Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38

Technological development in the Stirling cycle engines
D.G. Thombarea,Ã, S.K. Vermab
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar, Sakharale, Sangli 415414, Maharashtra, India b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere 402103, Raigad, Maharashtra, India Received 3 July 2006; accepted 31 July 2006

Abstract The performance of Stirling engines meets the demands of the efficient use of energy and environmental security and therefore they are the subject of much current interest. Hence, the development and investigation of Stirling engine have come to the attention of many scientific institutes and commercial companies. The Stirling engine is both practically and theoretically a significant device, its practical virtue is simple, reliable and safe which was recognized for a full century following its invention by Robert Stirling in 1816. The engine operates on a closed thermodynamic cycle, which is reversible. Today Stirling cycle-based systems are in commercial use as a heat pump, cryogenic refrigeration and air liquefaction. As a prime mover, Stirling cycles remain the subject of research and development efforts. The objective of this paper is to provide fundamental information and present a detailed review of the past efforts taken for the development of the Stirling cycle engine and techniques used for engine analysis. A number of attempts have been made by researches to build and improve the performance of Stirling engines. It is seen that for successful operation of engine system with good efficiency a careful design of heat exchangers, proper selection of drive mechanism and engine configuration is essential. The study indicates that a Stirling cycle engine working with relatively low temperature with air of helium as working fluid is potentially attractive engines of the future, especially solar-powered low-temperature differential Stirling engines with vertical, double acting, and gamma configuration. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Stirling cycle engine; Heater; Cooler; Regenerator; Engine mechanism

ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: 02342 220329, s 02342 225501; fax: 02342 220989.

E-mail address: (D.G. Thombare). 1364-0321/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.001

2 D.G. Thombare, S.K. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38

Contents 1. 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Thermodynamics of Stirling cycle engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1. Engine cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Isothermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3. Heat transfer in isothermal engine model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4. Heat transfer in adiabatic engine model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.5. Maximum theoretical obtainable efficiency of Stirling cycle engine . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6. Schmidt’s theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Actual Stirling cycle engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.1. Heat transfer phenomenon in Stirling engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2. Heat exchangers in Stirling engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.1. Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2.2. Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.2.3. Regenerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.3. Regenerator analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.3.1. Heat transfer and fluid friction in regenerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Engine configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.1. Mode of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2. Forms of cylinder coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.1. Alfa coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.2. Beta coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.2.3. Gamma coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3. Forms of piston coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.1. Slider crank drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.2. Rhombic drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.3. Swash plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.4. Gas coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.4. Suitability of cylinder piston configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Working fluids for Stirling engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Power and speed control of Stirling engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.1. Temperature control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.2. Mean pressure control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.3. Dead volume variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.4. Stroke variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.5. Phase angle variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Factors governing engine performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7.1. Regenerator effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7.2. Regenerator material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.3. Working fluid and fluid leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.4. Fluid friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Operational characteristics of the Stirling engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.1. Mean cycle pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.2. Dead volumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.3. Thermal losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.4. Mechanical losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36



5. 6.




D.G. Thombare, S.K. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 3

Nomenclature a, b convective heat transfer coefficient at particular surface Ah heater surface area Ar regenerator heat transfer area BN Beale number CP sp. heat capacity of working fluid at constant pressure CPM sp. heat capacity of regenerator CV sp. heat capacity of working fluid at constant volume dh heater tube diameter h convective heat transfer coefficient hbulk bulk heat transfer coefficient hh convective heat transfer coefficient of heater k swept volume ratio k1 & k2 ratio of regenerative process kh thermal conductivity of heater tube material lh heater length LR regenerator length M mass of working fluid mc mass of working fluid in compression space mck mass flow of working fluid between compression space and cooler me mass of working fluid in expansion space mf fluid mass flow rate MFR fluid mass resident in regenerator mh mass of working fluid in heater mhe mass flow of working fluid between expansion space and heater mi mass flow of working fluid to a Rallis generalized cell mk mass of working fluid in cooler MM mass of regenerator mo mass flow of working fluid from a Rallis generalized cell mr mass of working fluid in regenerator n mole number of working fluid Nu Nusselt number p instantaneous pressure P1, P2, P3, P4 pressure of gas at silent pints on PV diagram PAM arithmetic mean of pressure at regenerator end Pi engine power pmax maximum cycle pressure pmean mean cycle pressure Pr Prandtl number Q heat transfer QC heat energy loss during compression Qh heat energy supplied during heating Qk heat energy loss during cooling QR rate of heat energy rejected Qs rate of heat energy supplied R gas constant

Thombare.ARTICLE IN PRESS 4 D. S. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Re rv s S St T T1. T2. t1 t2 TC Tc TC av Tck TD TE Te TE av Te TF TH Th The Ti Tk TM Tmax Tmin To v Vc Vd Ve Vr Vsc Vse VT WC Wd We WS x X Reynolds number volume/compression ratio entropy reduced dead volume Stanton number time coordinate T3.G. T4 temperature of working fluid silent points on TS diagram time associated with heat transfer at expansion space time associated with heat transfer at compression space sink temperature temperature of working fluid in compression space average temperature of working fluid in compression space mean temperature of working fluid at cooler and compression space temperature at dead space highest temperature of working fluid temperature at expansion side average temperature of working fluid in expansion space temperature of working fluid in expansion space fluid temperature temperature at source side temperature of working gas at heater temperature of working fluid at heater and expansion space inlet temperature to Urieli’s generalized cell temperature of working gas at coller matrix temperature maximum cycle temperature minimum cycle temperature outlet temperature at Urieli’s generalized cell velocity of gas compression cylinder volume variation dead space volume expansion cylinder volume variation regenerator volume compression space swept volume expansion space swept volume total volume compression work work done from engine expansion work west number dead volume ratio distance Greek symbols r c/a .K.

including hot-air or hot-gas engines. simulation codes are under development worldwide. Thombare. dimensionless length thermal efficiency b/a tanÀ1 ððk sin aÞ=ðk þ k cos aÞÞ Crank angle isentropic gas index dimensionless time factor in Schmidt analysis flow periodic time gas viscosity regenerator effectiveness of efficiency reduced length matrix permeability fluid viscosity ratio of reservoir temperature to hot temperature. Introduction The Stirling engine were invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling [1] in Scotland.K. A Stirling cycle machine is a device.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. Stirling engine-based units are considered best among the most effective low-power range solar thermal conversion units [3]. namely the solar receiver. This report provides a literature review on Stirling engine technological development. The aim of this review is to find a feasible solution. . The Stirling engines are frequently called by other names. and enjoyed substantial commercial success up to the early 1900s. further development of Stirling engines was severely hampered. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 5 a z Zt d y f g Z d l m 2R V s m x t G0 P phase angle between expansion cylinder and compression cylinder. low noise operation and ability of Stirling engines to use many fuels meet the demand of the effective use of energy and environmental security [2]. S. with fuel crises. High heat efficiency. due to the rapid development of internal combustion engines and electrical machine. Stirling engines become a viable proposition with rapid advances in material technology. with cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels. This was the second stage of transformation for the Stirling engines. In order to analyze and to improve the performance of three main sub-systems of these units. Number of research works on the Stirling engine is discussed. or one of a number of designations reserved for particular engine arrangement. which may lead to a preliminary conceptual design of a workable Stirling engine.G. In 1980. T1/T3 ratio of engine operating temperature ratio of sink to reservoir temperature reduced period 1. and the drive mechanism. some 80 years before the invention of diesel engine. The flow is controlled by volume changes so that there is a net conversion of heat to work or vice versa. the thermodynamic gas circuit. In the beginning of 19th century. which operates on a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle.

compression piston moves towards regenerator while the expansion piston remains stationery. Consider a cylinder containing two opposed pistons with a regenerator between the pistons as shown in Fig. Thombare. The working fluid is compressed in the compression space and the pressure increases from P1 to P2. Work is done on the working fluid equal in magnitude to the heat rejected from the cycle. 1. The cycle consists of four processes namely isothermal compression and expansion and isentropic heat addition and rejection processes in the sequence as shown in Fig.ARTICLE IN PRESS 6 D. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Future needs of power plants and attractive properties of Stirling engine Future needs and trends 1. Expansion volume is maintained at high temperature and compression volume is maintained at low temperature. Demand for low noise and less airpolluting prime mover 5. Engine cycle To start with a cycle we assume that the compression space piston is at outer dead point (at extreme right side) and the expansion space piston is at inner dead point close to regenerator. The regenerator is like a thermal sponge alternatively absorbing and releasing heat. There is no change in internal energy and there is a decrease in entropy. 1(a). 1(b).1. The temperature gradient of (TmaxÀTmin) between the ends of regenerator is maintained. The compression volume is at maximum and the pressure and temperature are at their minimum values represented by point 1 on PV and TS diagram. Increasing fossil fuel cost      High efficiency (utilization of non-fossil fuels) Multi-fuel capability (utilisation of non-fossil fuels) Clean combustion Low noise levels Low temperature operation 3. All working fluid is in the cold compression space. S. He builds an engine working on the closed thermodynamic cycle and operated. The engine and engine cycle invented by Robert Stirling represented on PV and TS diagram as shown in Fig. Utilization of alternative fuels 4.G. isothermal compression process: During compression process from 1 to 2. it is a matrix of finely divided metal in the form of wires or strips. Depleting conventional fuels Attractive Stirling properties  Multi-fuel capability  Low fuel consumption 2. 2. The four processes of the thermodynamic cycle are: Process 1–2. Isothermal compression of the working fluid involving heat transfer from . The volume between regenerator and the right side piston is expansion volume and between regenerator and left side piston is compression volume. Waste heat recovery [4] 2. The temperature is maintained constant due to heat flow from cold space to surrounding.K. Thermodynamics of Stirling cycle engine Robert Stirling invented the closed cycle regenerative engine and the regenerative heat exchanger.

