
∆ = −
pe ke u m u m h m W Q
E E E
i i
43 42 1
43 42 1
Noting that the pressure remains constant, the boundary work is determined from
kJ 80 m 0.1) 0.1 2 ( kPa) (800 ) (
3
1 2 out b,
= − × = − = V V P W
The final mass and the mass that has entered are
kg 0.082 = − = − =
= = =
6 . 0 682 . 0
kg 682 . 0
/kg m 0.29321
m 0.2
1 2
3
3
2
2
2
m m m
m
i
v
V
(b) Finally, substituting into energy balance equation
kJ 447.9 =
− = + −
in
in
kJ/kg) kg)(2004.4 6 . 0 ( kJ/kg) kg)(2715.9 682 . 0 ( kJ/kg) kg)(3434.7 082 . 0 ( kJ 80
Q
Q
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and
educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
578
5123 A vertical pistoncylinder device contains air at a specified state. Air is allowed to escape from the cylinder by a valve connected to the cylinder. The final temperature and the boundary work are to be determined. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K (Table A1). Analysis The initial and final masses in the cylinder are
m1 = PV 1 (600 kPa)(0.25 m 3 ) = = 0.9121 m 3 RT1 (0.287 kJ/kg.K)(300 + 273 K)
m 2 = 0.25m1 = 0.25(0.9121 kg) = 0.2280 kg
Then the final temperature becomes
T2 = PV 2 (600 kPa)(0.05 m 3 ) = = 458.4 K m 2 R (0.2280 kg)(0.287 kJ/kg.K)
Air 0.25 m3 600 kPa 300°C
Air
Noting that pressure remains constant during the process, the boundary work is determined from
Wb = P(V1 −V 2 ) = (600 kPa)(0.25 − 0.05)m 3 = 120 kJ
5124 Helium flows from a supply line to an initially evacuated tank. The flow work of the helium in the supply line and the final temperature of the helium in the tank are to be determined. Properties The properties of helium are R = 2.0769 kJ/kg.K, cp = 5.1926 kJ/kg.K, cv = 3.1156 kJ/kg.K (Table A2a). Analysis The flow work is determined from its definition but we first determine the specific volume
RT (2.0769 kJ/kg.K)(120 + 273 K) v = line = = 4.0811 m 3 /kg P (200 kPa) wflow = Pv = (200 kPa)(4.0811 m 3 /kg) = 816.2 kJ/kg
Helium
200 kPa, 120°C
Noting that the flow work in the supply line is converted to sensible internal energy in the tank, the final helium temperature in the tank is determined as follows
u tank = hline hline = c p Tline = (5.1926 kJ/kg.K)(120 + 273 K) = 2040.7 kJ/kg
Initially evacuated
u  tank = cv Ttank → 2040.7 kJ/kg = (3.1156 kJ/kg.K)Ttank Ttank = 655.0 K →
Alternative Solution: Noting the definition of specific heat ratio, the final temperature in the tank can also be determined from
Ttank = kTline = 1.667(120 + 273 K) = 655.1 K
which is practically the same result.
5 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.287 kPa. work. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 (since mout = minitial = 0) Energy balance: Net energy transfer by heat. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + mi hi = m2u2 (since W ≅ Eout = Einitial = ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) 100 kPa Combining the two balances: 17°C Qin = m2 (u2 − hi ) where PV (100 kPa )(0.0096 kg)(206. Analysis We take the tank as the system. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. Properties The gas constant of air is 0.0.m3/kg.008 m 3 ) 8L m2 = 2 = = 0.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K )(290 K ) Evacuated hi = 290. we reverse the direction. T2 = 1. respectively.16 kJ/kg u 2 = 206. potential. 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. 17 Ti = T2 = 290 K Table A →  5126 An insulated rigid tank is evacuated. and air is allowed to fill the tank until mechanical equilibrium is established. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the air in the bottle (will be verified).579 5125 An evacuated bottle is surrounded by atmospheric air. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.4 (Table A2). potential. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as initially Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 (since mout = minitial = 0) evacuated Energy balance: Net energy transfer by heat. Properties The specific heat ratio for air at room temperature is k = 1. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. A valve is opened. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant. 4 There are no work interactions involved. 2 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. A valve is opened.4 × 290 K = 406 K = 133 o C . Analysis We take the bottle as the system.290. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant. The final temperature in the tank is to be determined. work. kinetic. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.91 kJ/kg Substituting. which is a control volume since mass Air crosses the boundary.0096 kg RT2 (0. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 mi hi = m2u2 (since Q ≅ W ≅ Eout = Einitial = ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) Combining the two balances: u 2 = hi → cv T2 = c p Ti → T2 = (c p / cv )Ti = kTi Substituting. Therefore.8 kJ → Qout = 0. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. respectively. etc.8 kJ Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. kinetic. 4 There are no work interactions involved. and air is allowed to fill the bottle.16) kJ/kg = .91 . Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. The amount of heat transfer through the wall of the bottle when thermal and mechanical equilibrium is established is to be determined. Qin = (0.K (Table A1). etc.
