Indian Educational Service {Bihar.)

Being Historical Essays, 2nd. edition, with


essays added.)

M. C.



Sons, Calcutta.

Sons, Cambridge.





same author.

History of Aurangzib, based on original Persian sources. Vol. I. -Reign of Shah Jahan.



of succession.



Northern India, 1658-1681. Soulhern India, 1644-1689.
Rs. 3-8 each.

Shivaji and his Times,

» »


Economics of British India, 4th ed. Chaitanya's Pilgrimages and Teachings, ... Anecdotes of Aurangzib, {Ahkam-i-Alamgiri)
Persian text and Eng. translation,

M. C. Sarkar


^^. llelTer


Sons, 90,2 Harrison Road, Calcutta. Sons, Cambridge (England.)

But what he looks all at is after all stone. Does he ever reflect that these halls were onci full of life. THE DAILY LIFE OF SHAH JAHAN. With them. bare stone. so. feast his eyes on their delicate them mosaics and re!' he may soothe his spirit in the cool recesses of thos^ pure white domes. But what is it that the common tourist sees in He may liefs. in listening to the fulsome praise . — who passed their lives in toying with women in the harem. what is his mental still picture of We the spell are afraid that most of Europeans lie under all the popular novelists.STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. The globe-trotter in India gives thenr the foremost plact* Photographs and lantern-slides in his tour programme. squeezing the last farthing out of a down-trodden peasantry. The Mughal palaces at Delhi and Agra every year draw thousands of visitors from far and near. Orieiital kings were heartless brainless despots. unlike If moving pageants of a bygone world. rOPULAR VIEW WROXG. surrounded by pimps and sycophants. full of pride and ignorance. Their beauty and splendour have moved the wonder of the world and the raptiire of admiring artists and eloquent writers. and spending their hoards on sensual pleasure or childish show. Jiave made them familiar to far-off lands and home-staying people. crowded with so the Court? Does he try it ? to realise that life of a liis ? so distant.

with his jewelled turban. and a small arsenal thrust into waist-band. and at the head of armies. lease *' The woild that of Inefficiency has a very short even in the East.* Emperor's daily rnutiiic work :r . INDIA. Happily the contemporary Persian describe the in the coiincil- histories of full. administration. Could this work have been done by sleepy voluptuaries? not so easily governed.STUDIES IX MUGHAl. a'stlietic culture or the discipline of work. extended their for a century and a half (1556 <h)minion. fice who sacri- truth to literary is effect. and whose ignorance of Eastern history only equalled by their pride in every- thing Western. of faitliloss courtiers. chamber. maintained peace at home and respect abroad. we had had only faineants on the throne. Such is the Sultan (or Ilajah) of nearly every English novel. and carried many is arts towards perfection. men whose animal existence was never ennobled by intellectual exercise or spiritual musing. liis up moustaches. bloodshot eyes. as they did develop in that period. arts and wealth not have developed. rulers. From Akbar to Aurangzib we had who reigned in unbroken succession 1707). its <leveloped an administrative system in all branches. curled nose high up in the air. its An empire best like the Great Mughals " in days could not have been <'ould if a dead machine. This idea has been impressed on the general public of Europe by popular writers. But a four great little reflection will show that this view can- uo< possibly be true. or in stupefying themselves with intoxicants.

•enable us to picture tlie life of his Court. A.. Let us see liow Shah Jahan lived and worked in his beloved palace oi Apra.. MORNING PR.— THK DAILY LIFK OF SHAH JAHAX...In harem^ — meal — siesta — charity to women.. — Sleeps. Council in the Shah Burj. (True. 6-30.M. two hours spent some and after his morning toilet time in religious devotions....M...A^ppears at window — elephant combats review of cavalry.. Public Darbar (Diwan-i-am). 4 . Secret Consultation in the Shah Burj...VYER. which Mibligatory not on Muslims. 9-40. and hen engaged in his worldly «luties. 4 8 .... 4 a..Hears books read. ao . Private Audience (Diwan-i-khas).Secret ..In assembly Diwan-i-khas. he performed the first obligatory prayer of the day in the palace mosque. he founded Xew Delhi and named it iifter himself.. his sleep about The Emperor woke from liefore sunrise. 12 iP. Darshan 6-45. he sat with his face towards Mecca. but Agra was the city of his heart.. . After saying the customary is prayer based on the Prophet's Traditioiwi..) Emperor's Daily Roitixe. 7-40.m.Public . reciting the verses of the* Quran and meditating on God. Evening .Wakes — Prayer — Reading.-Vudience — Evening in the prayer. II -40... •10-30. . Shortly before sunrise. 8-30 the harem — music..

without having' and court-under- grease the palms of door-keej)ers lihgs. not merely in shovsing- himself. the jiublic had free to it.V MUGHAL INDIA. but also in business and pleasure. ii(nn the Often string was let tied to it down ])ulled window. and the petitions and np by the attendants above for immediate submissTon lo the Emperor. while he returned their salute. fronr the Sanskrit word daislian meaning the sight of some- one high or holy. This wise practice was instituted by Curiously enough.. to kis. of class theii Hiahmans. tlie eastern wall of Agra overlooking the fore- shcire of the Jumna which window stretches like a plain below. The ])lain.aubjefts. being outside the fort walls. His Ill first work was to show himself fort. The Emperor appeared :tn(! at the showed his face to his subjects. oi a going through the tedious and costly process of Utw suit. aci-ess »)r and the oppressed could submit their their complaints to the petition'^ make to Emperor. Thus the Emperor daily came people in touch with their the common and could a fieely learn thoughts and feelings. called the Darshanl-^. who did not begin work nor eat their breakfast until they had the . there was a the great Akbar.STUDIES I. ters of From two to three quar- an hour were spent here.\Msj)!cions face of the <h«y"s at gaze(i Emperor !" . who aft once bowed. there was a called the jhnrohlia-i-daTslum.. DAKSIIAX. Vast crowds of expectant people- assembled on the bank every morning. window about 48 minutes after sunrise.

war-elephants were trained to charge to lose their natural fear of horses made Here were also paraded the horses of the Impeiial army iind of the retainers of the nobles. After the publi** salute and atlmission of complaint -were :took over. and thus to the court-yard inside the )n "the river-side. too. pavilion. for the shelter of the courtiers. In the fort quadrangle hundreds of spectators to ^vould have been tranjpled death bj' these moving mountains. DIWAX-I-AM. to th*( which had not been fully tamed. <avalry. encounter. but under canvas <iwniugs stretched on poles set up for the occasion. This spacious plain Tvas a safe place for their wild charges. an<l pursuit. the plain was eleaie« five some days as many com- pairs of elephants were made to fight single bats in succession for his delight. It was impossible them. This was the special prerogative of ihe Emperor.- TIIK DAILY LIKE OF SHAH JAHAX. In 1628 Shah Jahan built a gilt and decorated wooden Xext took place the Public Darbar •or Hall of Public Audience. and on . and elephant-fights place there. like fort. Fierce war-elephants and newly to take captured ones. were here shown ihe Emperor. in the Diwan-i-am Akbar and Tahangir use<l to hold Court at the very same spot. Shah Jahan wa< specially fond of this sport. This . and not even the primes of the blood could oi\ler such a fight for themselves. other elephants.

was replaced in lO-JcS by the present JJiivan-i-ani. In the Persian histories we have a detailed account (tt how a grand clatbar was held in those days. and gentry diK" order. ill! (he entire Hall. Here- Emperor overlooking.KAXD DAUIJAK.* were drawn up on the Emperor's GT to with their backs to the wall. richly decorated with pictia Jura work and low sat the reliefs of flowers and foliage. (. backs being turned the walL State.ik lou'. In the in: Hall stood the courtiers. holding the golden banners tuf//i The- and left and f/iir.i STUDIES IN' MUGHAL INDIA. Tlie- p]mperor sat on his cushioned seat in the alcove. officers. or biill. these took their seats only when commanded to do so. according to their gradation. Facing the Knipcroi-. the Those- who attended on ou to Emperor's person were stationed left his right and theii near the two pillars to close the alcove. 1301 feet it hmg and Silver .uul tin au<lienco.the hall below. royal standard bearers. feet was filled with men. Hut was too small hob! who deserved * Till- sought . and open on three sidesIn the centre of the fourth side or back is a raised alcove of the purest white marble. his sons. Thns l)r(»ad. iiis On right and left were the princes. V. painted white with linie^ supported on 40 noble pillars.. The Mughal Emperors were Turks* of the Chaffhtai tribe . a stately edifice of red sandstone.-. nobles. stood the chief officers of rank behind rank.- railings - Turkish stiiiiUard of 1 'It. with their backs to the three open sides.

back door. wood on with gold whicli canopies richly all embroidered were Here stood of men oelow commanders of two hundred.. excluding strangers and persons who had no entree Court. the Commandant of the Artillery Paymaster of the mounted musketeers. archers of the guard. at The audience about 7-40 stood ready and expectant.m. I'i:. In the court-yard in front a space railing of painted was enclosed with velvet spiead. or the Paymaster of the gentlemen troopers the (ahadis. Those who had been newly appointed to some province or post were next presented by the heads Officers of their departments. fenced it round on a the three sides with only three openings in them. His Majesty - orders giving promotions to some.. new posts to other- who had come tf> the capital from the provinces had audience. and the business of the Court to The High Bakhshi or Paymaster-General reported the Emperor the petitions of the military officers oi and immediately received viannabdars. and some of the retainers the nobles.) These chiefs for man among them bt wed and got tlieir recommended every deserving some royal favour. At the doors of the Hall and of the two ings (silver and wooden) trustworthy mace-bearers and sergeants-at-arms in their splendid uniforms kept guard. when. [Mii-i-ati. musketeers. The presentees congee. took his usually accompanied by a . when they attended the rail- darbar. the Emperor entered the alcove by the seat. at a.THE DAILY LIFK OF SllAli JAIIAX.

Syeds. jagirK. orders pre- passed about niam^ahs.STUDIES IX MUUIIAL INDIA. d/ivan. officei' to There was a special remind the Emperor of these things. other financial were submitted to the Emperor a second time for confirmation. . robe of honour and gift in the form of jewellery. they submitted their various proposals and got prompt orders from His Majesty. Then the courtiers fidence placed before who enjoyed the Emperor's conhim the despatches of the princes.) haJilisliis and other letters officers of and also any presents [peshl'ash) sent by them. the before J I of the Imperial stables displayed is Majesty the horses and elephants with their This practice had been started by Akbar fixed rations.'i (revenue heads. cash grants. the Chief Sadr reported the important points of the despatches of the provincial Sfuirs sent to him. and he bore the (hiroijha of arz-i-muharrar. and pious men.bolar8. jaujdniK. The of the princes and chief officers were read or heard by the Emperor himself. the provinces. tlie Through the Mir-i-sanian and l)iiran-i-hayntat. Next came the lands or (he chiefs. also He biought to the Emperor's notice cases of needy need or deserts. The purport When this work was over. only of the rest was reported to him. clerks of the Department of Crowntheir Emperor's privy purse. <ind of the governors. officers Ihe title of Next. s(. horse or arms. and got grants of uKUiey for each according to his The work viously of public charity being over. Shaikhs. and aft'airs.

officers The highest revenue now reported on very was adjacent to it^ * Popularly called the Ghusal-khanan because Akbar's bath-room site. Similarly the retainers of the nobles. i.m. the any horse or elephant for it money allowed charge of its feedinjf was resumed and the officer in reprimanded. were paraded in full equipment in the court-yard within view of the Emperor. bearing only the Emperor's name. an order to punish those officers who If stole the Imperial ^rant and starved the animals. (Blochmann's 5s & 260. .+ harem to be which the Empress to the Mnmtaz Mahal had charge. written out sealed and sent of with the Great Seal.THE DAILY LIFE OF SHAH JAHAX. his Here he wrote with most important read to own hand the answers to the letters.. faniian. letters In reply to them. a small round seal. by the Emperor.t or Imperial were drafted by the ministers in the terms of their master's verbal orders. looked lean or weak. t Vxut. affixed to Sabti Ai>i.. a the little before 10 a. The drafts were afterwards revised and corrected fair. whose horses hail been recently mustered and branded. His Majesty went to Hall of Private Audience" and sat on the throne. Then. or by the wazir. Of the other letters a few wert' him by the Court agents of the high grandees. DIWAX-I-KHAS. farmans. sometimes more or according to the amount of the business to be done. or by the officers appointed to submit the despatches of the provincial viceroys. less The darbar lasted two hours.

silver and jewels against which the Emperor birthday. made in favour of military The to and learnt the Emperor's pleasure on each point. / important matters connected with the Crownlands. and the assignments on revenue oflficers. ridden by had been trained for him. offered by the nobles and princes as sacrifice (tosadduq) in order to avert calamities and bad omens from Then lers. such as jewel-setters. a short time was passed in inspecting the- works of skilful artisans. Head of the Royal Charity Department brought special the Emperor's notice cases of needy men. most of them received cash grants. A fund was created for every this purpose out of the gold.10 STUDIES IX MLOUAL INDIA. as Shall flahan was very fond of building noble edifices. for the guidance of the architects. Plans of royal buildings were placed in hi* hands. On the plans approved. enamel&c.— -which will remain as his memorial of to all time. and the was weighed (wazan) money which was him. These works being (>\t'i. and he added elements of beauty to them or alterations made finally where necessary. some lands. other* daily stipends. weic n»ade to go through their . the cNpert horse-tamers. hawks and leopards. Emperor occasionally h»(tked at the hunting animals. This was an important work. which Mettled horses. the prime-minister Asaf Khan wrote an ex- planation of the Emperor's wishes. tendent the Public Works The SuperinDepartment with cx[)ert architects attended this j)rivate durbar to consult their master.

it aft'airs would have been harmful Wazir. but the time varied according to the amount of the business to be despatched. li exercises in the yard of the private palace. stand outside. as had been submitted taken on them. were discussed with the Grand coii- A was made of the important and fidential letters to be sent to noblemen serving in the distant provinces. in the two previous darbars of the day were now reported by the and the Emperor's orders. for. maidens . and took a nap for an hour. the Crownlands. to make precis public. the harem purs-ued is With most rest. Such urgent payment of the ivazir matters about the military. enter this and a few trusted could tower to- without special permission. Nearly two hours were thus occupied. Some three quarters of an hour were usually spent here..THE DAILY LIFE OF SHAH JAHAN. I\ THE IIAIJEM AT XOOX. kings- a place of pleasure there. ate meal. uiuler His- Majesty's eyes. It was now nearly midday and the Emperor entered! his- thi harem. &c. Secret till Even which the servants had they were sent of State. and But work of decayed Shah Jahan even A crowd of female beggars — poor widows and orphans. SHAH BURJ. fidential business at about half past eleven the P^mperor left this Hall and enter- was done here. and ed the lofty Shall Biirj or Koyal Tower. where he performed the zu/iar prayer. officers The most conNone but the princes.

vocal and join in it. and often deigned chroniclei'. -tSTlJJlKS J.INDIA. Shortly t/j<or after 4 p. Arere The palacedrawn up before him presented their arms. besought the royal charity. the Emperor performed his prayer. at first in alfending to the administration and liut it il<* afterwards in pleasure. pensions or jewels. but tjie day's work was iioi yet over. who gave lands to donations to others. Ai\(\ The men present bowed. families. The day was now spent. and sometimes visited the Hall of Publit^ Audience again. the Emperor and his and spent some two I'hoice associates gathered heie hours. called chnwhiilars. and Her Majesty the Emperor. (o Female Xazir. called the icported the cases to •some. dauglateis of poor scholars.m. guards. in the harem in this work of AITERXOOX ArDTENCE. If mav trust the Court Shah -lahan was a . Their petitions weie put before the Empress hj her chief servant Satinn-nissa. Large sums were every day spent relief. and money as the dowries of maidens too poor marry. was pleasure of an to ele- vated and refined character. Then His Majesty joined the perform the sunset prayer <-oi!gregation of his Court to in Ihc Private Audience Hall. and garments. Ave heard music. A little State business was gone through in a short time. tlieolofj^ians and })ious moil.N Ml (iHAJ. SOIREE IX THE 1)IW VX-1-KlIAS. The Diiran-i-lJias was lit up with fragrant -candles set in jewelled candelabra.

lie retired to the harem again.. the Emperor fell asleep and enjoyed a night's C re])ose of six hours. Hut we must remember that Fridav is the ." SECRET COrXCIL After the liiirj. after 10 p. ACiAI?:. At al)out 8-00 P. by women. lives of saints and rich prophets. OUKT OF JUSTICE OX WEDXESDAY. in of former kings. spent in Two and sometimes listening to songs three hours were here Then His Majesty retired^ Good readers sat behind a to bed and -was read to sleep. Among them of the Life of A^eie Timur and his the Autobiography Babar special favourites.m.m. —leaving morrow. MUSIC AXD KEADING IX THK HAKEM. and read aloud books on and histories travel. pardah which separated them from the royal bed chamber.) he went to the Shah still and if there was any secret business of State to be done. Such was the life of the Mughal Court on ordinary da vs. he summoned it the Grand Wazir and the nothing over Hahhsliis and despatched for the there. all instruction.. and his so sweet peitftiuiauees were and charming that '* many pure-sonk'd Sufis jmd worhl. who* senses in holy men with hearts withdrawn from the lost attended these evening assemblies.M. IsJia prayer (8 p. Finally.THE DAILY LIFK OF SHAH JAHAX.- TV' past master of Uidii song. their the ecstasy produced by his singing.

he bad ^appointed wise. judges of men to common law {(ulils). law from the uleina ((Canon-lawyers). and reported their gjievances. river trips it in on the . and pronoujiced judgment accordingly. jurists versed in fatawa. On Wednesday none had and the entree ex- <'ept the law on officers. few nobles who constantly person. but the Emperor came direct from the iiJarsltan :8 window to sit to the Private Audience Hall. but was often varied by rides through the city. on the throne of justice. witli tlxMr reports. His Majesty very gently ascertained took the the facts by inquiry.attended schidars. them to find out the truth.. Wednesday.plaints could in the land. and superintendent of the law-court. jMuhaminadan Sabbath. generally the aftcinoon. not be investigated except locally. but the king himself was the fountain of justice and the highest <M)urt of appeal. and either do justice theje or send the parties back to the fa])ital.justice. God-fearinj]^ at about A.M. was specially set apart for djiing .Jumna in the State . wlien no Court was held. On that day no darbar was held in the Diwan-i-atn. too. pious and upright '.14 STUDIES IX MlCiHAL INDIA. the Emperor's The officers oi justice piesented the plaintift's one by one. and so the Emperor urging wiote oiders to the goveinois of those places. experienced True. Such was the settled life of Agra or Delhi. Many had come from from the highest power far-oft' piovinces to get justice Thcii. and act as judges of Canon law (qazis). which is one of the most important duties of •Oriental kings.

Fitna giran khab ze bidariyash. and tours. essay ha\e been collected from Abdul Hamid's Paduhahand India Off. Thus we see that the royal throne was not exactly a bed of roses even in those <lays. prosperity The king had and contentment Jahan's routine to his people." And the praise was right well deserved. It was a strenuous time showed that he life that Shah Jahan led. his duties.* * The materials I. thou hast taken a heavy load on thy shoulders Oppression has fallen into a deep sleep (in thy kingdom) because thou hast banished sleep from thy eyes. Pers. /?. and his division of his knew the fact. London. 144-154. for the Great active ruler? their Mughals were vinces with whole and often visited the properforming grand Court. for this 1 namah. hunting expeditions. 1344. N'o. after giving of : Shah the wojk. a & ». progresses througli the country. thy subjects are light-hearted because . B. following couplet — dil ze addresses him in Khalq sabuk giran bariyash. 15 barges. 2»i. An old Persian manuscript of the India Office Library. and he gave peace.THE DAILY LIFE OF SHAH JAHAX. " . "O ! king. Ms. A. 23^.

..Showers on her kings barbaric pearl <(>ul(l and he have been thinking of India nnder Shah Jahan. For. . . Telingana... absorbed more than following list three : millions sterling.. IND.THE WEALTH OF Whex Milton wrote.yielded 1\ krorcs... Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand gold. of which far Outshone the wealth Ormuz and of Ind. 1650.. 4}. of which the newly acquired provinces. . and liaglana. Shah Jahan about His juildix(. . Daulatabad. High on a throne of royal state. Iron's in cash and 5 k-rorcs in kind. ...50 .. 'I'he Crown-lands supplied the Emperor's privy (-il purse with three kroics of rupees In the first million pounds sterling). in .. The KEVENUE was 20 /i/o/c. the builder of the Taj and the Peacock Throne!*' the finest example of eastern royal magnificence was that king's Court. twenty years of his the- spent 9^ kroics of rupees in rewards and gifts.. ... . will show At Agra — The Pearl Mosque and the palaces the fort .s. chasing power was about seven times that of to-day. but its purA rupee of that time was woith 2s. and gardens . afforded by history of '-'u/.. 6o lakhs. The contemporary Abdul Hamid Lahori enables us to estimate a<-curately the wealth of the Mughal Emperor in 1648. „ The Taj Mahal..of rupees (222 "liUio^i pounds).


Abdul Hamid Lahori. Jahangir. and Shah Jahan. and weighing 47 ( ratis = 41 carats) only. Of what use were they if the people could not gaze at them?" asks the Court annalist. and out of ihem he chose the very best. strings taken together reached 20 lakhs. to pearl gr. —of ( these the largest ruby in the centre weighed 288 latis carats) in the at = 252 at two lakhs of rupees. With ordere»l to be . Yet another ruby. a would have been considered cheap big pear-like ( = 124 4 lahhs. shaped like a pear. " Many of gems by three generations Kmperors. 1G35. put in the Eraperor's losary (the first named one). to his head-dress it on the anniversary of the coronation: set had 5 large rubies and 24 pearls and was valued market it on it. They hakl been mostly collected by Akbar. Only second-rate jewels were. The total price On ing 11th ]^s. cost- 40. cost half a JakJi. 4'4 snikhs Troy?) was added The largest ruby (or diamond?) in the Imperial treasury was about 430 mtis ( = 378 carats) in weight and worth two lakhs. On 12th March. So.18 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. all the jewels in the outer palace (worth 2 krorcs) were shown to the Emperor. but it had not the flawless lustre of the central gem of the satpech.000 and weighing it. All the largest and finest rubies were reserved for his sarpech (aigrette This ornament was tied or jewel worn on the turban). Shah Jahan had been collected sat for the first time on the newly finished peacock throne. however. valued at 16 lakhs. 1644. though of the satpech was 12 lakhs. Akbar. November.

its central ruby akne being worth one sented by Shah Abbas iind This ruby had been pre- the Persian king. had inscribed Shahrukh. diajnonds. sides which was sui rounded on eleven with jewelled planks serving as railings. 19 one lahh tolaJu to ( ='i2od lbs. and Shah Jahan Inside the throne. lal^h. (the twelfth was open. 2| studded it with The inner set roof was enamelled and had only a few stones here and there. and 5 yards high. Apart from the salary of the craftsmen^ . the artisans of the Imperial of gold-smith department under a the superintendence -Jj Btbadal Khan. Three jewelled steps led up to the Emperor's seat. Jahangir Akbar. con- .THE WEALTH OF IXD. in 20 couplets. It cost 10 lahlis of rupees. Mir Ulugh Beg. and between them a tree set with lubies. Mirza I poem by Haji Muhammad Tan Qudsi.was inscribed in letters of enamel. emeralds. )f these eleven panels the most splendid was the middle one. constructed these jewels. Above it were placed two figures of peacocks ornamented with jtwels. and other gems. the last three words {Autang-l-shaJiansJiah-i-a/IIJ) giving the date of its struction. xfoquts. Twelve pillars of emerald supported this roof. equivalent 14 lok'h. the son of ii on it the names of Timur.'i of rupees. on which the Emperor rested his arm in reclining.. throne vards broad. and yards long. to Jahangir. being in front of the < Emperor and just above the steps). Shah Abbas. I'loy) of pure gold. but the outside was covered with rubies. I. and pearls.

i.000 inansahdaix (commanders). accompahieJ the Eniperur and the remaining 30.000 tlie These did not include tlu local militia posted in paryanahx and commanded by the faujdats. . 440.. 711.. io. • ».714) BuildifiK |e\v<'lltT\ l'^^/ . il.000 cavalry under the princes and nobles. .000 cavalry.) and ainlas. Waris's PuiHshahnnuiah'.20 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA.->mid's Puriiskahnamah. . '. then. Khud.— for Revenue fAbdiil H. Accordingly. knnis- (District Ccdlectors.'< more. ' -.000 (i/i(ufls (grentlemen troopers) and mounted musketeers. AnthorltiCH.000 Shah Jahan describes himself as the troopers. ^ll^). U B. (H ilicsr. 77-81) ii6<i. lord the- empire. Such from guai'd vast treasures \voukl naturally tempt spoilers a strong force to safefind far-oft' lands. who must have numbefoix'^ bered several his captivity JalJi. in addition to aiul 185.000 WereqtiarterecC' • . v.ikhsh Ms.000 foot musketeers' artillerymen.' (/Nrf. ToTAi.. the materials alone of the throne cost one kiorc of rupees. approached :t though did not inclu(h« all India. t . Army H: 710. . • . 40. we that the Imperial AKMv in 164<S comprised 200. 7... and required them.(n'id.ind NMiil-MamUl. . loih.! ' >. . il. tlir + »arioii» .191-393) ) Hcarock Thrimo. . 8.()oo Sui>f>'ij.T H. The total armed strength of (me million of men. In a letter written just of 1)00. .

From is Persia. When \vor«1. >pelt in exactly the ^anie way. a brother of I a Persian is mer. Persians. Persia. w ho Asia. Put Sitti. From Persia came the of India's Muham- Mahmud Gawan. . Mughal Court us a learned tells TiiK fdllowiiip biogiapliif-al sketch {jives us a picture lit the inner life of the gh)ry. intioduces to at the height of ifs and accomplished Persian lady. 'grandmother'. (lit. came the highly accomplished the lance-head lady v-ho the subject of this memoir. the right-hand zib. tlie general and administrator. man Aurang- All Abul Fath. the physician and friend of Akbar. and finally a the simple and sad tale of mother's love and grief whicli has an interest quite its ^part from 1'he value as a side-light on Indian history. of woids was unrivalled his age in he choice and the power of clothing fine sense in equally fine phrases. Mardan Khan.ns as have taken it here. * Siiri. the finance minister •)f Aurangzib. and belonged to a family of bi other scholars and physicians.* have been rightly called ' the French of supplied many of the most brilliant gems that gathered lound the throne madan rulers. an Arabic word meaning 'Madam'. and other worthies of the field and the council-cham- many ber. ' Sati-un-nissa* auKmg women ') was the daughter of H piovince of a respectable native of Mazendran. her husband Xasira. Sultans of of heaven-born minister of the Jiahmani the Deccan.TllK (OMPAXIOX OF AX KMPKKSS. itnd earned the title of " Prince of Poets " at the ^>f Court Tahangir. Mir Jumla. Ituhullah Khan. iji Her Taliba Amuli. too.

lands and daily stipends cash bounties were given to the wives and widows. as her chief servant its and agent. died in India. tionist the a badge of She was good elocu- and could in lecite the Quran well and read Persian w(.rks pnjse and she verse properly. . expert. perfect mastery of the proper conduct of a dependent. old servants and entrusted with the Empress's the head of her establishment. and gentle in injiuner. the great physician Haknai Kashi. and the historian piaises elo(]uent. charm of speech. won her above royal mistress's heart. and the latter eai- to the Emperor's on his coming to th(^ in oi harem in the evening. For her literary tutojess to theto- accomplishments was appointed Princess lloyal Jahanura.22 STIDIKS IN MIGIIAL INDIA. Sati-unthe^ nissa. Whenever the she heaid of an honest wcmian brought in distress or of a virgin too poor to be married. lO^Ui. of She was charity to also the iiilermediaiy the Km[)eror's women. and knowledge of medicine and vari- ous kinds of treatment. she reported the case to it Empress. her as "attentive. all and slie was promoted the seal. ability. and very soon taught her read the (^uran and wj ite Persian. acc(»mpanied last Agra (the Taj Mahal). Large sums were daily spent helping these poor women. Sati-un-nissa entered the service of Mumtaz Mahal." When corpse to the Empress died (7th resting-place at flune. Sati-un-nissi* Imperial almoneress. and ornaments and money paid acte<l as the to the virgins. Here lier the renowned Empress of Shah Jahan.

At the marriage Crown Prince Dara Shukoh. while she the gifts the bride's mother. nobles and courtiers. on her mother's death. though he sur- The duties of the late Empress. and was like a mother to the orphan princes and princesses. Mumtaz ^lahal before her death articles. she gave her seal and control Sati-un-uissa. this In by her former tutor. At every marriage of a prince of the blood royal. for whom she received liberal rewards her pains. task she was ably assisted Sati-un-nissa. conveyed the imperial presents to the bride's house.. in used to lay aside money. faithfully cherished memory and '^o did not years. entertaining female guests. officers The male to who accompanied her stayed entered the harem and made over from outside. jewels and precious view of her sons' marriage when they would grow up. many again.THE COMPANION" OF AN EMPRESS. these amounted to sixteen lakhs of rupees. — seven . Jahan- ara constantly added to them. these At the time of marriage were spent in offering tribute to the Emperor. gifts to the princes to the and Begams. as a sort of female major domo. and presents and robes of the 16-32). her vived her by as a loving husband. and performing other social functions peculiar to the mistress of a household. now fell to her eldest daughter in Jahanara. 23 Shah Jahan. to whom Thus of her household staft. as the female head of the Imperial family. the subject of our memoir continued to be the highest lady servant of the Mughal Empire. and she had to play her mother's part conducting marriage ceremonies. (11th November.

one lakh in cash. forming The courtiers and nobles feasted their eyes on the treasures. all supplied by Mumtaic Mahal and Jahanara. Hy Agra order of Jahanara. At night the whole place was illuminated. too. made by the Emperor the Sadai or Superintendent of the harem. in reward of her fidelity and obedience. a sort of exhibition. table She had also to wait at the Emperor's and serve him with provisions. Taliba. — as the most honoured and trusted of women attendants. but adopted the two (laughters of her late brother. In addition to being the head servant of Jahanara. Shujah February. of the second prince. on . {2-h<\ at the marriage 16'3-}). Sati-un-nissa's capacity for organisation and artistic taste must have found ample scope for exercise Sati-un-nissa was also in getting up such exhibitions. Sati-un-nissa arranged all this vast collection for display in the spacious courtyard of Fort in front of to tlie window at which the Emperor used show his face to his adoring subjects. She had no child of her own. a display was made of wedding presents worth 10 lakhs of rupees. lakhs in jewels. and the balance in elephants and horses. was constantly in the Emperor's eyes and kiiidly treated Thus she Mas most by him. four lakhs in gold and silver ornaments and rare articles of all countries in the world. So. The younger the two. On them yearnings of she lavished childless all the love and maternal of a widow's heart.24 STUDIES IN MUlillAL INDIA. and even the Emperor ccmdescended to pay a visit.

a distant relative. a nephew of her late husband. But this young woman. long illness following childbirth (10th January. father and master of household. cast to patience. and abandoned herself mourning for eleven days iu her house. outside the <-itadel of Lahore. that her grief had her brought to her men. At his arrival. he kindly had now somewhat official residence within the Imperial of -Tahanara. consoled haiem. hoping abated. the doctor and rapidly being choked. and took her with himself to the Xext day. as the un-nissa returned to her Emperor went out to hunt. she prayers. and at once sank down on hei side. At about 8 suddenly cried out. The was brought over from the centre of all and cherished at the Imperial Court through her influence. she bowed to salute him. nn^ther's grief is 1647). was imme<liately summoned. The pulse was still beating. control. went there her in palace. a model husband. in the company many ways. " I feel like The Persian <loctor Masih-uz-Zanian. He could On 22nd January. A too strong for spite of Sati-iin-ni<5sa. she betook herself to reading the Quran.THE (OMl'AXIOX OF AN EMPRESS. 25 whom jrroom slu' particularly doted. <lied of a Sati-un-nissa's affection. Satiown house for some necessary After eating her meal and saying the evening P. then raised her head. ." and grew worse." of But Shah -lahan was the kindest not neglect an old servant. " in off all any earthly her wisdom and philosophy. was married Persia to Hakim bride- Zia-ud-din. wr)iks.M.

10. she had left Wlicn the pulse failed. all He was be and ordered honour to shown on her her mortal funeral. .000.000 to be spent Alter more than ayear the body was taken out and finally buried west of the Taj ifahal. l)ut tlial no pniposo.f Hs. they knew Thus she foll(»\ved heithe world. '^.ijG STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA.000 a year :i>sigiic(l for the pay of its attendants. 150. riiiiaiiis and lis. close to the outer (|nadjangh^ in a tomb built by Goveinment at an expense (. to in the hunting eanip.liaji the news reached Sluih deeply touched. (lauj'hter in death Next day (24th January) •li. bv a loitnij'ht onlv. A village yielding lis. was Thus she was nol ill ])arted from her beloved master and mistress even death. Iici s(ni-iii-law t(» (ontinued applying remedies f(»r fainting.

prolonged for -lO hours. Empire has no sweetness. forbade music and song at the annual coronation birthday like ceremonies. In IGOT A. and the bride just 14 numths younger. the Begam died of the pain of child-birth. the marriage : was celebrated ti the bridegroom was then 20 years and months of age. his father Jahangir betrothed him to Arjmand Mumtaz Mahal). more than 20 grey hairs. on Tuesday. Asaf Khan. and jewels.H. or of for He of said that his life. Tth June. wlieu Shah Jahan (then Prince Khur- ram) was 15 years ohi. . He and gave up the use of coloured dross. saying. lianu a Begani (afterwards surnamed daughter of Xiir Jahan's brother. 1040 A. 16^31 (IT Zicjada. life. now At every visit to her tomb. of Audience. strangely and His- beard whicli had '* not rapidly turned white. Five jears afterwards (1612). he and itself life used to shed rivers of tears " over her remains. D.WHO BUILT THE TAJ MAHAL? MUMTAZ Mahal's dp:ath. scents. dirges —indeed wailing they in now sounded his ears. he would have turned if faqir the rest kingship were not a sacred charge which no one can lay aside at his pleasure.. " lament. After 19 years of wedded in which she bore 14 children to her royal husband.) Shah Jahan was so overpowered by grief that for to to one week he could not bring himself appear at the attend to anr window affair of the Hall State. at Burhan- pur.

with her company. Miiza and Shah the daughters Muzaii'ar 5 years after his Xawaz Khan. It is well-known the babe cries in the its womb. (jaiti-ara. It last. biith said that just before the of the a sound of crying was heard in the it. 2 years before union with Mumtaz Mahal but . \\onib of lh(. If he visited the harem. i {Fadixhahnaniah. \\l)i(di and is also found in a Ms. is -lahan-ara. affixed (the his autobiography of Qasim belonging to tln^ All to Diwan). parted in settled resi- dence -159). weal and woe. liearl Munitaz in Mahal so fully occupied his that there was no space left there for any other k<ve . Begam when summoned ' the Emperor to iier side. were political alliances {ha iqtiza-e-inaxUhatc).28 STUDIES IX MUCiHAL INDIA. despaired of her Imniediately on hearing life. Munitaz Mahal. Shah besides four sons. the mother can it never survive birth. Shah Jahan had of married Ilusain iuid th(!se two other wives. The story seems to be current at . Anjuman-ara. " Xobody's has no relish left for me now I ! " face can delight me now " True.Vgra. and the Emperor and travel. treatise on the Taj has been lent by the Khuda IJakhsh Library his to llie Victoria " Memorial -lalian liad. her (h'ath is The following account rare given in a Peisian manuscript Afridi. four ^hmghters. and Daliar-ara [Gauhar-ara]. tliat and said in plaintive accents. never . Now that is niv h)t to leave . Ivhuda lialclish Librar}-. and of M untahhah-ul-Lahah. he promptly returned weeping and sighing.}87. Mall. not love-matches. i.

My second prayer is you should build over me such a mausoleum that the like of it may not be seen anywhere else in the world. alas. to depart in sorrow Promise to * my two last requests. as I Sir am I about to set out on at my King! shared your lot the time of your captivity [in your father's reign] afflictions. her children and mine should blows for the succession.. Her body was at first laid in the earth in a building within a garden on the bank of the river Tapti opposite . his care and then set out on her last journey. a moment " after giving birth to Dahar-ara. 22b-2'ia). lest Kaise not issue on any other to woman. (Pp. O King pardon I aught that that I I may have journey said amiss. you four sous and four daughters.' Then. Emperor to tt>- once arrived in great concern and sorrow. He describes- the death-scene thus " When He at the Begam learnt that her death was certain. I have. lier She commended her sons and mother (i. preserve your God has given They are enough to come that name and fame. she sent the Princess Jahan-ara to call the her. and other it Xow keep that the Lord God has given The to you I to rule the world." -586). Pardon every fault may last have committed.' ' Emperor promised on his life and and asked her to state her wishes. she died. She replied. The contemporary historian.WHO Bl ILT THE TAJ MAHAL Y '^0 this mortal sphere for the eternal home.' soul. Abdul Hamid Lahori (author of the Padisliahnamah) is silent about it. But the above is merely a popular legend.

December following her death. Plans for the tomb were sub- mitted ^)ne by all the master architects of the land. to Agra in ohaige of Prince '20tli Shuja. Man Singh (/^adis/ia/uianuilt. ITS BUILDEUS AND STONES. mason. (i. a citizen of Agra. (4-G) and Zorawar. an expense of i.). carpenter. writer of Tughra ins- criptions. . it On the 1st was taken out and sent 402). dome and the scaffolding {dhola) s\ipporting . a resident of Delhi. 4()-)). from Qandahar. south of for Agra city. and purchased from Itajah Singh. liuihanpur.'M) STUDIES IX MUGHAL IXDIA. under the supervision at Mikaiiuamat fifty Khan and Mik Abdul Kaium. the grandson of i. arriving at the latter town on the of the month. from Delhi. THE TAJ. 16-i2. liegun -January i^aily in the Taj was <-ompleted in of lG4-{. Jakhs of rupees {Muntahhah-jii-habah. was its the Jai burial place. (7) Ismail Khan Ihimi. Jialinniiui/i. The Diwon-i-AfiiiJi 17 mates the cost at 9 krores and artisans lakhs of rupees and names (1) the : 4^<m3truetioii — following as employed in the Amanat Khan Master {ustdH) Shirazi. -{22 <'f 590. Master Pira. A chosen 4)wner.Ihat Mai. maker of the it. When of these was approved by the Kmperoi. 2-5fl). ii. a wooden it anodel of was first made {Diwan-i-Afiidi. spacious tract of land. sculptors. (2) {']) Isa. and Padisesti- scif. IJanuhiir.

The following twenty kinds of precious stones were the Taj. Marble from Makrana. (6) (7) (8) Khatu from the hill of Jodhpur. (2) (•3) Lapis lazuli from Ceylon. Mnngah from (rhoii the Atlantic Ocean. hill of (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) Tamrah from Masai Beryl from the (stone of Moses!) Baba Budhan. 2:'>« aud b. Ajuba from the hill-rivers of Kumaon. Ba/U-stone from the river Banas. (9) (10) (11) (12) (1-3) Vamini from Yemen. from Mount Sinai. Maria ma from the city of Basrah. Giraliori from the river of Gwalior. Red [sand-] stone from (19) (20) Jasper from Persia. Dalehana from the river Asan. [stone?] from Basrah and tlie sea of Ormuz. Onyx from Gold 'the upper world' (?) (4) (5) Patunja from the river Xile. all directions. (Diwan-i-Afridi. (P.) Other workmen are named in a recent Urdu work on the Taj.WHO BUILT THE TAJ MAHAL ? ^i (8) Ram Mai Kashmiri. . the river Gandak. 236): — (Ij Cornelian from Qandahar. but set in I know not on what authority. from Ghor-band. gardener.

(only 29. and his grand-father Xeknam Khan.] . (27th •Janiuiiy.V MUGHAL INDIA. of On the 12th anniversary her death. being named. Khan Afridi was born in ITTl and His father was named Burhan Khan. ITS ENDOWMENT.32 STUDIES I.) [**Qasini Ali died in 1827 A. and shops adjoining the tomb. '»27) gives a list of these villages. Shah Jahan '30 villajj^es visited the Taj Mahal. producing lakh of rupees in rent.'D. 164-5). The Padishah namah (ii. for the up-keep of the in mausoleum and the support of the pious men placed it. however. and bestowed in icaqf of the parganahs of Agra I and Xagarchin. serais. yielding a revenue of and the allot lier lakh of rupees.

appointment army art commander in the of ten thousand cavalry (nominal rank).M. 3 . was born on 24th October. Emperor Shah Jahan and his third sou famous con- Mumtaz Mahal. boyhood was his display of beast. Just then aid arrived. (28 May. after putting its rival to the flight. received as a his 1634. tlie of sort the Muhiuddiu Muhammad Aurangzib. On imperial 13th December. but Aurangzib leaped down from the and again faced the elephant. I. turned fiercely on Aurangzib. now a town in the Panch Mahal taluq of the Bombay Presidency and a station on the GrodraThe most notable incident of his cool courage when charged by an infuriated elephant. during an elephant combat under his father's eyes on the bank of the Jumna outside Agra Fort.s weight in gold. 1633). the animal ran away. EAKLY LIFE. who firmly kept his horse from running away and struck the elephant on the forehead with spear.AUEANGZIB. and the prince was saved. then in 16 the years of age. his A in sweep of the brute's tusk hurled the horse time on the ground. The Emperor rewarded the heroic lad with saddle hi. at Dohad. The victorious liutlam railway-line. 1618. first Aurangzib. and next September he was sent out to learn the of war campaign against Jhujhar s.

IG-'n). and began to have children by them. .]6 to 28th May. in For some 25th But on November. and at some later but unknown date to Nawab Bai. the gifted poetess. to the viceroyalty of Gujrat rule suppressed was given lefesness him. Aurangzib as to Viceroy This his of the Deccax. his son Vikramajit. year. the Buntlela chiefs of finally extirpated who were . and at once deprived him of t»)ok to a life of retirement. her joyful father «'ould refuse her nothing. the daughter of Shah Nawaz Tvlian Safawi. his eldest offspring being Zeb-un-uissa. 1644 the prinee gave up his duties and Dara Shukoh's jealous interference with his work and Shah •lahan's partiality to his eldest son. (born loth February. —paying to several see yorthein India during the period first the Emperor.14th at the end of the From served visits July. princ^e and at allowances. was marked by the conquest of Baglana and the final extineHe of the Nizam-Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar. (cSth May. was married. 1644. 16th February. 16. At this the Emperor was highly displeased. estates. terrible burn. tion governorship of the Deccan. 1G38). as a protest against his governorship. when Jahanaia. recovered from a lived months the Agra disgrace. his to his rank. In May. Singh and ITichha. vigorous law the in the province and won rewards from Emperor. first to Dilras Banu. and Or« at her entreaty Aurangzib was restored 1645. the eldest and bestbeloved daughter of Shah Jahan.34 STUDIES I-\ MIGHAL IJSDIA.

AUKAXGZIB. house of Timur. of in the van the The bravest Rajputs shed Mughal army in that of stores. During this campaign Aurangzib did an act which ring made While his fame throughout the Islamic world. swarmed on all sides and could not be crushed once for (•onquest cost. '* on which army merely held the encamped. the ex-king of Balkh. and much property too had be sacrificed by the rearguard for lack of tians])ort. he Balkh blood soil. and battled long and arduously with the fierce enemy. reached Ticaving Kabul on Tth April. provisions and treasure re wasted but the Indian it irrouud Asia. cradle of the royal 1647. and the Indian army beat a to avoid the dreaded winter of that Many kiores of rupees of Indian revenue were thus •stores wasted for abs<dutely no gain .-i. their far-oft immense \v( quantities . The barren and distant retained only at a ruinous : could have been So. all. letreat Amir Abdur Rahman. . the he vast Mughal army was fighting desperately with legions of Abdul Aziz Khan. the hordes of Central more numerous than ants and locusts. the abandoned alone had cost several to fakJi. a truce was patched up Xazar Muhammad as Ivhan. 35 From later Giijiat Ainaugzib was recalled two years and sent to Central Asia the to recover Balkli and IJhdakhslian.' was sought out with much eagerness hold of the late as Sir Lepel Griffin displayed in getting taking back his huiried legion." and all of them born liorsemen. and coaxed into throne. King of Bukhara. on 2oth May.

1C48). 1649. Balkh. knelt down on the ground. liow he and work during overcame his recurring^of ho- financial difficulties. 1652. and these U\o huge and costly sieges and a third and still greater one under Dara (28th April it. What Gaul was to Julius Ctesar as a trainthethe coming contest for empire. give us life much interesting information about the next six years. Auraugzil> dismounted from his elephant. This- had been wrested from Shah Jahan by the Persians. and deliberately and peacefully went through all the ceremonies of the pirayer. 27th September. Abdul Aziz on hearing of it cried out. being This post he held July. 165')) failed to recover With which 1652). Aurang/ib returned to Kabul on !^Oth 1647. the Dis- regarding prohibitions of his officers. the meantime called away 5th' from fort his charge to besiege Qaxdahau (16th May September. his his SECOXD vKEUOYAi/rY OF THE Deccax was (t(> appointment made on 17tli August. in full Tiew of both* thearmies. 1652). early life... ing-ground tor Deccau letters. officers round himself. tlic time for the evening praver {ziihai) aijived.. and 2nd May 9th July. and was afterwards appoiuted twice in Viceroy till of Multan (15th March.lib STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. Many hundreds iiis of hi^- preserved in the Adnlt-i-Alamfjiii. was to Aurangzib.' and suspendefl the battle. From iJctober. began the most important chapter of Aurang/ib's. how he gathered a picked band how ablv and strenuouslv . ' To fight with such a man is to ruin one's self.

Auraugzib long intrigue he icazir Golkonda his luatlt' a paid ox Haidakabad to (Jan. the to King tied Golkonda where he was forced sacrifices. It was a case of love at first sight. which At this period. maintaining order and securing the happiness of the people. At Aurangzib's Mir Jumla recommendation Shah Jahan enrolled among his officers and threw the mantle of imperial protection over him. and Aurangzib's to infatuation for the beautiful singer knew no bound Their union please her he consented to drink wine M as cut short by her death in the bloom of youth. To force the Golkonda King to irive up Mir Jumlas family and property. one of the ablest Persians who have ever served in India. 1656). returned to the Deccan Aurangzib. He must been often out on tour. his PASSION you Hip. 31 ruled the rounliy. occurred the only : ! plunged her lover After a in the deepest grief. romance of his life. whom he took away from the harem of his maternal uncle. too. exercise he kept his liiive By constant inspection and army in good condition.AURAXGZIB.. make a humiliating peace with immense Mir Jumla to Delhi ioiued Auraugzib (20th March). and then on 18th January. iuubt was a hard rider and keen sportsman Thus the year 1658 found him beyond the ablest and best equipped of the sons nf Shah lahan in the ensuing War of Succession. to reinforce 1657. . as he admits in one of hi. <it seduced from the King Mir Jumla.letters that he >i those days. (surnamed Zaixabadi). a Bat. was summoned nd created icazir (7th July'). —Apr.

taken severely Daia attended ])i('ty. who lived with tration. death of on the Muhammad Adil BiJAruu. and was evidently declining health. (January. fort* lGo7). and was h>oking forward territory. INDIA. Dara Shukoh. x\. his the the his army left him too weak hold Jiijapiiris to their promises. 1657. captured the Bidar and Kaliani (29th March and to respectively). WAU On of. For some time his life was despaire*! him day and night with extremealso bill he took steps to serore liis own . filial OK >srctj. wlien tlie August annexing a 1st good deal of the in whole scene ciianged the most unexpected and sudden manner. The Emperor eldest son Sliah Jahan had now reached in lii. to and cut short his schemes of aggression. Shah Jahan at Delhi was ill. to a But this.ssiux. 6th September.S IX Mlt. II. on the very reasonable- to Aurangzil) for the ground that the Bijapur King had thrown himself on the Emperor's mercy and offered a large indemnity and piece of territory as the price of peace. of King of sanction ixvaued Shah. year after this unprovoked attack on Golkonda.ti8 STIUIK.?- 66th year. His and intended heir-apparent. peremptory order Bijapur gave him dejdetion of Aurangzib to come to terms with sharp check when flushed with victory Besides. induced him and conducted miudi of the adminishim to recall the additional tr(M)ps sent Bijapur war. Aurangzib with his father's the latter country.UAl. and thus the fruits of victory were lost to him.

Meanwhile Dara had despatched two armies. Murad and crowned themselves in their governBengal play respectively. 14 miles south of Ujjain. 1G58). and pursued him to Bift Aurangzib and Murad effected a junction Dipalpur and crushed Jaswant's army after a (15th April). 39 sufcession. He stopped the couriers on the roads and prevented his brothers from getting true news of Court aft'airs. Dara sent off urgent .\t. vShuja. (uitside Bahadurpur. The army surprised and routed Shuja Mungir. men in all parts raised their heads with- fear of punishment. one under his son Sulaiman Shukoh and Mirza Rajah Jai Singh against Shuja who was advancing from Bengal. He de- nounced Dara an apostate from Islam. : the wildest rumours prevailed was believed to the Emperor in be already dead. decided to as subtler game. openly Two of the princes. and lastly he made an alliance with Murad Baklish swearing on the Quran to ^iye him al! Mughal territory from the Pan jab westwards. proclaimed to to his own design to be merely from Dara's domination and free the old Emperor purge the State from non-Islamic influences.AUHAXGZIB. long and terribly contested battle at Dhakm. (T4th February. But this only all aggravated the evil over the country. the and the other under Maharajah (iasini Jaswant at Singh and first Ivhan against Aurangzib and Murad. the officers the provinces were distracted by the prospect of an empty thione. oppo- site Benares. Gujrat and Aurangzib afler a short period of gnawing anxiety and depressing a uncertainty. lawless our. ments.

Dara was chased through tlie Panjab and Sindli whence he fled to fTiijrat over the lianii of undergoing terrible hardships on the way. Aurangzib uoav marched on Agra. Tatta. Cutch. (30th August. at the Indian mouth of the Bolan Pass. Dai. while his own armed to \ strength was doubled by the league with Murad. whose chief betray- ed him to Aurangzib. to The captive Dara was brought insult Delhi. From the capital. city who had signally from the with a second army. of his forces had been a fatal mistake : But Lis division Sulaiman returneven ed from far-oft' Bihar too late to help his father or to save himself. orders recalling his son from Bengal. was defeated. to to a banquet Tune). A second army which he raised was destroyed near Ajmir (I'Uh March. and he was hunted by Aurang/. paraded with through the bazar. till he reached Dadar. I'jjain the victorious brothers puslied on At Samugarh. and fled from Agra towards Delhi and the Pan jab. who had got slaves of Aurangzib. at at Mathura he treacherously (25th made Mubad pkisoner advancing 1058). ami murdered by some 1659). compelled his (dd father to surrender the fort by stop- ping the supjdy of drinking Avater from the Jumna. and Delhi crowned himself Emperor (21st July. Aurangzib had the immense advantage of crushing his enemies piecemeal. 1659).40 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. issued 10 miles east of Agra. and kept Shah Jalian strictly confined in the harem for the remainder of his life. the Mullas to issue a sentence that .ib's generals from place to place. attacked them on a frightfully hot day (29th May). Then.