V2 T 1 ¼ T 2 ¼ T min . Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 7 3 3 Pressure P 4 2 1 Volume V (a) 2 Entropy S 1. 1. S.ARTICLE IN PRESS D.G. .K. working fluid to external dump at Tmin: P2 ¼ P1 V 1 ¼ P1 rv . The Stirling cycle. Thombare. Tmin Temp T 4. Tmax PV and TS diagram for Stirling engine Tmin Tmaxa (b) Engine arrangement and piston 1 2 3 4 1 Expansion Volume Compression Volume (c) Time displacement diagram Fig.

isothermal expansion process: In the expansion process 3–4. Thombare. Change in entropy ¼ ðs2 À s2 Þ ¼ C V lnð1=tÞ. Process 2–3. Process 3– 4.K. Work done ¼ 0. Q ¼ W ¼ P3 V 3 ln rv ¼ mRT 3 ln rv .ARTICLE IN PRESS 8 D.G. the pressure decreases as volume increases. ¼ T2 t V 3 ¼ V 2. constant volume regenerative transfer process: In the process 2–3.e. If t ¼ ðT 2 =T 3 Þ The temperature ratio. so that the volume between pistons remains constant. T 4 ¼ T 3 ¼ T max . During the flow of working fluid through regenerator. The temperature maintained constant by adding heat to the system from external source at Tmax. t defined by Gustav Schmidt [5]: Heat transfer Q ¼ C V ðT 3 À T 2 Þ. No work is done and there is an increase in the entropy and internal energy of the working fluid. The gradual increase in temperature of working fluid while passing through regenerator causes increase in pressure. constant volume regenerative transfer process: In the process 4–1 both pistons move simultaneously to transfer working fluid from expansion space to compression space through regenerator at constant volume. The working fluid is transferred from compression volume to expansion volume through porous media regenerator. . compression piston towards regenerator and expansion piston away from regenerator. P4 ¼ Process 4–1. T1 V 1 ¼ V 4. P3 V 3 ¼ P3 ð1=rv Þ. Change in entropy ¼ ðs3 À s4 Þ ¼ R ln rv . both pistons move simultaneously. Isochoric (constant volume) heat rejection: P1 ¼ P4 T 4 ¼ P1 t. Q ¼ W c ¼ P1 V 1 lnð1=rv Þ ¼ mRT 1 lnð1=rv Þ. As the expansion proceeds. the heat is transferred from the working fluid to the regenerator matrix reducing the temperature of working fluid to Tmin. No work is done. there is a decrease in the internal energy and the entropy of the working fluid. Temperature of working fluid increased from Tmin to Tmax by heat transfer from regenerator matrix to working fluid. There is no change in the internal energy. the expansion piston continues to move away from the regenerator towards outer dead piston while compression piston remains stationery at inner dead point adjacent to regenerator. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Heat transfer Q ¼ Work done W . volume) heat transfer to working fluid from the regenerator matrix: P3 ¼ P2 T 3 P2 . Isochoric (const. i. Work is done by the working fluid on piston equal in the magnitude to the heat supplied. S. À Á Change in entropy ¼ ðs2 À s2 Þ ¼ R ln 1=rv . V4 Heat transfer ¼ Work done. but an increase in the entropy of the working fluid.

Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 9 Heat transfer Q ¼ C V ðT 1 À T 4 Þ and Change in entropy ¼ ðs1 À s4 Þ ¼ C V ln t and if rv ¼ V 4 =V 3 ¼ V 1 =V 2 the total heat supplied ¼ RT3 ln rv and the total heat rejected ¼ RT1 In rv. Work is done on the surrounding by virtue of the varying volumes of the working space volume Vc and Ve. Berchowitz [6] have modified ideal engine as a five component serially connected model consisting. The engine analysis is done for the heat transfer to working gas by evaluating the area enclosed in PV diagram. heater h and expansion space e as shown in Fig. cooler k. of compression space c. mRT 3 lnðrv Þ T1 T min ¼1À ¼ 1 À t. which consists of two isothermal and two constant volume processes and the cycle is thermodynamically reversible. Using ideal gas equation: À Á M ¼ p=R V c =T k þ V k =T k þ V r =T r þ V h =T h þ V e =T h . regenerator r.   V c V k V r lnðT h =T k Þ V h V e À1 p ¼ MR þ þ þ þ . Considering pressure throughout the engine constant and temperature in compression space and cooler and expansion space and heater is constant. T c ¼ T k . The first assumptions of isothermal working and heat exchange imply that the heat exchangers are required to be perfectly effective and to do so infinite rate of heat transfer is required between cylinder wall and working fluid. Thombare. Isothermal analysis To attain effective heat transfer Urieli. The interconnecting duct to these volumes is added in to corresponding volumes for simplicity. ðT h À T k Þ Tk Tk Th Th (2) The equation given by Senft [7] for working gas pressure P as a function of volume variation Vc and Ve. T h ¼ T e . So engine cycle pressure. T3 T max (1) Zt ¼ 1 À The Stirling cycle is highly idealized thermodynamic cycle. . i. 2. The analysis is started with an assumption that the total mass of working gas in the machine is constant. The second assumption requires zero heat transfer between walls and working fluid.G.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. S. respectively. M ¼ mc þ mk þ mr þ mh þ me . 2.2.e. The effective regenerator temperature Tr can be written as T r ¼ ðT h À T k Þ= lnðT h =T k Þ.K. both assumptions remains invalid in actual engine operation. Then the efficiency can be written as Zt ¼ mRT 3 lnðrv Þ À mRT 1 lnðrv Þ .

Over a complete cycle the total work done by the engine is the algebraic sum of the work done by compression and expansion spaces. Heat transfer in isothermal engine model To investigate heat transfer to heater and cooler it is necessary to consider the energy equation for working gas. The enthalpy is transferred in to the cell by means of mass flow mi and temperature Ti and out of the cell by mo and temperature To. 3. Ideal isothermal model. A generalized cell of working spaces modeled by Rallis [8] is as shown in Fig. DQ þ ðC P T i mi À C P T o mo Þ ¼ DW d þ þC V DðmTÞ.ARTICLE IN PRESS 10 D. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Compression Space Cooler c k Regenerator Heater r h Expansion Space e We Wc Vc Tk mc p Vk Tk mk Vr Tr mr Vh Th mh Ve Th me QC Qk Tr Qh Qe Th Temperature Tk Fig 2. S. Thombare.K. I I W¼ p dV c þ p dV e . which may be either reduced to working space cell or a heat exchanger cell. The derivative operator is denoted by D and Dm refer to mass derivative (dm/dt) The statement of energy equation for the working gas in the generalized cell is fRate of heat transfer into cellg þ fNet enthalphy converted to cellg ¼ fRate of work done on surroundingg þ fRate of increase of internal energy in the cellg. Mathematically the statement becomes. W ¼ W c þ W e.3.  I  dV c dV e þ W¼ p df df df where f is crank angle: ð3Þ 2. (4) .G.

