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Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 Ed

# Solucionario Operaciones Unitarias en Ingenieria Quimica Mccabe 6 Ed

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# P R E FA C E

This sixth edition of the text on the unit operations of chemical engineering has been extensively revised and updated, with much new material and considerable condensation of some sections. Its basic structure and general level of treatment, however, remain unchanged. It is an introductory text, written for undergraduate students in their junior or senior years who have completed the usual courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and an introduction to chemical engineering. An elementary knowledge of material and energy balances and of thermodynamic principles is assumed. Separate chapters are devoted to each of the principal unit operations, grouped into four sections: ﬂuid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer and equilibrium stages, and operations involving particulate solids. One-semester or one-quarter courses may be based on any of these sections or combinations of them. The order of the ﬁrst 16 chapters has not been changed; later ones, dealing with mass transfer and operations involving solids, have been rearranged in a more logical order. Nearly all equations have been written for SI units, and the Newton’s law conversion factor gc has been eliminated except in the few instances where it must be included. Symbols for dimensionless groups have been changed to Re for NRe, for example, Pr for NPr, and so forth. Many new examples and problems have been added, some reﬂecting the importance of biochemical engineering processes. Material on handling, mixing, and grinding particulate solids has been greatly condensed and dealt with in a single chapter. The number of appendixes is reduced from 22 to 19. Derivations of the differential equations for continuity and momentum balances, leading to the Navier-Stokes equation, have been added, as well as the differential forms of Fourier’s law and Fick’s law, emphasizing the analogies among momentum, heat, and mass transfer. The chapter on adsorption has been expanded to include new material on chromatography and ion exchange, and renamed “Fixedbed Separations.” Other new material has been added on viscoelastic ﬂuids, laminar ﬂow in annuli, drag coefﬁcients, afﬁnity laws for pumps, high-efﬁciency agitators and motionless mixers, plate-type heat exchangers, boiling by submerged tube bundles, cooling towers, aqueous phase extraction, cross-ﬂow ﬁltration, and many other topics. Many of the problems at the ends of the chapters are new or revised. Most are expressed in SI units. Nearly all the problems can be solved with the aid of a pocket calculator; for a few, a computer solution is preferable. McGraw-Hill and the authors thank Dr. N. T. Obot for his many suggestions regarding ﬂuid mechanics and heat transfer, and Professor Charles H. Gooding of Clemson University for his detailed and helpful review of the manuscript.
Julian C. Smith Peter Harriott
xvii

iii

CONTENTS

Preface

xvii

SECTION I

Introduction
Deﬁnitions and Principles
Unit Operations Unit Systems
Physical Quantities / SI Units / CGS Units / Gas Constant / FPS Engineering Units / Conversion of Units / Units and Equations 3 4 4

1

Dimensional Analysis Basic Concepts
Equations of State of Gases

16 20 24 25 27

Symbols Problems References

SECTION II

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Statics and Its Applications
Hydrostatic Equilibrium Applications of Fluid Statics Symbols Problems References
31 32 34 41 42 43 44 45 46 51 59 63 64 65 vii

2

3

Fluid Flow Phenomena
Laminar Flow, Shear Rate, and Shear Stress Rheological Properties of Fluids Turbulence Boundary Layers Symbols Problems References

viii

CONTENTS

4

Basic Equations of Fluid Flow
Mass Balance in a Flowing Fluid; Continuity Differential Momentum Balance; Equations of Motion Macroscopic Momentum Balances Mechanical Energy Equation Symbols Problems References

67 67 72 77 82 90 92 93 94 94 97 104 117 123 124 127 128 128 133 134 140 145 147 148 149 150 150 157 162 171 182 183 185 187 187 194

5

Incompressible Flow in Pipes and Channels
Shear Stress and Skin Friction in Pipes Laminar Flow in Pipes and Channels Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Channels Friction from Changes in Velocity or Direction Symbols Problems References

6

Flow of Compressible Fluids
Deﬁnitions and Basic Equations Processes of Compressible Flow Isentropic Flow through Nozzles Adiabatic Friction Flow Isothermal Friction Flow Symbols Problems References

7

Flow Past Immersed Bodies
Drag and Drag Coefﬁcients Flow through Beds of Solids Motion of Particles through Fluids Fluidization Symbols Problems References

8

Transportation and Metering of Fluids
Pipe, Fittings, and Valves Pumps

CONTENTS

ix

Positive-Displacement Pumps / Centrifugal Pumps

Fans, Blowers, and Compressors
Fans / Blowers and Compressors / Comparison of Devices for Moving Fluids

209

Measurement of Flowing Fluids
Full-Bore Meters / Insertion Meters

219 234 236 237 238 239 259 265 270 278 281 282 284

Symbols Problems References

9

Agitation and Mixing of Liquids
Agitated Vessels Blending and Mixing Suspension of Solid Particles Dispersion Operations Agitator Selection and Scaleup Symbols Problems References

SECTION III

Heat Transfer and Its Applications
Heat Transfer by Conduction
291 291 293 300 311 312 314 315 315 319 321

10

11

Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids
Typical Heat-Exchange Equipment Energy Balances Heat Flux and Heat-Transfer Coefﬁcients
Overall Heat-Transfer Coefﬁcient / Individual Heat-Transfer Coefﬁcients

Symbols Problems References

333 334 335

x

CONTENTS

12

Heat Transfer to Fluids Without Phase Change
Boundary Layers Heat Transfer by Forced Convection in Laminar Flow Heat Transfer by Forced Convection in Turbulent Flow
Transfer by Turbulent Eddies and Analogy Between Transfer of Momentum and Heat

336 336 339 346

Heat Transfer in Transition Region Between Laminar and Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer to Liquid Metals Heating and Cooling of Fluids in Forced Convection Outside Tubes Natural Convection Symbols Problems References

358 360 362 365 371 373 375 377 377 389 401 403 404 406 407 410 413 423 425 427 428 430 431 432 446 449 455

13

Heat Transfer to Fluids with Phase Change
Heat Transfer from Condensing Vapors Heat Transfer to Boiling Liquids Symbols Problems References

14

15

Heat-Exchange Equipment
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Plate-Type Exchangers Extended-Surface Equipment Scraped-Surface Exchangers

CONTENTS xi 456 459 463 467 469 471 473 475 479 498 500 500 502 Condensers and Vaporizers Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels Heat Transfer in Packed Beds Symbols Problems References 16 Evaporation Types of Evaporators Performance of Tubular Evaporators Evaporator Capacity / Evaporator Economy Vapor Recompression Symbols Problems References SECTION IV Mass Transfer and Its Applications Principles of Diffusion and Mass Transfer Between Phases Theory of Diffusion Prediction of Diffusivities Mass-Transfer Theories Film Theory / Boundary Layer Theory / Penetration Theory / Two-Film Theory 17 511 512 518 523 Mass-Transfer Coefﬁcients Experimental Measurements / Coefﬁcients for Mass Transfer through Known Areas 530 Symbols Problems References 540 542 544 546 546 557 574 580 588 18 Gas Absorption Packings and Packed Tower Design Principles of Absorption Absorption from Rich Gases Mass-Transfer Correlations Absorption in Plate Columns Absorption with Chemical Reaction .

McCabe–Thiele Method Enthalpy Balances Design of Sieve-Plate Columns Plate Efﬁciencies Theory of Plate Efﬁciency 672 681 689 699 700 704 706 711 713 713 717 Distillation in Packed Columns Batch Distillation Symbols Problems References 22 Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Distillation Flash Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures .xii CONTENTS Symbols Problems References 590 592 594 596 596 600 604 608 618 619 621 622 622 625 639 639 640 641 641 645 19 Humidiﬁcation Operations Deﬁnitions Humidity Chart Wet-Bulb Temperature Cooling Towers Theory of Counterﬂow Cooling Towers Symbols Problems References 20 Equilibrium-Stage Operations Equipment for Stage Contacts Principles of Stage Processes Equilibrium-Stage Calculations for Multicomponent Systems Symbols Problems References 21 Distillation Flash Distillation Continuous Distillation with Reﬂux Material Balances in Plate Columns / Number of Ideal Plates.