Dara's eldest son. He had a sharp attack of illness (12th May--2lth June. on the accusation of a man whose father he had slain in Gujrat. III. 1662). Abyssinia (1665).AUKANOZIB. 1661). and river he Avhose hospitality he was living. as a judicial punishment. sent to and the envoys were -congratulate him on his accession treated to a sight of the lavish splendour of the Mughal (22nd May. Shuja had gathered together a new army Meantime and advanced beyond Allahabad to make a second attempt for the throne. was secretly 1661). : Court. and driven back t(» whence after a two years* struggle on land was forced to flee miserably to Arracax for refuge (6th May. But he was signally defeated at Khajwah (5th January. which threatened to shake his newly established . <lone to death in the same State-prison. —a splendour which dazzled the eyes of Bernier. (4th December. The new monarch now enjoyed a long period •comparative peace Persia : of lie received grand embassies from Bukhara (ITth Xovember. and Arabia. Favernier and other European raveUers of the t-jue. AIRAXGZIb's REIGX IX XORTHERX IXDTA. Thus all his rivals being removed from his path. -11 jiccording to islamic Law Dara deserved an apostate's Mukad Bakhsh was beheaded in Gwalior prison death. Mecca. Sulaiman Shukoh. Aurangzib became the undisputed sovereign of India. 1661). 1659). 1660V Here he was massacred with iiis whole family for a plot against the Burmese King on Bengal.

there was war ox the fkontiers : ptising officers tried to extend their master's dominion. ])aud Khan. overran 1661). An expedition from Kashmir forced the uler of Greater Tibet to be a feudatory of the to and all. chief. annexed 11th two-thirds (Treat}- Purandar. 1666). 166^). the Governor of liihar. and 1661 capitals on 19th and 17th March. ihione. (hniling Aurangzib's lack of statesmanship Shivaji with and the hitter's romantic gain escape from prison (19th August) arc a familiar tale all over India. ambiiious and enicr- Thougli peace reigned in the heart of the empire. 1662. Mir Jumhi.lai the and daring astute Emperor To crown Singh tamed Maratha o£ to Shivaji. the next (jovernor of Bengal. and he sank down under disease before reaching Dacca on return (lilst March. June. 166-3). and visit induced to him in do h(»mage to the Emperor by a l(i(i6). the Governor of their Kuch Bihar and Assam. and also captured the island of Sondip in the Bay 1 of Bengal. 1665). but famine pestilence destroyed his army. "submit able the to Islam'* (November. general hitherto of his . 1665). and invincible forts. Trne. capturing December. but these expeditions were of the nature of . but he recovered and paid a visit to Kashmir (ist May—29th September. Agra (12th May.4'sJ STUDIES IN MUGHAL IXDIA. J3engal. the Mughal arms did not success in any conspicuous (first Jai Singh's invasion of Hijapur half of 1666). conquered Palamau (April -December. wrested Chatgaon (Chittagong) fiom the Portuguese and Burmese pirates (26th January. Slmista Khan.

more formidable but distant trouble was the allies revolt of the Yusufzai clan and their on the Afghan these sturdy (begun in 16GT)." A state of war also continued against the Bijapur King and Shivaji test many years.. (5th April. raids for extortion. temple l(if)9. but the Mughal tcv generals were bribed by the former to carry on the conlanguidlj-. successive Mughal hands and buried their military peace was purchased only by paying a large annual subsidy from the Indian revenue Khyber for gate. territory.and to utterly put down teachings and religious practices of the infidels. The war against hillmen dragged on for generals tried their reputation there. and at to these " keepers of many last years." The at wandering Hindu saint Tddhav Bairagi in was confined the police and the s<iH)ols of the 13rahmans. in fear of the The Muhammadan kings Deccan^ Shivaji. A frontier. 1680). and had made himself the foremost power the Deccan when death cut his activity short at the age of 52. and prestige. 1()69 he ordered tin provincial governors to " destkoy the temi'i.Zllt.. iienares was pulled The \'ishwanath down in August. armed strength. These operations present us with nothing worthy of note. The . In Apiil. Meantime Aurangzib had begun t(t to give free play his KELiciious uKiOTRY. courted the alliance who iji rapidly grew in wealth. and not deliberate schemes of conquest. and the latter was more than able of the (»f hold his own. Mughals.ALltANl.

The Itajput AVar destruction of of 1679-80 was accompanied in by ones the 240 temples Mewar ah)ne. "all Hindus except IJajputs were or ' ride elephants. The smaller were beyond religious < suffered havoc (. polkis." With one stroke of his pen office.llAL INDIA. mosque built on its site. 1079. " The idols were bidught to Agra and biiried under tlie steps of Tahanaia's mosque that they might be constantly trodden on " by the Muslims going in to pray. Kesav i\t Itai's temple."' the Hindu chnks fiom on ('ustom were abolished discontent the ^Juslims and doubled on th( Hindus. 1095). The ^ir.mpcror its and blocked a road abjectly were trying for lemission.ence piovokcMl tlicir by such measures \\.is an ominous signOf what ultimate political consean<l would to be. Imilt a cost of 3-] lakhs of rupees by the Bundela liajali the Biisingh 1(370. down by elephants at his order and dispersed. tlie jaziya or pollwhs) tax on non-Muslims was hkvivkd. On ^nd Apjil.unt. or Aiab and Persian he dismissed •<luties all horses. About this time tlie and (new?) temple of Somnath on the south worship there ordered buildings tliat coast of the Kathiawar peninsula was demolished. forbidden to carry arms By another oidi- nance (March. aj)pealod to The poor people trampled the I'. and the offering -of to be stopped. Dev. grandest shrine ol Matlmra. including the famous one of Someshwar and three giand at I'daipur. was razed to a ground in January. thougli Aurangzib was too blind futunv obstinate think 'if the A rebellion b?-oke .44 STIDIKS IN MlC.

the surviving infant of Jaswant died like her(»es. (one of the noblest characters in Rajput history). Maharajah Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur died iu the Emperors service at Peshawar {10th December. Aurangzib sold the Jodhpur throne for 'i6 lakhs of rupees t(» a worthless- nephew of Jaswant and ordered the kite Maharajah's^ widows and new-born babes to be seized and detained But in his Court till the latter should come of age.AUHAXGZIB. and it taxed the imperial power seriously to among the peasantry in tlie especially under Gokla Jat exterminate these 5. was safely conveyed But Aurangzib was up to Jodhpur (2-}rd July.000 stubborn peasants fighting for cburch and home. Ajit Singh. Two wives of the Maharajah delivered two sous after reaching^ Lahore in the following February. and the future hope of Marwar. At last Aurangzib threw oft all disguise and openly ATTACKED THE Bajpits. thanks to the devotion of their Rathor guards. and many years cherished a beggar boy . and the^ Satnamis or Mundias n»se near Xarnol (March and April. all of whom and the sagacity and loyalty of Durgadas. 1G78). 1679). 4^ <uit districts. to any trick : he proclaimed Ajit Singh for to be a counter- feit prince. Immediately Aurangzibsent out officers to take possession of his kingdom and himself marched to Ajmir to overawe opposition. 1672). tortured in The Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur till was- prison he courted death as a release- (1075). Mathuia and Agra (1669). but his followers thereafter gave no rest to the Panjab officers.

we no longei read of laige Rajput contingents fighting under the impeiial banner. Here ends the —the j)eriod fiist iuid in stable half of Auiangzib's reign passed XoT'theni India. the son of -laswantl All Itajputana at this (except ever-loyal . 1681). tlie fourth son of Aurangzib. fortli the Ihijputs ceased to be supporters of the Mughal tlnone. INDIA. and he and the of the Itajputs. he had to depentl more on the Bundelas.-^6 STUDIES IN MlGHAl. For a few days Aurang/ib was in h\.< a most critical position. l()<Slh The Emperor patched up a })eace with the Maharaiia liut lience(•lune. the country was devastated wherever the Mughals could penetrate. and assumed the royal title. lOSl. At last Puince Akbak. chivalrously -4)rphan's rights. . fled.) joined the Kajputs.guidance Court of perilous journey under the faithful Durgadas (May. up the defence of the The war dragged on with varying took fortune. both sides making concessions. in his ('ourt as under the significant name of Muhauinia<li true ]{aj. Kaj Singli. keuelled (January. leaving all family property after a behind and reaching the Maratha . .Jaipur) burst into fiame •outrage to the head of the Kathor clan. The Ihithors continued the war till the close of Aurangzib's life. the Maharana took refuge in iiis mountain fastnesses. but wonderful cunning saved him: by a false letter he s(/wed distrust of the prince's his Akbar in the minds army melted away. The Maharana.

who pursued one policy with increasing till obstinacy. and the finances of the State. the war Maiathas. 1G81. never again or return to Xorthern Aurangabad was reached on 22nd Maidi. son Shivaji's eldest Shambhu was a more daring of conse- aider than his father and deterred by no fear quences. the moraU' of liis army. A large force which penetrated into . The capital he was destined to return die. all —a war of which ->ave saw the futility and old all were heartily tired. all Aurangzib. darkness. but they eifect«. what might he Moreov-er.d though a large number of Shambhu's were captured. and chaos ready to over- whelm I his family and empire. (<Sth the Deccan had Aurangzib but he failed of conquest. which ruined the Emperor's health. with the " slim ' We exertion next enter on a scene of unceasing but fruitless iov years.'<. 168'). at last the man of 90 sank into the grave amidst despair. all of Mughal crown? tlie Aurangzib's generals and even his sons sent against kingdoms of nothing peisoii. not do against the With Akbar as his pensioner. on l-Jth November.AURAXGZIB. Thence. and were rightly suspected of left for corruptio. 1682. foits and the Marathas. a town to which India dead. 2'> years afterwards only to Two of his sons and some nobles were despatched -igainst the Bijapuris nothing decisive. lie arrived at Ahmadnagar. So iheie was to conduct the war in for the With alive this object left Ajmir to Deccan September. Al UANOZIBS KKKiN J26 IX THE DECCAN. IV.

But Aurangzib got displeased at the opposition. anST ordered some more of the same name ' : be made for him. loss re- turned M'ith failure and heavy (September. misbelievers ' mazhain his hdn). AVERSION FOR THE Sh iahs. 1683. I befriended by the us True God In another letter he ' tells how he ' liked tfie~ naming of a dagger as the Shiah-slay er (Rdfizito inish). liam-deiali in the Konkan under Prince ^luazzam. is for truth and speaks up for truth. To him the Shiah was a heretic (rdfizi) one of his letters he quotes with admiration the story of a Sunni who escaped at Isfahan. of of the Chief l^azi The Shaikh-ul-Islam (son Abdul Wahhab and one of the purest characters of the age.'ourt that they often played the hypocrite to please him I Aurangzib threw his the cloak of Sunni (uihodoxy over aggressive conquest of Bijapur and Golkonda. May. —wlio him in with some of his best generals and officers.48 STUDIK. to Turkey after murdering a Shiah it and draws from " the moral.) tried to dissuade the Emperor from these " wars between Muslims " as opposed to Islam. the honest and manly Shaikh resigned his ])osf. it was equalled by Supplied all his. In his correspondence he never mentions corpse-eating [hdtil ' the Shiahs without an abusive epithet demons ' [ghul-i-haydhdni). Indeed.S l.\ MLCiilAL INDIA. '^JWhofiYfiJL^cts. even the it highest Shiah officers had such a bad time of (. his ablest civil . Fierce as was Aurangzib's hatred of the Hindus^ (the yast majority of his subject s). 1684). are among his favourite phrases. . h-ff <he which the rulers were Shiahs.

J Court.N(. the exact Abid a worthless voluptuary and counterpart himself up in Wajid Ali of Oudh. The king. jjcrs. ^\urangzib himself arrived in the environs of the city t(» superintend last. 1686). hud a hard time of tcirible The besiegers. It captured the rich city of Haidaraloot bad. officers helplessly shut But his chiefs were seduced his there at was discontent among Muhammadan it the power of his ]irahman minister Madanna Pant. by the Muglials. and his kingdom was annexed. : before that impregnable fort a famine raged in Ilaidarabad. 1685) against (rolkonda to prevent aid from coming from that Muazzam <|uarter to Bijapur. Sikandar. 1685 the seige of office. The relieving armies of Beydurs II lid Marathas were beaten back and the siege pressed garrison on. of (October).M. the last of the kings. Adil-Sll surrendered. too. but the rains and S. rvn T)> siege operations (3rd July. making an immense Hassan. and for the rest of his life rejected the Emperor's repeated solicitations to resume his high Ist April. Sliolapur (24th May) to be near A terrible famine desolated the besie- but reinforcements soon arrived with provisions^ though scarcity of a kind continued in a chronic state the Mughal camp. Meantime another force had been sent under Prince or Shah Alam (28th June. The fought the with the heroism of despair./Lli. 4 . 4'. l)v BuAPrR was begun On The Ruhullah Khan and Ivhan-i-Jahan Bahadur.ALKA. the Fort of Golkoxda. At 12th September. to Kmperor advanced the seat of war.

and dissolute EXECUTED with prolonged and inhuman tortures (lltli March. was brought up in the imperial Court in gilded fetters. the brave but on 28th January. all was lost. ])risoner *' mothers. His eldest son. swollen livers rendered the transport of grain impossible. Maratha king. The king was dragged out and sent to share the His kingdom was captivity of his brother of Hijapur. and his entire *" family. KiS!)). Shambhuji. It was impossible for him to take . All seemed to have been gained by Aurangzib now. was surprised by aii energetic Deccani officer (Muqarrab Khan). annexed. and Aurangzib himself arrived near Golkonda . made by the Mughals. like the boa constrictor. wives. and it was only the treachery of a Golkonda officer that opened the gate of the fort to the Mughals at miduight (21st September. and also < tlie most ghastly scenes were acted by the cost sufferers. and sons Saliu. 1G87). Two years later. lint mining and assault failed. but in reality HIS END. At an immense erected the Mughals wall filled a huge barrier of the moat and wood and day ompletely surnmnding the fort and preventing ingress egress. ignominious ^^jarade<l through the iin])erial camp like a wild beast. had swallowed more than he could digest. Aurangzib.50 STIUIES IN Ml (illAL IXDIA. It was the nE(axxiXG of The saddest and most hopeless chapter of his The Muglial empire had become too lite now opened. and pressed on the siege. large to be ruled by one man or from one centre.IG8T. His ca])ital iiaigarh was captured (19th October) daughters.

Aurangzibs The endless war in the Deccan ex- austed his treasury: the Government turned bankrupt. it away from lound the As soon as his army marched enemy who had been hoverino: and old occupied again. starving from arrears of pay. kingdoms and Ilis < at the same time all to suppress the enemies rose on sides. finely written manuscript.*' was the Spanish ulcer which ruined imperial take The were Deccan ulcer ruined Aurangzib. many places of Northern in and of¥ Central The Emperor the far- Deccan lost control over his officers in Hindusthan. Murshid Emperor's (^uli Khan. the country with tumult. iiuperial — not a single grand edifice. regularly sent by tlie the revenue of faithful sole and able diwau support its I. he could defeat but not rush tliem for ever.ZlJJ. To resume the narrative. army. there was chronic disitler.' of the household ami to. or exquisite picture commemorates reign. \v. despatched provinces to all officers sides to over the forts and of the two newly annexed kingdoms from . me. Aurangzib's work was undone . In the province of Agra in particulai'. chiefs iind zamindars defied the local authorities and asserted filling themselves. Lawlessness reigned in India. the soldiers. a place. mutinied. and arrival was agerly looked forward It Xapoleon used to say. and the admixistratiox grew slack and corrupt. possegsiou of all the provinces of the newly annexed Maiathas.i^ !l>. and uiing the dosing yeais of his reign ik^ngal.VI UANi. Art and learning decayed at the withdrawal of patronage.

desolating epidemic of huboxic tuaguk broke out in A prince nor peasant. the Marathas. died. their capital Saklikhar captured^ (28th Nov. a strongfly built uncoutli black savage. brought to the Couri. which was Zulfiqar Mughal general Khan Nusrat Hakhsh (December..the number is^ in Bijapur (early said to have reached a lal-Ji. Their country. and on Tth Febiiuuy. 1668). was overrun. l(i(S7). After Shambiiu's capture. The- two most successful. u wild Meadows Taylor Jias described of tiihe. Avlioni (V)L in his fasciiia.ting Story My Life. 16f)8. his younger brother Kajah Kara made a hairbreadth escape to S. November. But the brave and hardy clansmen rose under other leaders and the Mughals had to send two more expeditions against them. and most dreaded leaders of thi< rlns« wcjc Dhanna -Tadoii and Sijnta (tIioijjutc (and" ablest. many of wliom liad set up for tliemhill The Bejdurs. Of humbler victims. were the first to be attacked. But the the ^Iauatha incessantly each acting the on his territory own account and did raided Mughal greatest possible in juiy by their (uerilla warfare. anJ their chief Pid Xaik. selves. Soon afterwards Bajah Prince the last king of captains. spaiing neither The imperial housebold paid tolt to Death in the persons of Aurangabadi Mahal (a wife of the Emperor). . 1691).[)\1 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. situated between Bija'pur and Golkonda. Kam Kam. the fort of Jinji. Fazil Khan the Sadr. their local officers. (Gingee in the besieged by the •lang and fell Arcot district of Madras). and the bogusson of Jaswant Singh.

May. as if THE LAST After I'HASK. latterly Niiua Siiulliia). ilieir attack. to water parted by the oar. and it was walled round in time. set out to THE Mauatha FORTS IX PEUSox. without being able to crush the enemy. east of Pandharpur. important <-olumns frcquenth' sent from the imperial headquarters to ' chastise the robbers. 'ho like When Mughal force had gone back the scattered Marathas. his liase Camp." only marched and counter- marched. (hi 19th Dctober. 1099. ]. Aurangzib. and named it Islampuri. nothing had happened y. Here his family was lodged wlieu he was out on -Viirangzib <ampaigi). repetition of the same sickening loss of The tale : rest of his a hill fort captured by him after a great time men and money. after a four years' stay at Islampuri.ALKAXGZI15. Here a city sprang up from his encampment.FsiK(iE life is a now aged SI years. recovered by the Marathas from the weak Mughal ^••arrison after a few months. and the seige begun again after a year or two -uffered unspeakable ! The soldiers hardships in and camp-followers maiching over flooded . moving (21st about almost every year between JHjapur in the south and the Manjira river in the north. The movable ubiquitous and elusive like the wind. 5-J who dealt heavy blows at some Tliey seemed to be Mughal detachments. 1695) finally made Brahmapuri tin the Bhima liver. closed again and resumdl them.

(siege. 30th April 1099).ui (IctolMMl In- Khan. Paniiala 9th March— 28th :May.\TABA bare kkcokd of his sieges will suffice here 2otli : JJasantgakh (surrenders (siege. spoiled in Khan and Khan and Fathullah thoroughly as alfairs the French cause ]'Jmperor the Peninsiilar War was damaged by Therefore. Nandgir. transbeasts died of Lunger and overwork. scarcity of grain was chronic in the camp. porters disappeared. 1702). (29th May Capture — 7th of November). Tarbiyat as Shujaet Muhammad Murad Khan. miuI AVardhangarh (Gth June. 1701). or ncthing would be done A S. of this labour of Sisyphus. Khan. and taunt the unlucky counsellor with cowardice and love The mutual and his jealousies of his Xusrat Jang Firuz Jang. (siege. 1701 -4th June. also- Pawangarh captured. tltc Pakligarh near Satara Hdlt at Kliaivasiinr for -'. AVniuhtn ((ith {'iiand. Halt at Khatanun f<n- the rainy season of 1701. November. Fatliulhd. in tlK^ the jealousies of Napoleon's marshals. aftei KnELNA . 8th December. 2Gth December.t)4 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA.Oth — 9th June). 1700). but into The officers all wearied Aurangzib would burst to wrath at any suggestion of retreat of ease! Hindusthan generals. Halt at Bahadurimr for the rainy season of 1702. must condiu-t ! eveiy operation person. rainy season of 1700 (from August). livers })ort and rain-soaked roads. 1701). 1699 -21st April. (siege.

1705). its public side there was the consciousness that his long reign of half a century had been a colossal failure.treaty the their and probably also to the warning of approaching death. "After me will come the deluge!'* this morose fore- . 8th February — 27th April. : insistence to transact business by his The whole extriif camp was in despair and confusion who would cate them from that gloomy mountainous region At last Aurangzib yielded to Kmperor died? ei. Halt at Deicapiir. May 2iid December. 1706). At Dewapur a severe was as attacked him.AUKAXliZIU. KoxDANA 1703). and retreated to Bahadurpur (6th December. 1705). The ():i last few years of his life were inexpressibly sad. to die a year later. 23rd February— 10th March). ToKXA (siege. his sieges. (May —23rd October). 10th November). 1703 — 16th February. 1702 —8th (1st April. Halt at Khed for the rainy season of 1704 (17th April 22nd October). OO a most painful maich from lOtb -Tune to the third week of October (siege. 1{ajgarh 1704). 27th December. 6 miles from Wakinkhera for the rainy season of 1705. This was the last of for here he got a warning of what was illness to come. (siege. which aggravated usual. whence he reached Ahmadxagar (20th January. A^'AKI^'KHERA (siege. Halt at Puna for the rainy season of 1703.

at and his his youngest Fdaipuri. His domestic ingii life. would fight In two most pathet'c for the throne to the bitter end. the among . Zinat-un-nissa. each suppoited by a provincial army and treasury. and his three surviving sons. and then entreats them not cause the slaughter of Musalmans by engaging in a civil war themselves. too. after his household. and he had no peace while his sons were I thei" <-l{>se was the certainty of a deluge of his eyes. five sons one time I other. bore oi' him company. Meantime death was circle.) drearj-. This fear of Nemesis ever haunted his mind. "boding of Louis X\'. already an old maid. passionate sense of and own bitter the to futility of liis life.56 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. the old of his his Emperor speaks soldiery. was repeated by Aiirangzib almost word for word [Az i»a-st JiamaJt fasad-i-hdqi. said to have been found death.v relentlessly pursued liis him: what should treat him in weak old age as he had treated Shah Jahan? with him Lastly. busy at work within his familv When Oauharara. was loveless and and want- in the benign peace and hopefulness which throw halo round old age. to imprison except one liy his own conduct sons in the War of Succession he had raised a spectre which if A/. One daughter. of the alarm grief and of distraction TTdaipuri. letters written to his sons blood when he would when he the felt the sure approacli of death. hif- among under the three A paper. nt ])illow after his contained a plan for ])eaceful partition the empire among his also last s(ms. looked concubine. all But he had.

died. in a plain low Ted sandstone sepulchre built by Aurangzib in his own lifetime. In the midst of the darkness closing around him. O* Auiangzib's 1706. image of death to you. illness overtook him at Ahmadnagar. and grandsons. 1707. (about soon.ZI]{. And also. The condition His in last of the world may become different. Marclr. 20th February. and there buried in the courtj'ard of the tomb of the saint Sliaikh Zainuddin. lie felt omu turn would come in the course Some were his nephews.N(. feet bv 7 feet. in a breath. in a minute. You will have felt many hard blows from Fate And when you reacii the stage of a 100 years. prayers regularly. lie gradually sank down exhausted into the arms of death. too. Tlie corpse was d(\spatclied to Khuldabad. then he rallied for 5 or 6 days.V.- In a moment. and in the morning of Friday. daughters. and went through business and daily But that worn-out frame of 91 years liad been taxed too much. Life will he the . Hatched awav from him to of his last year. he used hum the pathetic verses: — By the time you are 80 or 9c years of age. with the Muslim confession of faith on his lips and his Hi:gers on his rosaiy. 1707. A severe fever set in. six miles from Daulatabad.) f brothers that his and sisters. to late January.AL 1{. The tombstone. is a few inches . sent his two away sous from his camp their provincial (governments.

favourite AriJAXGABADi. But another account which describes her as a Kashmiri woman. but she was probably a under tlic handmaid restraints only. does not seem to have been as her husband seldom sought her Of his three concubines his accession. fragrant herbs Aurangzib's wife Diluas of Banu BEfiAM. died on October. is more calls likely to be true. Si ltan. the mother of Mihr-un-nissa. Azam and Akbar. iiiiatiiated Hira Bai or Zaixabadi. as having been his early life. the daughter 8tli SImh Nawaz Khan Safawi. a woman named Dilaraw. 'ill height. with almost to whom very he was- madness. The foolish . ITdaipuki.INDIA. Aurangzib's eldest sou. society [mahal] Nawab Bai. entered his harem after his said to have been a Circassian slave-girl accession. after bearing him Zeb-un-nissa. 1688. died of the I)lague in November. and has a cavity in the micklle which in. (paraatar). is filled with earth for planting. fled to Shuja and married his daughter. because the . Jiai. the mother of Muazzam. gained by Aurangzib among the spoils of victory. but in :i f<\\ months returned to his father.Uasir-tto Aldiitijiri her only. chafing of his father's officers. died young. A secondary Sultan a wife and after favourite. a title which was applied Hindu women ot Her descent from the royal house Mcwar is a fanciful conjecture of We his also read of /nirasfar in some modern writers. the <(im])anion of iiis Aurangzib's old age and the mother of pet son Kam She is Bakhsh. 1657. during the war in Mcngal. of Dara.'»<S STUDIES IX MlCaiAJ.

who throne as Bahadur with the Shah b( ill incensed Aiirangzib by intriguing sieged kings of Bijapur and Golkonda. 1687). his father in 1681. ill 1707 succeeded his father on the I. prone to anger. 1676. self-willed. A/am. spoilt child of hi? The youngest. The and 1704. Shah Alam). !>th by The third ])hice of prince. stepped into the vacant the heir-apparent (SliaJi-l-aJijaJi) during Muaz- zian's l^ut disgrace. and at last. his captivity was relaxed little on little (in a rather amusing fashion). and was made much of by his father.) (also His second son. he was sent to Agra as Governor. (aiter. followed Aurangzib's deatli. and in- Ccipable of self-restraint.wards getting the Panjab to govern). Kam Bakiish. the father's old age. Akbau.. May. For his misconduct during the siege of foster-brother. fourth. . fled to Persia where he died an exile in Xovember. was worthless. then only 20 years and was placed confinement (20th February. was long menace to the peace of India. was kept in prison for the rest of his life. 'Tinji and foolish. His presence a on the Khurasan frontier. (1707 and 1709). 59 youth. and again confined for his fatuous attachjiu-nt to his assassinate an excellent fighting in brothers fell who had tried to The third and fifth the struggle for the throne which officer. he was extremely haughty. After his spirit had been thoroughly tiwned. rebelled against at Farali. 1695. a Avretch he was put under restraint. (Died 'Ird December. Muaz/.AUUAN'CiZIH.

critical a freak of Fortune. lie would have made a successful general. have theologian. or school-master. For. though with Grenville's untiring industry he had also got Grenville's narrowness and obstinacy. Many more must li. all of have <. official discipline and Court etii|uent> was a martinet and enforced the strictest obedience In matters of to rules and established usagL^ all regulation to be virdated. reading i\(i\ it and wiiting orders across letters dictated with his own hand.oi copies of them as far as known to me). Euiopean travellers observed with wonder the greyheaded F4mperor holding open petition Coiirl every day. of "If I suffer" a single them will be disregarded. and lack of generosity and statesmanship. he was great (jualities in the possession of some for which might have gained him the highest place in any sphere of life except the supreme one of lule ovci. simple and abstemious one of hermit. AlHANGZIHS CHAltACTEK. to Of the (I by him. those that are known exist in Euro])e and India. So lived and so died Aurangzib. But the eminence of a throne on which he was placed by of his fame. minister. in spite of religious intolerance.W STUDIES IX MUtiHAL INDIA. surnanied Alamgir Shah. narrowness of mind. the lii-! last of the Great Mughals. he had a passion for work and a hatred of ease and jdeasure which remind George Grenville. number about two thousand. led to the failure yf his life and the blighting Pure like a in his donicslic ichuions. and an ideal departmental head." : .

He was as much a "master of the pen a 1 him. His passion for doing everything himself and diclaiuig the minutest particulars to far-olf governors and generals. His suspicious policy <rushed the latent ability of his sons. ]iut this punctilious observanceto neplect of the spirit of insti- of the form must have led tutions and laws. the rene (huiger light as of his Indeed. so that at his death they were no better than chikhen though turned of sixty years of age. His coolness and courage were famous throughout fudia : no danger however great. preference for man on incompetent but his ivile agents. distrust of the spot. Louis XIV. he regarded Xo- only the legitimate risk of greatness. iil was Ills Tiequent remark. •er unlooked could shake his heart or cloud intellect." From laid the strict path of a in the Muslim king's duty as down ofhci:< Quranic Law Xo nothing could make him fear of deviate the least. and religious bigotry. robbed iuitiative. "" master of the sword. tilt Alike in his passion for work. no emergency howfor. let And too! he was also determined not to material loss- deviate . privations of a campaign or forced ride had no terror Of diplomacy he was a past master. and could Jiot be beaten in any kind of intrigue or secret manipulaiin.ALKAMiZlli. them of all self-reliance liesitating and power of in the- and left them and helpless face of any unexpected emergency. amount I'':e of exertion could fatigue that thin wiry frame. he resembled "iitemporary in Europe.

flattery could disguise. tht gate straiter and He that *)i lacked tliat way warm to<\s. from a very early period of his life " had chosen " the strait gate . made English the great Akbar win the . music. and were even poetry (other than liis "familial. feai. and narrow way which leadeth unto but tlic tlie defects of his heart made heart. HAL INDIA. and fame for profound statecraft. narrower. of all Like Puritans.\\\i(\ love and admiration of his contemporaries posteiity. no tears or supplication <'oul(l induce liim to act contrary to the Shara (Canon Flatterers styled pir). a and ministers. zinda lie "a living saint. Scrupulously following the lii.G2 STl DIES IN Ml". pjith his duty to enfoice them on everybody rstrict the itf least deviation from the in and uiirrow Tslnmic oitlmtbtw anv . generals." [Alamgir life Indeed. liini Law). feared him with secret but deep-rooted which neither respect nor Alt.s lules of it the Quran in own piivate lif(\ he con^idcicd else. chilled the love of all came near him.quotations") his aversion. all Sons. daucc. and he spent leisure hours in hunting for legal precedents in Arabic works on Jurisprudence. gcjierosity of the chivalry to falk'ii aud that easy familiarity which the address in private life. daughters. bis "\vho His cold intellectuality. Auiangzib of that relentless drew his inspiration from the old law punishment and vengeance and forgot an attribute of I mercy is he Supreme Judge of the Universe. or influence of any favourite. his suspicious nature.

subtracting. Itc Political arrangement til only wrought by social means. so that on his death it suddenly fell in Its inner life was gone. His of spirit tlje would (he ieared) endanger ins was therefore the narrow and 'fish spirit hniely recluse. j). . completely undermined the Mughal empire. elasticity in the choice of means. A man quality. faqir's noblest though Aurangzib larked the <l. is "The - of man intricate. and therefore no simple disposition or direction of power can be suitable either to man's nature. or false to Nature. Aurangzib lacked sympathy.i!iit\ : but he was the worst ruler imaginable of an of <nipire comjxised ii'terests many life i-reeds and races. breadth of vision. <oiispire with mind." utterly (Burhe). ineffifient. or to the quality of liis affairs Political reason is a computing principle. and I'. oblivious of the outside world. He ought and resj)ect is kind. and to fear himself.i( warmth of the heart which atones for a hundred Taults of the head. These limitations of his character a single downward plunge. and the outward form could not (loceive the world long. .uf ut Jiiii (luminions. There mind must imagination. who seeks his indivi- salvation.V. multiplying. and dividing true nu)ral <lenominations lieart full liij< The true lawgiver ought to have an to love of sensibility.ALlt. Time relentlessly sweeps away whatever is unnecessarv. of diverse and ways of nature of and thought. ]M)ssessed with such ideas ma}' have made a good faqir. the objects of H Mty iiif the greatest possible complexity.NuZlJ}. own <lual soul.

. 5 . 7-30. I have already described how the Emperor Shah his time.Zuhav Prayer. Court dismissed 8 . Kising from his bed his some time bctore (hiwn. DaKsfean 9.. . — Review — Elepliant Public Darbar. .. I'JIAYEI!. Harem —Siesta.\udience — Sunset Prayer.Wakes — Morning Prayer — Devotional lights.. A. reading. I shall Jalmn spent now present to the reader life an account of his successor Aurangzib's daily contemporary Persian history Avas AhiiiH/irtuniKi/i.1 5. MOKXIXt. 8-30. II 1 . liis and aversi(m delights to amusement than father's.. religious devotion.. Hence was marked by greater serious- ness.. So/Vcc in the Dkvan-i-khas... 6-40.Evening in Private . He scorned and lived laborious days. Emperor performed went from .. 1-50. his life veritable Puritan the ])urple.AUllANGZIirs DAILY LIFE. as supplied by the Aurangzib in a strict M'uhamniadan. ....M. Aurakgzib's I{OUtixe of work. Chamber salute — Study — Business the Asar Prayer Hall — State 5-30. 2 .... Justice in Private Chamber. a at Delhi at the beginning of his leign. 7-40.. Private affairs... 2-30. r. In the Harem — Religious meditation and reading — Sleep. Isha Prayer..Private Audience. the nuirniug ablutions.M.

he entered the bed-chamber antl showed his face at one of its windows. duty of an eastern king.).. evidently at the Emperor's own discretion.Emperor personally examined them to find out the truth.^ read the Quran and Hie Prophet's the breakfast hour.' officers and his per- attendants were admitted. waiting for the time of the morning prayer as indicated the Hadis this (or Muhammad's till Traditions). Their plaints were reported.M. On Quranic the basis of tlit- i<u i? >.aueaxgzib's daily life. all cases to the coming under Canon Law were decided according injunctions. After forming religious rite. (say T-oU A. or who had come either from the capital from the provinces to seek justice at its fountain head. u:m ritaiued. he Tradition. 5 of . Needy and miserable plaintiffs were helped with money from the public treasury. Common-law cases were tried according to the customary procedure and regulations of the Empire. aud by pel sat there facing the west. and sat on the throne dispensing justice. called ' the window S. Next. and then thr. Then he went to . 65 the harem to the mosque attached to the Hall of Private Audience (Diwan-i-khas).M. The all superintendents of the law-courts presented to him aggrieved persons.'^onal to his private which only a few confidential the first chamber [khilwatgah). COURT OF JUSTICE IX CHAMBER. DARSHAX.

GO STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. slaves. Some time before noon he withdrew i-lJias. as described in another essav. took was also the case pla**' in tins plain. as under Shah Jahan. clerks. Diwan-i-am. the imperial retinue. the Emperor. and This took nearly transacted public affairs of the same kind and in the very same way two hours.m. The . and the parade of newly captured untamed elephants. PUBLIC DARHAR. lo the J^itnin- and lield a private or select audience. macebearers. After passing three quarters of an hour at the took darshan window. and tlie here too were paraded retainers of the nobles who accompanied the Emperor when he rode out in procession to perform the Friday prayer in the vast Jumma Masjid Elephant combats. TRIVATE AUDIENCE. in expectation of the Emperor's appearance.. Here the army was often reviewed. A vast and varied crowd filled this plain at the foot of the fort. . servants. at about 9-15 his seat in the alcove overlooking the a.elephants to chaige cavalry without fear. conduct- ing confidential business and bestowing gifts till noon. many the standard-bearers such other necessary persons only. darshan. Ills At this business and pleasure were identical with Shah Jahan. Here were admitted a few nobles. as Shah Jahan had done. his special watchmen and audience those «)f {Khaa-chawki). the training of warof Delhi.' which overlooked the broad sandy beach of the Jumna.

and the Emperor retired to the haiem to take his well-earned rest. l)efore the Zuhar prayer (about 2 r. AVazir to replies. THE PRIVATE CHAMBER. The Emperor's taken. Sometimes he wrote in his own hand the beginnings of the letters to the high grandees. Shaikhs. then they were copied out fair and ])laced before His Majesty for being signed and sealed.s devotions. or to remove all doubt as to their genuineness. -ituated between the liarcm and the Hall of Private . PRATER.-<Ps. orders were and their purport dictated by the (munshijt). HAREM. the secretaries who drafted the iJany of these were looked over and revised by the Emperor. either to do them greater honour. The congregation privileged to join the Emperor in i^. and waited in the mosque This reciting God's names prayer was j>erformed in and telling his company. But shortly he palace l)eads. he slept for an hour to refresh hi<* body and spirits.) was up again. Syeds. It was now almost noon. auraxgzib's daily life. washed himself. consisted of hma (theohtgians). or to make the orders more urgent. After eating his meal. 67 despatches of the provincial viceroys and governors of brief abstracts towns were either read by the Emperor or reported in by the Grand Wazir. as recommended by the Prophet. faqirs..M. and a few t His Majesty's dose attendants IS an<l khowa. Thereafter the Emperor Avent to his Private Chamber.

INDIA. and were marshalled by Mir Tuzuk the tw(K balls. Then. hunting through Arabic jurisprudence for precedents in Canon Law. urgent of State forced themselves on his attention. work was done. &c. such as. EVKNI\{. His Majesty the Hall of Private Audience again and sat on the throne. About half an visited hour befoie sunset.) arrived. Audience (named the Ghusal-hhanah). heard the petitions of poor women. and orphans. widows. His Majesty visited tho harem again for an hour. On some days. work being over. and the sergeants according to their ranks on tails tlie sides of the imperial standard ot cows' and The chief men formed a line in front. rear rank* . were now submitted. reading the Quran. was performed company in the mosque close to the re- Hall of Private Audience. of aggrieved parties rich of the The petitions.68 STUDIES IN MUGH. Or Hi» affairs Majesty read the books and pamphlets of the Islamic pious men and saints of all ages. The courtiers The nobles and officers. enough to buy the mediation favourite courtiers. and satisfied them witb money. lands. copying it. By It this the time for the in Amr prayer (4 i'. A that little made their bows. and engaged in works of piety.U. themseh-cs tl»e in full accoutrement. collating his transcript of it. or oraaments.m. SALUTE AND PRAYEl?. afterwards the Emperor turned to his Private Chamber and spent the remaining^ short peiiod of the day in the work of administration. who hadf presented sentry duty night.

like a pious God is most great ! I testify that there is ! is ! no deity except I have no God and that Muhammad God the Apostle of God power or strength except from What He ailleth shall be. Then he ill rose from the throne. mind from earthly affairs. The Emperor . The Paymasters made tliem salute. these responses: — Yes. according to the imperial regulations. Emperor withdrew listened with great reverence to the call. The sun was now setting. The Diiron-i-lhas (or Hall of Private Audience) was lit up wih camphorated candles and torches. At every pause Musal- The and in the crier's voice. and what He ivilleth not shall not take place. 69 ore made up by the subordinates. These acts of piety occupied more than half an hour. SOIKEE IX THE DIWAX-I-KHAS. All work was at once suspended. God Prayer is most great ! God is most great is ! I testify that there is no deity exetfH God and that ! M uhammad His Apostle ! I Come to Come to prayer ! Come to salvation It was the muazzin or to the crier of the mosque. the azan his to the Muslim world. What is the Hiigeliis French peasantry. Piercing the evening air ame the loud cry. went rites of to the mosque {viz. and golden lanterns..ArRAXGZIB's DAILY LIFE. nian. he interjected. full congregation and performed the evening prayer devotion and certain non-obligatory extra the siuinah and the naff). chanting tioni the is church-spire the call to prayer. making it rival the vault of the sky dotted wih myriads of twinkling stars.

the Islamic Sabbath. liad There year of for banished these llSih mundane vanities from his Court in the his reign (1668 A.STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA.D. The whole evening was spent in prayer and sacred . scholars. but the Emperor went straight from the darshan to the Private Audience Hall. and the prefect of police for the City. None else was admitted unless his presence was needed. The Emperor prayed to the Jiarcni. nor any assembly in the Diwan-i-lhas at night. The usual routine was followed up to noon but tliere was no afternoon Court. and the world and its distractions were kept out. before his tired frame sank into the necessary repose. judges. Wednesday was sacred to justice. On Friday. . reading. This routine was varied on three days of the week. the Court was dismissed. thronged with the law offieers.. as we get on Saturday in British India. both general and particular. arrived here from the mosque and occupied the throne.M. The Emperor went on personally judging cases till noon.) The assembly continued more the than an hour. and got his orders. qazis. the call to prayer was heard. and shortly before 8 ^"iJia r. Several hours were here spent in prayer and religious meditation. muftis. in the adjoining mosque with only his close attendants and Miawascs. The Wazii' reported on all affairs of the revenue depart- ment. and no public darbar was then held. and then retired but not to sleep. no Court was held. as Aurangzib also done. On Thursday he gave his Court a half -holiday. theologians (ulema). Other kinds of State business were was no music or dance.

whom religious he greatly intolerance.* life was a very strenuous that to this Emperor a led. It we may believe the Court historian. resembled his policy. the lie his Court to cold. sombre and seems foreign have taken for his motto following words of Louis in XI Y.ALKANGZIB S DAILY LIFE. All work and no play gave dreary aspect. and it presumption towards God. love of centralised imperialism. and industry is : — and unbounded egotism "One must work hard to reign. hard work." wish to reign without * The materials for tliis essay have bt-en mainly taken from the Alamgirnamah 1096-1 io6> .. Aiiranzib It slept only three hours out of twenty-four. to ingratitude and injustice and tyranny towards man.

take horse 48 minutes after sunrise. Muhammad Tlie then in his to loth j'ear. come out of your tent for the zuhar prayer which . you are on march. when the sun begins to <lecline. read something in Arabic. About 24 minutes after noon. Should you hunt on the way. come out of your rooms for the morning prayer. Arriving there. " how the prince was commanded to spend Whether you are in residence or on a march. otherwise take rest. letters of Aiirangzib preserved in tlie Persian manuscript Adah-i-Alaingiri. take care reach the halting place appointed for that day punctually. in After saying the read one section of the Breakfast If the a inner apartments will come to next. Minute direc- tions were sent to the prince regulating every act of his life and prescribing This is a strict routine for every hour of the day. up from bed 72 minutes before After spending 48 minutes in bathing and getting ready. In October. get sunrise. Aurangzib was Viceroy of the Deccan and his eldest son. Sultan. in ilio seventeentli century. prayer and reciting Qurati. was marcliing towards Ajmir be presented to the Emperor Shah Jahan. give us interesting informatlie tlie way in which Mughal princes were edu- cated and ideas of etiquette and decorum held 1(354. if you are so inclined or have the neces- sary time. father was naturally anxious that his boy should make a good impression at the imperial court. set passages.THE EDUCATION OF A MUGHAL Some tion about PlilXCE. his time.

' where 48 minutes after nightfall. Then leave the you should sit chamber to the and read a section of the Quran. otherwise you should break your fast before starting. and retiring inner apartments. hold a private council for about an hour with your chief officers. take horse immediately after per- forming the morning prayer and eat your breakfast on the way. But if the meal nlone suffices to refresh you spend the interval in improv- your handwriting.THE EDUCATIOX OF A MUGHAL rillXCE. it more as the business requires. the osor prayer should be said. Otherwise this period (four leading Arabic. jihoultl be performed in full conprrefjation. march should be begun at such an unseasonable . some 24 minutes before sunset. or a. — If the stage be covered a long one. but it is a day of halt^ the other works mentioned above at the stated time. and then. when uig. composing prose letters.m. and one hour find twenty-four minutes after sunrise hold a public court for about 48 minutes or ri. go to bed at 9 p. " If <ln you are on a journey. The principal lueal and some repose— (evidently the your time till siesta or afternoon nap so popular in the hot countries of fill Europe and Asia alike) will two hours before sunset. to tliere is important work be done. Xc. "till hold a * select audience. but (in the place of riding) spend 48 minutes of the morning in archery and musketry practice.'far reading Perprayer. sian and poetry. " rjhnris) should be spent in On is a day of march read two of sections and on a to day of halt three the Quran.f n. After the read Arabic for a short time.

74 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. (where Certain specified officers were left of to be posted and him and to therefore in tlie van of the army. If you want to liunt on the way. is The prince Taliir thus instructed on the subject " Don't allow (the any of my officers except Muhammad prince's guardian). and go to the hunting ground with a few India was essentially attendants only. The prince commanded to see to this as the crowding of the vulgar in front of the army destroys its order and discipline." The Mughal government of of the nature of a military occupation and the stability of the throne depended on the efficiency of the army. or any servant of the prince marched. on(i the military capacity of the princes. dry before you take should in fall ill. to ride in tlie your army. " Gradually make yourself Let your sweat perfect in the habit of wearing arms. lest familiarity should breed contempt.m.." off your coat and lie down. and every one taught to keep his station. " At all times. but tliey were '* be accompanied is by not more than two rule vaU^ts. Aurangzib. therefore. — speak who just as many words As for those are not ." The c()mmander should not nuike himself too affable. send your army to the halting- place by the shortest route in charge of the Paymaster of the Forces. time as the morning twiliglit or after 9 a. advises his son. — whether marching or holding as are necessary.000 horse. strictly. lest you Strict discipline was to be maintained the army..)"^ right Emperor below a commander front of of 2. court.

" accomplishments of (gentle) it matter to ine? You refuse to learn the men and kings. " I to much tliat I took him out with myself hunt an age. This sort of behaviour keeps^ (in their hearts. father remarks indignantly. but you never tried study with him." As might be expected noble Muhammadaii: . To — so necessary large for the Mughal a rf)oted emperors aversion. for after once tasting the delights of sport. who entertained Turkish soldiers and generals.'' This prince seems to have been too fond of hunting"^ and rather averse regret very at too early to study. writing and similar iiccomplishments and given up cultivating them. He pleads in excuse that the tutor was too oid to bear and weak the fatigue of a march ! Aurangzib angrily retorts that the prince had ignored the tutor even when tor a in residence at Aurangabad. he has got a dislike for reading. his Turki tutor beliiud liim — Muhammad is numbers of Sultan had The Prince censured for leaving^ when setting out for Xortheru India. What does You are now old enough to know in a good from evil. *' He has been engaged year's time and drawn a to to call lot of money as his salary. 10* high eiiougli to tt) be personally spoken to by you. contrive evade them politely.THE EDUCATION OF A MUGHAL PRINCE. His fatlior complains." Th? The prince is now ordered the tutor to himself and converse with him in Turki to learn the language.) tear is and reverence alive A sketch plan the sent herewith to show how you should marshal officers at the public and private darbatK that you hold." the study of the Turkish huiguage.

' The prince «nd whom told whom admit to his select audience ' to keep out. family." Special attention is directed to style. involved and pedantic style. Your father shocked to hear that you sometimes go to prayer in This is undress. • ITe lias must been be particular about his dress. namoh is the dospaii' of readers and the rage of critics. " Read the ((melegant. letter Muhammad liis Sultan's next. so that the style of your veisation and writing may become pure and Before you have thoroughly mastered the meanings of words and the proper connection in which they may be used. INJilA. Al\hanuu)ui]i at leisure. do not employ them in your speeches or letters. and whom to address and " whom not. It is the worst possible literary model for a slow-witted lad of fourteen to imitate.' tavourite motto Allah u alhar ])lace f Jall-i-jalahilni in the of to the orthodox /iisinillaJi. its by reason of extravagant." The AlharThis advice had a most comic effect. u matter of surprise. wearing a waist-coat and trousers only. to his father made him open letters of I eyes wide in astonishment. the liiglieat is importance to is attached to etiquette. and ilie writer had ii])plied himself the imperial phrases and epithets of Akbar's l(>1t(M' though addressing his own father! . Ponder carefully on what you speak or write. as you have long lived with liim iind watched his (decorous) habits and manners. hoAV to arranj^e the inanaabda/f at court.SllDlKS IN MlGllAJ. The poor child had writr<n to his fiiJlur an exact copy of one of the jects as drafted Akbar to his sub- by Abul Fazl It began with Akbar's .





Aurangzib wrote back, "



ndvised you to study the Akbarfiama/i of Abul Fazl, tomake you follow its style and not to make you adopt the amlii'i > creed, who had changed the orthodox Sunni
letter as
seal as


his hertical innovations.


designate your


imperial letter



and your
In what

'His Majesty's seal'


teims will you then describe the Emperor's letter and

iltiwever, in spite of this poor success in improving^

Sultan's style and literary knowledge, he was very graci-

ously received by his grandfather at




ber next),

and loaded with


and other marks of

The reader may be

interested in the later history of

unpromising scholar.

Three years after



the war for the throne of Delhi broke out, he accompanied
his father's

lieutenant, as
L'leat battles

army to the Xorth and we should expect of an

often acted as hi*
eldest son.

At the Dharmat, Samugarh, and Khajwah he
Indeed, his firm



said to have snatched victory out of the jaws^

defeat at


When Shah

Jahan helplessly



Sultan was sent to see him in

Agra Fort and arrange about his confinement. Thereafter he was sent under the guardianship of Mir Jumla

chase Shuja back to Bengal.

Here, during the opera-


round Rajmahal he resented the control of his

guardian and his father's treatment, and listened eagerly



to Shuja's emissaries


daughter *Grulrukh
deserted his

him Banu Begam,




said to have been betrothed in ohihlhood.

The infatuated

joung man

army and

fled to his unele's

one dark night (8 June, 1659,) and Avas mairied to liis Eight months later, Shuja was hopelessly debeloved. feated, and Sultan left him to return to Mir Jumla. Stern was the punishment meted out by Auraugzib to
the deserter.

He was

taken to Dellii under strong guard

und confined in the Gwalior State piison for the rest of While there his portrait was oeeasionally taken his life. Thus only did 4ind sent to the Emperor for inspection. Death put file father know of his erring son's health! 4in end to his miseries on 3rd December, 1676, when he

about to complete his 3Tth year.

Only four years
Salimgarh (Delhi^

before his death was he brought closer to his father, by







restored to favour in a small degree
in this short period.

—being thrice married

Zeb-iin-nissa, or the



Womankind, was

the eldest child of Aurangzib and his Persian wife Dilras

Banu Begam.



Daulatabad in the Deccan on

15th February, 1638, she was

by a learned

named Hafiza Mariam (the wife of Mirza Shukrullah Kashmir whose family originally came from Xaishabur

She inherited her father's keenness of
literary tastes,



Peisian languages.

and completely mastered the Arabic and For her success in committing the

whole Quran



she received from her delighted

father a purse of 30,000 gold pieces.

She could write the

kinds of Persian hand,



shikashi with neatness and grace.


library surpass-



other private collections of books, and she employe<l
scholars on liberal salaries to produce


new works

copy old manuscripts for her.

Aurangzib disliked poets

as lying flatterers and their poetry as vain babblings;

but his daughter's liberality compensated for the lack
of Court patronage of literature in that reign, and most







maintained by her.

Supported by her bounty, Mulla Safiuddin Ardbeli lived
in comfort in


Kashmir and translated the gigantic Arabic (Great Commentary) into Persian and
Other theo



after his patroness, Zeh-ut-tafasir.

logical tracts

and books, written by her pensioners, bore

her name.


said to

have written Persian



poetry under the pseudonym of Makltfi, or the Concealed

One. work.*

But the extant Diwon-i-MalJifi cannot be her The title of MaJiJifi was borne by several other notably a wife of Akbar and Xur Jahan. (M. A.



the heroine of some love-tales current


modern and

Indian literary

She was a gifted

alleged to have claimed an artist's indepen-

dence of morality.

Similar discreditable legends about

Kalidas's life have long circulated

among our

old school

but are discredited by sober historians

{Ind. Atitiq., .1878,


shall to-day try to ascer-

tain whether the traditions about the Princess

Royal of

Delhi bad a stronger basis in fact than those about the
hiureate poet of the court of Ujjayini.

No mention






Khan, or indeed with any person whatever, is madeany work of her father's reign or even for half a
AYe can easily explain the*

century after his death.

sih-nce of the court historians

and other

oHicial writers^

who would naturally suppress every scandal about
lUii perfect


freedom of speech was enjoyed by the privatehistorians of the reign (especially the two Hindu authoi-s,

quarter of

and Ishwardas), by Khafi Khan who wrote a a century after Aurangzib's death, and by

the author of the biographical dictionary of the


Peers [Masir-ul-uinant),
* The


lived a generation later











Persian Catalogue, Vol. lU, pp. 150-1.



The European


Bernier and Maniicei, wrote for

the eyes of foreigners, and

bad nothing

to fear

from the
that his

wrath of Aurangzib or his posterity.

Manucci, in parti-

id a r,

revelled in court scandals, so



liistory of the


[Stoiia do

Mogor) has been well

called a chronique scandaleuse.

Would he have


over Zeb-un-nissa's failings,


he had heard of any, as

such a topic would have made excellent " copy " for his
l>ook y

The gossipy and outspoken Khafi Khan does not
Zeb-un-nissa's character,


though he openly pro-

claims the shames of Jahaugir and
story of our heroine's love-intrigues
of the 19th century

Xur Jahan.


is modern, and the creation of Urdu romancists, The pretended Urdu Life of Lucknow.

The a growth

Zeb-im-nissa that holds the

field at





i-MohUim of Munshi Ahmaduddin, b.a., of Labor, who ([uot^s from an earlier work, Haiyat-i-Zeb-un-nissa by Munshi Muhammad-ud-din Khaliq.
This story, in

most developed form



summarised in English (evidently from Ahmaduddin's


work) in


Westbrook's introduction to



of Zeh-un-nissa







Sciies" (1913).

She writes:
1662 Aurangzib was taken



beginning; of


physicians prescribing change of

he took his


and court with him to Labor.