and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.17 kJ/kg ) + (11.m3/kg.287 kPa.946 − 2. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.362 kg )(210.584 kg )(295.287 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K )(350 K ) 3 Pi = 600 kPa Ti = 22°C Then from the mass balance. kinetic. Properties The gas constant of air is 0.49 kJ/kg T2 = 350 K → u 2 = 250. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat.362 = 9. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = m2 = PV (100 kPa )(2 m3 ) 1 = = 2.946 kg )(250.K (Table A1). 2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. we reversed the direction. . The properties of air are (Table A17) Ti = 295 K → hi = 295. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. work. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.49 kJ/kg ) = −339 kJ → Qout = 339 kJ Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. potential. The mass of air that entered and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined. 4 There are no work interactions involved. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. The tank is connected to a supply line.946 kg RT2 (0. respectively.287 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K )(295 K ) P2V (600 kPa )(2 m ) = = 11. and air is allowed to enter the tank until mechanical equilibrium is established.580 5127 A rigid tank initially contains air at atmospheric conditions.362 kg RT1 (0. etc. mi = m2 − m1 = 11.584 kg V1 = 2 m3 P1 = 100 kPa T1 = 22°C Q · (b) The heat transfer during this process is determined from Qin = −mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1 = −(9. Therefore.02 kJ/kg ) − (2.17 kJ/kg T1 = 295 K → u1 = 210.02 kJ/kg Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system.
T2 = Tsat @ 800 kPa = 31.81 kg )(246.31ºC (b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = m2 = V 0. and the heat transfer are to be determined.0007887 + 0. potential. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) (a) The tank contains saturated vapor at the final state at 800 kPa.06 kJ/kg ) + (7.38 kg )(182.7 × (0. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. The tank is connected to a supply line. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. and mass 0.2 m3 = = 7. kinetic.38 kg v1 0. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. The final temperature in the tank.92 kJ/kg P2 = 800 kPa v 2 = v g @800 kPa = 0. and thus the final temperature is the saturation temperature at this pressure.79 kJ/kg )− (5.7 × 172. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat.2 m3 R134a Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. etc.81 − 5.0 MPa hi = 335.03717 m3/kg u1 = u f + x1u fg = 62. 3 There are no work interactions involved.02562 m3/kg Then from the mass balance mi = m 2 − m1 = 7.43 kg (c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be Qin = − mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1 = 130 kJ = −(2. work.03717 m3/kg V 0.2 m3 = = 5.38 = 2.06 kJ/kg Ti = 100°C R134a 1 MPa 100°C Analysis We take the tank as the system. vapor u2 = u g @800 kPa = 246. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). the mass of R134a that entered. and R134a is allowed to enter the tank.79 kJ/kg Pi = 1. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. respectively.052762 − 0. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant.92 kJ/kg ) .581 5128 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R134a liquidvapor mixture.43 kg )(335. Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A11 through A13) T1 = 8°C x1 = 0.02562 m3/kg sat.7 v1 = v f + x1v fg = 0.19 = 182.0007887 ) = 0.81 kg v 2 0.39 + 0.