2. All required heat transfer occurred across the boundaries of the isothermal working space. Thus in real machines. Eq. S.Ti m. respectively. Then equation then simplifies to DQ ¼ RTDm þ DW d . Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 11 mi. From mass conservation considerations.K.J. A generalized cell of working spaces modeled by C. Rankine [9] has proved that neither the heating nor cooling takes place exactly at constant volumes or at constant temperature. The net heat transferred to the working gas over the cycle is given by cyclic integration of the equation I I I (5) Q ¼ DQ ¼ RT Dm þ DW d . In the isothermal model for the compression and expansion spaces as well as for the heater and the cooler we have that T i ¼ T o ¼ T. T. This implies that the net heat transfer over the cycle must be provided by the heat exchangers as shown in Fig.4. Thombare. However. p. This led to the paradoxical situation that neither the heater nor the cooler contributed any net heat transfer over the cycle and hence were redundant. 4.G.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. The Stirling cycle machines having non-isothermal working space were first analyzed by Finkelstein [10] in 1960 and this analysis represented the most significant development in . Rallis. Thus DQ ¼ C P Tðmo À mi Þ þ C V TDm þ DW d .To Q Fig 3. the working space will tend to be adiabatic rather than isothermal. the practical requirements for effective heat exchange conflict with working space designed for expanding and compressing the working gas. the difference in the mass flow ðmo À mi Þ is simply the rate of mass accumulation within the cell and for working gas R ¼ C P À C V . (4) is the well-known classical form of the energy equation for non-steady flow in which kinetic and potential energy terms have been neglected. Heat transfer in adiabatic engine model In an ideal Stirling cycle engine isothermal model. V W mo. where CP and CV are the specific heat capacities of the gas at constant pressure and constant volume. compression and expansion spaces were maintained at isothermal (constant temperature) conditions.

The resulting temperature variations in the gas in the working spaces led to temperature discontinuity at the working space interface.ARTICLE IN PRESS 12 D. Ideal adiabatic model. More recently.K. regenerator–heater interface at heater temperature Th. The working spaces are. Both in the regenerator matrix and gas in the regenerator volume have the individual linear temperature distribution: the gas flowing through regenerator–cooler interface being at cooler temperature Tk. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 the century. with particular emphasis on the limiting case of adiabatic compression and expansion process. the adiabatic analysis has been considered by Berchowitz [12]. The theory presented by Finkelstein was further explored by Walker and Kahn [11] in 1965. swept volume ratio and dead volume ratio were made. His model assumed finite heat transfer in the working space by means of heat transfer coefficient. Energy equation applied to a generalized all can be written as DQ þ ðC P T i mi À C P T o mo Þ ¼ dW d þ C V DðmTÞ. (6) Compression Space c Cooler k Regenerator r Heater Expansion Space h e W Vc Tc mc p mck Tck Vk Tk mk mkr Tkr Vr Tr mr mrk Trh Vh Th mh mhe The W Ve Me Te Qk Qh Te Tr Temperature Tk Tc Th Fig 4. Hence CP ¼ Rg . A study of the effect of four important design parameters temperature ratio. 4. ðg À 1Þ where g ¼ C P =C V . assumed to be adiabatic and thus the temperature Tc and Te will vary over the cycle in accordance with adiabatic nature of these spaces as shown in Fig.G. The equation of state is given by PV ¼ mRT and C P À C V ¼ R. S. respectively. The engine is configured as a five component. Thus the gas in cooler and heater is maintained at isothermal condition at temperature Tk and Th. phase angle. Thombare. as configured earlier with perfect heat exchangers and regenerator. ðg À 1Þ CV ¼ R . . Here Urieli’s ideal adiabatic model is considered for analysis. however.

so mc þ mk þ mr þ mh þ me ¼ M.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. Now for all heat exchanger cells. However. Vc and Ve are available analytically and all other parameters in Eqs. the rest of the variables may be obtained by means of the equations of state and mass balance. Differentiating the above equation Dmc þ Dmk þ Dmr þ Dmh þ Dme ¼ 0. (9) and (11) are constant excluding Tck and The. Dmc þ Dme þ ðDp=RÞ Tk Tr Th Appling energy Eq. Volume variations DVc. since the respective volumes and temperatures are constant. Substituting equations and simplifying Dp ¼ ÀgpððDV c =T ck Þ þ ðDV e =T he ÞÞ . Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 13 Taking logarithm of both sides of equation and differentiating we obtain differential form of the equation of state. the differential equation of the equation of state reduces to Dm=m ¼ Dp=p. Once p and mc are evaluated.G. DVe.K. further more the workdone DW C ¼ pDV c . from continuity considerations the rate of accumulation of gas Dmc is equal the mass inflow of gas given by mck Thus the equation reduces to C P T ck Dmc ¼ pDV c þ C V Dðmc T c Þ. Thombare. The interface temperatures Tck and The are conditional on the direction of mass flow. Dp DV Dm DV þ ¼ þ . In order to evaluate the mass flow (and thus the direction of mass . Applying Eq. (7) to each of three heat exchangers and substituting in equation Dmc þ Dme þ Dpðmk =p þ mr =p þ mh =pÞ ¼ 0. (6) to the compression space we obtain DQC À C P T ck mck ¼ DW C þ C V Dðmc T c Þ. S. ½V c =T ck þ gðV k =Rk þ V r =T r þ V h =T h Þ þ V e =T he Š (11) (10) (9) (8) (7) We observe that Eqs. Substituting the equation of state and associated ideal gas relations Dmc ¼ ðpDV c þ V c Dp =gÞ=ðRT ck Þ. Substituting the gas equation   Vk Vr Vh þ þ ¼ 0. p V m V The total mass of working fluid remains constant. (9) and (11) are two simultaneous differential equations in the variables p and mc. DQC ¼ 0. the compression space is adiabatic. Similarly for the expansion space Dme ¼ ðpDV e þ V e Dp =gÞ=ðRT he Þ.

ARTICLE IN PRESS 14 D. mkr ¼ mck À Dmk . Considering the energy Eq. The analysis shows that thermal efficiency is function of regenerative effectiveness and volume ratio. S. where a and b are heat transfer coefficients. Thombare. DQR ¼ V r DpC V =R À C P ðT kr mkr À T rh mrh Þ. 2. since the respective volumes are constant. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 flow) we consider the continuity equation. also Rallis [8] has compared ideal regenerative cycle having isothermal and adiabatic process of compression and expansion. internal thermal losses and mechanical friction losses. Thus applying Eq.5. and is oblivious by inspection. Successively applying above equation to each of the cells as shown in Fig. r ¼ c=a. (6) substituting values of DW and mT in to Eq. DQh ¼ V h DpC V =R À C P ðT rh mrh À T he mhe Þ. A computer program to simulation of engine system is done by Organ [16]. Mahkamov [13. mhe ¼ mrh À Dmh .G. Above equation is simply a statement that the rate of mass accumulation in a cell is equal to the net mass flow in to that cell. mrh ¼ mkr À Dmr . (13) to the individual heat exchanger spaces we obtain DQk ¼ V k DpC V =R À C P ðT ck mck À T kr mkr Þ. This gives a close insight in the engine analysis than earlier one. Trh ¼ Th. the ratio of reservoir temperature to hot engine temperature is denoted by x ¼ T E =T H and d ¼ b=a. 4 mck ¼ À Dmc . (13) In the heat exchanger spaces no work is done. DW ¼ pDV c þ pDV e . ð14Þ We note that since the heat exchangers are isothermal and the regenerator is ideal. (6) and simplifying we obtain a more convenient form of the energy equation DQ þ ðC P T i mi À C P T o mo Þ ¼ ðC P pDV þ C V VDpÞ=R. the ratio of sink to reservoir temperature is defined as G ¼ T C =T H . we have by definition Tkr ¼ Tk. The ratio of engine lower to higher operating temperature is defined as t ¼ T k =T E . . ð12Þ The total work done by the engine is the algebraic sum of the work done by expansion and compression spaces. Maximum theoretical obtainable efficiency of Stirling cycle engine The actual Stirling cycle engine subjected to heat transfer. To estimate these losses Senft [17] has defined some ratios of engine temperatures.K.14] is used computational fluid dynamic approach to investigate working process of an engine model made by Urieli [15]. given by Dm ¼ mi À mo .

K. . Further for maximum power condition the equation can be written as x¼ ðdG þ tÞ . The Pi is the power produced by the working fluid before mechanical losses of the engine are deducted. As per second law thermal efficiency not to exceed Carnot cycle efficiency Qs À QR P TC ¼ p1 À ¼ 1 À t. P ¼ aT H f1 þ dG À x À xdtg. beta and gamma. The domain of possible t values for the function Pi ranges from tp to 1 where tp ¼ dG þ rðdG þ 1Þ . ðd þ 1Þt À rð1 À tÞ2 (18) Above equation gives power output of reversible engine operating between temperature extremes. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 15 So the cycle average power P ¼ Qs À QR . 5–7. d þ rðdG þ 1Þ Differentiating (18) yields following point where indicated power is maximum pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi drð1 À GÞ þ ð1 þ dÞðd þ r þ rdÞðr þ rd2 G2 þ dGð1 þ d þ 2rÞÞ tM ¼ . d þ d2 þ r þ 2dr þ Gd2 r (19) Boer [18] has used linearized theory for maximum obtainable performance of Stirling engine. but is certainly more realistic than the ideal Stirling cycle. The engine configurations considered for classical analysis of operation of Stirling engine are shown in Figs. S. He showed that for a one-dimensional model of Stirling engine maximum obtainable values are independent on the value of regenerator conductance. thus remains highly idealized.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. Schmidt obtained close theory. Qs À QT Qs À QT TE This condition can be expressed as xfðd þ 1Þt À rð1 À tÞ2 gXdG þ t. The analysis made for three types of practical Stirling engine configuration wise alpha. Thombare. 2. ðd þ 1Þt À rð1 À tÞ2 (17) (16) ð15Þ Substituting (17) into (15) Max. Schmidt’s theory After 55 years of Stirling cycle engine invention Schmidt [5] made analysis of engine cycle in 1871 called as classical analysis.6. which provides sinusoidal volume variation of working space in the reciprocating engines. It. Theory retains the major assumptions of isothermal compression and expansion and of perfect regeneration. P ¼ aðT H À T E Þ À bðT C À T k Þ. Power Pi Pi ¼ aT H fdðt À GÞð1 À tÞ À rð1 þ dGÞð1 À tÞ2 g .G.