At that time Aqil Khan, the was governor of that city. He was famous He had heard his beauty and bravery, and was also a poet. Zeb-un-nissa, and knew her verses, and was anxious to see
of his wazir,



pretence of guarding the city,

he used to ride round
S.M. 6



the walls of the palace, hoping to catch a glimpse of her. One day he was fortunate, he caught sight of her on the housetop

dawn, dressed


a robe of gul-anar, the colour of the flower of

the pomegranate.




vision in red appears on the roof of the

She heard and answered, completing the couplet, Suppli-

cations nor force nor gold can ivin her.

She liked Lahor as a residence, and was laying out a garden

one day Aqil Khan heard that she had gone with her
to see a


marble pavilion which was being built


He disguised managed to pass

himself as a mason, and, carrying







chausar with some of her girl friends, and he, passing near, said


longing for thee I have become as the dust wandering round


She understood and answered immediately



thou hadst become as the ivind, thou shouldst not touch a tress of


the ears of Aurang/.ib,

They met again and again, but some rumour reached who was at Delhi, and he hastened back"

He wished
at once.

hush up the matter by hurrying her into marriage

Zeb-un-nissa demanded freedom of choice, and asked

that portraits of her suitors should be sent to her

and chose

naturally that of Aqil


Aurangzib sent



but a

disappointed rival wrote to him
the lover of a daughter of a king.





play to be

as soon as you

Aurangzib knows your doings you will reap the fruit of your love.* Aqil Khan thought the Emperor planned revenge. So, alas for


to Delhi,

poor Zeb-un-nissa



the critical


her lover proved a



he declined the marriage, and wrote to the king resignZeb-un-nissa was scornful and

ing his service.


and wrote



/ hear that

Khan has



paying homage



the words

might also mean,

has resigned service'
also in verse,


account of some foolishness.'
should a ivise

He answered



do that which

knows he will regret

also means, a wise man.)

14-17. is According to the conventions of Persian poetry of a the type of the perfect lover ^vithout u tering a groan.' to One of her verses says. of the Deccan (1652-16oT) already as his equerry He had is made his mark as a poet and adopted the pen-name of Razi from the saint Burhanuddin • This conjecture incorrect. Zeb-un-nissa at that moment thought more of her reputation than of her lover and came near the deg and whispered. of whom [1 it 1 '. the What the fate of a lover ? is be crucified for world's pleasuire. is told by Manucci (Storia. 218) and Bernier The recorded facts of the life of Aqil Khan also < oiitiadict the story in every particular. examining the above arcount in the light of kn(jwu history we at once find that the story of the smuggled lover being done to death in a deg in the harem has been transferred to Zeb from her aunt Jahanara. taken un- awares. moth which consumes itself in the flame Carlyle's 'Consume your own smoke '.' he ordered and it was done. and Zeb-un-nissa. i. Again tliey met her garden the Emperor was told and came unexpectedly. ' my ' true lover. lamp . could think of no hiding-place for her lover but a deg. 'What is in the deg ?' and was answered.' One wonders if she thought of Aqil Khan's sacrifice of his life.) Xow. He entered the service of Aurangzib in Shah Jahans reign and attended the Prince during his second native of — >ieeroyalty jilamlar). 'Only water to be heated.* After this she was imprisoned in the fortress of Salimgarh. The Emperor asked.ZKB-l \-M. Keep silence if you are or large cooking-vessel. Mir Askari. : perhaps regretting his fears.SS. then. was a Khwaf (in Persia) and not the son of a Delhi vdzir. 8?i But he came secretly to Delhi to in see her again. the Cf. ' ." (Pp. for the sake of is my It honour.\.' Put it on the tire. afterwards surnamed Aqil Khan.

750 a month. In the following November he temporarily retired from service on the ground of ill-health and wa* permitted to reside at Labor on a pension of Es. to contest When the Auiangzib started from Deccan throne. two August 1658 till near the end of 1659. on his return from Delhi on 8th February Kashmir. E^idently he continued to enjoy high favour. he left his family behind in the fort of Danlatabad (6th February — December. 1664). 1676 wiseu he was granted an allowance of Rs. of lG58j. (Jauuaiy. in was taken back into service as Being appointed SuhaJu/ar of Delhi tliat office till bis October 1680. Aejil Thus we find that the story of young Khan . the city from 6tli an4 Aqil Khan acted as the governor February and of the fort from Arriving at 1660. months later made faujdar of the land between the Ganges and the Jumna (Mian Duab). 1661. When in November 1663 Aurangzib was passing through Labor with his family. a position of very close contact with the Emperor. but resigned in April 1669 and seems to have lived under a cloud for the' next seven years. 1679 he Second Paymaster. Jiaz-ullali wliom tlie he venerated. but replaced by another officer in July. he was. being pro- moted in October 1666 and given a royal present in May next. as we find no mention of him till October. 1.84 STUDIES IX MUGHAL IXDIA.000 a montli Iti January. he held death in 1696. Later on he was made Postmaster-Genertil (Darogha of Dak Chauki). Aqil Khan waited on him (2nd November) and was taken into the Emperor's train and appointed Superintendent of the Hall of Private Audience.

The more than seventy surrounded by his grand(a favourite children. agaiii with the Court during the Rajput wars of 1679 and 168(^ and finally at Delhi from January 1681 to 1696. therefore. and Shukrullah Qayyum Khan as this noble's Khan and Shakir Khan as his sonsof iii-].1669.'. Bernier witnessed the boiling young Aqil Khan in a cauldron in the harem ! story refers to Jahanara's lover. and. And of yet the Urdu biographer Labor has the Bernier's audacity to say that Dr.ZEB-UX-XISSA.) mentions -on. Xo man below thirty could been put in charge of a fort containing Aurangzib's wives and children on the eve of the war of succession. From was for at the the life-sketch of Aqil Khan we find that lu? same place with Zeb-un-nissa first at Daulata1U<>'> bad in i\ l()o8 (some ten months).^ of Miiza Bcdil of Aqil Khan. thenceforth with the imperial Court till at Delhi and Agra . liave utterly false. 85 luiviiig been roasted to death in a cauldron by order of is Auraugzib.nv. It was nnly during the first and last of these periods that he . Aqil at the Khan must have been an Khan from being old man time of his death in 169G. and he took all his fa<ts from Manucci. when governor of Delhi towards the end of ihe ITth century. raised a family and died at the . cut off in the prime of his So tar was Aqil '>f youth through the A-indictiveness of mistress's father that he married. then at Labor in his resignation in April week only.

is now sent [by me?] Was poet? this Aqil her alleged lover Aqil Khan liazi tho I think. unknown to us. 16G'}) couhl not haA'e been due to imperial displeasure as he was given a large pension all the time. could have been tempted to coiiit the Princess by the absence of her august father. '' written in 1680. But his long removal from for ten tlie capital and Emperor's first entourage years (1669 1679) duiing the seven of which he was denied any imperial bounty show^i that ho had for some reason. not. 1661 - (Jctober. fallen under the Emperor's wrath.80 STUDIES IX MUGHAI. contains the statement. INDIA." of the palace. Zeb being herself a Quranic scholar and a patron of new cf.mmentaries on tlie Muslim scripture. for which jleposition on Aurangzib the luckless theologian was imprisoned rebellion and severely bastinadoed when his patron's failed. The Khan's temporary retirement from service and residence at Labor away from the court (Xovember. a There was at this iime in Akbar's camp signed Mulla named a manifesto Muhammad in Aqil. The writer . correspondence between her and a n(»tcd theologian like Mulla Muham- mad Aqil would naturally pass unsuspected. Was nissa? it a punishment A letter to her for making love to Zeb-unfrom her brother Prince Akbar. As the Emperor bearing the has now ordered it that no packet [nalwo) seal of Aqil should be admitted to the ladies' apartments' certain that papers will have to be after carefid consideration. wiio afterwards pronouncing canonical sentence of favour of Akbar.

fact that only a to is discredited by the few months afterwards he was appointed the highly responsible post of viceroy of Delhi. He says. writing to you solely to the fear lest [lit.ZEB-UX-NISSA. " iT\-]aw of good as mine. is quite clear from the concluding that has taken place in part of the letter " is The delay due my i. MJiich could reach her unchallenged. from which we have quoted contains several passages showing how deeply engaged she was in her brother's interests. T have dismissed them at your bidding. my letters should fall into the hands of other people strangers. Zeb-un-nissa was imprisoned by her father in Janu- ary 1681. while packets bear- ing his own seal on the cover might have been intercepted This : by his enemies.]" The theoiy that the Emperor stopped the poet and noble Aqil Khan's correspondence with his daughter on detecting an intrigue between them. 87 f>f the letter implies that his own confidential letters to his sister used to be sent under cover of Aqil's envelopes."' The dismissal or appointment of the sons- Daulat and Sagar Mai is at your discretion. I consider your . the very place where she was sent as a State-Prisoner early next year.. and the official it history establishes beyond dispute the fact that city was in punishment of her compli- with Prince Akbar who had rebelled against the Emperor.e. again.. and whatever I own is at your disposal. " What belongs to you is letter The as and. enemies.

Bupees a year. would be sweet imagine that during this captivity our High born maiden In lier palace-tower Soothed her love-laden Soul in secret hour With music sweet as love. When (16th Akbar's rebellion frizzled out and his aban- doned camp near Ajmir was seized by the imperialists January. What more have to do with being name undishonoured. and obedience to Quran and Trad it ion them as proper. and that she wrote So long these at this time the pathetic laments whicli : Mrs. '' Zeb-un-nissa's correspondence with him was discovered.) Here she lived to her death on 26th May. my relations are strangeis to me. ili\- release O Makhfi. 1702." (Masir-i-Alawgiri. 1681). which overflowed her power. O Makhli . 204. orders in all affairs as sacred like tbe of the Prophet. ardour to weave a romance out On of the other hand oui her captive life is .88 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA." . she was deprived of her pension of four lakhs of fiscated. of no hope of Judgment come. When friends seek to disgrace me ? 1 anxious to keep iii\ Seek not relief is from the prison of not politicrelease grief. hast thou until the Day But history is silent on the point. her property was conin the fort and she was lodged It Salimgarh till at Delhi. Westbrook has translated on page 17 fetters cling to — my feet ! My friends have become enemies.

champion of Xone of them gives the smallest hint of the Hindu revival having coquetted with a enemy's den. Another legend makes her t fall in love with Shiva ji he Maratha hero at first sight on the occasion of his being presented to the Fifty years ago a in Emperor at Agra on 12th May. Xot to ^peak of the Persian histories of the time.ZEB-UX-XISSA. &3 (hilled of 43 by the reflection that she was now an old maid and and Aqil Khan was at least twelve years older ^grandfather. But it is a fiction and nothing more. He. At the parting of his child. 1666. and rdered Syed Amjad Khan. would have saved her from throwing rugged and illiterate her heart away is to a Deccani. Zeb-un-nissa's ^fuslini sweet-heart in the -ihetic sense. and Hafiz . [26th May. 170:^]. no Marathi life of Shivaji mentions that a Mughal princess interested herself in the fate of the captive chieftain in her father's ( apital. could not control the weakness that overpowered him. his heart was filled with grief and his eyes with tears. dear as his life. Shaikh Ataullah. novel was written by Bhudev Mnkherii Bengali describing how the lovers exchanged rings and jiarted. fAt last] he recovered self-possession [somehow]. but improbable. seem to have been The official history records her death thus " The Emperor learnt from the news-letter f Delhi that the Princess Zeb-un-nissa had drawn on her lace the veil of God's Mercy and taken up her abode in the palace of inexhaustible Forgiveness. too. captivity at Delhi does not Her relaxed during her : — life. The whole story not only unhistorie.

Simi- larly. ii. Thousand line. was appointed steward (. been preserved in Faiyyaz-nl-qawauin. 1679-80 and given in Adah-i-AJam giri throw no on her biography. the son of her lady-tutor. ice.1/.) was a bequest from Jalianara.9) ." A il short letter from Aurangzib to Zeb-un-nissa has (p. as had been decided beforehand. in the Garden Thousand [outside Delhi] which (J/. Jvliaii to give away alms of Thirty [at her funeral] and build a place of repose for her. r. game. thanking [? her] for presents of fruit.) in the *' She was buried Trees " outside the Garden of Thirty . 828. (Kliaii-i-sanian) of her household.. id some letters written her by her brother Akbar light. 'i6. tains An Aligarh College manuscript con- some letters written by her Secretary Mir/a Khalil. Kabuli gate of Delhi but her tomb Mas demolished in making the Rajputana railway .90 STUDIES IN' MUGHAL INDIA..A. and a pair of spectacles In the 32nd year of Aurangzib's I reign (1688-1689) Inayet-uUah. 4G2. IS half of in Arabic and it tells us nothing about her to life.

prince was born at Aurangabad on 11th As his mother. the young orphan was^ treated by his father with special tenderness. '* and sent an army into Marwar rule. Muhammad This Akbar. 1657. to bring it under his direct in the fort The deceased Maharajah's property to be confiscated. when his fourth son. The prince served the usual apprenticeship in government by acting MS viceroy in some provinces. 1679. Maharajah Jaswant Singh ot lodhpur died in the imperial service at Jamrud in Afghanistan. died within a month of his birth. *' But in these cases : We still have judgment here that we but teach BlcKxly instructions. On 10th December. and then proceeded to Delhi intending to return to •Todhpur. which being taught return To plague th' inventor this even-handed justice Commends th' ingredients of our poison'd chalice To our own lips. of But meantime Aurangzib had sold the kingdom Marwar to Jaswants nephew Indra Singh. : We the brothers. of Siwana was ordered His widowed (|ueens delivered two sons on reaching Labor in February." Macbeth.THE XEMESIS OF AIKAXCtZIB. des- . made au a+tempt to seize the throne. God be luy witness that I have loved you more than my other ><»ns. all know But it that the Emperor Aurangzib gainefl hiji throne by deposing his father and murdering is not so well-known that an exactly similar fate threatened him in 1681. 1678. Dilras Banu Begam. The Emperor immediately seized Jodhpur September."' as Aurangzib says in a letter to Akbar.

to allow o<her Jaswant's Ajit —the home be having declare died the the meantime. as the reign asserts. Mughal missed armies now marched into IJajputana to wrest Jodhpiir by . was killed to save her aftei- maintaining a running *!ome days. ministers immediately ludra got posses- of The Kajah Mughal faujdar of Jodlipui and the faineant tlie Singh were dis- Emperor for incompetence. Ihiow the practices of 171-177.02 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. offered a most heroic resistance to the The Kathor arrest." (Masir-i-AJai/n/ii At Jaswant. with the Mughal army for of the iianis from capture. tioyed the temples of Jodhpin. The sion llathor -lodhpur. " to spread the history of tlie law of Islam and to overi. can ied Ajit Singh away Onv in safety to fighl Jodhpur (23rd July). of — go and him July) heir Marwar. Delhi the leading liathor adherents of —Durgadas. Fiom 2nd April the jaziya or poll-tax was reimposed on official the non-Muslims in order. to and llaghunath to urge infant. l^hatti.) \]\e infidels. by successively sacrificing themselves and their devoted f(dlowers in rearguard actions. the Emperor Singh. and their leaders. — continued surviving in as lianehhoidas. prince But Aurangzib to (15th ordered the bub}' seized escort and confined in the prison of Nurgarh. and ordered the cartfliiiif^ loads of idols brought from the city to be in the cavalry square of the imperial coiirt down and under the <teps of the Juma Masjid to be trodden on by the Muslims.

9-» fHiiii :>*oth the Katliors. i.. limself .ZI1{. Mewar was Ml raffed b}' the Mu^hals and ITG temples were destroyed .i ! r The Emperor had been slaying at Ajmir. But loyal officers made who was slenderly guarded. 1680). lie received tlie startling news that Prince Akbar had rebelled " -i>me at the instigation of the Rathors and trait(ns among the imperial servants.ii (Jaipur and its environs.'' proclaimed Emperor.) for some time. besides 6-} others in (^SOth I imperial army from Ajmir Cliitor oil (}fa>!ir-i-Alningiti. and was planning to attack Aurangzib. In this war. where he fought languidly against some time longer. Akl)ar aecompanied him.. avy by surprise attacks on the part ivaj Singlu The Emperor in some Maharana anger transferred him tosuifered of •lodhpur (June. but in the end formed iicasonable plot with the Rajputs to depose his father and ciown himself the Kajputs for . < KiSl. Prince Akbar entered Tdaipur (in Jannarv. 18-^-188. and Aaiiiruard.Akbar. The Emperor himself went to to Ajmii Prince September) be near the seat of war.d<('j) moved in advance with the I'daipur havincr Maharana Raj tlie Sinjjh of up cause of the orphan heir of Jodhpur. the bulk )n 7th January. KiSO). able xictories through C'hitor lieutenants ivhan. ])«)>ted h( and in losses Syed the Hassan Ali Khan.THE NEMESIS OF AURA\(. the started Xovember) to punish him. after its evacuation by tlie Maliarana. he Tahawwur But when district. The war dragged Prince Akbar and gained idunuanded MiH the Mughal his vanguard. liis army being detached undei.



forced marches to join the Emperor,


boldly issued

on the

Ajmir and reached Dorahah (10 miles southwards 15th. Akbar too arrived within three miles of the place and encamped for the ni^ht. The battle was fixec!
for the next morninj:;.




Tahawwur Khan

(surnamed Padishah Quli Ivhan), the chief adviser of


to the

Emperor's court at the invitation of

father-in-law, a loyal ofKcer.

As he

declined to take
tent, there

oft his

arms before entering the Emperor's


an altercation with

courtiers; then he turned to go

back, but was beaten to death


also sent a false letter to
fall into the

by the imperial guards. Akbar and contrived


hands of the Itajputs.

he praised the prince
in rebellion

his success in pretending to rise

in order to deceive

the Eajputs and bring

easily witliin the clutches of the imperial anny The Itajput leaders on intercepting this letter went to Akbar for an explanation, but could not see him as he was then sleeping. The journey of Padishah Quli Khan to the imperial camp doubled their suspicion of a traj) having been laid against them; the vast liajput army melted away during the night and Aurangzib was saved ?^ext morning (16th January) Akbar woke to find him-



self utterly deserted,

and he


from his camp, leaving


family and children behind.

Durgadas returned



the trutl) became known.

After passing some months in Marwar and Mewai,
incessantly hunted by the imperial forces,


at lasi


the De<!can

under the escort of the faithful



Duigatlas, erossiiig the

Xaimada on 9th May



passing by way of Buihanpur, Talnaii and Baglaua into




very amusing correspondence


carried on between father and son,


professing the greatest love and forgiveness for


and that prince taunting



in scathing terms

and doggrel verses


his administrative failure

claiming that in rebelling against his father he was only
following a course sanctified by the example of Aurangzib himself

Accounts vary as


the treatment










and lodged in a palace


from Kaigarh, but that afterwards he was treated with M ant courtesy and allowed too small a pension for the
support of bis followers.

Bhimsen, on the other band,

says that Sbambliu gave the refugee a royal welcome and

But the fact is clear from the following letters that Akbar tried to play the Padishah in his exile, while Sliambhu stood on his own dignity and could
a liberal a]b)wanL-c.

never forget that the self-styled Emperor of Delhi was
really a beggar living on his bounty.
^\as ever



haunted by the fear that the Maratha Court
terms with the Imperial Government

would make

him up

to his father's vengeance.

search of a securer haven. Akbar left
the Euro|)ean possessions on the

At last, Shambhu, went



and thei"







end of January,

^fasir-i-A lanifjiti, 224.)



ccnquest of Hindusthan

At the Persian court he demanded armed aid for the the Shah replied that he couht not abet his attempt against his father's throne, but would

gladly help

him with nien and money
to Avear

in a


of sucleft for

cession with his brothers.

Xothing was now

Akbar but

his heart out in patient waiting at

Farah on the Persian frontier and to wickedly pray for Aurangzib on hearing of his hiv father's speedy death.
ur natural son's aims, smiled grimly and repeated the
following Persian quatrain


heart cannot forget the speech of the potter


addressed a fragile cup that he had made,
not whether the stone from the sky of Fate



Will break you or



In fact Akbar died
ihe author of his being.

in 1T04, three years earlier


The following


have been

lianslated from Persian Ms. No. 71 of the Royal Asiatic
Society's Libiary, (London.)

two of them also





reading, in the


Asiatic Society's Ms.

5G, tlie

lithographed Zahir-ulto

and a Persian Ms. belonging
An{AX(i/.in to his son


Muhammad Akbak.

Muhammad piece of my liver



son! close to




were], dear as



be assured

and exalted with


sincere kindness, and


God be


witness, that I held

beloved than



other sons.

you dearer and more But you, through your



were tempted by the deception and stratagem

of the Rajputs, those Satans in a


shape, to lose




our portion of the wealth of Paradise and to become a

wanderer in the

Kiuedy can


and wilderness of Misfortune. contrive and what help can I give



became plunged


extreme sorrow and grief when

heard of your present miserable condition of anxiety,

and wretchedness. Nay more, life itself tasted bitter to me; what need I say of other things? Alas a thousand times alas leaving out of your sight your [legitimate] pride of rank and majesty as a prince and Emperor's son, you in your simplicity took no pity on your own [extreme] youth you showed no regard for your wives and children, but in the most wretched condij>eiplexity, ruin
! !

tion threw [them] into the captivity of those beast-looking

beast-hearted wicked Rajputs

directions like a polo ball,

And you are roaming in now rising, now falling, now


As the Universal Father has planted

in all fathers'

bosoms affection for their sons, I do not, in spite of the heavy sins you have committed against me, wish that

meet with


due punishment of your



Even though the son may be a heap of ashes His father and mother regard him as coUyrium

for their eyes


Let what
wait on


past, be past
to repent of




you are



by Fortune as

your improper deeds, you



at any place that you like; the pen of for-

giveness will be drawn across the pages of your book of

and ofEences; and such favours and grace will b9 >!iown to you as you have not conceived in your mind;





your troubles and hardships will be compensated Although the granting of my favours does not depend upon your presenting yourself before me, yet,

as the cup of your disgrace has fallen from above,


proper that you should come to


presence even once






repute from yourself.

Jaswant, the chief of Rajputs, assisted and joined Dara

Shukoh, [but that prince] met with nothing save humiliation








[that the


will be


fate, too.]

Providence befollow the

friend you!

God make


Muhammad Akdah

to the KMrEiioii Aurangzih.

the humblest of sons,


Akbar, who performs


necessary ceremonies

adoration and devotion, submission and obedience, and

an atom lays the following before your Majesty,- the centre of adoration and the holiest shrine of this world

and the next :—


royal letter which, in a


of graciousness to

had been addressed

to this the

humblest of sons,

arrived at the happiest of times and the best of places.
laid that

auspicious celestial disc on the crown of



and rubbed

white portion



eyes like



black portion like collyrium, and illuminated


heart and eyes by reading

gracious contents.


submit a short commentary on


matters which have

flowed from your pen, so full of advice aiid graciousness,-

which [commentary], as Truth



essence of a innltcr.



vill not be far

[from appropriate]





iippioaches Justice.

Your Majesty has written with your gem-scattering pen, " I have loved this son above all my other sons, but

through his own

ill-luck has lost his share of

[my] great

wraith and thrown himself into the tempest of thoughtlessness."

Hail, Lord of the inner and outer worlds

Just as


the duty of a son to seek the satisfaction

of his father and devote himself to his father's service,




an obligation and duty on the part of the

father to bring up all his sons and attend to their inter<^sts,


and moral,

and their


God be

piaised, that I have not hitherto failed in

any way



the devotion of a son.


can I narrate


favours and graces of your Majesty,

of which I cannot write of even one in a thousand or of a few out of


younger son


The care and protection of the everywhere and always the paramount


of [all] great fathers.

your Majesty, contrary

to the practice of the world, has

shown small regard


your younger sons

with the

and honoured your eldest son Shah [Alam], and appointed him as your In what [code] of justice and equity can we enter

this act ?

All sons have equal chiims to the property

of their father.

Under what

rule of the

Holy Law and

Faith can one [son] be exalted and the others thrown down? Although the True Emperor is another being,
in whose administration

"when" and "why"

have no

jurisdiction, and the raising or overthrowing [of Idngs}

spiritual and temporal I Men draw hardship like emperors and labour on themselves. hearts' desires. are [how does spiritual such partiality consist with] the Canon insight. its and regard for verses which manifest to the world and inmates.100 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. called " the path of ill-luck ? " How can the path which your Majesty himself chose to follow be (TV/ac. [as known and is proved by in Shah Jalian's on your Majesty youth] : (Verse) Whom will he wish for as a friend. and in the end attained of to their si> The volumes [like history prove that long as a king Alexaiuler the Great] does not penetrate to the wilderness of gloom {zulmat) he cannot taste the water of eternal life.v) My I father bartered away the garden of Eden for two grains a of wheat . Former Akbar. the guide and rebellion against a to whom will his heart incline ? teacher of is this path {of reigning father] your Majesty. others are merely following your footsteps. Jahangir and Shah Jahan [deliber* ately] raised troubles. and Verily. shall be an unworthy son if I do not sell it for grain of barley t Hail. your Majesty's devotion to Law. belongs to Him of luminous splendour.^ —yet. [its and no buried treasure without {^^erses) guardian] snake- . truth. love of the righteous path. No rose without a thorn. centre of the worlds.

itself in — my heart's lesire will soon manifest the happiest manner. his affairs would not have come to such a pass. '" Jaswant was the chief of the Kajputs. and the Rajputs [there] did not number more than three hundred men. Your ^lajcsty has written. all — the Cherisher of His slaves. performed heroic deeds. whose nantitive is manifest to the age. Who can I plant kisses on the lip of the keen-edged sword. but has not reached the marrow of the matter. This is the race who. the words of this false race do not deserve trust. when your Majesty was adorning the throne at Delhi. firmly hope that." Hence Your Majesty has spoken very well indeed.THE NEMESIS OF AUHANG&IB. and my anxieties and exertions will be converted into zejoicing. Since ease has been ordained as the result of every fatigue. with the race whose aid and support Mahabat Khan made the Emperor Jahangir his captive and meted out due punishment to the tricksters and deceivers. what sort of assistance is and support he rendered to Daia Shukoh known to the world. In fact Dara Shukoh bore hatred and antipathy to this race. If he had agreed with them fiom the outset. such heroism and victory [were theirs] as the commanders of the age have not . and what he suffered was the consequence of it. through the grace of the Doer of All Works. 101 That man alone can tightly clasp the bride of Fortune in his arms. Former emperors and kinship like alliance with this Akbar had contracted race and conquered the This is lealm of Hindusthan with their help.

When such sufferings have come down upon the heads . and the city of Burhanpur. the soldiers are wretchedly poor. and plundered. was soft The same Jaswant it many chaims and speeches and detached from the side of Dara Shukoh. the city of Aurangabad. your side. the nobles enjoy no trust. the writers are without employment. and yet 3'our Majesty knowingly and deliberately overlooked his act. (first) the exaction of the jaziya in the towns and (second) the oppression of the enemy in the country. without hesitation in giving' have done such deeds of India. And why should it not be so.102 STUDIES IN' MUGHAL IXDIA. the traders are without means. too. has become ruined of beauty on the cheek of the earth. glorified by conof the a spacious country and paradise on — — nection witli your Majesty's the name.— has become desolate and ruined a mole like a hill or desert. beard of. On Hindu tribes calamities descended. whom your Majesty won over with so that victory fell to race's fidelity to salt. Blessings be on this who. seeing that in your Majesty's reign the ministers have no power. the peasantry are down-trodden? So. two is perturbed like quicksilver at the shock and injury given by the enemy's have armies. though this only the beginning of the contest. of heroism that for three years the Emperor mighty is sons. Jaswant it was who in the midst of the battle with Shuja displayed unpardonable insolence and violence to your Majesty. his up their lives for their master's sons. the kingdom a Deocan -which is earth. famous ministers and high grandees have been moving in distraction [against them].

ass kicks at the is which the Arab steed The supreme magistrate While justice has [vainly] treading [as rare] as the on the wind. 103 id the people from all sides. -Majesty's tilt to ancient families. These men. and the snare of fraud and trickery. —like weavers. itself become phoenix The clerks and officers of State have taken to the . why should they not fail U* pray for or thank their ruler? Men of high extraction and pure breed belonging appeared. (to wit. trusts these confidants.THE NEMESIS OF AURANGZIB. roll on their tongues under their arms. men. Soap-venders have become Sadar and Qazi Weavers and Jolahas are boasting That at this banquet the king is their confidant ! Low people have gained so much power. showing wheat grass [to you. yourself helplessly under [as And selling hill these barley. the Holy Warrior. the rosary) in their certain traditions and religious maxims. are in the low- people and rascals. counsellers Your Majesty if and companions as they were Gabriel and Michael.] In the reign of samples] but —by such pretexts make grass appear as a (Verses) and a hill as King Alamgir. affairs of the State. soap-venders and tailors. and places their control. cariying the broad cloaks of frau3 hands. have of dis- and the offices and department* your government and the function of counselling on hands of mechanics. their doors I That cultured persons have to seek shelter at Such rank has been acquired by fools As even scholars can never attain to ! God In protect us from this calamitous age.

Every one who eats salt destroys the salt-cellar. to promote men of learning and culture. and even is less constant than shadows. and thereby induces the whole world to utter praises and prayers for you Hitherto your Majesty has spent ^uest of the things of this world false - all your life in tlie which are even more than dreams. The day seemed near when the palace of the State would be cracked. the next in order to atone for this transitory your former deeds. so that mankind might. and to destroy the foundations of tyranny and meanness. world against your done out of greed for youth. (Verses) august father and noble brothers in the days of youi . practice of traders. I beheld this to be the state of affairs [in the When realm] and saw no possibility of your Majesty's character being reformed. and are buying posts with gold and selling them for shameful considerations. Now the proper time for you to lay in provisions for life. How happy — — ' ' ' ' — would your it be if Providence so befriends [your Majesty] that leaving this work in the hands of the humblest of sons. realm of Hindusthan of the brambles and weeds oppressors and lawless men). in easy circumstances and peaceful minds. which is synonymous with next life and eternal existence might remain [fov me] in the pages of [the history of] the age. your Majesty seeks the blessedness of going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Cities [Mecca and Medina]. and good name. engage in their respective professions.104 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. kingly spirit urged me to cleanse the (ivr.

however. i| punishment. for the lecture your Majesty ha^ read to me in your am ashamed of your presumption [in writing in strain.] (Verses) What good did you do to your father. theology Paradise To write more would be impolite. There is a Muslim tradition that Alexander the Great penetrated through the Egyptian — . 105 O As ! thou art past eighty years and art will not get still asleep ! Thou letter. and I your shall secure th^ honour of waiting on you. for once.e. Wilderness of gloom. ! ! Then. I tliat more than these few days. That you expect all these [services] from your son? O thou that art teaching wisdom to mankind. yet by reason of my youth and my apprehension of Majesty's vengeance —who have l)ohaved so notoriously towards your father and brothers ray heart < is naturally full of suspicion of such undeservIf. Administer to thy ownself what thou art preaching toothers Thou art not curing thyself. although your it is the highest blessing to inter your presence.. give up counselling others Concerning what your Majesty has written i() to :me to go your presence. said to — In Muslim from eating tw< Adam for is have been expelled breaking Grod's {i. it will gain confidence. all with perfect composure of mind I shall carry out commands. your Majesty goes to Ajmir all with a small body of attendants. etc. command by grains of wheat the fruit of the forbidden tree) at the instigation of Satan.THE XEMESIS OF AURANGZIJJ. My father bartered away. Thereafter. these fears will bo removed from my heart. [XoTES.

The spirited defence of the Rajput character for tidelity and of Jaswant's memory against Aurangzib's aspersions.] . 1709. The stinging tliat satire on Aurangzih contained in the second half of the letter could never have been forgiven by Emperor. and ended only with his formal recognition by Aurangzib's successor in August.— The allusion is to the war which broke out in Bajputana early in 1679. Your Majesty at Delhi. desert to a terrible dark region where the elixir ritae ])reserved. fled Jodhpur. With the Rathor followers of Ajit Sirgh the war continued without cessation for 30 years^ involved in it. 1681. iii. and though the new Maharana Jai Singh made peace on 14th June. 1659. See my History o77. 146. the quarrel was soon afterwards renewed. The poet Sadi uses story in his Gulistan. etc. See my History of Aurangzih. 5th to January. shows that this letter was inspired by Durga(h»s. For three years the Emperor of Hindusthan. — to imprison him. on the eve of which Jaswant treacherously ])lundered Aurangzib's camp and then ii. The allusion is to the desperate battles by which Durgadas and other Rathors carried off Jaswant's infant son Ajit Singh from Delhi where Aurangzib tried of Aurangzih. was He tasted it as the reward of his daring and tlie hurdiness. wben Aurangzih tried to annex Marwar Mewar was speedily on the death of Jaswant Singh. The battle with Slnija—The battle of Khajwa.106 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA.

If You have advanced most presumpis your heart's desire to play better. what can be With faithful nobles and devoted followers go to Persia. AiRAxuzin TO Prince Akbar. delay not in acting up my wish is urgent to my command. 107 III. You ought to destroy his cities. Qandahar.— XHqt Shah had . and race of the Emperors of India which son ever fought against his father? tuously. and rub the forehead of gratitude on the dust of my imperial threshhold.You. kingship is His holy with What better than this ? . —displayed I with the aim of gaining the crown and the throne. Abbas II. whose king Shah Abbas [the Second] has fought battles with thy father and broken his coin of Qandahar.THE XEMESIS OF AURANGZIB. and come like a point to the centre of [my] celestial power. my son. will my grace be your lot. Know that in this matter. Then. [Notes.^ your sword and conquer kingdoms. and gift. Alas for this son's lack of wisdom and sense. ought to turn the rein of your enterprise from all that side defeat. (•if)okedness of action who has stepped aside from the path of obedience and devotion. and. the circumstances of humility and and put the ring of servitude and obedience in the ear of your life. wliich befits the relation of a son to a father. probably. for such is the duty of true sons. has uplifted the sword in his hand against his own father In the evil disposition. Why engage in battle with your own father in the hope of sitting on the throne? The key to the locks of endless victories lies in the hands of the Divine Treasurer.

In this state of things. it is not proper for us as Emperors tlie of India to try to uproot race of landowners. I decided. view to saving my heritage and also taking pity on to this race [Rajput Rajahs] who have been loyal of us Rana from olden times. beyond their Emperor Alamgir had carried matters limit. Muhammad Akbah Shambhuji. hope for my boundless favours and know that. As all men are the creation of God. to ride to Ajmir and fight a battle for the throne. as Rana happened to die. the business was delayed. so that the intenticm of God might become known. On the Maharajah Jaswant Singh this intention became revealed to all. and I became convinced that if these Therefore. His war with the liana [Raj Singh. India. the chief of great Rajahs.] lY. (as also putliiii:: Ring in the ear. for whom is. etc. and He is tht* protector of them all. From ileatli of the beginning of his reign it was the intention of Alamgir to utterly ruin all the Hindus alike. — Slaves in Islamic countries to Shambhuji.108 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. Hue month afterwards. Aurangzib besieged it twice without success. Rana Jai Singh submitted the same the . of Udaipur] was also the outcome of this design. with men were i) overthrown then llindusthan would not con- tinue to be in the hands of our family. at the request Raj Singh and Durgadas Rathor. I among the ancient Teutons) Avore distinguished by rings in their ears. oaptuied the fort of Qandaliar from its Mughal gariisoii.

so that the battle was not fought.THE NEMESIS OF AUKANGZIB.] to the court. I I i about possession my battle heritage. :i I lived within two miles of the encampment of Alamgir^ it was three hours after sunset.iiue and At benefit your robes. lake made two or three trips Marwar. then we dill laying hands on the skirt of . of — ^v Alamgir.ind a lid me all his troops^ decided to accompany me- circuits in the kingdom of who had been appointed to pursue me. yet. 10f> prayer of his father [to me. without d'^parture informing me. who slew him immediately of (111 his arrival.— wlio had gone dominions." of for our deliver- the to request take these two of great elans. hope from your Majesty. I —could not over- [me] in these rambles. Although the going away any one was not really subversive of (^uli ii' my undertaking. At their my soldiers lost heart and fled. The night with next day Durgadas Kathor saw . At with this I took a small portion of my family retainers of the me and went towards Marwar. as Padishah Khan had been the intermediary in bringing over my side the Sisodias and Eathors. h^' divided his troops and . —the having been fixed ( for the next morning.] through Padishah Qulf plunder his Khau. as it (re. was a towards their homes. when Death dragged the oward Padishah Quli Khan bound [with ropes. As Muazzam. both these clans So they decamped wk'ie seized attair with a groundless suspicion that the whole stratagem [of Alamgir]. to Jilwar in order to —saying. " If you wish that the honour of all. Mindustlian should remain [inviolate].

after offering to nw liis hoises and other presents.] So. at a distance of l6 miles. God willing. What n)oie need I say than that A enough for the wise?' ( AVritten on 3rd Tamadi-ul-awwal. Keep your mind composed about me and cherish the hope that. bearing in mind your bravery and high spirit. The year is wrongly given in the . may be a copyist's error fpr Maheshwar. to yourself Fully realising Alamgir's enmity set and to me. Xarmada at Uhaiswarali. tlie 1st Jamadi-ul-awwal. places appertaining to the ferry of . I safely forded the river State will be stationed STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. nion of] Therefore. 1681). — Maharana Jai Singh was the Jilwar probably stands Akbar nito Mevvar. Durgadas liathor is with me. year 1002.MS. son and successor of = llth May. H. The word to Khafi Kiian (ii. the name will be mine and the 1G81). Tliercfore. ( = 9th May.] . which endures as a memorial. I passed [into the domi- Eana Jai Singh. when I have gained the throne. your heart on this that we (Verses) should act so as to promote our business. tliem in dil^ereut parts of the kingdom of Alarwar as outposts. as 1098. Kaj Singh. As the world does not stay in the same condition It is better to have a good name. for the Jilwarra pass leading forded the Narmada " at one of the crossing [Notes. begged me to remain in kingdom. helped by on the favour of the gracious Accomplisher of Tasks. 276). close to the frontier of Rajah Mohan Snigh. j 1 decided to marcli [to your country. and he.. This is what we expect from * a man and hint is a hero. a noted place 8 miles east of Akbarpur. year 1092 A. But as his country was elose to the seat of the Emperor I did not consider it prudent to stay there. written as Dhaiswarah in the MS." according Akbarpur is south of Mandu.

A MUSLIM HEROINE. was a provincial governor and married a niece of the Empress of the first Mumtaz Mahal. A noble Persian family of Yezd took refuge in India early in the seventeenth century and rose to high distinction in the service of the Muglial Emperors. and another. Even when posted in Bihar as Governor. whose villages he destroyed and whose cattle he drove away with great ability and firmness. 1698. who rebelled and woio defeated and captured by Amir Khan. he was not rid of the Afghans. there was a colony of these turbulent men in Shahjahanpur and Kant-golah. named Khalilullah Khan. 28th April. he was appointed sitbahdar (viceroy) of Afghanistan. . 1677. A WARDEN OF THE MARCHES. soi> One grand immigrant was Paymaster under Sliali Jahan. the first Their son Amir Khan was a noble of rank in the reign of Aurangzib and governed for 22 Afghanistan leputation. years with remarkable success and He acquired his knowledge of mountaineers and hill-fighting by acting as the military commander of the •Taramu hills and afterwards leading a punitive expedition against the Yusufzai Afghans of Shahbazgarhi (near Langarkot). in March. After these preparatory experiences came the great opportunity of his life. and filled the post with undimmed brilliancy till the day of his death.

the new governor took to policy. The sword having failed. activity.J 12 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. Once there was a great gathering of the Afghans under Aimal. . His liappy first meeting with his new subjects was not a one.'' His statesmanship bore such good fruit that " during befell him." The e\ery one of became thoroughly obedient them looked up to him for advice affairs. tribal chiefs all his desires were fulfilled. an-l nuhahdar^'i arms. to him: in con- ducting his own Ii^nder his astute guidance they ceased to trouble the Imperial Grovernment and spent their energies in internecine quarrels I His cleverness mado him triumph over eveiy difficulty. his government of 22 years no disaster and no administrative failure or disorder took place. He engaged himself in winning the hearts of the Afghans with such success that the chiefs of the clans " left their shy and unsocial manners and began to visit liim without any suspicion. An Afghan named Aimal Khan in had his set up as king of the hillmen and struck coins name. Abdullah Khan Kheshgi. own The first expedition against the rebels near the Lamghanat ended in the rout of the imperial forces. There was hardly any tribe that did not Every male fighter in the hills took provijoin him. sions for a few days and attended the muster. took counsel with a very clever subordinate. Rob- bery and oppression were kept down by his firmness and Whatever he planned succeeded. The army was too small to encounter a nation in Amir Khan was alarmed.

" How ? can a small territory be *' among so many men Afghan camp.'' be impartial to At divided this the tribesmen made the proposal to him. S. our long deferred hope is at last being fulfilled. saying. but is your leader so emito parcel nently just as to treat his kinsmen and strangers with impartial equality out ? Try him by asking him among the clans the land already conquered. " All is this praise good no doubt. as service under the Mughals is not to our liking. If he is worthy to rule. Then you to will find out whether he has any greed or reluctance all. Aimal declined.M. The Afghan chieftains highly praised Aimal Khan Then Abdullah Khan wrote again. Thank God. write. All the otlier chiefs left him in disgust. Manv ot the hillmen immediately returned home in anger." for such a ' in their replies. and we shall join you.A MUSLIM HEROINE. " had long been waiting liini We happy event as that the government of the ountry would pass to the Afghans. 113 made write feigned letters to the head of every tribe in the rebel camp. Aimal Khan had at last to make a division of land. but < he naturally showed greater consideration to his own All was dissension in the < now Ian and kinsmen. the quarrel broke out afresh. saying. and wrote to dissuade Abdullah Khan from joining such a bad king! ilic Surely policy of divide et impcra has never triumphed so well in Afghanistan. 8 . But we do not know the character of your new king.

a highly gifted who Premier Xoble of the Court of Shah Jahan.114 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. SAHIBJI ( = Her Ladyship). as she liad been her liusband's lifctiinc. She was a wonderfully clever and expert woman. Khaii's WOMAN WHO KU^ED THE AFGHANS. ImmeKhan (wlio had formerly acted as Diivan of Afghanistan). A Amir Persian. She wah the real Governor of Kabul." ai The lOmperor piovince office. but then it is controlled the province. That province. is Amir Khan to is dead. A disaster may lives. "Yes. till once wrote to the lady to guard the of licr the arrival husband's successor in which. liappencd two years afterwards. One night the Emperor Aurangzib learnt from the report of diately Kabul the news of summoning Arsliad Amir Khan's death. which ever ripe for a thousand disturbances and troubles. but the name in . His success in many a difficulty was due to her wise suggestiims and business capacity. this During interval she ^\as iji fhe all sole Governor of Afghanistan. rose to be the was a daughter of Ali Mardan Khan. however. wife. " difficulty A great has cropped up. he said in concern. has now none happen before the arrival govern " it." Arshad Khan boldly W/ lio calls replied. In conducting the administration she was heihusband's partner. Amir Khan him dead ? The Emperor handed " The Sahibji Khan read it who governed and . So long as lives your Majesty need not fear any disorder.s7((' him the report from Kabul. of his successor. and added.

!-:- V. Take vour customarv dues. 115 Death overtook Amir Khau wheu he was out amonsr ho valleys. concealed his death. -cut their relatives all the Afghan chieftains to condole with her. But the mahouts urged the '.A MUSLIM HEROINE. tlu- The Emperor's own elephant ihitf nt its species — ppeared in an infuriated !er - {nia-st) it condition before her. and this one was further proud t being thf Emperor's * : own dri^ fieh'. After her husband's death.ite-it.all and here the polo . was only after issuing safely from the hills that she went into mourning. Sahibji with great presence of mind uppressed her grief. If the fact had got wind. : . made him sit in a palki with glass doors. a Years ago at Delhi she was a assing by lane in cliaudol (sedan chair). hglit. dressed a like man Amir Khan. Every day she inspectIt the troops and received their salute. Do not rebel or rob. Her courage and presence I of mind had been as con- a uous in her youth.main obedient as before. md (1 thus marched^ong distances. She treated them with great respect and sent word to the headmen. A class are vicious. but (. my name remain famous to end of time. the Afghans would nave taken heart and massacred his leaderless escort in ilieir narrow defiles. attendants wanted to turn back.* t!ie Otherwise I defy you to a will If I defeat you." The headmen out t'w of regard for fair play gave her promises and assurances of their loyalty and did not leak out in lawlessness.

IMJIA. Atiiii Kliaii might have cried out to his heroic wife. but alas oftence ! she had broken eti- — an unpardonable against Indian Amir Khan was angry told at her audacity. and for a few days lived in separation from her. her and exposed her (bare body) to the what privacy would have been So she was taken back by hei husband. she has saved her If " own and your honour tlie same time. unfortunately she was (diildless like Lady take- Her husband. " Bring forth men children only ! For thy undaunted mettle sliould compose Nothing but male?. Tlie porters* dropped the it and fled. . elepliant raslily onward. " She has played man's part . but adopted an«I b vinglv brought up her step-sons. This was no common feat of agility. life. left ? the elephant had seized i)ublic. ouette. Her escort pulled out fluiif]: their arrows from the quivers but the brute it its trunk on the chaudol to seize and trample down.MliaiAI." But Macbeth. Quick as thoufi^ht Sahibji jumped as out. ran into a money-changer's shop hard by. and shut door. .il6 STUDIES IX . last Sahibji discovered it. a Muslim noblewoman in the rainy season. Then the at Emperor Shah Jahau a him frankly. durst not another wife. At in fear of hei. travelling on the public road like a parcel sent must have been securely wrapped up by post She had saved her parJah. but kept a secret harem and had children bv them.

where she spent in charity iVge sums and was highly honoured by the -^iiorift' ami other people. \eniment of Kabul. 117 On iiuide a beintif relieved oi . . t The materials ot ttii? -ketcii have been taken from the Pers 277— 286.A Ml SUM irElfOINK. she pilgrimage to Mecca aud Medina.

589. country. The kingdom f(>rt of Chatgaon is is an appurtenance of the a large it is of Ariaean.tafj ( = despicable dog). This writer has heard from the that the Khan Khanan [Mir Jumla] surpass all oilier elephants of Arracau elephants in beauty of appearance and character. Another Bengal. and Mahachin. [the proverb] " who visit it In' the sea-route for pur- Good elephants abound. according to The name descends from heaven.'] AKRACAN DESCHIBED. in the Bodleian Ms. China. religion. contcmpoiary Fersian acctnint of Shihahvddin Talish. Their are called Rawlis.- which tion of MnJiamil-i-. horses are totally wanting. Its conquest an extremely hard The people an abbrevia- of the country are called Maghs. Deep vhich alike rivers and wide oceans enclose the western adjoins for The land country and are task. poses of trade. Cathay. Raiclis The have the ways of the ScirrnJi^ [ = Shwetambar . One side of enclosed by high hills which join the mountains of Kashmir.D. side.THE FERINGI PIRATES OF ClIATGAON. the side is bordered by the ocean. which country and great port of the east." They into their countiy any other tribe than do not admit the Christians. they do learned men not transgress the guidance of the latter in their earthly affairs. is water very routes entering is difficult. Some mines of metals are said to exist in the The inhabitants have no definite faith or but incline [a little] to the Hindu creed. [t^iotn the 1665 A.

and jalhas. Lord of the Golden House and White Elephant. and no outsider had got into Their cannon are beyond numbering.* On being asked to account for the date. 1027 corresponds to 1665 A. hhalus and dhums era. of the ports tMid and great splendour. ing the country. This fact maktfs clear that in this long period [of 1127 years] no foreigner had succeeded in conquerit. 119 lains]. (Bengal and Agra Gazetteer.D. it they have begotten on own After the conquest of Chatgaon [by Shaista Khan] was found from the records of the place that the year was written as 1127. ''The sun is our younger is brother. exceeds the waves of their flotilla (naicicara) the their ships are ghurahs In the Most of sea [in number]." ( >f their offspring that base-born son is considered the pioper heir to the throne the person of their whom sister. The Governors and islands of the east always show respect meekness to them. How can we hold Court while he ? " over our letters heads and we below him they give themselves the In their decrees and titles of " Elder brother of the Sun.THE FEKIXCil PIHATES OF CHATGAOX. Burmese vulgar used alstJ in .\rracan. bv reason of their large forces. and that the aforesaid years since had passed of the establishment it of the rule these Rajahs. These Itajahs are so proud and as long foolish that as the sun does not decline from the zenith they do not put their heads out of the doors of their palace. s^)aciou8 country. * This should be 10J7. the people said that the beginning of the era was the beginning of their royal dynasty. they say. (tver The Kajahs of this country hold pre-eminence other h)wer rulers.) .