4663 ft 3/lbm sat. 6.4663 ft 3 /lbm = 85.8 Btu/lbm) = −80.232 × 1099.5 ft 3 . vapor Q Analysis We take the tank as the system. kinetic.4663 ft 3/lbm sat. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. and the heat transfer are to be determined.425 Btu − (0.03 psia (b) The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = 3 ft 3 V = = 0.900 Btu → Qout = 80.425 Btu Discussion A negative result for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong.9 Btu/lbm) + 23. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.8 Btu/lbm T2 = 300° F v f = 0. and water vapor is allowed to enter the tank until onehalf of the tank is filled with liquid water. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant.582 5129E A rigid tank initially contains saturated water vapor. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) (a) The tank contains saturated mixture at the final state at 250°F. respectively.5 ft 3 m2 = m f + m g = vf + vg = 0.74 lbm (c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be Qin = −mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1 = −(85.97 + 0. The final pressure in the tank.900 Btu since U 2 = m 2 u 2 = m f u f + m g u g = 85. Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4E through A6E) T1 = 300°F v1 = v g @ 300°F = 6.464 = 85. mixture u f = 269. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. and thus the exit pressure is the saturation pressure at this temperature.8 Btu/lbm Pi = 200 psia hi = 1210. work. vapor u1 = u g @ 300°F = 1099. The tank is connected to a supply line.01745.9 Btu/lbm Ti = 400°F Steam 200 psia 400°F Water 3 ft3 300°F Sat. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat. v g = 6. P2 = Psat @ 300° F = 67.8 = 23. u g = 1099.464 lbm v 1 6. .232 = 86.01745 ft 3 /lbm + 1. potential.464 lbm )(1099.20 lbm Then from the mass balance mi = m 2 − m1 = 86.4663 ft 3 /lbm V f Vg 1.51 + 0.20 − 0. and should be reversed. the mass of steam that entered. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.97 × 269.51. etc.74 lbm )(1210.
work.out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) Combining the two relations gives 0 = Wb. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat. 3 There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.out − (m2 − m1 )hi + m2u2 − m1u1 The boundary work done during this process is Wb.3 kJ/kg Pi = 1 MPa hi = 3158. mi = m2 .4858 m 3 /kg Then.01 m3 Steam Pi = 1 MPa Ti = 350°C Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system. The cylinder is connected to a supply line.2 kJ/kg Ti = 350°C P = 500 kPa T1 = 200°C V1 = 0.02 0.02 − 0.0235 kg v1 0. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.02 0 = 5− v − 0.0412 kg v 2 0. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible.583 5130 A cylinder initially contains superheated steam. The final temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.0235 = 0. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 mi hi = Wb.3) 2 2 Substituting.out = 1 kJ P dV = P(V 2 −V1 ) = (500 kPa )(0. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant.02 m3 = v2 v2 0.42503 m 3 /kg T1 = 200°C u1 = 2643. and is superheated steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until the volume doubles at constant pressure.0412 .m1 = 0. kinetic. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.0235 (3158. 2 The expansion process is quasiequilibrium.0.01)m 3 1 kPa ⋅ m 3 = 5 kJ ∫ 2 1 The initial and the final masses in the cylinder are m1 = m2 = V1 0. Then by trial and error (or using EES program). respectively.02 m 3 = = 0. potential.0176 kg . T2 = 261. etc.0235)(2643.7°C and v2 = 0.4858 m3/kg (b) The final mass in the cylinder is m2 = V2 0.42503 m3/kg V 2 0. Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A4 through A6) P1 = 500 kPa v 1 = 0.2 ) + v u2 − (0.01 m3 = = 0.
and the steam is allowed to enter the cylinder until all the liquid is vaporized.out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) Combining the two relations gives 0 = Wb. respectively. 2 The expansion process is quasiequilibrium.71 + 0. The cylinder is connected to a supply line. work. thus the final temperature in the cylinder must be T2 = Tsat @ 200 kPa = 120.5 MPa hi = 3168.07 . mi = m2 . 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 mi hi = Wb. vapor Pi = 0. The final temperature in the cylinder and the mass of the steam that entered are to be determined.6 P2 = 200 kPa h2 = hg @ 200 kPa = 2706. Solving for m2 and substituting. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.3 kJ/kg sat. Properties The properties of steam are (Tables A4 through A6) P = 200 kPa 1 h1 = h f + x1h fg = 504.584 5131 A cylinder initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of water. 3 There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work.2°C (b) We take the cylinder as the system. etc.07 kg hi − h1 m1 = (3168. potential.1 kJ/kg Ti = 350°C (P = 200 kPa) m1 = 10 kg H2O Pi = 0.out − (m2 − m1 )hi + m2u2 − m1u1 or.m1 = 29. m2 = (3168.6 kJ/kg x1 = 0.6) kJ/kg (10 kg ) = 29.10 = 19. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.3) kJ/kg hi − h2 Thus. 4 The device is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible.6 × 2201. 0 = −(m2 − m1 )hi + m2h2 − m1h1 since the boundary work and ∆U combine into ∆H for constant pressure expansion and compression processes. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant.1 − 1825. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat.07 kg .6 = 1825.5 MPa Ti = 350°C Analysis (a) The cylinder contains saturated vapor at the final state at a pressure of 200 kPa. kinetic.1 − 2706.