Following are the principal assumptions of Schmidt’s analysis of Stirling cycle engine: 1. All processes are reversible.K. Alpha configuration. 5.ARTICLE IN PRESS 16 D. 4. There is no temperature gradient in the heat exchanger. S. . PV ¼ mRT. 2. The working fluid obeys perfect gas law. 6. The volume variation in the working space is sinusoidal. 3. Thombare.G. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Fig. The regeneration process is perfect. 6. no leakage in the system. Fig. The mass of air in the system remains constant. Piston–displacer type—beta configuration. 5.

The temperature in heater and expansion space is isothermal at TE. The classical analysis of operation of Stirling engine of three-engine configuration provided in Table 1. The basic fourpath cycle will be used as the datum for illustrating the effects of practical factors. but the practical realities like adiabatic and or isothermal. Thombare. The cylinder wall and piston temperature are constant. The temperature in the dead space and hence in regenerator space is isothermal at TD. 9. The speed of the machine is constant. 11. 8. 14. cylinder wall heat transfer and the general situations have not been accounted. 3. 7. The working gas temperature through out the engine will have a tendency to be influenced in an adiabatic rather than an isothermal manner and this will influence the form of the PV . The effects of the various practical factors that cause the actual engine cycle to deviate from the ideal case are required to be considered separately in order to highlight their influence.G. internal heat exchangers.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. 7. Actual Stirling cycle engine The ideal thermodynamics of the Stirling engine have been examined. S. Schmidt theory can be as a useful tool for engine design. A reasonable level of caution in interpretation and predictions of the performance.K. The temperature in cooler and compression space is isothermal at TC. 13. There are no flow losses and hence no spatial pressure loss. 10. Steady state conditions are established. No leakage of working gas. 12. Piston–displacer in separate cylinder—beta configuration. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 17 Fig.

S.G.K. Thombare.Table 1 Schmidt’s analysis Particulars Expansion space volume variation Ve Alpha engine V se ð1 þ cos fÞ Ve ¼ 2 Vc ¼ V SC ½1 þ cosðf À aފ 2 Beta engine V se Ve ¼ ð1 þ cos fÞ 2 Vc ¼ V SC ð1 À cos fÞ 2 V SP þ ½1 þ cosðf À aފ þ V NO 2 V SP V se V se ½ð1 À cos fފ 2 þ kp ½1 þ cosðf À aފ þ V NO & pV se zð1 þ cos fÞ þ ð1 À cos fÞ 2RT C þ kp ½1 þ cosðf À aފ À ð1 þ kp Þ þ ðk2 À 2kp cos a þ 1Þ1=2 p ' 4X z þ zþ1 C 4X z ¼ z þ ðk2 À 2kp cos a þ 1Þ1=2 þ p p zþ1 þ ½k2 þ 2ðz À 1Þkp cos a p þ ðz À 1Þ2 Š1=2 cosðf À yÞ B ¼ ½k2 þ 2ðz À 1Þkp cos a þ ðz À 1Þ2 Š1=2 p S ¼ z þ ðk2 À 2kp cos a þ 1Þ1=2 þ p B S 1 þ 2X þ ðk2 À 2kp cos a þ 1Þ1=2 þ kp p 1 þ 2X þ ðk2 þ 2kp cos a þ 1Þ1=2 À kp p pmax V se ð1 À dÞ$ 2RT C ½1 þ d cosðf À yފ2 Âfd½kp sinða À yÞ þ sin y þ ð1 þ kp þ 2ko Þ sinðf À yފ þ kp sinða À fÞ þ sin fg 4X z zþ1 MT ¼  pV se zð1 þ cos fÞ þ ð1 À cos fÞ 2RT C  4X z þkp ½1 þ cosðf À aފ þ zþ1 Gamma engine 18 D. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Ve ¼ V se ð1 þ cos fÞ 2 V se ð1 À cos fÞ 2 kp V se þ ½1 þ cosðf À aފ 2 V SP V se Compression space volume variation Vc Vc ¼ Swept volume ratio k k¼ V SC V se kV SE ½1 þ cosðf À aފ 2 & pV se þ zð1 þ cos fÞ 2RT C ' 4X z þk½1 þ cosðf À aފ þ zþ1 kp ¼ kp ¼ Compression space volume variation Vc Vc ¼ Vc ¼ ARTICLE IN PRESS Mass of working gas (if mass of working fluid is constant and no flow losses) M T ¼ me þ mc þ M D p V e pC V c pD V d ¼ E þ þ RT E RT C RT D MT ¼ MT ¼ Ratio C p C ¼ zð1 þ cos fÞ þ k½1 þ cosðf À aފ p 4X z þ zþ1 B ¼ ðz2 þ 2kz cos a þ k2 Þ1=2  S¼ B S ð1 þ k þ 2X Þ þ ðk2 þ 2k cos a þ 1Þ1=2 ð1 þ k þ 2X Þ À ðk2 þ 2k cos a þ 1Þ1=2 zþkþ 4X z zþ1  C ¼ zð1 þ cos fÞ þ ð1 À cos fÞ p 4X z þ kp ½1 þ cosðf À aފ þ zþ1 B ¼ ½k2 þ 2kp cos aðz À 1Þ þ ðz À 1Þ2 Š1=2 p S ¼ z þ kp þ 1 þ B S 2ð1 þ kp þ X Þ ð2 þ 2X Þ 4X z zþ1 Constant B Constant S Constant d d¼ d¼ d¼ Volume/compression ratio rv ¼ rv ¼ rv ¼ Mass flow rate mc ¼ kV se pmax ð1 À dÞ ( ) d½sinðf À yÞ þ sinða À yފ $ À sinðf À aÞ Â 2RT C ½1 þ d cosðf À yފ2 mc ¼ mc ¼ pmax V se ð1 À dÞ$ 2RT C ½1 þ d cosðf À yފ2 Âfd½kp sinða À yÞ þ sin y þ ðkp þ 1Þ sinðf À yފ þ kp sinða À fÞ þ sin fg .

The regenerator must be able to deal with 4–5 times the heat load of the heater and if it is not capable of doing this then extra load will be imposed on the other heat exchangers. The cylinder walls in fact will not provide a sufficient heat transfer medium to ensure that the cylinder gas temperature remains constant and even the use of tubular heat exchangers does not ensure that isothermal conditions prevail at the entry and exit area of regenerator. Kaushik and Kumar [19] have made thermodynamic evaluation of irreversible Ericsson and Stirling cycles. Costea and Feidt [21] have shown that the heat transfer coefficient varies linearly with respect to local temperature difference of the hot engine components. heater and regenerator based on Mach number. diagram. S. PV diagram of actual Stirling cycle. Heat transfer phenomenon in Stirling engine Operation of Stirling engine is caused by variety of heat transfer modes. 3.1. Thombare. The regenerator may be as near as perfect as possible if the engine is to attain good efficiency values and this means that the gas must be delivered from the regenerator to the cold side of the engine at the lowest temperature and to the hot side at the highest temperature.G. operating temperature ratio. and percentage of heat exchanger dead volume. The deviation from the isothermal conditions is more pronounced on the hot side of the engine than the cold side as illustrated in Fig. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 19 3 3’ 4 P 2’ 4’ 2 1’ 1 V Fig 8.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. Because of the regenerator ineffectiveness the gas enters the compression phase of the cycle at state 10 rather than state . 8 where the ideal cycle 1-2-3-4 is reduced to 10 -20 -30 -40 because of heater and cooler heat transfer effects. If this temperature does not prevail then the temperature and thus the pressure of the cold gas will be too high whilst the pressure and temperature of the hot gas will be too low. Shoureshi [20] has tried to optimize cooler.K. The analysis made for heat sink losses with engine power output on the basis of ideal gas and perfect regeneration.

