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DEEPALI SHARMA,HIMANI YADAV,MEGHA SETHI, ANJU RANI
Definition of Interventions
An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.
Characteristics of Effective Interventions
it relevant to the needs of the organization?
Valid information Free and Informed Choice Internal Commitment
it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? ► Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members?
The Design of Effective Interventions
Related to the Change Situation
Readiness for Change ► Capability to Change ► Cultural Context ► Capabilities of the Change Agent
Related to the Target of
Strategic Issues Technology and structure issues Human resources issues Human process issues
►Human ►Techno ►Human
Process Interventions structural Interventions
Resources Management Interventions Interventions
Human Process Interventions
► Coaching ► Training
and Development ► Process Consultation and Team Building ► Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) ► Organization Confrontation Meeting ► Intergroup Relationships ► Large-group Interventions
Techno structural Interventions
►Structural Design ►Downsizing ►Reengineering ►Employee Involvement
Human Resources Management Interventions
Setting Appraisal Systems Work Force Diversity Stress and Wellness
► Performance ► Reward ► Career
Planning and Development
► Managing ► Employee
► Integrated ► Mergers ► Culture ► Alliances
and Acquisitions and Networks Organizations
Change Learning and Knowledge
► Self-designing ► Organization
What are T-Groups?
(“T” for training) are unstructured small-group situations in which participants learn from their own actions ► T-groups evolved from the laboratory training research of Kurt Lewin (1945) ► T-groups focus on the what, how and why of interpersonal communication. ► T-groups are used by consultants to help managers learn about the effects of their behavior on others
Goals of T-groups
understanding about one’s own
behavior ► Increased understanding about the behavior of others ► Better understanding of group process ► Increased interpersonal diagnostic skills ► Increased ability to transform learning into action ► Improvement in the ability to analyze one’s own behavior
is to: (1) encourage participants to recognize the effects of their behavior on others (e.g. by developing good observation and listening skills) (2) get participants to know themselves (e.g. by asking others for feedback) and to share aspects of themselves to others (self-disclosure)
participants to perceive accurately relationships between each other ► The focus is on recording/observing who is taking an active role in the discussion (and who is not and WHY) ► How satisfied do participants feel in the group discussion?
Group action skills
participants to select and act out (role play) behaviors required by the situation – to learn from the experience ► Aim is to support coaching/counseling skills ► Common interventions are role plays, team building meetings, adventure games
for illustrating the quality of interpersonal communication – identifiers a person’s interpersonal style of communication ► Process consultants use the model to help people process data about themselves in terms of how they see themselves and how others see them ► Interpersonal communication judged more effective when there is fit (congruence) between how we see ourselves (private face) and how others see us (public face).
Unknown to Others others Known to
Known to Self
Unknown Blind Window Spot
Unknown to Self
Improving Communications Using the Johari Window
Unknown to Others Reduce Hidden Area Through Disclosure to others Known to Others
Known to Self
Reduce Blind spot through feedback from others
Unknown to Self
An OD method that helps managers and employers improve the processes that are used in organizations
Outside consultant: Enters organization Defines the relationship Chooses an approach Gathers data Diagnoses problem Intervenes Leaves organization
process consultation, the consultant observes individuals and groups in action – helping them learn to diagnose and solve their own problems ► Often used in conjunction with teambuilding, self-directed work teams, quality circles, and other interpersonal interventions
Process Consultation: How is it Done?
observes the communication processes between individuals and workgroups ► Interventions used such as listening, probing, questioning, clarifying, reflecting, synthesizing and summarising
Process Consultation: Key Questions
► ► ►
• How well do group members seek and give information? Ask questions? Summarize? Listen to others? • How well do group members perform ‘group maintenance roles’ such as compromising? Harmonizing? Supporting? • How well do group members solve problems? Make decisions? • How well do group members deal with power and authority issues? • How well do group members exercise leadership?
Third Party Peace Making
(or "third parties") are people, organizations, or nations who enter a conflict to try to help the parties deescalate or resolve it.