Mhere there Avas a [Mughal] outwilderness. From Dacca is to ('hatgaon six creeks [haJtai] have to be crossed in boats. and named the Chatgaon]. intervene between Aft(M- Feni and ('hatgaon. without any vestige of falls habitation or living being. all witli eaith and raised to the level of the these hills have been scarped fort [of oylindrically. these are so strongly made of timber with a hard core of (az cliob-i-qalbilar) that the balls zamhuiahs and small cannon cannot pierce them. and hence he did not send the Arracan fleet for the purpose. passes by Jagdia* and milhiJis. fortified.ittU' Kt-ni KemifUV . ("hatgaon lay a )n of the hill was a dense jungle. is a tract adja'cnt to liengal and Arracan the skirt From to Jagdia. On liills the bank of the Karnafuli liver are some hills.120 STUDIES IN MlCllAl. The lower have been heaped over higher hues. lav'ili. IXDIA.i i> Kivcr. situated (dose ea(h other. were built by Sjiaista Khan's order over iinlldJis. river of Sripur. rampart of Alexander.A0X DKSCiaiJKD. rising in the of Tipperah. its In strength * In it rivals the SIuh-I i. are larger than (jJiuiah. bridges all these ii'id) capture of C'hatgaon. Feringi pirates to [Latterly] the Rajah appointed the plunder Bengal.s. whicli so it bioad that boat can per- form only one trip across and hack in the whole day. into the ocean. liills The river Feni. iji Xinety-nine which contain water even the seasons other than the monsoons. one of a them is the. ( post. and on tlie l. C'hatgaon alike.Irliis. . OLD (I1AT(. to lugh and low.

they dam the springs and lnock the outlet to the Karnafuli river. it Behind of the tlie western side. along the entire north side and a part hills. known as the asfand of Pir l>adai: the attendants of the slirine perform jirayer last. iie Within the two springs water of whi( h runs into the Karnafuli river in the monsoons. imagination cannot i(\uh its niched parapet. As ilie the water [that issues] in .l IMKATES OF CIIATGAOX.THE l-Kl{IX(. opposite a lofty and strong it the fort of Chatgaon is full of defence-materials. when the channel of the springs becomes so 1)1 oad that a jalha boat can easily pass through people of the foit use all it.asons other than the rainy. close to the edge (it the dit(li. which descends the north side is tioni the a Tipperah On large wide and deep tank close to the ditch. hills to the sea. about eight viuds in breadth. a In the ioit has heen dug deep ditch. On a height within the ff)rt is a tomb. Fanev aimot soiiiul the (h'pth of its moat. flows the river Karnafuli. 121 towers {hurj) are as high as the f(ihih-ul-h<n • uj. <ven in imagination. . tank. are The is hills are so high and the jungle so dense. It is dead <-ould irnii said if one large perform the impossible feat of dragging at the a to the top of the hill western angle [of the t'crt] — which adjoins Tipperah — its balls would fall withis in the fort. On the other side of the Karnafuli there fort. on the eastern side. that impossible to traverse fort them flow. and The ^Magh and offer infidels have settled some villages that in icfKjf on this tomb: they make pilgrimage to the holy presents.

superintendent). with his lie at issues gold coins stamped own name one of place and its dependencies. who did not leave a bird in the air or a beast on the land [from Chatgaon] to Jagdia. the frontier . when great confusion pre\ ailed in the country. relative or faithful There is always some trustworthy clansman of the Rajah this in charge of the governmenf of Chatgaon.122 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. when the former Karamhaii. (lis When the mutaaad- pay any man whosesalary was due. returns to Arracan. and Chandpur. with noAV Kaniml-ari (oomniandant. Chatgaon was entered in the papers of Bengal as one of the defaulting unsettled [districts]. In bygone times. with the ships of last year. and included in the records of the qanimgo department. the Sultans of Bengal built named Fakhruddin fully conquered Chatgaon. opposite the aii embankment [aJ) from post of out- Sripur across the river. Every year the Rajah of Arracan sends a to Chatgaon hundred ships a full of soldiers and artillery munitions. Chatgaion again fell into the hand* the of the Maghs. they gave him an assignment on the Towards the end of the rule of revenue of Chatgaon of Bengal did not really wish to ! Bengal kings and the early years of the conquest of Bengal by the Mughals. The [existing] ruins prove it. The mosques and tombs which are situated in Chatgaon were built in Fakhruddin's time. to Chatgaon. When Bengal was annexed to the Mughal empire. CHATGAOX IN MAGII HANDS.

desolation. Xone ( Bengal [before Shaista Khan] Jang. through the holes. conquer Emperor Chatgaou and the destroy the wicked ^Taghs. male and female. used by the water-route and plunder liengal. to the time of the onquest of Chatgaon during the viceroj-alty of Shaista pirates. when Bengal uas annexed to the Mughal empire. it. with great disgrace and insult. Others- . and left a large fleet to guard Gaining composure of mind from the strength of the they turned to Bengal.THE FEUIXGI I'lUATES OF CHATGAOX. passed thin canes another under the deck of their ships. they employed to the hard-'lived that survived [this treatment] in tillage and other hard tasks. every morn and evening rice to threw down few from above uncooked captives the captives as food. in undertook to put down this 'trouble and punish them. constantly both Magli and Feringi. They carried oif the Hindus and Muslims. Arracan to [come] could seize. From < the reign of the Emperor Akbar. )uly Ibrahim Khan Fatih resolved to •lahangir's reign. 12'^ 111 liengal. })lace. and began to plunder of the Viceroys of it. [This expedition failed. pierced the palms of their hands.] DOIXGS OF THE PIE AXES OF ( IIAT(.AOX. I'hey built a strong fort. increased the «/. great and small. destroyed tliat the and closed the road even the snake and the wind could not pass through. that they Khan. thickened so the well jungles. On their return to their homes. and threw them one above In the same as grain is manner they flung to fowl. few and many. according^ their power.

and send a man ashore with the The local officers. and tlieir number more increased. for sale at :i Sometimes they brought the captives high price to Tamluk. and French merchants tlic the ports of Deccan.124 STIDIES IX MlGJIAr. stood on the shore Avith a number of followers. a which sale is a part of the imperial tlie dominions and dependency of the province of Orissa. and moie in otheis'. and sent a man the sold theii- with a sun) of money to the pirates. si(tn to undeigo the disgrace of suJidhat} the slavery. If the terras were sent the pirates the man. and the port of Baleshwar. while became more resist aiid desolate. The wretches used an('lior bring the prisoners in their at a short 'distance from the shore oif Tamluk news. INDIA. Many many pure and Sayyadtea born women. The inanner to of was this:ships. satisfactory. service or concubinage (fnnuh in this to suifer in Muslims underwent such oppresregion of wai' {(/(ir-iil-lun l>) as Ihey had not It was less in some Governors' time Europe. English. or lialeshwar. their country prospered. As they liengal daily less for a long time continually practised piracy. were compelled of these Avicked men. Not a househ<dder was on botli sides of the rivers on their track fron\ . high-boiu j)ersons and Sayyads. IJut took the money and employed pris(mers with their Only the Feringi pirates prisoners. » veie sold to a^ tlic Dutch. the Maghs all <aptives in agriculture and other kinds of service. less and able left to and fight them. fearing lest the pirates should <-ommit any depredation or kidiia])ping there.

* a few of the enemy's Bigla included Backerganj and part of Dacca . preferring drowning to captivity. that I may say without exaggeration that when- ever 100 war-ships of Bengal sighted four ships of the nemy. themselves without delay into the water. 1873. XAVY. — — threw when (J. Tlie district of Bagla.* a part of full of lienpal. rpcd i on the stream (naliar) of the DEMOUALISED BEXGAI. lying in their visual path.4. t . if the distance separating tight them was great the considered their lives for it Bengal crew showed victory tJiat by flight. across the nullah of biiinboo {)iai. and became heioisnil famous in Bengal their valour and If the interval powered them.. and yielded every year a large the Imperial Government as duty on its betelit III-. The sailors of the Bengal flotilla were in such a night.THE FKUIXUI ^ I'lUATES OF CHATGAOX. Once Ashur Beg. and stretched some iron chains. P »o9> . up some bridges of city. oft a great they had carried in safety. the ^. Dacca confined his energies to the defence and the prevention of the coming of Dacca and set the pirate fleet to Dacca. B. Matters came to such a pass that the Governor of of that city only. Tiiey swept with the broom of plunder and bduction. men of and armed men alike was small and the enemy overthe Bengal ships rowers. I was [formerly] ultivatiou iuiioiuit to II and houses. leaving none to inhabit a house or kindle a tire in all the tract.epoys. Pt. 125- DcHHu to Chatgaoii. an ( officer of Prince Shuja was ruisiug with about 200 boats. S.

Mir-jiu whence can in agitation broth at such a time broth for you ? ! Just " now " these pirates will cook a nice Ashur Beg and bewilderfellow.ii. 'backing the boat'. ." Hiti is the Dacia pronunciation of B/i. (f'^e ["H'j lirotli.1I\I." dsli hcdch I the manjlii or captain "* The manjhi in I get perplexity asked. ment kept up r/. Whence can term wars sailors use the [The fact is] mean. You confounded I I bring to it ? give and the mtinjlii went on replying.s/i. here is the mere preservation of the imperial dominion sidered a great boon." crying. and the [Mughal] officers of those places engage in making new acquisitions by . in iiuniber not (. INDIA. " " have not got it with me. and tlie ffiilsc] * " Ho.iiid expenditure and exertion. In Bengal alone the opposite is the case.\H(. Ashur Beg was mortally lo I frigh- tened. brotlier. fleet. in great agitation he cried of his ^" Ai hui .126 STIIDIKS IX . conquest. nofion of weakness of faith their lack of pow(M tinst. con- Those Governors of in whose times these piracies were less frequent.ven one-tentli of the imperial flotilla. came ship. None them tried io stop the path and dominati(m of the this wicked tribe through their fear of necessary . in sight. Ashur Beg dsli in his terror I had forgotten the word and used instead In no other part of the Mughal empire has any neighbouring infidel [king] the power to oppress imd domineer over Muslims but rather do [infidel kings] show all kinds of submission and humility in order to save their homes and lands. congiatulated themselves und exulted of oppression at it.

In Jaliangir's reign. used which was the season of the coming of the to go to Khizirpur with an army and encamp there. a part of the imperial dominions. by the nullah which leaves the Brahmaputra. pirates. and joins the nullah of Dacca. 121 HOUTES OF THE PIUATES. When the pirates came from Chatgaon to molest Bengal. on a narrow embankment {HI)In lie to monsoons all the land except the sites of the houses is covered with water. and Dacca. they proceeded up the . if they wanted to raid Bikram- Sunargaon. Brahmaputra river also became Thus their [water] route to Dacca was closed <"n this side. The Governors of Dacca. After me years. on the lie left. [From this point] if they wished to plunder Jessore. Hughli. the Magli pirates used to come Dacca for plunder and abduction. there- fore. on the right. they passed by Bhalua. passes by Khizirpur. and Bhushna. pur. belonging to the zamindar Dilawwar. at the end of the monsoons and during the wintei. and the island of Sondip. and reached village of Sangramgarh. and many places in the iiack of the pirates in the Inrdable. they moved up the Ganges. Ivhizirpur is situated on the bank (if the Brahmaputra. they did not exert themselves to reach Dacca town.THE FEllINGI I'lUATES OF CHATGAOX. and restricted to the side of Jattrapur* and Hikrampur. Recently as the pirates could more easily arry out their chief design of kidnapping < men in the villages of Dacca and other paifjanahs. the nullah dried up.

in Xo its trace of Siingrani^tarh islfouiid in Renncll. This tribe called Harmnd. The mingled stream. is the laud at tlio exlio- of tlie island delta) which contains Dacca and it other towns and villages. ii. of Arracan. Armad is used in the sense of the KaUma'- . In front of the Granges after and the Brahmapntra ancient times.Manigirnagar. built a passing by Bhalua and Sondip.h. fort is In Hindi If called a </(irJt.f(-6anrfrir or BrtHrfur. As the * Harmads = Feringi ]iiiat(>sl v:vvo not p. Ihalimaputra. a corruption of nriiiiiLi.128 STUDIES IN MLG-IIAJ. materials of defence.. munitions. say-> that It name was changed was to . combination of these twtv has been formed. Khafi Khan calls it Sangramnagar. 944). and that on the south bank of "the i-alled /'crii.. a unite. into liengal cf)uld most rKHIXGI 1'1UVTP:S.e. very ch)se to its moutli. it 943. must have been near Rcnnell's Mendigiinge. TLiity Sangiamg'aih* {i. In fort a man named Sangram had liy the here to repel the Magli raids into Bengal. falls into the sea. Many abduction. and a large force and well]>i(tb- c([uipped flotilla kept here. 188. K. IXUIA. t This word fleet in is evidently 'I'ki-i /.X of war-materials. They had 100 swift jnJha boats The Governcns of Bengal were [ disturbed by their robbery and were too weak to prevent it. t Their settlement was Ji km from Sripur (p. The Alumguiuimr. A\as full Feringis lived happily at Chatgaont to and used to come to the imperial dominion for plunder and Half their booty they gave the Rajalt and the other half they kept.arnafuli. a %^ords fort arid the name of the place were built here and stored with weapons. the oppression of the pirates and the raids of the ^faghs ably be prevented.

the Mughal tlianahdar The Khan sent tlieir chief. partly in fear of Arracanese treachery and partly won over by Sliaista Khan's tempting overtures] came with of all their tumilies in 42 jalbas and took refuge with Farhad Khan. Feringis had audience the Nawwab them." One can infer from this answer the condition of things s. We bother ourselves iibout amla. The Xawwab asked What did zamindar of the Feringis replied. viz.i and amins. The Captain and other of leaders of the at night. nor had we to to render accounts and balances riand-] f anybody.e. 129 need of the help of the Arracan (lid fleet.. 9 .. We considered the whole of Bengal as our jagir.THE FEEIXGI PIRATES OF CHATGAOX. He considered the Feringi pirates in the light of his servants. *' and the received splendid robes of honour and other unexpected favours. twelve months of the year l)coty] we made our had not to collection without trouble. We booty. with a few of their great men to Shaista Khan at Dacca. never slackened the enhancement oiir rent. and took the booty they brought [as his share]. while he kept all the others with their ships at Xoakhali.M. For years we have left no arrears oi [this] revenue. Passage over water was our survey. [In December. We sion of the booty village have with us papers of the diviby village for the last 40 years. Xoakhali. showing them great attention and kindness. " Maghs fix as your salary?" The Our salary was the imperial dominion All the [i. the king of Arracan not send his ships to practise piracy in Mughal terri- tory (Bengal). Captain Moor. 1665. the Feringis of Chatgaon.

to the hearts Two thousand rupees were pre- Nawwab's own purse as reward to Captain Moor and the other Feringis who had come from Chatgaon. and the Aveakness of . The coming over of the Feringis gave composure of the people of Bengal.130 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. and other comfortable salaries on others of the tribe. and from the Imperial Treasury a monthly sented from the stipend of lis. tlie Governors of Bengal. 500 was settled on the Captain. .

the extor'. Many Day by and workmen holding jagir or stipend were overpowered by poverty and starvation.. Munawwar fled other Xawwabi in confusion. ^Frotii 1666 A. the expenditure to and tanlhah of the which amounted 14 lakhs of rupees. Khan Tarin and whom [Shaista Khan's -on and . he wished to make a newof arrangement flotilla.jou and violence of the clerks {inutasaddis) ruined the parganahs assigned for maintaining the nawicara [naval] officers ( = flotilla). day their came to AVhen Mir Jumla distress and ruin increased. when great confusion was caused by his negligence.D. relies of zamindar.) DECAY OF THE BENGAL FLOTILLA. was utterly [Early in dependency of nawicara the 1664J ihe piiait^s cunie in Jiagadia. supplemented by the Alamgitnamali. who was stationed there with the the — a few broken title and rotten boats admiral Ismail — and who bore high of cruising (uirdar-i-^aitab).s the Assam queen's flotilla witchcraft].THE CONQUEST OF CHATGAON. Many naval and men too perished in the expedi- tionf so that at Mir Jumla's death the ruined. During the vicennalty of Prince Sliiija. After abolishing the old system. in the Shihahuddin TalisJis account as preserved Bodleian Ms. officers. and just before beginning the re-organisation. Bengal as Viceroy.c. died officer. 689. he was overcome by the spells of of Assam \_i. and defeated Munawwar Khan. a Dacca.

the new Viceroy. still belonged to the nawwara were thus alone remained in Bengal. Th^ crew. was . Shaista Khan. The few boats lost. an<l name SHAISTA khan's EESOLVE TO SUPPRESS PIKACY. The current drove and they escaped bank. fleet.132 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. A musket-shot grazed the leg of Ismail their sailorless boats to the- Klian. them back to Dacca As timber and ship- wrights were required for repairing and fitting out the ships. On (Sih March. on seeing their passengers averse to flight. he gave urgent orders to Muhammad Beg the subject]. the darogha of wrote to Aqidat the 'nawwara] to restore the alsa Khan of [on accepted at suggestions Muhammad Beg. and sent with robes of honour and presents. Deputy Governor a small force o^yn boats at Dacca] Aqiclat Khan had sent with toMunawwar. entered Rajmahal [the western capital of Bengal]. [Abakash. into the sea jumped and swam ashore to safety. prevented the crew of their from retreating Ly turning them round. [mvIiasaJ) were sent It with warrants (parwanoh) to take them to Dacca. 1664. When pirates he learnt that the cause of the ravages of the was the power and equipment of their of fleet and the- the dilapidation the Bengal flotilla. Ismail Khan and his comrades boldly made a firm stand and repelled AAith their bows and guns the enemy who had advanced to seize them. to every niauzo of the province that had timbei bailiffs and carpenters. appointed his request (^azi Saniu as inuihairof of the nawwara. that its destruction.

For this reason. the . Through and at found unnecessary. traffic know for certain that trade all and with you will be forbidden gains stopped. Airacan. of As the Feringis engaged plundering the in piracy. Baleshwar. Miiiaug. giving half their booty from Bengal to him."' Xa^\'wab. " iind call for a The Write and and entrusted to the suit Captain a JcJiilat pancanah on the above subject. Bengal. and coin with the imperial forces the expedition against Arracan for extirpating the Maghs. " You make vast amounts eveiy year by your trade in the imperial dominions. accepting the Captain's entreaty. Jessoie. for which you be built as possible and sent [to Dacca]. as many boats shoukl The Xawwab spoke to the Captain of the Dutch. one God's grace. the path of the protit of in Muslim and Hindu heparin and merchants in the imperial dominions. who was . replied. Abolish the factories (kothi) that you have in Otherwise." writing to our head. has been closed.present at the audience. kidnapping inhabitants the of and lived zamindar Chatgaon under protection the of Arracan. for the General. 13-j oideied that at the ports of Hughli. and getting reply.THK CONQUEST 01 ( HATGAOX. 1 and your fiist The Captain <-aunot agree to this great and serious propQsal without his consent." over the empire. said.'hilmaii. In gratitude for such favour and bounty call you should operate for ships from your country. ami Kaiibaii. which I have in view. their help was at last of one jewelled saddle-cover. ^. have to pay no duty or tithe. the General [Governor-General of the Dutch Indies]. especially Bengal.

Kishor an of imperial informed and ex'perienced clerk.134 STUDIES IN' MUGHAL INDIA. . live . 13 miles west of Cliaiidpour. providing their rations and needments. in an expert. Luricool. wa^ send conciliatory letters [of his own] to them. and thus make them come too. all his Shaista Khan first entered Dacca. offering assurances and hopes of imperial favours and rewards. learned. trustworthy and virtuous servant of the the ship-building department. and collecting the materials for and shipwrights. engaged the salt trade. Sheet t. in he ordered the Shaikh to manage thc^ that these Feringis should write to their brethren. Muhammad officer Muqini. On l-3th December. and thi> stipend of the jagirs assigned to the [naval] officers and * In Rcnnell. in super- nawwaia Das. clever. an old. vice Qazi Samu. vision of and hardworking left at serving whom Mir Jumla had the Dacca of officer. flotilla Xawwab. at the time the Assam a well- expedition. was appointed to have charge of the poif/annJis the ixnncora.* which near Dacca and where Feiingi merchants. was appointed head of The musliarrafi of the to was given. miwisabdar. ship-building Hakim Muhammad Husain. 1G64. one of his own is darogha of the port of Ladhikol. and to enter the Mughal service. able. pirates of Chatgaon. Ziauddin. sent as Shaikh Ziauddin Yiisuf. Ikngal. SHAISTA KUAN CREATES A NEW FLOTILLA. He : devoted energy to the rebuild- ing of the flotilla not for a moment did he forget to mature plans for assembling the crew. Nawwab offieers.

Abul Hassan was posted there with 200 ships to patrol and check the pirates. On « 12th November. was stationed at Dhapa. many men.THE CONQUEST OF CHATGAON. of Dacca. with orders to go and reinforce Abul Hassan whenever he heard of the coming of the go to Sangramgarh as thanahdar. 135 men. with officers. Sondip was conquered and a Mughal The thanali established there. . A wide high road so Sangramgarh. distance of 18 los. To all posts of this department expert oflBcers were appointed. Muhammad Beg Abakash. 1GG5. and build a fort there. [Sondip was a halfway house between Sangramgarh Hence and Chatgaon.s. can understand the great change effected hy Shaista Khan in a short time! SECURI-VG BASES FOR THE WAH. in a short time nearly 300 ships were built and materials. The Xawwab ordered to Muhammad Sharif. Through the [the ceaseless exertions of the Xawwab. tlie Sangramgarh is situated at the point of land where Ganges and the Brahmaputra unite.] Dhapa is site of given in Rennell (sheet ii) as Dhape ki Kila. pirates. from its zamindar the Xawwab decided to wrest it Dilawwar before sending the expedition to Chatgaon. with a hundred ships. .e. quipped with necess^y] Those who had seen the [sorry] plight of the naicicara after the ii'ath of Mir Jumla. was built from Dhapa* to that even in the monsoons horse and (al) foot could proceed t on land from Sangramgarh to Dacca. the late faujdar of Hughli. and formed an excellent base. and guns. 6 m.

the [Portuguese?] Captain The of the port of Hughli interviewed him on the way. and informed equipped for battle was being shortly sent to Chatgaon for reinforcement. after gracing him with favours. As he had suspicion from tljeiu the above causes come to entertain [of the fidelity] of the Feringis. either .untry to and a fort. spies reported these matters of to the king Arracan. Shaikh Ziauddin slaying them. The news threw him uncle's to into terror. look carefully the defence of <(. and send Arracan their families that liini large fleet and children. asked him to write to the Feringi pirates of Chatgaon tempting them Xawwab's service. and he wrote to to his winning them over or by As already narrated. Xawwab. and news of the <('nquest of Sondip tlianali there and the establishment of a Muglial spread abroad. When he reached Dacca. and they wrote to their piratical brethren of Chatgaon reassuring them and asking them to visit the Xawwab. the Governor tlie of Chatgaon. sive letters When the these succes- arrived at Chatgaon. THE FEEINGIS DESEKT TO THE MUGHAL SIDE. the Captain of Tamluk also was ordered to to come over to the write letters of invitation to them. he really wished to lure families to Arracan and massacre the Feringis .136 STUDIES IN MfCJlIAL INDIA. liis coming to Bengal the Xawwab liad been planning liow to put down the root of disturbance. When the Xawwab was making his progress [from Eajmahal] to Dacca. the Feringi pirates. conciliate the Feringi pirates. Ever since Yusuf told the Feringis of Ladhikol M-hat the Xawwab had said.

. and mostly depended on us [for But now that they have heard of the conSondip.] r< w. and started for service in Bengal with 19th their goods and ships. Mughal Bengal.neglected the defence ami munitions of the this purpose]. <ny>r : "The Feringis. burnt some of the ships ui all the latter. From Jagdia. . reported to the folly. On December.3 resisted and fought the Arracanese. tlie If the Mughal force attacks the fort before arrival of this reinforce- ment. p.a/*a^ of the Feringis." . a distance of 30 « is an utterly desolate [of The Alamgirnamah. fift) . 947. muskets. quest of fort.and the Feringi families. !•• Chatgaon.'i Farhad Khan 2Soakhali protection.' liberally [They were taken into imperial seiviee and bv the Xawu'ab. the Xawwab ** (Jwing to their pride and king and •counsellors of Arracan hare. Captain 3k[oor.iv(lpr] IXVASIOX IMMEDIATELY DECIDED OX." Xawwab. full of guns.THE CONQUEST OF C HATGAON.o?. they have ordered a large army and fleet to reinforce [the defence of Chatgaon]. the Mughal 4'2 On at learning of the wishes of their Magh to chief. reached Noakhali. 1 57 tliemselves at Chatgaou at an opportune time. they fled with families in for jr. and munitions. the Feringi leader. who had been day and night thinking how to realise this object. and decided opportunity slip away. all 1665. learning the intendfd Arracanese treacher>-. regarded the of Feringis as the not to let this commencement coming over of tht^ the victory. The hearts of the Feringis were distracted and shaken by the arrival of the tempting letters and the news of the establishment at Sondip. The its capture Avill probably be very easy.lba. the frontier of /.

at a On 24th December. Buzurg Fmmed Khan started from Dacca. and says tint of tin- expeditionary force of the was composed " Buziirpt Ummed Khan with tuo thousand troopers Nawwab's own Sisodia. when in Jahangir's reign. tabituin (followers). and captured. a commander of 2.* moment auspicious making a beginning. As the Bengal flotilla. provisions could not be sent by water. for two years before setting out he collected provisions at Bhalua and Jagdia. Subal Singh Miana Khan.000 troopers should conduct the campaign. If the siege were protracted he son. with 4..000 (150 troopers). Karn Khaji and some others. 948. though the means of transport Hence.500 (800 troopers).500 (700 troopers). p. Under him were appointed Ikhtisas Khan. a commander of 1. Ibn Husain. a commander of 800 (200 troopMir Murtaza. Farhad Khan. Sarandaz Khan. a commander of 1. The expeditionary force would have till supplied with provisions [from Bengal] after to be Chatgaon was reached. crew were mortally afraid of the Magli in this province are confined to boats. gives 45th Decerahcr as the date. It Mas decided that the Xawwab's Buzurg^ Khan." . Qarawwal Khan. Rajah Subal Singh for Sisodia. Syed Ikhtisas Khan Barha.000 extra troopers). wilderness. darogha of the naificara. besieged.500 (1.000 (800 troopers). would quickly go and join his 1GG5. COMPOSITION OF THE EXPEDITION. ers). Ibrahim attack Khan Fatih Jang decided to Chatgaon. a commander of 800 (150 troopers). a commander of 1. son. other imperial officers with their * The Alamgiriiamnli. a commander of 1. darogha of the artillery. while the Xawwab would look after the work of Ummed keeping the army supplied with provisions.138 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA.

who were and 2. Murtaza. all the naqilis and ahadis v\(c\}\ a tew engaged in special works. and Haiat Khan jamadai with the Xawwab's soldiers. and jamadars were presented with robes of honour. who had accompanied him to the conquest of Sondip. join Farhad Khan and Captain Moor and other Feringi pirates Avho had come from Chatgaon and entered the imperial and then proceed on land and sea IJuzurg Ummed Khan's army. and from Sondip Ibn Husain. Muuawwar Khan zamindar and other zamindars of the naicicaia. Dacca. horses.500 troopers in the Xawwab's pay.AOV 139 following^. sardars. mansahdars. All the aiuirs. swords. as van of Askar Khan.* The imperial 2<S<S fleet under Ibn Husain consisted of : ships. according to their ranks. and shiehls. Mir Abul Fath was appointed diica7i and Muhammad Khalil pay- master and newswriter of the force. who had been posted K turned opportunely and was stationed to at Ghoraghat.THE (OXQUEST OF CHAK. From Dacca Mir Muhammad Beg- Abakash. were ordered to go to Xoakhali. as described l>elow — Ghurah Salb 21 Kusa . service.

^ar again from the time of the of the night.f (g)anaries) were ordered tjjat that one-half of the grain brparls brought into Dacca sh<mld be all sent to the army. so that several thousand^ «)f them had been for collected.STIDIES IX Mr(. prayer to (me piaJu/r and supervised if this business. great and small. he iluhamat once sent word to the officers to carry it out. and inquiries addressed to the Klian about the condition of the enemy and the state of the road. axes been brought by issuing parwanahs. Klian (>A-eiy advice that con- 1EKDIN(. THE AJ{MY. Sliaikh Mubarak. luul Before this Mir Muriaza at collected too. the occurrences. an experienced and tiusted retainers appointed to 1 commajid the Xawwabs accompanying Buzuig all tlie mmed Khan. and give sidered fit. To the faiijdars of parts of Bengal uigent paiicannhs were issued direct- ing that every kind of jjrovision that they could secure . and a. From the pa/fja/iahs. Ihe On the first day [when the expedition left Dacca] Xawwab stayed outside [the harem] till noon. servant. These were sent with the jungle.iIAL INDIA. was ordered to lie to re])oit the daily events. XAWWAii s viciOKors EXKjrnoxs. the ]Vawwab.140 . expedition clearing the Every day the !Nawwab •of wiote to the officers of the expedition letters full plans and advice. The officers of all the <j</Jah. many had axes Dacca. nuid Khali] was ordered to keep him daily informed ol he was in the harem. Even when any good plan struck him.

in aid of the naicwara^ * The Alamgirnamah. it As the iver of Feni joins the slups would pass up the It was.* entered the Magh territory. . Buzurg Ummed Khan moved quickly on. carried his entire army over the deep river in a few days. Mir M urtaza. p. On : . cutting the waited for the army at Dumria. The of Chatgaon. a dependency was about io kos from the halting-place of Buzurg Ummed Khan. appointed a force of pioneers. (itila Yasawit. crossed the river of Feni. with a contingent of horse and sea. joth. Ob iith Jam:ar>-. decided that out of commanders at Xoakhali. Mfood<utters.THE COXQUEST OF CHATGAOX. Ibn Husain and his comrades on board weighed anchor. and some infantr>. and Haiat Khan by land. after crossing the Feni on the 17th for arrived on the 21st at a place 8 toi behind the position of Farhad Khan and Mir Murtaza^ which [latter] was ten kos from Chatgaon fort.<ah/Iru. the therefore. describes the movements of the expedition thus Farhad Khan. he reached a tank. reached the 1666. 949.Mir Murtaza and other comrades. Farhad Khan and his party crossed the Feni river and advanced cautiously. Ibn Hiisain should advan^e^ with the naincara by the sea and Farhad Khan. jungle and levelling the road.—and Iialted there. and waited That general.armed with bows and mustets for making a road and clearing the jungle. which flotilla Farhad Khan daily advanced a little. foot. On the ::h.^ lulvanced cutting the jungle and making a According to the Xawwab's command a thanah was>tablished inaii. I on the river of Feni. marching from Noakhali with . Uuzurg Ummed Khan's arrival. under Sultan Beg. and where the jungle «-as very thick and the road ver> bad. MUGHAL ADVAXCE BY LAXD AXD SEA. were appointed by the the till Xawwab to see to So- excellent were iIk' 1 Xawwab's arrangements that from beginning now the price of grain in the army has ron to the price in Dacca as ten to nine. and road. he outpost of Jagdia. river was feared that the enemy'sand harass the imperial army's passage. from which Chatgaon was one day's journey. 141 shoulcl be despatched to the expeditionary force.

On the evening of (qarawwals) <'nemy's flotilla in the creek of of 22nd January. place. Alamgirnamali.i42 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. and began ing army. mentions the 23rd as the day of the battle. whicli wrong. 1G6G. after informing the imperial and Nawwabi servants who were on board most of the ships. Buzurg I'nimed Khan who was hastening dealing the jungle. and joined hands with Ibn Husain on 21st January. ^ot ready for action. Mir Murta/. they should enter the Karnafuli river also attack Chatgaon.a and other com- manders of the land force too advanced cutting the jungle. 950. Buzurg Ummed These officers started from Noakhali. and Otherwise they should stay in the neighbourhood arrival. of Khamaria. and wait for The jungle was thereafter to he cut along the sea stage hj stage. 23rd January. FiifST NAVAL BATTLE. aiul occupy its mouth. It they could. six hours' journey from their Ibn Husain. the flotilla io advance by sea and the Khan by its coast. two stages from Chatgaon.<. to cut the jungle he fore towards Chatgaon and behind towards the advanc- Farliad Khan. Ibn Husain •with the flotilla soon arrived at the creek of Khamaria. * At night he is sent a few ships to p. .* the scouts Ibn Husain brought news that the having come from Chatgaon was staying Kathalia. arrived with the [main] army within three l-(). in march and halt the land and sen forces wcie never to be Khan's sepaiated. Text gives the a4tli.

that you put your boat out during tempest in such He replied. set out to meet the enemy. Beyond the dealing "' ! tbey could jungle. AJir Murtaza. after sending a man Ummed Khan of the matter.THE CONQUEST OF CHATGAON. seizing the ghurahs. Are you mad. in their But the Bengal sailors. wanted to pursue. his ship when in this tempest he unmoored '* Ibn Husain. "Brother. the enemy's ihe flotilla Next morn. Abul Qasim. The enemy could not resist the onset. and the jalbas took to flight. who led the van. I should not have become a soldier Farhad Khan. telling the passengers to keep a good look out. who had never even seen minds the vision of a victory over the Magh . Beg Abakash in Turki. the men of their ghnrahs jumped overboard. Ibn Husain coming behind them. if I a deep and terrible sea?*' were not mad. and the sea was raging iu billows threatening to sink the imperial ships. and began enemy hove in Captain Moor and the other Feringis. not go on arr-omit of the dt^iivitv nf the Ten sight gliurahs and 45 jalbas of the to discharge their guns. one of the Turkish to soldiers standing on the bank cried M. though the wind had freshened. 143 the mouth of the creek. who was in the ship of narrates that to join Muhammad Beg Abakash. the scouts reported that had started from Kathalia to fight and might come immediately. following the road cleared by the men of the ships. to inform Buzurg imperial naicwara Ibn Husain. boldly steered their ships up to the enemj. Ibn Husain. and Haiat Khan advanced by land to co-operate with the naAy.

for [defeating capturing the imperial seen were The two or three ships with flags now '* among the those khalu. saying. but he ought to stop in front of the enemy. objected. connnand [his iliat -was to court needless ruin. engage in . Ibn Husain encouraged his crew. saying tbat that day's victory —the like of which even qentenarians had not seen ought to content tlieni. whose many guns ships]. He felt that to run his smaller ships against the [enemy's] larger ones. in their pride left their large — called and [some] other ships and sent on only ten gJnirahs and 45 jalbas as A7<«/w and dhum. at every discharge. fleet. but attack them in on God. Suddenly two or three ships with seen afar off. Ibn Husain had to yield. fugitive jalhas Xow fleet. would." These words had effect on the Bengal crew. they agreed and started for Ilurla. nor let the opportunity slip out of our grasp. and] — sufficient flotilla.s left in the creek. when they left the Kathalia creek that morning for fight and reached the creek of Hurla close ships liere. till he decided to stay there the creek of evening and to return to Khamaria at night. that have joined their larger not to give the the e4i»my have surely been seized with terror. Ibn TTusain arriving there found their line stronger than Alexander's rampart. flags [hairaq) were The Maghs.1-14 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. to Khamaria. The enemy learning of it issued from the creek and stood full reliance at sea in line of battle. but advancing a — little from the spot where the ghuiahs had been captured. [us] as brave It behoves men enemy time.

Next day [24th January. the larger ships ( nauru'araa second time fought a long and severe fight. and his own larger ships had with him..] Farhad Khan arrived at the bank of the river .* SECOND XAVAL EXCorxTER. tlie then the ghurabs.M. and wait for the arrival of his larger ships {salbs. 951] but not come up . there was rannonade between the two sides. Ibn Husain pursued them. 10 . and jnlbas and hottas side by side. the Muslims flying their victorious banners. Next morning. and passed the night in keeping watch. [p. 24th January. . I'hey turned the heads of their larger ships the away from them. for lace.-Vfter the first naval battle] the ed. and thought only of flying.THE COXQUEST OF CIIATGAOX. Ibn llusaiu without throwing away caution or making rash haste advanced in his previous formation.d When Buzurg Ummed Khan Karnafuli] . but to hurry up nd join hands with the nazuviara. fighting during their flight. but withdrew his fleet to a suitable nd three of the enemy came in sight. The enemy lost heart at the sight of the Islamic army. /ia/«ai p. "d at sunset fled from the scene of action. These arrived at the time of the evening prayer. heard of it. says : —" [. and sounding their bugles and trumpets. advanced towards the enemy firing guns and last :ill in this order: First the salbs. beating their drums. bHzurg) Soon afterwards. Ibn Hiisain with his light and swift ships gave chase and captured 10 ghurmbs [=ya/>ai] from them. He himself gave up road-making and ad\-anced uckly. The enemy lost courage and firmness. he «Tote strongly urging Farhad Khan Mir Murtaza not to wait for clearing the jungle and making a road. * At enemy The Alamgirnamah. 950. From that time to dawn.the enemy's ships entered the Karnafuli. He therefore began firing his guns and sent a w l»eii man to hurry up the salbs.) he would put the latter in front and attack the enemy. 145 tiiinjsr. he thought it inadvisable to advance." S. Imperialists. attached their jalbas to and • l)egan to tow back these big ships.

these forts opened on them with muskets and guns. Ibn Ihisaiii the enemy's ships. the banners of the Muslims. the enemy had •artillery. AU1{A( AX . and filled bamboo them with Arracan of the many Telingas (as the fighting in men of are called) and two elephants. and attacked efi'orts tlie them. After making some vain fiiglit. three stockades on the brink of the water. the !Xawwab's [such as] Muham- mad I'iii' ]ieg . near the mouth and built close to the village called Feringi-bandar. was [on hist ihc tlic Mughals] biec/. serine of their sailors The enemy were vancjiiislied and soldieis jumped overbojird. dashed u])oii Captain Moor and other officers Feringi pirates.m.ATKD. preparation for fight. reached the island in mid stream in front of Chatgaon fort. Mhere the Feringi pirates had their houses. ott' the bank on too which Chatgaon The imperial its fleet came to the Karnafuli and seized inouth. and drew up their ships stood. . river and many of the Ibn Husain sent most of his ships up the soldiers by the bank. garrison of the stockades took to folts 'Dif Aln^-liids burned the and returned. the enemy entered the mouth ol the Karnafuli. When the imperial fiotilla entered the fire mouth Karnafuli.. On the [further] side of the Karnafuli.t fiom the \i(i(ii\ fort l)Ir\\ of Cliatgaoji At nt mi . came from ditYeieiit sides. A great fight was fouglit. opened also. with a strong heart and good hope. last at about 3 p.1"^6 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA.swiftly Abakash and Munawwar Khan /amindar.NAVY >s()w ANMHII.

.. many of them being killed. Captain .... of the enemy's and spears of the A few.THE COXQUEST OF ( HATGAOX. only M. XIGHT AFTER BATTLE. and_ e enemy fled. lihat nightt * Ibn Husain. sending Karnafiili t<p tintlic fort two The operations m the are thus described in . 952] other Feringis who at this time had come : -im .] arrived at the foot of the fort of Chatgaon with the rest of the . many others taken prisoner. p. Some of the Fcringis of Chatgaon -lio had remained there.Moor. that in spite of their large number they fled. slain by the swords. says :— " . who accompanied the excellent service. luaiing 22 The neai- rJitiwl-idar..\rracan •iperial to aid forces in this expedition.. interviewed Ibn Husain. iirrows. in their ships surrendered as prisonei ^lost of the former carried off their lives. OT Balam Meantime.. did them.. hastened to the neighbourhood of Chatgaon.s of the fort informed the garrison of the approach of the Mughal army. carried the news to the ships were sunk by the fleet: fire Many or ramming were of the Mughal by the the rest. p.or . 2 Kosa . Buzurg Ummed Khan." * The Aiamgirnamah. l-]d ships./-urg Ummed Khan . Many were victors. fort. 12 Ghurab Jangi . many drowned ter jumping overboard. : Imperialists* and consisted of — captured Khalu . Next day [25th January.. 9 Jdha 67 [Should be 68] of the naval battle. entered the Karnafulj terrible battle was two prahart of the day.light a4th Januar>-. and many {p. 147 sfiiue remrfiniii^ s. reaching the hank..] Ibn and attacked the enemy's for fleet Husain with the Imperial fleet that had fled there.nie beiii<^ drowned. At last the Imperialists gained the victory. This news and the spectacle of the victory of the imperial fleet struck such terror into the hearts of the garrison ancl soldiers of the country. A second Aiamgirnamah.On . .After the victory the Imperial fleet ilted in tiie Karnafuli below the fort <>f Chatgaon. 951.

and his companions had Ibn Husain entered soon afterwards."r666. In the morning of 26th of] January. Tlie the fire went out. much shot and powder. he again proceeded to the fort. were captured carried off t<> Large muiibers of the peasants of Bengal who had been here." The qiladar. the whole province of Chatgaon. 1. 26th January .1]- The Oovernor of Chatgaon. " AVhy should needlessly destroy yourself and your family? life Before you are foreibly seized and sacrificed to our swords. and nearly 350 men of the tribe. it But ^luuawwar Tvhan zamiu- dar had entered set fire to it. CHATGAOX FOKT SUKREXDEUS. many niatchUnks and three and zrtmfci/ratj (camel pieces). the com- mandant opened the fort gate and informed Ibn Husain^ who started for the fort. which was the sunset of [the gloiy the Maghs. was so violent that ho could not The firt^ but came out bringing the qiladar away with himself. . lOfili. before him.Mughal army.148 STUDIES IX ML(. returned their and kept prisoner homes " were now from the . and save 3-our and property. sent back the reply that he should be granted respite for the night and that next morning he would admit them. tried his best to put out the but in vain. was taken prisoner with one son and fo:ne other relatives. Imperial forces by Uind and sea encircled the The garrison. stay there. The second day of the the ships^ wiote to the qiladar who yoii represented the Rajah of 'Arracau. and the entire artillery and nar) of the place [p. and fire. found tliat they could not resist the .Magh oppression and. who was the son of the Arracan king's uncle. other rele:«sed artillery materials.016 guns made of bnmze and iron. give up your fort. after making great • exertions. When army. elephants. the Imperial army gained possession of the fort. feeling himself helplesa and in need of protection. trustworthy men out of those takou prisoiiei. 131 ships of war.HAL IXDIA. 95. and at last sought safety.

s() informed Biizur^ ruimed Khan of the happy event. distributed alms to the poor. and ordered the music of joy to play. on the That very day the Nawwab sent victory to the Emperor. and the ^/ • •. the Mughals.S TO THE VI( TOR. " . to all the the news of the conquest reached The Nawwab after thanking (Tod. horses. * j>. When music costly it arrived at Coui-t. and 4»l. began to give army liberal rewards consisting of robes. fort The of the liap:hs who were in the fort fort. < )f the four elephants fire the fort of t'hatgaon. 956. hands." . On 29th January Dacca. The peasantry on the further mostly side of the river. two horses with gold trappings. two were burned in the b^^ and two were secured IfEWAKD. He sent the iji/aJar with the news of victory to the Nawwab at Dacca. <aptured two of their elephants.S.THE CONQUEST OF CHATGAOX. j«nd ill brought them Ibn Husain. and that too. who were ill Muslims kidnapped from tacked the of Maghs to that fled yesterday and to-day. : Rewards were given to all concerned in the conquest with a the Xawwab of was presented jewelled sword the Kmj>eror. on the other side fell river. 149 aud attached the property. fled. two elephants.* the Knn)eror ordered fciyous to be played. into Mughal Bengal.\t the end of Sh'aban [Febniary 1666]'* according . slew ^'iic their leaders. "The Emperor ordered Chatgaon to be renamed Islamabad. Wealth beyond measure was given to the Feringi pirates and one month's pay as a despatch bounty to his own officers and the crew of the nawwara.

with his followers and tliaiuilulai' 100 musketeers. and ^lir ^[nrta/. reassured the people their lives were safe.V Mr<aiAi. ends abruptly. Ibn Ilusain. Taj Miana.150 STUDIES I. a special entered the fort of C'hatg^aon.- the campaign from -^ tunnah. tli. Miana Khan was sent in ihc north of Chatgaon to reassure the peasantry and to establish a thanah. and midway between ChaTgaon and Arracan. Failiad Muhammad Bejif p^ot Khan. and firmlj- forhade his soUliers to oppress the people. pp. is The port of Kambu* the to four days' journey fronr Chatgaon. 7i(imii'i.VMIU' TAKEN" to the bank of the Feni \. • Kiimoo ill RfiiDfU. Mir Murtaza. Ahakasli were promoted. XEW GOVERNMENT On 2Ttli OI- ( HATCiAOV. to win over the ughiuimnh. in order to eanse the phn-e to he well- popnlated and prosperons. t!i' I ^ivc 1//. and an inipciial fdnnan of praise.uik . the Itodlfiai. Hnziuf. and rmmed Khai^. Slu-ct i . was appointed as of the roads and guard i from Chatgaon K. india. [Here the Bodleian concluding portion "of ^Is.] Buzurg ITmmed Khan stayed at Chatgaon for some time to settle its affairs.n ^' -. Jinzui<.* IGGO. i AND AHAXDONED.e that of Mnjahid Khan. Il)n Husain the title of Mansur+ Khan.. 953-95G. innicd Khai> (li. ( Jannary. A + t large body of enemy defended its fort. Mir Murtaza was ordered Af»Z'i#ur accordii Till- that direction. ^' II duto is left hl..

from < Eambu. and dispersed some of them. after f)n his victory. after traversing diftioult roads. dense jungles. day a keep watch for the enemy's of »ne large force the enemy with seven eh'phauts suddenly issued from the jungle. he fled with the garrison to a jungle close to a hill near the fort. Many Muslim ryots of Bengal. 151 pcasantiv. boldly plunged in with his comrades and crossed <»vei in safetv. Mir Murtaza giving chase slew many of them and captured Some of the enemy. fell upon the musketeers. and many others to reinforce Mir Murtaza. hill. he found it possible.iii\ otheis. The . but being worsted. and. who had taken refuge came out to surrender. were liberated and returned home. and were made prisoner. and in spite of to its water being deep and the enemy the [other] having begun make entrenchments on bank. despatched Miana Khan. tried his and besiege hist til oppose. The enemy. Next day. if it. to go t(» the place The Mir. had i>osted a company of nuisketeers the bank to of the river one and a half hos arrival. iii. Tlie Mir. Buzurg rmmed Khan hearing of the victory and learning that the king of Arracan was sending a force W: land against Kambu. after a hard fight. at the end of 12 days unived within one Itox of Ranibu.THK (OXQCEST OF CHATGAOX. Tamal Khan Dilzaq. and terrible rivers. rode with a force to the bank of the river. fled. Mir Murtaza hearing of it. learn all about the paths and ferries of that H'jriou. The Arracan king's brother named IJawli. who held the government of the place. who had been kept as captives here. at morn he Htornied the fort.

iind this year there was only a small store of provisions «nd the rainy season was near. ' Till" southern bank of tlio river. many muskets. in view of the roads being closed and reinforcements and provisions being cut oft" by the rains. . therefore the sending of liuzurg I'mthe Mughal army into Arracan was put oft'. A-ictors pursued. very wisely ordered Mir Murtaza to evacuate Rambu and fall — back with the chiefs. med Khan. /. on Dakhin-kol. is and to peasants of llambu. full of liills very and junfj^les. slew and captured many of them. zamindars..152 STUDIES IN MinaiAL INDIA. prisoners. ITe close did so. e. and inteisected by one or two streams which cannot be crossed without and as in the rainy season the whole path is fio()de<l. to cross. and seized 80 guns.* whicli ('hatgaoii. is As the space between Chat^aon and Eambu hard boats. and other war material.

and one jx'culiar sentence. No. it A long abstract (d was given by Mr. named Asiatic the author the Fathiyyah-i-ibriyyah. This Society has a fine old Ms. relating the events immediately following and bringing the history down to lluzurg Ummed Khan's victorious entry into Chatgaon is Chittagong). But the Bodleian Library possesses a Ms. . who has In a detailed history of the expedition. D. which con- tains a continuation (folios 106a-1766). VZ). The uork.3cS9. .SHAISTA KUAN IN BENGAL 1 ICfU-Cc IIK M. When Mir Jumla li( invaded Kiub Bihar and Assam. 58 of Ms. 240). are I many common to favourite phrases and turns of expression both. Sachau and PJthe's Caialoyuc. Part I.S( KIIT. Bloehmanu in the Bengal Society's Journal for 1872. lutely This portion abso- unique and of the greatest importance for the internal evidence history of Bengal. 1666. :]l8t All these end with Mir Jumla. Conquest of Assam. of this work (D. Mar<di. Bod. 64-96. which have found in no other Persian histoiy. 72. No. occurs in both p. 1 pp. and Continuation. oftieer had in his train left an named Shihabiiddin Talish. and the Khuda liakhsh Library the death of three others. 2Tth January. of the work No. is overwhelming* in favour of the Continuation being regarded as Shihabuddin Talish's The style is marked by the same brilliancy of rhetoric. supposed to l)e the author's autograph. 166^3.\Xr. Part I.











1506) one iiistaucf of





rlietoriral trick of


variations of a single simile

through a whole page of which ihere are three examples
in the C'o7tquesf.

The writer


the same hero-worshipper,

(mly Shaista


here takes the place of Mir Jumla.
after writing the

The author evidently died shortly
Continuation, for

ends abruptly, witlfout carryiug on

the campaign in the Chatgaon District to


He had no

time to give


the finishing



loosely arranged; there
as in the
(//. 150?>,

no legular division

into chapters

Conquest, only three headings












1496 and 1756), which he evidently meant

up after consulting other





106a and

167^ and some

obscurity has-

been introduced into the narrati^-e by his passing over

day of the siege of Chatgaon (25th January,
supplies us with useful and original*

1666) in absolute silence.

The Continuation,
iiifoiination on the

following four subjects:

Shaista Khan's administration of Bengal up

January, 1666.

The system

of piracy followed

by the

Feringis of Chatgaon, and a record of the various Magli
incursicms into Bengal and Bengal attacks on the Maghs.

A description

of Sondip

and the hist(ny of




-A description


and the history of




I sliali here deal witli the first.

SiiAisTA Khan's Civil



The inansabdais had

their jagirs situated in

and the multiplicity of eo-partners to the rvots beinp (tppiessed and the parganali^ led desolated. Large sums were wasted [in the cost of c<ddifterent i»ar»anahs,
le< tidi!








be sent out ordered

iveiy] jagirdar.

Therefore, the


tlie (lnr(iii-i-t(tn

to give every jagirdar

fankha in one place





any parganah any revenue remained over



was to payment ito the public treasury. Thus the department of Crowninds would make a saving by not having to appoint

above the t^^nkha of




made over

to the jagirdar foi (ollectiou an<I

(ollectors [of its


in tlie

parganahs of jagirdars]; and,



was not good for one place

have two rulers


the jagirdars and


il/irtm-l-fiin set

himself to carry out this work.







about the


and promotirms made after Mir Jnmla's. Most of these men were^ ath by the acting Subahdars.

!;ow dismissed: a few,

who were

really necessary for the

administration, wore retained in service.
this difterence between Shaista

have noted

Khan and

other servants-

the Crown, in the matter of saving

Government money,

ihat they desired solely to gain credit with the

while hi-



pure devotion and loyal




Mr<;ilA]> INDIA.


the parading of


fact as akin to hyi)


remote fioni true devotion and


this time the

aimadars and stipend-hohlers of

province of liengal began to flock to the Xtiwwab to


The facts of their case were: — After the reign of Shah Jahan, the late Khan-i-khanan £^lir Jiimla] confirmed in his own jagirs many of tliese men who were celebrated for devotion to virtue and love of the Prophet's followers, and some who had got famuins of the Emperor. All othei- men who had been enjoying inadad-i-t/i'nosJi and pensions in the Crown-lands and fiefs of jagirdars, were violently attacked by Qazi Kizwi, the
Sadr; their satwds were rejected and their stipends and
subsistence cancelled.
It Avas

ordered that the
till all


.should take to the business of cultivators,

the lands

they held in inadad-i-m'ansli, and pay revenue for them
to the

department of Crown-lands or

to the jagirdars.


as in

canying out

tins hard order these


<'ouhl not get

many who had

the capability

their property, pledged their children [as serfs],










j)reseiving their

as their only

the next

Some, who had no property, brought on

selves torture

and punishment, gave up




thus pscaped from

anxiety about the next year.



they ate slicks [i.e., received beating] and up gold [or sparks], then, through loss of strength, they fell down dead in misery.




And uow

even bv the icsuniptiou of the cultivated
gain in the form of piodiue cannot be

l;Mids suffieient

collected, because the alinmUirs abstain


tilling the

lands that have been escheated to the State; and even the

hastisement and pressure
in cultivation.




cannot make

them engage
and the


so the land

remains waste

aiiiiadars poor

and aggrieved.

to report



gieat distance and the fear of calamities, these poor per])lexed sutterers

could not go to Delhi


iiditiou fully to the

oppressive officials

Emperor and get the wicked and pimished [119<7]. Hence their sighs

and lamentations reached the

>ne Friday, the




his custom,


[to the


to ofter his

Friday prayer.




over he learnt that an old aimaiJar had suspended his

head upside down, one yard above the ground, from a
tree near the

mosque, and that he was on the brink of
return [to

death and was saying:




body] or shall


go out,





The Xawwab ordered the author


go and ask the




to the old

man and







held thirty higha.t of land in


'aosh, has died.



now demand from me one

years revenue of the land.
give up


have no wealth, I shall



I reported the

and thus free myself [from the oppresmatter to the Xawwab, who gave

him a

large sum, and then confirmed his son's rent-free

on him.



God favours that man, Whose life gives repose
Tlie wise

to the people.



that the lesumption of the lands of

and the cutting

of the subsistence of stipend-


bring on great misfortunes and terrible conseI

quences [on the Avrong-doer].
rulers of this country
4ind could not live

have seen some among the
in this

who engaged

wicked work

through the year.



The dark sigh of sufferers, in the heart of dark niglits, away by [God'sl command tbe mole of prosperity
from the cheek of the oppressor.

a lasting act of virtue and an undying deed of

charity to bestow imlah on the needy and

on the

The hindering

of such liberality and the stoppage

of such

charity does not bring any gain in this woiLl

iind involves one in the Creator's
in tlie

wrath in the next

One day there Mas a talk on this subject ^^awwab's court. As tlie words of kings are kings
'* '*

among words," he remarked, If a man has not grace en(.ugh to increase the gifts made to tliese [poor] people,

should at least not deprive them of what others gave


the needy.
of spirit

these people, too. shoul<l





one should not througli

own meanness

and vileness of heart resume

chaiitable gifts of otheis."

In shoii. the Nawwab's natural kindness having been





Sayyid Sadiq, the





innihul-!- in'/insli





which these meu had been enjoying in the Crown-lands cording to the reliable sanads of former rulers. As Kiv what was held [rent-free] in the fiefs of jagirdars, if



to one-fortieth of the total

revenue of the

jagirdar, he should consider

as the zakat (tithe)


projwrty and spare




rent-free land

xceeded one-fortieth [of the total jagir], the jagirdar
as at liberty to respect or

resume [the excess].


held whatever rent-free land in the parganahs of

be jagir of the

Xawwab, on
to be

the strength of the sanad


whomsoever, was
of revenue].

confirmed in

without any

<liminution, and was

on no account

be troubled [by



for those

who had no means
time, begged daily

subsistence. and now, for the

allowances and lands in the jagir of the



iVnrani ofhcers were ordered to further their desires with<iui

any delay.