regenerator and pre-heater (may be optional).ARTICLE IN PRESS 20 D. S. x . .2. Thombare. cooler. it absorbs heat from engine working fluid adjacent to compression space and rejects to atmosphere through coolant. These are illustrated in Fig. The heater transfers heat from external source to the engine working fluid contained within the engine working space. Wu et al. 9. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 1 and the expansion phase at state 30 rather than state 3. The Sankey plot for heat flow is first made by Zacharias [24] in 1971 and further work is done by Pertescu [25] Heat Source Heater Regenerator Engine Cooler C Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Fig. The optimum operating temperature for engine operation at maximum power is derived with effect of regenerator imperfection. Heat exchangers in Stirling engine Heat exchangers are key components in the Stirling engine. [22] have developed a combine model for analysis of engine performance with heat losses and imperfect regeneration for a solar-powered engine. The regenerator acts as a thermal sponge alternatively accepting heat from working fluid and rejecting heat back to working fluid. m¼ ½ðk À 1Þ ln rv Š 3. There may be three or four heat exchangers in the Stirling engine system. The heat flow in a Stirling engine is shown in Fig. 9.K.G. The cooler does just reverse. (20) f1=ðT H À T E av Þ þ ð1ÀmZ ÀZð1ÀZt Þð1ÀmÞ ÞT Àð1ÀmZ ÞT þ Ar Zt g t t E av t C where A ¼ aðk1 þ k2 Þ=½nC V ðk À 1Þ ln rv Š. Heat exchangers in Stirling engine. 9. [23] established a relationship between net power output and efficiency for the Stirling engine with heat transfer and imperfect regeneration as aZt Pi ¼ . which includes a heater. Chen et al.

k Bergmann and Alberto [27] have redefined Nusselt number for in cylinder heat transfer coefficient: Nu ¼ hD . The Prandtl number Pr is a property of the working fluid and the Reynolds number Re is a property of flow. using standard non-dimensional parameters. u is flow velocity. Heater The heat transfer phenomenon in heater is as follows: (a) Convective heat transfer from external heating medium to walls of heater tubes or fins. (b) Conductive heat transfer through outer tube wall surface to inner surface or to root. where Ah ¼ pd h nh l h . where dh and nn are diameter and number of heater tubes.1.G. k There is no unique form of equation although some correlations seem better than others. The heat transferred Qh ¼ hh Ah DT h . The correlations between Nusselt. This can be written as ðhh d h =kh Þ ¼ 0:23ðrf nf d h =mf Þ0:3 . r is density of working fluid. St ¼ h . So ðNuÞ ¼ 0:23ðReÞ0:33 . Reynolds and Prandtl Numbers taken as Nu ¼ f ðPr. St. The Nusselt number Nu relates the heat transfer coefficient h. Thombare. S. ReÞ. C P ru where CP is specific heat of working fluid. The data tables and graphs developed by Walker [28] have provided the better correlation by replacing Nusselt number by Stanton number.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. Reader [29] have designed and implemented a heater for the Stirling engine for underwater application at constant temperature operation. 3. In the relatively simple case of steady turbulent flow analytical techniques are not available. This analogy relates heat transfer to fluid friction. namely: Nu ¼ hl . (c) Convective heat transfer from internal wall of tube to the working fluid. (21) . the length of the heater tube and the thermal conductivity of the working fluid k.K. The heat transfer coefficient must then be determined using the well-known Reynolds analogy in its original or in a modified form. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 21 which shows that the heat exchanger configuration is largely affected by amount of pumping losses [26].2.

With knowledge of these two factors performance of heat exchanger can be assessed and the optimum dimensions of a proposed design can be formulated for given thermodynamic specifications. g g (22) The heater is a difficult heat exchanger to design for the inner tube requirements and outer tube requirements. most metals used for heater tube are good thermal conductors so a good heat transfer takes place by conductance with a small temperature difference. 3. All these factors may also be out of step with the frictional drag and dead space requirements.G. ð1 þ 0:882hw Þ hw ¼ 0:35Re0:55 Pr0:33 kw d o . Regenerator Some of the heat supplied by external source to working fluid is converted in to useful work and while flowing out hot expanded gases from expansion space to the cooler the rest .3.2. the Stirling engines may be air-cooled or water-cooled as like as IC engines. Following recommended expressions are satisfactory for cooler analysis. high temperature. The flow conditions are as similar as heater but at the lower temperature. But the combustion system at atmospheric temperature limits heat transfer process due to low density and low velocity of products of combustion. do the outer diameter of water tubes. The rate at which the tube inner wall heat flux can be transferred to the gas depends upon the inner tube film coefficient of heat transfer.K. The outer tube surface will usually experience a high temperature low-pressure steady flow environment. The design is also affected by the choice of heat source. Cooler In principle. The semi-empirical heat transfer coefficients for this condition are better documented. The working fluid is mostly pressurized at high density and moving with high velocity so the internal heat transfer process is well developed. where ht is the total heat transfer coefficient and hw is the heat transfer coefficient of the water film. following a large number of investigations and many correlations available in the heat transfer literature NASA Lewis [30]. which are of prime importance for the internal heater surfaces are the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. There are two further constraints. As the coolant temperature increases there is considerable fall in thermal efficiency. the mass flow rate and the specific heat of the gas.ARTICLE IN PRESS 22 D. S. The two parameters. Almost all engine designers have adopted water-cooling and the outer cooler tubes experience the same flow conditions as in conventional engine. Similarly. (23) where kw is the water thermal conductivity. one is the inner to outer diameter ratio will be determined by both pressure and thermal loading and second the optimum diameter ratio may not be in harmony with the surface area needs.2. ht ¼ hw . Thombare. The heat transfer coefficients will be significantly different at inside and outside and thus it will be almost evitable that surface area requirements will not be comparable with each other. To reduce temperature of working fluid the cooling system of engine required to handle cooling load almost twice than of cooling load of conventional IC engine. 3. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 and also Nu ¼ 0:053Re0:8 Pr0:6 . Hence more focus is required on improvement on heat transfer process between hot combustion gases and heater tube.2. so it is desirable to have coolant temperature at minimum possible value. very unsteady flow. The inner tube surface will experience a high pressure.

maximum heat transfer—a large. The temperature of working fluid entering the regenerator is not constant because the pressure. 3.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. dense matrix is required. The working fluid enters in the regenerator in thermodynamic state 4 and starts transferring its heat to the regenerator material and leaves at state 1. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 23 of the heat is stored in a regenerator. This is possible only if operations are carried out infinitely slowly or the heat transfer coefficient or the area of heat transfer is infinite. therefore matrix should be finely divided [31].K. Ideal regeneration is achieved when the fluid entering and leaving the matrix does so one of the two constant temperatures. In order to achieve maximum efficiency the heat rejected during the isochoric process 4–1 must be returned to the gas in the isochoric process 2–3. 5. metal foils and parallel plates etc. And the efficiency of the Stirling cycle machine depends on the efficiency of the regeneration process or regenerator. To improve heat transfer coefficient and to establish the minimum temperature difference between matrix and the fluid it is necessary to expose the maximum surface area of matrix. 2. The fundamental requirements of the regenerator are specified by the thermodynamic processes of the ideal cycle. The effectiveness of the regeneration process largely depends upon the thermal capacity of the material also.G. finely divided matrix is required. 1. . This is also possible if the heat transfer capacity of fluid is zero or heat capacity of the matrix is infinite. minimum flow losses—a small. minimum dead space—a small. During this process temperature of each element of the regenerator is raised. solid matrix is required. Thombare. stacked screen. TE at the expansion end and TC at the compression end of the regenerator. highly porous matrix is required. wire mesh. For For For For For maximum heat capacity—a large. S. After the compression process the working fluid now enters in the regenerator at state 2 (minimum cycle temperature) and flows back through regenerator receiving the heat stored in the regenerator by increasing its temperature from T2 to T3.3. the heat transfer is achieved reversibly in the regenerator. density and velocity of working fluid vary over a wide range. Regenerator analysis There are various kinds of materials which can be used for the regenerator matrix. To achieve high heat storage capacity the matrices of above materials are used in current regenerators. fine pipes. 4. packed balls. such as steel wool. The stored heat in regenerator is given back to the working fluid during back-flow. 3. steel felt. This process is called as regeneration. Thus following are the desirable characteristics of regenerator matrix. The regenerator of practical engine operates with conditions far away from those assumed for the ideal case. A linear temperature gradient from Tmax to Tmin is maintained along the length of the regenerator. minimum contamination—a matrix with no obstruction is required. Ideally. Hence design of regenerator is a matter of optimization of regenerator volume for best values of above parameters. After cooling in the cooler and compressing in compression space gases flows back to expansion space through regenerator. spring mesh.

