Definition of Interventions
An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.

Characteristics of Effective Interventions
► Is

it relevant to the needs of the organization?
   Valid information Free and Informed Choice Internal Commitment

► Is

it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? ► Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members?

The Design of Effective Interventions

Related to the Change Situation

Readiness for Change ► Capability to Change ► Cultural Context ► Capabilities of the Change Agent

► Contingencies

   

Related to the Target of

Strategic Issues Technology and structure issues Human resources issues Human process issues

Intervention Overview
►Human ►Techno ►Human

Process Interventions structural Interventions

Resources Management Interventions Interventions


Human Process Interventions
► Coaching ► Training

and Development ► Process Consultation and Team Building ► Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) ► Organization Confrontation Meeting ► Intergroup Relationships ► Large-group Interventions

Techno structural Interventions
►Structural Design ►Downsizing ►Reengineering ►Employee Involvement
► Work


Human Resources Management Interventions
► Goal

Setting Appraisal Systems Work Force Diversity Stress and Wellness

► Performance ► Reward ► Career

Planning and Development

► Managing ► Employee

Strategic Interventions
► Integrated ► Mergers ► Culture ► Alliances

Strategic Change

and Acquisitions and Networks Organizations

Change Learning and Knowledge

► Self-designing ► Organization




What are T-Groups?
► T-groups

(“T” for training) are unstructured small-group situations in which participants learn from their own actions ► T-groups evolved from the laboratory training research of Kurt Lewin (1945) ► T-groups focus on the what, how and why of interpersonal communication. ► T-groups are used by consultants to help managers learn about the effects of their behavior on others

Goals of T-groups
► Increased

understanding about one’s own

behavior ► Increased understanding about the behavior of others ► Better understanding of group process ► Increased interpersonal diagnostic skills ► Increased ability to transform learning into action ► Improvement in the ability to analyze one’s own behavior

Sensitivity training
► Aim

is to: (1) encourage participants to recognize the effects of their behavior on others (e.g. by developing good observation and listening skills) (2) get participants to know themselves (e.g. by asking others for feedback) and to share aspects of themselves to others (self-disclosure)

Diagnostic skills
► Encourage

participants to perceive accurately relationships between each other ► The focus is on recording/observing who is taking an active role in the discussion (and who is not and WHY) ► How satisfied do participants feel in the group discussion?

Group action skills
► Encourage

participants to select and act out (role play) behaviors required by the situation – to learn from the experience ► Aim is to support coaching/counseling skills ► Common interventions are role plays, team building meetings, adventure games

Johari Window
► Technique

for illustrating the quality of interpersonal communication – identifiers a person’s interpersonal style of communication ► Process consultants use the model to help people process data about themselves in terms of how they see themselves and how others see them ► Interpersonal communication judged more effective when there is fit (congruence) between how we see ourselves (private face) and how others see us (public face).

Johari Window

Unknown to Others others Known to

Hidden Spot

Open Window

Known to Self

Unknown Blind Window Spot

Unknown to Self

Improving Communications Using the Johari Window
Unknown to Others Reduce Hidden Area Through Disclosure to others Known to Others

Open Window

Known to Self
Reduce Blind spot through feedback from others

Unknown to Self

Process Consultation
An OD method that helps managers and employers improve the processes that are used in organizations
Outside consultant: Enters organization Defines the relationship Chooses an approach Gathers data Diagnoses problem Intervenes Leaves organization

Process Consultation
► In

process consultation, the consultant observes individuals and groups in action – helping them learn to diagnose and solve their own problems ► Often used in conjunction with teambuilding, self-directed work teams, quality circles, and other interpersonal interventions

Process Consultation: How is it Done?
► Consultant

observes the communication processes between individuals and workgroups ► Interventions used such as listening, probing, questioning, clarifying, reflecting, synthesizing and summarising

Process Consultation: Key Questions

► ► ►

• How well do group members seek and give information? Ask questions? Summarize? Listen to others? • How well do group members perform ‘group maintenance roles’ such as compromising? Harmonizing? Supporting? • How well do group members solve problems? Make decisions? • How well do group members deal with power and authority issues? • How well do group members exercise leadership?

Third Party Peace Making
► Intermediaries

(or "third parties") are people, organizations, or nations who enter a conflict to try to help the parties deescalate or resolve it.

► Walton

has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peace making interventions that is important in its own right and important for its role in organization development.

 The

conflict issues. circumstances.

 Precipitating  Conflict  The

relevant acts.

consequences of the conflict.

 Sustentative


 Emotional


 Mutual

positive motivation.  Balance of power.  Synchronization of confrontation efforts.  Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced.  Conditions that promote openness should be created.  Reliable communicative signals.  Optimum tension in the situation .


 It

is a technique designed to work units feedback on how other elements of organization view them. to improve relationships between teams.

 Designed

What is a “confrontation meeting?”
► One

day meeting of entire management of an organization in which they take a reading of their own organizational health ► Organizational confrontation meeting: brings together all of the managers of an organization to meet to confront the issue of whether the organization is effectively meeting its goals

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Climate setting 45-60 min. Information Collecting 60 min. Information Sharing 60 min Priority setting and group action planning 75 min. Action Planning 60-120 minutes Immediate follow-up by top team 60-180 min. (Four-six weeks later) Progress review 120 minutes

When is it appropriate to conduct a confrontation meeting?
► Need

for the total management group to examine its own workings ► Very limited time available for the activity ► Top management wishes to improve conditions quickly ► Enough cohesion in the top team to ensure follow-up ► Real commitment by top management to resolve the issue ► Organization is experiencing , or has recently experienced, some major change

Coaching & Mentoring
The main reasons why organizations need coaching and mentoring activities are as follows:

To maximize knowledge transfer To increase the skill levels For succession planning


To maximize knowledge transfer Coaching & Mentoring provides a learning channel that effectively transfers knowledge within the organization Critical knowledge is maintained in the organization Contextual learning is evident


To increase skill levels The coaches and mentors can very effectively transfer core skills Customization of skills in relation to the core activities of the business is retained Cross training of staff can be achieved


For succession planning The ability for the organization to identify ‘fast track’ candidates and prepare them for new jobs is enhanced by coaching & mentoring Coaching & Mentoring can ensure continuity of performance when key staff leave the organization because core skills have been transferred

Beneficiaries of Coaching & Mentoring
The Coach / Mentor The Employee

The Department

The Organization

Benefits to The Coach / Mentor

Benefits to the Coach / Mentor can be described as: Job Satisfaction Further development of own skill level Involvement in strategic activity

What does a mentor actually do?
► Encourage ► Convey

sincere belief in protégé ability to succeed ► Give advice ► Give constructive feedback ► Give formal and informal instruction (technical, clinical, political) ► Introduce to colleagues, etc. ► Provide opportunities for protégé to demonstrate his/her skills

► Serve

as career and lifestyle role model ► Attend meetings, conferences, and other events together ► Provide observation experience ► Provide role-playing experience ► Exchange/discuss ideas ► Co-authoring ► Challenge protégé to and assist with career planning and development; emphasis on planning!

► Review

resumes, cover letters ► Provide sense of direction/focus ► Help in problem solving ► Practice communication/interpersonal skills ► Assist in career planning ► Help set goals

What about mentees?
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Potential to succeed Capacity for self-disclosure Willing to learn Confident to try new things Communicate well Trust others Ambitious Internal focus of control High job investment Values relationships Sees relationship between personal and professional growth Active learner Focused Learn from, but not have to please the mentor Knows limits/ when to get help Ethical Takes initiative Goal oriented Organization/ time management skills Open minded

What Coaching and Mentoring Are
• Coaching is a core competency necessary for knowledge transfer  Mentoring is a two-way process of dialogue and planning  – People helping each other to find their way on the job, in the organization and over a lifetime

► Both ► ►

require . . . . . .

observation, dialogue, and agreement. . . . . targeted at building individual and team capabilities. . . . . .to foster continuous improvement in organizations.


Coaching and mentoring as knowledge transfer: Everyone has unique knowledge to exchange with others Insist on the discipline of a 50/50 split in time

Structural interventions
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Socio technical systems (STS). Self-managed teams. Work redesign. Management by objectives (MBO). Quality circles. Quality of work life projects (QWL). Parallel learning structures (or collateral organizations). Physical settings. Total quality management (TQM). Reengineering. Large-scale systems change.

Socio technical Systems (STS)
► ►

Largely associated with experiments that emerged under the auspices of the Travistock Institute in Great Britain. Efforts generally attempted to create a better “fit” among the technology, structure, and social interaction of a particular production unit in a mine, factory, or office. Two basic premises:

 Effective work systems must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts.  Such systems must effectively managed the boundary separating and relating them to the environment.  Highly participative among stakeholders: Employees, engineers, staff experts, and managers.  Feature the formation of autonomous work groups (i.e. selfmanaged).  Theory suggested that effectiveness, efficiency, and morale will be enhanced.

Self-Managed Teams
► Problems

in implementation:

 What to do with the first-line supervisors who are no longer needed as supervisors.  Managers that are now one level above the teams will likely oversee the activities of several teams, and their roles will change to emphasize planning, expediting, and coordinating.
► They

need considerable training to acquire skills in group leadership and ability to delegate; skills to have participative meetings, planning, quality control, budgeting, etc.

Work Redesign
► Hackman

and Oldham – theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call ‘high internal work motivation.’ ► Model approach has the characteristics of OD; use of diagnosis, participation, and feedback. ► Model suggested that organizations analyze jobs using the five core job characteristics; then redesign of group work: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback from job.

MBO and Appraisal
► Management

by objective (MBO) programs evolve from a collaborative organization diagnosis and are systems of joint target setting and performance review designed to increase a focus on objectives and to increase frequency of problem solving discussions between supervisors and subordinates and within work teams. ► MBO programs are unilateral, autocratic mechanisms designed to force compliance with a superior’s directives and reinforce a one-on-one leadership mode.

Quality Circles
► The

concept is a form of group problem solving and goal setting with a primary focus on maintaining and enhancing product quality. ► Extensively used in Japan. ► Quality circles consist of a group of 7 – 10 employees from a unit; who have volunteered to meet together regularly to analyze and make proposals about product quality and other problems. ► Morale and job satisfaction among participants were reported to have increased. ► Quality circles contributes toward total quality management.

Quality of Work Life (QWL)
► Organizational

improvement efforts.

 Attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization.  To institute a mechanism which introduces and sustains changes over time.
► An

increase in participation by employees and increase in problem solving between the union and management.

Parallel Learning Structures
► Consists

of a steering committee and a number of working groups that:
 Study what changes are needed in the organization,  Make recommendations for improvement, and  Then monitor the resulting change efforts.

Physical Setting and OD

Physical settings are an important part of organization culture that work groups should learn to diagnose and manage, and about which top management needs input in designing plants and buildings. Sometime, physical setting were found to interfere with effective group and organizational functioning.
Examples: A personnel director having a secretary share the same office; resulting lack of privacy and typewriter noise, thus adversely affect the productivity of the director. Management encouraged group decision making, yet providing no space for more than 6 people to meet at one time.

Total Quality Management (TQM)
► ►

Also called continuous quality improvement. A combination of a number of organization improvement techniques and approaches, including the use of quality circles, statistical quality control, statistical process control, self-managed teams and task forces, and extensive use of employee participation. Features that characterize TQM:

 Primary emphasis on customers.  Daily operational use of the concept of internal customers.  An emphasis on measurement using both statistical quality control and statistical process control techniques.  Competitive benchmarking.  Continuous search for sources of defects with a goal of eliminating them entirely.  Participative management.  An emphasis on teams and teamwork.  A major emphasis on continuous learning.  Top management support on an ongoing basis.


Definition – the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. Reengineering focuses on visualizing and streamlining any or all business processes in the organization. Reengineering seeks to make such processes more efficient by combining, eliminating, or restructuring activities without regard to present hierarchical or control procedures. Reengineering is a top-down process; assumes neither an upward flow of involvement nor that consensus decision making.

Self-Design Strategy

It is a “learning model” to help organization develop “the build-in capacity to transform themselves to achieve high performance in today’s competitive and changing environment. Basic components:
 An educational component consisting of readings, presentations, visits to other companies, and attendance at conferences.  Clarification of the values that will guide the design process.  Diagnosis of the current state of the organization using the values as template.  Changes are then designed and implemented in an interactive manner.

► Large-scale

systems change; mean organizational change that is massive in terms of the number of organizational units involved, the number of people affected, the number of organizational subsystems altered, and/or the depth of the cultural change involved.

Large-Scale Systems Change and Organizational Transformation

 Example: a major restructuring with objectives including a reduction in hierarchical levels from 8 to 4.

► Organizational

transformation; second-order change – requires a multiplicity of interventions and takes place over a fairly long period of time (5-year plan).

Do’s Of OD Interventions
Inform in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement. OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization. Directed by appropriate managers.

►commitment ►Evaluation ►Show

to OD at all stages.

is the key to success.

employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission.



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