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Definition of Interventions
An intervention is a set of sequenced
and planned actions or events
intended to help the organization
increase its effectiveness.

Interventions purposely disrupt the

status quo.
Characteristics of
Effective Interventions
► Is
it relevant to the needs of the
 Valid information
 Free and Informed Choice
 Internal Commitment
► Is it based on causal knowledge of
intended outcomes?
► Does it transfer competence to
manage change to organization
The Design of
Effective Interventions
►Contingencies Related to the
Change Situation

► Readiness for Change

► Capability to Change
► Cultural Context
► Capabilities of the Change Agent
► Contingencies Related to the Target of
 Strategic Issues
 Technology and structure issues
 Human resources issues
 Human process issues
Intervention Overview
►Human Process Interventions
►Techno structural Interventions
►Human Resources Management
►Strategic Interventions
Human Process Interventions
► Coaching
► Training and Development
► Process Consultation and Team
► Third-party Interventions (Conflict
► Organization Confrontation Meeting
► Intergroup Relationships
► Large-group Interventions
Techno structural
►Structural Design
►Employee Involvement
► Work Design
Human Resources Management
► Goal Setting
► Performance Appraisal
► Reward Systems
► Career Planning and Development
► Managing Work Force Diversity
► Employee Stress and Wellness
Strategic Interventions
► Integrated Strategic Change
► Mergers and Acquisitions
► Alliances and Networks
► Culture Change
► Self-designing Organizations
► Organization Learning and Knowledge
What are T-Groups?

► T-groups (“T” for training) are unstructured

small-group situations in which participants
learn from their own actions
► T-groups evolved from the laboratory
training research of Kurt Lewin (1945)
► T-groups focus on the what, how and why
of interpersonal communication.
► T-groups are used by consultants to help
managers learn about the effects of their
behavior on others
Goals of T-groups
► Increased understanding about one’s own
► Increased understanding about the behavior
of others
► Better understanding of group process
► Increased interpersonal diagnostic skills
► Increased ability to transform learning into
► Improvement in the ability to analyze one’s
own behavior
Sensitivity training

► Aim is to: (1) encourage participants to

recognize the effects of their behavior
on others (e.g. by developing good
observation and listening skills) (2) get
participants to know themselves (e.g.
by asking others for feedback) and to
share aspects of themselves to others
Diagnostic skills

► Encourage participants to perceive

accurately relationships between each
► The focus is on recording/observing
who is taking an active role in the
discussion (and who is not and WHY)
► How satisfied do participants feel in
the group discussion?
Group action skills

► Encourage participants to select and

act out (role play) behaviors required
by the situation – to learn from the
► Aim is to support coaching/counseling
► Common interventions are role plays,
team building meetings, adventure
Johari Window

► Technique for illustrating the quality of

interpersonal communication – identifiers a
person’s interpersonal style of
► Process consultants use the model to help
people process data about themselves in
terms of how they see themselves and how
others see them
► Interpersonal communication judged more
effective when there is fit (congruence)
between how we see ourselves (private
face) and how others see us (public face).
Johari Window
► Unknown to Others Known to

Hidden Open Known to

Spot Window

Unknown Blind
Window Spot to Self
Improving Communications
Using the Johari Window
Known to Others
Unknown to
Reduce Hidden Open
Area Through
Disclosure to
others Known to

Reduce Blind
spot through
feedback from
to Self
Process Consultation
An OD method that helps managers
and employers improve the processes
that are used in organizations
Outside consultant:
Enters organization
Defines the relationship
Chooses an approach
Gathers data
Diagnoses problem
Leaves organization
Process Consultation

► In process consultation, the

consultant observes individuals
and groups in action – helping
them learn to diagnose and solve
their own problems
► Often used in conjunction with
teambuilding, self-directed work
teams, quality circles, and other
interpersonal interventions
Process Consultation: How is it
► Consultant observes the
communication processes between
individuals and workgroups
► Interventions used such as listening,
probing, questioning, clarifying,
reflecting, synthesizing and
Process Consultation:
Key Questions
► • How well do group members seek and give
information? Ask questions? Summarize? Listen to
► • How well do group members perform ‘group
maintenance roles’ such as compromising?
Harmonizing? Supporting?
► • How well do group members solve problems?
Make decisions?
► • How well do group members deal with power and
authority issues?
► • How well do group members exercise leadership?
Third Party Peace Making
► Intermediaries (or "third parties") are
people, organizations, or nations who enter
a conflict to try to help the parties de-
escalate or resolve it.
► Waltonhas presented a statement of
theory and practice for third-party
peace making interventions that is
important in its own right and
important for its role in organization
 The conflict issues.

 Precipitating circumstances.

 Conflict relevant acts.

 The consequences of the conflict.

 Sustentative issues.

 Emotional issues.
 Mutual positive motivation.
 Balance of power.
 Synchronization of confrontation efforts.
 Differentiation and integration of
different phases of the intervention
must be well paced.
 Conditions that promote openness
should be created.
 Reliable communicative signals.
 Optimum tension in the situation .
 Itis a technique designed to work
units feedback on how other
elements of organization view

 Designed to improve relationships

between teams.
What is a “confrontation
► One day meeting of entire
management of an organization in
which they take a reading of their own
organizational health
► Organizational confrontation
meeting: brings together all of the
managers of an organization to meet
to confront the issue of whether the
organization is effectively meeting its
1. Climate setting 45-60 min.
2. Information Collecting 60 min.
3. Information Sharing 60 min
4. Priority setting and group action planning
75 min.
5. Action Planning 60-120 minutes
6. Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180
7. (Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120
When is it appropriate to conduct a
confrontation meeting?
► Need for the total management group to
examine its own workings
► Very limited time available for the activity
► Top management wishes to improve
conditions quickly
► Enough cohesion in the top team to ensure
► Real commitment by top management to
resolve the issue
► Organization is experiencing , or has
recently experienced, some major change
Coaching & Mentoring
The main reasons why organizations need coaching
and mentoring activities are as follows:

To maximize knowledge transfer

To increase the skill levels
For succession planning
 To maximize knowledge transfer

Coaching & Mentoring provides a learning

channel that effectively transfers
knowledge within the organization
Critical knowledge is maintained in the
Contextual learning is evident
 To increase skill levels

The coaches and mentors can very

effectively transfer core skills
Customization of skills in relation to the
core activities of the business is retained
Cross training of staff can be achieved
 For succession planning

The ability for the organization to identify

‘fast track’ candidates and prepare them
for new jobs is enhanced by coaching &
Coaching & Mentoring can ensure
continuity of performance when key staff
leave the organization because core skills
have been transferred
Beneficiaries of Coaching &
The Coach / Mentor

The Employee

The Department

The Organization
Benefits to The Coach /
 Benefits to the Coach / Mentor can be
described as:
Job Satisfaction

Further development of own skill level

Involvement in strategic activity

What does a mentor actually
► Encourage
► Convey sincere belief in protégé ability to
► Give advice
► Give constructive feedback
► Give formal and informal instruction
(technical, clinical, political)
► Introduce to colleagues, etc.
► Provide opportunities for protégé to
demonstrate his/her skills
► Serve as career and lifestyle role model
► Attend meetings, conferences, and other
events together
► Provide observation experience
► Provide role-playing experience
► Exchange/discuss ideas
► Co-authoring
► Challenge protégé to and assist with career
planning and development; emphasis on
► Review resumes, cover letters
► Provide sense of direction/focus
► Help in problem solving
► Practice communication/interpersonal
► Assist in career planning
► Help set goals
What about mentees?
► Potential to succeed
► Capacity for self-disclosure
► Willing to learn
► Confident to try new things
► Communicate well
► Trust others
► Ambitious
► Internal focus of control
► High job investment
► Values relationships
► Sees relationship between personal and professional growth
► Active learner
► Focused
► Learn from, but not have to please the mentor
► Knows limits/ when to get help
► Ethical
► Takes initiative
► Goal oriented
► Organization/ time management skills
► Open minded
What Coaching and Mentoring
• Coaching is a core competency necessary
for knowledge transfer
 Mentoring is a two-way process of
dialogue and planning
 – People helping each other to find
their way on the job, in the
organization and over a lifetime
► Both require . . . . . .

► observation, dialogue, and
agreement. . . . . targeted at
building individual and team
capabilities. . . . . .to foster continuous
improvement in organizations.

Coaching and mentoring as knowledge transfer:

Everyone has unique knowledge to exchange with others
Insist on the discipline of a 50/50 split in time
Structural interventions
► Socio technical systems (STS).
► Self-managed teams.
► Work redesign.
► Management by objectives (MBO).
► Quality circles.
► Quality of work life projects (QWL).
► Parallel learning structures (or collateral
► Physical settings.
► Total quality management (TQM).
► Reengineering.
► Large-scale systems change.
Socio technical Systems
► Largely associated with experiments that emerged under the
auspices of the Travistock Institute in Great Britain.
► Efforts generally attempted to create a better “fit” among the
technology, structure, and social interaction of a particular
production unit in a mine, factory, or office.
► Two basic premises:
 Effective work systems must jointly optimize the relationship
between their social and technical parts.
 Such systems must effectively managed the boundary separating
and relating them to the environment.
 Highly participative among stakeholders: Employees, engineers,
staff experts, and managers.
 Feature the formation of autonomous work groups (i.e. self-
 Theory suggested that effectiveness, efficiency, and morale will
be enhanced.
Self-Managed Teams
► Problems in implementation:
 What to do with the first-line supervisors who are
no longer needed as supervisors.
 Managers that are now one level above the
teams will likely oversee the activities of several
teams, and their roles will change to emphasize
planning, expediting, and coordinating.
► They need considerable training to acquire
skills in group leadership and ability to
delegate; skills to have participative
meetings, planning, quality control,
budgeting, etc.
Work Redesign
► Hackman and Oldham – theoretical model of
what job characteristics lead to the
psychological states that produce what they
call ‘high internal work motivation.’
► Model approach has the characteristics of
OD; use of diagnosis, participation, and
► Model suggested that organizations analyze
jobs using the five core job characteristics;
then redesign of group work: skill variety,
task identity, task significance, autonomy,
feedback from job.
MBO and Appraisal
► Management by objective (MBO) programs
evolve from a collaborative organization
diagnosis and are systems of joint target
setting and performance review designed to
increase a focus on objectives and to
increase frequency of problem solving
discussions between supervisors and
subordinates and within work teams.
► MBO programs are unilateral, autocratic
mechanisms designed to force compliance
with a superior’s directives and reinforce a
one-on-one leadership mode.
Quality Circles
► The concept is a form of group problem
solving and goal setting with a primary focus
on maintaining and enhancing product
► Extensively used in Japan.
► Quality circles consist of a group of 7 – 10
employees from a unit; who have volunteered
to meet together regularly to analyze and
make proposals about product quality and
other problems.
► Morale and job satisfaction among
participants were reported to have increased.
► Quality circles contributes toward total quality
Quality of Work Life (QWL)
► Organizational improvement efforts.
 Attempt to restructure multiple
dimensions of the organization.
 To institute a mechanism which
introduces and sustains changes over
► Anincrease in participation by
employees and increase in problem
solving between the union and
Parallel Learning Structures
► Consists
of a steering committee and a
number of working groups that:
 Study what changes are needed in the
 Make recommendations for improvement,
 Then monitor the resulting change efforts.
Physical Setting and OD
► Physical settings are an important part of
organization culture that work groups should learn
to diagnose and manage, and about which top
management needs input in designing plants and
► Sometime, physical setting were found to interfere
with effective group and organizational functioning.
► Examples: A personnel director having a secretary share the
same office; resulting lack of privacy and typewriter noise,
thus adversely affect the productivity of the director.
► Management encouraged group decision making, yet
providing no space for more than 6 people to meet at one
Total Quality Management
► Also called continuous quality improvement.
► A combination of a number of organization improvement
techniques and approaches, including the use of quality
circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control,
self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of
employee participation.
► Features that characterize TQM:
 Primary emphasis on customers.
 Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.
 An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and
statistical process control techniques.
 Competitive benchmarking.
 Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them
 Participative management.
 An emphasis on teams and teamwork.
 A major emphasis on continuous learning.
 Top management support on an ongoing basis.
► Definition – the fundamental rethinking and radical
redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic
improvements in critical, contemporary measures
of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and
► Reengineering focuses on visualizing and
streamlining any or all business processes in the
► Reengineering seeks to make such processes more
efficient by combining, eliminating, or restructuring
activities without regard to present hierarchical or
control procedures.
► Reengineering is a top-down process; assumes
neither an upward flow of involvement nor that
consensus decision making.
Self-Design Strategy
► It is a “learning model” to help organization develop
“the build-in capacity to transform themselves to
achieve high performance in today’s competitive
and changing environment.
► Basic components:
 An educational component consisting of readings,
presentations, visits to other companies, and attendance
at conferences.
 Clarification of the values that will guide the design
 Diagnosis of the current state of the organization using the
values as template.
 Changes are then designed and implemented in an
interactive manner.
Large-Scale Systems Change
and Organizational
► Large-scalesystems change; mean
organizational change that is massive in
terms of the number of organizational units
involved, the number of people affected, the
number of organizational subsystems
altered, and/or the depth of the cultural
change involved.
 Example: a major restructuring with objectives
including a reduction in hierarchical levels from 8
to 4.
► Organizational transformation; second-order
change – requires a multiplicity of
interventions and takes place over a fairly
long period of time (5-year plan).
Do’s Of OD Interventions
Inform in advance of the
nature of
the intervention and the
of their involvement.

OD effort has to be connected

other parts of the

Directed by appropriate
►commitment to OD at all stages.

►Evaluation is the key to success.

►Show employees how the OD effort

relates to the organization's goals
and overriding mission.