2 MPa v 2 = v f @1. vapor Q Analysis We take the tank as the system. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. work.91 = 128. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant.30 kJ/kg Ti = 36°C R134a 1.0008934 m 3 /kg Then from the mass balance mi = m 2 − m1 = 134. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat.vapor u1 = u g @1 MPa = 250.2 MPa = 0.4 kg )(102. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).2 MPa hi = h f @ 36°C = 102. liquid u2 = u f @1.70 kJ/kg ) − (5. The tank is connected to a supply line. and R134a is allowed to enter the tank.0008934 m 3 /kg sat. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. kinetic. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.12 m 3 = = 134. etc.31 kg v 2 0. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) (a) The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = m2 = V1 0.4 kg (c) The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be Qin = − mi hi + m2u2 − m1u1 = 1057 kJ = −(128.02031 m 3 /kg 1 sat.585 5132 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R134a vapor.12 m 3 = = 5. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.68 kJ/kg ) .2 MPa = 116. The mass of the R134a that entered and the heat transfer are to be determined.30 kJ/kg ) + (134.91 kg )(250. 3 There are no work interactions involved.70 kJ/kg Pi = 1. Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A11 through A13) P = 1 MPa v 1 = v g @1 MPa = 0.12 m3 1 MPa Sat.68 kJ/kg P2 = 1.31 − 5.91 kg v 1 0.31 kg )(116. respectively. potential.2 MPa 36°C R134a 0.02031 m 3 /kg V2 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
v2 = x2 = V m2 = 0. etc. Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6) T1 = 200°C v1 = v f @ 200o C = 0. respectively. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.002313 m 3 /kg 129.001157 v 2 −v f v fg T2 = 200°C u 2 = u f + x 2 u fg = 850.7 kg Now we determine the final internal energy.3 m 3 = = 259.002313 − 0.3 m3 Q Analysis We take the tank as the system.7 = 129.001157 m /kg sat. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). liquid 3 H2O Sat. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.46 kJ/kg Te = 200o C he = h f @ 200o C = 852. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.46 kJ/kg x 2 = 0. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant.4 kg v 1 0.009171 0. potential. kinetic.7 kg = 0.586 5133 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid water.009171)(1743.7 kg Then from the mass balance. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat. work. me = m1 − m 2 = 259.26 kJ/kg ) + (129. and half of the mass in liquid form is withdrawn from the tank. liquid u1 = u f @ 200 o C = 850. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = V1 0.7 kg )(866.12721 − 0.001157 = 0.4 kg ) = 129.46 + (0.001157m 3 /kg 1 2 m 2 = 1 m1 = 2 (259. liquid T = 200°C V = 0.7 kg )(852.4 − 129. The temperature in the tank is maintained constant.46 kJ/kg ) − (259. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened.46 kJ/kg ) = 2308 kJ .4 kg )(850. 3 There are no work interactions involved.7 ) = 866. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.009171 Then the heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance by substitution to be Q = (129. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.26 kJ/kg sat.3 m 3 = 0.
work.2 kJ m2 = 0. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.587 5134 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of refrigerant134a.47 kJ/kg ) + (4.684 kg )(246.79 kJ/kg P2 = 800 kPa v 2 = v g @800 kPa = 0.0008458 m3/kg.79 ) = 4229. and final mass in the tank are m1 = m f + mg = U1 = m1u1 = m f u f + mg u g = (35.684 kg v 2 0.47 kJ/kg 3 R134a Sat.79 kJ/kg.684 = 34. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.513)(246.12 m3 Q Analysis We take the tank as the system.25 m3 0. 3 There are no work interactions involved.025621 m3/kg V f Vg 0.98 − 4.75 m3 + = + = 35.79 kJ/kg ) − 4229 kJ = 201.30 kg )(95. etc. Properties The properties of R134a are (Tables A11 through A13) P = 800 kPa → v f =0. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial mass. vapor u2 = u g @800 kPa = 246. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.30 kg Qin = (34. liquid Pe = 800 kPa he = h f @800 kPa = 95.98 kg v f v g 0.79) + (3. potential.025621 m3/kg 1 u f =94. me = m1 − m 2 = 38. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat.025621 m3/kg Then from the mass and energy balances. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. u g = 246. kinetic. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). vapor P = 800 kPa V = 0.025621 m /kg sat. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened. respectively.12 × 0.47 )(94. and liquid is withdrawn from the tank at constant pressure until no liquid remains inside. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant.47 + 3.12 m3 V = = 4. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.513 = 38. initial internal energy. v g = 0.79 kJ/kg sat.2 kJ .12 × 0.0008458 m3/kg 0.