The Sadr carried out the above order

in the case of


Crown-lands and the jagirs of [other] jagirdars



Khawajah Murlidhar, ^^ ho had been brought up and tiained in the Xawwab's household, was marked by
'•mesty and politeness, possessed his master's confidence





trust, and, in

spite of his still being in the flower


had the wisdom and patience of old men,

displayed in this work of benevolence such zeal and exertion as, I pray,

God may favour




]]verv day. two to three

hundred oimadars presented their
in the presence

and then departed. Next day,

Shaista Ivh. temporal and spiiitual welfare for his master. Khan restored absolute freedom of buying and selling. he exhibited sneli gjeat hiboiir (liinffflars. influence with the king That man's a blessed thing. His exertions for . <il' the officer and Sealed Ill Nawwab. . He ordered that in the parganahs of his own jagir everything collected by the revenue officers above the fixed revenue [1276]. conquering the proBengal. and the consequent II. and tlien gave them back to th& short. foi- tlie Solomon-like (\'ersc) [1216]. he passed them through the Keeord thera. vince and fort of Chatgaon the suppression of the pirates. And the afore- said Khawajah gained good name and of the empire is respect for himself.) [127«] I.HAL ixdia. Every day he held open flarhai for administering and quickly redres^^ed wrongs. that every one ot this class of men got what he desired.vx's Good Deeds. IV. [frattslatioti. and piaiseworthy diligence in this business. and then sell them at fanciful Shaista rates which the helpless people had to pay. He legarded this as his most important duty. The foiiuei' govcinors of Bengal used to make all monopolies {ijara) of articles of food and clothing and [many] other things. and prayer* for the perpetuaton ]*!mperor. Who forwards the suits of the distressed. relief of the peojde of justice.H»0 STiniES IX MI(. sliould be refunded to the ryots. III.

— from the rose-vendor down to the clay- iiom the weaver of collect house-tax fine linen to that of coarse cloth.<til from every trader. them and take whatever own likiupr. A'endor. 11 ." The rulers. lias At first oppres- was small but every successive generation till increased it. which may also mean ' well-to-do men.e. to take zalaf from travellers.<il. merchants and stable- keepers (niuAarl).' S. out of greed for ha. one-fortieth of the income) from merchants and travellers. it at last in all provinces. • Khush-nathin. " sters.M. and of custom as follows: from artificers.s'c) We shall tlee from the oppression of the Age. was a rule and practice to exact Jia. To such a place that Time cannot track u^ there. tradesmen and new-comers. especially in Bengal. Whenever ships brought elephants and other of the [animals] to the ports of the province. His abolition of the collection of :alaf (hasil) {i.SHAISTA KHAX IX BEXGAL. householders men and merchants gave up took to exile. reached such a stage that tradestheir business. Sliaista Khan VI. sion's basis As Sadi . — to from new-comers and hucksaid. the men Subahdar used forbade to attach (qutq) they selected at prices of their it." [so it happened]. saying " (Vrr. The history ^ occupation of India and to its the From the first Muhammadans it ports by the end [128fl] of Shah -Tahan's leign.* Hindu-* and Musalmans ot it is alike. gave them no relief.. 161 V.

Only. they would chain the [1286]. when. we read exactions. it on the back of it its head in the foim They considered an act of unparallele'l leniency actually if no higher zahat was taken from rotten clothes rags.s//. worn [on the body] than from mended if and of a deed of extreme graciousness cooked food was charged with a lower duty than uncooked giains. put down these wicked and at [canonically] illegal prac- tices. The learned know her king of the pa«t showed such graciousness. not to do he sent t)rders to the governors of the pr«)vince8 and the (Icrks of the administration such things in future. mailr su« ^ such strong exeitions. Oil tlie roads and terries matters to came to sucli a pass that no rider was allowed go on unless he paid a dinar. and no pedestrian unless he paid a diratn. and remitted to the people n li huge snrn wliicl) ccpmllcd tlie total revenue of 'I'p . by the grace of (i«)d [129c/] Aurangzib ascended the throne. On the riverhighways if the wind brouglit it to the ears of the tollcollectors {lali-ilais) that the stream was carrying away a heard that the wave broken boat without paying river Aa. but connived them. lUit after nay increased.^^2 STLDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. If the toll-officers had taken away a broken plank [without] ])aying zahat. Firuz Shah foibade these unjust Itim they were restored. in spite of their efforts strengthen the Faith and follow the rules of the Prophet. they would beat of the wind. IJut in liistories. tlie Xone to Delhi sovereigns. He thus gave illegal relief to tlie inhabitants of villages and travellers by [120fc] land and vsea from tliese harassthat ti») ment s and lit demands.

so someone would fully and freely report to the . split fines. their pen. t does not spit out anything xcept curtailing the stipends of the soldiery. and on the day of verification {fa. they signate a charger worthy of Eustam as a mere packthey orse. then. they are induced to sign the fard-i-chehra of . keep I his heart alive. when their tongue begins to it move in the hole of their mouth. if after life-long exertion and the showering f bribes. and drowsy slave more degraded than a fire-worshipping more unclean than the dog of a Jew. it Whenever its that torked-tongued cobra. 163 (Verse) O God ! Keep long over the heads of tlie people. Whose shadow gives repose to the people. This King.ind Emperor the distress among the soldiery the fact of their being harassed and crushed by the oppression of the thievish clerks. just as the peasants and merchants have been released from oppression and innovations [in taxation]. Through the guidance of [Thy] service. strongly hope that. At times abstain they would senselessly l)oin a hair. and thereby release the soldiers from the tyranny of these godless men [130rt]. at ']( the time of branding {(Jof/h).ind is treated by the Hindu clerks. The army writers as . and do n(»t numerous unjust Again. upon and snatch away the subsistence of the Indeed.'<hiha) . brings The hole of the ink-pot. l)ook head out of does not write on the account- {tumor) of their dark hearts any letter except to liounce -oldiers.iny s(ddier.SHAISTA KHAX IN BENGAL. the friend of holy men.

filni They call a Daudi coat itself a of mail the of a M'asp i-egard a and a steel helmet small linen cap.<nrlitr of . and a May God Giver [1:}0//J reward with Asfandiar.sudi necessary to root out own lives. through a mistake. a And "In in they think that if they have conferred to [issue such a great obligation they consent paper as] this: of Dosolatioiii the parganah of tin- Wiranpur (city . gets the long of life of Xoah. and at the sacrificial it altar of the office of the diwan-i-tan tanhha-darx find their . In the shambles of tlic hacliari of Crown-lands getting stipend-holders have to flay themselves [before their dues].oi'se that shies as doubtful. the it balance is entered in the receipts (qahu:). a horse that lacks a particle- of hair as Taghlibi. () ye faithful! Did man ever hear of the identification- tyianny as that each office letter of marks of the record clerk ? as () should be wi itten by a [different] ye lluslinisl Did man ever see such oppression ? In [making out] the assignment-paper (iniot) they decrease the tnnklia due and magnify the deduction to be made. tiiey treat as a true record and appro- priate the amount to fliemselves. a horse that bends h.164 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. that one word has 4o be written by ten men If. describe fit fin the records] a horse that its stands erect as leg as lame. Rustam the as a Zal. brave these hill-tops ( who his after traversing iastiiq = hindrances) yod-dasht qabz and haraf passed through the Haft- khan of the accounts department. the patience of Job. Zal as a mere They child. a for the yoke. so that his business may be done. and the treasures like Corah that valiant man.

the Emperor's orders for abolishing :akat and /<«. without the need of Taking oaths [to it]. In short. them in The Xawwab had a . ate [1-Jlrt] Avithout authorisation.>'c. in liis jagir of the sarkar of Jannatabad (Paradise)." Xo harm has been done to hasi me by these men introduced into (the clerks). were for abolishing the parganahs of the Crownland. My heart is oppressed. sent to Bengal. they designate as one for many faces years and then write [only] one-half of it (?). For single grain wheat ( = fruit of the tree of knowledge. they iissign tankJia to him from of the end of the coming Asfandar.] 1 i man tlie has entered service on the 1st Farwardi. of the clerks of the taujih (description-roll) are disagree:ible. The answer of the author of this journal is " The ate of not being in need better. The is. and no confusion been my affairs by them.) Xawwab] and great.<//. in the piovinces far and near. tracts are assigned on the levenue in jagir [to the duped sohlier?] and [he shouhl] <i< :ii mand from the jagiidar Khana-hharah (IJuined) the rears of many years at this place/' A day's difference the verification {ta^hiha) r ill is seized upon as a ground making a a year's deduction [from the trooi)ers pay. and the pain is so That so much blood gushes out of it. they demand from it his [)iogeny refund amounting to an ass's load.SIIAISTA KHAN IX BEXGAL. in Muslim mythology) which Father Adam. If a man's pay is due for 3 years. but [I write] from cing and hearing what they have done to the helpless -I lid the weak in the court [of the (lVr. 165 " Adamabad (Depopulation).

and follow his religious master jagir. out to (>f his sense liasil of justice and devotion God. or a man's stolen proj)erty [was recovered]. And their lil)erators [itlaq-yoian] took daily fees them into the State. was now abolished . in paying to the claimant his due. lest should be wilfully delayed (?). God-fearing. free choice in his jagir with reg'ard to all exactions except the Tohdari and the prohibited cesses {adu-alts). too. own yil. But the tliis benevolent governor. INDIA. used to seize for the state one-fourth of it under the name it. from the prisoners and paid This custom. abolished amounting to 15 lakhs of' rupees which used to be collected [1316] in his God.{[A I. of " fee for exertion. died without leaving any son. ryot or newcomer [klnishnasliin). The Xawwab put down this of or wicked thing. all his property including even his wife and daughter was taken possession by the department of the f'rownlands or the jagirdar zamindar wlio had such power. just.< of this country a it custom that whenever man proved a loan or claim against another. vras the In the hotxcnli chahufra.16G STUDIKS IN ML (. the clerks of the chahutra." The Nawwab IX. and this custom was called anhura [ = hooking]. and he thus chose t(» please the people. TUT. relieve (Aurangzib). In many parganahs the despicable practice \\m\ long existed that when any man. abolished AVhen the themselves at and defendant presented the magistracy (muhnlitina) both of them plaintiff were kept in prison until the decision of their it case.

' Xawwab many needy ing] tlie established almshouses. he used to invite the populace and feed vast numbers to satiety at the tables lu» spread. When he set out on a ride or dismounted at a stage or took a walk. and motlierless workmen could be had [for money] to do children. and he made them happy with gifts of money. and also on the day of Id and other holy days. the The courtiers [1j2«] used daily to present to. .SHAISTA KHAN IN HKNCiAL. His profuse charity s() thoroughly removed poverty and need from Bengal that few hired labourers or any work Every year he used to send to all the provinces vast sums for the benefit of the faqirs. orphans. in addition to [supportpersons. and thus laid in viaticum for his last journey. IGT X.

II. it English translations of are to be found in the last mentioned work and X<ud Paton's Jiut (lie Principhs in nf Asiatic/y Monarrlins. presented to me by Maulvi M.THE KEVEXIJE ItEGULATK^NS OF IXTRODl HON. in JJibliotheque Naticmale (Paris) Ms. a]<»ne. For the meanings of Indian revenue terms sulted (1) liiitisli I have c(ni.SMt)). ff. to C. 2 . ( ArilANGZIlJ.\firaf-i-Ali nunll and Persian IJeader. Sup.i (2'^) among other things. l. Grevillc liondon. Abdul (Ghazipur. (•'. 4TG V\a). and Aziz. 15 (9) //.. 1795. and Beames's Supplementary Glossary. n2b-12o. in Ofhce Library. Part JClliot (2) Wils(m"s Glossary: and vols. two very beautifully written farmans of the Emperor Aurangzib. Hasliim '2<S-"{) lia< tltc been printed the \'ol. gives. A and 15 Persian ma nil script 267tf-2T2<7) of the Berlin Itoyal Library (Peitscli's Catalogue. written on smaller leaves placed between but paged consecutively. The the fannan India to l{asik-das is also to be found (/. <(»mmentary occuis the Berlin Ms. . The text of the first fa mum is accompanieil by a highly useful cimimentary in Persian. in a Ms. (Calcutta Scho(d liook Society. India Anahjznl (ascribed I.) of Sayyidpiir-Bhitaii The fonnan in to Muhammad (p. entry No.

a] of the IJest of his him and !) Men. Therefore. . — iavoiu That.THE RKVEXUE REGrLATIOXS 0¥ A ri{ AN (/ II?. m tin ij(<ir 1079 A.< of The collect the revenue 'le Hindusthau from end to and other [dues] from the maJials in proportion and manner fixed in the luminous Law end. (great are His blessings ad universal are His gifts Verily I) tlie reins of the Emperor's intention are always turned to the purport of the verse. and on his most virtuous as the truth of [the verse] "Heaven justice " is always accept- (impanions —and and earth were established with <ti able in the eyes [of the Emperor] as one of the ways worshipping and honouring of the Omnipotent Comto mander. should • June i668 Empire of — May 1669 .* on the coUectiun of revenue." and the Emperor's aim directed to the promotion of business and the regulation of affairs according to the Law be on < [ll-{. at this auspicious time.H. a fonniin of liigh tlic and just Emperor That is issued. the nth year of the reign. Farman of the Emperor Auronyzih-' Alain yir. owing the blessed grace and *n the Lord of Earth and Heaven.] Tlirifty Muhammad to Hasliim. 1G9 Traxslatiox. (salutation and peace descendants. [diwaii of hope for imperial favours and know as. officers of the present and future and *////*//. [112 <iujiat]. and friendliness and benevolence litw is high and [of the aim the illuminated heart the l-^mperor]. God commands with is justice and benevolence. 6.

1V\ h margin: fiist Concerning what has the been writt6n in the l"]ni[)eror is. so that [the cultivators] may joyfully and heartily try to increase the cultivation. h margin: —The purport of the introduction is only the transaction of affairs and threaten- ing Avith [the anger of] God for the performance of the royal order and for the sake of [according] justice to the officers. inquire into their condition. iuid s^^liiuing oitliodox Faith. — They sliould practise benevolence to the cul- tivators. The manager of should be a portector [of rights] and jnsf fin carryin<r null tho^c orders. And they disgrace should not demand new and consider delay and transgression as the cause of their [ll->^'] in this world II'! and the next. that [friendliness] consists in this that under no in And name custom should you take rate. and exert themselves judiciously and tactfully. [('onntientaiy. tlie agreeably to Holy Law. to the peasants in the collection of revenue. and every arable tract [^('(niniientdri/. clause wish of the just " Display friendliness and g(K)d management which are the causes of the increase of cultivation.**] .] First. orders every year. and benevolence mercy and convenience etc. may be brought under tillage. and [aceoidinfif to] whatever has been meant and sanctioned in this gracious mandate in pursuance of the correxrt and trustworthy Traditions. a d(uii or dirani above the fixed amount and liy in no person should the ryots be oppressed or molested aftairs at the place any way..170 STIDIKS i:^ MUGHAL INDIA.

make great exertions to increase the culti- vation. abstaining from If they can eultivate. about the (*<»u(iition as t(» whether they are engaged it. as the king the owner. it is pro^^r that when the cultivators are helpless they should be supplied with the materials of agriculture.I h 171 Seroml. At the be^inuiiijEr of the year inform vourof everv ryot. as far as possible. The emperor's desire is the And threatening. will be realised Where the revenue is fixed (Kliaraj-i-muazzaf) ])ro<laini to the peasants that [115. advance to them money fnuu the State in the form : of taqaci after taking security. so that the signs of agriculture may daily increase. beating and chastisement are is [ordered] with this view that. in cultivati(»u are them with indueements and assurances of kindness: and if they But desire favour in any matter show them that fav<»ur. they are abstaining from cultivation. If The second clause proves that is to cultivate and so pay the State and take their own share of the (»f they lack the materials cultivation. in spite of their being able to and having had rainfall. (»r self. because. . it i* [and] always likes mercy and justice. fiist.VKMK KKGrLATIOXS OF A(KAX<. 114 a - the only business of peasants the revenue of crop. they the^ should get taqavi from the Government. If you find that the peasants are unable to piocure the implements of tillage. as king is the owner [of the land]. «] it from them whether they cultivate the land or not. necessary that the ryots too should.THE RF. ply it after inquiry till it is found that. you should urge and threaten them and employ force and beating./. according to their therefore own custom. [Coniinentary.

in order that he may. 114 />:'-In wliat has been written . lease or for [direct] cultivation [as a tenant at will iind take the •i'ase amount of the levenue from the lessee in in ease of it of lease.. the woid the owner of of the soil. any surplus is left. lease />] pay the revenue and enjoy the surplus [of the produce. restore the lands them. j>..' then owner wani his meant Mould not agricultural proprietor run seek away relict ill rough poverty and materials. substitute another man in the place of the it.soil' (owner) does not of ' mean the * proprietor in of the but if ' owiicr crop ' the ' field".^]. because. This thiiif^ is the cause ol Uie j^ain of the State and tlie benefit of the ryots.172 STUDIES I'X MIMJHAL INDIA. — iiuilih . lie If a idle.etlier agricultural implements idle. do not it [i'o untie ntary.about giving lease.About fi. but ill would eitluM- lather sell land (i> and of these two ways: throwing the payment .ive the and runs <iway leavinj^ the land land to another on . Or. £foimer] owner.rcd rcrcnuc: If tlie peasant is too poor to jj.] Third. entrusting to cultivators for [direct] amount ^^i the revenue from the lessee [in case of lease] and from the owner's share in [dTrect] cultiv^aticm. word the cultivation. by cultivating And whenever [115.] the [former] owners again become capable t<i oi cultivating. /. taking the . pay to the owner.( the to tlie too. and paying one-halt <a8e of to nialih. or from the share of the owner If [diiect] cultivation. man runs away leaving the land to out before the next year.

the coins are stamped in his name. Inform yourself about the — tracts of fallow . *' Whosoto the ever wields the sword.THE HE\'EXrE KEGILATIOXS OF AURAXGZIH. and having agreed siuh a to its assessment for revenue pays the revenue to the State. in both cases the cultivator has to pay the revenue and in cas'i.s] that the officers should kindly wait for one year [for the return of a fugitive ryot] and." to anyone else for — the intention is that. As Ihe^ Kmperor likes leniency justice. It a well-known maxim." As a for the expression " pay half [the produce] field is owner. 1T> oi Grovornment revenue upon the the ptii chaser. as the fixed revenue {KJiataj-i-mua-zaf) not affected Iby the pro- ductive or barren nature [of the year].. after spending his own money and with the permission of Government. because he the agent of reclaiming the land. the king. and do not lease out the year afterwards.e. ' the word means a substitute for But in the case in which a man. (ii) devoting the sale-proceeds of his owner's riglit to the removal of his own needs.' had paid no revenue before. here Therefore. and the distinctive * mark ' of ownership. i. The real owner is he who can create a substitute for the is owner. As for words "substitute another f(»r man a for the [former] owner.] Fointli. cultivates a waste land which substitute as used the the owner of crop." the rightful substitute this is proprietor can be none but his heir. they should pay to him any surplus left abov(- the Government revenue. man has [true] tenant's right to the land he is cultivates. [he here order. in the case of [direct] cultivation or lease.

enter them among ? hana) of towns and villages. the leclaimer of the land be an [of the full revenue on lias to do not make abatement it. If they be the area among ( the roads and highways. or if the owner it is unknown. give it to a if man who can jeclaim to leclaim. according to the order issued [for this IJut if it class of revenue]. either assess the land at something is pei- bigha by way of unalterable iniKjot'af'^ 'or rent. (uftada) land ^vhich have not letunied to cultivation. or really a piece of land fallen into ruin (hair). is owner be known.- what called KJiaraj-l- lay on is it the ])rescribed revenue of half If the it. And if of its tillage. the lessee be a ^Juhammadan and Iraet. urge the owner to till it. tlien in both these cases. then. then not trouble . jiiuf/asriiKi or is iu)t be not subject to Kliaraj-i<lo bearing any ciop. the cj'op. in order that none may way you find any land other than these.174 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. in the event of the land having an owner and that owner being present and able to cultivate it. its then do not In'nder [the cultivatien] revenue. But if the land has no owner. assess tithes on adjoins a rent-paying infidel. if it ing tithes.«] adjoins a tract payit. or if the land [ll7. as prudence may dictate. Thereafter. which called KJiaraj-i-nuiqasrnHi. IJut if it for the sake of be capable of culti- vation. but \^ quite unable to cultivate ])reviously then the land had been act subject to Khataj-t- nntqosciiui. which c(mtains the remnant of a croj> lliat stands in the till them.] In case 1he [standard] revenue be abated.

and a contrary state f things is brought about by a different cause. If the land contains articles of nudat (y). do not ^iye possession of If ' others. In all these cases the word owner is used in the former sense. undivided) tract of waste land has been transferred for any reason. dictate. There are many proofs. And there is a possibility of a:* described before. and do not let anyone take possession it. or when the owner is quite unable 10 till it. auJ here iiay no chance of audat in the land. — As for a desert tract it (hadia). and recognise none as its owner. ownership being used in the latter sense too.] Fiftli. then. But if he be poor. to take cafe of forbid sowing. 175 [the owner] for tithes or revenue. For the sake ' brevity they have not been mentioned here.THE REVENUE REGULATIOXS OF AVRAXGZIB. do not issue any order that may hinder the nidat in the land: and as for the gain from the land. etc." and other expressions. if the owner it he known. more mani- 6t than the -upport of t * Sun and more evident than yesterday. the owner be not known. then egard the land as belonging to the man up to the time . in owner being used for the king. as policy tit you consider Whosoever makes it arable must be recognised as the owner of the tract and the land should not be wrested from him. ngage him in cultivation by advancing taqavi. [Commentary. If an entire {Jarhasf. leave lo with him. give the land to wliomsoever it. is [117. if . h~\. 116rt : — Fourth is clause: "When the land forms part of highways or really waste or owned by a person unknown.

etc. such as the price of crops or [the gain tanks." • < . 110. Whosoever makes recognised as its land fit for It cultivation that. tiiid gardens." if hereafter sonu'onc else sets up a claim nctt i. is clearly evident here. and the land should not be wrested from him./^: — In it the fifth clause it has^ been written entrust fit : " If the owner of a desert tract be present^ it. he should given possession of the profit fiom fr(. The seccmd alternative which has been *' stated before. therefore he his services." 1 Then to i."' from him. sJiould as be tiie owner.e ownership. to a person who may reclaim in to cultivation. The reason is that this land had been paying no rent before.. iuid else. that the land and (ii) that the [original] owner may a return to it.i tract . do not give posses- sion of to anybody [('oinmcufai-y. such things.its owner^ do not wrest it.i it is evident that none else can have any ** iglit the .be recognised owner. Here is the word "audaf has two meanings: lik(dy to contain mines. till when it it was in his possession. it to him. As for the gain from the land. give as advisable. to vie. has reclaimed it and none else has a right to ' And if a tract of \\asii- land.m] this land. <lalm to the land based on '* : Hence the imperial fuder runs land fit AVhoso- evcr makes as its a for cultivation should.IT() STUDIES IX MUGHAL IXDIA. it recognise if liim as.. land. if . fttlier (i) — there is no ])robability of ^omlat and things. otherwise."" means with permission of the ruh'r lie cultivates a waste un])roductive land and benefits lias a the State. and therefore <h(» man who it.

rfh. This produce had no the land has been connection with the man to whom transferred.] Si. lest the Otherwise reduce the ryots be ruined by the exaction. the Government share should not exceed one-half. fix such not be ruined: and the an amount that loud i-. be revenue. [Commentary. but its the benevolent Emperor that the cultivation depends on the ryots: whenever the ryots >.. or by reason of the man having reclaimed the land by his own exertions from unproductiveness and incapacity to pay revenue. — In places where fix no tithe or revenue has been laid on a cultivated land. [119fl] the ryots may for no reason exceed half [the crop]. it. whatever ought If it to be fixed arcordinsr to the Holv Law. because the land belongs to him only from the time of the transfer.THE KEVEXUE REGCLATIOXS OF AURAXGZIB. The land belongs to the king. either on account of having had no owner. accept provided that if be Khoraj.(. when they S. Where the amount it fixed. 12 are . desert their places and are ruined. then the man who first owned it and from whom it was transferred to the former. has a right to the price of to the tlie it produce of the transferred land up time when ceased to produce anything.M. former Kharaj and fix whatever the ryots can easily pay. If the land is capable of paying more than the fixed [li mount] take (?) more. IIS. 177 of waste land is in its entirety transferred its to another person. even though may be capable of paying more. a : — In the sixth clause: is The revenue wish of should be so fixed that the peasantry may not be ruined by payment of it.

— The time for demanding fixed revenue Therefore. " although it can pay more.] — The order for changing one kind of is revenue into another at the wish of the ryots for their Eighth. desire it. the ryots otherwise not. without any plexity. such an order strengthens the repetition insistence. one can easily imagine what the condition of the cultivation would be. when any kind of grain reaches the stage of harvest. is 1he harvesting of every kind of grain." and again here the orders '* Emperor do not take more than the prescribed amount. collect [Commentary: is — The object is. it take. do that in the not take more than one-half.' The reason first portion there is a total prohibition [of taking more revenue]. or vice versa.] nay more. take more. the of the order is for the purpose of strong Seventh. sell a portion of the crop sufficient to pay the . crushed by the excessive exactions and oppression of the officers. — You :- may change fixed revenue (muazzaf) if into share of crop {inuqasema)." the scribe. ill Hence urgent orders are issued this clause. Probably it is an error of this passage is He must ought have imagined that as to be read as ' is insistent. whenever the revenue pej- demanded at harvest. the share of revenue suited to it. " If the land capable of paying more than the fixed is amount. the ryots may.178 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. is And the statement in the last portion. contrary to the order in the first portion of the same clause." first order. [Commentary convenience.

in ability to and ^ ' the absence of -^ any hindrance. But. and grant remission to the extent of the calamity.. five maunds mav be Ttnth. it puts them into peris plexity and anxiety.] yinth. as required by truth and the nature of the case. i Tn ' - ^ . if the demand is made before that time.'<>. field. 276 . therefore. the Emperor's order to seek their convenience. • •' '< . — In lands subject to fixed revenues. see that a net one-half [of the produce] left to the ryots. . Therefore. ien maunds are [usually] produced in a of the calamity six on account half of this is five maunds only are left [safe]. you should take so that the net half {vn.. p. if any non-preventable calamity overtakes a sown *to you ought inquire carefully. Ind. [Commcjitary. 179 levenue and thus pay the due of the State.irious uses.. the net maunds.g. and from the portion that remains safe. field.) left to the iTot. may have a net one-half". p. Kharaj-i-muazzaf has teen fixed on a land.. take so {malisul) that the ryot much of the produce e. iLeu take the revenue [field '•"'— '^ from some other* ii<imi«— See Wilson." {Brit. the land by which 118 6: —"If case. and a calamity befalls some crop of it is not totally destroyed..<. And in realising [1196] revenue in kind from is the remnant.''>. —Jn lands with fixed rcvevi' spii' - li anybody till it leaves his land untilled.„>>.THE REVENUE REGULATIONS OF AURANGZIB. 6g.. then you the ought to inquire into and deduct from the revenue to the extent of the injury done.] : one maund only [as revenue].

or oACrtakes the crop of the man the tinu* calamity takes place before the reaping but is enough the left for a second crop that year. so that the ryot has secured nothing. —"If it a man holds a land on whicli Kharaj-i-mtiazzaf has been laid. .180 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. the case of fields which have been flooded.iul). or any non- preventable calamity has overtaken the crop before reaping.— then do not if collect the revenue. But if any non-preventable calamity after rea])iug. if and tlie ruined. nor has he time enough left for a second crop to be raised before the beginning of the next year. it But be if the calamity happens after reaping. so that he secures no crop nor has he left for raising a second crop any time year. take revenue (moh. [for a second crop]. —then realise the revenue from any other land belonging obstacle. to the man. and he has the power and there is no obstacle to his cultivating. or befalls his crops. collect ^Commentary to cultivate it. — consider the revenue as cattle lost.^' because the calamity happened through his own carelessness after the reaping of the corn. because he left his land idle in spite of his being able to till it and there being no If any land be- longing to the man is flooded or the rain-water Avhich had been dammed up crop is for irrigation of crops gets exhausted. And so. before they any non-preventable cahunity have ripened and bqen harthat vested. whether like preventable eating up by is left or after the calamity sufficient time the revenue. or where the [stored] rain-water has been exhausted. and yet he leaves of that land unfilled.

and his heirs get the produce of the field [121. he died before tilling land-owner.THE REVENUE REGULATIONS OF AURANGZIB.'< : If siwner gives his land in lease or loan. and the lessee or borrower cultivates take the revenue from the owner. If the latter plants gardens. venue from his if and not demanding the revenue "' tiom the heirs just. subject to a fixed it revenue. the nothing should be collected from them. —Coneeining it.e. cultivates but dies before paj'ing the year's revenue. iilxut It 120.e. from the Kharaji But if a man after getting hold of a ." then [as the loss] iiep-lcct. the owner of the crop.] 7v'elfth. « : — What been published " the death of the owner of the a.^. is manifestly the it because the truly speaking •owner of the crop.ind owner of the land i. — If the owner of a the deceased [ryot] died before cultivating.] EhccnfJi. crop that may be a ground for [demanding] revenue. take the revenue latter.-i. it is ])r(i])ci- i<u«-urre(l througli his revenue fioni him.r >().'iment. is the king.. «] (iiiect it the revenue from them. but to take iniii' enough for another crop. i. and his heirs have not got anything <. died before cultivating.. for the [true] . f. taking the heirs. even though they may have got something from him by way of bequest. 181 it the calamity is left happens before the reaping. and so far is from just to collect revenue from his heirs. the aforesaid person died before cultivating is But do not take anything and [time] [for iiough not left that year anyone has else to till [C'ommmtary.

. in the case of the usurper having it. but he has not done so. therefore the owner should pay the revenue. [121. then. tilled take the revenue from him. it. take the revenue from the owner. [Connncntary. borrower culIf realise the revenue from the owner. take the revenue from the owner. and the owner can produce witnesses. because he has planted the gardens. 120 6: in either of the following — This order may be two ways. the mortgagee has engaged in If cultivation without the permission of tlie mortgager.182 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. the latter has planted gardens on take the revenue from If a him. ''In cases of mortgage act according to tlu' nuici-^ . take the revenue from the owner. getting hold of a Kltaiaji land denies lias it. In cases of mortgage (rihaii). act according to the orders applicable to cases of unsurpation. land denies it it. but if done so take the revenue from neither of them. If the usurper denies [the usurpation] and the owner cannot produce witnesses. then it. take the revenue from neither of them. This is The other is (ii) " if the owner has i. 6] [exact the revenue from the former]." one construction.e. witnesses. or ft construed will yield no sense : " If the owner of a land under fixed revenue give* and the lessee or his land in lease or loan. the usurper has cultivated if take the revenue from him. man after and the owner he has not If the witnesses. tivates it. (i) usurper denies [the usurpation] and the owner has no witness." the usurper denies [the usurpation] and the owner produces Avitnesses to prove his own cultivation.

take the revenue from the [Commentary. parties. after taking possession. and the the seller has gathered in one and the buyer the other." because the mortgagee engaged in cultivation xcith the consent of the mortgager. he ought to pay the revenue. But if land [at the time of sale] seller. of which the other. not the right to was mortgaged. take the revenue from the purchaser. If the mortgagee has engaged gi'ger. 183 issued for cases of usurpation. because the right to cultivate the is [here] included in mortgage.e. gets enough time during the rest of the year to cultivate it and there is none to hinder him. a — About lands under fixed revenue: is If man sells his Kharaji land. bears two crops. otlierwise from the seller.. which cultivated. — If a man wishes to sell his the crop of his land. in the course of the year. then. under a ripe crop. and cultivate it. trom the because as the crop is ripe and the seller . But if he has engaged in cultivation without the mortgager's consent. if in cultivation without the consent of the mort- [demand the revenue from the former].] 7 hirteetitli. the latter ought to have paid the reve- nue. tlien divide is the revenue between the two. because the land alone. if the land bears one crop only and the buyer. collect the revenue from the buyer. 122 a: land. seller has gathered in one and the buyer the it divide the revenue and collect from the two If the land be under a ripe crop. take the revenue seller. If it yields two crops. i. and the purchaser ^eis sufficient time during the year to cultivate If it ii.THE KEVEXUE REGULATIONS OF AURAXGZIB.

he should pay the rent as fi. or tn Rs. take Ks. ('oiicirni n. tlie ]>ii('e oi the ripe Tlieietoie the seller should pay the revenue. and the sam<' thing fruits.] F(nnf((/ifli. 2'^. a (luarterrnpet- be renanled as minimiini .-as in the case a when grain (!") sells at 5 Shali-Iahani sccis ru])ee and the Government seei- share of the crop amounts to one less only yoii should not take If a than this [quarter-rupee]. if he plants on the land land. he must have taken «iTaii). and after fruit. tices witiiout If lu' turns foi- an arable eultivation on wjiich levenue was assessed a] into a «i'ai(leii. to less If the price of the produce amounts than a quarter-rupee. fruit. whi(di is the highest revenue for gardens. they have begun to bear provided that the produce of one canonical Shah-Jahan! vaids. liohls a [Ctniniicntdiy.184 M IDIKS IN ML"(aiAL INDIA..xcd before . amounts tlie more. 1^2 h : man laud under » s l^ nol this a verv nmiul-iilmiit ol way of sa\ injr that >h. land to iiis Hindu sells hia s])ite a Muhammadan. [12^'). for cultivation].. demand a the reveniu' in of being If a Muslim. althcmgh the trees are not yet bearing case of grajx' and fruit But in tlie almond trees. ]ias sold it with full knowledge. hujJid.. 5| ()r (iO x ()0 which means 45x45 canonical yaids.rctl rci'C/i ut' If a man builds a house on his hind. while they do not bear take the customarj.ul<l whi-n the rfvcmie in kind tlie worth only 15 a nipet-.revenue only. and ])hints fiuit-trees [fit on the Avhole tract without h-aving any open spaces l{s./ him/s under fi. take ^4. Otherwise take half actual pro- duce [of the trees].iS'^essment V .

ATIOXS OF AURANUZIK. take 2-12. then take half the actual produce as revenue. 2-12 —on the ground that the Id {Y rab'a) of a legal higha including the owners share. the [usual] to taken while they have not begun fixed at bear fruit. which the due {liasil) of gardens.t fixed revenue. t ihis half-share of the But if the price of produce be less than As. that no is open is for tillage. and afterwards the due of gardens. vine plantain. in collect the it revenue from the latter's because truth was not I'ossession. / but J to J in tlx" 'a-^ "t 'mium.' {waqf). 4 If an — as. But in the case of grape and revenue is almond '(heufil) trees. sells his tlie land to a Muhammadan. 4]. 5-8 -does not reach that amount. may reach to Rs. and the fruit-trees are placed so close together Its-. in the case of grain.l79J .ase of ^rain (Brif. 6] or serai in endowment . the State took only j of the gross . its revenue. there it or plants a garden of trees that beai no • should be no liange in ken. 18o . p. regard revenue as remitted. aud builds a house mi fruit. 124 ": A- is a pious act to endow prodme and III revenniie by division of crops. But if this due of gardens. L. :!oru d. even while the trees .do not l)ear fruit. \_Coinmeiitaty. not take less [than is the former revenue should be If a garden planted on a land which was used hn cultivation and on which the revenue of culturable space left land was fixed. seers if you get one seer in five Shah-Jahani infidel (h — do latter. which total \ it i^ Rs.] FIftrt'/ifli.ane. viii. — If any man turns his land into a metery ]ts [12-' J.THE KEVEXIE KEGUI.c .

in giving in lease. Revenue ought not by dirisifm to be taken [from such lands]. —provided it]. on mortgage he has received permission [to till] from the mortgager. decrease it. therefore the Emperor forbids the coUec- revenue from them. If be less than one-third. witliout leaving —If the owner muqascma land it dies any heir. is not the owner of a revenue-paying land. But this portion ought not to be more than one-half nor less than one-third. direct cultivatiim. (Uie-half nor less it than one-third [of the it. that the share is neither more than total crop].] of a Sevcntamth.. but holds [by purchase or] in pawn. increase to a proper amount. act. Therefore. 1{ a [Commentary a man it is not the real owner of viuqasema land. Sixteentli. one-l)alf. condition that in case of he ought to enjoy the gain from the land. . tombs and tiou of .186 STUDIES IN MUGHAL IN'DLV. he ought it. for the sake of benefiting and (h)ing good [to the public]. — About : ii'vcmic of crops- {l']iniaj-i-viuqascma) If a man. increase decrease as : [if more than one- lialf. [Commentary : It the cultivator dies without heir. If more than it. collect from him the portion [previously] fixed as the assessment on that land. if less than one-third. whether Hindu or . you consider advisable. it but has only bought or holds is it in pawn.v. according to the ordinances issued [above] lor inunzznf lands.xuliammadan. to enjoy the profit from whatever produced in Collect from him the proper portion which has been fixed [as revenue].scra/. etc. whether he be Hindu or Muhammadan.

THE REVEXUE KEGULATIOXS OF AURAXCiZIB. and obedient to Islam. in giving Eigliteentii. all the desires and aims ot the directed to the increase of cultivation. inquiry among the officers of the parganahs of Crown- lands and fiefs [taiul) of jagir-holders. and the welfare of the peasantry and the people at large. in lease or direct cultivation. remit the revenue to the the injury.] — In if muqasema lands.] ftirinon oi the krori in the Emperor Aurangzib-'Alamgir to form of a revenue-guide thrifty Ra^iJ^-rlas [26T«] Kasik-das. — The Emperor seeks the happiness of Therefore he strongly orders that no revenue should be demanded for the portion destroyed. \ who mar- I'llous creation of and a trust from the Creator (glorified 1 His name 1. that at the begin- ning of the current year the otnins of the parganah.. gather revenue on the portion tnat remains safe. But it should be collected for the remnant according to the siiare of that remnant. [Commentary: the ryots. Xow ler the agents of the imperial court have reported. pe for imperial favours and know Kmperor are are the That. amount ot And the calamity happens after reaping- the grain or before reaping. if any calamity nvertakes the crop.<! of the imperial dominions ascertain the revenue of the mauz'as and parganahs many of from a consideration of the . 187 the man who administers the in it land should act in the manner prescribed the third clause about kharaj-i- muazzaf.

with their own verification (fasdiq). And the ryots of any vil- lage do not agree to this procedure. [207. and the Kroris' acceptance. remit orn is ciilloil a large of tlif ripeiic<l i Kvot.* And in some of the villages. either decrease. and other points.s7//] follow the practice of division of crops at the rate of 1/2." iHiir.i de<'rease in the collection of the nia/ial. . has (. INDIA. jJKxlnce tlie {Ji(isil) of till' past year and tlie year preceding it. on the occurrence nt . they [<//««//«-/>«/>•// . what of difference. and others. they fix the revenue at the time of harvesting by [actual] suivey or estimated valuation of crop. wheie the culti- vators are known to be poor and deficient in capital. ]3ut they do not send there the /taif/anaJt records of the lands every with descii])tion of the cultivation and details of the articles in sxich a last forming the autumn and spring harvest. [Such papers] wouhl truly exhibit the cin-umstances of every maJtal.188 STIDIKS IN MliiHAI. as to way show what proportion increase or of the crop of fell year was actually realised and what proportion short. after the ascer- taining of the revenue • t A'u>iit</(//— "Kstiniatc liad taken place. b] and of tlie signatures of the rliaiuUmiix and (jo/iungoi's. And at the office end the of the year they send to the impeiial record account-books (tutnni-)'\ of the cash collection of revenue. 2/5.l r«m<jr— rent-roll.(curred between the last yeai' and the present and the ni(ni:\i number lessees. and the work of the officers there who. ryots of every distinguishing the cultivators. tJie condition and capability if of the ryots. area capable of cultivation. Ij'-i. according to rule and custom. or more or less.

any calamity does happen. what was the system of revenue collection in the reign of + Tudar Mai? under the old Is the Akbar under the diwani administration amount of the salt cess the same regulations. so that the parganalis may become f. ISt amount from the something total [standard] revenue on the plea of deficient rainfall. The Emperor (Jrders that You should amin. then. it !' — inquire into the real circumstances of every village in the pargana1i.t. or was it increased at His Majesty's accession? How many ? jnauz'ai< are cultivated and how many lation? desolate What is the cause of the desothese After inquiring into all matters.< under your diicanft and namely. If they act with i. after Muiring into the true state of the crops and cultivators every village. by giving . the calamity of chillnip. the people prosperous. if revenue increased. attention tn miuuit.detaiU. exert yourself to bring all arable lands under tillage. the abundance of cultivation will prevent any great loss of revenue occuiring.THE UEVKNUE UEGULATION- n] AURANGZIB. and what portion not? What is the amount of the full crop every y^ar? What is the cause of those lands lying uncultivated ^ Also find out. and exert themselves to bring all the arable lands under tillage and to increase the cultivation and the total standard revenue. what is the extent of the arable land in this total is [268^/] what proportion of actually under cultivation. else.nd the ctiltivated and inhabited. dearth of grain.

Tippii Sultan's order all " On the ywc (iiwlf to 1. correct agreements [qaul)* and proper promises. the preparations for cultivating the arable land for increasing the first-iate crops and bringing culture the villages else whidi had lain desolate for years. — report these with the amount of the />]. money collected during tliis the year just completed [268. . try to repair tliem. the liigher and lower under crops. And assess their revenue in such a way that the ryots at large may get their dues and the collected at Government revenue may be the right time and no ryot may be oppressed. their condition. And every year after correctly preparing the papers containing the number of the cultivators of every inauzUi. and new ones. Wliere there are disused also to dig wells. ." Analysed. but make them attend audience-hall. Know regulation and procedure as established from the beginning of tlie autumn of the year of the Hare. + and A Turkish vear. in the [public] witli Make yourself personally familiar to the ryots and poor men. and also urge the officers <>f the inaluils of the jagirdars to act similarly: First.. and to increase tlie first-rate crops. — and what has been ordered in previous details. * who may come commencement them you to stiiif by admitting them : to public of the year and private [the nmii] sIki" Brit'nhlnr: . and act in this way. revenue-guides {dasturu-l-'aml). [the extent of] the cultivated and uncultivated lands.and encourage l. i the ryots. -J)o not grant private interviews to tlic 'din /Is and chaudJiyiis.t the 8th year of the reign. to cultivate the lands.190 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. lands irrigated by wells -and by rain [respectively].

1 — Order the 'amiJs that (i) beginning intf> the year they should inquire. so that they t»f may not need the intermediation others in making their requirements known at the to you. after inquiring into the agricultural assets [269a] of every settle nant. (iii) If any of the peasants runs away. leave no arable land waste. they sliould ascertain the cause and work very hard to induce him to return to his imer place. village by e id they should carefully as to benefit revenue in such a way the Government give ease to the ryots. Second. — Trge the amins of the parganaJis. the 'amils should try to ' make every one of them xert himself. use conciliation and reasall sides surances in gathering together cultivators from wnii praiseworthy diligence. —After settling the revenue.ttested bv the Canongces sub rent-roll. according to his condition. 191 iiudiences. (v) Devise the means by be brought which barren {havjar) lands may under cujiivation. village by village. Third. hid. and the extent (ii) t the area [under tillage]. (iv) Similarly.. the ' number of cultivators and ploughs. fourth. to increase the wing and to exceed last year's cultivation. of particular . and advanc- ing from inferior to superior cereals they should. tlie l)eginning of the year. that at (maujudat-i-mazru'aat) village. to the best of their power." (Brit. order that the -llection of revenue should be ' begun and the payment inferior farr Dum/— "an account • . And send the daiil* of revenue the imperial record office without delay. 222J .THE HEYEN'UE HEGULATIOXS OF AURANGZIB. agreements with the i. p. If the ryots are in their places.

tuperor] in detail. Itecover the unlawfully appn priated lands {f/unjais]i) from the hands of usurpers. and you should keep- A'ourself informed about the arrangements for collecting them. collect at the time of the second instalment. lUit if the climtdlivri or itiuqadilmn or paticari ])ractised oppression. (icmandod at the appointed tinio. Leave absolutely no arrears at the third instalment. the capability of the ryots. that the true 'jorviros of the . short. after engaging with honesty and minute attention ii! ascertaining [the state of things] in (he present ye. through the fraud or negligence of the Sl. Aveek call for reports And you yourself should every to let and urge them not any portion by chance of the fixed instalments fall into arrears. — Having divided the outstanding arrears into suitable instalments according to the condition and cap- ability of the ryots. and the amount of the revenue. conciliate the their ryots [269. a part of the first instalment it If remains unrealised. —When you yourself go to a village. urge the hnnis to collect the instal- ments as promised [by the ryots]. total If in appoitioning [the revenue among the villagers] justice and correctness has have been observed to every individual. so that the collection may not fait into abeyance ^aniils. fair and good. write [to theso and the division (? or I'. for learn- ing the true condition of the paiyanahx. Fifth.11)2 STUDIES IX MUCillAL IXDIA.n details) of the assets. view the state and appearance of the crops. according to the mode the- agreed upon in every imrgnnali for the payment of instalments of revenue.rf]i. />] and In give them dues.

what portion they have deducted on the plea [of rain] of shortage and [natural] calamity. Seventh.THE REVEXUE REGULATIONS OF AURANGZIB.if bestowed on mendicants and common singers. Ind. EifjJitli. 14S). ami according: to the practice of the department for the . p. tr.! 'irr- . strongly urge the amins t <1. In conin- sideration of these things ci resume [the unlawfully bring the pai(j<inahi< cased rent-free lands] of the past. — In the cashier's office {fofaKJiana) order the tittadars to accept 't only 'Alamgiri coins. But if these be available. 193 a III I Its and the admirable administration of this wazir [litisik-das] may become known [to His Majesty]. p. Intl. they should take the Shah-Jahani Rupees ( urrent in the bazar.i(lministration of Crown-lands. so that tliey in may back to llicir proper condition. nank-aii have increased (?). (G<»d forbid!) any calamity [270 «] from earth or sky overtakes a malial. in'tnii. — If. and pndiibit [them] future.. and immechange theni..." 18'. Enams — " the meanest and more (Brit. the Emperor. and collect only the siJcla-i-nbwah. take count for (1 from the ryots the exact and true dischantrintr them into current coins.. lately so Xinth. Sankar — (Brit. how much of the fiuillia of jarjirs they have left in arrears from the l)('irinnin<j:. to and favours The truth will be reported to will be shown to all according their devotion. not admit into the fotnhhana any coin of short weight Do tiiiti wliich will not pass in the bazar. 1-J . But when it is found the collection would be delayed if defective coins arc returned. — Itespect the rent-free tenures. lueiit 'aiiiil.ur:.^ Learn what the Governnamely.

'amils. 220). p. they arc enumerated " Aurangzeb abolished 70 of these abu'abs" (p . solely discrimination reports of which depends qanunyoes." + SartdKi. attain to their lights and So that may and loss.ui. 164-160. and patwaiLs. of the former and actual sources nj revenue. /rirf.l to remission of revenue. the ryots on the chaudhurix. qanungoes. chaudliurix. Take securities fiom them that ihey should never exa<t balia or collect the ahirabs prohibited and abolished ITis by Majesty. lentil. exactions [ahhtajat) in excess of revenue. Brj7. exemption from payment. Hence the word in the text nuMiis ttititit. For fviUisliW ijig Hindi papcis into P«'i>ii. showing the total increased valuation of the land. and 'ariiils to watch the standing crops with great care fields.. linlio'f).s. and after inquiring into the sown [the loss] they the should carefully ascertain according to comparative state of the present and past produce hud). and fidelity.* [haf<t-o- You should the the never admit [as valid] any sarbastof (tafriq) of calamity. and usurpers may may not be saved from misfoitune usurp [others' rights]. And you if yourself should constantly get find <ind information. Sarbasto in the sense of secret does not yield so good a sense. the variations uroilmeil by casualties. ( J J^fcu'u^i—" Imposts levied under the general head of Sair" in pp. — Strongly urge the atninx. that he anotlier appointed in fad in may be dismissed from service and his place. and forbidden —which impair the welfare of the ryots. to abolish hcdia (? or ahioahsX (cesses). and you anyone doing threat. report so tlie and not heeding your pioliibilion the Emperor. ibS) 168). new appropriations &c. Kh vcnth . all muqaddaiuK. . and mutasaddix. * Hastabtod jama — "Comparative account (p.194 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA.

If owing to ihe absence of the paticari or any other cause. the balance should be written as appropriated by the amin.'t. and for •customary perquisites {ia. After the timiar has been written if has been according it. the diiran ought to keep He should demand the refunding of that portion of the total gains I 'ainils. — Report matter the the names of those among the and hrotis of the jagmlois. zamindais and others. who have served with uprightness and devotion.THK REVENUE KEGUL-\TIOXS OF AUKAXGZIB. an aggregate sum among a number or . 195 iuquiie into the rateable assessment and apportionment {bacIi](-o-bihri)% of the revenue. exactions (akhrajat). hid. miiqaddaius.. ^ob). "Customs or commission. and by following the established rules in officers. every have result proved they themselves good — so — that as may be rewarded according to their attention to the gain of the State and t Bdt-ftA— Distribution of p. p. translate And.<umat)* name by name. p. after taking account of the whatever is payments (wasilat) into the iotcil-liana. . 4Jb).ndividua!«: >( Wilson. 149). 'amil." (Brit. as far as possible [2T0/y] -collect and the rough records {haghaz-i- Jthau}] of all the villages of the parganah. qanimgoes. the papers of certain nmifz'ns cannot be got. in the it and enter up. name by name. which they have taken in excess of their estab- ^"^hed percjuisites {rasuiu-l-miiqarrai). to the established system. Trci'Jftli. JuTUflhurl. estimate this portion from the <lrawn total it produce of the villages [taken collectively]. As found to have been taken from the peasants on any account whatever. \Ruisoonu B<hri— Proportionate rate ( Wilson. lu d jjatwari't. funiar.

Ind. any have acted in the opposite to the Emperor. enter as liabh to recovery the ahwahs that ought Send the to be resumed as tin result of this auditing. and then send them the Imperial •*priiisr Do not leave papers of harvest. — With great insistence gather together the papers of the records [^ar-i-rishta) at the right time. ])apers with the recor(l> of the ' ahwahs recovered from dismissed 'amils. and the balance [271«] treasuries of fotadars in tiie- and the jani'a icasil baqi every month. promptly demand hi> papers from him and bring him to a reckoning.they may be dismissed from the service." fBr/V.196 STUDIES IN' MUGHAL INDIA. and receive the punish- ment of their irrenfulaf acts. Accord- ing to tbe rules of the din'an\^ department.// tn fotadar is dismissed from service. report the fact explanation [of their conduct]. Th'uteenth. and fiom the other j^kh the daily account of the collection of revenue and cash {maujudat) every fortnight. if But manner. After looking through these papers demand for). In the malial in which you and cess stay. — When (u --///. I't . every day secure from <jnnah^ the officers the daily account of the collection of revenue- and prices-current.. the refunding of whatever to the has been spent above the amount allowed (? or spent without being accounted record office. piit on their defence and their honesty. p. 'uniii the harvest uncollected up to the [2Tl/>] autumn an Fourteen til. ) to tlu yamabaniii—" Ani\\ia\ settlement of the revenue. and the tumor of the total revenue and the jnm^a hand if and the incomes and expenditures of the treasuries of the fotadars season by season.. tliat.

iu order that the auditing of the man's papers may be finished.«eal [in proof.] verification.THK KEVEXUE REGILATIOXS OF AURANGZIl!. — Draw of office. up the diicani papers according affix to to the established rules season by season. TiT imperial cutchoy. them your and send thtm to the imperial record . Fifteenth. .

affairs. 1G04 Jaffar dewanship (A. Alexander' Stirling complains. 1. The M i(r(iipif-i-ll(is. by the arrangements. the- when we consiihu.. offices.lahan and Aurangzib. though during partially. In his Account of Oii. Xawwah to Khan a Xasiri 1707 to 1725).' From Persian now possible to works. has in Persian he gleaned from of few scattered notices scarcely in histories Bengal and the intelligihU^ revenue accounts. writeiv in 1822.D. which throw and changes Letteis f)f light only (ui the coiU|uests officials but not (ii) on the administration or the conditimi of the people. the to retirement the Kaja of Man the Singh famous- in A. introduced by the imperial government during that interval. it is fill. this gap in (»ur knowledge of in Orissa the seventeenth century.the deep and permanent traces- impressed on the state of institutions.'' : - The Memoirs of -lahangii and the official annals- of the reigns of Shah .ssa I'm per or Cuff ark. or of Maulanu Abul . though century question must be- regarded as a )nost Iniprnfa/if period in the annals of country. and official designations. " information extant of officers the proceedinf^s of of The slender the Mughal from I).ORISSA IX THE SEVEXTEEXTH CEXTTRY. Sources of Ixfoumation ICxtaxt. which Stirling rightly tion {\re (i) calls " a ( most important period )ur sourc(>s of infornui- the annals of the country. not indicated by Stirling.<(in.

and — 1670). (1069 is — 1667). (as Muhammad Zaman Tihrani agent of Prince Shuja). 1632. List of Mughal Subahdars. 1640. 199 Jliissan. 1628-1632. Khan's iiicluded . 1642. 1641-1642. removed by order dated 8th March. 1633. By means of these sources the middle lit and close of the century are brightly other portions of it up for the historian. but he reached the im- Shah Nawaz Khan. to exist. put this collection <>nly one manuscript to of this work of known which belongs (iii) the Nawwab (liirnn Rampur in to Rohilkhand. 1641. but went there about the middle of 1641. 1642-1645. 4th February. Appointed to Orissa on 9th March. in Quli Khan when Bihar and Orissa. about 1700 secretary — 1705. Sani. ^lurshid Letters addressed by Aurangzib of Bengal. wlu) served the mbahdais oi Orissa as Secretary for abcnit 12 years (1655 toffotlier in 1080 A. 2. The order removing him from Orissa was perial court on 29th July.ORISSA IX THE SEVEXTEEXTH CEXTURY. imperial InayetuUah 1 iii<(iin-i-AJatngiii. Mutaqad Khan (Mirza Maki). 1640. Hacjar Khan Najam The order removing him from Orissa was dated 24th June.K. issued on 9th March. but continued in the province till the end of the year. 1632-1641. but he reached the imperial court on return on 13th January. . but the will remain dark till some other happy uiscoveiy among Persian manuscripts.

Shaista Khan. Birlas. September 1000 — September. ? March. 1078 Kamgar Khan. November 1659 1607 Klian-i-I)auran. June Safi [or Saif] — October Khan. Older of appointment dated 8tli Marrh. 104:2. but on page 1050 he represented 1 preceding June. nether mill-stone of the Qutb-Shahi power (of Golkonda) expanding northwards from the Madras side. In the sixteenth century the independent Rajahs of Orissa were crushed between the upper mill-stone of the Afghans advanciug southwards from Bengal and the.200 SXrDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. June. 1645-1648. Murshid Q. Ihtishani Khan. 1070.-n 7th December 1667 I (page 1067). Tarbiyat Khan (Shafiullah Anarchy. The Expansion of the Mughal Province of Okissa. have accepted the latter date. March 1076 December 1070 (?) Nurullah (as agent of Prince Azam). 1045. — May 1067. . in the Recalled to court 22nd year of Sliali Jahan's reig'n (-luly 1648— June 1649). 1645. removal dated 21st November. 1600. October 1009—? Kashid Khan.* 1009. Undei Akbar the Mughals held only the northern portion of Orissa. ? 1704. Tarbiyat Khan. Appointed 21st November. 1704-1725.-//iiw/fiVdaiHa/i says that the Emperor learnt of is Khan-i-l)aiiraii's ilentli . — — — — 3. 1655-1650. while the central poition was ruled by native • Tiie . vilayct-za) as agent of Prince Shuja. 1658-1659. Alutaqad Kiian.uli Khan.

the reign of ^hah Jahan the power of Golkonda was broken by the Alughals in 16-i6 and 1656.f. however. 201 princes with semi-independent powers. was sent Mughal Subahdar of Orissa {Muraqat. The QutbIn Shahis held the southern extremity of the province. the governor of Orissa. and he owed service to this Court. 160). 51.ORISSA IX TUE SEVEXTEENTH CEXTURY. This result. one the Kajah of Khurda and the second the Eajah of Rajmahendra.. . Between the province of Orissa and Golkonda there are two zamindars.000 a year. to liom which the Golkonda tribute "appertaining to the the province of Orissa. the ^lughal Emperor]. paying him an annual tribute. Jahangir records in his Memoirs: time it At was reported to me that Mukarram Khan. much fight- On this 1-Jth Bahnian. was achieved after ing. 1618). beyond it lay tlie (^utb-Shahi district of Chicacole. 12th regnal year (about the end of January. The province of Khurda has come into the t possession of the servants of the Court. <ri My hope in the ace of -Allah is that the feet of my energy may advance further. After this it is the turn of the country of Rajmahendra. had conquered the country Khurda. hut title of bearing the iiionsabdars in the Mughal peerage. and Qutb Shah became a loyal feudatory of the Emperor of Delhi. and that the Kajah of that place had fled «nd gone into Rajmahendra. 20. At this time a petition from Qutb-ul-mulk reached my son Shah Jahan to the effect that as the boundary of his territory had approached that of the King [/." about Es. Early in Aurangzib's reign Malud was the southernmost outpost id of Mughal t)rissa.

offered The fort. said that the Governor . 37:'. Jvudla in tbe environs of officer Mansurgarh. uddin's liaqar Khan returned. the Emperor on 4. In the winter of of Orissa. a enenw battle in the plain outside tbe fort. Jie hoped an ordor avouUI be issued "' to Mukarram Khan i. A. and on 3rd December arrived a fort built by a Golkonda 8 miles from Khiraparab. the Governor marched to Khiraparab. fort. (iutbshahis.202 STUDIKS IN MUGHAL IXDIA. but were routed. with friendly levies fnmi the zamindarsof Khalikot. IJaqak Khan's Admixistkatiox. lG29--)0.lun<> 10:52 It is an order was issued removing him from the post. and Ala. and plundered and laid waste territory. after leav- ing garrisons at Khiraparab and Patlis/tahnainali. named Mansur. but Baqar Khan made a forced march and defeated theThe news of this second victory reached 2. liaqar Khan. <luar. and to acqiiire possession of his countiy (Ivogers and Beveiidfj^e. I. not lo stretch oui his hand. In the autumn of he set out again. 1631 (Ihi^I.'hd April. i. 4 miles from Chattar- a very narrow pass on the frontier between the (^utb-Shahi kingdom and Orissa. and 24 miles its fi-oni Mahendri. capitulated. Mansurgarh (HamidTlie V-j'V). lia(|ar C(miplaints against Khan's oppression of the- peasantry and zamindars rep(>atedly reached Shah Jahan'n ears and at last (m 24th .. to retire 16f^{> The approach of the rainy season compelled him without doing anything more. 4I!'5). and then the commandant of the Naikwar. assembled in force to recover the on hearing of it Deccan army.

1651 ill extreme old age. His successor Mutaqad Khan ruled ihe proA-ince long and well. a From September 1657. By order seven hundred of the captives were massarred. iii. Taking advantage (hissa. and died on 17th October.OKISSA IX THE SEVEXTEEXTH CEXTURY. by the autumn of the year 1659. all the Orissa zamindars withheld the revenue. and ordered to account for the money {MasirI upees from the province. But. ' IXTERREGXl M AXD IhTI. owing that Baqar Khan had collected forty lakhs of The Khan was in consequence^ lecalled. iil-iiinata.iiid latterly for his prolonged struggle witli Mir Jumla in the Rajmahal and Malda Districts. Mir Jumla had established himself in sufficient strength to enable in to- Western Bengal detach from his him army Ihtisham Khan to take charge of .SHAM KiIAX's AdmIXISTHATIOX.penalty. when Shuja fled fell ill and to 6th May !()60. and several of their neighbourhood. 203^ oalU'd iiml I'is all the zamindars of the province together then threw them into prison to extort revenue. as we shall see in the section on Khan-i-Dauran's administration. jiiid ( Mini only one escaped to carry the tale to Shah Jahan's This fugitive produced a list {tmiKir. rent-roll) -i. 484 1. for them built fV»rts and looted which they had afterwards to pay a heavj. when Shab Jahan war of succession broke out among his sons. there was anarchy in The troops and most of the officers were withdrawn by Prince Shuja for his two advances on Agra . from Dacca and Aurangzib became the sole master of Eastern India. of this state of things.

t. of the province announcing his own appointment as suhalidut and ordering them to meet him at Xarayangarh. and the other zamimUus Khan-i-Dauian. a IGoJ) {Ibid. . the brothers of Eajah Xilkantha Dev. mosques of in the 45).. some time after 14th Xovember. and sent . were similarly released.000 to Ihtisham Khan. the northern frontier of the province. 47-49).1204: STl'DIES m MUGHAL INDIA. That arduous task in fell to the lot of Khaiifr<jui till liia who April 16G0. for Ps. first Ihtisliam Khan's acts were to issue a proclama- tion that the khutha should be read in all the •Orissa.of the environs of Katak. who insisted that thev should . he was re'placed by to liengal to serve under Mir away with himself as piisoners for Jumla. za mind a is. less than year afterwards. When.<. he tried to caijy default of revenue. etc.officer of Kajah Mukund Dev. As their zamindaris <-ouhl jiot be administered nor any rent collected in the absen<e th<^ of these men. and to send new Emperor Auran^zib paiwanah to all the nianqanungoe. 1GG7.tlje govt'inorless province of Orissa. <li(iiidJinii. Gopinath. For this the faujdar was severely {•ensured by Khan-i-Dauran. name of the a [M uraqat. whither he would march from Medinipur. Ilitisliam Klian's stay tlieie was too sliort to enable him to restore ordeily government. i-Dauran. •iabdais. the brother of Bharat Patnayak and chief . the Muglial faujdar of Katak secured release of Gopinath Patnayak by himself signing a bond And the otlier captives 14. was transferred Allaliabad to Orissa and worked there as suhalidai- death in May.

18'}-184. "For the last ihree years. Rai has dispersed the It is useless to give ryots of Medinipur. 58. 129). (i..the slack rule of my predecessors" (pag^e l-'U). ^[rGIIAL ReCOXQUEST of OHISSA rXDKU KlIAX-IDairax. 205- be uncdiiditionally delivered up to him as Uitisham Khan's- >uceessor in office [Muiaqat.ORISSA IX THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. and building a fort in the jungles a- with evil intentions " (page 190). of Sayid Sher in the jurisdiction Khan. The on the further side of the Katjhuri.<. the zamindars on the further side of Katak is have been collecting vast forces and getting ready for war" (page 72 . seizing- the property of the inhabitants and wayfarers and severely (•])pressing the (»f people" (pages 72 and the Eajali of 107). as im- perial authority had disappeared from the province durin<f the late War of Succession. owing to. 1660-lGO. . of Hariharpur. part of Khan-i-Dauran's viceroyalty The first was the- devoted to a task that was practirally equivalent to reeouquest of < )rissa for the Mug^hal Government. "Krishna Bhanj. during the Xarayan time of disorder" (pages 52.. during the interregnum spread his power over the country from ]\[edinipur to Bhadrak. a distance of 50 or 60 X-o. the leading zamindar of this province. "The fort Panchira was wrested from Shuja's men by Lakshmi Bhanj. have refused tribute and declared war against him" (page 59). 156-157).. " Bahadur the zamindar of " Chliut is Hijli in re])ellion " (page l-'JO. Keonjhar. The state of anarchy this is very graphically described in the letters of subahdar " 5camindars- All the zamindars are refractory.

liut "the other zamindars report lluit the country of llijli is now covered with mud and water. liad rebelled. where he was subahdar. when the roads of the district become dry <ampaign should be opened" (pages V-S2 and time. in the meantime writing to the zamindars of northern Orissa to meet him on the way and pay His intention Bahadui. •(Jctober (page put lie oft' the idea. not to speak of soldiiMs (Cavalry. he set out for Oalesliwar. iheir respects as loyal subjects (page l-U). S. IJrd to Orisisa was April. was to "finish the llijli business" '/amindar of that pojl. reached hnlf of . 474).. first On 2Gth September he entered town afier crossing the Orissa frontier settle the After spending some days here to district. in and went the latter direct to which 156). 85). defying raging storms. the •(page l-'JO). organize the civil administration and revenue •collection and station faujdars in all directions. After a again. even foot cannot traverse it. excessive mud. Khan-i-Daurun •laleshwar. as they will be mentioned in detail in the history of Kliaui-Dauran*s campaigns which follows.. and. The far man appointing Khan-i-Dauran ^ent fr<mi the Imperial Court on (jiinamah. the first.206 STtDIES £X MUGHAL IXDIA. list of tlie names of the otlier rebel zamindars here. and had to be subdued before the Mughal route from Medinipur via Xarayangaili iind Jaleshwar to Baleshwar could be rendered safe. 1660 (Alatn- He received it at Allahabad. and Hooded rivers. Medinipur. the 134). which had closed the paths" [Muiaqat. and soon set out for his new province " in the very height of the monsoons.

[During the anarchy] he had plundered the tract from Bhadrak to off ^ledinipur. ) Bahadur evidently changed is his mind and held fate.OEISSA IX THE SEVENTEEXTII CEXTIKY. their swords • liim. Hariil\rpur (Mayukbhaxj Affairs. at Jaleshwar (pages l-i-3. increased tiieir cultivation ruined the Imperial dominions" (page . territory. carried rid the ryots own 107). he. 7. unsheathed and made repeated charges. wrote to him professing submission and 1:{6 promising to wait on him iind 181). The grace of summed up: "He kept one thoufiand horse and ten was obeyed and helped by all the zamindars to his His offences are thus or twelve thousand foot soldiers. wrote to the new Governor that the agents "olih) of these two zamindars had readied him to range for their masters' interview. inspired by pride in the largeness of his force.. on the Mayurbhanj frontier. which after is zamindari. too. pretext of choosing a false lucky day [for the [for his late and tlic excuses disloyal for ccmduct]. During the inquiry and discussion settling uuount of the revenue to be paid by rushed towards me. the Rajah of Hariliarpui i/. both Baha<hu and Krishna Bhanj. drew his dagger and His companions. The Mughal faujdar of Remiina./.. tlie At ^layurbhanj). He was ordered in reply to reassure them with kindness and send them back to their masters that they might come without fear or sus. Krishna Bhanj saw ottered me wasting a month on the visit]. : off: Krishna Bhanj* came. 207 uews of the Governor's approach. I pici(m and see Khan-i-Dauran at Jaleshwar (page 181). and of this country. but met with a terrible best described in the Governor's which own words near his " When 1 reached Jaleshwar.




Emperor saved




slew Krishna Blianj








snoh as Udand, the zamindar of Xarsingpnr, Chhattresliwar Dhol. the zamindar of Ghatsila, and Hariehaudan,

the zamindar of ]S^ilgiri, threw away their weapons and deliveied themselves up as prisoners " (pag^cs 72 and 107lOUj.


relatives of the slain




raised distuihances, molestin": the ryots.

So, I started for

ilarihaipur to punish

them and halted

Remuna on

frontier of his dominion.

His brother, Jay Bhauj, sub-

mitted, beo:g'ed pardon, and broujjht to


mother and
a present

son and three elephants and. some



and begged the


of the Rajahship


zamindari for the son.

I agreed,

and then started

punish the rebels near Katak

" (page 109).

KiiiRDA Raj Akfaiks.

"When the Khan reached Katak, Rajah Mukund Dev of Khurda, " the leading zamindar of this country, whose orders are obeyed by the other zamindars " " whom all

the other zamindars of this country worship like a god'

and disobedience of whose order they legard

as a great


77 and

102)- -waited


him with due






Khandaits [of Central Orissa]



and Then, " owing



" 'Ihr

title of

sovereignty has been .Tlw.iys acknowledged, by the





of the country,

vest in the Rajahs of Khnrda.

the present



Rajahs' of Khurda arc the sole fountain of honour

in this

district " (86),



t(i the badness of the climate, a severe malady seized the governor and he was confined to bed for two months, un-



move about."






zamindars] seized the opportunity and caused disorder. Rajah Mukund Dev absented himself from the
force sent

by me



The Mughal

punish the rebels, and himself caused troops subdued many of the

and took several

After recovering a


Khan-i-Dauran) on Tth February 1661 set out tiom Katak against the other forts which my subordinates

were too weak to capture

(page 77).



16th February

arrived near the forts of Kaluparah, Mutri, Karkahi,

Khurdiha and [three]
next day.

— seven

forts close to


other on the side of a high



was ordered


our troops appeared

near the


in a numberless host, consisting of



infantry, both Klmd-ilian (?)

and zamindars


Bauki and


Bhumiaha and Khandait.t, offered Our men slew many of them and carried their

trenches at the foot of the hill and after repeated charges

entered their [main ?]

The enemy fought with







but being unable to

resist fled

away with



great victory

— unequalled
The seven

by that of any
were cap-

former suhahd'at



or three days were spent in settling the con([uered district and appointing thanahs " (pages 99-101).



20th February, 1661, I

left for the

conquest of

Khurda, the ancestral home of Mukund Dev, situated in




the midst of a dense jungle and lofty hills (page 78j.


The liajah amount of booty and many prisoners at his capital " (page 102). " During the last 50 years, no other .^nbalular had reached these They were all conquered by my army and the places. rustics became the food of the pitiless sword. I gave Mukund Dev's throne to his younger brother Bhramarbar " (page 78). The victoiious suhaluJar halted at Khurda for some days. The fate Of the premier llajah

the 23rd, I encamped a mile from Khurda.



and we seized

a vast


of the province struck a salutary terror in the hearts of

the other evil-doers.

" All lawless





with every mark



now waiting The

zamindar of Banki and Khand Xarendra (the zamindar
of llanpur) have sent trusty agents to arrange for tinir

inleiview with me.

The path

for collecting the revenue

has been opened in

places and mahals.



who had been






autlnti ity

and withhold tribute, finding no way of escape from our heroes, saw me penitently on 18th March. The rebel ]ihai;it

has done the




Mukund Dev was
know from other

atterwaids restored to his throne, as we








to his

furnished in a letter of Khan-i-Dauran
the Imperial Court.



Keceived your

letter re!«•

porting that a counterfeit Gangadhar has gone


Court and secured an interview with

Kumar Earn


[Kachhwa, son

of Mirza

Kajah Jay Singh] through the



Brindaban-das, the musharraf of tht«lephant department, and oftered to pay every year 12


of Eai

lakhs of rupees as tribute


the State


given to him.


I arrived in this province,

liajah of Khurda.

Mukund Dev was the As be caused disturbances, I expelled

his zamindari and gave the t'lha of Kajahship younger brother and reported the case to the Emperor. I have learnt the following facts from trusti:)







— when the late Mutaqad Khan waa subah/Jai
Dev and made

slew Xarsingh

nephew Gangadhar


Balabhadra Dev, the elder brother of the
after killing
of the State.

became Eajah

Gangadhar with the help



he died,

Mukund Dev
During the

succeeded at the age of four years only.
administration of


Hayat, the agent of Shuja,

pretended Gangadhar appeared and created a disturb-


He was


a confederacy^ of the


near Katak.



arrival in

the province, anothei


claiming to be the same (Rajali) appeared in Talmal

South Orissa).

district, arrested



^fuhammad Jan, the faujdar of that him and st'ut him to me, and he is still in the fort of Alankhandi at Katak. They say man assuming the same name is roving in the

jungles" (pages 186-187).

Moke Conquests by Kh-xn-i-Dairan

f;th March 1661., the suhnJulnr left Katak <o Lakshmi Narayau lihanj, the Kajah of Keonjhar, wlio had wrested the fort of Panchira from Shuja's men





(pages 58-59).

His territory was ravaged and the


in question recovered (pages 52



At a subsequent date (probably), Bahadur, the rebel zamindar of Hijli, was captured with his family (page116).

After Khan-i-Dauran had expelled

Mukund Dev from

Khurda, "

Khand Xarendra,

the /amindar of IJanpur and_

zamindars of Malhiparah and Dompara, who had

never before waited




him and

agreed to pay tribute (page

the further side of the Katjhuri,

The zamindars on who had withheld tributeSlier


and fought the faujdar, Sayyid
ed " (page 59).

Khan, were defeat-

At the same time


Mughal faujdar


Malud, on

the southern frontier of Orissa, was engaged in suppress-

ing the rebellion of Pitam, the zamindai' of Andhiari, and

Kumar Guru,

the zuiuindar of

Malud (page


The zamindari

Kanika was conrjuered by Mian:
to a for<

^luhammad Jan, and the liajah was driven out
named Rika

on an ishind in the ocean.

In order

besiege him there,

boats of the river


and larger boats too were sent to Muhammad Jan, with the help of Gopali, the zamindar of Kujang (pages lOZ and

Rao Tara

[or T?awat IJai],* the zamindar of Kuyilti
into prison for

Madhupur, was thrown

heavy arrears of

revenue to the imperial exchequer for the parganah of
On page
171 ti.e


is spelt

as Bnr-awitara





Gopali of Kujan^ also


the same fate

(pages 170 and 172).

Khwajab Khaiid XaqsLbandi


siege to the foit

Kiiliah and carried mines under



iiandan [or Harichandan

the qiladar, begged quarter.

He was promised


but thrown into prison and

the fort was taken possession


was another

named Katkal (page


riibut Kai, the zamindar of Kailikot,* evidently in

The neigh lM)urhood of Xarayangaih, had dispersed


ryots of (the parganah of) Medinipur and built a fort in

the jungle with evil intentions (page 190).


his sons


thrown into prison, and he seems


have submitted,

we read in another letter how a paiwanah was sent to him to stop the horse-dealers who used to deviate from the imperial road and take their horses by way of Banpur. They were to be sent to the provincial governor in future

/page 100).

Kajah Nilkantha Dev was a loyal servant of the empire and fought under the Mughal banners with his contingent (page 14-i). Parganah Qutbshahi was his jagir,





Us. 4,400 were due from the Eajah as arrears of revenue

(pages 145 and 165).

His brothers were placed in con-


by Ihtisham Khan for default, but Khan-iDauran secured their release (page 156). The result of these operations was the restoration


doubtlul about this locality

Page i6o saems to imply that


wa-; in

(be extreme south of Orissa.

boast of his military successes. received five elephants from liaqar May. men of the is province and made them officers. which in his '* have punished all the usurpers. oppressors.. know from the official (Ahnntjiniatnah. Khan-i-Dauran. again. sent five elephants as his present to tlie Emperor on the sons. early in 1662. about April. occasion of the marriage of two of his (the Khan's) together with two other elephants presented 5'{. Tlie country again en- joyed peace and order and the imperial revenue. and these animals formed the usual present from the goveinors of Orissa to the Padishah. 1662. " The province is being well administered (page 54).xuk Collectiox. [Mitraqat. * he wrote. which had entirely dried up during the interregnum. began io Khan-i-Dauran could legitimately own word* " unrivalled by any preceding siihah(/<ir. obedient. revenue being collected by our The The people are enjoying peace and happiness and plying their trades" (page 49). reached the Court at the end of May. of Imperial authority in Orissa. The forests of Telingana." were As he Avrote in his despatches to the Emperor Aurangzib. a year later. 1 he realized again. And. and lawless. 162S. Shah Jahan Khan and in September . immediately west of Orissa and lying in the Golkonda territory. After taking effective possession of the province an«f restoring order in this way. Kevf. 10.214 STUDIES IX MTCaiAL INDIA.) by the Sultan of Golkonda. page history These. were famous In foi elephants. as we 751).

page 50. he at once transmitted revenue the exchequer at Delhi ''the accumulated 15 lakhs of rupees. 1. oppressors. (Muraqaf. kept at Katak and the parganahs. 201 and I. and made them obedient.||) eiglit others from Mutaqad Khan. one piece of scarlet cloth. together with seven pieces of cloth (parchah)." and two caskets of Chhani decorated in These were escorted by his own men to Rajmahal. were occasional presents.000 a year. Khan-i-Dauraa the fixed sums of Es. But the papers sent from Delhi put the tribute at Rs. 20.OKISSA I.) Elephants.000 « Later. 21-3 1(). and. the as Dutch far as stvle.V TUE SEVEXTEEXTU CEXTUUY. 216. during the civil war between Aurangzib and his brothers: Its exact amount was also in dispute. Having "punished the usur'pers." being next devoted himself to realizing the portion of which " appertained to the province paid from the Golkonda district of This money had naturally remained unpaid hicacole. (Abdul Hamid's l\„lishahtiamah. the Orissa revenue used to be delivered to the faiijdar of Burdwan for transmission to Court.i the Emperor. The Qutbshahi agent paid at Chicacole (Haidar Khan) asserted that he had and Rs.* whence they were be sent to Court with the revenue of Bengal.) He of ( the Golkonda tribute Orissa. ntficers". LA. 12. and lawless men of the province. The all normal revenue also began to be sent to the Imperial Court regularly from this time." Khan-i-Dauran could report " the revenue is being collected by our t.B.000 during every year of Shuja's viceroyalty. (Page 189 ) . as a proof of to (<t it. however.

000 as fee for succeeding his biother [in the zamindari].000 a year.'" (Page 61. also. 10. which has been fully realize*!. 80. to Chicacole to dun (Page 51.000 out of the arrears under this head. I have now laid on Purushottam Dev Rs. pay as find successif)n Khan-i-Dauran wrote in succession fee. but could to sum they used reply. nothing like what your Majesty represents to They used thiv*' pay something [but no as nazar at intervals of two or years regular tribute].) Severe measures had to be taken with the revenue collectors and zamindars of its dues. 8.216 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. zamindars of Saranghara not say what additional fee. "I from tlic old records of the siihah that they used to as but then their annual pay Rs. produced uncertainty about imperial dues the For example. 10. are sent to you in chains under a bailiff [sazawdl] as asked for . a former diwan of the province. lest they should defraud tlic Government Khan-i-Dauran writes thus 196) to Muhammad h(- Jan. who have been from prison. aud Paramananda. wh(mi (page for his : had appointed land-steward or factor to tlie {sahih-i-ihtamani) southern limit of Orissa — fiefs '* from Bhadrak Balabhadra and Brajanath released qnnungofa.000 tribute was it. the zamindar of Rahmachnan (?). succe&ded in collecting Rs. and sent an agent for the balance.) Evidently all the financial records of Sliuja's time had been and this lost or destroyed by dishonest officers (page 60). Emperor knew the to tribute of the be Rs.

Get boats from the zamindars of the mahal. In this country the realization To this the — '* of the land-revenue tliree of the whole year depends on the the months of autumn. which has to be kept stored "" : for a long time. then write urging Appoint men dues and attach the standing guard the giain. see also page 146. '* again." (Pages 16-3.e.) .\ THE SEVEXTEKXTH tEMUUY. in spite of all sold.) collect the to to the crops. " I have heard that traders take the crop and in return for it they bring from the ports whatsoever is in demand. cannot be Emperor replied.) Khan-i-Dauran >ays the same thing." (Page 182. 2196. Kemuna: — faujdar of Send select men to hasten the gathering in and guarding of the crops and the collection of the Government dues Send them quickly that the revenue {i. they have not been ])iocured owing the bad conduct of the darogha of the port. Government share) of the autumn harvest may not be removed. 217 ^y you If you fear that before oft' my arrival near Katak the zamindars will carry the a mils to crops.ORISiiA l.) The inference naturally suggested by the above passages. 164. Banipur MS.." (Inayetullah's [fikam-i-Alamgiri. rice to the port to be shippe*! in the sailing and send the season. and." to (Page 65." (Page 165.. namely. :Man Singh. that in Mughal times the revenue of Orissa was collected in the form of rice. the And.) "As for tiialangi boats for loading rice in." my devices. is definitely supported by a letter from Murshid Quli Khan to Aurangzib written about 1704 The revenue-collection of Orissa depends on the autumn harvest.

money for the things ordered. etc." evidently reference to Shaista Khan's vigorous naval construction programme with a view to his conquest of Chittagong in " The price of these things will be deducted from 10G5. Then. articles to the brokers for the delivery Send the do-sufi before the other darogha that he may make sails with them. First. in engage shipbuilding [for the Government] there. " The officers Khan-i-Dauran writes to Muhammad of tlie Imperial Government have mhan.5--175. (lo-suti and varieties. and nnjois. of the th-ati visioning the ships [of the State]. harharah.. 260 maunds of sesamum. '300 maunds of mustard oil (' yellow oil ').' (Pp.000 maunds of rice. 39. All the kahqxifis blacksmiths. urge the officers of Jaj- Bhadrak and other mahals in your faujdari to gei them ready quickly and send them before the sailing season to the port of Baleshwar to Muhammad [This is Baqar.218 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA.) Wo also learu that " lis. Some incidental light is thrown on the State purchase of local industries. Dated 28th December. 17. 1GG4. oil-vendors.] the amounts due from the atnlas. letter. 20. —-master craftsmen and — living at the port of Harishpur and other to should be won over and sent to Baleshwar." The ami as should advance to the weavers. and 100 maunds of (/abnosafr are required for proreported that 210 InuJi of cloth. take bonds with the attestation of of the goods in time. artisans. Accf)rding to the- schedule attached to this pur. settle " the price with the help of tlie brokers. Jan. the a darogha of ship construction.000 was due from the . places.

000. 11. while the actual collection fiuctuated from year to year and was always short of (r) these amounts. . but by laqaim or groups of symbolic marks suggestive of turn 20 of is Chinese writing. on acrount ot the taqavi loan and patfan to the peasants. arfthmetical figures are not reArabic presented by the countriesj. The readei not following comparative dift'erent the reyenue of -Mughal Orissa at periods («) placed before the with the warnings that {h) the area assessed was figures always the same. sum and thus give palpably wrong In these MSS. 219 chaudhiui and qauimgo of Cliakla Medinipui. these give only the standard or paper assessment.tuuxs. (oMi'AUATivE Revenue 1{p. secondly. because the Persian statistical books (iJastur-itl-atiil) are now extant certain very badly a written and occasionally drop figures out of amounts. lU's. and. numerals of (as in all modern in nor by letters the tlie alphabet (as the l{(mian system of notation and Arabic «6." (Page IHO. because tlie area under imperial rule varied considerably from time to time. I A niucli larger amount must have been granted hv the vState for this purpose.s The slightest carelessness or indistinct- in writing these raqaim may study into 2. Xo of useful or very reliable return of the total revenue Orissa during the seventeenth century can first be c(m- stnuted.ORISSA IN THE SEVENTEEXTH CENTURY. and some of the figures quoted below are probably unreliable or incorrectly transcribed in the Persian MSS.W).

1799.025 1.39.70. c of Orissa. !"*— 1657. (Ramusio) Jawivandas.525. lis.16 I4'-I44 Z ^ 1648 1654 1665 „ lis. 1707 „ Ks. 48. 12. but <of elearly wrong-.D.. List of Diirans of Orissa. Or. uf For the Kkulasnt. 10th and all lHh of ihe above figures are viz.220 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. 56. * iKuads. lis.000 35. (Oastur-ul-aml used bv Thomas) (Khui.Akban \ \ li. 50. \\. derived from tlie same source. is Khula.70.500 35. 414) 1707 A. 47.500 43.02.500 ' "^/"r-ul-aml I ' used bv nomas ) 72.43.Hoi-ut-tawaiilh* figures given inrorrert. The Diwans and Theik Method of Ueve-nie Administr. lis.4S7) ("astur-ul-aml Br. livc<l at Jialeshwar.D. :U. tawarikh.70.625 (Bcrnier. Ivlii. 57. an ()ffi(»ial return.70.500 35. * 1690 C iMus. dismissed.00. Revenue 1594 A. xiv. in 5 India Offue Mb. 32^) c 1697-1707 Ks. Ks. 1641 f 5") 1695-1700 KS. It will 35. The amount mentioned in the The rather higli by Bernier and Manucci are not necessarily may be due to the efficient administration Khan-i-Dauran and Murshid Quli Khan respectively. Tvpugi^'f .\tion. lis. Mian Muhammad -laji.3. be seen that the 5th. M-e \n\ Indin Aurangzib : Statiitia.70. c 1695 A.07.01.000 Padishklmamah ii.sat-ut. Khan-i-Dauran. afterwaids (1661) appointed land-agent of the Subahdar. P Tieiienthaler. / Ain-i.21. lis. 9th. 7n) < „ „ „ KS.D..275 ' ' (Man.a-ci.

Muhammad relling with Ilashim. from the Court by the IJaghunath). the pr(tvince had passed at the ead of Shah Jahan's the loss of financial papers. Mil /. Bakhslii. . as diwaii also. otherwise inefficient^ we cannot account tor their rapid succession and frequent dismissal. the revenue departcondition- ment was in a very unsatisfactory first and confused have been during the few years of Aurangzib's reign. c. 1663. 1<IG1. officiates Ibrahim. officiating Imperial Chancellor no doubt charged witli a mission to reform the administration of the depart- ment and realize the State dues fulh'. March ^luhammad Tahir.Julv. October. diwan. he reached the \\\ piovince with a contempt for his predecessors office- and a deep-rooted suspicion that the Subahdar Jiad been roldiiiig the State in collusion with the local diwans. dismissed province. c.a t October. dismissed. The Subahdar wrote ta him (III 1st "Your predecessors were- . A permanent diwan arrived in March 1661 Proud and in the person of Muham- mad Hashim. died iii 1661 t!ie c. 221 Mil Ismail. October. Muhammad Hashim. energy of (Ka^ah a This man^set to work with the proverbial of having been appointed new broom. started by rudely quar- Khan-i-Dauran. ? Muhammad Taqi. 1665 — Owing to the political disturbances through which reign. 1661. Some Wi the provincial diwans seem to slack or dishonest. 1660.OKISSA I\ THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. and the appointment of an almost entirely new staff of officials. 1660 — March. 1664 — 1665 Khwajah Muhammad Mumiii.

\ Ml <. You have summ<med As Khan-i-Dauran wrote to him. and in case is the allegation found true. send the men immediately back [Then follows *' to Katak of do their former work.HA]> INDIA. W\' learn a little hiter that their pay had b(M>n stopped on the plea of checking the accounts! . starving ian (cash pay) according to the regulations. and has since then been living at Jajpur on account of ill-health. You write that the amil of parganah collected in Karmul has misappropriated some mcmey that mahal. artillery. see also The new diwan seems to have set himself iip as a centre of defiance to the provincial governor's authority." 147.) (Pp. You have called for their papers." diwan's conduct. have come away from the outposts where they were You should come here quickly and grant them stationed. has usurped and appropriated to himself sonie villages in the parganah of Sarsatibisi.] a censuie the The men of the imperial through n<m-payment of their salary. I order an inquiry to be made. What objection can I possibly have to giving them to you Muhammad Jan gave up his office l<»ng 'i ago. Muhammad Jan and Mil Ismail. Have you the employes of the Mint to Hariharpur. You complain that Mir Ibrahim. 141." man will be beaten to make him disgorge 142—145. Emperor to set up a Mint received any order from the ihere 1o ^ If not. the the money. What will his agents have into tlie collected from that paiganah be paid imperial treasury.STIDIES I. 4uul introduced confusicm into the executive '* government. 142. 14(>.) (Pp. Bakhshi.

He when a candidate used to transact business in this way for revenue-collectorship (kroii) accepted the post.OKISSA IX THE SEVENTEENTH CENTIKY. man appeared. paper] two-fold in some places and three-fold in others. . 22'J Even ii. dismissed the former collector. another After a short time. oftering a higher to the sum to the and he was sent as collector parganah. Ivhan-i-Dauran wrote to Aurangzib " : — The mahals to desolation of crown-land (khalsa) have been duced an and their aft'airs have fallen into con(faslikJiis) fusion. but kept them full of anxiety and distracti<m as to the He has thus increased the revenue [on State demand. the diwan. the capricious considerate and methods of Muhammad As re- llashim spelt ruin to the imperial administration. a him promise ihe first I: in writing to pay a larger revenue than for. by reason of the harsh assessment of amount of revenue and the neglect of attention to details by Muhammad Hashim. taking money for himself from this man. and Hashim Khan. man was secured for the same post. on Hashim Khan and signing a bond The {inuchalla) for the payment of a larger revenue! the zamindars. The villages have been ruined by his harsh exacti(ms. tori had engaged After a still little third Slate. before he could learn unsuitable : about the (actual) yield of the place. appointed the second man and made more time. Hashim Khan used to impose on him the (paper) assessment of the parganah and send him there. headmen (chaiiKhan never informed his giving a bribe to • tlhuris) and ryots about this assessment (jo ma-band i). in the department of revenue collection.

died on 2nd June. the latter wrote the Imperial Chancellor to remove him and appoint This was done. cltdudlniris." 64. arrived in person to make a to the ryots. pages 89 106. unable to pay. of them. hroris. When Muhammad Hashim settlement [hand-o-bast). 1662 Governor's letter Raghunath.. already brought death's door by his oppression and it. harsh exactions. (januiif/ocs and zamindars. me to report the grievances of the who. have barely succeeded in keep(Pages G-i. road- guards. is On page 20:» of the Muraqat-i-llas. have died under blows. [mostly] fled on hearing the news of Some unable to pay the deiHand. 1660). .^an *' the proclamation by which the fauj^Iars.224 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. The pro-Islamic ordinances in issued by Aurangzib early his reign and described in my History of Avrangziby given the text of A'olume III.) of t') As Muhammad Hashim refused to follow the advice Khan-i-Dauran and reform his ways. ing body and soul together. having sold their wives and cliildreu. [fully] It is impossible for ryots. to whom the was addressed.. have tied [trom tlieir homes] and the villages have turned into a wilderness. thanahdars^ gvtnashtaJ(<\>i jof/iidars. 13. Islam ix Okissa.. either late in or early in 166^3 (as Ilajah another cliwan (page 65). while the lyots. of the entire sithah of Orissa" are told that His Majesty the Emperor abolished the duty on " the commodities mentioned had v\ the following schedule. ferrymen. were enforced in Orissa also. most others are in prison." for the good of his subjects. am Us.

94. was notorious for the castration of children and their sale as eunuchs by their mercenary parents. in every province and important uuiJifasib of town.s. 15 JSf . {^v^x\•eti''s Ain-i-Ahhaii. giri. Rajah Raghunath Khatri. 225 and that these officers should abstain from levying the taxes and should keep the roads open for the transit of gcods. ])ut we know from (See page other sources what the abolished duties were. who was missed for misconduct and violation of canon law. and Muhammad Ghaus. 75. Shaikh Junaid was appointed duties are Katak. Orissa.) 1G68 Aurangzib issued a general order forbidding wicked practice throughout his empire. in 1665.126. In this {Masii—i-Alainthe write to the Governor Khan-i-Dauran. III. Of the Katak we Sayyid find two names Ralimatnllah. on pain of imperial displeasure and chastisement. The schedule »S0 is not given in my MS. like many other parts of Eastern India. 9o. 11. who succeeded him both as qazi and mir-i-adil.) he had made him that in Orissa many people used to castrate their . of my Hixtory of Auiangzib. a " letter by order " telling Even some years earlier Imperial Chancellor.) Tlie beginning of Aurangzib's reign saw the strict and (Vnsor of Public Morals {mtihMxih) enjoyed by Islamic {qazi) restoration of the offices of Canon Law Judge rule and his precedent. : on page 196. and described III. (Pages 192—195 and 125.) (See also qazis of dis- History of Aurangzih.OKISSA IX THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 4 daily. on a salary of Rs.M. Yol.) At the end of the sixteenth century..

Khani-Bauran replied. dated 13th Decenibei. that Slnija liad forbidden it during his viceroyalty.sJi). of one named Nur-tank in parganah Karmul. 76. " Shaikh Uar-khurdar. in accordance witli of former governors. and that the subahdar should put a stop to the practice immediately on the receipt of this imperial order. pages of 78. ..226 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. enjoys as his t»adad-i-)i>asJi a village yielding Es.r. The papers sent by the Khan-i-Klianan(/. For the last 24 years he has been enjoying as his wadad-i-mash a village named Darbast-Jasra in parganah Kasijuiah tlic saiwd!< in that saikar. They say that it has never been done in this province from ancient times to this.) Chief Sadar of the empire. a member the Xaqshbandi order and a holy monk of Katak. but found no trace of tliis practice. Mir Jumla) to the diwan of this subah show the village Please move the Emperor to as resumed to the State." (Ivhan-i-Dauran to the Imperial Chancellor.) restore this faqir's grajit. " Shaikh in Abul Khair lives like a datvish in a monastery the village of Qutbpur in milcar Goalpar. sons. 79.) The Muhammadan of their faith as rulers of India used to make grants of rent-free land to the holy men and scholars "help to subsistence" (madad-i-ma." (Pages 75. sarlar Katak. " I have made careful inquiries. in I recommend for him the additional grant from the income of the chahutra of or <jhat officer) Rupee daily the mit'-i-hahur (admiral to the of Katak. Several instances of this system are given in the Mnia(iut. page AVe also have a parwanah. 317 a year." (Khan-i-Dauran 124.

v// Katak. Every whether (lol-house built during the last 10 or 12 years. kiffris. lie and amla.... village in pargaiiah liaqaiahad.>v//7. commanded with extreme letter u!t." Page 202 gives the following M his agent Muhammad joneral •vol sjiip : order for the demolition of Hindu places of " To all faujilms. The f Miita<2(it also tluows light on Aurangzib's policy (hi teniple-destiuction. to Medinipnr on frontier of The impel ial Paymaster Asad news-letter. infidels to repair ^-'-••• heir old temples. Therefore.. '227 I(jG5.* Khan has f sent a letter written by or<ler of the Emperor. on Hakim lliiliammad Kafi. Also. Page 200. itiiifa. (Diiteiiing a inadad-i-inas]. n say that the Emperor..<a*hlis.(ii(y ihat i.<)uld immediately on the receipt of this the you destroy above-mentioned temples.Hindus and. learning from the the piovince of Oiissa that at the village of Tilkuti jii Medinipur a temple has been [in'wly] august mandate for all its built.ORISSA I. has issued his i destruction and the destruction temples built anywhere in this province by the. page 172 the governor writes Jan: "The destruction of the cmple of Kendrapaia and the building of a mosque there lias greatly pleased me. w ith biick or day.. . you aie ifidcls. should be demolished without delay."' .N THE SEVEXTEKXTH CEXTURY. do not allow I tiv . lie Reporis of the destruction of temples -liould • sent to the Court under the seal of the lid attested by pious Shaikhs. tluniaJidni s.^ from Katak Orissa. agents of jtujirdara.

) Talmal.) o\\ IJenmna. Katak. the frontier of ^Jayurblumj. 24 miles west of lihadrak and Killali miles west of Amboh. Ivatjliuri liver.i{Ai*iii( Ai- Notes.) South of Lake 85. or subcHvisious.) r\. 59." CliilkiK 19. 14. 41.) G. 109. Sarang-gaih and Sandhahpnr [' Saraiigeili 7. (Page IG-}. G2. l-'^.228 STUDIKS IX MUGIIVL INDIA.] 145. Stirling's list is the nearest ap]>roa<li to wliicl) in /(/(' ill.) 4. 181.. tlie Katjhnii river. each uivdcr i : faujdar.:?:5X (Pp. -') west of the- Baitarani. Stirling .) Keonjhar {Muraqat^ {\y. (P. from Medinipur (Pp. beyond the (P. IGO. " Malud. 156. 9. are incidentally mentioned in Wia } lit a qat — Chakla Medinipur. ' :iinl of Stirling. Padishahnagar.) I'aiicliira. (P.) of Pnri. Five miles north-west of Balasore. Pachhera (P. it stood at the gate of tlie kingdom of Keonjhar when proceeding from the east. 52. on the frontier facing the Deccan. 81. to XarayaniV\\. Aliin- We also learn tlial Soroh was on the frontier of of Bhadrak and Lakhanpur on that As to Khalilnf or pp.19K. . page 49. (Pp. 49) as- Mughal thanahs. beyond Twenty-two miles due north 5. 2. r« The following faujdaiis 1. All the above are mentioned by Stirling (48. 52.188. Pipli Niiir. with ffhir SJi I the exception of PadixfiaJniaf/ai. garh. l(i2.) 82.\)*i- Kaililot.T. Toi'0(. Suntrapur 8. :{8. 158.

south-west of Balasore. 229 uu utious the zamindaii of Kalirote as " a Hill Estate.\ ii-. — 19 miles south-west west of Katak. — •* Mootooree ** of the Atlas. ifyiri.\ I UK >>K\ K. habiparah. — The old fort stands 5^ miles west of the Khurda Boad station.) 8 miles due east of Berhampur.iv^\ i. — Gurr Kalloparra " of Indian Atlas. Separated from Orissa I'i. Kujaiuf. I^an pur. — On the south bank of tlie ^lahanadi.— 20 Ay. Dompata. 85. — On railway midway between Balasore and Bhadrak. Tahnal.27N. Mahpora.r)l.diwn. ibout 1T'{0. linni. -. Khurda. Mufti. mile north- -west of Kalloparra. — Nine Mayurbhanj .—Ai the north-east corner 15 miles north-west west of Puri.\ Xarsinghpur.4N. of Lake Chilka. milfs south of IJaripada (in the Hariharpui. — North of the Mahanadi 20.-UE. line. Khurdiha. '* >lieet 116. 5 miles south-east of the Khurda Road 1 station. 2 miles of Kalloparra.25E.uth-west — " Gurr gorodhea "" of the Atlas.(.29E. —On the seacoast.Garh. 2-3 miles south-west west of Katak. 7E.KN 1 H (INirifY. MdiiiyuryaiJi. — Eleven miles the Soroh. — Eleven miles south south-east of Dompara. Hari. now under the Cianjam Disiriet. —20. on the seacoast.14E. — I find a ^/ans^tt-Kofa 12 miles south- ufst of Ganjam and State. 86." Fifteen miles due north of Ganjam Town. 86. 20. . 85.

) — Fourteen is- miles north of Kalikot. —Along — the seacoast. due north-east of Balasore. north of Point Pal- myras and south of 21X.INDIA. " Khulardah of Aila. "' in Aflfis. Bluinpuf. Latitiule. Kaniha.^ .230 STUUIKS IN MlcaiAI. KulraJi. 107. '" 8 luilos soiitlt south-east of Katak. (Sheet Raicata. across the (Sheet llo.<. —There a pargauah " IJaootrah river.

their true . devoting only ten pages to the reign of a sovereign wlio was of names of persons and and official changes But it is a small volume. For these porary history latter points the most valuable contemis of Aurangzib ^lughal cities the S ushha-i-Dilhasha a hereditary written by a civil life Hindu named Bhimsen. Family IIistoky. and visited most places of India from Cape Comorin to Delhi. of one year of the aft'airs one of the most active and ambitious rulers in the world and effected India is such momentous changes India alike. and often . Khan only three years after that Emperor's It is invaluable for dates. and administrative regulations. who was of officer the Government. passed his in the Mughal and camps of the Deccan. This work contains very important.A GREAT HINDU MEMOIR-WRITER. causes and effects. places. a dry list Xorthern and Southern A chapter of this work therefore usually of official appointments and changes (exactly of like the a bare Government Gazettes It tells the present day) and summary of events following one another in rapid succession.D.) was written from State papers and personal recollections by Muhammad Saqi Mustaid death. the proper seqxience of events. the condition of the people and the state of the country. us nothing about the real circum- stances under which the events took place. The complete official liLstory of the reign of the Emperor Aurangzib (1657-lTOJ A. I.

The liibliotheque Xa- and a complete copy (Suppl. He had every expectation of being appointed chief Diwan of the Empire. in ending abruptly with the capture of Golkonda (No. 1658).) Bhimsen's father. 1794. the Assistant Diwan.) tionale. The is copy belonging less to the India Office Library.) Xo otlier MS. (Shrewsbury. of it 259.232 STUDIES IX Ml'UHAL INDIA. Itay-i-rayan liaghuall nath Uai. has anotlier ICST. Blochet's Catalogue 602. deserted to the prince. 23). Ethe's Catalogue 445. Paris. Gokuldas. many historical personages and the events of the time and topographical details. London. An abridged and incorrect English translation of a part of of Journal of a it was published under the title Boondelah Officer. The British of complete manuscript hastily but correctly written {Or. correct and covers only the first half of the book. of was appointed the title Diwan of (Chancellor) ( Mughal Deccan with Honesty) in 1657. . is J<nown to exist. has a JJilkasJia. and lived at that capital with the court till Dianat Ray = Baron his death in 1664. Raghunandandas was one of the six sons of Jivmal. Deccan during his march accompanied Aurangzib from the northwards to contest the throne of Delhi. the other five being Bliagwandas. Haridas and Dharamdas. but when Aurangzib confined his (dd father in Agra Fort (June. Shj^amdas. London. a Kayastha of the Saksena section. the highest position Of these Bhagwandas rose to lie then open to a Hindu. unique information about ^Juseum. 94. in Jonathan Scott's History of the Deccan. who had been doing the duties of the Imperial Diwan.

at Bhimsen was born capital of Khandesh) in Burhanpur on the Tapti (the Samvat 1705 (1649 A. of Shanibhunath I. siiul his timely treacheiy was rewaidcHl by his bcin^ given the post of the chief <»ut the Diwan (jf the Empire. in ler to pass his old age in religious meditation.Dharamdas das Har Rai Bhimseu Jogram Sukhraj Makarand I I I I I Sitaldas I [ I I I Hai 1 I I iJayaldas (d. ' the Deccan.D. tlie Genealogy of fauiUy. michand Himmat Rai lit I I Hamir Sen son or Braja- drink) Dip Rai t i I bhushan I Jivan Rai Son d.). in Ganesh Rai infancy II. < <i That was an eventful year (1657). The lown of Delhi was changing hands and the boy retained vivid recollection of the *' rumours of war " in Xorthem . Early Like.UKAT lilMH MKMOIlt-WiaTKK. and «t the age of eight he left this place to join his father at Aurangabad. dying Aurangabad in 1674. though withThus Dianat Eay lost his highest hope. Jiv — I I I Mai I I I Bhagwandas-Dianat Ray Shyamdas I Gokuldas Uaghunaiidan i Han. a post which he resigned about 1670. IJaghunamlan was mu-iharraf of the imperial artillery title.A (.

while his office work was being actually done by a youth of 21. in tlie division of Daud Khan Mabud.^/ianaf of the Imperial Drink and Betel leaf Departments. Then. India that agitated the citizens of Aiirangabad. Young Bhimsen had now to look out for some employment and turned to many patrons of his family. The death of Dianat all Eay Delhi (1664) dashed down to the ground the hopes of high promotion cherished by his family. At the age of ten he paid a fort in his father's at visit to the Nasik oaves and Tiimbak.! tJie post of mushanaf of muster and branding of horses (iuraishi. for seven years he acted as his Kaghunandan was growing himself unable to attend his old weak. he resigned (1670). and felt office and and do his duties as tnusJianaf of Artillery. under the care of his father. no very high post. but died in a few the younger son of Dianat Ray. had to <(» immediately under Mir Abdul lie the u Paymaster {hahhshi) of that general.2. At Aurangabad lihimsen received his education in Persian from liis ninth to his fifteenth year.)4 STUDIES IN MLCillAL INDIA. Avas Then Sukhraj. large bribe to get the post ]>ay and had also run u\U> debt to engage and equip followers in a o!:' manner worthy his post at and mansab. but met him on the way and relurned . appointed iini. lie started for Daud Khan's cinup . His eldest son Jogram was appointed by the Emperor iniixhanaf of the Elephants. but in vain. At last he secure. company. father's deputy. Fearing that the Emperor would be angry if he heard that Raghunandan was staying at home. years.luuuar.

w as separated from the army and in great danger of being^ Dhodap. and they set oft' together northwards to the Tapti in pursuit of Dilir Khan. But now a bitter quarrel broke out between the Prince and his general Dilir Khan^ the latter being supported by piojected expedition . But Maharajah Bhimsen's new post was abolished. Sept.A GUEAT IIIXDU MEMaiU-WUITP:i{. ( ut off': but he was saved by niercenarv of the Xur Khan. Daud Khan was detached the Prince to intercept Shivaji on his return from the- second loot of Surat. tho Viceroy of the<t) to the p(>st. 1670. Official Employmext. Thus the under Daud Khan was abandoned. Then he went with Daud Khan's force to' Xasik and Ahmadnagar. who had formerly beert . A l>\ few days afterwards.ind Daud Khan. as clerk {pe. After some time the Khaij marched to Ankai Tankai (near the Manmad junction) to check the Marathas who- were active near the forts of the Chandor range. and then returned to- Aurangabad.. with liim to Aurangabad to tlie court of Prince Muazzam. Bhinisen accompanied this army Bakhshi in addition to his former and was present at the battle of Yani-Dindori in which the Mughals were defeated by Shivaji with heav\' slaughter. III. laswant Singh very kindly took him into his service. a Muhammadair Maratha armv. Bhinisen took this opportunity of revisit- ing his birthplace Burhanpnr. such as Thence he hastened into Baglana to raise During this march our author the siege of Salhir.

foi' many years afterwards. After a time Bahadur Khan.arrived too lato to save Salhir from being captured by Shivaji. but his high-placed friends helj)ed him with money. Jaswant bad inductlie ed the Prince to make thi>* pioposal. Ihit through machinations of the the Ilindii favourites of new commander-in-chief on a son of of the Deccaii. the new Viceroy of the Deccan. In the course of the pursuit of the Marathas who had raided Eamgir (JarrisJi (110 miles north-east of llaidaiabad) in a Xovember. 1672. Daiid Khan . . liar Pal and father Paghunandan. was son of (•(uif erred Biiiidaban Dara's The cup was tlius snatched away from the lips oi Bhimsen and he had to pass a long time in unemployment and distress. the post (the Mahabat Khan. that style " "even great nobles could not ! as he brags Bui a succession : of bereavehis uncle ments overtook him soon afterwards Gokuldas his (a he lost few years earlier). (1672) gave that post to Bhimsen and he held it diwan). his brother Sitaldas.sJinrraf oi minster dixl hnindniy. Bhimsen had with a marvellous a<lventui<^ whi( h readij like a romance. but continued fighting near the loi Chandor nuige some time and took the fort of Abivant. For the next in great happilive in two years he made mu( h money and lived ness and comfort. A ed letter now an ived from the Emperor acceptijig the Prince's recomnien(hition that lihimsen should be appointiini. then and liar Pai's father Shyamdas.IX MlCiUAI. INDIA.2'-l(J STIDIKS. bcfiieiided by his futlicr ist Aurangabad.

s Dalpat Rao Btxdkla. So. he- adopted as his own.A GllKAT HIXDU MEMOIU-WUITKU." Lands yielding Rs. left .s) and went to live with his family at Xaldurg. evidently in Bundelkhand. the Bundela chief- and an important general in Aurangzib'saimy. a fort a 25 miles norlh-east of Sholapur. to Aurangzib's foremost general Zulfiqar who was lieutenant Khan Bahadur Nusrat Jang (the son of Asad Khan). 1688^ son was born to him and luinicd Sliambhunath but Biajabhushan. In the company of Dalpat Rao. Bhimsen Naldurg and joined At this place the Mughal army at Shoiapur. left his (jffice duties In 1G86 Bhimsen. tired of work. 237 For a long time Bliiinsen had In't-u diildless. like his eldest IV. he wa» taken into the service of Dalpat Kao. In 1678 this little child was married. tain of Datia not seem to have resigned his post in the imperial army.Soon afterwards. in the imperial army to be discharged by his agents {(/umasJifa.Mughal array . as his private secretary and " man of business. lo be soil. whom he had ailoptcd as his son. 12.] 'I'he connection thus begun continued till Dalpat's death eiufhteen vears later.. The siege of this fort by tlie . Here in . continued cherished as a member of his family. Sekve.000 a year were given to him as [Bhimsen does his salary. who was born astroh)gers in 1671 and named I'micliand by the and Brajabhushan by our author. our author marched through jungles to Jinji (in the South Arcot District)' iu 1691. a son of his youngei hrother SitahUis.

(s sooi) abandonod (for a time). and he has extremely valuable descriptions of tv\() but wiir tiicni as tlicy liuudie<l and thirty years ago. But the wars of Auraugzib had made the . avIio had set up any medical knowledge. tent at the Bhimsen foot of write llist<ny in his loiig Panhala. and Dalpat with liliiui- sen went to AVandiwasli and then to Madias for treatment under the celebrated European doctors of the place. and as a doctor without hence his failure I [Stoiia-do Mogor. says that Dalpat's agent Avas deceived by a selfisli middleman and •did not consult liim but Avent to some other quack. v/. tlic ol- and our author joined him. and on his return he stopped at Xaldurg. Pandharpur. 18 miles south-east of it. enforced liis During the began to idleness the siege. To this district Dalpat Bao came after the fall of 'linji in 1698. of 1G98.2^8 STUDIES IN MU{JHAL INDIA. 1-")1). The Italian traveller Xiccfdao ^lanucci. The Eao was not cured and returned after losing much money. a About the middle to besiege Mughal army was of sent Panhala. During journeys of these eight years. Bhimsen visited most the famous tem]dcs and cities of tlie Madras Presileft sliort dency and Northern India. a fort 10 miles north of Kolhapur.) The business of Dalpat Rao biouglit Bhimsen from Madras to tlie imperial camp at Brahmapuri on the Bhima to river. iii. only to c(mie for the mariiage of his son Xaldurg again Shanibhu- uatli (celebrated at t) Jiuji Haidarabad.) liis Soon after g'u'ng back to he retraced steps and travelled Agra on a mission of Dalpat Bao. After finishing he returned quickly to Jinji.

a war broke Bhim- t)Ut between the two sons of Dalpat for the gadi. After trying in he succeeded in A-ain for a post under Bahadur Shah I. Last Years. 2-)9 Dec'caii desolate. and then retired to Datia with Ills all hopes crushed. To make matters worse. 16 set out t'l .WKITEH. who was hundred. at first to sent his wlif)le family from Xalding. safe to live amidst sueh anar(•h^^ was not Bhimsen. 20 miles south seize Delhi and Agra. who was Our author. (8th June. he was defeated and slain by his elder brother Bahadur Shah I. i! As the right-hand man of Dalpat. silting on the same elephant behind the Rao. Y.i ( with his army miles south of Agra. though wounded. burnt his master's body at Dliamsi. getting his sons Brajabhushan and Shambhunath enrolled . of Agra. famine uiul disorder raged everywhere. therefore. most influential partisan of Azam Shah. But now he was thrown out of employment and put his patron to great distress for his daily bread. Auranga- bad and then to Dalpat Kao's capital Datia (1706).REAT HINDI MEMOIR. annon ball passed through the body of Dalpat Rao killing him and wounding in the arm Bhimsen. his Xoxl <i year Aurangzib third son Azam owned himself in the Deccan and But at -Jajau. 1707. sen in disgust left Datia with his family and came to fxwalior.. died.A '. It the government seemed to have collapsed. Bhimsen had five been created hj that prince a commander of if had and he would have risen still higher triumphed at Jajau.) On that fatal field.

narrate their true causes and effects. (ac petty clerks) in tlie service of Prince Khujista Aklitar Jalian Shah. ]ihimsen knew couhl afford to tell it.240 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. life of religious medita- We may know nothing of his death. As A Wkitkh. and returned home to lead a tion. and accurate personal obserA'ation and As Mughal army of the Deccan and the friend officers. ]hirhanpur and to Auranga- bad make inquiries and write A'l. me. through the kind help of Ray-i-rayan Griijar Mai. many generals and other high he secured cora State secret^ tlie rect official information Avliile and learnt many his situation at a distance from the throne and to fact of his History not having been written for the omit Emperor's eyes placed him above the temptation oi' disguise facts discreditable to the Government liis or write He- a fulsome eulogy on the Emperor and i-^ courtiers. Above his account of many . Gwalior. thus free from the worst defects of the official histories- Mughal emperors. nor of the after histoiy of his family. His !< tlie reflective mind tlu. and eyes Hindu of a creed enabled spectat(U' to him at look with of neutral events Aurangzib's reign and all. He has also given of the the trutli and true sketches of the characters of the various historical personages of the time and ])oinfcd out their defects. liut the genealogical tree given above if be a means of tracing his living descendants^ my readers at Datia. The value a clerk in the of of Bhimsen's History lies in his extensivehis position.

tender. but plenty of accurate observation and concise but clear statement of These are rare qualities in a Persian all essential points. — such as the prices of food. a The character of Bhimsen as his Memoirs without any disguise. no pro- fuse wordiness. but we also see his strong fidelity his devotion to his kith man is unfolded in We see his weakness. Indeed. writer. no round-about expression. " the style in which there are no useless flowers of rhetoric. lov- ing social gaiety but also deeply touched by sorrow. frank and serene. his love of children his devout faith in Hinduism. S. Things which the pompous day scorned to official mention. is For Deccan history in the late ITth century. 241 incidents of the Mughal warfare of valuable as the reports the " in the Deccan is as Eye witness " in the is present European war. it is the man. and the social life of the official class. to friend and master.A GREAT HINDU MEMOIR -WRITER. he our only source of historians of the detailed information about them. he invaluable. unpretentious. the amusements of the people.— are described here only." then we must be true that highly praise this master of a simple business-like prose. 16 .M. and and kin. the condition of the roads. Bhimsen was a charming If character.

23. by Ish war-das of manuscript is Patan Of the latter only one known to exist in the world.AN OLD HINDU HISTORIAN OF AURANGZIB. which I intend to publish. a Ivayasth. The great importance in of these two at historians lies not only their looking the reign through the the eyes of contemporary Hindus. written ill Persian but by Hindus. a Nagar Brahman and inhabitant in the of the Patan in the suhah of Gujrat (now dominions). as the Chief to Qazi of the Empire. It contains 329 pages of 11 lines each. and the other the Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri composed in Gujrat. born is Burhanpur. viz. Aurangzib ing in accompany tlie Emperor camp and court alike. One at is the Nusliha-i-Dilhasha by Bhimsen. and Ishwar-das in used history directly from the the "train of his master got good opportunities of learntlie true facts of Indian chief officials of the time or their servants. but not near enough city of to the throne to be lying flatterers.D. Gaekhis war's 8haikh-ul-Islani from youth up This Shaikh. but also in their living near enough to the great Mughal historical events officers to learn of tlie time accurately. There are two extremely valuable contemporary histories of Aurangzib's reign (1657-1707 A. Additional No. I have made a full translation of it into English.884..). British Museum Pers. We know as from the the official record of Aurangzib's reign (entitled that Mnsir-i-Alamgiii) Shaikh-ul-Islam acted . Isliwar-das. MS. served to his 30th year.

and his history was completed in 17-U. This position brought Ishwar-das into frequent contact with tlie Eathors and. As he Avas in his 30th year at this time he must have been born in 1655 A. mnl Ish war-das now took service under Shujaet Khan who was Viceroy of Gujrat from 1684 to 1701. finally to Muhamfled to Akbar. leaving his infant son Buland Akhtar and daughter Safiyat-un-nissa in hands of the liajputs. from December 1675 to November ( a Borah) when he resigned his post on account of the Emperor rejecting his advice not to fight with brother- AVahhab Muslims ber like the sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda. as he tells us in his History. 243 iliief Qazi in succession to his deceased father Abdul 108^3. that Aurangzib's fourth son. It is interest- ing to note that Khafi Khan's famous history of the also Mughal Empire was this date. rebelled in 1681..AN OLD HIXDL HISTOUIAX Oh Al KAXGZIB. when he was seventy-six years old. a strong friendship sprang up between him and them. of official From reward this <ause came all his life's chance and elevation to the rank of a mansahdar. the Shaikh set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca.D. These were tenderly . but being defeated Maratha court (and tlie Persia). as that would be a sin according to the Quran. 1678. In Decem- 1084. We mad the know. completed Avithin four years of Shujaet shiqdar Khan employed Ishwar-das in as auiin of and the (revenue-collector) certain maJial^^ Jodhpur paiyanali which the Emperor had annexed on the death of Jaswant Singh in December.

c. Durgadas's) days of suffering were over — and his happy days arrived. he would send Safiyat-un-nissa Begam to the Imperial Court. by order of the Khan visited Durgadas. up in a secret nook by Durgadas Rathor. the Emperor's reply. confirmed him good resolution. the young heir biouglit to the Jodhpur throne. letter 80 (in 1698) he sent a if to the author of this book.. Durgadas was worn out by the constant war with the Jlughals and the devastation of his country.244 STUDIES IN MUGHAL IXDIA. the guardian and cliampion of Ajit Singli. she asked him lo accompany Arrived there. The rest of the story : we shall give in the words ot Ishwar-das " His {i. in his persuaded him with wise" advice. stating that Shujaet Khan gave him a home from harm pending safe-conduct and spared his the Emperor's orders on his petition (for forgiveness). difficult who was living in a place ex- tremely of access.. the her to the Ipiperial Court Begam informed Aurangzib that Durgadas had been so attentive to her as to get for her a Muhammadan tutoress from Ajmir.e. Aurangzib was ever eager to recover his grand-children and thus preserve his family- honour. At the same time. acceded to the proposal on the arrival of The P^mperor at once The author (?. Ishwar-das). for conducting the princess to her grand- services As the Begam had been pleased with his slave's and arrangements. under whose tuition she had already read the . and return- ing to the Khan. took proper escort and conveyances back with him father.

The Prince and Durgadas were conducted by the author to Surat. him '20Cf horse in rank (zat). (Ihilat). the Emperor ordered him to be ushered unarmed (like a prisoner or suspect).. mahah assignee] came with me to Ahmadabad. and committed it to memory. I was honoured with an audience and reported Durgadas's prayer to receive a mansab and allowance. both to welcome him and alst) to teach him But the Prince continued to behave like a dumb and awkward clownish lad. Xext day. too. I took solemn oaths on behalf of the Khan. 245 Quran. " Tell me whxit Durgadas wants Y " The Begam answered that Ishwar-das knew it. Repeatedly visiting Durgadas. . and the court doctors failed to remedy his defect. and sent to bring and reassured his mind with promises. Ishwar-das) was also created a commander of in his private . the friend of Shujaet Khan. on himself pancanahs conferring jafjirs on ami being put in actual possession of the to him. where many officers deputed by the Emperor met the Prince in advance. When Durgadas arrived at the portico of the Audience Hall. This fact convinced the Emperor of Durgadas's devotion and induced him to forgive all his past oftences. The imperial grace gushed forth and he asked. His Majesty at once ordered me to be presented to chamber by Qazi Abdullah. It was granted and this humble atom (i-e. invested with a robe of honour Buland Akhtar and Durgadas to the presence On my return to Ahmadabad I was rewarded by Shujaet Khan.AX OLD HINDU HISTORIAN OF AURAXGZIB. without court-etiquette. Durgadas. getting Durgadas.

appearing like captive of war or criminal under arrest. [the.{50-'{51. author. a merely theatrical action. to be united.246 STUDIES IX MUGHwVL INDIA. of by appear- It was. We of know nothing further book tells of our The ecdophon us that he . will remember how the representatives of Calais had to make submission to Edward ing with halters round their necks. a jagir in Mairtha (in So. finance- ministei'] Riihullah Khan was advance and 'present him. and gave him a jewelled dagger. p. — and an order on Imperial Treasury for one lalxh of rupees. His Majesty now graciously ordered Durgadas's arms. Mirat- also supported by the Persian his i-Ahviadi. the him The Khan conducted him ordered to meet a in to a Emperor had after binding his wrists together with handkercliief. with an actual contingent of 2. and a string of pearls. oflfender to [This was mummery by which The reader the citizens III. intended to soothe the imperial dignity].()0()| horse (in rank. was favoured by the Emperor wi<li a robe of honour and a promotion of 50 horsemen in rank and ten troopers in his actual following^ and was given The author.)" became a commander of 250 horse in rank.500 troopers). too. Ishwar-das Marwar. a moment's hesitation or objection. west of Ajniir. His Majesty ordered him to come in with his arms on ! When lie entered the tent. the a beg the royal pardon. a padoh (gold tlu^ pendant). promoted him to be a commander of ^i. in Mughal India. took his sword oft'^ Hearinfif this. in rewaid of his success in diplomacy. . of himself is This account history.

AX OLD HINDU HISTORIAN" OF AURAXGZIB... a Persian work entitled Dastur-nJ-aml-i-Shahanshahi mentions a certain Lala Sahib. we can conclude that our author in his old age composed his reminiscences of the grand times in which he had lived. the son of Ishwar-das. 1143 A. . Captivity of Fannan of to Murad and fall of Dara and Shuja." Xovr. H.D. .. appointing him Subahdar (48a) Bengal Shivaji's early doings . Jai vSingh Shivaji's audience with the Emperor and (526) . .: — Praises of God and of the Emperor (46) Author's account of his services and observation and inquiry into the history of his own times. 247 completed of it Muhammad on 21st Kabi-ul-a^rwal. ( = 1731 A. Shivaji's war with the Siddis of Janjira. for the information of his grandson.and memorial of Mehta Ishwar-das of the Xagar for the information of Lala Khush-hal... forces Shiva to submit: flight. imprisonment Shah Tahau Illness of . 12th year of the reign Shah. " as a caste. Lala Sahib was Lala Khush-hal. Defeats of Jaswant and Dara. (66) Shah Jahan first defeat of Shuja. him to tell the story of the famous Aurangzib's Contents of Ishwar-das's History with references to the folios of the MS. .). (296) Mir Jumla. . (506) Temple demolition by Aurangzib. the son of Braja If this Rai. (76) of (16a) . Jat rising near Mathura. who must have pressed reign.

(llM6) . .x (l'35a) at Sansani . of the Deccan Battle with Shiva near Salhir. . Rising of Gopal Singh Gaur near Owalior. escape of his children. liising of the Satnami sect Disasters to the imperial arms in Aff^hanistan. Abdul ().)dir (1406) Blionsla loots Siddi (1426) . (626) Deatli of Jaswant Singh. Rising of Churaman Jat Ca])ture of \{\\]y. . . (T:i6) (85tf) Reports of the war with the Rathors Prince Azam sent against Bijapnr and Shah Alam (866) (89a) into the Konkan Conquest of Golkonda Rising of Pahar Singh Gaur in Sironj (94a) (9^«^0 Conquest of Bijapur Doings of Shambhuji and Prince Akbar Prince Shah (1086) (11'36) Alam imprisoned Capture of Ramsij and Salhir Risings in Bundelkhand (1166) (1196) (120a) Desultory fighting in the Deccan Akbar's flight to Persia Rebellion of Durjan Siugh in (1216) Hada and disturbances (1226) (124a) Rajputana Capture of fort Adoni Capture of Bangalore -Tat (1276) Rising of Rajaram near Agra . . Dilir Khan disobeys Prince Sliali Alam. jaziya. (1356) Rustam Khan by Santa Ghorpare.248 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. Akbar's rebellion. Rajput war. Viceroy (586) (606) (616) .

. Flight of Eajaram. . Ish war-das has audience of the Emperor and rewarded.) . . the brother of Shambhuji. . (159ft) Aghar Khan sjain near Agra is (164ft) Submission of Durgadas. (165a) (The book ends on 169a.AX OLD HINDU HISTORIAN OF ACRANGZIB.3rt) ampaign against Shambhuji Capture and execution of Shambhu Capture of many Maratha forts » (146ft) (149ft) (156ft) . 249 Emperor treacherously destroys the eyesight of Ghaziuddin Khan Bahadur Firuz Jang with the help of the Court doctor (14.

tlie son of a Scotch advocate. He stayed having acquired a very good knowledge of French and German.WILLIAM IKVIXE. 181l\. 1878 79. William Irvine. to complete and entering for the Indian Civil Service he he was passed very high in the examination of 18G2. THE HISTOKIAX OF THE LATER MLGHALS. Provinces Civil Service in the following June. 1872 and 1875 with He next served in Farrukhabad (June —April 1879) where he rose to be Joint Magistrate. for four years (April A long furlough to Europe consunu'd more than two years. born in Aberdeen on 5th July. attached to the Xorth-Western ISG-'). and some valuable Chapters contributed to the Gazetteer of the — . He came to London when quite a child. King's College. but at nineteen. he was sent 1865 -July 1869. he eventually resigned. HIS CAIJEEH. After spending nearly a year there. was 1(S40. as Assistant Magistrate of Saha- ranpur. and the first fruits of his Axork in this line were an accurate and luminous Account of the liangash Xawwabs of Farrukhahail published in tiie Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bvnyal. He had already begun to study Indo-Muliammadan history scholarly seriousness. Arriving in India on 12th December. and after leaving school at the early age of fifteen he went into business. until he obtained an appointment in the Admiralty there for a year or two. went to his studies.) to Muzaftarnagar. London.

His keenness in revenue work and his application to detail are evidenced ow Caiial Hates versus Land Revenue pub- lished in the Calcutta Review. leaving the service ])ur. what was much more difficult. and left a memorial of his work in a blue-book. Bengal Presidency. he had become proficient in reading: . almost exactly one-fifth was spent on leave. namely for seven years. as soon as he So. however. edited by Mr. on 27th March 1888.District. and. The Settle- ment Report of by his article Gliazipni. 1869. for liis which an officer of unusual parts might have reasonably hoped. Here he first served as Settlement Officer and then as Collector. Atkinson and issued district by Government in 1880. 1869. I and a volume Entitled he Rent Digest or the Laic of Procedure relating to Landlord and Tenant. At t(» his retirement he was only and looked forward in India he many years of health and leisure which could be de- voted to literary work. His literary attainments and painstaking exertions a as revenue officer. Bnt Ghazipur was the with which he was connected longest. as Magistrate of Saharandistrict — curiously at enough the same that he had joined liis the beginning of his official career. he u'tired qualified for pension. Already while had perfected his knowledge of Persian. 251 Farruhhahad District. did not. LiTEUARY Work ix Exglaxd. 48.WILLIAM lUVIXE. Out of twenty-five years of service. bring him any of the prize posts in the Civil Service. 1886.

jUiat he made a collection of special period origiiial 3JS.. I could find only one copy in India. I first-rate Kmperor and gives life in- importance concerning his to and was happy have been able to discover another fragment of this work and to present a transcript of the it to him.^•)^ SirDIES IN Mr(iH. (that belonging to the Khuda liakhsh Library). Muhammadan had for of scribe of Bbitari i'oi Sayyidpur (Gha/ipur Transcjipts were also District). Again. though it is a work extremely characteristic of the formation of o])inions. him by presenting Persian purchased them both in India and in he kept in his pay a ]iesides. and had . which is not to be found in any public library of India or Europe. it which he happened of re<|uiied for his historical lesearches. he had iwo MSS. of the Chahar Giihluin. as could not be love made Thus for him those rare MSS. of the Anecdotes of Aurangzib [A/ikatn-l-Aldini/iri) ascribed to Jlamiduddin Khan Nimchah. sought to please MSS.. authorities on his which was unaj)proached by any the public libraries of Eurojje. Berlin. also During knowing his liis special taste. and of whos(> existence historians were unaware. lie bad also begun to collect Persian liistorical MSS.\L INDIA. or money. of the lloyal Library. to hunt and copy such Peisian MSS. career many Indian gentlemen. a rare o1 18th century volume on the topography and statistics Mughal Empire. in addition to piinted and litliographed works in I'rdu and Hindi baving even the lemotest connection with the Mughal pei ^)fticial iod. manuscripts written in that tongue. To take only one example. and he England.

and French and Portuguese Governments. of it. the orders issued by Aurangzib in his «>ld age and collected by his secretary Inayetullah Khan {^Alihnm-i-AJamgiri). 13 Xov. As Mr. he was sure to secure self.) His Later Mvgliah.. and I shall be very grateful if you can engage to any one copy for me Inayetullah Khan's of Ahkam and collection. my India of Aurangzib on this siugleBut Mr. 1918. makes mouth water. the letters of Shah Jahan and his^ library with transcripts of Mirza sons as preserved of in the Faixfaz-ul-qmcanin. After I liad made his acquaintance. Mr. — two of them havinp: been presented to him by Indian tiiends. the various fragments you have Hamiduddin's [his The Hajt Anjutnan seems to be a valuable and most unexpected discovery.VE. Thus I was the means I 'Peisian a MSS.WILLIAM Iini. 25-> to base a portion of mannscript. [ have scolded Abdul Aziz retained scribe] — whose special it !!'* hunting ground is Benares. whenever came upon any find of rare history. as well as those ot the Christian missions to the East (especially the letters of the Society of Jesu'*). — for not havftig discovered {Letter. Irvine wrote to me. Irvine planned an . Irvine possessed three MSS. and the^ epistles the Persian King Shah Abbas II.— mj- "What you tell me about your various finds of MSS. With such his possession a wealth of original Persian sources in his opening to knowledge of continental tongue* him the East Indian records of the Dutch. on Indian copy of them for him- of enriching his private- Rajah Jai Singh's lettersHaft Anjiunan).

and so conscientious workman was lie. and the Asiatic Quarterly Review. so many sources of information did he consult. in my draft. taking in the L'envoi to S. As he wrote to me on "I 2:3rd February. and his progress so often did lie verify his references. At present I have not got beyond 1738. The first draft for the years 1721 to 1738 1739' written. A. hardly likely planned I on too large a able to do is scale. that was slow and he lived to complete the narra- tive of only fourteen years out of the century he intended to embrace in his work.254 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. Novembei* 1908) of the "With the disappearance at this Sayyid brothers the story attains a sort of dramatic completeness. Chapters of The Later Muyhah appeared from time to time in the Indian Antiquary. Five years after writing the above to me. hope soon to undertake the narrative of It ncluding the invasion of Nadir Shah... There reason to believe my original intention beyond my it remaining strength. and that I decide to suspend point my is is contributions on the history of the Later a completion of I Mughals." But the work grew a in his hands. original historj^ of the decline of the Muglial Empire. and is now that shall be much 1 more. but mainly In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. he thus speaks of the state of his underits last published chapter (J. 1D02 first have to finish the History from 1707 to 1803 which I began twelve years ago.. It was entitled The Later MughnU and intended to cover the century from the death of Aurangzib in 1707 to the capture of Delhi by the English in 180'"3. though I have materials collected up to 1759 or even later. remains to be seen . n.

Chips from Mr. Lkft a Fkagmext. the Storia do Mogor. 255 ^vhether I shall be able to continue the story for follow Nadir Shah's departure. his careful editing and annotation cost him an immense amount of time even in the case of these bye-products of his historical factory. Irvine from the Later his Mughah was a Travels in the monumental edition of Xiccolao Manucci's Mughal Plmpire. Another but lesser source oi distraction was his monograph The Army Mughal s. the nent Journal of the tJie Moslem Institute (Calcutta). and made notes 1760.WILLIAM lliVINE." for the years which have read and translated another twenty years ending about 1759 or But I show These words were written in October 1907. thoroughly sound and scholarly work. an emi- German Orientalist. which will long endure as an indispensable dictionary of Persian. —a of the Indian Turki and Hindi military technical terms. he should be anticipated by Dr. Thorough everything that he undertook. What lured Mr. who had published a similar work on an earlier period of Muhammadan India. Irvine's workshop were also published in the Indian Antiquary. brought together in lest it He hurriedly the fruits of long years of study. Paul Horn. — work which entailed seven years of hard labour and about which I shall speak later. lUit the students of Indian historv must lament that . the Indian Magazine (1903). and they that the work had not grown at all during the preceding five years. and the in Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal.

after which the Persian records cease to be of first-rate value and Ave get fuller light from the documents in the European tongues. mastering and arranging them and his death robbed the His successor in world of all his garnered knowledge. these books prevented the con- tinuation of The Later Mughals to the date. had rigorously shunned all such diversions of his attention and pushed on with his grand work. and completed history at least up practical extinction about the middle of the 18th century. In Icltci after letter he i .256 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA- Mr. For the last eight years of his life Mr. But he has not done it and for probably '30 years to come we have little chance of his unfinished task being carried . to completion with anything approaching the high stan- dard of fulness and accuracy he attained in the portion he lived to write. 1756. the same field will have to begin at the very. beginning and to spend years in going over the same materials. Irvine's position only after twenty If Mr. he could in his remaining years have placed on record liis life's accumulation of information and reflection on the decline and its fall of the Mughal to its Empire. He had . Irvine ever set his hand to the Storia and the Army of the Indian JSlughaJs. In this respect the world is distinctly the poorer for his having undertaken to edit Manucci. and Mr. Irvine was haunted by a sad foreboding that his days on earth were numbered and that the chosen work of his life was destined to remain u fragment. spent a life in collecting. Irvine. Irvine can arrive at years of preliminary study. In these Persian records lay the special strength of Mr.

bodily and mental. 1906). good piece of work." But unfortunately the hope was delusive.^ than the portion already sent to the press.— for am getting old and shall not last very "I much longer. 1904). Things looked a little more hopefully for him in the warm weather of 1910. On the day of the year he was taken very ill." see every reason to believe that your will edition of the I Alamgir trust it letters be a thorough. 1907 he mournfully admitted that he had not enough strength left to complete his original Avas not likelv to write much more of The Later Mughal.WILLIAM IRVINE. Decay has come on so rapidly as I thought it would. as I I fea> not surviving to finish the long and heavy tasks (i8th March. At last in October. of Aurangzih hope that your I volume may appear before leave the scene. left to me not — I- In fact I am contemplating this next winter writing out ( my Bahadur Shah chapter 1707 — 1712 ) and sending it to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. For some time it was expected that he might recover a certain amount of health and strength. As he wrote on 8th July plan. "I have on hand.M. 257 urged me my to huny on to see I with ray own historical work if I wished him ii. In the summer of 1911 last S. and that he "Thanks for your enquiries about my health. 1 have a fair amount of activity. The complain suJar from is under control and apparently no worse than was five years ago. "At age cannot afford to lose any time." (29 Jan. and considering was 70 three days ago. 1909). —but I will not be too long delayed." first (16 Jan. 17 .

— lungs and liver. Mr. witli admirable patience and at last and passed away quietly S. lie bore his forti- long and trying illness tude. it is his chief . This consolation was denied to the clos- ing years of William Irvine. and was leaving a not unworthy disciple and continuer in Prof. Since it the autumn he began to fail rapidly and Avas realised that he could not last the winter. once a day happily. the Restoration. strangely enough.. set in. upper part heart. little better I am coming downstairs am working on quietly and *' to be getting stronger. for I My 4 or 5 hours . Since Gardiner died with the cry " My history Oh.258 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. worth while going on as shall be able to finish one thing or [another. II. Irvine's works the Tiaiwls of Manurri (Stoiia do Mogor) is most appreciated by the European Of all public. my history there has been no such sad case of a fulness of know- monumental work undertaken with the ledge but cut short by the cruel hand of death.. was temporary. 1911. For Gardiner. -Wd *' November. and with them.] Tlie improvement. Firth.. however. are declared by the specialist to be quite clear and it is likely to go on [doing for] their] work life so long well that five I may So reasonably [hope a continued I of to ten years. he was a and appeared On Slst August he wrote to me. however. lIlS EDITION OF MaNUCCI's TuaVELS. ! on Friday. there Avas the consolation that he had arrived almost within sight of his goal.

1911). as they contain the fullest and most accurate informa- of the reign of any European tongue. already established. Irvine.WILLIAM IRVINE. Irvine's name recognised as the most valuable and important work of the kind that had seen the Marco Polo. This attitude is well represented by the Pioneer (18th November. about the details Shah Jahan. it all. Aurangzib and Shah Alam. . It seems incredible that one man could have and a reviewer has well remarked. light . . His reputation as a scholar it had been . which to thus notices his death: "At — outside a small circle of students must have been as nearly as possible unknown when the first two volumes of his Mauucci appeared in 1907 and were at once Home Mr. " The notes appear to have been written by a syndicate of scholars Mr. . and touched nothing that he did not illumine. it may here with a wealth of accurate detail." The done editor's work is a marvel of industry and accurate scholarship. not likely that any other English edition of Manucci's work will ever be forthcoming to supersede that of Mr. Yule's . Writers on Indian history who are ignorant of Persian would do well to •<(udv the notes in the Storia and the Lnfi-r }fii<j]>nh and . with exact dates and references t«) authorities. has his life unfolded Indeed." appendices are often of more value than Manucci's text. Every person who crossed the orbit of Manuoci or Manucci's tion available in acquaintances even for a moment. and It is stands on an enduring basis. since the publication of Col. be rightly said of William Irvine that he left no part of Indian history from IG50 to IToO untouched. 259 title fame as a scholar. Irvine's notes and instead of by one man only.

— about one-third of the whole work having been drawn up originally with French. 165'{ at the age of fourteen as a stowaway. he took service under prince Dara Shukoh and set up practice and changes latterly under Shall Alam.260 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. . History of Manucci's MSS. as a doctor without any medical training. and nearly the whole being rewritten in Portuguese mixed It consists of five Parts. dealing with the author's journey from Venice to Delhi and a short to chronicle of the Mughal emperors down the accession of Aurangzib. Reaching India in January 165G. his old age at travelled all over India. and passed Madras and Pondicherry. went through various adventure* of fortune. Thus his life in India At different times he wrote his liistory of the Mughals (Sforia Jo Mogor) in Portuguese. At intervals he. French and Italian. the information there collected. scholars had been sighing for the recovery of the original text as a thing hardly to be hoped The history of Manucci's book reads like a romance. Before Mr. covered more than sixty years. Niccolao Manucci had left Venice in November. dying in 1717. at Berlin and Venice. carefully correct their own statements in the light of. (i) in his mother tongue Italian. and for. Irvine rediscovered Manucci's MSS. that Italian traveller had been known to the world only through the pirated and incorrect French version made by Catrou.

This work ends with 1658 and has been translated into English. two reprints of the English version having been issued in Calcutta since 1900. the version of the Storia which was first sent to Europe. with long accounts of the doings the Jesuits and other Catholics. who in 1705 published an incomplete.. a Jesuit. and covers the reign been translated into English.e. with the author's personal history. the religion. garbled and grossly incorrect French version of it. an officer of the French East India Company.) It U described at the Berlin Codex Phillipps 1945." Deslandes lent the MS. It has not is almost entirely taken from Part II of Manucci's MS. Boureau Deslandes.. its system of government and revenue. —lay in the library it of the Jesuits in Paris till 176-3 when other works of that collection and passed through succes- was sold with sive liands into the Royal Library of Berlin (1887.WILLIAM IRVIXE. to Father Francis Catrou. " evidently in the hope that the Storia would be published at the expense of Louis XIV. 261 (iijl the reign of Aurangzib. &c. current events in the Mughal camp of in the Deccan from 701. In 1715 Catrou published a continuation. which of Aurangzib. the (iii) Mughal court. as consisting of three volumes written in Portuguese with three . with interpolations from other sources.. i. with many stories of earlier years interspersed. This Manucci MS. much mixed up with Hindu (iv) 1 digressions on European companies. (v) events in 1703 and in 1706. The first three Parts he sent to Paris in 1701 by the hand of M. the Catholics in India. Indian animals.

These portraits are of surpassing value reproduced of 60 in and have been Mr. 45 of the National Library. now 0. as well as the only extant MS. he sent (1706) the (uiginal Italian draft of his Storia. of Parts by Mr. sent by Manucci to Venice at the same there. missionaries. religious etc. took away in 1797 was only a v(dume of 56 contemporary portraits of the princes and other celebrities of tlie Mughal court drawn at Manucci's instance by Mir Muhammad. is styled Venice Codex XLIV of Zanetti's catalogue. and presented by Manucci to the Senate. Manuoci in India learnt IV (French) and (French and Portuguese). and it forms the When of the audacious plagiarism of Catrou.262 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. IT. (It is during Xapoleon's invasion of the Republic. (which he had always kept by himself). Irvine's edition. to the Senate of Venice begging that august body " to order the publication of tliis T little work which is likely to be of the greatest use to travellers. J). Another volume ceremonies. The only complete and consecutive in 1712. time. and mer- chants. Paris). (Venice text of Part V is an Italian version in manuscript made by Count Cardeira out of Portuguese Codex XLV). and III. Irvine. an artist in the household of Shah Alam before 1686." This MS. is still drawings of Hindu gods. which to the Manucci had presented A>netian Senate was mis- But what !Xapoleon I.. gaps subsequently text translated filleil up in French. Xo. . For a long time laid it was believed that the MS. etc. Parts I.

error. him generous aid. Irvine's character and eager help and appreciain researches con- tion extended to younger men engaged nected with his own subject. am only one out of the to many students of Indian history who were indebted ance and light on obscure points. and the confusion. and obscurity which hung over his work for more than two centuries have at *' In 1899 Mr. from England. their original destinatiwn them there. 26U While scholars were for nearly a century mourning Mark. and Germany. The most charming feature was his spirit of unfailing of Mr. they had been quietly reposing in rediscovered the Library ! of Saint A'enice. Irvixe as a max. Irvine and three years afterwards had The Government of India lent last been dispelled. in securing for him for help. my History of Aurangzib could hardly have come into being.. guidBut for his assistance me loans or transcripts of rare Persian MSS.WILLIAM IRVINE. the disappearance of Manucci's original MSS. and beat down the rates demanded by photographers in London . and his translation was published in four sumptuous volumes in the Indian Texts Series " in 1907 and 1908. In this respect he presents a notable contrast to most other Orientalists whose mutual jealousies and acrimonious criticisms of each other darken I their fame. from his own collection. Manucci in his original and undistorted form has at last been placed within the reach of readers. France. This is Irvine's achievement. them copied for his use. He also freely lent me MSS.

liis the great European capitals than in the country to send and Mr. for appears as white and the paper as black. and presented it to Mr. in despair I wrote to oj Mr. Irvine. Irvine also criticised and emended the chapters of A\ere his my History as freely and carefully as own work. owner bound it it ! of the tlie now had it copied of liix own e. lie wrote to one his friends this high in the Civil Service of Allahabad. a valuable work on Indian statistics and topography in early 18th . he rendered literary assistance in such fusion and at so much expense of his own time. to him. he has given certain Indian me prompt Xawwab has a A rare collection of Persian historical letters. I secured his peimission to take a copy of it at a my expense and engaged a scribe. officers IJut for more than year the Xawwab's under various pretexts refused my man access to the 3IvS. that can be better studied in itself. who lent to me soon after receiving first five it it Mr. like ancient Egypt. ])roI Indeed. me by a process called rotary bromide print. and gentleman communicated with the Nawwab. that was tical at times ashamed of having sought his aid and thus interrupted his own work. The ]iIS. of the Clinli'or Gahlian. Irvine's reply was me tlie unsolicited tliree MSS. In connection witli the statisaccounts of the Mughal empire.264 STUDtES IN MUGHAL INDIA.rpetist transcript in silk and morocco. Irvine about the case. in which the writing In every difficulty and doubt that I have appealed advice and assistance. At last. iuul Paris for mechanically reproducing Persian MSS. I had complained ancient India.

of whicli I Jiad found only one and incorrect ^ wpy in India. He overwhelmed assistance rendered me with assistance while he lived. As a istics historian. '" two montlis before his death closes with Thanks for yoit I all *' the help of many sorts I have received from As \ Historian. Storia or the source of The bibliography at the end of the of the Indian Mughals is itself a A conscientious workman. and. Similar might be easily iuultiplied. Mr. 2nd October. English. and parallel literatures. he instruction.WILLIAM IK VINE. and yet his last letter written only the words." tliough that <niy fn an impossibility. and only those wlio carry on research know how very laborious and time- . the correspondence of the Jesuit missionaries in India. "' : en by _ His ideal was the highest ima- inable A is historian ought to know everything. were all ransacked by him. books of travel.lionest was lie that the most by others to Jiim was fully acknowledged in his works. Irvine's most striking character- were a thoroughness and an accuracy unsurpassed the Germans. access. And trivial yet so scriipuloush. 265 cfutiiiy. Army gave exact reference for every statement. 1910). as can be seen from the notes and addenda of his Storia do Mogor. Persian. he should never despise to branch of learning which he has [Letter me. He ]>ossible brought light to bear on his subject from every angle. Dutch and Portuguese lecords.

rank of a philosophical treatise and But they forget that much more primitive stage than lioman Indian historical studies are history at a was when Gibbon began and edit our tf) write.266 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. Mr. vs.^ialist. and fanciful reconstructions of the past like those Wheeler garnered in his now forgotten toil. Land lievenue makes u Hume's proposal to exclude the profits due to canal irrigatitm when fixing the assessment of land revenue and to Hx the former on purely article on Canal Nent trenchant attack on Mr. based on unsifted theories and untrustworthy chronicles. commercial principU's. For these wish that our Indian writers in particular should study and imitate The Later Mughals as a model of historical method and a means of intellectual discipline. able facta. without giving those reflections and generalisations that raise the Decline and Fall to the a classic in literature. We have yet to collect the necessary materials. Irvine the of the Gibbon of India. T. absorbing this seemingly small matter reasons. Irvine was a vigorous contniMi. A. As His a writer. title Some are inclined to deny Mr. Histori/ of India. will onh' yield a crop of wild which J. Premature philosophising. — the bed-rock of ascertained and unassail- —on which alone the superstructure of a philofacts sophy of history can be raised by our happier successors. as the futile result of years of His lluMouif. I is. and to construct foundation. on the ground that he wrote a mere narrative of events. lie had also a iuippy vein of . ().

lof — and the 'drum as enough of the brute in him to have and trumpet school popular as ever historians] [e.' I Again.i>serting that the strange the known word jazail. he urged the date of me to settle our difference as to " If Shah Alam's confinement on the ground doctors disagree. E. has still remained a hghting animal. Historians are rarely mentioned (in other histories) :—not muck hope for us " . what will laymen think of it f " another letter he wrote " I : In - suppose man seem g. Thus to his remark in the above article that ''such a haphazard application of his threat but (.) Berlin "So there.ftener in his letters." Dara Shukoh"s] always get scant justice (13 Aug. D.] far the Librarian has taken no notice of my communication [asking But I to be put in relations with a photographer suppose one must have patience and wait the pleasure of these Great " Men ! " (10 Oct. he adds Q. [the Hindu author of a I have seen no mention most valuable Persian history of Aurangzib's reign].' . doctrine fof the greatest happiness of the greatest number) might well make old Jeremy Bentham shudder in his grave. after .WILLIAM IRVIXK." he adds the foot-note " That is. 1905. word janjal is a corruption of and tracing the supposed steps ' of the corruption. p. 1905.) of Bhimsen. We believe his body was embalmed and kept '" in a glass case I In his Army of the Indian MughaJs. just The in losing side histories. 267 himionr which appears now and then in his writings. or his sons. if he ever got there. 110.

that is dealing with the leign Bahadur Shah (1707-1712). INDIA. namely the narrative of events from has been left in the form of rough drafts and detached notes. The chapters on the origin and early history for example. iittained to completeness of literary form in and requires correction or change in individual points and matters of detail only. Margaret L. <lealing . queries. lo foi comj)leted and ])ublished. viz. The section of the Later MufjJial. niaster craftsman like But even these " studies of a him have a high value for students " of history. The portion immediately before ^)f this. in MS. arid reconsideration of statements and views. and given Jlis finality of form by daughter Mis. his hands. and pencilnotes in the margin for verification of jeferences..s covering the period of Jiahadur from the death Shah I. 17'{8. hpwever. This secticm. The 1720 to last section. Seymour has very kindly seni be revised tlie last me the MS. was printed under Mr. c(m. Editing his IIistoky. of the Sikhs. j)ortion of the Later Mughal^ have.. as he left several gaps. and will require it minute and careful editing befqre can be prepared for the press. and I two years. been colled ing Persian MSS. were marked by him for publication of Macaulift'e's ievisi(m after the expected SiJvJi Religion in G volumes. Irvine's eyes in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.!2(i8 STIDIKS IN MLuIlAI. to the accession of Mnhanimad Siiah and the fall of the Sayyid Brothers (1712-1719). in spite of thel^ not having been retouched liim.sultation of authorities.

269 \\ ith the period 1720-1738. volume (Bahadur Shah) the middle of 1920. will be sent to the press about . Irvine's work in a manner that will not be hopelessly below the high standard of writings. to enable me to edit and complete Mr. If all his published the first my calculations are not upset.WILLIAM IRVINE.

(.06G). the father of our hero.500 volumes he accepted his father's command. Qazi Ilaibatullah. Jamadi-us-sani. Khan (2-3rd Baliadiir Khuda Baklish. An English collection.e.i.KHrDA BAKHSH. Avas when they Bupees a estimated by an expert under a Croft at two and half lakhs of (£1G. (hi his death-bed he charged young Khuda Bakhsh of the public. LIFE AXD CHARACTER. and the future «eemed fear. Though not a rich man.200 manuscripts to the -JOO which he had received by inheritance. 80. 1842. 'i. THE INDIAN BODLEY. cheerless. worth nearly lakh ot Bupees.. was distinguished •one for scholarship if not for wealth.000. and the whole has been housed in a splendid edifice costing Ks. 2nd August. ATI these repre- sent the life's work of (me man. to complete the collection in every branch in hard straits. he had a passion for Persian and Arabic books and succeeded in bidding 1. Khuda Bakhsh. and their value in 1891. was a lawj^er at Bankipur.000. 1258 of the Hijera era). there of Oriental learning and build a library-hall for the use The family was then for Ihit was no patrimony Khuda Baklish. on Tuesday. took part in •compiling the Institutes of Aurangzib [Fatawa-i-Alam(jiii. Mas born at His family C'hapia in North Bihar. without a moment's hesitation or 1.) Muhammad Bakhsh. has been added. and of his clansmen. and right nobly he fulfil it. did The left behind by Muhammad Bakhsh numbered «mly Sir Alfred increased during the lifetime of his son to about 5. .000.

threw up his post. Judge of the Calcutta High Court. and resigned. but without success.^if. Mr. unable to earn anything. Latour. he signed Of no other lawyer has such phenomenal success been recorded. and the family was in great distress. His memory was wonderful < . a pleader of the Sadar court. Appointed Peshlar of the District Judge. who helped to maintain the English administrs^-lon at Patna during the Mutiny. a (lurfng his District Judgeship of Patna. Khuda Bakhsh was called upon to support them.KHIDA IJAKHSH. Bad news from home recalled the young student to Bankipur. On the very day that he began his practice. joined the local bar at the age of 25. his father was stricken with palsy. 101 icolalaf-naniah. 1868. THE INDIAN JJODLKY. and was pleased to learn that he was he son of Muhammad Bakhsh whom he had known well Sir Louis Jackson. But in January. He applied for a Tfl?7>-ship under a Mun.- and numerous as his ases were. while on a visit to Patna was struck by Khuda Bakhsh's advocacy. 211 Youug Klmda under the care of Baklish read in C aleutta for some time Xawwab Amir AH Khau Bahadur. he soon disagreed with his chief. "We next see him serving as a Deputy Inspector of Schools for 15 months.f. he passed the Higher grade Pleadership examination held at Patna. he required only a rapid view to master his briefs. n and followed career of striking brilliancy and success from the out- set. Sir Louis visited the bed-ridden Muhammad Bakhsh and offered Khuda to the Bakhsh a Sub-Judgeship with hopes of promotion .

and he received the highest honour was appointed Chief Justice of the High Court of the Xizam. Public honours. m. (Oxford). B. He was the first Vice-chairman of the Patua Municipality and of the Patna District Board. having completed his G6th year the day before. Of Khuda Bakhsh's sons. 188-3. Statutory Civil Service. Mr. to- Like a true citizen he cheerfully gave his time freely many a public cause. and the toils of his profession were too mucli Latterly his mental powers gave way. 1908. Mr.272 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. For his work on the School Com- mittee he got a Certificate of Honour at the Delhi Dar- bar of 1877. has already made his mark as an Orientalist: the second. when these self-governing bodies were created by Lord Pipon. But he had a roaring practice and declined to enter the public service. came thick upon him. in 1894. and a in 190'». he breathed his last.a.I. Shiliabuddin. His forensic ability found recognition in his appointment as Government Pleader. Salih-ud-din. was for finally at 1 p. Abul Hassan.m. after some time Chief Judge of the Calcutta Small Cause Coui t.c. August mhI.E. Returning from Haidarabad in 1898. of police is a Deputy Superintendent and possesses a rare . Bar-at-law. Bar-at-law. His younger brother. the eldest. he again joined the Bankipur bar.. and for him. ('. He Mas also a Fellow of the Calcutta University. however. he durship was conferred on him in January.. But his health was already on the decline.L. A Khan Bahaof his profession when. Mr.

.M. the third died in early youth and the fourth is a lawyer. Khuda Bakhsh was one oa Islamic bibliography. It is a two-storied structure with a spacious hall and two side-rooms on the and a wide shady verandah staircases.) Next to the acquisition of a rare MiS. but the way in which he carried out his promise must have delighted Muhammad Bakhsh's soul in Paradise.— spent Es. a full list of Arabic biographers and critics from the first centurj'^ of the Hijera to the eighth. Most of But alas! Arabic ilkeir works he had himself collected. ill is of the greatest authorities article An from his pen on I subject appeared in the Nineteenth Century. THE INDIAN' BODLFA'. (the MaJibub-ul-albab. with running comments on the value of each. written in Persian auu lithographed at Ilaidarabad in 1314 a. Khuda Bakhsh had promised to his dying father to erect a house for the library. But remem- ber how one day he poured • out of the copious store of his memory. what gave him most delight was to see anybody using his libraiy in carrying on research. HIS SCHOLARSHIP. This middle-class lawyer.KHUDA BAKIISH. a descriptive catalogue of lie also compiled many of hiff manuscripts. 273 knowledge of Persian MSS. 18 . it represents only a small part of his knowledge. the west veran- going all around The two s.— there are two or three such men in many District Courts of Bengal.h. has long been a dead language in India. library buildings.000 on the first floor it. 80. THE LIBKART BriLDINGS.

" (This . came in very slowly.' The veiled one replied. But one night a stranger came to me in my dream and said. but called it the Oriental Public The public. and took ' me inside to a vast hall in wdiich a veiled being sat sur- rounded by his friends. MSS. should not be removed from Patna. his The donor in his unselfishness did not even give Library. waking and it. own name to his gift. one of the conditions being that the MSS. ' This man ' has come for the manuscripts. The library was the subject of his thoughts in sleep of alike. Lot them be given to him. "At first MSS. (lalis and most of the lower rooms are paved covered with encaustic witli marble or stone mosaics. and waited at the gate while my guide entered it. however. After a while he came out.274 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. all his His whole heart was set on it. the only to But Khuda Bakhsh's devotion to the library is not be measured by the money he spent on it. in the other verandahs floor is tiles. HIS DEVOTION TO THE LIBBARY.' Shortly after this. come with me?' I followed him to a grand building like the Lucknow Imambara. If you want books. practically earnings. began to pour into my library from various places. and rooms the The whole library to with its buildings and grounds was made over the public by a trust-deed. My guide said. on 29th October 1891. and the Kliuda Bakhsh Library name by which it is known in India. do not accept this selfis efl^acement. His very dreams centred round Two them are here given from his narration.

* When to I is came on a out of visit to my ' I The Prophet your library.KHUDA BAKUSH." volumes now contain a note by Khuda Bakhsh. go out of the library. So keen was his love for the library. But there were two manuscripts of the (Traditions) lying open on the table. that in his Tear. or he was sedately turning over tho leaves of some manuscript. said. death he accurately described the case and shelf in which a copy of Abu Baud's work is kept. house. stating had been read that they are never to be allowed to. I can still picture to my eyes the venerable founder as he sat near the library porch. when age had brought in its train a weakening of the intellect. 275 was a vision of the Prophet Muhammad and liis Ai^hab or companions. These. the people [Both these by the Prophet. . his grey hair and beard and plain white dress <'onspicuous from a distance.) " ( )ne night I dreamt that the lane near the libiary was filled with a dense crowd of people. imaginary dangers to it.] last. he constantly thought of it and conjured up The position of eveiy book in Only two days before his it was fixed in his memoiy. him gone. He is buried in the place which he loved so well. they cried out. and you are not there show him and found Hadis round I hastened to the manuscript-room. THK INDIAN' BODLEY. but no reason is given for. two visitors There were usually one or with him.the prohibition. his huqqa resting on « tripod. THE XATIOXAL IMPORTANCE OF HIS LIBRARY.