WALTON’S APPROACH TO THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING
has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peace making interventions that is important in its own right and important for its role in organization development.
WALTON’S MODEL IS BASED ON FOUR ELEMENTS
conflict issues. circumstances.
Precipitating Conflict The
consequences of the conflict.
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
positive motivation. Balance of power. Synchronization of confrontation efforts. Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced. Conditions that promote openness should be created. Reliable communicative signals. Optimum tension in the situation .
WALTON’S HAS OUTLINED THE INGREDIENTS OF A PRODUCTIVE CONFRONTATION
ORGANIZATION MIRROR INTERVENTION
is a technique designed to work units feedback on how other elements of organization view them. to improve relationships between teams.
What is a “confrontation meeting?”
day meeting of entire management of an organization in which they take a reading of their own organizational health ► Organizational confrontation meeting: brings together all of the managers of an organization to meet to confront the issue of whether the organization is effectively meeting its goals
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Climate setting 45-60 min. Information Collecting 60 min. Information Sharing 60 min Priority setting and group action planning 75 min. Action Planning 60-120 minutes Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180 min. (Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120 minutes
When is it appropriate to conduct a confrontation meeting?
for the total management group to examine its own workings ► Very limited time available for the activity ► Top management wishes to improve conditions quickly ► Enough cohesion in the top team to ensure follow-up ► Real commitment by top management to resolve the issue ► Organization is experiencing , or has recently experienced, some major change
Coaching & Mentoring
The main reasons why organizations need coaching and mentoring activities are as follows:
To maximize knowledge transfer To increase the skill levels For succession planning
To maximize knowledge transfer Coaching & Mentoring provides a learning channel that effectively transfers knowledge within the organization Critical knowledge is maintained in the organization Contextual learning is evident
To increase skill levels The coaches and mentors can very effectively transfer core skills Customization of skills in relation to the core activities of the business is retained Cross training of staff can be achieved
For succession planning The ability for the organization to identify ‘fast track’ candidates and prepare them for new jobs is enhanced by coaching & mentoring Coaching & Mentoring can ensure continuity of performance when key staff leave the organization because core skills have been transferred
Beneficiaries of Coaching & Mentoring
The Coach / Mentor The Employee
Benefits to The Coach / Mentor
Benefits to the Coach / Mentor can be described as: Job Satisfaction Further development of own skill level Involvement in strategic activity
What does a mentor actually do?
► Encourage ► Convey
sincere belief in protégé ability to succeed ► Give advice ► Give constructive feedback ► Give formal and informal instruction (technical, clinical, political) ► Introduce to colleagues, etc. ► Provide opportunities for protégé to demonstrate his/her skills
as career and lifestyle role model ► Attend meetings, conferences, and other events together ► Provide observation experience ► Provide role-playing experience ► Exchange/discuss ideas ► Co-authoring ► Challenge protégé to and assist with career planning and development; emphasis on planning!
resumes, cover letters ► Provide sense of direction/focus ► Help in problem solving ► Practice communication/interpersonal skills ► Assist in career planning ► Help set goals
What about mentees?
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►
Potential to succeed Capacity for self-disclosure Willing to learn Confident to try new things Communicate well Trust others Ambitious Internal focus of control High job investment Values relationships Sees relationship between personal and professional growth Active learner Focused Learn from, but not have to please the mentor Knows limits/ when to get help Ethical Takes initiative Goal oriented Organization/ time management skills Open minded
What Coaching and Mentoring Are
• Coaching is a core competency necessary for knowledge transfer Mentoring is a two-way process of dialogue and planning – People helping each other to find their way on the job, in the organization and over a lifetime
► Both ► ►
require . . . . . .
observation, dialogue, and agreement. . . . . targeted at building individual and team capabilities. . . . . .to foster continuous improvement in organizations.
STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF COACHING AND MENTORING
Coaching and mentoring as knowledge transfer: Everyone has unique knowledge to exchange with others Insist on the discipline of a 50/50 split in time
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►
Socio technical systems (STS). Self-managed teams. Work redesign. Management by objectives (MBO). Quality circles. Quality of work life projects (QWL). Parallel learning structures (or collateral organizations). Physical settings. Total quality management (TQM). Reengineering. Large-scale systems change.