and final mass in the tank are m1 = m f + m g = Vf vf + Vg vg = 4 × 0. etc. vapor Pe = 100 psia he = hg @100 psia = 113.70 = 66. v g = 0. 3 There are no work interactions involved. vapor P = 100 psia V = 4 ft3 Q Analysis We take the tank as the system.4776 ft 3 /lbm Then from the mass and energy balances.99 Btu/lbm P2 = 100 psia v 2 = vg @100 psia = 0.99 Btu/lbm ) − 2962 Btu = 4561 Btu . energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial mass.623 Btu/lbm. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.99 ) = 2962 Btu m2 = 4 ft 3 V = = 8. u g = 104.4776 ft 3 /lbm = 60. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.04 + 6. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. me = m1 − m 2 = 66.37 lbm Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 = (58.04 )(37. respectively.83 Btu/lbm ) + (8.74 − 8.4776 ft 3/lbm 1 u f = 37.588 5135E A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquidvapor mixture of R134a. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat. work.37 lbm )(113.2 ft 3 0. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.01332 ft 3/lbm.8 ft 3 0.74 lbm U 1 = m1u1 = m f u f + m g u g = (60. initial internal energy. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.4776 ft 3/lbm sat.375 lbm v 2 0. potential.623) + (6.375 lbm )(104.83 Btu/lbm R134a Sat. and vapor is allowed to escape at constant pressure until all the liquid in the tank disappears. kinetic.99 Btu/lbm sat. Properties The properties of R134a are (Tables A11E through A13E) P = 100 psia → v f = 0. vapor u2 = u g @100 psia = 104. A valve at the top of the tank is opened.01332 ft 3 /lbm + 4 × 0.70 )(104.375 = 58.
2 kJ/kg ) = 606. Thus.594 − 1.138 kg )(3116. The amount of heat transfer is to be determined.2 kJ/kg.3 kJ/kg Q STEAM 2 MPa Analysis We take the tank as the system.138kg v 2 0. h2 = 3468.17568 m 3 /kg T2 = 500°C u 2 = 3116.2 m 3 = = 1. h1 = 3024. me = m1 − m 2 = 1.2 kJ/kg P2 = 2 MPa v 2 = 0.594 kg )(2773.456 kg )(3246. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. etc. 4 The direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified). A valve at the top of the tank is opened. potential. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. respectively. kinetic.138 = 0. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process by using constant average properties for the steam leaving the tank. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.2 m 3 = = 1. work. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.8 kJ .12551 m 3 /kg T1 = 300°C u1 = 2773.2 + 3468. and vapor is allowed to escape at constant pressure until the temperature rises to 500°C.17568 m 3 /kg Then from the mass and energy balance relations. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values.12551 m 3 /kg V2 0.594 kg v 1 0.2 kJ/kg 2 2 The initial and the final masses in the tank are m1 = m2 = V1 0.2 kJ/kg ) + (1.9 kJ/kg ) − (1.589 5136 A rigid tank initially contains superheated steam. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat. But for simplicity.9 kJ/kg. 3 There are no work interactions involved. he ≅ h1 + h2 3024.456 kg Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 = (0.3 kJ/kg = = 3246. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The state and thus the enthalpy of the steam leaving the tank is changing during this process. Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6) P1 = 2 MPa v 1 = 0.