" But it will not a library books have you built In Europe such be so with us for ever. already a new era of lesearcli (lie has dawned among ua. A Idw impretentious tomb. European scholar. the gift of God. the British Museum. tlie JJalhsh." value of his gift and its full significance growth of our nation will be realised more and nnn-e as time passes. remarked to Khuda Bakhsh. and specimens for presentation national museums. and few of almost none to Arabic. antiques. and unborn generations of Ijidian scholars and readers will bless his memory and ' say that he was riflitlv named Khnda For.27G STUDIES IX Mr(. there are and the India Orien-tal Office Library. INDIA. In the meantime a Khuda Bakhsh Library forms mainly by gift.. At present the Indian Orientalists in the aic a small body. He was the Indian Bodley. sometimes by purchase. a the gifts of princes and millionaires.HAT.. nucleus round which Indian manuscripts are gathering. bearing the signatures of histcnical Anglo- . A them have taken to Persian. many precious MSS. ! " What a fine cemetery for would liave been daily thronged Avitli a hundred students busy in research. marks the last resting-place of the greatest benefactor and and to wliicli lie gave liis all. In the liodleian. first citizen Avlio man sprung from the middle class has left the country richer by a treasure surpassing of Patna. after its inspecting this library and noticing lack of readers. between the library buildings and the reading room. but A is most admirable feature of the- I'iUropean character that wherever the}' go ihcv collect to tlu'ir MSS. but I see none such here.

and be- <iueathed them to their country's use. ricli unless he is "iiough to visit Europe. i. etc. while they were conquering and settling the land. of it in the Rampur . contains SubhauuUah Khan notes in of Gorakhpur.sorfes from Virgil's poems in mediaeval Europe). Fitzpatiick. Even Gladwin. t>t Jahangir's book fortune-telling. to this libraiy by generous Muhaniniadan gentlemen. they eagerly hunted for MSS. Many rare and even unique works have thus disappeared from India. •<lays in those early of British power. a copy of Hafiz's Odes. — has been It presented by M.e.K 11 11) A HAKIISH. TllK IXUIAX BOD LEY. (just as people took . to the Indian scholar. Secretary Inayet- Khan's Ahham-i-Alamyiri. 1907 I «liscovered an old Padshah i MS. Jonathan Scott. by offering a well-known and secure home for books and ensuring their public use. was formerly known by name only. stating when he consulted his oracle. marginal ajid the Emperor's own hand. Indians of tlu- 18th century. they are sealed books. European savants use them. aillah with what result the Then again. The Khuda Haklish Library. -some recent valuable gifts of Persian MSS. which he used to open at random to learn the future. is tempting private owners all over India to send their colh'ctioiis to it and thus save them from being dispersed This has been strikingly seen in «r lost to the country. — Kirkpatiick. and now adorn the libraries of European capitals.. no public library in Europe or India had a copy of it. giving Emperor Aurangzib's letters in his last years and graphically describing the break-down of the imperial authority. In October.

P. ha\<' f^aincMl tlie warmest ^lany of from Ilav(drs ability.L^ hy Safdar Xawwab!' ojid are only two e\ani])!es • of manv \vjii(di sliov: iii how this librai V has Ijceii the nu-aiis of keei)iii<«- our land India's liteiary ITS {i('a^i!i(>. are illuminations of manuscripts from the- Mufidial InijX'iial library. some from Hanfit Sinp^h's 0(d- most others from the pictures-albums of the nobles oi of the Couits of l)(dhi ami Tiudvnow-. I! A ruV. . rrs KX(ii. INDIA. of any C(Uinlry Asia. The specdmens to of l^aslern painting'.(d its Teisian and. of byj^'one ((deltrit Tlie very papeis on which the manuscripts are wiiitcn are of such varied deseiiptiou and represent so of the AAiittcn many countries and periods paper-making (HI art.1 (. (IJoliilkliaud) State Libiaiy and ^'•ot the Xawwal*"^ kind iciiini to JJaukipur. })l(ded ])iecenieal aftci- sciap-books com- years (d waiiinii' and search bv the .\n. of and Mi-. . I'AIXTINCS AM) S l'K( 1 . j)l('asure to see that anotlior tlie MS.\ M((UIA1. Great as are the value and c(debiit\. had h. arc uni(|ue. that a sp(>cial treatise may be them.Most of the port- untiiinoj'aits and sin^'le-ni indcil ies ioundcr.278 STUDIES l. Central Asian. The tincsl and most to numercuis speci- mens (d Persian penmanslii]) are in be found here. the student ])iaise tlieni collected licie are invaluable of Oriental a critic A]i. Chinese. . ])(Miiiissi()ii id tak(> a copy of ii.•. svipplyiiiif- many diiTei(M!ccs 1 o..XS Ol' ( A 1.isii liOOKs.!'iliii^' i. Persian and Indian. ( )ii my Avliat was uiy suiprise and of it.-cn shortly btdd]-e present(-d to '^riiese lie O. and (once belong'hi^' lo some noble of ('(»nil. l(>ction.

000 (Es. Alibone's Dictionarxf of English Literature (with the supplement). THE IXDIAX BODLEY. There are Griffiths's Ajanta Caves. Maisey's Sanchi. Finden's Byron and many more. 6-3 vols. connected with the history AfSS." " the Wizard of the Xortli. and very complete collections of dictionaries.KHUDA BAKHSH. or the very first There a set Wacerley yovels. — and costly —poetiy. —for he was the Unknown. importance even by their There are standard works fiction." Of the illustrated English books the total price runs up to several thousands of Rupees. Admirers of Scott will be delighted to see the once famous small volumes. English translations of Oriental works. etc.000). its English books are of no mean side. Hence the beautiful leather binding of most of his English volumes. the Sacred Bools of the Eaat. on every subject. philosophy. essays. Burton's Arabian Xights. and many other works is are to be found here only in all Bihar. Khuda Bakhsh purchased an entire library in England by auction for £4. Fergusson and Taylor's Bij^pur and Dhancar and Mysore. printed at Edinburgh by Scott's friend and ruinator Ballantyue. in and growth of the The most preciou^ .. history. and bearing on the title-page edition of the the words " By the author of still Waverley " Great '" and not Scott's name. THE KOMAXCE OF HIS BOOK There are COLLECTION'. 60. Cunningham's Bharhut. many romances library. and rare books on Indian history. 279 Arabic manuscripts. the Dictionary of Xational Biography.

Haidarabad and Bijapur and many by the confiscation of the goods of great nobles on their death. At last Ivhuda Bakhsh won over from the Xawwab's side "that jewel of a book-hunter. paid him a regular salary of Rs. who had joined the English. 50 a month (besides commission) for 18 years. (as of others were executed by artists retained in the Imperial service. Egypt. Some were purchased. Persia and Arabia were torn by incessant war. The Imperial and Nawwabi treasures were dispersed. India were undoubtedly those of the Mughal library of Delhi.280 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. Thus was formed the largest library in the East in that period. for. Arabia. and employed him in searching for rare MSS. and Persia. Thither. (especially at Beirut and Cairo). In the 18th century many (»i iJjese MSS. while Central Asia. all rare through the 16th and 17th centuries. (mostly Arabic) in Syria. It was Khuda Bakhsh's railway fare to invariable practice to pay the double every manuscript-seller who visited . got the best of the loot. but there was the greatest rivalry between him and the Nawwab. some were secured by conquest in Aurangzib's reign). as he had to the library of the proclaimed among the victorious loyal for sepoys that he would pay one rujiee every MS. an Arab named Muhammad Makki. India enjoyed peace under the Great Mughals. The Nawwab of Rampur (Rohilkhand)." found their wav I^awwabs of Oudh. Kliuda Bakhsh began his collection much later. brought to liim. fine came and examples of caligraphy and illu- mination in the East. But the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 brought about the fall of Delhi and Lucknow.

and donor to the Hodleian). The thief sent them for sale to a broker or merstolen. offering a large price The owner indignantly declined the proposal. ho packed his hoicest MSS. reaching England On Muhammad Bakhsh bought them \ Mr. borrowed a unique MS. into < liant at Lahore. 281 liaiikipur. one year the library was broken by a former book-binder and some of the best MSS. Thus i his lie first whether ho bought anything from him or not.-collcctor afterwards tor it. (such as the Majalis-i-Khamsa left at Patna to be sold by auction. B. but ( Mr. and the latter unsuspectingly offered theiii to >o. . of the Odes of Kamaliuldin Ismail Isfahan! from Muhammad Bakhsh and (a great :MS. in some cases and shipped them to England. but only to fret and fume in vain. and he was given choice of oveiy MS. fame spread throughout India.— oi fate or of the hand of God. refused to return it. Provincial •ludge of Patna. Eliot. in the end the honest man came by his own and thief was punished. THK INDIAN BODLEY. had got into the wrong case. Mr. J. on sale in any part of the lountry.KIILDA HAKIISir. In another case divine justice asserted itself by a Khuda Bakhsh as the likeliest person to >imilar roundabout process. Eliot discovered his mistake. the buy them. other not only the extorted volume of Odes But some bearing Shah rare MSS. Eliot retired. Curiously enough. and \\hile his worthless books were put in another case held his peace. When But by the irony what you will. call it •Tahan's and autograph).

" A true guess. and presented ed India in to Sultan Muhammad reign. one of them containing his Dara Shukoh's autograph . which reach- Shah Jahan's Zvlaiklta. One of his litei'ary treasures. they must contain some- thing of value. Many bold and striking battle-pieces illuminate the volume. lis.. " To any other man I heap of old and rotten papers for lordsliip is interested in The owner shrewdly sliould lis. ilie One day when Kliiida Baklish was driving back from High Court at Haidarabad. has been already described. written by the author in 1594 III. 750 for J ami's poem Yitsuf wa copied by the greatest of Persian caligraphists. Immediately after Khuda Bakhsh's it 400 were oifered for by the Nizam.282 STUDIES I. (the conqueror of Constantinople in 145'i).000 gold There are two of Shah library. turned the books out for MSS. Jahangir's Book of Fate. but in ITS TKEASUllES. now adorns this fl which Jahangir paid 1. answered. and either that Emperor it. 20 for them. vain. his eyes. for along with some worthless things the bundle conI tained an old work on Arabic bibliography not to be found elsewhere. and asked about the price. Mir Ali. Another is an autograph copy of the SJiaJianshali-naniaJi. alum's signature at the age of 14. ever on the look lie stopped. for mohars. purchase. over. -'). or some later owner paid Rs. Commonplace Books.. want lis. discovered a bundle of volumes on a sack ol flour in a grocer's shop. have sold this But as your them.\ MUCaiAL INDIA. an epic poem celebrating the victories of Sultan ]\Iulumima(l II.

and Tahangir's Autobiography presented to the by himself king of Golkonda and brought back by after Aurangzib's son the conquest of that kingdom. Petersburg Catalogue from the last page of his second volume.<in Persian. a History of India in the eyes of written for IJanjit Singh. —the ropy of his work.KHl DA BAKHSH. king of Bijapur. . the \\orks of Khasrau containing the seal of Akbar's mother Hamida Banu Begam. the richly illuminated copy oi' Firdausi's Shahnamuh which Ali Mardan Khan presented to Shah Jahan at his first audience (1640). ilost sacred Persian students the first half of Mulla Jami's autois graph works. with entries Gurmukhi. in a fine small hand. in the St. are (1) a History of 22nd year of Akbar's reign. Among the best illuminated to the MSS. some of which have been reproduced but very imperfectly in Mrs. rich in pictures.and — — rau written for Ibrahim Adil Shah.) — Ixanjit Singh's militaiy account book. of which the second half Petersburg Imperial library. -Hatifi's romance Shirin ira KIift.KV. vShah detail (2) the Padixhahnamah or History of (•?) of Jahan with illustrations and ornamentation. TlIK INDIAX' HODl. —Amir Khasrau's :> MttJinavi copied for Sultan Abdul Aziz of Bukhara by Xur years to finish Ali (who was kept in confinement for ii. Beveridge's Mfmoirs of Timurs dynasty down Gnlbadan Begam. the Lives of Saiuts {Safinat-ul-awliya)y Odesi of Hafiz belongiiif!^ to the king of Golkoiula to and brought away Delhi as a spoil of war. and is the finest execution. The gifted poet's signature- and handwriting agree exactly with those reproduced in the St.

A historic curiosity of great interest is ihe "' Stoiy of Christ " {Da. the s(m of Basil. know them should see them.). Another equally old in ilS.iii-i-lahir.'^tan-i-Masih).n. Among llirce tLe Arabic works.^ sionary Jeronimo Xavier. K/fdh-iil-IIasJiaisJi There (full a very old MS. It is a and the distinct jiand. monument is of incredible human patience and industry. illustiations). an Arabic treatise on suigical instruments (all illus- trated). tiiK^ gigantic volumes written in an iinifornly !>ma!l. He wlio would lOO-'J. of coloured Iranslated from the . (who died in 240 A. translated from the ]iiblo into Persian at Akbar's request by Ihe Portuguese misA. in Ihe reign of the Khalif i-s Mamun. (KiOl A. In January Lonl Cur/on. we have the 'fa/.JS4 . composed Could by Zahrabi Granada. Another on volume pages.n.-H. xV but distinct liand.Greek of Dioscorides into Arabic by Stephen. li])raTy of Zahrabi's works bears traces of fire it many have been a survival from the Mooiish burnt by Ximcnes? with Cufic is There is a -piece of parc]ito nient characters a ascribed Ali's hand in i\nother wonder film-like niiniil^e complete Quran roll on a single line written a parchment of great length. fresh from the Delhi Darbar and with his hea<l . if I go on describing the sliall riclies of the Khuda IJakhsh library I never end.STIDIKS IN MUGHAL INDIA. second copy of the Quitm ijito belongs to the age before diacritical marks came use in writing Arabic. on botany. This copy was transcribed by in lOl-'^ Abdur Pazzaq (inndahari Ill slioit.

there be on earth an elysium of bliss. iva hamin a^t. . it is this. 'Agar If firdaus bar ru-i-zamin ast Hav.KIIUDA HAKHSH. iva hamin ast. THK INDIAN liODI.F. this." It is this.iin ast. hummed when he- entered this library. 285' full of visions of Mughal grandeur.V. and Oh ! it is That is the best description of it to a sf-liolar.

Early lie of the (^utb Pathan* aichitecture represented by mos(|ues. l)uilding8 Sharqi of Jaunpur and the the brick pabu'cs and mosques of the IJengal sultanS buildings of at Gaur. tombs. because the cantilever principle and is made of horizontal stones laid in overlapping layers. The brick palaces and mosques of the sultans (at Gaur). but in general lacks delicacy and wealth of decoration of the buildinars of the Mughal JJengal period. but . Patlian architecture. minars and Its later representatives are the fine arched gateways. It has been supposed that the radiating arch was introduced into India by the Hindu arch follows the u]) Muhammadans. Some tlie of the Tughlaq period suggest ancient Kgypiian style by their sloping walls and general heavy no connection between ancient stud dark appearance. has a certain it gloomy massiveness and the elegance of finish. solidity. however. especially in Tpper India. age found in other parts of India. the land of stone. I.AKT IN MUSLIM INDIA. and indicate a higher level of design ( and decoraand on the whole give one the impression of having been more influenced by local genius and local art traditions. AKCHITECTrKE. form a class apart edifices of that from the stone ion. while thg other Muslim buildings of India deaily suggest a foreign origin. We in find I one example of enclosure is it in the huge arch of Altamash mosque.

while the tomb of Shaikh at and the hall of private audience Fathpur . any Hindu influence in the Pathan decided pilasters. and places tlie it highest praise to this style of Greek and Gothic conceptions of the door in respect of propriety and grandeur. Mughal builders. that combining a room and four corridors in one. (ii) long slender turrets at the corners. palace halls supported on pillars or following the is. dome like The of the (i) Mughal architecture are the pronounced an inverted bell. (iv) the distinctly Indo-Saracen gate. especially in the age of Akbar. 287 1 vgypt and Pathaii India has been historically established. which takes the form of a huge semi-dome sunk in the front wall and bearing an admirable proportion to the building. find Xor do we buildings. (iii) Baraflari (12 doors) principle. is a small rectangular opening under Fergusson gives gateway. Many of the ornamental pillars of Akbar's buildings Sikri at Fathpur and the Jahangiri Mahal are thin and tapering like those of the corbel brackets (especially in *Salim Chishti in Agra Fort Hindu temples. while the actual entrance this arch. show Hindu influence in respect of narrow columns. The best example of it is the Bulafi>f Dancaza of far above the Pathpur Sikri.ART IX MUSLIM INDIA. but their essential type ciples are purely ornamental and architectural prinother distinctive features Muhammadan. corbel brackets and some features.

is but a pre-Mughal temple reallj^ of Central India holds that said to have this sort of donu>. Sikii) are exact copies of the brackets of many a temple like that of Dilwara a bell on Mount Abu. the great Pearl . is also whicb Hindu origin. which in the emblem of the shortness of all human life and the uncertainty of earthly things. Akbar's chief Akbari Agra Fort and much of Shah Jahan palaces of little the fortifications of that phice. all the fort new Delhi or Shahjahanabad (except the theic. because there was nothing like or it in Pathan in Hindu architecture. detail of hanging from a chain of of is found in one of the Muhammadan tombs Alimadabad and a few North Indian buildings. the buildings at Sikandra. etc. Fathpur the Sikri. Mr. The conspicuous Mughal dome. has been supposed by one school to b(^ a copy of the bell-sliaped tents of the Turkomans of Central Asia. larger. Akbar was a builder in red sand-stone and Siialt Jahan in white marble in botli we have plenty of carvings and relief work and perforated stone lattices: Inn Shah Jahan's buildings were also grander. This theory seems to bo far-fetched. more . Havell origin th(> Mughal dome is Hindu and represents an attempt Sanskrit literature is to translate into stone or brick the figure of a drop of water resting on a leaf. Pearl Mosqut^ which was built bv Aurangzib).28S STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. the fort of Attock. built Jama Masjid of Delhi. delicately decorated. which is larger than an exact hemisphere. edifices are the and far more ^Nlahal in costly. Hindu The in decorative relief.

flowers and geometrical designs (arabesques). and hence orthodox Muham- madans* cannot draw anything except plants. the Taj Mahal. Itimad-ud(laula's tomb. especially in the faces. 19 . and Aurangzib built only the small Pearl Mosque in Delhi Fort and the tomb of his wife at Aurangabad. many Paixtixg. but some grand mosques were built by other persons in his reign. we see complete Chinese influence. II. the illuminations of cf Asrra the * Khuda Bakhsh 1 knew a Mnhammadan hawker who refused to deal in marble mosaics representing even parrots S. such as Wazir Khan's mosque at Lahore. The Quranic law forbids man to reproduce the form of any living being.M. the marble pavilions on the Anna Sagar at Ajmir. In the earliest paintings of Khurasan.AHT IN MUSLIM IXDIA. fire and dragons. Akbar was not an orthodox Muhammadan.. and many of the marble palaces and mosques within Agra fort. and the representation of rocks. Painting received a great stimulus at the Court of Akliar and continued to improve till the fall of Shah Jahan.. and he engaged many painters and patronised their art. 289 Mosque of Agra. There are some dated manuscripts in Library. rich (especially in Muhamemploy became Central Asia) used to Chinese painters whose name [nahhash-i-Cliini) proverbial in Persian literature for excellence of work- manship. others. " On madans account of the Quranic prohibition. (!(. etc. Patna. Zinat-un-nissa's mosque in Delhi. sheets of water. Bukhara.

Shahnamah presented by Ali The sumptuMardan Khan to the Emperor Shah Jahan Specimens of in 16-39 A.srenery and features are distinctly Indian. twin brother of the stone reliefs of Uliarhut illustrating rural life in . The rigidity of the Chinese outline was softened. the new element in the old is unmistakable even to a casual beholder.D. which is no doubt suggestive of the Chinese School. but it is clearly the Chinese School in a process of dissolu- tion and making a nearer approach to Nature. C.t Thus Muslim art in India transformation. In short. Readers in England have a slightly later and more developed t l).id example (though of in the An ivory relief representing pastoral scenes of Krishna's done at Murshidalike . Chinese (or extra-Indian Muslim) art mingled with pure Hindu art —whose its first traditions changed since the days underwent of the had been handed down unAjanta frescoes and the Bharhut and Ellora -relief s. We note a new method of representing rocks. this school must have reached India early this in Akbar's reign and even before. water and fire. The Khuda Bakhsh copy of the Tanhh-iKJiandan-i-Timii>ria this is the best contemporary example of in change that we possess any public library in India. In the Court of our truly national king Akbar. P.i abovit a century ago and now in Mr. Akbar's life-time) life. The conventionality of Cliinese art was discarded. (though executed much earlier) represents the pure Chinese art of Central Asia. Maniilc's possession. The . \o6ks exactly ancient India.290 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. which enable us ous to trace the history of Saracen art in India step by step with absolute certainty.

or detached scenes of Portrait painting reached perfection about the middle of the 17th century (under Shah Jahan). and the colouring and drapery reached the perfection of The master secrets of these craftsmen were delicacy. minuteness of detail. Shahnanwh. and the highest <levelopment was reached (as we see in the Khuda Bakhsh copy of the PadlshaJuioniah) in delicacy of features and colouring. fancy of historic The subjects chosen were portraits of living men. and pictures landscapes. portraits of saints scenes. scenes from the Persian epics. This Indo-Saracen art was entirely developed in the courts of the Mughal Emperors. wealth and variety of ornamentation and approximation to Nature (but without attaining either to true perspective or to light and shade). f heir indigo and gold colours. expression was not studied. its Older of Akbar. imaginary female figuies especially at the also scenes of the toilet. and Hindu epics to illustrate the Persian translations of the Ramayan and Maliabharat made by Hindu mythology. hunting scenes. True. episodes from the popular Persian love-poems. like the ilarvixhcs.AKT IX MUSLIM INDIA. till at last in the reign of Shah Jahan the Chinese influence entirely disappeared. This process of the Indianisation of Saracen art continued after Akbar's time. but so far as we can judge fidelity to the living original was secured in a high degree. the Indian style became predominant. 291 illuminated Razm-namah (Peisiau translation of the Mahohhnrat) preserved in the South Kensington Museum. which three centuries (often .

fire- fade. dressed and armed like . him iH artilfcrff not left out\ The l<amarhanda bristle with daggn-. failed to weaken. of neglect and rough handling) have ofl:. AVhat Dr. So thoroughly were the painters of Hindu subjects imbued with the spirit of their masters who drew Muslim or Mughal Court pictures that the result is often comif T have seen some beautiful and to a modern critic. skill in which has been lost by unworthy grand-children. genuinely old Indo-Saracen Hindu pictures which reprethose of the painters employed by the sent the elders of Mathura. Rajpiitana. Ihm' A \v\\ is strokes with a brush can turn Radha willi (mly a Mughal noble lady is (oilcl. into xVkbar. with all the arms. the u^i' nt . There a certain crudeness.s trained in the imperial Couit and employ them in representing scenes from the Hindu epics and romances and painting it other subjects of a purely Hindu character. Coomaraswami calls the Rajput 8chof)l of is not an indigenous Hindu product.292 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. f(>\\ii ornaments. going out to meet Krishna and Ram advancing to the conquest of Lanka with his army marching in exact divisions. equipment and transport of the Mughal imperial army. The vassal Rajahs of the Mughal Empire used to enlist painter. their III. or cause to cake Their night scenes and works were a speciality. Mughal courtiers. nor has any natural connection with. The so-called Rajput School of Ixdian Painting. but the style and art-ideas of these painters are exactly the same as Mughal Court.

Aurangzib's puritanical simplicity ud miserliness. 293 >taiin^r colouis. The Rajput Princes who these })atronised tlian. left till the invasion of Xadir Shah it. The till art traditions of this so-called Rajput School have continued with . and the disorder and impoverishment which seized the Mughal Empire under of artists his successors. and hence their painters lepresent a comparatively primitive school. led to starvation and the disappearance of all genius in this io line. delicacy of touch lon iirt and elabora- of in the ornament which marked the climax of Mughal age of Shah Jahan. short of the perfection of detail. except under a rare Rajah or Xawwab here and there. a bareness or poverty !)ecause it of environfalls in the Rajput Sehool. Cheap life inferior pictures continued be drawn and the of the artist in India became miserable in the 18th century. Catering for the modern European market has effectually destroyed Indo-Saracen <]eath of hope of its rising above old conventions or showing a life of its own.ART IN MrSLIM INDIA. and ment. (1739). 4)i which chaos behind there In the last quarter the 18th century was a revival of art under . ceitaiii a ictuin to rigidity of oullino. the imperial bankruptcy caused by his many the wars.U little change or development all Jaipur to-day. suggest the idea of their being the work of the immature pupils of the old masters of the Mughal Court working in a less cultured atmosphere and for poorer patrons. painters were less rich and civilized the Em{>erors of Delhi. or more correctly. painting rapidly declined after the Shah Jahan.

The Mughal school has also found a few all artificial modern imitators but these are products.294 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. But European now began to exercise a fatal and dominating influence result upon Indo-Saracen The was the bastard Lucknow School of Painting. Havell.* and none of is enlivened by a single spark of genius. as genuinely antique^ art works. —a contemptible half-broed conception and product without any of the good features of either the Indian or the European these works style. probably done after . Dr. Coomaraswami and Sister Nivedita. and there a at pre- sent a Gonsiderable trade in faked old Indian pictures.'Vkbar fondlinx his Christian wife. described h\ 1815. European aud American tliat is. the patronage of the art Xawwabs art.. The new school of Indian painting which is repre- sented by Abanindranath Tagore and his best pupil Xandir Lai Bose. In the 20th century there has been a revival of interest in the old Indian paintings. deliberjitely imitates the Ajanta style. Fatlier Hosten. is only a specimen of the I. and not works of a living inspiration or genius.ucknow school. hence they cannot possibly cause a new birth or development of a living groin'nf/ art. of Oudh. modern copies made from few genuine old t)ld originals but artificially treated to look and passed oft' on unsuspecting Eiiropean buyers. execution alike are vulgar and affected. oi The price is genuine old Indian pictures has been greatly raised by collectors. Taste. thanks to the teachings of Mr. Indo-Saracen Thev lack the "divine madness" nt • The so-called old portrait of .

plants.AKT IN MUSLIM INDIA. t so-called Kangi a School represents a belated but pure survival of Indo-Saracen art dealing with Hindu Its chief master was Molaram. etc. the move up the Gangetic Kangra School retain- ed well into the 19th century. and other But Ilingane. suddenly flogged into life. but the result. AVhom did the Ajanta painters consciously imitate ? The >iibjects. in spite of its elaborate prettiness. the Maratha officers of his race collected many old Mughal paintings and Sanskrit manuscripts illuminated with very fine miniatures at Delhi and the Bajput courts. in spite of their palpable conventionality. is only suggestive of the last gasp of an old and discarded horse.. There was no development of art during the Maratha predominance (1750-1800). The decad- . has remarkable delicacy of touch and charm. 295 the true creative spirit. tracts These hill Mughal Empire of had escaped the anarchy which ruined the in the I8th century and also the influence art. The last attempt to revive Indo-Saracen painting was made by Ranjit Singh (about 1825-40). etc. Delhi. Therefore. who lived in he Garhawal hills at the end of the 18th century. the unadulterated form of which had been completely modified or disappeared in its cradle-lands of Agra. Molaram's colouring is extremely beautiful and his representation an art of animals. His night-pieces are of special excellence. European which began to valley after 1765. envoy at Delhi. and sent them to the Deccan for the Bajahs of Satara and the Peshwas of Puna.

Large numbers of were maintained by our Muhammadan silk riders to work figures with coloured cotton thread or thread or metallic thread . It is difficult to speak with certainty on the subject. and several of these Bombay Presi- dency. namely. ly. and the art has continued it with hardly any decay is to almost our own day. never indigenous in the country but were imported from abroad. especially European merchants. Silk rearing and silk weaving were also a highly developed and flourishing art even before Velvet and scarlet cloth were the Muhammadan period. A rich trade in them was carried on by foreigners. kings and nobles. In one branch of sculpture. throughout the Mughal period. ence of the Mughal royalty and nobility as the result of Nadir's invasion gave collect the richest tlie Marathas a rare opportunity survive in the to art treasures of still an older generation. ivory carving (often in miniature) perfection was reached in the Muglial period. The Textile Art. India has Tseen famous from very ancient times for The hot damp climate of the plains promoted the manufacture of thin niuslins for the use of her cotton cloth. and these were special favourites of our Muhammadan rulers. when fast dying out for want of patronage.29U STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. (usually Europe). as I discovered during my tours in Maharashtra. to but the least to Muhammadans seem have introduced or at skilled artisans have greatly developed the variety and richness of embroidery.

AKT IX MUSLIM INDIA. The shawl kinl'Jiab industry of Kashmir and the Panjab was distinctly the creation of the >ther kinds of Mughal Emperors. and the perfection of ornamentation. There was immense variety fahi i( in the designs. were exclusively used and these were also manufactured at great cost and in a sumptuous style. and a few other towns were the of most famous among the seats the cloth Carpets for the floor and hangings for the walls were most likely introduced into India by Muhammadan floral rulers. period. besides patronising private artisans. material used (see Ain-i-Akbaii. These were. The Jeweller's and Goldsmith's Akt. Yol. courtiers. and artistic decoration the reign of harmony of colours in these was reached in Shah Jahan. period. no doubt. highly developed in the Hindu . too. 297 oil cloth of various kinds. classes of s and the nature of the I). Silk embroidery was carried to a high artistic level and the muslin industry of Dacca during flourished greatly as the result of royal patronage the Muhammadan Y. Masiilipatam Ahmadabad industry. in Gujrat. usually at Ahma- dabad and in Kashmir.) (They were known in the Hindu chief purchaser of these things. when extremely costly carpets Cloth canopies of state were manufactured for the court. The court was the but a certain riuantity was also produced for exportation abroad by private traders. The and embroidery work which they required for tlremselves and their large State-factories of weavers made them maintain and embroiderers in many towns.

officers. POTTEKY AND MeTAL WoHK. household. as their religious prejudices confined them to stone vessels and cheap clay pots and pans which could As the metal vessels in Hindu houses have to be daily scrubbed. who lavished large sums on them.298 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. there was no room for ornamental brass or silver vessels for show or metal vessels with inlaid work. likely to The Hindu kings porcelain or of old are not very have used any kind of costly earthenware. partly from their natural love of luxury and partly from the political necessity of giving costly ornaments in return for presents received from others or as gifts of honour to foreign rulers and their own sons and YI. [hoft-gari) . pots and vessels Hence. also very Ornamental pottery and metal work were highly developed. liidri even sumptuously decorated brass and silver were characteristic of the Muhammadan period of India and not of the Hindu. . porcelains. but tliey received a great impetus tunder the Muglials.\\\ a Hindu be thrown away after one use. period. inlaid metal vessels.

The Sultan or Padishah made large grants of lands or money to mosques. In Muhammadan times also. however. and a higher political conscience could not be expected in It Mughal India. its teaching of pupils was not a condition of these Xor had the Hindu State any officer or department own for public instruction even on a limited scale. (because there was no citizen). and several of the latter kept pupils. funerals and i-eligious ceremonies.EDTCATIOX IX MLllA^MMADAX IXDIA. Here the Mullah of the mosque used to assemble the Muhammadan to boys and girls of the neighbourhood and teach them . These pupils received their board and teaching gratis from their Guru. was recognised as a religious and not a political duty. nor wen* the recipients of these favours bound to maintain schools with the money. monasteries and individual saints and scholars. But in actual practice a primary school [maktab) was attached to almost every mosque. the State had no department of education. who met the cost from the gifts which he received from kings and rich house-holders at marriages. was the Hindu king's duty to make gifts to pious men and Brahman scholars. Education was a purely private matter and a hand- maid of religion in Muhanimadan times as well as Hindu. But of the gifts. The duty of the State to educate its future citizens was not recognised even in Europe till near the end of the 19th century. This.

these private town-colleges were without any endowment stability. yet. parts of the country and who practically maintained high schools or imparting the highest instruction in their special subjects. All books of Science. his power to secure gifts in adequate quantity and reputation for scholarship. Sialkot. Nagor. GramiDar and Mathematics. Ahmadabad. howscholars living in over. all etc. Though Arabic became a dead language even as early as the l-'Uh in Imlia.300 STrDIES l. Kanauj. Muslim certain towns. yet the highest Muham- madan education was imparted through the medium of lliis language. Ajodhan. were written in Arabic. Avrite the alphabet and commit the Quran to memory. Persian was studied only as an accom- plishment necessary for cultivated society. 1'hey were purely family affairs. seats of learning like monasteries of Christian Europe.. Philosophy. not to speak of Theology. Sarhind. and naturally broke up when the family ceased to produce scholars. There were. Some of the monasteries {Manias) <^ontained scholars and theologians. therefore.) whose reputation attracted pupils from •colleges.N MUGHAL IXDIA. hence the monasteries of Mughal India were tlie not. but the lazy illiterate darvishes outnumbered them. like French .(/. century. Tatta. families of hereditary {('. as a rule. Jaunpur. Pattan. or life permanent source of income and Their depended entirely upon the capacity his of the individual teacher. The education imparted. was of the most elementary character. tliese Though the Muhammadan kings rewarded scholars in the course of tlieir gifts to pious men in general.

Xoblemen also engaged lady Xoble girls private tutors for their <laughters. to teach their daughters.EDUCATIOX I. and Xur-un-nissa.VTIOX. except in very rare cases where the . as men tutors installed high offices of the State or the Church. and not as the key to serious knowledge. made some to progress in But every one of them who her studies liad to commit the Quran memoiy. and was often considered as the necessary qualification for the chief (^aziship. studied the humanities in preference to The ladies theology.ed Malhfi (the 'veiled one').\ MUHAMMADAX INDIA. Khurasani. T^irani India and Arab scholars who came ot in to were highly superior attainments and were welcomed promptly this class. A\ere married between the ages of 15 and 18 years as a Mil'. but progress in letters was less often achieved in their families. were chosen from wherever FEMALE EDIC. Zeb-una nissa the daughter of Aurangzib. the best examples being a wife of Akbar surnam. and give the finishing touch to their education. The Mughal Emperors used to employ learned women. It was the ambition of the most advanced Muslim studetts or India to visit Mecca. usually Persians. in Europe. The of the princes possible. stay there for some years. Some of these princesses even distinguished themselves in literature. Middle class people usually kept their daughters tlie in io-norance. wife of Shah Alam I. A Mecca degree commanded the highest respect in India. and Persian rather than Arabic.

Sufism played a very important part in the history «f Indian culture in the Mughal period. To the highest department of thought no woman. but their knowledge did not go very fai-. in the western lands of Sufism as known Islam such as Syria or Egypt. classes were the exception and not the On the whole the disparity in education and even in literacy betAveen our males in the and females was even greater it Muhammadan period than is in British India.) (bliaJkti) In in fact. was and origin from the The former was influejiced by the Greek philosophers especially Plato and the Neo<lii¥erent in its character. fathers acted as teachers at homo. He of is in all things. Hindu the least or Muhammadan. so far as we can judge. SUFISM. it was the Sufism Hindu form ijfforded a devotion Islam. such mixed poor were classes of both sexes even for very small children were not held and the giils of the left in absolute illiteracy. and such female rule. the latter. though originating in Islam. of mediaeval India made K^ontribution. Sometimes the Mullah of a mosque gave instruction to a group of little girls from the neighbourhood whose parents wished them to be educated. was •completely transformed by the pantheism of the Yedanta. {Iiamn oo-st. little girls In Persia and Arabia attended the same primary school under the Mullah with the boys. platonists . principles sufism of the middle East. common meeting ground for the higher Hindu .•302 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. but in Mughal India.

especially members of the writer-class (Kayeths). spiri- throughout the ITth and 18th centuries the more tually-minded among men of the world in northern India. The number of such Indian Sufi poets must have totalled over three thousand. cultivated the poetry of sufism and met each other for religious discussions. etc. poets. devoted themselves to the composition of Sufi verses of their own in Persian (and in the middle 19th century ia Urdu). In addition. devotional songs and ecstatic dances. especially on moonlit nights. such as Jalaluddin The noted Sufi Rumi and Hafiz.EDICATIOX IX MUHAMMADAN INDIA. they haunted the society or liberal-minded saints of all creeds. Akbar and Dara Sluikoh delighted in the company of Sufis. who in their leisure their own. . hours. though the quality of their poetry was usually beneath contempt. and took the best iements of their teaching to form an eclectic religion of The Indian Sufi brotherhood included not tiuly ordained monks and faqirs.. but also busy profes-ional men. officers of the State. -Wi aud Muhammadan luinds that were free from bigotry and -usceptible of emotional appeals. and came to he regarded as Sufis themselves. were widely read by Hindus and Aluhammadans the alike.

In the mind of a twentieth century reader. comparative method is of supreme necessity here. is And yet. — they may be literally but we feel that this is not the whole truth. I. we want to reach the truth. the French monarchy under Louis XIV ? When our new " national " school of writers on IHndu polity say that in ancient India there were republics. the responsibility of the executive to the governed. the king- regarded himself as merely exercising a trust. correct . that there are certain qualifications which have been with- held from us. What is the essential dilt'ereiiee between the ancient side of and the modern State (no matter on which Ural mountain) ? the an ancient Indian tribal republic {gana) a Between the Athenian democracy and ? Or between Hindu empire and say. . the above statements imply the direct influence of the ])eople on the foreign policy of the State. or that the people enjoyed self-government. every one of these latter connotations untrue and shoiild have been expressly contradicted by the writer in order to guard against our f<nming a misconception of ancient Indian polity as 'I"he if it really was.OEIENTAL MONARCHIES. a cabinet of ministers was held to be necessary.— in short administrative machinery not by one man's will but by the will of Society. the reign of a law representing the which emanates from a legislature the control of the citizens.

We niav elect our "presidents of village panchayets " and oven chairmen of local boards. and letting the people alone. but that would not take us nearer to (ation bill making the Viceroy accept a universal eduor boycot of anti-Asiatic colonies. his instruments could touch but a few.M. like the Chinese empire. But local autonomy in parochial matters did not mean the possession of representative government or popular control over the executive and national diplomacy. or war with 20 s. A vast State of the ancient type. so long as they paid their proportion of the revenue and supplied their quota of soldiers. his resources were poorer. — of making his will eftective on the governed . were very much m^Oire limited and imper- He could crush an individual enemy or elevate an indicidiial favourite. . modern State is a compact thing in which the central authority and the individuals are organically con- The ancient Indian State (leaving out of our consideration petty principalities and tribal groups) was very loosely knit in it the " Sovereign " had no means .OBIENTAL MONAECHIES. u(»r uplift but he could neither grind down the mass of his subjects by a fiat of his will or any action of his government. 305 A nected. mechanical appliances. and social organisation at his disposal fect. was held together ouly by granting the fullest local self-government to the village communes and even to the provinces. or the organisation of an Indian national militia. and the agents. Any fail attempt at general oppression or general reform would through the Sovereign's impotence and the lack of a nexus between him and his subjects.

But edict of in the ancient State the case was different. evil alike. to good and can reach hand out . The ancient Hindu king was on the It otlier larly absolute. every citizen and to every corner of the realm the individual under istic its it ci ushes excessive organisation and socialsingle regulation.000 . Feudalism from equality.306 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. Xo caste distinctions or introduced compulsory tion. the people chose to obey him. its is omnipotent. Xo rescript of the Dowager Empress could have suppressed the cultivation of opium in China no fiat of Yuan-shiKai could create a truly national army of even 50. — so long as State. just as Asoka or Samiulragupta could have abolished mass educathey could not have successfully carried out a general massacre or spoliation of their people. A telegram from Wilhelm II. . men. while another of Nicholas II. abolished vodka drinking throughout that boundless empire. A single tihase emancipated the serfs throughout the continent called Russia. any foreign State of the at the bidding of the representatives simi- Indian people. The modern for hand. A word from Catherine de ISledici organised the massacre of Huguenots throughout the realm of France in a single day. A vote in the British Parliament introduced hurled compulsory primary education for a population of more than ''30 millions. A decree trace of of the Xational Assembly swept away every France and established social of Tsar Alexander I. a nation in arms into Russian Poland or neutral Belgium.

not the normal < ondition of any Hindu empire. between one caste or clan and another.ORIEXTAL MOXAKCHIES. not the State but Society was oiunipoteut. . cars' An ancient Greek would have preferred ten rigorous year's exile But at imprisonment in his own city to even among non-Hellens. ilevoid of people were equally powerless and any apparatus for enforcing their will on the jDvernment. because the population was was no organic connection between — the king and his subjects and between the subjects in one province and another. but it was a temporary raid. passive They could frustrate the royal mandate by disobedience. For deliberate national improvement or sustained struggle with foreign invaders was successors his him and under the State extremely a weak. chance combination of provinces and in Short." Within a small tribal republic m principality. however civilised. loosely tribes. And from the tyranny of Society the only icfuge was the freedom of the homeless man. A '* hero as king" like Samudragupta could sweep with his victorious legions from one end of India to another. knit. not homogeneous. the 'inuyasi. the king —both people and king. because unorganised. The ancient State was weak. 307 lu the antique world. but the will of the people could no more compel the king to adopt any desired line of ])(dicy than an unanimous resolution of the Indian National Congress can compel the Anglo-Indian govern- ment. the same time that the Hindu " Sovereign " the was impotent. a mere " geographical expression. there more than the people.

The people had n»o control over the State. in the nature of things. A licentious Baji Rao II. but bo fatal to the military type of State in the end.308 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. too. the dominant populace were the rulers and the State had homogeneity (if we shut our eyes to the depressed indigenous races. But it was the homogeneity XIII. as graphically described by Macaulay in his History of England. avIio who had saved them from matsya-nyaya. Here. or on to a career of them lucrative conquest. Hindu State as empire of the alike. Society and not the State was omnipotent and in organic touch with the individual. That is the reason why so many ancient Hindu thinkers wcic . or an imbecile Daulat Rao Sindhia could wreck his army and State by his individual caprice." But disregard of the popular senti- ment for ever cannot.. no means of preventing such action on his part except the dagger or the poison cup. like the Minas in Jaipur. the victorious general who had repelled foreign foes. Its efficiency of a Highland clan. and they gave him led a carte hlanclic. ch. the people In the ancient East and tlie West accepted rule of the Imperator. was social. There was no internal check on him. In monarchies of this type polity had pretty nearly the same efficacy as a Parliament during " a state of siege. except as " a matter of fear or favour on the part of the " Sovereign now and then. the Parihars in Jodhpur and the Bhils in Udaipur). not political. In this sense the term " oriental des- potism " to the is as applicable to the ancient Csesars. however. But these things are not matters of iwJity.

a AV1r']i ]3engali writer tells us that a< carlj' the l>th century king. he became as absolute and as independent of any normal constitutional control on his actions by the })eople. responsible to the popular assembly of freemen. MOXABCHIES. Gopal became even more absolute than Augustus. who had freed the Western Mediterianean from the pirate Pompey. Their failure to achieve this end proved by the rapid changes of dynasties and para- mount as States in the East. exceedingly small and primitive. as the latter had to go through the formality of consulting the Roman Senate and the Boman populace. and whose victorious brows his devoted soldiery had crowned with laurel amidst shouts of Ave imperator Xay. no doubt.ORIEXTAI. the to Bengali exult people elected ' their for we apt and cry I Hurrah Popular Self-government in Ancient India AVe only forget that from the moment when Gopal. 309 busy devising rules for the guidance of kings and the <jiganisation of the administration on some basis broader than one man's is will. The Vedic kingship was. "When our kingdoms . as the Koman general who had saved Italy from ^on of a successful soldier of fortune. like the kingship of But such kingdoms were the ancient Gothic Mark. are D. was crowned rhe people of Gaur to save the fear of an African invasion on the waters of Actium. jralleys of ! while the former's authority wa-^ iiiiliinftcd in flieorv as much as in practice. A. the by them from the anarchy of the smaller fry being eaten up by the bigger [matsyaiiyaya)..

The State is. and tlierefore entitled the obedience of all the faithful wherever they might live. hoMino- liis a trust subject to certain conditions. tlirouglioiit our recorded history. All other Muslim rulers are usurpers. i. in its is essence. and the human ruler is merely to the God's agent on earth. bound to carry out the divine will as manifested in the Eevealed interpreters of Book and subject the Quranic Law. styles himself the Vicegerent of To God. nor by hereditary right. the Sultan or Padishah only the elected commander He reigns not under any divine sanction.310 STUDIES IX MUGHAL INDIA. II. the royal power was unlimited hy any constitumachinery of popular or. the Suzerain of the Age. the is Muslim State is a pure theocracy ^ true sovereign God. who Every have kept this Khalifa out of his just rights. . grew tional into large States.e. the legitimate successor of the Prophet in the to of the faithful. nobody else qan be Khalifa. and his subjects. their To the people ruler is of a Muhammadan kingdom command own the Khalifa of the age.. just as there can be only one head of the Catholic Churcli. the Present-day Khalifa. a militaiy democracy. of the faithful. Muslim ruler. Logically there can be only one legitimate ruler of the entire spiritual Muslim world. therefore. In its strict theory. but simply as the office like first servant of the realm. ministerial control— because there was no constitution but plenty of pious wishes and counsels embodied in Niti-Shastras.

is a creation of the late 19th century God. Thi- JJmperor Aurangzib completely subordinated the State to the Church and sought to life. Shah Jahan's letter to the Sultan We of Turkey. and the more zealous for the glory of Islam a ruler the more is he morally bound to assert his own claim be regarded as to the only Khalifa in the world.ORIEXTAL MONARCHIES. Indeed. This theory makes it as imperative on the pait ot one Muslim State to annex other Muslim States as to conquer and convert all infidel lands {dar-ul-harh.e. and merely a result of a the growth of a politieal pan- Islamic movement as natural reaction ags^inst th(^ . 311 Muslim subjects of non-Muslim States are bound tlieir infidel rulev^ if in con- science to rebel against (hoy ar-eppt the theory of a universal Khalifate. the more orthodox: is. in possession of the — though Turkey was then much have the full text of holy places of Islam as to-day.) Considerations of expediency and social feelings have always made a large niimber of thoughtful averse to Muhammadans ar(^ "wars between Muslims". the theory that the Muslim ruler of Turkey is the spiritual head of* all Muhammadans wherever they may live. but always styled him " the He had the diplomatic intercourse Caesar of Eome *' {i. but such wars logically as necessary as the irreconcilable feud between the Pope and the Anti-Pope. of Eastern Eoman Empire) as and not the Khalifa. follow the Quranic law in every act of his with the Sultan of Turkey. but through the five long lines of titles the latter is never once called Khalifa or the vicegerent of In short..

being entirely dependent on the readiness of the lay public to accept a particular scholar. agency. type of mona. AurangJiib got the ulema to justify his forcible deposition of his father (as well as the murder of his eldest brother) by charging tliem M-ith the violation of the Quranic Law. But they did not form any chamber. steady absorption of Christians. In theory the theologians {ulema) were the repositories of the (Quranic Law and its vindicators when it was violated. no oiganised well-known body for constitutional judging his acts and passing sentence on him as a servant. if he happened al to be a strong man of action with the army his back.312 STUDIES IN MUGHAL INDIA. A members cannot bring the master of legions to trial. and the ulema failed to supply the least practical check on the Muslim king's nebulous. and membership of the body of the ulema was a even the matter of uncartainty. and his own son Akbar induced four theologians to issue a similar bull of deposition against Aurangzib iiimself on the same ground I Aurangzib . court with shadowy autocracy. elected captain and equal faithful — the sovereign is liable to dismissal for any violation of the Quranic Law.rchy can be more limited in theory. No But in practice the Muhammadan m(march was even more There was no absolute than the Roman Imperator. all sovereign Islamic States by the The Muslim of the free State being a theocracj^ and its ruler the mere servant of the holy Law and citizens.

MOXAKCIIIES. the homage which paid to public opinion. however.OKIEXTAI. purged the Assembly by means of his grenadiers. The irresistible ^jueror acknowledged. in theory at least. no doubt. The hypocrisy of appealinj^ against a political rival force Avas. but even he went through the form of getting his military dictatorship validated by the rump was no of the Legislature. !l J succeeded because he liad a couqueiing army behind liini. a higher authority than the swords of his legions. to the Quranic Law con- however. . In Islam. Hence. Akbar failed because he had not. General Bonaparte. there such legislative body. there was no constitutionalism in Oriental monarchies. Everything was left to public opinion and the limit of public endurance.

Dutch. actual achievement he a mere robber ? — — — — — — Maratha Navy and naval Siddis — Relations with the of administration. Reconstruct the life and reign of Shivaji from year to year in ample detail as known to the men of his time. 528 pages. The chronology is the most detailed and accurate possible at present. Reign of Shah Jahan.Works of JADUNATH SARKAR. ttlstory of nrLiran^zlb.s boyhood and education early viceroyalties marriages and family war in Central Asia sieges of Oandahar viceroyalty Rise of of the Deccan invasions of Golkonda and Bijapur Lessons of — — — — — — — — — . memoirs of contemporary Indians. more than 5. policy. comprehensive and critical study of Shivaji's life (1627policy. 4. Persian Statepapers. j-8 each volume. based upon all the available sources (both printed and MS. 'Vol. MA.) in Marathi. and history of the Deccani Powers in his time. and revenue returns and ofllcia! hand-books of the Mughal empire. Persian and Hindi.. instituand place in history — Was 7^s.000 Persian and Marathi letters of the leading historic characters of the age. (See descriptive Bibliography of nine pages 1680). u/s.) Corrects Grant Duff's numerous errors and supplies much additional infomation from contemporary authorities unknown to him. A at the end. Marathi bakhars travels of Seventeenth century European visitors to India. 6hiVajl and Hrls Tlrnes. crops the contents are Maharashtra the land and its the people and their character Boyhood and education of Shivaji A minute study of the Afzal Khan affair wars with Shaista Khan and Jai Singh— Shivaji's visit to Aurangzib and romantic escape His long wars with Bijapur and the Mughal empire Grand coronation fully described Invasion of : . achievements and aims. Rs. Among — — — — Tanjore Conquests in Kanara wars with the English and the English factories Shivaji's S3'Stem tions. I. Based entirely upon original sources. English. Aurangzib's reign materials Aurangzib'.

Ill. Southern India. temple destruction — Jaziya tax fully discussed — war with the Rajputs — Maharana Raj Singh — Durgadas and Ajit Singh Hindu reaction — Satnamis — Sikh gurus Tegh Bahadur and Guru Aurangazib's with the outer Govind Singh Shivaji's letter on religious toleration Tod's Rajasthan criticised correct chronology of Aurangzib's reign. — — — — — — — — : — — — — ftqeGdotes of ftUran^zlb. — rebellions of frontier Afghans — persecution of the Hindus. Hamiduddin Khan Ximcha). Northern India during i658>i68i. and his early conflict with Aurangzib — illness of Shah War of Succession. ascribed to Aurangzib's favourite officer. in ( the The work is exceedingly interesting and valuable. &c. Vol. The Anecdotes.:Shivaji Jahan —Aurangzib's preparations for contesting the throne. Keynote of Deccan history in 17th century Decline of Bijapur and Golkonda Jai Singh and Shivaji invade Bijapur internal anarchy at Bijapur siege and fall of Bijapur fall of Golkonda Maharashtra character of the land and the people Shivaji his rise his wars with Bijapur and Jai Singh his visit to Aurangzib and romantic escape his struggle with the Mughals his conquests coronation death and character Shambhuji's reign.moral and and death regulations sufferings of Shah Jahan — conquests of Kuch Bihar. i. Assam. — — — — Vol. 72 a Ms. — — — — — — — Vol. capture and execution of Dara capture of Dara's eldest son struggle with Shuja war in Bengal —tragic end of Shuja captivity and execution of Murad grand coronation of Aurangzib long and critical bibliography of authorities in Persian. Chittagong.. have been translated from Ahkam-i-Alamgiri. IV. and chief ministers — relations Muslim world — strict religious — "burial of Music" — captivity. capture and execution— Prince Akbar in the Deccan. 1st half second Persian bibliography. sisters. (Persian text with English translation) Rs. Persian work nymber. II. as it throws much new light on Aurangzib and exhibits many . sons. Defeat of Jaswant Singh defeat of Dara — pursuit. 1644-1689. which no other historian has yet used.

338 pp. 2. Orissa. thoroughly revised and enlarged. Statistics brought up to 1916 and 1917. and Assam. transport. A chapter on The Economic Effects of the War on India added. A complete account of India's physical features.r unknown traits of his character. and an indispensable guide to a right understanding of the country. caused a complete moral revolution in Eastern India by preaching the creed of bhakti or devotion to God as incarnate in Ivrishna.. curious episodes of his early life (such as " the Puritan in love ") and his last will and testament. economic products and resources. currency. land tenure systems and legislation. his policy towards the Hindus and the Shias. and his sons and government his treatment of his oiTicers." public finance. 3. the greatest saint of Bengal. notably Brindaban. Chaitanya.. ^GonoiTilcs of British ^n^ia Fourth ed. (1485-1533). The handiest and most accurate description of India's economic condition and problems. and also established its strongholds at several other places. Rs. His faith conquered Bengal. cic. labour laws. his pithy sayings. .. . lis. principles of — GhaitanVa's Pllgrirnages and Teachings With a portrait.




^"^" ' . CoUeg«5 Sq ' .-.SR! GOURAi\!G.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful