SILICON PHOTONICS ISRC Technical Briefing November 16th, 2006

Kenneth Shemroske PhD Student C.T. Bauer School of Business University of Houston klshemroske@uh.edu

SILICON PHOTONICS

•The speed of light, condensed
•Fiber optic communications on the semiconductor scale

faster microprocessors roll out. 2006). the copper connections that feed those processors within computers and servers will prove inadequate to handle the crushing tides of data. .”( Paniccia & Koehl.WHY SILICON PHOTONICS? •Speed of optical network communications •Terabits/second •Speed of microprocessor technologies •Dual core/multi core processors •Gigabits/second •Speed of electrical circuits •Start to have problems in low Gigabits/second range “As newer.

BACKGROUND TECHNOLOGY •Optical communications •Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process .

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS Basic components of optical communication networks •Light sources •Optic fiber •Light detectors Photodetector Fiber optic cable Light source Modulator .

On/off •External modulation – continuous wave (CW) source .LIGHT SOURCES •Light Emitting Diodes (LED). Laser Diodes (LD) •Alignment to fiber optic cables is critical •Back reflection – source of loss •Modulation •Direct modulation .

multimode fiber •Typical speed is 10 Gigabits per second •Potential for 20 Terabits per second •Currently used in business for wide area links or within data centers as connections to mass storage devices •Currently carries TV signals and data communications to residential customers .OPTICAL FIBER •Propagate a light signal down its length •Single mode vs.

LIGHT DETECTORS •Detect the presence of light •Photodiodes •Reconstruct the data signal from light pulses into electrical signal for further processing .

gif&imgrefurl=http://w ww. faster.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nist.CMOS MANUFACTURING •Making things smaller.gov/div837/Division/images/semi3. and cheaper •Silicon (Si) based wafer •Unique properties as a conductor/insulator •Inexpensive and abundant (made from sand) (http://images.htm&h=409&w=395&sz=84&tbnid=QfrAMSY9CtZeM:&tbnh=125&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsilicon%2Bwafer%2Bpicture&start=1&sa=X&oi=images&ct =image&cd=1) .gov/div837/Division/programs/microelect/microelect1.cstl.nist.google.cstl.

(http://bwrc.eecs.edu/classes/icdesign/ee141_502/lectures/lecture5-manufacturing.pdf) .berkely.

com/research/platform/sp/) .BUILDING BLOCKS OF SILICON PHOTONICS (http://www.intel.

WAVEGUIDES Si is transparent in the frequency range of optical communications •Use standard CMOS manufacturing techniques •Produce microchip sized waveguides .

MODULATION AND PHOTODETECTION Miniaturized version of modulators on a chip •Successful in the 10 Gb/s speeds by 2004 (Intel) Introduction of Germanium (Ge) to a Si base •2006 – the first successful SiGe photodetctors demonstrated (Intel) .

Issue 2. Volume 8. 2004) .LOW COST ASSEMBLY Aligning fiber to the chip •Current alignment of fibers is ‘active’ •Proposed alignment would need to be passive •Manufactured into the Si base with high precision structures (Intel Technology Journal.

slow manufacturing process Mid 2006 – Intel and University of California Santa Barbara – Hybrid Silicon Laser • ‘Hybrid’ .Combines Si with Indium Phosphide (InP) (White Paper Research at Intel. A Hybrid Silicon Laser: Silicon photonics technology for future tera-scale computing) .LIGHT SOURCE Until recently – off chip light source with active alignment •High cost.

geophysical research programs. elimination of motherboards (by today’s standards •High performance for data/computation intense applications •Databases. Virtual Reality – 2nd Life . Servers. Storage systems •Continue high speed data processing from source to CPU potential processing in the Tb/s range •Smaller computers. Enterprise Resource Planning systems. data mining.IMPLICATIONS Computers. presentation data. music. multimedia. marketing research Large data files •Video. less heat.

IMPLICATIONS Network communication devices •Routers. hubs •Future multiplexing (White Paper Research at Intel. bridges. A Hybrid Silicon Laser: Silicon photonics technology for future tera-scale computing) .

IMPLICATIONS Other possibilities •Low cost laser technology for biomedical applications •Real time processing of medical scans at remote locations •High speed links between wireless access points •Processors and memory chips which function with light .

QUESTIONS? .

com/research/platform/sp/hybridlaser.sciencedaily.htm Pavesi. (2006). Krutul. Sean (2005). Breakthrough in Silicon Photonics Devices.htm . Cohen. Pierre & Ovadia. Victor.spectrum. 2006 from http://www. Optical Technologies for Enterprise Networks. Retrieved October 17. Dean.net/content/item. Sean (2005). Liao. 2006 from http://www.com/document. Liu.org/corporate/news/mfgproc/mfgproc.hexus. Mike. Silcon Photonics. 2006 from http://www. 2006 from http://www.REFERENCES Herve.htm Intel Corporation (2006b). Volume 7.com/releases/2006/06/060628234005. 2006 from http://www. Hybrid Silicon Laser. ScienceDaily LLC (2006). Hyundai (2006).ieee. Semiconductor Manufacturing Process.com/research/platform/sp Koehl. Luxtera Chases Silicon Photonics. Salib. Alex & Park. Shlomo (2004).convergedigest. Will silicon be the photonic material of the third millennium?. Retrieved October 25.intel. A New Era in Optical Communications. Craig (2005). Jones. L. Paniccia. & Paniccia. 2006 from http://www.intel. Fan. Retrieved October 17. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Retrieved October 17.intel. Issue 4. Mario & Koehl. Oded.asp?site=lightreading&doc_id=70863 Paniccia. Retrieved October 17. Smara-rubio.htm Sematech Inc. Jones. (2003). Hexus. Retrieved October 19. Mario (2004).com/blueprints/ttp03/bp1. 2006 from http://www. Richard. Mario (2003). Richard. Intel Technology Journal: Optical Technologies and Applications.org/print/1915 Paniccia.lightreading. Intel Technology Journal. 2006 from www. Silicon Photonics Could Revolutionize future Servers and Networks.net (2006). Retrieved October 17.asp?ID=242&ctgy=Market Matsumomto. Mario. Ansheng.php?item=1016&redirect=yes Intel Corporation (2006). John. Intel Technology Journal: Optical Technologies and Applications. Retrieved October 17. IDF Spring 2005: Silicon Photonics as true Interconnects.com/technology/itj/2004/volume08issue02/foreword. White Paper Research at Intel. Mike. Silicon Photonics Research. A Hybrid Silicon Laser: Silicon photonics technology for future tera-scale computing. Morse. 2006 from http://www.sematech. The Silicon Solution. Retrieved October 17. Ling. Drew. Bowers. Alduino.

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