By taking in to account the first approximation equation can be written by equating Eqs. (23)0 and (24). rate of mass flow is constant. The entire heat transfer process is carried out reversibly. fluid flow and temperature that is constant over the flow section. The first step to define effectiveness of regenerator. This is given by the equation: hbulk  A  ðT F À T M Þ ¼ M M  C PM  dT M .G. Engine on close cycle operations cannot be realized without an effective regenerative heat exchanger. To fulfill this requirement certain conditions have to be satisfied.e. S. i. working gas is assumed to be a perfect gas. dt (24) The heat capacity of the regenerator CR being represented by the term MM*CPM is the product of mass and specific heat of regenerator.ARTICLE IN PRESS 24 D. Thus the regenerator matrix temperature DT M % mf  C PF  DT F . hbulk  A  ðT M À T F Þ ¼ mf  C PF  LR  dTf dTf þ M FR  C P  . Once again this condition is not obtainable in practice. The only remaining parameter is the heat transfer area and thus this needs to be made infinite to enable the ideal condition to be approached. So the transfer of heat from/to working fluid from/to the matrix on the passage of flow through regenerator is given by. But this can never be achieved in practice hence every attempt must be made to satisfy the remaining condition. heat transfer coefficients and fluid velocities are constant with time and space. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 3. CR (25) To maintain required temperature difference along the regenerator there should not be axial heat conduction and maximum conduction of heat should be normal to the flow of fluid. which is denoted by 2R .1. Thombare. dx dt (23)0 The right-hand side of the equation represents heat energy available in the working fluid. Heat transfer and fluid friction in regenerator For simplifying the analysis of regenerator following assumptions are made: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) The The The The The The The The thermal conductivity of the matrix material of regenerator is constant.K. gas flow in duct is one-dimensional. which can be readily identified by fundamental equation for the dynamic behavior of the regenerator. regenerator system must pass through a series of equilibrium states.3. specific heats of fluid and matrix do not change with temperature. Thus the bulk heat transfer coefficient hbulk must be infinite to compensate for the small temperature differential. The temperature differential between working fluid and the regenerator must be infinitesimal. so every effort should be made to make surface area as large as possible. pressure drop across the regenerator is negligible. To transfer the maximum heat energy from working fluid to regenerator the matrix fluid temperature difference (TMÀTF) must be infinitesimal. First reversible process can assured if process is in thermodynamic equilibrium. The second Nusselt–Hausen equation describes the energy storage capacity of the regenerator as by Miyabe [32].

which have became two of the main characteristic parameters of regenerator namely L. The term L=P is a utilization factor.K. Using these two factors effectiveness can be derived as   L P 2R ¼ tanh . reduced period as proposed by Hausan [33] theory is given by L¼ and P¼   hbulk  A M FR wÀ . S. 2R ¼ heat actualy transfered . (28) mLR ðg þ 1Þ . [34] as given below: I ÀAsg QR ¼ ðDPÞPAM dt. P Lþ2 where P factor is defined without consideration of gas storage within the regenerator. which need to be balanced to achieve perfect regeneration. T3 À T1 (26) To obtain an expression for effectiveness of regenerator and mode the regenerator behavior the Eqs. (23) and (24) are expressed in the form of dimensionless parameters Z for time and x for distance such that. dz where z¼ and hbulk  A mf  C PF  LR dT M ¼ T F À T M. M FR ¼ 0. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 25 and is given by equation. If the regenerator is ideal then the overall cyclic heat transfer is zero. (27) QR ¼ gÀ1 Considering the flow of gas through porous media the heat transfer can be correlated with the pressure drop using the Darcy law Isshiki et al.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. dZ   hbulk  A M FR  x Z¼ wÀ M M  C PM mf  LR Here.G. The performance of regenerator is the magnitude of cyclic heat transfer QR which is given by I gR ðmr T C À mh T E Þdt. which is the ratio of the heat capacity of the working fluid for the blow period to the heat storage capacity of the matrix. Thombare. heat available for transfer 2R ¼ T2 À T1 . reduced length and P. A further pair of dimensionless parameters for each blow period based on Z and B. This assumption is acceptable under certain flow condition. w is the time period of the particular blow under condition.e. M M  C PM mf hbulk  A mf  C PF These two factors contain the parameters. dT F ¼ T M À T F. i.

Thombare. Engine cylinder layout/arrangement Engine mechanism Burner/heater type Displacer and piston construction Type and size of regenerator Crankcase construction The three levels of classifications are (A) Mode of operation 1. The primary role of the drive mechanism must therefore be to reproduce these volumetric changes as precisely as possible. Gamma coupling (C) Forms of piston coupling (I) Rigid coupling 1. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Ercan Ataer [35] used Lagrangian approach for plotting engine gas temperature distribution in regenerator of Stirling engines. Non-resonant (B) Forms of cylinder coupling 1.ARTICLE IN PRESS 26 D. 3.K. These elements can be combined to fulfill above requirements by wide range of mechanical arrangements.G. gas dynamic and heat transfer requirements of the engine. Alfa coupling 2. which are required to be considered while selecting proper engine configuration. 4. Senft [42] also mentioned that the optimum engine geometry will be based on the following engine parameters: 1. 4. Single phase 4. Gary Wood [41] of Sun-Power Corp. Rhombic drive . To fulfill thermodynamic. Beta coupling 3. A comprehensive listing of possibilities of engine arrangement is given by Walker [39]. Multiphase 5. Slider crank 2. listed following parameters. Single acting 2. S. 2. Engine configuration The elements of Stirling engine include two volumes at different temperatures connected to each other through a regenerative heat exchanger and auxiliary heat exchangers. Resonant 6. 5. pressure and displacement. these volumes are required to change periodically. The effect of dead volume of engine on engine power output is an important issue. Double acting 3.38]. The drive mechanism is required to be considered when selecting an engine configuration because all mechanisms are not compatible with every engine arrangement. The basic engine parameters are also important which comprises the Beale number [40] namely engine speed. 6. Fette [36] has estimated the effect of the volume ratio Vmax/Vmin on the efficiency of the regenerator in the Stirling engine [37.

4. Finkelstein has described a number of new concepts and arrangements for multi-cylinder operation. Stirling engine using double acting principal are of necessary multi-cylinder engines. The design objectives of the engine were component development. from one cylinder to another cylinder. which are connected in series by a heater. The Alpha engine is conceptually the simplest Stirling engine configuration. Free cylinder (III) Liquid coupling 1. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 27 3. S.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. it suffers from the disadvantage that both pistons need to have seals to contain the working gas. Ross rocker (II) Gas coupling 1. A 40 kW four-cylinder double acting Stirling engine designed and tested by United Stirling. which inherently has multiple working spaces. In single acting engines the working fluid is in contact with one side of the piston only. Ross [44] has been developing small air engines with extremely innovative Alpha designs. including the classical Ross–Yoke drive and more recently a balanced ‘‘Rocker-V’’ mechanism. Swash plate 4. Thombare. regenerator and cooler as shown in Fig. The term single acting and double acting in Stirling engine technology is used to describe the mode of operation of particular engine. The double acting engine. Jet stream 2. The fluid is shuttled between the two cylinders. 5.1. The Alpha engine can also be compounded into a compact multiple cylinder configuration. The double acting engine is developed by Babcock in 1885. Crank rocker 5.1. Free piston 2. The first single acting engine is invented by Robert Stirling in 1815. enabling an extremely high . Mode of operation The Stirling engines can be broadly classified in to two categories as single acting and double acting. Alfa coupling Alpha engines have two pistons in separate cylinders. The most developed and manufactured Stirling engine of the double acting type are P0 series of United Stirling developed by Bratt [43]. Engine test were results with different working gas and different heater head temperatures.G. since a minimum of three pistons are required in order to obtain the appropriate difference between the expansion and compression processes. Rocking beam 3. They may operate as single cylinder engines in multiple units arranged with a common crankcase and crankshaft. was believed to be complex for engine arrangement because ducting are required to connect working spaces with regenerator. Free displacer 3.K. however.2. The double acting engine uses both sides of the piston to move the fluid from one space to another. Pressure feedback 4. Forms of cylinder coupling 4.2.

resulting in a pure sinusoidal reciprocating motion having a 901 phase difference between the adjacent pistons. 4. The slider crank linkage do not provide an elegant solution to the drive mechanism problem when the piston and displacer are used in tandem in a cylinder. Gamma coupling Gamma engines use displacer–piston arrangements similar to Beta engine configuration with the displacer and the piston in separate cylinders as shown in Fig.3. 6. heater and regenerator is connected serially.2.K. The pistons are typically driven by a swash plate.3. The evolution of the Stirling engine into a bigger power unit leads to the need to seal off the cylinder from the crankcase and thus avoid to pressurize the whole crankcase. The rhombic drive is developed by Philips [45] in 1950s. but it is the mechanism used in twin cylinder versions of the basic Stirling engine. In case of multi-cylinder arrangement.2. Beta coupling Beta engines use displacer–piston arrangements as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of reliability and ease of manufacture but has the disadvantage of being almost impossible to balance. This arrangement provides advantage of simple crank mechanism. It also possessed the advantage of being dynamically balanced even for a single cylinder arrangement. It is a system. number of cylinders are interconnected. so that the expansion space of one cylinder is connected to the compression space of the adjacent cylinder via a series connected heater. The engine construction is such that both displacer and piston are accommodated in same cylinder.2. It has large number of moving parts. Its main disadvantage is the complexity of unit.3. Thombare. Rhombic drive The rhombic drive Stirling engine is perhaps the most well known and certainly the most developed of all single cylinder Stirling engine.G.3. as is required for automotive engine. bearing surfaces and need of a matched pair of gear wheels for each assembly. 4. S. Slider crank drive The slider crank has been used from many years in IC engines and is extremely reliable. In this type of machine the compression space is split between two cylinders with an interconnecting transfer port. with a wealth of operating experience. 4.3. which is dynamically balanced at a fixed swash . 4. regenerator and cooler. The piston and displacer may or may not physically touch but connected to crankshaft by separate linkage to maintain required phase angle.3.1. The compression space in this form consists of the space swept by the underside of the displacer and the topside of the power piston. 7. Swash plate The swash plate has been used mainly on engines developed for the automobile purpose where space is at a premium. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 specific power output. In between the passage from displacer cylinder and compression cylinder the cooler. It is being used extensively in double acting Stirling engines both with and without a crosshead. Forms of piston coupling 4.ARTICLE IN PRESS 28 D.2. 4.

stable and capable of power greater than 1 kW. S. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 29 plate angle. 4.3. Thombare. The FPSE are suitable for pumping water reciprocating pumps and linear alternator.2.3. 4. the power piston or displacer piston is described as being ‘free’. The mechanism may prove its suitability for engine operation for variety of type of engine configurations. Shvangiradze and Shvangiradze [53] have recently tried a cam mechanism for conversion of reciprocating motion in to rotary motion for Stirling engines. Meijer [46] developed a method to vary swash plate angle during operation to control power but which experiences out of balance effect. The concept was first realized in practice by William Beale and.4. The free piston Stirling engine/ linear alternator system developed by George Dochat. The cylinders can be easily sealed off from the crankcase with good reliability in the sealing system for an application such as the automobiles. In each application the importance should be given to potential for attractive life cycle cost. generating electricity and pumping heat.1. Free piston or cylinder or displacer engine. the term Beale free piston engine is often used to describe free piston Stirling engines. compact size and weight for kinematical Stirling engines.5 kW Stirling generator set. This mechanism was patented by Ross [47] and at present the mechanism is under investigation for use in Stirling engine at Cambridge University.1.3. The test engine built by Berggren [52] shows that the engine performance degrades with increased wear of the seal. This is a single cylinder type list complicated type drive arrangement. 4. which in turn is attached to a power output shaft. but they are coupled gas dynamically. long maintenance-free life.G. In the ringbom. All the engines so far described have made use of drive mechanism in which the piston is connected to connecting rod by some form of mechanical linkage. This space constitutes a fluid spring and. as we shall see. . Ross rocker. A 1-m2 hot end surface embedded inside the combustion chamber of the incinerator. Stirling engine can operate without the piston being coupled mechanically. the swash plate can provide a way of controlling the engine power output by varying the angle of swash plate and thus altering the stroke of the engine. Extrapolation of the experiments results conducted by Shtrikman [51] shows that the linear generator is capable of performing within its performance goals. since no piston rod has to pass out of the system. Additionally. Hsu [49] have shown that these engines can be used for generating power by using waste. The problem incurred with these type engines is sealing and life of reciprocating components due to wear and tear. where large numbers of rapid cycles are required. Rifkin [50] FPSE designs have been described for pumping fluid. However.3. Ringbom type.4.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. the absorbed energy is enough to move a 2.3. which has proven to be reliable. The piston is free in the sense of not being coupled mechanically.K. In this case. The displacer–piston rod is hollow and open at one end so that the fluid inside the displacer is in continuous communication with the fluid in the bounce space which remains at the constant pressure at all the times. as a consequence. the piston is mechanically linked to the crankshaft while the displacer is driven by the cyclic gas forces in a manner similar to the Beale [48] free piston engine. has a similar effect to the crankshaft in the conventional Stirling engine. The configuration is identical to the piston–displacer form except that there is no mechanical crank mechanism and the cylinder is fully sealed at both ends. Gas coupling 4.3.

This is useful for selection of proper engine mechanism to suit requirement.K. 4. High thermal conductivity High specific heat capacity Low viscosity Low density For better system performance in addition to above ease of availability. which should not be neglected. Thombare. temperature ratio and percentage of dead volume. Suitability of engine configuration is defined by Gary Wood [55] which depends on mainly type of fuel. The study made by Shoureshi [54] has presented a general method of Stirling engine design optimization for any type of engine configuration under entire range of operating conditions. Empirical equations derived by Beale [59] do not exist for working fluid assessment. safe operation. S. By using Reynolds’s analogy. engine speed and power output of he engine. Working fluids for Stirling engine Any working fluid with high specific heat capacity may be used for Stirling cycle engine. heat transfer aspects of the engine and also the machine dynamics. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 4. by Mach number. Senft [56] has developed a theory to establish relation of engine mechanical efficiency with cycle pressure and other engine parameters with wide variety of engines. The capability of working fluid in terms of specific heat capacity. The experimental investigation of suitability is difficult and also expensive. 1. Air was cheap. 5. The drive mechanism used for conventional engine is exclusively slider-crank mechanism. 2. Reynolds number. Thus it is even more important with Stirling engines than the drive mechanism dynamics and kinematics to be given due regard. storage requirements are also important properties. 3. thermal conductivity and density is defined by Martini [57] and Clarke [58] which is useful for preliminary selection of working fluid.4. A simple approach suggested by Walker based on original steady flow analysis is useful for selection of fluid. in particular. Suitability of cylinder piston configuration The analysis of heat engines need to concentrate on thermodynamic. Capability factor ¼ thermal conductivity . The working fluid in a Stirling engine should have following thermodynamic. probably because of lack of sufficient experimental data to enable any meaningful correlation to be formed.G. He found that Gamma type of the engine arrangement is the most suitable engine configuration as shown in Fig. heat transfer and gas dynamic properties. It is based and characterized by dimensionless group. With few exceptions the engines in 19th century used air as a working fluid. Most of them operated close to atmospheric pressure.ARTICLE IN PRESS 30 D. specific heat capacity  density (29) To determine the best working fluid the whole system performance with different working fluids can be analyzed. 7. readily available. cost. whereas for Stirling engines many forms of drive mechanisms are employed. a relationship between heat transfer and frictional drag in a flowing stream through duct for a system in terms of heat transfer ratio and temperature limits .

Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 Table 2 Relative heat transfer characteristics for various gases Working fluid Air Helium Hydrogen Water Sodium–Potassium eutectic Heat transfer 1.39 1. The feasibility of using this working fluid is currently under investigation at University of California.31 0.K.52 0. NaK seems to be superior fluid for the immediate future.62 0.66 1.297 0.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. fixed frequency electric power . engine speed is held constant with varying load condition in case of stationary-constant speed.04 1.03 1. Qwf / ðr2 C 2 Þ0:5 .04 1.42 3.19 1. San Diego. power output and speed of the Stirling engine. 6.95 32.0 0. To improve the thermal efficiency of the engine Gu et al.4 1.85 CV (kJ/kg K) 10.75 0.32 31 Table 3 Relative performance of selected working fluid Gas Nominal molar mass (M kg/kmol) Gas constant (R kJ/kg K) Sp. the predominant use of hydrogen and helium is not altogether justified. In case of constant speed engines.0 1.G.20 5.287 0.4 1.83 0. Thombare. It may be seen that no working fluid satisfies these two requirements except NaK eutectic.4 1.42 1. In Table 2 various fluids are compared using Eqs.415 0. P (30) It is required to simulate engine operation with different working fluids by the available equations so as to select best working fluid.260 0.297 0. As the data in Table 3 show.62 Capability factor 1. The relation is. (29) and (30) at the average temperature and pressure of 800 k and 5 Mpa.72 0.4 1.08 0.67 1.41 1. Power and speed control of Stirling engines Control systems are necessary to regulate the torque.67 1.74 0. [60] have suggested to use composite working fluid and also devised criteria to select working fluid.01 0.12 2.28 Sp. S.11 0. heat ratio (CP/CV) is derived.08 3.92 0. Although.68 0.66 0. Most of the physical properties involved vary with pressure and temperature and thus heat transfer Qwf and capability factor should be determined under prevailing conditions.208 0.66 1.189 14. heat CP (kJ/kg K) H2 He Ne N2 CO Air O2 Ar CO2 2 4 20 28 28 29 32 40 44 4.