Socio technical Systems (STS)
Largely associated with experiments that emerged under the auspices of the Travistock Institute in Great Britain. Efforts generally attempted to create a better “fit” among the technology, structure, and social interaction of a particular production unit in a mine, factory, or office. Two basic premises:
Effective work systems must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts. Such systems must effectively managed the boundary separating and relating them to the environment. Highly participative among stakeholders: Employees, engineers, staff experts, and managers. Feature the formation of autonomous work groups (i.e. selfmanaged). Theory suggested that effectiveness, efficiency, and morale will be enhanced.
What to do with the first-line supervisors who are no longer needed as supervisors. Managers that are now one level above the teams will likely oversee the activities of several teams, and their roles will change to emphasize planning, expediting, and coordinating.
need considerable training to acquire skills in group leadership and ability to delegate; skills to have participative meetings, planning, quality control, budgeting, etc.
and Oldham – theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call ‘high internal work motivation.’ ► Model approach has the characteristics of OD; use of diagnosis, participation, and feedback. ► Model suggested that organizations analyze jobs using the five core job characteristics; then redesign of group work: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job.
MBO and Appraisal
by objective (MBO) programs evolve from a collaborative organization diagnosis and are systems of joint target setting and performance review designed to increase a focus on objectives and to increase frequency of problem solving discussions between supervisors and subordinates and within work teams. ► MBO programs are unilateral, autocratic mechanisms designed to force compliance with a superior’s directives and reinforce a one-on-one leadership mode.
concept is a form of group problem solving and goal setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing product quality. ► Extensively used in Japan. ► Quality circles consist of a group of 7 – 10 employees from a unit; who have volunteered to meet together regularly to analyze and make proposals about product quality and other problems. ► Morale and job satisfaction among participants were reported to have increased. ► Quality circles contributes toward total quality management.
Quality of Work Life (QWL)
Attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization. To institute a mechanism which introduces and sustains changes over time.
increase in participation by employees and increase in problem solving between the union and management.
Parallel Learning Structures
of a steering committee and a number of working groups that:
Study what changes are needed in the organization, Make recommendations for improvement, and Then monitor the resulting change efforts.
Physical Setting and OD
Physical settings are an important part of organization culture that work groups should learn to diagnose and manage, and about which top management needs input in designing plants and buildings. Sometime, physical setting were found to interfere with effective group and organizational functioning.
Examples: A personnel director having a secretary share the same office; resulting lack of privacy and typewriter noise, thus adversely affect the productivity of the director. Management encouraged group decision making, yet providing no space for more than 6 people to meet at one time.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM:
Primary emphasis on customers. Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers. An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques. Competitive benchmarking. Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely. Participative management. An emphasis on teams and teamwork. A major emphasis on continuous learning. Top management support on an ongoing basis.
Definition – the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Reengineering seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining, eliminating, or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. Reengineering is a top-down process; assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making.
It is a “learning model” to help organization develop “the build-in capacity to transform themselves to achieve high performance in today’s competitive and changing environment. Basic components:
An educational component consisting of readings, presentations, visits to other companies, and attendance at conferences. Clarification of the values that will guide the design process. Diagnosis of the current state of the organization using the values as template. Changes are then designed and implemented in an interactive manner.
systems change; mean organizational change that is massive in terms of the number of organizational units involved, the number of people affected, the number of organizational subsystems altered, and/or the depth of the cultural change involved.
Large-Scale Systems Change and Organizational Transformation
Example: a major restructuring with objectives including a reduction in hierarchical levels from 8 to 4.
transformation; second-order change – requires a multiplicity of interventions and takes place over a fairly long period of time (5-year plan).
Do’s Of OD Interventions
Inform in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement. OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization. Directed by appropriate managers.
►commitment ►Evaluation ►Show
to OD at all stages.
is the key to success.
employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission.