# Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Trigonometry Trigonometric Ratios  Exact Values & Triangles  Trigonometric Identities  ASTC Rule  Trigonometric Graphs  Sine & Cosine Rules  Area of a Triangle  Trigonometric Equations  Sums and Differences of angles  Double Angles  Triple Angles  Half Angles  T – formula  Subsidiary Angle formula  General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations  Radians  Arcs, Sectors, Segments  Trigonometric Limits  Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions  Integration of Trigonometric Functions 2 2  Integration of sin x and cos x  INVERSE TRIGNOMETRY  Inverse Sin – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties  Inverse Cos – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties  Inverse Tan – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties  Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions  Integration of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Trigonometric Ratios

opposite

Sine Cosine Tangent Cosecant Secant Cotangent sinθ cosθ tanθ cosecθ secθ cotθ

sinθ cosθ tanθ cosecθ secθ cotθ = = = = = =
cos( 90° − θ ) cot ( 90° − θ ) cos ec( 90° − θ ) tan ( 90° − θ )

= = = = = =
1 sin θ 1 cosθ 1 tan θ

= = =

sin ( 90° − θ )

sec( 90° − θ )

60 seconds = 1 minute 60’’ = 1’ 60 minutes = 1 degree 60’ = 1°
tan θ = sin θ cosθ cot θ = cosθ sin θ

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Exact Values & Triangles

30°

1

2

45°

2
1

60°

1

3
180° 0 –1 0 –– –1 ––

sin

cos tan cos ec sec cot

0° 0 1 0 –– 1 ––

30°
1 2 3 2 1 3

60°
3 2 1 2

45°
1 2 1 2

3
2 3

1
2 2

2
2 3

2
1 3

3

1

90° 1 0 –– 1 –– 0

Trigonometric Identities
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ cos θ
2

sin 2 θ 1 + cot 2 θ

=1 = 1 − sin 2 θ = 1 − cos 2 θ

= cosec2θ cot 2 θ = cosec2θ – 1 1 = cosec2θ – cot 2 θ = 2 tan θ = 1 =
sec 2 θ sec 2 θ − 1 sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ

tan 2 θ + 1

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

ASTC Rule
nd

1st Quadrant S T 270° A C

180°

0° 360 °

sin θ cosθ tan θ

sin θ cosθ tan θ

+ + + + – – – – + – + –

Second Quadrant: Sine positive sin θ sin (180° − θ ) cos(180° − θ ) – cosθ tan (180° − θ ) – tan θ Third Quadrant: Tangent positive sin (180° + θ ) – sin θ cos(180° + θ ) – cosθ tan θ tan (180° + θ ) Fourth Quadrant: Cosine positive sin ( 360° − θ ) – sin θ cosθ cos( 360° − θ ) tan ( 360° − θ ) – tan θ

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Trigonometric Graphs

Sine & Cosine Rules Sine Rule:
a b c = = sin A sin B sin C

OR

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c
A

C

b
B A

c
a

Cosine Rule:
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A

b
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c
a

Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Area of a Triangle
A = 1 ab sin C 2

 C is the angle  a & b are the two adjacent sides
C

b

a

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Trigonometric Equations  Check the domain eg. 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°  Check degrees ( 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360° ) or radians ( 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π )  If double angle, go 2 revolutions  If triple angle, go 3 revolutions, etc…  If half angles, go half or one revolution (safe side) Example 1 Solve sin θ =
1 2

sin θ

for

0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°

θ

= 1 2 = 30°, 150° for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360° = 1 2 = 60°, 300°, 420°, 660° = 30°, 150°, 210°, 330°

Example 2 Solve cos 2θ =

cos 2θ 2θ

1 2

θ

Example 3 Solve tan θ2 = 1 for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360° tan θ2 = 1 θ = 45°, 225° 2 θ = 90° Example 4
sin 2θ + cos θ = 0 2 sin θ cosθ + cosθ cosθ ( 2 sin θ + 1)

=0 =0
sin θ θ

cosθ

θ

=0 = 90°, 270°

= −1 2 = 210°, 330°

Example 5

3 sin θ − cos 2θ = −2 3 sin θ − 1 − 2 sin 2 θ

(

) = –2
=0
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2 sin θ + 3 sin θ + 1
2

Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

( 2 sin θ + 1)( sin θ + 1) = 0
sin θ

θ

= −1 2 = 210°, 330°

sin θ θ

= –1 = 270°

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Sums and Differences of angles sin (α + β ) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β sin (α − β ) = sin α cos β − cos α sin β cos(α + β ) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β cos(α − β ) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β tan α + tan β tan (α + β ) =
tan (α − β )

=

1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β

Double Angles sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cosθ
cos 2θ

= cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 =
2 tan θ 1 − 2 tan 2 θ

tan 2θ

sin 2 θ cos 2 θ

= 1 (1 − cos 2θ ) 2 1 = 2 (1 + cos 2θ )

Triple Angles sin 3θ = 3 sin θ − 4 sin 3 θ cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3 cosθ
tan 3θ

=

3 tan θ − tan 3 θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ

Half Angles sin θ =
cosθ

2 sin θ cos θ 2 2

= cos 2 θ2 − sin 2 θ2 = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ2 = 2 cos 2 θ2 − 1
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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

tan θ

=

2 tan θ 2 1 − 2 tan 2 θ 2

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Deriving the Triple Angles sin 3θ = sin ( 2θ + θ ) = sin 2θ cosθ + cos 2θ sin θ = 2 sin θ cosθ cosθ + (1 − 2 sin 2 θ ) sin θ = 2 sin θ cos 2 θ + sin θ − 2 sin 3 θ = 2 sin θ (1 − sin 2 θ ) + sin θ − 2 sin 3 θ = 2 sin θ − 2 sin 3 θ + sin θ − 2 sin 3 θ = 3 sin θ − 4 sin 3 θ
cos 3θ

_ Normal double angle_ Expand double angle_ Multiply_ Change sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 _ Simplify_

= cos( 2θ + θ ) = cos 2θ cosθ − sin 2θ sin θ = ( 2 cos 2 θ − 1) cosθ − 2 sin θ cosθ sin θ = 2 cos3 θ − cosθ − 2 sin 2 θ cosθ = 2 cos3 θ − cosθ − 2(1 − cos 2 θ ) cosθ = 2 cos 2 θ − cosθ − 2 cosθ + 2 cos3 θ = 4 cos3 θ − 3 cosθ = = = = =
tan ( 2θ + θ ) tan 2θ + tan θ 1 − tan 2θ tan θ 2 tan θ + tan θ 1− tan 2 θ
tan θ 1 − 2 1− tan tan θ 2 θ 2 tan θ + tan θ − tan 3 θ 1− tan 2 θ 1− tan 2 θ − 2 tan 2 θ 1− tan 2 θ 3

tan 3θ

3 tan θ − tan θ 1 − 3 tan 2 θ

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

T – Formulae Let t = tan θ2
sin θ cos θ tan θ

= = =
θ 2

2t 1+ t2 1− t2 1+ t2 2t 1− t2

sin θ

= =

2 sin θ cos θ 2 2 2 sin cos cos 2 θ + sin 2
θ 2 2θ 2

Using half angles _ Divide by “1”
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1

=

2 sin θ cos θ 2 2 2θ cos 2 2 θ cos 2 + sin 2 θ 2 2θ cos 2 2 tan θ 2 1 + tan 2 θ 2 2t 1+ t2

Divide top and bottom by
cos 2 θ

= =
cos θ

cos ’

cancel; = = =
sin θ cosθ
2t 1+ t 2 1− t 2 1+ t 2

sin cos

becomes tan

= =

cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ 2 2 cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ 2 2 2 θ 2θ cos 2 + sin 2 cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ 2 2 cos 2 θ 2 2 θ cos 2 + sin 2 θ 2 cos 2 θ 2 1 − tan 2 θ 2 1 + tan 2 θ 2 1− t2 1+ t2

tan θ

=

2t 1− t2

= =

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Subsidiary Angle Formula

a sin x + b cos x

= =

R (sin x cos x + cos x sin x ) R sin x cos x + R cos x sin x

a
b

= =

R cos x Rsin x sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1

∴ a2 ∴ b2

= =

R 2 cos 2 x R 2 sin 2 x

=

a 2 + b2 R2 tan α = b a

R = a 2 + b2
a sin x + b cos x a sin x − b cos x a cos x + b sin x a cos x − b sin x

=C =C =C =C

R sin( x + α ) R sin( x − α ) R cos( x + α ) R cos( x − α )

Example 1 Find x. 3 sin x − cos x = 1 R = = 4 =2
2 sin( x − 30) sin( x − 30) x − 30 x 3 + 12
2

tan α

=

1 3

α

= 30°

=1 =1 2 = 30°, 150° = 60°, 180°

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

General Solutions of Trigonometric Equations sin θ = sin α Then θ = nπ + (−1) nα
cosθ = cos α
tan θ = tan α

Then θ Then θ

= 2 nπ ± α

= nπ + α

πc

= 180°
πc 180

1° =

Arcs, Sectors, Segments Arc Length l = rθ
θ

l

r

Area of Sector A = 1 r 2θ 2
θ

r

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Area of Segment A = 1 r 2 (θ − sin θ ) 2
θ

Segment

r

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Trigonometric Limits
lim
x →0

sin x x

=

lim
x→0

tan x x

=

lim cos x
x→0

=1

Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions d ( sin x ) dx = cos x
d [ sin f ( x)] dx d ( sin( ax + b) ) dx d ( cos x ) dx d [ cos f ( x)] dx d ( cos( ax + b) ) dx d ( tan x ) dx d [ tan f ( x)] dx d ( tan( ax + b) ) dx d sec x dx d cos ecx dx d cot x dx

= = = = = = = = = = =

f ' ( x) cos f ( x)

a cos( ax + b)

− sin x

− f ' ( x) sin f ( x)

− a sin( ax + b)

sec 2 x

f ' ( x) sec 2 f ( x)

a sec 2 (ax + b)

sec x. tan x

− cot x. cos ecx − cos ec 2 x

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Integration of Trigonometric Functions

∫ cos ax dx ∫ sin ax dx ∫ sec ∫
2

=

1 sin ax + c a 1 − cos ax + c a 1 tan ax + c a

=

ax

dx

=

1 a −x
2 2

dx

=

 x sin −1   + c a

∫−

1 a −x
2 2

dx

=

 x  x cos −1   + c __OR__ − sin −1   + c a a

∫a

2

1 + x2

dx

=

1 x tan −1   + c a a

∫ cos ec ax dx
2

=

1 − cot ax + c a 1 sec ax + c a 1

∫ sec ax. tan ax dx

=

∫ cos ecax.cot ax dx = − a cos ecax + c

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Integration of sin2x and cos2x cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x − 1 cos 2 x + 1 = 2 cos 2 x 1 ( cos 2 x + 1) 2 = cos 2 x 2 = 1 ∫ ( cos 2 x + 1) dx 2 ∫ cos x dx 1 1 = 2 ( 2 sin 2 x + x ) + C = 1 sin 2 x + 1 x + C 4 2

∫ cos
cos 2 x 2 sin 2 x sin 2 x

2

x

dx =

1 4

sin 2 x + 1 x + C 2

∫ sin

2

x

dx

= 1 − sin 2 x = 1 − cos 2 x = 1 (1 − cos 2 x ) 2 1 = 2 ∫ (1 − cos 2 x ) dx = 1 ( x − 1 sin 2 x ) + C 2 2 1 1 = 2 x − 4 sin 2 x + C

∫ sin

2

x

dx =

1 2

x − 1 sin 2 x + C 4

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

INVERSE TRIGNOMETRY Inverse Sin – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
y
π 2

−1 ≤ x ≤ 1

x -2 2

π π ≤y≤ 2 2

−π 2 sin −1 (− x) = − sin −1 x

Inverse Cos – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
y

π

−1 ≤ x ≤ 1

π 2

0≤ y ≤π
x 1

-1

0

cos −1 (− x) = π − cos −1 x

Inverse Tan – Graph, Domain, Range, Properties
y 2
π 2

All real x

x

−π 2
-2

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

π π ≤y≤ 2 2

tan −1 (− x) = − tan −1 x

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Differentiation of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
d sin −1 x dx d x sin −1 a dx

( ( ( (

) ) )

= = = = =

1 1 − x2 1 a − x2
2

d sin −1 f ( x) dx d cos −1 x dx d x cos −1 a dx

f ' ( x) 1 − [ f ( x)]2 1 1 − x2 1 a2 − x2 f ' ( x) 1 − [ f ( x)]2

) )

(

d cos −1 f ( x) dx d tan −1 x dx d x tan −1 a dx

(

)

= = =

(

) )

1 1 + x2 a a + x2
2

(

d tan −1 f ( x) dx

(

)

=

f ' ( x) a + [ f ( x)]2

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Maths Extension 1 – Trigonometry

Integration of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

1 a −x
2 2

dx

=

 x sin −1   + c a

∫−

1 a2 − x2

dx

=

 x  x cos −1   + c __OR__ − sin −1   + c a a

∫a

2

1 + x2

dx

=

1 x tan −1   + c a a

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