Berrin Erbay [61] have analyzed the effect of dead volume variation on Stirling engine performance. As the load increases or decreases. This system is both applicable for single and . so the temperature control method is not commonly used. stroke.1. There is a need for a gas storage vessel and a gas compressor to be built in the system. However. Dead volume variation Increase in dead volume within the Stirling engine system results in a loss of power but not necessarily a reduction in efficiency.2. pressure. if by some external means the pressure level can be altered. Thus. For liquid and gaseous fuels the flow can be easily regulated but for solid fuels it is difficult. Temperature control Engine power regulation can be done by regulating engine maximum temperature.4. Working fluid temperature control Mean pressure control (MPC) Dead volume variation (DVV) Phase angle variation Effective stroke variation 6. then the power developed can be adjusted. The power of Stirling engines can be controlled by altering the temperature. Thombare. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.ARTICLE IN PRESS 32 D. In practice the required variation of mean cyclic pressure is not achieved quite so easily. 6. phase angle dead volume and speed or load. This quite simple conceptual system becomes more complex in practice. the amount of fuel supplied to the burner should be properly adjusted so as to maintain the heater tube at limiting temperature. Stroke variation Power output in Stirling engines can be controlled by varying the effective stroke length of the engine reciprocating components. When an increase in power is required the working fluid can be fed in to engine from storage and to reduce power the working fluid has to be dumped to a reservoir.G. Mean pressure control As discussed earlier the power output of Stirling engine is directly proportional to the mean cyclic pressure of the working fluid. By providing extra spaces the dead volume can be increased or decreased.3. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 generators. The engine was operating in a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle by using polytrophic processes for the power and displacement pistons. 6. 6. The simplest method would be to vent the engine for a power reduction and to supply working fluid for increasing power. since the timing and degree of valve opening has to be carefully controlled and monitored. Following are some basic methods used for power control that can be used individually or in combination. engine response to combustion process is not adequate because of type of fuel used for combustion.K. which is at heater tubes. S. Further it can be regulated by controlling fuel flow.

The number is defined as WS ¼ Pi .5.1.G. The effect of the temperature is considered by West [63]. 7. 6. Factors governing engine performance The engine power output from engine specification can be derived by utilizing the Beale number and the West number. Thombare. the power control by phase angle variation is not applicable to double acting engines. volume and speed. the volumes of expansion space and compression space varies exactly in phase as there is no cyclic flow of working fluid through system.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. The Beale number is BN ¼ Pi . A numerical program is written by Altman [65] is also useful for determining engine performance. S. Regenerator effectiveness The regenerator effectiveness increases with increase in reduced length and decreases in reduced period. However.15 in case of high temperature differential Stirling engine whose heater wall temperature is about 650 1C. Patrescu [64] derived factor which affect engine performance based on first law of thermodynamics. We have already discussed in Stirling engine simple analysis says that the increase in heater temperature will increase power for a fixed cooler temperature. Beale’s empirical relation do not contain any temperature effects because most of the engines examined by him had the heater temperature above 650 1C. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 33 double acting engines as well as free piston engines also. but it is a difficult task to achieve mechanical change in effective stroke to regulate power.K. One important factor that is not taken in to account by Beale correlation is the temperature at which the engine is operated. At zero phase angle.35 in case of smaller power engines. PM V se NðT E À T C =T E þ T C Þ It was found that West number is about 0.25 in case of 5–150 kW Stirling engines and is about 0. Phase angle variation Variation in phase angle is one of the best possible ways for engine power control because power output of Stirling engine is function of phase angle in an approximately sinusoidal form. PM V se N William Beale observed that in practice the maximum power output of well-developed engine is roughly proportional to pressure. 7. Iwamoto [62] shows that Beale number is about 0. The method used for the analysis is irreversible cycle with finite speed involves the direct integration of equations based on the first law for processes. The regenerator design must be such that the heat transfer coefficient and area of matrix of regenerator should be kept maximum possible by maintaining lowest . This system was first adopted by General Motors for their v eight engine. The power control by varying phase angle is characterized by instant response and is a extremely convenient way to provide rapid engine power control.

2. the effectiveness of regenerator is more for a regenerator with hold-up than the regenerator without hold-up. Regenerator material Choice of the materials for the regenerator matrix is a matter of concern as it influences the performance of the engine considerably. Thombare.4. The pressure within the space is usually higher than the idealized minimum cyclic pressure and this means that because of seal leakage paths the gas will flow out of the system at the high cyclic pressure but tend to flow back in to the system during the compression phase. Due to lower permeation rate of ceramics than metals it is found that efficiency and power output of the engine with ceramic-coated materials of regenerator is higher than the metallic regenerator under all speeds of investigation. Operational characteristics of the Stirling engine 8. Fluid friction Fluid friction with regenerator mesh becomes more serious issue in Stirling cycle engine.ARTICLE IN PRESS 34 D. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 fluid flow rate. shape and density of wire mesh and properties of working fluid such as density and viscosity of working fluid. Both effects reduce the work output of the cycle. Working fluid and fluid leakage In a practical engine some leakage of the working fluid-invariably a gas-is inevitable.G. 7. It is demonstrated that friction factor of simple stacked wire mesh become function of Reynolds number when the aperture size of wire mesh was selected as the representative length scale. This factor is called as regenerator holdup. These high-pressure . The flow friction consumes power from engine so net power output is reduced. The regenerator material required to selected and system should be designed such that it will cause minimum friction resistance. Also friction and Nusselt number of porous media are similar to those of simple stacked wire mesh.K. S. The efficiency and power output of the engine are function of engine speed for metallic and ceramic regenerator materials. The flow in Stirling engine regenerator alternates in many rapid cycles so it is highly probable that only a portion of total gas charge passes through the matrix and some of the fluid may remain in the regenerator. 8. pressures in the range of 10–20 Mpa are used. For reduced length less than 10.3. The flow friction is mainly due to size. Berrin Erbay [66] have shown that to obtain high overall power levels and densities. Pertescu [25]. Isshiki [37] and Muralidhar [38] study shows that the there is considerable effect of flow resistance and heat transfer of regenerator wire meshes of Stirling engines in oscillatory flow. The effect of pressure loss due to friction. finite speed and throttling process in the regenerator of the engine is presented by S. 7. 7. Mean cycle pressure The power output of Stirling cycle engines is found to in practice directly proportional to the mean cycle pressure. This result suggests that friction factor decreases gradually with increases in value of Reynolds number.1.

Thombare.3. S. Verma / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 1–38 35 values present particular problems with relation to working fluid contamination. Thermal losses As the engine speed increases the losses derived by K. heat produced from agricultural waste and so many other lowtemperature sources. Mechanical losses The mechanical friction arises from piston rings. these gases are difficult to contain because of ability to diffuse with solid material. No empirical correlation between power output and swept volume exists. The heater temperature should be kept as high as possible to attain high pressure. This is an important feature of the engine that it can use abundant heat source from solar radiation. Imperfect regeneration is another important cause for poor engine performance. Increasing the swept volume should increase the power output of the engine provided that pressure and temperature levels are maintained. as they are proportional to the square of speed. stressing of heat exchanger and loading of drive mechanism. Stirling engine system is most complicated thermo-mechanical system because of complications in mechanical arrangement caused by phase difference required between . Dead space reduces the power output of the engine but has conflicting effects on the efficiency. Dead space can be altered during operation of the engine to control power output. Makhkamov becomes predominant factors. Dead volumes The un-swept volumes. Banch Kongtragool’s [67] engine powered by low temperature shown that the engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to speed effects provided that the heater tube temperature is maintained at a fixed value throughout the engine operating range and cooler temperature is not allowed to rise. 8. gaseous or solid fuels with wide temperature range.4. To achieve a particular swept volume the bore to stroke ratio should be about two. depending on the location of the dead space. Conclusions The Stirling cycle engines have proven its multi-fuel capability to operate with any possible fuel source-liquid. this amount of dead volume is required to accommodate the necessary heat exchangers and to allow sufficient heat transfer surfaces. 8. should be kept theoretically zero but in practice accounts for up to 50% of the total engine internal gas volume. 8. bearings. This particular feature of the engine has keep Stirling engine in focus for design and development for better system efficiency where there is large scope. 9. Feng Wu [23] have made a criteria for optimization of dead volume. rubbing seals. The Stirling cycle engines can achieve efficiencies of 65–70% of Carnot cycle efficiency with current technology.G. oil pumping and other friction of parts.K. In comparison with conventional engine mechanical friction is less because of less number of moving parts. called dead volumes in a Stirling engine.2. However.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. waste heat from industry. To reduce these losses light molecular weight working fluids are to be used such as helium and Hydrogen.

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