0037 m3/kg 1 u f = 486.891 kg )(2700.590 5137 A pressure cooker is initially halffilled with liquid water. vapor Pressure Cooker 4L 175 kPa Analysis We take the cooker as the system.001057 m3/kg 1.82 ) + (0.004 = 1. me = m1 − m 2 = 1. etc.002)(2524. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.5 kJ/kg ) − 926. If the pressure cooker is not to run out of liquid water for 1 h. and mass & Q Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. u g = 2524.163 kW Q= ∆t 3600 s . energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial mass. and final mass in the tank are m1 = m f + mg = U1 = m1u1 = m f u f + mg u g = (1.2 kJ/kg ) + (0.895 − 0. vapor u2 = u g @175 kPa = 2524. 3 There are no work interactions involved. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.004 kg v 2 1. initial internal energy.6 kJ = 4188 kJ Thus.5 kJ/kg P2 = 175 kPa v 2 = v g @175 kPa = 1. potential.001057 m3/kg.0036 m3/kg V 0.004 kg )(2524.002 = 1.5 kJ/kg Pe = 175 kPa he = hg @175 kPa = 2700.2 kJ/kg sat.6 kJ m2 = V f Vg 0.893)(486. work.0036 m3/kg sat. respectively.004 m3 = = 0. kinetic.895 kg v f v g 0.002 m3 + = + = 1. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.893 + 0. the highest rate of heat transfer allowed is to be determined.5) = 926. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant.82 kJ/kg.002 m3 0. v g = 1. Properties The properties of water are (Tables A4 through A6) P = 175 kPa → v f = 0.891 kg Qin = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 = (1.0037 m3/kg Then from the mass and energy balances. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat. & Q = 4188 kJ = 1.
08 m3 2 MPa 80°C − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since W ≅ Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) Note that the state and thus the enthalpy of helium leaving the tank is changing during this process. and half of the mass of helium is allowed to escape. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. we assume constant properties for the exiting steam at the average values. work. etc. The final temperature and pressure in the tank are to be determined. A valve is opened. 3 There are no work interactions involved. But for simplicity. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. energies He 0. Combining the mass and energy balances: Dividing by m1/2 Dividing by cv: Solving for T2: 1 1 0 = 2 m1he + 2 m1u2 − m1u1 0 = he + u 2 − 2u1 or 0 = c p 0 = k (T1 + T2 ) + 2T2 − 4T1 T2 = T1 + T2 + cv T2 − 2cv T1 2 since k = c p / cv (4 − k ) T = (4 − 1. 4 The tank is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process by using constant average properties for the helium leaving the tank. 5 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.667 ) (353 K ) = 225 K (2 + k ) 1 (2 + 1. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. Analysis We take the tank as the system.667 (Table A2).667) The final pressure in the tank is P1V m RT m T 1 225 = 1 1 → P2 = 2 2 P1 = (2000 kPa ) = 637 kPa P2V m 2 RT2 m1T2 2 353 . respectively.591 5138 An insulated rigid tank initially contains helium gas at high pressure. potential. kinetic. Properties The specific heat ratio of helium is k =1. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 m2 = 1 m1 (given) 2 → ∆Esystem 123 4 4 me = m2 = 1 m1 2 Energy balance: Net energy transfer by heat.
38 = 12.3704 psia ⋅ ft /lbm ⋅ R )(580 R ) = 8. potential.3704 psia ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R (580 R ) P2V RT2 3 3 ) ( ) (30 psia )(60 ft ) = (0. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.95 lbm RT1 0. A valve is opened.90 Btu/lbm) = 500 Btu .90 Btu / lbm Analysis We take the tank as the system.in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial and the final masses of air in the tank are m1 = m2 = P1V (75 psia ) 60 ft 3 = = 20.38 lbm )(98. 3 The tank is insulated and thus heat transfer is negligible.90 Btu/lbm) − (20. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 We. etc.3704 psia. work.95 − 8.R (Table A1E). Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.57 lbm We. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat. Properties The gas constant of air is R =0. respectively. The properties of air are (Table A17E) Ti = 580 R T1 = 580 R T2 = 580 R → → → hi = 138. me = m1 − m2 = 20. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. 4 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. kinetic. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. and air is allowed to escape at constant temperature until the pressure inside drops to 30 psia. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air remains constant.38 lbm ( Then from the mass and energy balances.592 5139E An insulated rigid tank equipped with an electric heater initially contains pressurized air.95 lbm )(98.66 Btu / lbm u1 = 98.90 Btu / lbm u2 = 98.66 Btu/lbm) + (8. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.ft3/lbm.in = me he + m2u2 − m1u1 AIR 60 ft3 75 psia 120°F We = (12.57 lbm )(138. The amount of electrical work transferred is to be determined.
Now a valve is opened. work. me = m1 − m2 = 0. The amount air that left the cylinder and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined. Also. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. we have hi = h1 = h2 = h.287 kPa. respectively.593 5140 A vertical cylinder initially contains air at room temperature. 5 The direction of heat transfer is to the cylinder (will be verified).287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K (293 K ) ( ( ( ( ) ) AIR 300 kPa 0.357 kg (b) This is a constant pressure process.K (Table A1). but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the exit temperature (and enthalpy) of air remains constant. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat.714 − 0.1 m 3 = = 0.357 = 0. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin + Wb. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial and the final masses of air in the cylinder are m1 = m2 = P1V 1 (300 kPa ) 0. Thus.m3/kg. potential. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. Analysis (a) We take the cylinder as the system. kinetic. and air is allowed to escape at constant pressure and temperature until the volume of the cylinder goes down by half. Q= (1 m1 + 1 m1 − m1 )h = 0 2 2 . and thus the Wb and the ∆U terms can be combined into ∆H to yield Q = me he + m2 h2 − m1h1 Noting that the temperature of the air remains constant during this process.2 m3 20°C ) ) Then from the mass balance. me = m2 = 1 2 m1 . 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.287 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K (293 K ) P2V 2 (300 kPa ) 0.357 kg = 1 m1 2 RT2 0.714 kg RT1 0. etc. 3 There are no work interactions.2 m 3 = = 0. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.
Properties The gas constant of helium is R = 2. the energy balance relation reduces to Substituting.0769 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K (295 K ) P V1 P 150 kPa 1 = V 2 = 2 V1 = → 65 m3 = 97.61)(3. The final temperature in the balloon is to be determined. work.out + m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) m1 = PV1 (100 kPa ) 65 m3 1 = = 10.5 = T T2 2 It yields T2 = 333. the boundary work done during this process is Wb = P1 + P2 (V 2 −V1 ) = (100 + 150)kPa (97.6 K .5 − 65)m 3 = 4062. respectively. 5 There are no work interactions involved other than boundary work. kinetic. mi = m2 − m1 = 7041. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.0769 kJ/kg·K (Table A1).5 kJ 2 2 Wb.74 − 10.74 7041.74 (3. Analysis We take the cylinder as the system.1156)T2 + (10.1156 kJ/kg·K (Table A2a).1926 and cv = 3.74 = = kg 3 RT2 T2 2. potential. out = mi c pTi − m2cv T2 + m1cv T1 Using specific heats.5 m3 P2 V 2 P 100 kPa 1 ( ( ) ) 3 ( ) m2 = P2V 2 (150 kPa ) 97. and mass Change in internal.1926 )(298) − 4062.1156)(295) − 10.61(5. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. 7041. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains constant. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = ∆Esystem 123 4 4 He 25°C 150 kPa Net energy transfer by heat.5 m 7041. and helium is allowed to enter the balloon until the pressure rises from 100 to 150 kPa. energies mi hi = Wb. 3 The expansion process is quasiequilibrium. The specific heats of helium are cp = 5. The tank is connected to a supply line.61 kg RT1 2. etc. 2 Helium is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. 4 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.61 kg T2 Noting that P varies linearly with V.0769 kPa ⋅ m /kg ⋅ K (T2 K ) ( ( ) ) He 22°C 100 kPa Then from the mass balance.594 5141 A balloon is initially filled with helium gas at atmospheric conditions. 6 Heat transfer is negligible.
potential. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → me = m1 − m2 Net energy transfer by heat.5)m 3 = 270 kJ 2 2 Substituting the energy balance. That is.in − me he = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial mass and the relations for the final and exiting masses are m1 = m2 = 0.11 kJ/kg) + h2 = 2 2 Final state properties of the refrigerant (h2. he = h1 + h2 (354. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.02423 m3/kg V 2 0. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process assuming that the state of fluid leaving the device remains constant.2 MPa v 1 = 0. h2 = 336.77 kJ/kg.5 m3 = v2 v2 0. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Wb.02 kg v1 0.55 kg .20 kJ/kg. The amount of refrigerant that escapes and the final temperature of the refrigerant are to be determined.03 kJ/kg T1 = 120°C h1 = 354.5 m 3 me = m1 − m2 = 33. Or solving the above equations simultaneously using an equation solver with builtin thermodynamic functions such as EES.0.8 . the boundary work can be determined from W b. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. Properties The initial properties of R134a are (Tables A11 through A13) 3 P1 = 1. u2 = 307. v2 = 0. u2. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. (1) is satisfied. respectively. 3 0.8°C.595 5142 An insulated pistoncylinder device with a linear spring is applying force to the piston.in = P1 + P2 (1200 + 600) kPa (V1 −V 2 ) = (0.02 kg)(325. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.2 MPa 120°C Noting that the spring is linear. and v2) are all functions of final pressure (known) and temperature (unknown). m2 = 10. work.03 kJ/kg) 270 − 33. etc.11 kJ/kg Analysis We take the tank as the system.04739 m3/kg. we obtain T2 = 96.02 − v v2 2 (Eq.02423 m /kg u1 = 325. kinetic. The solution may be obtained by a trialerror approach by trying different final state temperatures until Eq.8 m3 1. A valve at the bottom of the cylinder is opened. 1) where the enthalpy of exiting fluid is assumed to be the average of initial and final enthalpies of the refrigerant in the cylinder. and refrigerant is allowed to escape. me = 22. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.5 m u2 − (33.8 m3 V1 = = 33.5 m3 he = 0.02 − v2 R134a 0.47 kg.
12551 m 3 /kg T1 = 300°C u 2 = 2773. The mass of the steam that has entered and the pressure of the steam in the supply line are to be determined. potential.2 kJ/kg) − (10. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. kinetic.8 kJ/kg Steam 400°C P2 = 2 MPa v 2 = 0. and mass Sat.29 kg v 1 0.12551 m 3 /kg mi = m 2 − m1 = 15.645 kg)hi = (15. Properties The initial and final properties of steam in the tank are (Tables A5 and A6) P1 = 1 MPa v 1 = 0. vapor 2 m3 1 MPa Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal.94 kg v 2 0.3 kJ/kg → The pressure in the supply line is hi = 3120.8 kJ/kg) hi = 3120.2 kJ/kg Analysis We take the tank as the system. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.596 5143 Steam flowing in a supply line is allowed to enter into an insulated tank until a specified state is achieved in the tank. respectively. vap. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u.19436 m 3 /kg x1 = 1 (sat.)u1 = 2582. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid entering the tank remains constant.94 − 10.645 kg Substituting. energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since Q ≅ ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) The initial and final masses and the mass that has entered are m1 = m2 = 2 m3 V = = 10. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. etc.3 kJ/kg Pi = 8931 kPa (determined from EES) Ti = 400°C .29 kg)(2582.94 kg)(2773. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat.19436 m 3 /kg 2 m3 V = = 15. work. (5.29 = 5.
energies ∆Esystem 123 4 4 Qin − Wb. 2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. but it can be analyzed as a uniformflow process since the state of fluid entering the device remains constant. respectively.6 = 0.out + mi hi = m2u2 − m1u1 (since ke ≅ pe ≅ 0) Noting that the pressure remains constant.6 kg P2 = P1 u1 = 2004.597 5144 Steam at a specified state is allowed to enter a pistoncylinder device in which steam undergoes a constant pressure expansion process.082 kg)(3434. potential. the mass and energy balances for this uniformflow system can be expressed as Mass balance: Energy balance: min − mout = ∆msystem → mi = m2 − m1 Net energy transfer by heat. etc. The amount of mass that enters and the amount of heat transfer are to be determined. the boundary work is determined from W b.9 kJ/kg Pi = 5 MPa hi = 3434.9 kJ .082 kg (b) Finally.out = P (V 2 −V 1 ) = (800 kPa)(2 × 0. and mass Ein − Eout 1 24 4 3 = Change in internal. which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary. Properties The properties of steam at various states are (Tables A4 through A6) v1 = V1 m1 = 0.2 m 3 = = 0.682 kg v 2 0.29321 m 3 /kg T2 = 250°C u 2 = 2715. substituting into energy balance equation Qin − 80 kJ + (0.6 kg)(2004. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpy h and internal energy u. kinetic.4 kJ/kg) Qin = 447.1 m3 800 kPa Q Steam 5 MPa 500°C Analysis (a) We take the tank as the system.682 − 0.7 kJ/kg Ti = 500°C Steam 0.4 kJ/kg v1 = 0.682 kg)(2715. Assumptions 1 This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the process.1)m 3 = 80 kJ The final mass and the mass that has entered are m2 = V2 0.1 − 0.9 kJ/kg) − (0.6 kg 0.1 m 3 =0.16667 m 3 /kg 0.7 kJ/kg) = (0. work.16667 m /kg 3 P1 = 800 kPa P2 = 800 kPa v 2 = 0.29321 m 3 /kg mi = m 2 − m1 = 0.
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