CONTENTS xiii 718 734 735 736 738 739 739 Fractionation of Multicomponent Mixtures Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation Symbols Problems References 23 Leaching and Extraction Leaching Leaching Equipment / Principles of Continuous Countercurrent Leaching Liquid Extraction Extraction Equipment / Principles of Extraction 747 766 768 769 772 773 775 782 790 793 794 Special Extraction Techniques Supercritical Fluid Extraction Symbols Problems References 24 Drying of Solids Principles of Drying Phase Equilibria Cross-Circulation Drying Through-Circulation Drying Drying of Suspended Particles Freeze-Drying Drying Equipment Dryers for Solids and Pastes / Dryers for Solutions and Slurries / Selection of Drying Equipment Symbols Problems References 807 809 810 812 812 813 25 Fixed-Bed Separations Adsorption Adsorption Equipment Equilibria. Adsorption Isotherms / Principles of Adsorption / Basic Equations for Adsorption / Solutions to Mass-Transfer Equations / Adsorber Design / Continuous Operation Ion Exchange Equilibria / Mass-Transfer Rates / Operation of Ion Exchangers 839 .

xiv CONTENTS Chromatography Symbols Problems References 845 852 854 855 857 857 878 26 Membrane Separation Processes Separation of Gases Separation of Liquids Dialysis / Membranes for Liquid-Liquid Extraction / Pervaporation / Reverse Osmosis Symbols Problems References 896 898 900 902 903 904 911 918 921 927 936 937 939 941 27 Crystallization Crystal Geometry Equilibria and Yields Nucleation Crystal Growth Crystallization Equipment Crystallizer Design: Crystal Size Distribution MSMPR Crystallizer Crystallization from Melts Symbols Problems References SECTION V Operations Involving Particulate Solids Properties and Handling of Particulate Solids Characterization of Solid Particles Properties of Masses of Particles Storage and Conveying of Solids 945 945 951 955 965 28 Mixing of Solids Mixers for Noncohesive Solids / Mixers for Cohesive Solids Size Reduction Computer Simulation of Milling Operations / Equipment for Size Reduction .

Capacities. Membrane Filters Type of Membranes / Permeate Flux for Ultraﬁltration / Concentration Polarization / Microﬁltration Gravity Sedimentation Processes Centrifugal Sedimentation Processes Symbols Problems References Appendix 1 Conversion Factors and Constants of Nature Appendix 2 Dimensionless Groups Appendix 3 Dimensions. and Weights of Standard Steel Pipe Appendix 4 Condenser and Heat-Exchanger Tube Data Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix 9 Appendix 10 Appendix 11 Tyler Standard Screen Scale Properties of Liquid Water Properties of Saturated Steam and Water Viscosities of Gases Viscosities of Liquids Thermal Conductivities of Metals Thermal Conductivities of Various Solids and Insulating Materials Appendix 12 Thermal Conductivities of Gases and Vapors Appendix 13 Thermal Conductivities of Liquids Other Than Water Appendix 14 Speciﬁc Heats of Gases 1035 1045 1056 1058 1061 1063 1066 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1074 1076 1079 1080 1082 1083 1084 . General Considerations Cake Filters Centrifugal Filters / Filter Media / Filter Aids / Principles of Cake Filtration Clarifying Filters Liquid Clariﬁcation / Gas Cleaning / Principles of Clariﬁcation 1018 1021 Crossﬂow Filtration.CONTENTS xv 977 981 983 984 986 986 991 993 Ultraﬁne Grinders Symbols Problems References 29 Mechanical Separations Screening Screening Equipment Filtration.

xvi CONTENTS Appendix 15 Appendix 16 Appendix 17 Appendix 18 Speciﬁc Heats of Liquids Prandtl Numbers for Gases at 1 atm and 100°C Prandtl Numbers for Liquids Diffusivities and Schmidt Numbers for Gases in Air at 0°C and 1 atm Appendix 19 Collision Integral and Lennard-Jones Force Constants 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1091 Index .

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