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Revision 0 16 October 1995 jh 0202/2000
EP HSE Manual Amendment Record Sheet
Section Number: Section Title:
Rev No. 0 All Original hard copy and CD-ROM issue Chapter Nos.
EP 95-0210 Drilling
Description to amendment Date dd/mm/yy 16/10/95 EPO/61 Amended by
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
1 Introduction 1
3.6.5 Incident reporting........................35 3.6.6 Incident follow-up........................36
3.7 Audit...................................... ............37 3.8 Review......................... .....................39
1.1 Objectives....................... ....................1 1.2 Background.................................... .....1
4.1 Site Preparations - Land...................44
4.1.1 Locations.....................................44 4.1.2 Road vehicles and mobile plant. .45 4.1.3 Camp sites..................................46
2.1 Scope of the Document......................3 2.2 Relationship Between the Chapters....3
3 Drilling HSE Management System 5
3.1 Leadership and Commitment..............5 3.2 Policy and Strategic Objectives..........6 3.3 Organisation, Responsibilities, Resources, Standards and Documents............................... ........8
3.3.1 Organisational structure and responsibilities.........................8 3.3.2 Management representative(s). . .10 3.3.3 Resources...................................10 3.3.4 Competence................................11 3.3.5 Contractors..................................15 3.3.6 Communication...........................18 3.3.7 Documentation and its control.....19
4.2 Preparation Offshore........................48
4.2.1 Location preparation offshore.....48 4.2.2 Structural integrity of jack-ups.....48 4.2.3 Precontract assessment of semisubmersibles and drill ships. .50 4.2.4 Tender assisted operations..........51
4.3 Materials Procurement......................52
4.3.1 Hazard data.............................. ...52 4.3.2 Inspection....................................52 4.3.3 Stacking and storage..................52
4.4 Transportation of Materials and Equipment................................. .....52
4.4.1 Road transport.............................52 4.4.2 Sea transport...............................53 4.4.3 Air transport.................................53 4.4.4 Rig moving on land.....................53 4.4.5 Rig moving offshore....................54
3.4 Hazards and Effects Management Process............................. .............21 3.5 Planning and Procedures.................22
3.5.1 General.......................................22 3.5.2 Asset integrity..............................24 3.5.3 Procedures and work instructions ..............................................24 3.5.4 Management of change..............27 3.5.5 Contingency and emergency planning............................... ..28
5.1 Maintenance.....................................56 5.2 Hazardous Zones............................. .56
5.2.1 Hazardous zone classification.....56 5.2.2 Operation of diesel engines in hazardous zones...................56 5.2.3 Electrical safety in hazardous zones................................ .....57
3.6 Implementation and Monitoring.........31
3.6.1 Activities and tasks......................31 3.6.2 Monitoring...................................31 3.6.3 Records.......................................35 3.6.4 Non-compliance and corrective action....................................35
5.3 Personal Protective Equipment.........57 5.4 Drilling Equipment................... ..........58
5.4.1 Drawworks safety........................58
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
........................65 5..............3...5.... shackles and winches 62 5..5 Derricks and Masts..............6 Elevators and slips...................71 6......... e...........6....1 Handling of harmful chemicals........5..69 6.........4 Pressure Testing....................1 Noise........5......5.....................6.....67 6...5...........59 5.............................79 6..HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 5......85 6..........3 Hydraulic bolt tensioning equipment..............60 5......7 Permit-to-work.76 6....5...... ..........2 Handling of Chemicals and Gas Cylinders...8.5..75 6..............5..5 Masts..........7..........1........5........6 Wire ropes.84 5..2 Noise control........................72 6..8....5..........2 Heavy lifts.....61 5.. drill collars....64 5..61 6....1 General..........1 Safe operating principles......6...............6 Guy lines........78 6........7...........5....1.....5...........................2 Restrictions on use...81 6.1 Tubulars Handling......................1 Housekeeping.10 H2S drills..67 5...........................60 5.............8 Man riding winches.........7 Blowout Preventers (BOP)...... ...........2 Pulsation dampeners...................86 6.............5 Crown block and travelling block 64 5..general.59 5......2 Inspection ......2 Planning for H2S..........4 Monitoring.....................3..7...5 Alarm systems (H2S detection)...5.......1 General......9 Deadline anchor/weight indicator 60 5..............1.....85 6.....3 Derrick loading...........58 5...........1 Recommendations specific to subsea BOPs...63 5........69 6.........7 Catlines and catheads.65 6......................59 6.7 Escape line and slide.......59 5.......77 5.......................8....11 Personnel....8...72 6................6....66 5..........1.........1 General..................8 Steel Hoses (Chiksan and Coflexip).............80 6..........4 Store keeping and spare part control.......1........................79 6.6...........................................77 6...78 6.....................77 6.69 ii EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 ...59 5......................................................... hooks....7 Additional safety equipment..83 6............................66 5.1 Standardisation of HP unions... 67 5..84 6..1.......5 Making up or laying down tubulars.62 5.........4 Rigging up and running casing........6 Personal protective equipment............ ............75 6.........5...........2 Environmental auditing....66 5..2 Derrick and mast inspection...5.4.......4.............6 Lifting Equipment......4 Elevators..5...1 Certification and testing..g.....88 6 Operations 69 6..........83 6.....3 Relief valves...........10 Stabbing board..5........ ....... ....85 6..........................78 6........................6..73 5.3 Crane Operations.......8 Well control.....3 Transferring tubulars to the rig floor .....8 Environmental Hazards...........8 Crown protection......9 Personnel training.3 Inspection of wire rope slings..3 Equipment...........78 6...............66 5.............................70 6....5..4. .......... 85 5.....4 Foundations..60 5......2 Taking tubulars on site.2 Storing and handling of gas cylinders...2.........6. ..2................5 BOP control system.....5.1 Erection equipment..3 Contractors' occupational health..........7 Drill floor operations..........87 6.................1.........59 5..........7....5.....6 Occupational Health and Safety.......65 5........5....82 6................ ..........6....6...... ................................82 6..5 Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)..61 5.........67 6...7....59 5.2 Shear rams.......87 6.............6..............6..
.............99 7.....2 Procedures....1 Electric Wireline Operations....Contents 6........1 General..........1....2...110 7..............92 7................7.90 7.............107 7.88 7...................1....6.8....101 7........2 Fracturing...........7 Standby Vessels.4....7...............95 7...........99 7..........2 Duties......3 Logging operations.....91 7.... ............2 Restrictions...104 7.4 Cryogenic operations...............89 7.....1......108 7........1..4.....107 7....2..102 7.....3 Responsibilities.....8 Helicopter Operations.......6 Diving/ROV Operations....... ..............................3 Supervision...............2 Rigging up.........1.4 Concurrent Operations.......106 7.....9 Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) systems....................1.1......90 7.................90 7......................................1 General......1... 97 7...4..........7......97 7.... ...............................4.......93 7...........89 7........8..2 Well Testing.......1....96 APPENDIX I Policies 112 APPENDIX II Responsibilities of Key Staff 114 APPENDIX III Land Rig Move Plan 120 APPENDIX IV Classification of Hazardous Areas 122 APPENDIX V Operation of Diesel Engines in Hazardous Areas 126 Abbreviations Glossary References Index 130 132 134 138 7..1...104 7.....................1 Responsibilities.....3 Waste management......................108 7......................1 Training..........2..............3 Coiled Tubing Operations..109 7 Associated Activities 89 7..................94 7.........89 7...6.............................8 Systems impervious to stray electrical currents.........107 7...5 Wireline Operations (Slickline).....1 General requirements..........5 Storage and working with explosives..........5 Wireline activities (slickline and electric logging)..........................2..1 Special precautions....4 Specific requirements...............................102 7..................4...........................3 Acidising.........109 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 iii .....................10 Storage and use of radioactive sources...1..7 Radio transmissions................110 7.4 Pressure control.......11 Fishing.........98 7....................................6 Safety procedures in use of explosives..108 7.....103 7............................
It is aimed at both Company and contractor staff involved in drilling operations. safety and environmental hazards in the drilling operation and provides guidance on how risks can be reduced • provide guidance on drilling HSE related issues • describe how to develop the essential core of a HSE Management System (HSE MS) appropriate to drilling operations • enable an assessment to be made of a contractor's approach to HSE which will assist in the contractor selection process and facilitate better control of HSE in the drilling operation. This is exacerbated by the diversity of the personnel involved resulting from the use of contractors and subcontractors and the international nature of the business. safety and the environment. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 1 .1 Introduction 1 1. 1. Despite our best endeavours accidents still occur. It is intended to: • identify health.1 INTRODUCTION Objectives This document is a development of EP 55000-34 'Safety in Drilling' revised in July 1991 which it now supersedes. The basic cause of accidents can be frequently identified as a lack of effective planning or a failure to train personnel to achieve competence.2 Background Activities on drilling sites and rigs present potential major hazards to health. Similarly. The recognition of all the potential hazards of a drilling operation during the planning stage is essential so that they can be eliminated or at least controlled. people are injured. the environment may be damaged and Company assets put at risk. attention shall be paid to the programme for training personnel to a standard which enables them to perform competently the requirements of their job function and duties.
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1 indicating their hierarchy. 1). It is not the objective of this document to provide comprehensive guidance on the development of an HSE Case. The remaining chapters provide guidance on drilling HSE related issues that might be encountered and may be useful in the development of hazard registers associated with an HSE Case. A great deal of guidance is provided. however. Much of this advice is a distillation of experience gained by many knowledgeable staff over a long period.1 OVERVIEW Scope of the Document This document addresses HSE aspects of the business process activity 'Drilling and Well Operations' as defined in the Shell Exploration and Production Business Model. 2.1 Relationship between the chapters DRILLING HSE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT Chapter 3 Preparation Chapter 4 Equipment Chapter 5 Operations Chapter 6 Associated Activities Chapter 7 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 3 . This section describes many of the requirements of an HSE MS as they relate to a drilling operation. on the management of hazards. the EPBM (Ref. The HSE Management System (HSE MS) for a drilling operation has effectively the same components as the overall system for the Opco which are described in EP 95-0100 and other referenced parts of Volume 1.2 Overview 2 2.2 Relationship Between the Chapters The following chapters of this document are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.
and moving the rig. A good deal of information is provided on hardware. Equipment Hazardous zone policies are detailed. Associated activities The operation of drilling a well entails the use of other services such as wireline logging and well testing services.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Preparation This chapter provides guidance on HSE requirements associated with site preparation. Drilling equipment is primarily under the control of the contractor but the Company Supervisor shall be aware of the HSE related matters in order to verify that proper control is being exercised. This chapter gives guidance on the hazards associated with such operations and on the responsibilities of the drilling department when such activities are taking place. materials procurement. and the background to personal protective equipment requirements. transportation to site. 4 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Operations This chapter covers the HSE aspects of executing the drilling operation.
1 HSE Management System and ESM relationship ESM Principles Visible senior management commitment Sound HSE policy Line responsibility for HSE Competent HSE Advisers High. The standards and procedures through which the objectives will be met are defined by those with the necessary expertise. It also incorporates work by the Safety Management System team in SIEP. Achievement of the hazard management objectives will be realised through the setting up of an organisation in which responsibility is assigned and to which resources are provided. Such audits are reviewed by management who may initiate system changes to facilitate improvement. an HSE Management System is a reflection of the objectives of an enterprise and the manner in which these objectives are to be met as laid down by its senior management. Figure 3. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 5 . Standards & Doc. In essence.1 Leadership and Commitment The foundation of an HSE MS is leadership and commitment from the top management of the Company.3 Drilling HSE Management System 3 DRILLING HSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The text draws in part on work carried out in Opcos and single string ventures and consequently reflects the views of a wide variety of staff in a number of areas. well understood HSE standards Effective HSE training HSE Management System Leadership and Commitment Policy and Strategic Objectives Organisation. with the intent that it is compatible. and its readiness to provide adequate resources for HSE matters. Hazards and Effects Management Realistic HSE targets and objectives Planning & Procedures Corrective Action Effective motivation and communication Techniques for measuring HSE performance Thorough incident investigation and follow up Audit of HSE standards and practices Implementation Audit Monitoring Corrective Action & Improvement Corrective Action & Improvement Review In this chapter it is intended to provide guidance on how Drilling Engineering Departments should structure their HSE MS in a way which is fully compatible with Group guidance. The system is additionally made live through loops which feedback improvements and corrections at all stages. The system incorporates the eleven elements of enhanced safety management (ESM) and increases their effectiveness through the structured improvement process. The quality management structure and the ESM relationship is illustrated in Figure 3. 3. Drilling Engineers will then be in a better position to assess the completeness and compatibility of a contractor's HSE MS and also the rig HSE Case which defines the controls that assure safety in a drilling operations project.1. with guidance documentation provided in EP 95-0310. Responsibilities Resources. in a drilling engineering specific way. The implementation of standards is monitored through performance indicators and assured through periodic audits.
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Particular attention is drawn to the importance of senior management providing a visible expression of commitment. safety and the environment as endorsed by the committee of managing directors in June 1991. 3.essential in particular to open. Figure I. together with the protection of the environment: • are of prime importance to the contractor who will seek to maintain the highest practically achievable standards in respect of these • have equal status with the other primary business objectives • are line management responsibilities which form an integral part of the duties of all supervisors. and positive recognition to reinforce desirable attitudes and behaviours. Within Opcos. Management leadership is also necessary to promote a Company culture conducive to good HSE performance. Failure to do so will undermine the credibility of HSE policy and objectives. • Motivation to improve personal HSE performance . Safety and Environmental (HSE) policy and the objectives such a policy is intent upon fulfilling. departmental policies are derived from the corporate document. contractors are required to support policies which advise that the health and safety of all persons on the installation or worksite.1 shows the Group policy guidelines on health. amongst others: • allocating the necessary resources. and energetically pursuing suggestions for improvement. contractors follow the same general principles.based on awareness and understanding. Consequently. and in general to effective HSE MS implementation. on HSE matters • setting a personal example in day-to-day work • putting HSE matters high on the agenda of meetings. from the Board downwards • being actively involved in HSE activities and reviews.through seeking their views and involvement in HSE MS development. such as time and money. and all others who may be affected by its activities. participation and commitment: • Belief in the Company's will to improve its HSE performance . though adapted to take account of specific area needs. • Participation of staff at all levels . personal motivation and active participation. which is itself invariably based on Group guidelines. • Commitment of staff at all levels is essential if the HSE MS is to be fully effective. Likewise. at both local and remote sites • communicating the importance of HSE considerations in business decisions • recognition of performance when objectives and targets are achieved • encouragement of employees' suggestions for measures to improve HSE performance • participation in internally driven and externally driven initiatives. 6 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . a good deal of commonality is seen between them. motivation. and should follow from firm belief. in which the HSE MS can function effectively.2 Policy and Strategic Objectives This chapter gives guidance on the content of a Health. Demonstrations of commitment to the HSE MS at different management levels include. Senior management can foster active involvement of employees and contractors in improving HSE performance by encouraging a culture of belief. blamefree incident reporting. Likewise.
but will increasingly take the form of reviewing the contractor's HSE Case for the installation or operation. appropriate training and opportunities to gain competence. The objectives which underpin the health. HSE sensitive positions Within the policy on substance abuse. To assure the above. through the fulfilment of management responsibilities • to provide properly engineered and well maintained facilities • to work with external agencies such as certifying authorities to promote improvements • to ensure all employees are competent to fulfil their duties • to prevent use of alcohol or abuse of substances on location • to prevent vehicle accidents. This and other aspects of HSE in the management of contractors is fully described in EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems and EP 95-0110 Management of Contractor HSE. management is treated in the same manner as those employees holding safety and environmentally sensitive positions.3 Drilling HSE Management System The policy shall also confirm that the contractor will ensure that employees have the required skills and support to meet this commitment. companies and contractors are developing substance abuse policies. is shown in Figure I. For the purpose of the policy. taken from Group guidelines on the subject. it is necessary to perform an HSE assessment at the precontract stage. Industry guidelines are described in 'Substance Abuse Management Strategies' (Ref.2. A model Company policy statement. contractors' and subcontractors' employees. by providing. It shall also state that: • the contractor promotes active participation of all in its employ in the establishment and observance of measures to safeguard their health and safety at work and to protect the environment • it expects its subcontractors to work to similar high standards and achieve comparable performance. safety and environmental protection policy can typically be summarised as follows: • to prevent all workplace injuries. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 7 . Increasingly. This may take the form of a questionnaire in the tender document. The success of a substance abuse policy depends on the commitment and leadership of management. reference is made to safety and environmentally sensitive positions which in the context of well operations include: • all Company and contractor line managers and office based supervisors with operational responsibility • field based staff including Company. where necessary. 2). by encouraging active workforce participation in all aspects of safety including participation in the hazard management process • to provide a safe and healthy workplace • to eliminate environmentally damaging discharges and emissions through the implementation and monitoring of an effective waste management programme • to comply with all statutory obligations.
rig up. Move in. appraisal and development drilling. Execute well operations Report and analyse 3. The contribution made to feasibility studies and evaluating development options can lead to significant cost and HSE benefits. The responsibility for health. Standards and Documents The responsibility for all well operations aspects of exploration. the report will facilitate cost and HSE improvements in later wells. lies with the Drilling Engineering group which also sponsors and manages all drilling and most associated contracts. drill and complete or workover wells according to programme. cover the complete process from planning.1 Organisational structure and responsibilities The Company shall define. Order all necessary materials and complete site preparation. protection of the environment and local culture and circumstances is the responsibility of all involved. through execution. development or workover portfolio • acquiring the necessary services • planning for the transport of equipment and personnel.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 3. Other areas of planning include: • the preparation of the short term drilling sequence on the basis of the exploration. in this sense. Thus. Prepare an end of well report which will enable an in-depth analysis of the operation. rig down and move or demobilise as appropriate. supervise and/or monitor HSE-critical activities. appraisal.3 Organisation. Well drilling operations consist of the following main activities in most Opcos: Plan well operations Drilling Engineering staff need to be involved in the earliest phases of planning. 8 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .3. the responsibilities. is given in Appendix II. document and communicate. Resources. The conduct of operations in a manner which takes full account of the health and safety of personnel. In practical terms. safety and the environment in the well operations process is vested in the Head of Drilling Engineering. with the aid of organisational diagrams where appropriate. Apart from being an important record. the writer of the drilling programme is responsible for the accuracy and completeness of that programme in the same way as a Driller is responsible for the safe execution of drill floor operations. Guidance on individual responsibilities for key staff. elements of this responsibility are delegated through the line. both Company and drilling contractor. Chapter 3 for further advice on organisational structure. Operations. to review and improvement. Responsibilities. accountabilities and interrelations necessary to implement the HSE MS. Prepare for well operations Prepare a well design and detailed drilling programme or workover programme covering contingencies and emergency procedures and obtain required internal and external approvals. These shall include those of all personnel who manage. Secure adjacent wells and facilities as required. and workover operations. authorities. Refer to EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems. for instance. Any inconsistency between Company and contractor HSE MS shall be resolved prior to commencement of operations.
Contractor responsibilities The main contractor is responsible for: • implementing a management system directed at providing a safe worksite • implementing an on-site HSE programme • providing for the safety of contractor and subcontractor personnel • controlling work and health conditions at the rig site • training contractor personnel to ensure safe operations • providing contractor personnel with necessary protective and safety equipment and appropriate training in the use of such equipment • ensuring that all contractor and subcontractor furnished machinery and equipment is fit for purpose and properly maintained • developing on-site emergency contingency plans for major scenarios such as blowout fire/explosion. Such plans will include responses to oil spills.3 Drilling HSE Management System with each layer of supervision being responsible for their subordinates in accordance with the principle of line responsibility. rig evacuation. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 9 . man-overboard. Company responsibilities The Company is responsible for: • verifying that contractors' HSE policies. toxic material release. policies. standards. procedures. and procedures are acceptable to the Company and conform with applicable laws and regulations • verifying that contractor's HSE programme is accomplishing the desired HSE objectives • reporting any hazards to appropriate contractor supervisors when situations exist where safety has been compromised and following up to ensure that appropriate action has been taken to correct the situation • requiring the Company's subcontractor's personnel to observe the rig contractor's HSE programme and co-ordinating activities between rig contractor and Company subcontractor personnel to avoid conflicts • identifying responsibility for third party equipment maintenance and operability and ensuring that such responsibilities are discharged • emergency contingency plans requiring co-ordination of third party groups. stability control. etc • monitoring contractor and Company personnel HSE performance and assisting in the implementation of improvement initiatives. etc • liaising with the Company in the development of plans for emergencies which require the intervention of outside resources • complying with all applicable laws and regulations • complying with Company HSE guidelines. heavy weather.
The decision making process shall be agreed prior to start-up and both the numbers and calibre of contractors' staff 10 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .2 Management representative(s) See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems.3.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Role of HSE department In areas where operations are supported by an HSE department. • Advise on and assist in the development of standards and practices that will protect the environment • Liaise with governmental agencies to ensure timely advice of regulatory requirements and compatibility of operations with those requirements. or likely to be used in the operations. in drilling related contracts • Advise on noise limits and other areas of occupational health • Liaise with contractor's HSE adviser to assure consistency of advice • Review risk analysis and hazard assessment of drilling and well test programmes. however. Responsibility for this. 3.3 Resources The changing roles of both Company and contractor staff with the advent of integrated engineering and incentive contracting strategies need to be addressed in the planning stages of operations. HSE training • Assist in the identification of HSE training needs • Develop and conduct specialist HSE training as required • Assist in on-the-job HSE training programmes • Provide HSE awareness material. and in the preparation of reports. and advise on exposure limits • Advise on HSE clauses. 3.3. and training aids • Contribute to HSE meetings • Arrange defensive driving training • Maintain a record of HSE related courses attended by drilling staff and notify refresher requirements. remains with the line supervisor • Disseminate information. responsibilities assumed should include the following: Operational HSE • Advise on the development and testing of contingency plans and drills • Advise on governmental HSE regulatory requirements and liaise with governmental agencies as required to ensure that regulations are workable • Assist in the investigation and analysis of accidents and incidents. and their implementation. In some areas this responsibility is retained by the line department. data and experiences related to HSE in operations • Participate in formal HSE audits and inspections • Develop standards and specifications for safety and protective equipment • Advise on hazards associated with chemicals and other materials produced.
4 General Competence All staff shall be competent to discharge the responsibilities of their jobs or be in the process of gaining such competence in a supervised manner. Responsibilities should be agreed and matched by levels of authority. A clear job description will also assist in facilitating a smooth transition with respect to the changing role of the Company Drilling Supervisor. HSE audits and operations reviews have frequently found that the demands on the contractor's Toolpusher have been underestimated.3 Drilling HSE Management System shall be commensurate with the demands and objectives of the job. The contractor's capability to provide competent staff is assessed during the prequalification appraisal stage of the contract process and by continuous assessment throughout the course of the contract. The contractor's Rig Superintendent is responsible for ensuring that all personnel on the rig (other than those undergoing training who will be under direct supervision) are competent to carry out tasks without risk to the health and safety of themselves and others. job descriptions for supervisory staff enables both numbers and competencies to be defined in the contract rather than being modified on an ad-hoc basis after commencement. Company management is responsible for the provision of personnel who are competent to perform their defined roles and will monitor continuing competence through the formal annual performance appraisal review. Work roles that are key to the HSE management of the operation shall only be performed by those persons who can discharge their responsibilities safely and effectively. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 11 .3. 3. He shall fulfil this requirement in accordance with corporately defined standards. The contractor's Base Manager is responsible for ensuring that all HSE critical activities are covered by standards of competence and an assessment scheme to assure continuing competence is in place. In this respect. Staff should not be held responsible for areas where they do not exercise control.
also in EP 95-0260 Logistics. fire team training. Some specific requirements are suggested below.g. This subject is further discussed in 6. The Company Drilling Supervisor on contractor rigs has an important role to play in verifying that contractors fulfil their obligations in the above. Offshore survival Persons working offshore shall have a valid offshore survival course certificate in accordance with Company regulations. for a Driller. • The contractor's Rig Superintendent and the Company Drilling Supervisor have undertaken technical and managerial training in accordance with local legislation and contractual requirements. etc). and take into account development plans. life raft 12 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Increasingly. survival training • Specialist emergency response training shall be carried out for all personnel with specific duties (e. H2S training. The nature of the course will depend upon the area of operation but classroom instruction should include: • methods of escape from a rig • use of lifeboats • use of lifejackets and survival suits • boarding helicopters • escape from a helicopter There should additionally be practical training in lifeboat handling. • Job specific safety training shall be provided for all personnel in safety critical roles • Everyone working at the site shall have attended an induction briefing covering key HSE procedures and.9. for a Barge Engineer skills in ballasting and rig stability). Training Safety training should be based on competence requirements.g. Contracts should explicitly state the scope of senior job positions and verify that incumbents are qualified to hold them. where necessary. satisfactorily examined and authorised for the specific worksite. the possession of a well control certificate which includes a successful simulator exercise endorsement. the qualifications shall include a tested practical element (e.5. the demands of senior rig supervisory jobs require skills not formerly required of contractor's staff.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Qualifications Contracts should define the qualifications of staff holding key HSE and operational responsibilities. All supervisory personnel have undergone a programme of training and assessment in dealing with emergency situations. The effectiveness of training will need to be assessed through observation and drills. Outline guidance is given below. Specific training requirements A system shall be set up by each Company to verify that any person proceeding to the rig possesses the necessary certification as dictated by local circumstances. Where such responsibilities include the control of significant hazards. supplemented by a programme of drills and exercises on the installation • All persons involved in permit-to-work procedures are trained.
See 6. and underwater escape from helicopters. Training should also be given to staff who on occasion have to assume responsibilities normally undertaken by others. Particular attention should be paid to areas normally covered by service contractors whose equipment and materials may arrive before the personnel.3 Drilling HSE Management System deployment.5. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 13 . under the supervision of the medic. When the possible occurrence of hydrogen sulphide is identified a specific H2S training programme shall be undertaken. Pressure control Certain key personnel on the drilling unit shall hold a valid certificate of examination from a recognised pressure control course. fire team. supervisory staff of both the Company and drilling contractor shall be trained in the technique. These personnel are: • Company Drilling Supervisor • Well Site Drilling Engineer • Contractor's Rig Superintendent • Toolpushers • Drillers • Assistant Drillers • Subsea Engineers The exam shall have been passed at supervisor level by all except the Drillers and Assistant Drillers.9 for details. These personnel should be involved in regular drills. there should be at least one other trained firstaider on shift at all times. Specialist training Persons who have a specific responsibility (e. Where drilling contracts stipulate the requirement for volumetric stripping equipment. High pressure/high temperature operations Hydrogen sulphide When HP/HT operations are being planned it is recommended that key Company and contractor personnel attend a course specifically relating to well pressure control requirements for drilling these wells. In addition to the rig medic. helideck crew) shall have a valid certificate of completion of the appropriate course.g. to maintain the necessary competence. An example here is the competence requirements to assure the proper storage of explosives and radioactive sources. Where subsea wellheads are being used the above listed personnel shall have a subsea endorsement.
H2S presence. and the use of personal protective equipment. fire/explosions. This programme shall be carried out regardless of prior experience to ensure awareness of current standards and practices. assign muster points and allocate lifeboat stations. gas/oil under pressure. falling into sea. It will at least cover the following: • alarm signals and how to respond • lifeboat stations and location of survival equipment • escape routes and signs • information about the main hazards (e. rules and procedures.g. The OIM or his appointee shall then perform a general safety briefing. 14 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .e. the station bill and any emergency responsibility associated with their position on the station bill.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Induction training Employee induction programme Every contractor shall have an induction programme for new rig employees. Visitors and new crew members induction (offshore) Newly arriving visitors and crew members shall be met by a responsible person designated by the OIM who shall update the POB list. so that POB list can be updated. etc) • issue and use of H2S escape mask (where appropriate) • use of breathing apparatus • use of cascade system • smoking regulations • drugs/alcohol/weapons policy • restrictions on photography (i. permit needed) • protective clothing requirements • safe handling of chemicals • personal safety awareness and requirement to report any hazards observed • supervisors' responsibilities for their area's personnel • permit-to-work system • requirement for visitors to be accompanied and guided • requirement to report before leaving. In addition to emphasising the responsibilities employees have for their own safety. dangerous work areas. Guidelines should be in place for key contractor personnel to observe the new employee's work performance until they are satisfied that the employee can fill the position in a safe and effective manner. safe practices. The induction programme shall also provide service contractor personnel and Company visitors information and instruction commensurate with their duties and length of stay. This briefing shall cover essential safety and survival features of the drilling unit plus general safety practices. they shall be instructed on work procedures.
It is therefore important to determine these parameters prior to inviting rig tenders. a brief trip around the installation should be arranged. and who will be staying onboard to work or who will be staying onboard overnight.5 Contractors Contractor selection requirements Prior to inviting tenders. Previous relevant experience is an important factor in accepting the nomination of contractor's personnel for key positions. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 15 . environmental conditions and operating loads. There should be no free access to rig sites. The importance of preliminary well planning to determine drilling unit specifications cannot be overstressed if the appropriate rig requirements are to be stated in the tender documents.3. Of particular concern here is mustering procedures. A reporting procedure should be in place which tracks the movement of personnel.3 Drilling HSE Management System For those personnel unfamiliar with the drilling unit or its operations. All offshore rigs have an operating envelope which determines the limits of operation. it is essential to establish or update the requirements for the services needed to carry out the work programme. Experience 3. A 'T-card' system to aid tracking and facilitate the rapid identification of missing personnel is a good method of achieving accurate mustering. The trip should cover: • lifeboats. This operating envelope takes into account water depths. life rafts and survival equipment • restricted areas • escape routes • emergency telephones • rig office • radio office • sick bay • alarm systems and procedures. Any subsequent substitution of personnel by the contractor shall be subjected to the same criteria. The application of the Hazards and Effects Management Process during the planning stage is important to help identify such requirements. The required level of experience will vary with the seniority of the position and shall be determined prior to contract. An induction booklet is useful both for detailing the above information and for reference. Visitors and new crew members induction (onshore) Appropriate parts of the above requirements relating to offshore operations also apply to land operations. which are complicated by the ease of access to land rigs and the distribution of staff between rig and camp.
when a short list has been made. The HSE Case for the drilling unit shall contain: • information about the operation of the unit and restrictions should safety systems be inhibited or incapacitated • a description of all the identified hazards. their analysis. Where possible a straightforward 'shake down' well should be programmed for a newly contracted rig prior to it engaging in more technically difficult and challenging work such as high pressure/high temperature drilling. 16 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Agreement should be sought from Tender Boards to enable proven good performance to be a selection criteria. The contractor's HSE MS should contain in detail: • contractor's management system as it applies to safety • a breakdown of all safety critical activities • a list of all the documents and standards relevant to the HSE MS • a remedial action plan which will address any deficiencies found in the process of documenting the HSE MS. Where a 'mothballed' rig is being contracted. etc It is important to ensure that the rigs being bid enjoy staff continuity. Review of contractor's HSE MS/HSE Case During the contractor selection process. for instance: • the requirements for 'no negative impact' discharge • the limiting of noise to below levels known to cause hearing loss • the provision of mud storage. where applicable. Reference should be made to EP 95-0110 Management of Contractor HSE. it will be appropriate to undertake a review of the contractor's HSE Management System and. Since the HSE MS is a 'living' document the last element above is particularly subject to change. and the means by which they are to be controlled • details of the HSE Management System as it applies to the unit • details of the remedial action plan for rectifying deficiencies identified in the preparation of the HSE Case and any subsequent reviews • a statement that the rig is safe to operate as the hazards have been evaluated and measures have been taken to reduce the risks to a level where effective control can be demonstrated.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Health and environmental issues should also be addressed here. contractor supervisory staff assigned to it should at least have previous experience on a similar unit. This will ensure that operations do not start at the bottom of the learning curve. mixing and treatment systems that minimise the exposure of staff to safety and health hazards • the provision of adequate recreational facilities. HSE Case for the drilling unit.
and improve the drilling contractor's understanding of hazards associated with operations where he has traditionally had little involvement. Joint inspections of service contractor operations will both demonstrate the common cause held by the Company and the drilling contractor. determining training needs. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 17 .7 should be followed. Line supervision has the responsibility for monitoring work performance. both as a consequence of the potential hazards of the site and from specific work activity performed. it is important not to circumvent the agreed reporting route other than in a previously documented manner such as. Service and subcontractor staff shall also fall under his authority in this respect. All new employees shall attend a HSE induction course prior to commencement of work. This can often prove difficult in practice due. how these are controlled or mitigated. and defining the system for maintaining the currency of training and competence. When the Company is the contract holder. to drilling contractors being unable to get telecommunications licences from the host government. Monitoring of subcontractor's HSE performance is continuous and integral with the monitoring of the drilling contractor's own performance. Reporting relationships A combined organogram which integrates the individual Company and contractor organograms is a clear way to depict the reporting relationships between the various parties. Contract holders are responsible for these specifications and for verifying that the contractor meets this obligation. Given the principle that the drilling contractor's senior site representative is responsible for safety on the rig.3 Drilling HSE Management System Performance monitoring. Proper planning may not overcome such difficulties. but it will allow the procedures and organograms to reflect the realities of the situation rather than being in conflict with practice. together with the responsibility of the contractor for fulfilling and maintaining such requirements. the strategy described in 3. Contractor should specify training. competence and experience requirements for each specified position. shall report to him on safety issues. Once established. On large. Where such deficiencies are assessed by management as necessitating remedial action. their representative also has responsibilities in this respect and should ensure that high personnel and equipment standards are maintained. as the contract holder. The face that they may report to the Company Drilling Supervisor. for instance. service and subcontractors are required to provide strategies which identify the methods for assessing staff competence. and the emergency procedures and muster arrangements. audit programmes and HSE Case reviews are all vehicles by which HSE Case deficiencies may be identified. They should be advised of significant location hazards identified in the risk assessment or hazard register. perhaps. long term contracts. Service and subcontractor employees who work at the site are exposed to risk. The proper exercise of the drilling contractor's authority and responsibility requires that he includes service and subcontractor facilities in his inspections and ensures that they maintain high HSE standards. They will be assessed accordingly. and achieve comparable levels of HSE performance as the drilling contractor. on technical performance matters does not undermine this principle. Subcontractor HSE All service and subcontracting companies and their staff are required to work to similar consistent high HSE standards. the Emergency Procedures. including Company staff. other line supervisors.
To this end daily reporting should be a joint effort with both Company and contractor line supervisors being present at both ends when operational (including HSE) information is being communicated and decisions being made. relevant and should encourage participation. topics covered and any HSE concerns raised. These meetings and any specially convened meetings should be led by appropriate line supervisors. Rig site weekly meetings should not be protracted to the point where attendees lose interest. Each meeting should be documented. the most senior person on site shall be ultimately responsible for on-site HSE. the corollary of this being that they should be able to influence decisions being made. HSE issues should always be on the agenda. and that the line structure on site is such that he is properly supported. and the minutes should include a listing of those in attendance. Crews should be given the opportunity to provide input to the agenda. They should ideally be conducted in the language of personnel in attendance.6 Communication Daily on-site co-ordination meetings are an effective forum for eliminating unwanted simultaneous operations and minimising disruption to operations. They should include a review of any recent incident and HSE procedures implemented to prevent its recurrence. A base supervisor should be a regular attendee and report between HSE meetings held in the field and at the base office. HSE meetings are held to: • stimulate a two-way communication between staff and personnel which is relevant and constructive • monitor and promote HSE consciousness • report upon unsafe conditions or practices and their correction • generate suggestions on how to improve HSE performance at all levels. The advent of integrated engineering services should improve information flow. though necessity might dictate the involvement of an interpreter. It is vital that staff at the rig site and in base offices have a common understanding of ongoing operations and that the quality of information is not compromised through any filtering process. The rig HSE committee should meet (preferably weekly) and be attended by the contractor's Rig Manager who will provide a communications link between site meetings and management meetings. In integrated engineering contracts where the drilling contractor is not the lead contractor.3. in line with the principle described above. Detailed guidance on contractor HSE is given in EP 95-0110 Management of Contractor HSE. If this person does not have a drilling operations background. Every individual shall attend a HSE meeting at least once per crew cycle. 3. At meetings between contractor and Company management. They should be action oriented. particular care will need to be taken to ensure that he is equipped to handle all facets of his responsibility. Minutes should be copied to the Company Drilling Supervisor and posted on notice boards in relevant languages. but care needs to be taken that contractors who are not part of the integrated engineering services package are included in this flow. HSE meetings should have a structured form with the provision of HSE themes and suitable support material. 18 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling The Company shall make clear to all their service contractors that they endorse the drilling contractor's authority on HSE matters and shall uphold disciplinary measures taken for HSE transgressions. Regularly scheduled HSE meetings are required. Access to information is particularly vital to staff with a planning function.
Pre-job.3. including service contractors. contractor management and. 3. Refer to the document 'Guidelines for Single String Venture Drilling Operations' (Ref. internationally recognised external standards should be used. closed-out and assessed for fulfilling the desired aim.7 Documentation and its control Scope of standards Standards lie at the heart of an HSE Management System and can be divided into four groups: Management standards Engineering. Standards provide a means by which performance can be measured and evaluated. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 19 . with actions being monitored. equipment and documentation • define working procedures • transfer knowledge. as this is the best way of achieving consistency through the Group and throughout the industry. equipment and material standards Working standards Set the framework in which the Company operates and deals with corporate policies. Set down the way in which day to day work is carried out. the rig HSE Case. and enable corrective action to be identified and executed. Explanations should be promptly given should recommendations be considered inappropriate or unnecessary. Describe the competencies needed in a variety of Company and contractor work roles and how competency is assessed. where appropriate. objectives. to ensure these conform with Company standards and operational safety objectives. Set the standards by which equipment and materials are procured and by which the control of change is effectively managed. monitored and inspected. They include work procedures and particularly those which relate to HSE critical activities. or 'toolbox' meetings. 3) for a typical HSE meeting structure. are particularly effective and recommended for the purpose of discussing HSE concerns specific to a particular job. Such meetings should be attended by all those involved. So far as possible.3 Drilling HSE Management System Of critical importance is the resolution of recommended actions. Competence standards Standards are set to: • secure technical integrity • define quality and performance requirements • standardise materials. Agreed recommendations shall be followed-up. accountabilities and controls. Implementing standards The management process includes: • The auditing of contractor rigs.
maintenance and monitoring of appropriate standards and for specifying their scope and application. Appropriate. Provided these systems meet the Company's requirement for quality and completeness. in their rig specific HSE Case. documentation and revision The contractor's Base Manager. Company standards should be reviewed and updated in line with changing technology and practices. BOP requirements. it is recommended that they be followed. 20 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Amendments shall be approved by the Head of Drilling Engineering. HSE Case control. kick tolerance. or increasingly. They will invariably have their own HSE Management Systems.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • Preparing the drilling programme and associated documentation. equipment requirements. Control of standards The Head of Drilling Engineering is responsible for the specification. the contractor's knowledge and experience should be utilised during well planning and programming stages. Further. Reference should be made in this chapter to the standards and reference material to which the Drilling Engineering department conducts its business. Any planned deviation from Group standards shall be approved at Group level and documented. Contract documents shall include the necessary obligations relating to health. well testing requirements and completion. as the designated 'Asset Owner' of the drilling installation is responsible for maintaining the currency of the HSE Case and for ensuring that any changes that may be proposed are confirmed at the appropriate level and are developed in conjunction with the workforce. targets and potential hazards). well steering requirements (well path. suspension or abandonment requirements • agreeing with contractor's Rig Managers a HSE Plan and the monitoring of performance against this • reviewing incidents with Rig Managers and agreeing and implementing preventive measures • defining authority levels • defining and implementing auditable change control procedures • progressing waste management programmes • promoting workforce involvement in HSE. which shall contain information such as: – environmental factors for both rig and location – well data and objectives – well design including casing programme design criteria (for instance H2S). safety and protection of the environment. commitment and compliance with their own system will be stronger than one imposed upon them. controlled documents should be available on all rigs and in the base offices of Company and contractors. well evaluation requirements. All parties involved in the well operations process exercise their responsibilities and attain their safety objectives by managing the activities described in the drilling contract. drilling fluids. The contractor's understanding. which will be documented either in a Safety Policy and Procedures Manual. reference documentation and standards.
3 Drilling HSE Management System Any change occurring to either the organisation described and its responsibilities, the management controls or the installation hardware, will be evaluated to assess the implication of such change on the HSE Case and the conclusions documented. In the event of any proposed modifications of a substantial nature which constitute material revision, irrespective of whether such modifications may decrease current levels of risk, then such proposals will need to be justified in a revised HSE Case. This will incorporate the proposed revision and be submitted for Company approval prior to implementation. Examples of modifications to the management system, the structure of the rig or to plant and equipment which could impact safety and which would normally merit a revised HSE Case submission are: • changes of operatorship, ownership or the contracting out of the management function • significant changes in the rig's organisational structure or staff numbers not already allowed for in the HSE Case • as a result of an unsatisfactory audit of the HSE Management System leading to significant changes or remedial work. This refers to the system itself rather than the effectiveness of implementation • the conclusions of an investigation into an incident where the actual or potential consequences were significant, which recommend significant changes to the HSE MS or facility design • the introduction of any major new activities on the rig or in connection with it not already considered in the HSE Case • major extensions in the scope or volume of work associated with activities not considered in the HSE Case • modifications to the rig, or the programme of work it is required to undertake, which has or may have a major impact on safety • if the rig is to be working alongside or above another installation, a bridging document shall be produced.
Hazards and Effects Management Process
The Hazards and Effects Management Process (HEMP) has four steps: • systematic identification of hazards • assessment of the significance of hazards • implementation of suitable hazard controls • planning for recovery in the event of loss of control The process is applied by asking a series of questions of each activity. This document lists the drilling activities in sequence although the Drilling Engineer shall ensure that the list includes all activities which are likely to occur during the operation being considered. Refer to EP 95-0300 and EP 95-0310 for further details. The questions which shall be addressed are: • have hazards been identified in the process of carrying out this activity? • are the results of the hazard occurring of consequence? (i.e. is there a risk of injury or loss?) • are hazards being controlled in any way whilst the activity is being carried out? • is it necessary to plan for recovery or emergency response in the event of the hazard being released?
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HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling If the answer to any of these questions is positive the activity is then regarded as safety critical. These activities will then need to be addressed at a level which assures effective control. The involvement of staff working with the hazards is important, if the controls developed are to be effective.
Planning and Procedures
For the planning phase of an operation to be effective it should concern itself with the prevention of incidents through the elimination or control of hazards and the mitigation of consequences should the hazardous event occur. It follows that a process needs to be followed to systematically identify and assess hazards and develop the controls to manage those which cannot be eliminated. This can be achieved by: • use of Group or locally developed policies, standards and procedures • making a scouting visit to assess the situation on the ground • study of legislation and supporting approved codes of practice (where these are available) • a thorough analysis of the particular operation (see 3.4) • a study of accident, incident and ill health data from previous operations. For the drilling phase of a new venture, such data may be available from the seismic acquisition phase Other narrative in this chapter considers the HSE considerations in the well planning process.
Planning the operation
Experience has shown that HSE performance can be optimised through a structured planning process which incorporates: • comprehensive operational pre-planning incorporating HSE measures to manage identified hazards. Those exposed should be subjected to the latter three phases of the Hazards and Effects Management Process as described in 3.4 • verification of equipment safety standards before operation start-up • verifying that an effective HSE Management System is in place before start-up • an HSE management training programme aimed at senior line management (Company and contractor) and direct supervisors. This training would include such topics as Job Hazard Analysis, Unsafe Act Auditing (UAA), Safety Training Observation Programme (STOP), waste management and an understanding of the factors which affect behaviour • detailed documented HSE and contingency planning specific to the drilling campaign prior to operational start-up • regular combined Company and contractor management team audits and inspections according to a planned schedule and focusing on HSE management • establishment of and adherence to transport management system. Effective planning is essential for all aspects of the business, with plans based upon known and researched information, and reasoned assumptions. In established Companies, much of the known information is
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3 Drilling HSE Management System based upon experience. Plans for sustained improvement is contained in the Drilling Engineering Department's HSE Plan. This plan is prepared annually as part of the Company's total HSE Plan and its implementation is reviewed periodically by the Company's Management HSE Committee. The plan sets out the department HSE objectives and the methods by which it will achieve them, lays down a time scale for implementation, identifies action parties and establishes a review process, both to monitor implementation and to modify the plan according to needs. The HSE Plan is developed from such things as: • requirements carried over from the previous year's plan • audit and inspection findings • incident findings • new corporate initiatives • accident investigation findings • Tripod incident analysis, Tripod-DELTA implementation • HSE suggestions from the workforce • management review action items.
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such as training and proper equipment. 4). Staff reports shall include HSE-related targets or tasks against which performance can be measured. The only way to reach a HSE target is to manage effectively risks which threaten its achievement. a progressively reducing target is set. Soil boring may be required to assess this. Procedures to be followed are referred to in 'Shallow Gas Procedure Guidance Manual' (Ref. Aside from considerations such as access. so far as possible. drilling locations shall not be sited where there is a risk of encountering shallow gas. 3.5.2. heavy lifts.5. Where practicable. which in the long term will lead to accident free performance. the contractor's procedures should be adopted with any necessary changes. It shall be verified that drilling contractors and lead service contractors commit themselves and their subcontractors to a programme that enables staff to achieve the performance standards aimed for. topography. before siting an offshore drilling unit on location. drilling contractors require the agreement of a warranty surveyor. Performance improvements should not be 'demanded' without giving individuals the tools to do the job. Site selection The Exploration Department or Development sections of Petroleum Engineering will determine the sub-surface target of the well to be drilled and sometimes also the well trajectory to reach the target. Likewise. Realistic targets can only be set after assessing the scope of work for the period under review and allocating tasks to manage such work. Where this is not practicable. shallow seismic will give indications of the competence of the seabed to support a jack-up rig or anchor a floating vessel. Effective management demands that hazards and their controls shall.2 Asset integrity See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems. confined space entry and the handling of radioactive materials and explosives. Shallow seismic run at the time of site surveying will give a good (but not infallible) indication of shallow gas in the area. Typically. For insurance purposes. See 4. On contracted drilling units working in isolation.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling HSE targets It is essential to set HSE targets that are accepted by management and employees as achievable. 3. These should be cascaded down from department and Company targets. etc the hazard of shallow gas and seabed or soil conditions shall be taken into account. be addressed in the planning process. submarine cables obstructions. They shall define the individuals responsible 24 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . electrical work.3 Procedures and work instructions Permit-to-work A permit-to-work system shall be in place which includes procedures for non-routine and critical operations such as hot work. additional measures to assure the safety of the operation shall be taken.1 for details of offshore location preparation. acting on behalf of the rig insurers. This should be challenged if proposed site conditions so dictate.
all relevant personnel shall be informed when the work has started and when it is completed. Concurrent operations Concurrent operations (also referred to as simultaneous operations) pose problems which demand high levels of co-ordination to control effectively. When a permit is issued. Refer to 6.4 for further details. Adverse weather procedures Many Opcos are working in areas where operations are adversely affected from time to time by environmental conditions. The procedures shall not only address actions on the rig but also outside support requirements. the responsibility for decision making in the event of heavy weather. Such assessments will invariably lead to a manual of permitted operations (MOPO) which will define which operations are permitted to be conducted simultaneously and which are not. shall be clearly defined and known to involved parties.3 Drilling HSE Management System for authorisation. Refer to 7.7 for further discussion. Planned work which requires a permit shall be discussed at the daily rig site co-ordination meeting. Before commencing any contract with a mobile offshore unit. It is vital in these circumstances for the Company to develop its own adverse weather policy and procedures suited to the local circumstances. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 25 . or the forecast of heavy weather. The permit shall include space for restrictions and controls to be applied while the specified work is being undertaken. Detailed hazard identification and risk assessment are required during the planning phase of such an operation. for verifying specified controls are in place and for co-ordination of the system.
This in turn should improve the accuracy of forecasting. when adverse weather is forecast which will affect operations.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Definition Adverse weather is defined as environmental conditions which may affect the safety of the operation. lightning. Safety during heavy weather The development of an adverse weather policy for an offshore mobile drilling unit is governed by four major considerations • minimise risk to personnel • minimise storm damage to the drilling installation • minimise storm damage to the conductor. severe sea conditions. This will need to be developed in conjunction with the contractor. running casing or the use of cranes. Contingency plans shall also be drawn up. riser. a sector system. and/or personnel if precautions are not taken to protect against the hazard. Adverse weather will include. Operations planning Some activities carried out on the rig once commenced should be completed without interruption. Forecasting Essential to the ability to take timely action to counter the adverse weather is an accurate weather forecasting service. torrential rain potentially leading to flooding and sandstorms. high wind. ice. The development and movement of adverse weather systems shall be closely monitored such that appropriate preparations are made in a timely manner. icebergs. wellhead. and adjust the draft of the drilling unit. The procedure shall take into account the nature of the work and set limits for certain operations such as running a BOP stack. if one exists. shall be developed. It is important that the weather forecast is noted on the work instructions. examples are the running of a BOP stack or running casing. equipment. Assistance to the forecasting service can be provided by passing regular weather reports from the site of operations. adequate time must be allowed to take defensive action. A good local service will be in a better position to provide short term forecasts which are important for predicting localised storm conditions. whereby progressive action is taken as a storm approaches. The contractor's operating manuals will indicate what action needs to be taken in this respect. Developing a procedure A procedure shall state the actions to be taken at site to ensure a safe system of working during the period of adverse weather and the conditions under which the operations must be suspended. In some areas prone to heavy weather. Similarly. and other exposed equipment • minimise possibility of pollution by ensuring integrity of the well Each type of drilling installation has its own criteria for reacting to a given 26 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . reduce the variable deck load. snow. for occasions when it may be prudent to reduce the number of personnel on board. Limits on crane operations in respect of wind speed and rig motion must be taken into account. particularly offshore. This service may be supplied on contract either from a local source. poor visibility. or from an international weather forecasting service.
A procedure shall be in place which assures that all hardware changes are approved at the appropriate level before being implemented.3 Drilling HSE Management System storm condition. hang off drill string and make preparations for disconnecting.5. hitting the top of the BOP stack due to rig heave. If an emergency disconnect has taken place. be it to personnel. hardware or procedures. the modification of a piece of equipment shall require a review by a suitably qualified 'in-house' engineer. Disconnect the Marine Riser. Allowable operating conditions should be detailed in the operations manual. Changes and their consequences shall be documented and disseminated to ensure all involved are fully aware both of the change and its implications. which may involve: a) b) Controlled disconnection Emergency disconnection c) Move the rig away from the wellhead and orient it to a heading which minimises weather affects on stability. and often need the approval of the equipment manufacturer. Phase III Evacuate personnel from the drilling vessel 3. this is intended to avoid the possibility of the Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP). There are three phases in safety planning during heavy weather when using a floating drilling installation: Phase I Phase II Stop drilling operations. In making hardware changes the integrity of the original design shall be ensured with respect to equipment and the fitness for purpose assured with respect to additions.4 Management of change The effective control of change. or in shallow water the pontoons. Such documentation will also provide an audit trail. training followed by a handover period. In some cases towing the rig out of the path of the storm may be necessary Note: As well as minimising the effects of the weather on the vessel. The change of personnel should be controlled to minimise the disruption caused by loss of continuity. Changes to programmes and procedures shall be agreed at the level of original approval and involve the input of those affected by the change. where necessary. Major changes may require an amendment of the HSE Case. the direction in which the rig is moved away should take account of the water depth to ensure that the LMRP does not hit the seabed. This may involve external parties such as classification societies. All changes shall be assessed to ensure that they do not inadvertently introduce other hazards. make the well safe. is key to assuring the ongoing integrity of the operation. This requires that appropriate expertise is applied to the change. To a large extent the continued operation of a rig depends upon its design and equipment characteristics. For instance. The change of personnel relates largely to issues of competence and will involve both an assessment of competence and. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 27 .
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling
Contingency and emergency planning
In preparing for an operation a plan shall be put in place which will detail the methods of recovering from any incident, on the drilling unit or attendant services, which causes injury or poses a threat to the health and safety of personnel or the environment. The recommended contents of the Company's Emergency Procedures document are given below as is a list of the hazards which may need to be addressed. It is the responsibility of the person in charge (generally the contractor Toolpusher on a land rig or Offshore Installation Manager [OIM] on an offshore rig) to ensure that the emergency response facilities and materials as specified in the contractor's Emergency Procedures are available and fit for purpose at all times. Emergency response procedures shall address the action to be taken on the drilling unit and the responsible persons in the event of an emergency. It is also essential to identify alternative individuals to assume key duties should normal incumbents be incapacitated. Station Bills shall be posted detailing the action to be taken by all personnel in emergency situations. Co-ordination between the contractor's and the Company's Emergency Procedures is required to avoid conflict of actions. This applies primarily in the base offices where support services (helicopter, medical back-up, notification to official organisations, etc) will be arranged. In principle, the contractor should take the lead on the rig in combating the emergency. For contract and resource reasons, the Company will normally co-ordinate logistics, liaise with outside agencies and otherwise provide intervention needs. The Base Manager of the main contractor and other relevant contractors should always be included in emergency control teams. The co-ordinating link between rig and base office will normally be the Company Drilling Supervisor on the rig. These arrangements shall be documented and signed by both contractor and Company. An emergency exercise shall be performed to test the procedures prior to commencement of the operation. Further drills and exercises shall be performed, particularly during the early stages of a contract, to verify that the roles and responsibilities of all staff (on all shifts) are understood and effectively discharged.
Opco emergency procedures
Documented emergency procedures shall be in place before operations commence. The document shall detail the responsibilities of Company personnel both on the rig and in the base office in the event of an incident. In addition the principal responsibilities of the drilling contractor's Rig Superintendent shall be stated with regard to co-ordination with the Company Drilling Supervisor. The action to be taken by Company base office staff with regard to support services (e.g. helicopters) and notifications (e.g. coast guard, hospital government) shall be detailed for each type of incident. When documents are normally stored electronically, hard copies of key procedures should be available and the storage system should be connected to an uninterruptable power supply. As appropriate to the operation, the document may include procedures for: • injury/illness requiring medevac to hospital • injury/illness requiring medevac out of country • fatal accident/illness • road accident requiring medevac • vehicle overdue
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3 Drilling HSE Management System • loss of aircraft • fuel/chemical spillage • hydrocarbon spill • extreme weather conditions • fire and abandonment • loss of well control • H2S release • radioactive source/explosives incident • security breakdown • bomb scare. EP 95-0316 Emergency Response provides guidance.
Oil spill contingency plan
A plan shall be prepared for combating and cleaning up of oil spills. Reference should be made to current corporate guidance available through HSE departments. The service may well be provided by a contractor who will have clean-up equipment and his own procedures for its operation. Company procedures shall detail the notifications necessary and provision of other contracted services (e.g. supply vessels) and materials dependent on the scale of the spill.
Relief well plan
It is advisable, and in some areas a requirement, to prepare a relief well contingency plan. Of prime importance is having adequate data on the path of the problem well. The plan, which will be site specific, should consider: • blowout contingency team organisation • acquisition of third party expertise • sourcing of a drilling unit • provision of a high volume water supply • evacuation plan for nearby population • sourcing of materials (casing, mud, bits, wellheads, etc) • safe siting of a rig for relief well drilling • directional services • possible kill methods.
The latest version of the 'Pressure Control Manual for Drilling and Workover Operations' (Ref. 5) shall be used.
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HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling
Each Company shall prepare its own procedures based on local conditions and incidence of the gas. Refer to 6.5 for further discussion on the subject.
The document 'Shallow Gas Procedures Guidance Manual' (Ref. 4) shall be used by the Company as the basis for establishing a procedure for dealing with shallow gas.
Drills and exercises
Effective drills address three important objectives which are: • to demonstrate the crew's ability to respond to a wide range of emergencies. Drills improve and develop crew confidence and identify those areas where further attention is needed • to train the crew in both individual proficiency and team work necessary to handle anticipated rigspecific emergencies • to test the emergency equipment. An effective drill programme should cover: • a description of the drill, including list of participants • realism in the drill • frequency of drills • a means of disseminating the results of drills to supervisors • topics identified during past drills which need improvement • an objective evaluation of the drill highlighting both areas of success and areas requiring improvement. Drills should be based upon realistic criteria and carried out, so far as possible, as though the emergency existed. They shall not, however, expose personnel to unwarranted risk. The following drills shall be carried out at each drilling installation: • kick/pit drills • fire drills • drills in the use of breathing apparatus • hydrogen sulphide drills (if applicable) • stretcher drills (e.g. from the rig floor) • muster and abandonment drills • medevac exercises. The frequency of the drills should be established in the annual HSE Plan, but should be sufficiently frequent to assure the competence of all staff. All drills, whether onshore or offshore, shall include contact being made with base to verify the effectiveness of communications. This shall periodically include the requirement for duty staff to contact the rig to confirm their contactability.
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
3 Drilling HSE Management System A timed log of events should be kept by supervisors acting as observers. e. the incident potential matrix. feedback from drills and exercises and feedback from audits and inspections. Within drilling operations. The HSE performance can be assessed against the criteria considered below. protection against the elements and noise control. Environmental protection A waste management programme shall be part of the HSE Plan and be aimed at achieving short and long term reductions in the volume and toxicity of waste generated.6. 3. the use of oil-based muds (OBM). Performance indicators can be derived through the analysis of medical referrals. safety and environmental policy at the installation. Occupational health issues in drilling operations shall include the safe handling of chemicals. unsafe act auditing. A copy of the report shall be sent to the base offices of both the drilling contractor and the Company. reductions can be achieved by such things as slim hole drilling (SHD) and the substitution of chemical products. These logs should be consolidated into a drill report and used for the debrief. exposure to H2S. TRIPOD DELTA sensing exercises. using water based mud instead of OBM. Performance monitoring and review will be a key element of the HSE Plan and the part which facilitates enhancement of the plan's quality by highlighting areas for improvement.6 3. All of the above should be dealt with through the Hazards and Effects Management Process. Occupational health Performance in relation to occupational health is measured against Company standards which shall at least meet legal requirements and in any event ensure the prevention of adverse health effects due to working conditions.2 Monitoring This chapter discusses various arrangements that are employed to monitor the implementation of the health. Another longer term indicator would be the number of persons showing evidence of hearing loss. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 31 . Safety monitoring The measurement of performance in relation to safety is based on such things as injury statistics. The analysis of some of these indicators will need the support of specialist services. A typical analysis at a drilling location would be the frequency of skin rashes which may reflect on work practices and compliance with protective equipment requirements. Supervisory visits should occasionally include the observation of a drill. ergonomic issues.6. the use of radioactive substances. and for disseminating information on corrective actions to staff. 3.1 Implementation and Monitoring Activities and tasks See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems.g.
reducing overall drilling associated costs and disturbance of the environment. such as HSE meetings. The Company and contractor should assess and record the potential outcome of all incidents (including near misses) as a means of reviewing them in terms of 'what might have been the consequences'. Performance indicators The measure of HSE performance can be obtained by the use of suitable indices which will: • provide a consistent method for collecting and communicating data on incidents • show by comparison the effectiveness of the HSE management programme. both within the Company and with other companies • enable an assessment to be made of a contractor's HSE performance relative to the industry • indicate whether an operation is being managed well or whether management is driven by events. Performance criteria with respect to Lost Time Injuries (LTIs) and Total Recordable Case Frequency (TRCF) are set at the beginning of each year and detailed in the HSE Plan. These inspections are carried out both 32 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . normally developed during the annual staff reporting cycle. Trends indicated by periodically auditing against predetermined criteria. such as those provided by the International Loss Control Institute (ILCI). 6). Reviews shall also be carried out on all contracts against the contractor's HSE Plan. This is achieved using a programme of inspections. against predetermined standards and improvement targets. further action to achieve attainment agreed. Some proactive indicators would be produced by: • monitoring compliance with the plan • monitoring compliance with corrective action requirements arising as a result of HSE meetings. Tripod-DELTA may be used as a proactive human factors diagnostic tool for assessing the resistance of a rig to accidents and for identifying those problem areas which. etc • monitoring changes in the drilling sequence which may have a significant impact upon effective planning. are most likely to cause accidents in the future. For performance monitoring to be useful it is essential that all incidents are reported. Review The review process will address the meeting of targets documented in the annual HSE Plan. Reference should be made to 'Making the Most of Drilling Waste Management' (Ref. Incident report action items together with action parties and completion dates are recorded on the rig HSE information data base and monitored on a regular basis. inspections and incident investigations. The reviews should be jointly held and any remedial action jointly agreed. It will also address the success of implementing the action items arising out of all activities which produce recommendations. audits. Individual HSE performance targets. Rig inspections are also used to measure performance. should also be assessed and. where necessary. Results are presented on an incident potential matrix. Appropriate measures to assure this shall be put in place. minimising road construction and upgrade work.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling SHD offers onshore the additional and substantial advantage of reducing the location footprint. if not attended to. are being used by some drilling contractors.
the drilling contractor and services contractors. to assure that staff remain aware of. To get the most out of the effort put into rig inspections in general and line management inspections in particular. Line management HSE inspections A frequent observation made during SIEP-led drilling technical HSE audits is that line management visits lack focus and therefore effectiveness. This inspection is conducted by both contractor and Company personnel against a check list and progressively covers all areas of the installation including service contractor facilities. and externally by base management representatives of the Company. identified in the pre-start-up audit. Planning Inspections made shortly after start-up will place the main emphasis on verifying the effective close out of deficiencies. An example of such an inspection is that made by the site supervisors. The three elements of the inspection are: • planning • execution • feedback/close out. 7). to verify the effectiveness of on-site audit and inspection. Appropriate and well maintained hardware is essential for the safe conduct of operations and such inspections are also essential to allow a reasoned judgement to be made on such things as: • the effectiveness of the preventive maintenance system • the competence of personnel to perform their duties • the ability of staff to handle their workload An inspection made during non-routine operations may well focus on the permit-to-work system and the effectiveness of communications. One of the objectives is to minimise extra administration and to reduce the seemingly never ending job lists which act as demotivators to both Company and drilling contractor site staff. The focus will change as the drilling project progresses. such as briefings and tool box talks. to verify that hazardous zone requirements are fulfilled and that staff are not EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 33 . it is essential that a structured approach is taken. and in control of. particularly those associated with HSE management. and any corrective action requirements be given the priority required. Electrical safety may be addressed. For further information on the subject of performance indicators refer to 'Guide for Safety Performance Reporting' (Ref. the overall operation. One made during routine operations may focus on hoisting equipment. by rig supervisors and members of the workforce. The following three paragraphs suggest an appropriate structure and give guidance on how to develop it.3 Drilling HSE Management System internally. Each inspection report is reviewed by the base line managers so that appropriate resources can be made available. The importance of hardware inspections should not be underestimated.
This will require a degree of documentation. Unsafe act auditing Experience has shown that a high proportion of accidents result from an unsafe act by an individual. This is particularly important to give assurance that accidents do not arise out of lack of knowledge of the inherent hazards. action parties and completion targets should be given. This is not to minimise the importance of rectification. more to ensure that all deficiencies will be systematically identified and their root causes addressed to prevent similar ones recurring. Clearly. There will always be a place for a rig walkabout. is to ascertain the effectiveness of the systems and where necessary make recommendations for improvements. Feedback/close out For supervisory visits to be both useful and credible. Follow up shall be monitored regularly and this may best be done during subsequent visits. The written report of the inspection should be concise and should be passed to the rig promptly. Action items. The emphasis should always be on agreed action items as this will increase commitment to successful resolution. this should be openly discussed and agreement reached on possible alternatives.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling exposed to electric shocks. It is generally a multi-purpose visit. all remedial actions shall be closed out in a time frame commensurate with their importance. the feedback should be given to all relevant staff after having identified action parties with the agreement of senior site supervisors. addressing a wide variety of issues. The key point is to have a particular HSE objective in mind. It is helpful if supervisory visits are made jointly by Company and contractor representatives and that they hold a joint meeting with their senior site representatives to ensure that a common approach is agreed for follow up action. rather than merely noting it on a job list for rectification. Execution All Companies perform rig inspections. but it should not distract from the planned objective. Should an agreed remedial action prove not to be feasible. 8) gives valuable guidance on this subject. Since the success of an operation is dependent upon team effort. Expert assistance should be called on to inspect areas in which the manager lacks expertise. The document 'Management Safety Inspections' (Ref. The more effective ones include a briefing/discussion with all relevant supervisors covering the highlights of the previous period and a look ahead. The reason for the unsafe act may well be a reflection on the individual's training or the pressures under which 34 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . So long as the overall objective is not compromised. The main thrust of the inspection. with respect to HSE. with many doing it to a regular schedule. Hardware deficiencies should be looked at in terms of the management system in place to identify and rectify them. there needs to be a process which feeds back the results of the inspection and closes out any remedial action requirements. give and take should be used to obtain such commitment. rather than to focus on the operational 'nuts and bolts'.
the conclusions reached and recommendations made to all appropriate personnel. depth and speed appropriate to their seriousness • after determining root causes. dissemination on a Group wide basis. 11) provides guidance. 3. 3. The document 'Incident Potential Matrix' (Ref. Many Shell Companies and contractors have adapted the technique to suit their mode of operation and the culture of the host country. the level and depth of the investigation should be based on the incident's potential rather than the actual consequences.3 Drilling HSE Management System he is working rather than negligence. with the exception of a fatality or a serious lost time injury. This includes contractors and service companies and.5 Incident reporting Objectives and principles The objectives of an incident investigation and reporting system are: • to investigate all hazardous and potentially hazardous incidents at a level. EP 95-0100 HSE Management System Chapter 6 and the document 'Incident Investigation and Analysis Guide' (Ref.3 Records See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems.6. The objectives of auditing unsafe acts are: • to reduce the potential for accidents • to reaffirm and improve the accepted standards of safety • to improve communication and understanding • to improve the cultural attitude toward safety. remain the same.6. This will require that he takes part in the investigation of incidents which fall into an area of the incident potential matrix that has been defined as requiring Company participation in the investigation. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 35 . Whatever the reason. 10) are useful references. to take appropriate action to prevent the recurrence of the incident or similar incidents • to communicate the findings of incident investigations. The process of unsafe act auditing is fully described in 'Unsafe Act Auditing' (Ref. however. The Company Drilling Supervisor at drilling locations shall assist in assessing the potential of all incidents occurring on site and should verify the adequacy of their investigation.4 Non-compliance and corrective action See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems. 9). where appropriate.6. there is a need to be proactive in removing the basic causes of accidents and to carry out an audit of any unsafe acts which still occur. • to identify trends in a timely fashion and target areas of particular concern • to contribute a database to assist engineering design. The objectives. 3. For investigation purposes.
a degree of common sense needs to be applied if staff are to be motivated to report all incidents. He can also recommend further investigations if necessary at this point. they can ensure that relevant information is disseminated to others who may benefit from the knowledge. 4. The report is sent to drilling contractor Rig Manager who adds his comments and signs his agreement to the recommendations. 36 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . 5. A reporting procedure might the take the following form for non-critical incidents: 1. the 'goal posts' can be narrowed to address lower potential incidents. 3. If a recurring trend is noted further investigation may well be warranted to eliminate underlying causes. 6. While the above describes auditable.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Except where the seriousness of an incident dictates otherwise. Detailed guidance on incident reporting and investigation is given in the documents 'Accident Investigation' (Ref. equipment replacement. Together with the Company's senior representative. 3. Clearly. Parallel with this process the HSE Department will review the report as received from the rig and provide any input they may have to the Company Senior Drilling Engineer. the drilling contractor's senior site representative is responsible for HSE on the rig and all incidents shall be reported to him. The Company Drilling Supervisor takes part in the investigation and countersigns report as accurate and sufficient. As performance improves. Any changes in procedures. he should assign each incident with a code derived from an incident potential matrix. Responsibility for follow-up action shall be identified. Equally importantly. A copy of the finalised report is returned to the rig for implementation of the agreed remedial actions. 7).6 Incident follow-up See EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems. procedural aspects of the incident reporting process. 2. the drilling contractor should lead the investigation and Company base management verify that corrective actions are appropriate and sufficient. rules. Incident reporting procedure In a stand alone drilling operation. shall be documented in the report and shall be discussed during appropriate HSE meetings. Fear of the investigative and administrative workload should not inhibit staff from making such reports. etc which arise as a result of the investigation. including near misses. It is essential that the senior supervisors are appraised of all incidents so that they can assess potential and decide necessary corrective action to be taken. This may initially result in lower potential incidents merely being logged. The drilling contractor Toolpusher leads the on-site investigation into the incident and prepares the report which includes remedial action requirements. perhaps with a higher level team.6. 12) and 'Guide for Safety Performance Reporting' (Ref. normally communication channels keep relevant issues alive while this is ongoing. He can also recommend further investigation The report is then sent to the contract holder (Head of Drilling Engineering) who follows the process previously described. This code will determine the seniority of staff taking part in an investigation and the depth to which the incident needs to be investigated. The report is sent to relevant Company Senior Drilling Engineer (Rig Superintendent) who adds his comments and signs the report.
The HSE department should have the expertise to assist with this task. and the system is found to be effective. assurance should be gained from the drilling contractor that supervisory staff are familiar with the requirements of the HSE Management System. the Company's assessment of the contractor's HSE Management System also provides a useful insight into how effectively the contractor manages other aspects of his business. General It is a requirement that drilling contractors and associated service contractors have an effective system in place for managing HSE. this may not be possible. put into effect and followed-up • the means by which lessons learned from such audits are communicated laterally within and outside the organisation in order that actions arising out of key learning points can be applied elsewhere. The effectiveness of the system cannot be assessed.3 Drilling HSE Management System 3. It is also important to be able to make an objective assessment. As proper HSE management is a quality inherent in the way the Company conducts its operations. When properly structured. Pre-selection inspection of rig and associated equipment generally by third party consultants. Operations associated with the installation shall be subject to a programme of audits under the Company and contractor audit plan. it is essential that the audit team has members familiar with the process being audited. Schedule The following offers advice on a suitable schedule of audits and inspections of drilling operations.7 Audit Technical HSE audits assess the effectiveness of the controls in place to manage HSE aspects of activities. such that deficiencies can be rectified prior to the start of contract. or where the rig is being mobilised from a stacked condition. of course. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 37 . will not be significantly changed without prior agreement. So long as major contractors apply corporate requirements to their world-wide operations. at least at the supervisory level. until the unit has been manned up for operations. the work load for performing this task should diminish quickly with time. The HSE Management System shall contain reference to: • the relevant audit policy and procedure • the way actions recommended by an audit are agreed. This makes it desirable that the team includes members without direct responsibility for the operation. a HSE management audit should be carried out while the rig is working for another operator. This subject is addressed below. Where this is possible. Pre-Tender Precontract Meeting with contractors selected to bid to advise on Shell HSE requirements. New venture Characterised by small Shell team with limited manpower. This shall then be assessed upon start-up of operations. Where agreement from the previous operator cannot be gained. and a high reliance on contractor resources. The assessment and approval of this system shall be part of the tender evaluation process. In small Companies and ventures. assurance should be gained from the contractor that staffing. This implies that ideally.
Pre-Start-up Start up Weekly Other Audit by Company and main contractor management to verify that an HSE MS is in place which enables the achievement of venture HSE objectives. Review of audit follow up progress. the HSE management system in order to assess its effectiveness • to assist line management to identify HSE shortcomings • to assist line management to identify remedies • to ensure that remedies are carried out through effective follow-up procedures. Copy to be sent to SIEP. Inspections by a member of the management team (frequency depending on overall management field visit programme but at least quarterly).HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Environmental impact assessment of the drilling site and means of access. SIEP-led HSE audit shortly after spud. HSE audits should form part of the annual HSE Plan and in some larger Companies will be part of an integrated audit plan. Inspections by a member of the management team (frequency depending on overall management field visit programme but at least monthly). Start up Weekly Quarterly Yearly Other Audits generally include service company. Pre-Tender Precontract Meeting with contractors selected to bid to advise on Shell HSE requirements. transport. By a team of local Company and contractor management. Environmental impact assessment of the drilling site and means of access. Staff should be keenly aware of the difference between audits and inspections. supply and associated field engineering activity. SIEP plus Opco safety audit shortly after spud. Small Opco Characterised by limited manpower and by discontinuous drilling operations which may lead to loss of expertise between drilling campaigns. on a periodic basis and in a systematic manner. Inspection by Company and contractor senior supervisors. Inspection by Opco senior supervisors. Pre-selection inspection of rig and associated equipment generally by third party consultants. The 38 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Pre-Start-up Audit by Company and main contractor management to verify that an HSE MS is in place which enables the achievement of venture HSE objectives. The audit process The objectives of HSE audits are: • to keep Company management informed of the health and integrity of all the Company's activities by monitoring.
The implementation of HSE Cases should aid the auditing process by more clearly focusing on the management of hazards associated with the operation. External audits are led by an experienced SIEP technical auditor. It is important that the audit report is a balanced document giving credit where credit is due and not just highlighting deficiencies. Audit frequency is somewhat dependent upon the length of contract but a start-up audit is particularly valuable as it emphasises the HSE principles upon which the operation is founded.3 Drilling HSE Management System audit process is one of verifying the effectiveness of HSE management and is not a detailed hardware inspection. It is particularly important to emphasise to all concerned that a drilling audit is not simply an audit of the drilling contractor. HSE Case recommendations and HSE Management System remedial action recommendations. SIEP will provide a guidance package for the audit of drilling operations upon request. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 39 . An internal management HSE audit should be conducted once a year by a team typically consisting of the contractor's Area Manager. the Company Senior Drilling Engineer and Company's HSE Adviser. They should include representatives of both Company and drilling contractor line staff. the Company and service contractors. agreement should not be difficult to reach. including necessary certificates • interviewing staff both in the base offices. contractor Local Manager. The main elements of the audit include: • reviewing documentation. So long as findings are based on objective evidence. field offices and on the rig • inspecting equipment • comparing work practices with documented procedures. Copies of previous inspection records should be kept on the rig to document findings noted during earlier inspections and follow-up action taken to correct the problem. 3. audits need to be planned and team members prepared. generally with wide drilling operations experience. Team members should be of a seniority which empowers them to agree to the main findings. such that the scope of work is effectively covered. The audit should be similarly structured to that of an externally led audit and review the application of the system in place to manage HSE issues as well as other organisational and hardware issues. It will cover all aspects of the drilling operation including those aspects controlled or managed by the drilling contractor. In this planning stage the expertise requirements is identified and will dictate the audit team make-up. A review should be carried out near the end of a contract to assess the effectiveness of HSE management throughout the contract period. As with all other aspects of the business.8 Review This subject is divided into three parts and describes the corrective action process for audit recommendations. Performance trends should be identified and an end of contract note written to use as an input into any future tender exercise in which the contractor is involved.
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling A monitoring system should be instituted to track completion of action items in the indicated time frame. The HSE department. HSE MS and HSE Cases is determined • the improvement strategy through which the product of the review process is implemented. Audit action recommendations Where the auditee cannot agree a recommended action item a variation should be documented which describes the proposed alternative which will achieve the same objective or alternatively the reasons why the recommended action has been rejected. a party responsible for implementation nominated. The audit should be closed out with a listing of the status of action items. 40 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . HSE MS remedial action The definition and documentation of the HSE MS may well lead to weaknesses being identified and remedial action items being recommended. should be the guardian of such a system. a completion date fixed and a progress monitoring system put into place. HSE Case remedial actions Remedial actions from the preparation of HSE Cases may arise as follows: • deviations from agreed standards identified in preparing the HSE Case • actions arising out of studies used to assess hazards • actions arising as a result of creating standards the need for which has not previously been recognised • actions arising out of changes to the HSE Case prompted by significant changes to the installation or the operations it is conducting. though responsibility remains with the line who should follow up and keep the system guardian regularly appraised of status. Actions should be agreed. Review and improvement The management review and improvement process consists of three main parts: • the development and maintenance of HSE Plans cascaded from the corporate to the departmental level • the review process by which the effectiveness of the HSE Plans. The plans shall show action parties and realistic completion dates. The HSE MS itself will be subjected to an ongoing review process which will lead to further corrective action plans. The status of all action items are reported at regular intervals to a review committee of senior managers in order that progress is effectively monitored and expedited as necessary. It is logical that a common system should be set up to monitor the implementation of action items arising out of all four of the subjects discussed. Monitoring system For each recommendation. when properly staffed. action parties and completion estimates are established and entered onto the Remedial Action Plan.
The targets set out in plans shall be monitored for achievement by periodic review. The achievement of such targets should also be part of the annual performance assessment process. The implementation of the plan is a line responsibility and line supervisors should be allotted HSE tasks and targets based on the plan's requirements. It is reviewed and endorsed by the Managing Director. This is normally prepared by the HSE department with significant input from line departments to assure completeness of coverage and the setting of realistic targets. likewise. As performance improves. the 'goal posts' tend to narrow and new strategies are required to continue the improvement trend. To this EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 41 . The system therefore needs to be transparent and 'user friendly'. with the objective of systematically removing the basic causes of loss. The drilling contractors have a particularly valuable role to play here as they have been exposed to ideas from outside the Company which may well offer fresh insights. The plan should remain a living document with amendments initiated when benefits to performance can be seen. by means of ongoing reviews of HSE systems and performance. The HSE MS is reviewed periodically (approximately every three years) and a revision and improvement programme developed based upon: • examination of performance indicators to see where HSE MS improvements are necessary • review of audits and incident reports to identify areas where enhancing the HSE MS will facilitate performance improvement • reviewing the adequacy of the HSE MS documentation. To this end five year reducing targets should be set and performance reviewed periodically to monitor achievements and identify actions for further improvements. From this corporate document will be generated an Operations HSE Plan and subsequently a Drilling Engineering HSE Plan. Contractor The contractor HSE improvement strategy. Improvement strategy Company The Company's improvement strategy should be set against the outcome of the review process and the long term targets of zero accidents and zero negative discharges to the environment. For the HSE MS to achieve its desired objective it is vital that staff at all levels understand its aims and their role in its effective implementation. but may also include new ideas and procedures brought in from outside. The annual plans are developed with all of the above in mind so that lessons learned are incorporated into successive year's plans. Its purpose is to: • create an understanding of the corporate HSE policy and give it a common direction • focus on key elements of HSE management. zero negative impact to health and zero negative discharges to the environment. is set against the long term targets of zero accidents.3 Drilling HSE Management System Development. Staff new to the area can have an important role to play in this respect. maintenance and review of HSE Plans The Company shall produce an annual HSE Plan. These plans will for a large part be a development of the previous years plan.
appropriate action is initiated. safety and environmental performance are subject of a number of formal reviews: • the Company Operations/Drilling Manager monitors HSE programme progress and reports status at the Company's quarterly HSE management overview committee meeting • the contractor Base Manager reviews and summarises the overall health. Both the HSE Management System and health. The improvement strategy is based on the identification of key corporate HSE issues periodically. The issues will continue to be addressed in annual plans until conditions have been improved as far as reasonably practicable. safety and environmental performance for the installation in his monthly report • HSE performance is discussed at the installation HSE meetings giving the opportunity for comment and feedback. and addressing them in the rig HSE Plan by a series of actions.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling end. These are reviewed annually. The rig HSE Plan is developed with the above in mind and the lessons learned from each year's operations are reflected in next year's plan and programmes. 42 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Where such reviews identify concerns or trends which merit immediate attention. reducing targets are set for the occurrence of recordable accidents by the contractor Base Manager.
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Land Locations Wells should be located at least the height of the mast away from public roads.2 and Appendix V for further details. Sources of ignition Naked lights. personal protective equipment. See 5.2. Safe distances from any radio transmitters need to be established so that the use of explosives and detonators may proceed without danger of external activation. to the attention of staff. Flares and flare pits Flare pits and extremities of flare lines should be located at least 90 m from railways. railways. Notices should also be displayed indicating where firefighting equipment. Sites close to overhead and underground power lines should also be avoided. 44 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . The induction process shall bring the hazards of the site. All signs and notices shall be written in languages understandable to all site personnel. All practicable means shall be taken to minimise or avoid detrimental effects on the surrounding environment by virtue of the construction of the location or the operation of the drilling rig. houses or other public places. They should be at least 30 m from a well. or detonating systems not affected by stray electrical currents should be used. breathing apparatus. Petrol driven engines are not to be permitted on the worksite. Within the above constraints. public works. smoking and all other sources of ignition shall be prohibited on all drilling/well sites. but also to the safe operation of cranes and other equipment that can potentially come into contact with them. naked lights. enforceable control procedures shall be established. roads.1 4. workshops. Size The site should be sized to contain all equipment and buildings. smoking and other hazards should be prominently displayed. unprotected electrical equipment. and first-aid equipment are stored. Warning and other notices Warning notices stating restrictions applicable to unauthorised persons. gas/oil separator. site drainage or other possible source of ignitable vapours. Escape routes shall be indicated where appropriate. Not only do they pose a threat to the safe use of explosives. storage. processing units or tanks. When internal combustion engines are permanently used within a hazardous area they shall be protected. public works.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 4 4. and the rules of the site. advice should be requested from the HSE Department. etc using distances between various rig components in line with existing rules and regulations for the area of operation and the hazardous area drawing of the drilling rig. vehicle access. For specific sites.1.1 Siting PREPARATION Site Preparations . it shall be sized to minimise environmental impact. Where this is not the case.
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 45 .1. Road vehicles shall not be permitted to enter or operate in a hazardous zone. plus the liquid inventory they are designed to contain. Waste should be collected and contained in specially supplied waste skips on site or burnt at the site. Sewage and waste Arrangements shall be made for the provision of septic pits and the proper discharge of sewage. Means shall be provided to trap any escape of oil before it can leave the site. 13) shall be used within hazardous Zones 1 and 2 (see Appendix IV). Metallic waste should be collected and disposed of at locations approved by the local authority. radios and talk-back systems located in hazardous areas shall be suitable for Zone 1 application. Vehicles should not be parked within the location perimeter. 4.4 Preparation Telecommunications Telecommunications equipment such as telephones. Instances have occurred where radios operated in the SCR cabin and the Driller's control cabin have interfered with SCR systems. and after adequate steps have been taken to control entry and exit. Waste oil from pumps or other machinery should be trapped. Site access Only authorised persons shall be admitted to a drilling site. Openings in enclosures should be permitted only under authority. Before entering a location. Surface drains should be adequately graded and kept debris free to ensure quick disposal of their contents. Approved personal protective equipment shall be worn when visiting or working on a drilling rig or on a well servicing hoist.2 Road vehicles and mobile plant Only protected diesel engines conforming to 'Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Hazardous Areas' (Ref. Radios should not be operated in these areas unless it is determined that the SCR system is not affected by to the electromagnetic radiation generated by them. On location vehicle speeds shall be limited to walking pace. collected and disposed of properly. They should be properly illuminated at night. Any exceptions shall be strictly controlled through the application of the permit-to-work system. Adequate parking facilities will need to be provided outside the location. Excavation Excavation work shall be carried out under the permit-to-work system and in such a manner that the collapse of side walls is precluded. Drainage Drilling sites and camps should have an adequate drainage system so that potentially harmful effluents are contained and can be carried clear of the site to a point where they are unlikely to cause harm. Measures shall be taken to prevent persons and livestock from accidentally falling into an excavation. vehicle drivers should report to the site supervisor for instructions. except by special permits which will take into account necessary precautions to ensure no flammable vapours will be present during the duration of the work in the area. Drains and bunds should be sized so that they can contain two to three times the maximum storm rainfall expected over a two-hour period. Mud chemicals used should be of low potential toxicity and mud disposed of in a responsible manner. This may need to be enforced by enclosing the whole or parts of a site.
Further fire fighting facilities shall be provided around fuel tanks. Potable water Potable water shall be regularly checked for possible contamination and. 46 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . recreation rooms. it is necessary to provide camp facilities to house operations staff.1. bottled water from a reliable source shall be provided. mess room. Such inspections shall be made at least weekly by the medic and camp boss. Fuel storage Fuel storage shall be segregated away from the general accommodation area and adequately marked with hazard signs and cautionary notices (e. shall not be kept at the camp site. hazards and emergency response in case of alarm. particularly those engaged in food handling. The person often designated the above duties is the camp boss or the medic. if stored in tanks. shall be chemically treated to prevent growth of potentially harmful organisms. Fuel tanks should be bunded and situated on the low side of the location so that fluid run-off will be directed away. Waste disposal pits Waste disposal pits shall be situated a minimum of 30 m from the accommodation area so that full hygiene control can be exercised without risk to persons using the camp facilities.3 Camp sites In remote operating areas where there is no acceptable local accommodation. Provided below are topics directly associated with drilling camp construction. Explosives and radioactive sources Explosives and radioactive sources. handling. Access control at the camp site should provide immediate information for newcomers or visitors to inform them: • where to park their vehicles • where to report their arrival and nature of business • who will brief newcomers/visitors on site rules. The medic/medical officer shall be responsible for verification of adequate health checks for catering staff. vehicle parking areas and the camp generator. 'no smoking'). Fire extinguishers Fire extinguishers shall be provided for all accommodation units including kitchens. crews and other contractor personnel. Where tests indicate that water supply is unsuitable for human consumption. This restriction relates to security as well as health and safety aspects of hazardous substance storage.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 4. The quality of these inspections should be periodically verified by contractor management and specialists. preparation and messing facilities shall be controlled by regular inspections. clinic and radio room (if applicable).g. layout and operation. Food storage Food storage. but in defined and separate areas at the rig site. together with any other hazardous substances. which technical HSE audits highlight as requiring particular attention.
Power distribution cables shall be UV protected if strung above ground and if buried shall be contained in a marked conduit. Audits have indicated a high incidence of potentially dangerous electrical systems in seismic and drilling camps. with thermal magnetic over-current release • fuses • overload trip switches • 30 mA earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) Full earthing shall be provided. Required response to the general and fire alarm(s) shall be known by all personnel on site. It is recommended that following the arrival of a camp to a new area or venture.U is the safe touch voltage (50 VAC maximum). so that adequate protection. including subcontractors.10. a full inspection of the electrical generation and distribution system is carried out by a specialist. heating and accommodation power circuits shall be fully protected by all or a combination of the following: • miniature circuit breaker (MCB). Any type of conducting material should prove sufficient for the electrodes.4 Preparation Fire drills Fire drills in the camp site shall be held at least during every crew work cycle and shall involve all personnel at the camp site. and deficiencies which are noted shall be corrected.I is the maximum leakage current (300 mA as specified in DEP 33. if the resistance between ground and any part of the earth system is maximum 160 ohms and the system is protected with a 300 mA residual current operated circuit breaker (RCCB). typically 4 ohms.10 . All lighting. An earth resistance of much less than 160 ohms. Appendix 5) Access around the camp Walkways connecting the mess room(s) accommodation units with ablution facilities should be kept clean. especially in the vicinity of major electrical loads. though copper is preferred. Electrical systems Electrical systems in the camp shall comply with a recognised standard. The opportunity should be taken to place earth electrodes around the camp. Drills held in the camp must be reported. An earthed system is considered acceptable for temporary purposes. Muster areas shall be clearly indicated and illuminated.Re is the earth electrode resistance. otherwise armoured cable shall be used. can usually be obtained easily with two or more electrodes. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 47 . Similarly emergency response equipment shall be kept in well illuminated positions. Note: 160 ohms is derived from Re *I < U where: . They should be co-ordinated with muster drills at the rig site so that the adequacy of the system which accounts for the whereabouts of personnel can be checked. earthing and operating standards can be verified. clear of obstructions and where possible dry. . Lighting around camp facilities shall be such that the ground can be seen clearly at all times during the hours of darkness. This topic therefore deserves particular attention. verified and documented.64. visitors and catering personnel.
1 Preparation Offshore Location preparation offshore Information is required about meteorological and oceanographic data of the area in which drilling will take place to establish the type of rig most suitable for the economic completion of the drilling programme.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Medical facilities The clinic is the usual base for the medic and is normally situated at the camp site. 4. it is Shell practice to perform a site specific assessment for each jack-up prior to contract award and for each location thereafter where conditions significantly differ. The first two activities (structural analysis and condition assessment) shall be completed before award of contract and/or prior to mobilisation.2. The verification of the structural adequacy of a jack-up involves three key activities: • site specific structural analysis • condition assessment • condition monitoring.2. as shall a vehicle suitable for carrying a patient on a stretcher from the rig site to the clinic. sea bed topography and soil conditions and in the majority of cases will provide sufficient information to indicate the probable presence or absence of shallow gas (see 3. The primary objective of the assessment is to ensure a level of structural reliability of the jack-up in elevated condition. Condition monitoring should preferably be the continuation of contractor's normal practice. 14). the provision of a doctor and facilities to stabilise and treat patients during the period needed to evacuate. but shall commence at least at mobilisation and should continue until completion of the operations. 4. Bottom supported rigs (jack ups) require a more detailed location investigation which may include seabed coring and sampling to establish data on leg penetration and the adequacy of the surface strata to support the vessel and avoid punch through. should be sought. 'Site selection'). which is comparable with fixed platforms. Transportation for the medic shall also be available 24 hours per day. Security In areas where security risks are an identified hazard. In accordance with this. either from the local authorities or from Group security advisers.2 Structural integrity of jack-ups Site specific assessment The Group position is described in the report 'Marine Safety of Mobile Offshore Units' (Ref. should be considered. Seismic surveys provide data concerning water depth. Such information is considered adequate for operations with vessels such as drillships and semi-submersibles.5. Where this is not a viable proposition.1. advice. In case of emergency call-out it is essential that adequate means of communication exist between camp site and rig. 48 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . In remote areas the provision of a helipad should be considered.2 4.
the condition of leg-hull interface. there may be a requirement for an additional detailed inspection by a third party consultant. pinion/rack chock overload) and foundation failure. Existing inspection/maintenance records held by the drilling contractor should be the primary source of information. The site specific analysis may be carried out in-house or by a consultant. These inspection/monitoring activities should be carried out by the contractor and verified by Shell. which is usually carried out in conjunction with the drilling. 50year return period storm wind. In general terms condition assessment (and subsequent condition monitoring) should address certification. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 49 . drilling hazards. The engineering requirements and scope of work for jack-up condition assessment and condition monitoring are summarised in the document 'Jack-up Structure Condition Assessment and Condition Monitoring' (Ref. seabed. aviation and HSE audits. be it on one or more than one location. local overload). leg spud can connection and aspects of the spud can foundation. that topside weight is in accordance with operations manual and that level of corrosion and marine growth do not exceed prescribed limits. Confirmation is needed that there is no structural damage. wave and current. Condition monitoring aims to provide early warning of any significant reduction in the jack-ups structural integrity during the operations with the jack-up. structural failure (leg strength. The SIEP practice for site specific structural analysis of jack-ups is described in the document 'Practice for the Site Specific Assessment of Jack-up Units' (Ref. The practice provides guidance on the recommended analysis procedures and acceptance criteria. based on assumptions regarding the condition of the jack-up structure. existing fatigue cracks and severe corrosion are relevant and shall be recorded for future reference. Condition monitoring by Shell may inadvertently take on the assumption of liabilities assigned to the contractor in the contract and should be avoided. etc). and soils data. marine. Monitoring may be of special importance if the jack-up will be used for a long period. Condition assessment and monitoring The condition assessment is to validate the analysis results by confirming that the actual condition of the jack-up structure is in line with the assumptions made in the site specific structural analysis. but shall be carried out in accordance with the above referenced document. It addresses the key failure modes of a jack-up in elevated condition such as overturning stability. conforms to SIEP criteria. or presence of shallow gas. In some cases. 17) and therefore is available to drilling contractors. If significant differences should be detected then a re-analysis may be required.4 Preparation Site specific structural analysis The site specific structural analysis aims to check that the jack-up theoretical strength. Signs of deterioration. It is noted that significant deterioration of components which are not essential for the ultimate strength of the jack-up may not be of importance when deciding if a jack-up structure is acceptable. 15) and in a similar report which has been made available to drilling contractors. general condition of the structure. Additional data may be obtained from a general visual inspection. Required data include jack-up structural data (usually obtained from the drilling contractor during tendering) and site specific data including water depth. pipelines. such as major mechanical damage (from accidents. old footprints. It should be recognised that the contractor is responsible for maintaining his unit at a minimum acceptable level as specified in the contract and as required to remain in class. 16) This information has also been published in 1991 as SPE/IADC paper number 21979 'SIEP Practice for Site Specific Structural Fitness for Purpose Assessment of Jack-up Rigs' (Ref.g. Some of the same information will also be used to assess overall safety conditions such as seabed hazards (e. typically more than one year.
Currently the joint industry project is finalising the recommended practice which will contain the detailed engineering procedures and acceptance criteria. The work is carried out by the Industry Work Group with representatives from the complete spectrum of the offshore industry. some older semi-submersibles may only be suitable for mild environments. by dynamic positioning or more usually an anchoring system. The fact that a vessel is classified does not mean it meets the latest criteria. It should be noted in this respect that damage stability requirements have become more stringent over time in response to accidents but older vessels are rarely forced to comply. Structural strength Most modern vessels are designed for world service and so are designed with adequate strength. The stability characteristics of a vessel should be assessed in relation to the maximum intended loading condition. the water depth and the soil conditions at the selected location. Guideline and Recommended Practice. The guideline titled 'Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) Technical and Research Bulletin 5-5' (Ref. damage or fatigue cracking is the main structural threat to all semi-submersibles and drill ships and requires assessment. The requirements for mooring of mobile units are given in the document 'Mooring Standards for Mobile Units' (Ref. In accordance with this document. depends on the environmental conditions.2. key features of the vessel should be assessed prior to contract to ensure that it has an adequate level of structural reliability to carry out the intended function at the selected location. Significant improvements have been made in systems of modern vessels but not all older vessels have been made to comply with 50 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . i. even after sustaining a certain amount of damage. Analysis of the anchoring pattern and assessment of the condition of the anchoring equipment are both required. 14) and covers both semi-submersibles and drill ships. Station keeping The station keeping performance of a vessel. The industry practice will consist of two documents. 4. Ballast control system The ballast control system is vital to the safe operation of semi-submersibles.e. The following aspects are important to the structural reliability of semi-submersibles and drill ships: Stability and reserve buoyancy The vessel shall have adequate stability and reserve buoyancy to remain afloat and upright with its required payload in the anticipated environmental conditions. This should be assessed on a site specific basis although this need not be on a per well basis if the conditions over the whole area of a drilling campaign are considered together. However. It is scheduled that this document will be published in May 1994.3 Precontract assessment of semi-submersibles and drill ships The SIEP position on the subject is described in 'Marine Safety of Mobile Offshore Units' (Ref. 19). 18) describes the philosophy for site specific assessment of jack-ups and is in complete agreement with Group practice. SIEP (EPD/51) are representing Shell on this Work Group. Degradation of design strength through corrosion.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Industry guideline and recommended practice A joint industry project to develop an industry practice for the site specific assessment of jack-ups is nearing completion.
These should also be tested as part of fire drills. which may be carried out in conjunction with the drilling. i. Deck space and load capacity are limited. Similarly. Tender assisted operations are also used in North Sea type environments albeit with semi submersible tenders. Ballast systems designed to the latest code requirements shall be stipulated in all new contracts. there may be a need for a further more detailed inspection. Similarly the remote platform/well shutdown function shall also be tested as well as the bridge/umbilical release system if used.4 Preparation these more stringent requirements. inspection. for example if the vessel is old or the existing records are of a poor quality. Emergency response plans in case of severe weather. The onus to provide a site specific anchoring analysis showing compliance with current codes. this has not yet been achieved. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 51 . Most semi-submersibles and drill ships are classified with one of the major classification societies and. minor expectation of prolonged periods of severe weather conditions. 4. Shell's primary role should be one of verification but may include independent inspections.2. marine. to advise on appropriate standards for the integrity assessment of semi-submersibles and drill ships. A draft procedures guide for the Safety and Integrity Assessment of MODUs is available from SIEP. Consequently SIEP may be consulted. Vessel stability shall remain a controlled operating parameter. However. should be placed on the drilling contractor in consultation with the relevant classification society or certifying authority. The classification societies have standards which differ in some aspects between themselves and also change with time.e. platform fire and damage control in the event of a collision shall be in place. monitoring and repair activities to maintain the vessel at a safe and satisfactory standard are the responsibility of the contractor and so should be undertaken by the contractor in consultation with the classification society. if required. Before commencing operations on a new platform the anchor release mechanisms should be verified as functioning correctly. It is the responsibility of the OIM to ensure that at all times there are personnel available to launch and operate the lifeboats should the need arise for a general evacuation. they monitor the condition of the vessel in respect of the aspects mentioned above. in all cases water depths should be compatible with feasible anchor cable length and required anchor patterns. The remote BOP control panel on the tender shall be tested as part of the normal BOP test routine. together with evidence of satisfactory stability characteristics.4 Tender assisted operations Offshore tender drilling and workover operations are no longer limited to areas which are environmentally benign. in conjunction with the vessel owner. by an appropriate specialist. Additional data can be obtained from a general visual inspection. Whilst there is a movement towards harmonisation of standards in the industry. All tenders should have emergency anchor release capability which can be controlled from the Bargemaster's or Toolpusher's office. In some circumstances. aviation and HSE inspections. These inspection/maintenance/repair records should be the primary source of information in assessing a vessel and shall be made available for inspection by Shell. Other emergency functions commonly activated from the Bargemaster's or Toolpusher's office are the generator shutdown and the air fans to the generator and mud room areas of the barge.
2 Inspection The requirements for inspection of materials and equipment to be procured for an operation should be considered prior to ordering and the inspection programme clearly stated on the order. 4. 21). all Company and contractor drivers should attend defensive driving courses addressing local hazards and on-road/off-road driving regulations and techniques. are directly related to incidents involving vehicles.3 Stacking and storage Incorrect stacking of tubulars and sack materials is the cause of many accidents on site. a strict journey management system should be implemented. The stacking and de-stacking of pallets in the correct manner should be planned and only pallets in good condition used. particularly on land sites. particularly mud chemicals and cementing materials. The medic shall be equipped to deal with injuries to personnel arising out of the use of all materials on site. 4. 20) • 'Seat Belts' (Ref.3 4. etc are utilised. civil engineering contractors.4. they should also be included in the training scheme as a contractual obligation. 4.4 4.3. dust. 52 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . To address this problem. The operation of fork lift trucks shall be restricted to designated personnel who have demonstrated competence. Material Specification Data Sheets shall be obtained from the supplier and the product assessed for toxicity and the requirement for any special handling precautions. It is recommended therefore that prior to commencing operations. Required driving skills will depend on the local environment and may include considerations such as desert terrain. If subcontractors such as caterers. shall be carefully considered to avoid subsidence and hence instability. should be used for the maintenance or refurbishment of safety critical equipment. Adequate strength dunnage and nailed-in chocks at the end of each row are important. ice. fog. water crossings.3. Only genuine spare parts. Casing rack loading. purchased from original equipment manufacturers or their authorised agents. Shell Quality and Inspection Requirement (SQAIR) exists for many items of drilling equipment and materials and should be specified on purchase orders. The following documents are useful references: • 'Road Safety Management' (Ref. including drilling operations. Guidelines for developing such a system are published in EP 95-0260 Logistics.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 4.1 Transportation of Materials and Equipment Road transport A significantly high proportion of all accidents in EP operations. etc.1 Materials Procurement Hazard data Prior to the use of any material.3.
4 Rig moving on land A detailed rig move plan shall be prepared by the drilling contractor which addresses personnel requirements. Their advice should be sought on questions or problems relating to air transport. 4.g.3 Air transport Aviation operations are audited and approved by Shell Aircraft Limited. roll bar. responsibilities/accountabilities of Company transport services shall be defined prior to moving operations taking place. Compliance checks should include: • review of maintenance practices • observation of speed limits • day/night driving limitations • the use of seat belts for front and rear seats • minimum hardware requirements in place. 4. etc • radio communication system in good working order • installation of tachographs to monitor speed. Adequate provisions shall be made for: • location/road surveys • rig-moving vehicles • craneage • fuel tankers • hazardous loads • fork lifts • personnel vehicles EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 53 . equipment requirements. In areas where contractors do not move their own rigs.4.4 Preparation Compliance with Company driving rules shall be verified by the contract holder through spot checks and audits. Responsibility for material transfer operations rest with the Barge Master on the rig and the Master on the vessel. This is the responsibility of the Master. Safe unloading operations can only take place if the vessel has been correctly loaded. the Master's decision shall be final with respect to the safety of his vessel and crew.4. etc • verification of driver qualification requirements • journey monitoring/logging • alarm conditions and emergency response plans. e. fire extinguisher. first aid box. 4. The carriage of goods by air is covered by air transport regulations and the final decision on whether any particular item will be carried rests with the helicopter pilot. With regard to the advisability to conduct such operations during adverse weather conditions.4.2 Sea transport The transport of materials and equipment by sea shall be carried out only by vessels specifically designed for the purpose. responsibilities and contingency plans.
When moving on to producing facilities. the crew on the deck of the rig and anchor handling vessels shall be kept to a minimum and crew members shall be positioned to minimise the risk of injury should there be an equipment failure. a report should be made to provide an analysis of key aspects of the move. drilling contractor. i. problems likely to be encountered. Failures of very heavy hooks and anchor pennant lines have resulted in fatalities. 4. During rig moves. Road and load safety matters should be addressed and included in the drilling tender and contract documents. Police escorts may be required for traffic control. surveyors. Verification prior to move-on shall be via a documented handover procedure.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • repair facilities • supervisory staff • communication • emergency response • escorts. Anchors shall be laid in such a way as to avoid any possibility of damaging pipelines or any subsea equipment either during anchoring or subsequent operations. Following a rig move. Company. In populated areas there may be local rules and regulations which should be observed. operational matters and responsibilities.e. vessel masters (if possible) and rig mover (towmaster) shall hold a meeting to discuss and agree on procedures. responsibilities • weather forecast • sea bed survey • surveying method • rig position on new location • anchor pattern and test tension • pennant and chaser combinations • communications responsibilities • selection of anchor handling tugs. A detailed rig move plan shall be prepared and should outline such aspects as: • move programme. well close-in and production shutdown requirements shall be discussed and agreed by production and drilling staff. Refer also to EP 95-0260 Logistics and Appendix III 'Land Rig Move Plan'. During anchor handling operations.4. 54 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . contingency plan. the drilling contractor should have a senior supervisor at both the old and new locations to ensure the safe loading and unloading of vehicles. Hydraulic release mechanisms (shark jaws) should be used wherever possible instead of pelican hooks.5 Rig moving offshore Prior to a rig move all participating parties. These supervisors should be in radio contact with each other so that information on awkward loads or special handling precautions can be communicated.
4 Preparation Following a rig move. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 55 . 22) and EP 95-0260 Logistics. The rig mover should note any matter that could lead to a safer and improved method of work. a report should be made to provide an analysis of all aspects of the move. a log of events including weather conditions and a list of recommendations on procedures and equipment performance. Refer also to report 'Offshore Rig Move and Anchor Handling Operations' (Ref.
1 EQUIPMENT Maintenance It is in the interest of safety and the prevention of time loss to ensure that all the equipment is properly maintained. Following commencement of the contract. bell nipple and active mud system. Its main drawback is that the system allows potential sources of ignition closer to the wellhead.2 5.1 Hazardous Zones Hazardous zone classification Hazardous zone classification is aimed at reducing the risk of fire or explosion by keeping ignition sources out of areas where combustible gas release or accumulation of gas is possible. All items of equipment in the rig's asset register shall be included in the PMS.2 Operation of diesel engines in hazardous zones The Shell standard reference used for operating diesel engines in hazardous zones is contained in the 'Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Hazardous Areas' (Ref.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 5 5. Another system of hazardous zone classification is based on 'Classification of Areas for Electrical Installations at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and/or Marine Fixed and Mobile Platforms' (Ref. Spare parts for equipment essential for the safe operation of the rig shall be carried by the drilling contractor. When precontract audits are performed on rigs (generally by third party consultants). bell nipple and mud treatment systems. Details are provided in Appendix V. 13) published on behalf of the Institute of Petroleum. Such areas include the wellhead. The recommendations contained in this document were formulated to provide for the protection of diesel engines when used in potentially hazardous zones within the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Various systems of hazardous area classification exist. 5. 5. 24) and is largely applied in areas closely associated with the USA. wellhead cellar. 56 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . the effectiveness of the preventive maintenance system (PMS) should be part of the scope of work. the effectiveness of the contractor's programme for preventive maintenance of the rig equipment should be evaluated by selective verification. 23). Some essential elements of the code are presented in Appendix IV. This system should only be adopted if it can be shown that conversion to comply with the IP code would involve expenditure not justified by the risk reduction achieved. equipment specification and hazardous zone dimensions. The system adopted and recommended by SIEP is 'Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations' (Ref.2. This Institute of Petroleum (IP) code should be taken as the basis for ignition control criteria used in rig selection.2. The contractor shall give an undertaking to use the original equipment manufacturer's spare parts or those from a supplier approved by the manufacturer.
liquid. The following general rules will apply to all rigs: • all persons shall wear safety headgear. temperature extremes. In addition special equipment such as breathing apparatus shall be required for firefighting and in toxic atmospheres (e. Electrical equipment for use in hazardous zones shall be selected in accordance with the following criteria: • the type of protection shall be compatible with the hazardous zone classification • the surface temperatures of the apparatus shall be lower than the ignition temperature of the gas and vapours that will be encountered • the apparatus construction shall be able to withstand the environmental conditions. For the purpose of uniformity and standardisation the European (CENELEC). mist. high or low temperature.3 Personal Protective Equipment The selection of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) takes account of risks to health based on knowledge of the hazard and assessment of the exposure which can be. for example: • direct.5 Equipment 5. H2S). The requirement for the provision of breathing apparatus for use in atmospheres containing H2S are given in 6.5. a projectile or sharp or abrasive object • chemical. noise. fumes. radiation or under pressure. fungal. solid. UK (BSI) and international (IEC) are used as the main references for electrical equipment specifications for use in hazardous zones.2. 5. vibration. consideration is required concerning the degree of protection needed for special situations. radiation. dust. carcinogen or sensitiser • physical. footwear and eye protection outside the accommodation (offshore) or on the rig site (land) • anyone working over the side of an offshore rig shall wear a life vest • anyone working more than 6 ft (2 m) above a floor level shall wear a safety belt firmly anchored above them to check a fall. Based on the hazard and risks. Full details for the selection of PPE are contained in 'Personal Protective Equipment Guide' (Ref. 25).3 Electrical safety in hazardous zones There are many different systems of electrical equipment classification and certification. The hazard may be in the form of gas. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 57 . vapour. an irritant.g. electrical or light • biological.
or any other compressed gas to charge a suction (low pressure) dampener unit. 5. including NDT. If they are used the following points should be noted: • never use high pressure nitrogen.low pressure mud pump suction Pulsation dampeners on the suction side of mud pumps are rarely used and generally considered unnecessary when a charging pump is incorporated in the system. within easy reach of the Driller.2 Pulsation dampeners Charging of pulsation dampeners . All necessary guards shall be replaced after completion of maintenance work. An emergency stop device shall be provided for the drawworks. Past incidents involving brake handle and brake linkage failure indicate the need for a rigorous inspection schedule. All drawworks shall be fitted with a secondary braking device (e.4. As a minimum.4 5. Drawworks fitted with an eddy current brake (e. The body of the bottle should be grey with the top and shoulders painted black • a pressure regulator shall be installed on the bottle • clear vicinity of non-involved personnel before charging • follow the recommended instructions from the pulsation dampener manufacturer. A low level alarm on the cooling water tank is recommended. Elmagco) should have an auxiliary powered back-up supply in the event of a main power failure. Main brake failures have also occurred due to the failure of the brake cooling system. Fitting a flow sensor and temperature alarm to the cooling water return line is recommended.4. loss of cooling water pressure should be indicated by an audio-visual alarm on the Driller's console.g.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 5. The minimum wraps for a given drawworks is given in the manufacturer's operating manual.1 Drilling Equipment Drawworks safety Accidents still occur from guards not being replaced after repairs or maintenance of drawworks and rotary table gears. of the main drawworks brake. There shall always be a sufficient number of wraps of hoisting line remaining on the drum to eliminate any strain being transmitted directly to the fastening device. eddy current or hydromatic). This device shall be tested regularly. if necessary by using a portable analyser • nitrogen bottles are painted in a distinctive colour scheme that makes identification positive. Charging of pulsation dampeners . The installation of a top drive will require additional wraps.high pressure discharge Safety precautions peculiar to this job: • a permit-to-work should be used for this operation • ensure charging gas is nitrogen. A foot pump is preferred • isolate the pump and mud suction system • use a permit-to-work for this operation • ensure that the low pressure mud suction relief valve is set open 58 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .g.
5 Masts Written procedures shall be provided and enforced by the contractor when raising or lowering a mast.5. Screwed valves should be phased out and replaced with a flanged type. together with wire ropes.5 5. 5. Civil engineering advice should always be sought and matting or concrete pads will generally be used.3 Relief valves The high pressure mud pump discharge piping is protected by means of high pressure relief valves.5. A record shall be kept of the inspections. This inspection should ensure that no member has been installed in a manner that will impair the safety of the derrick. the dead line and fast line should be on opposing sides. 5. The type of weight indicator used shall indicate the correct number of lines strung to the block. the centre of the water table when drilling with rotary tools. constructed from high pressure pipe and slope downwards to facilitate drainage.2 Derrick and mast inspection Derricks and masts shall be thoroughly inspected after erection and before lowering to verify that no members are distorted and all bolts are tightly in place and equipped with suitable lock washers. gin poles and other erection equipment.5. Proper drainage should be provided and the foundation inspected after heavy rains to ensure that derrick corners have not settled unequally. does not line up with the centre of the well. Telescoping masts shall be inspected to verify that all the locking devices are in place before transferring the load from the raising system. 5.5. The discharge lines should be a minimum of 3" diameter. the condition should be corrected by inserting shims at the low corners of the derrick. or other locking devices for holding the upper sections of a telescopic mast in place. thereby causing the derrick to be out of plumb.4 Foundations The bearing capacity of all soils decreases as the moisture content increases. During inspection use should be made of the 'Report of Visual Field Inspection of Derrick or Mast and Substructure' (Ref. because of unequal settling of derrick corners. 5.5 Equipment • follow pulsation dampener manufacturer's instructions for charging the dampener unit. 5. Any EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 59 .4. shall be inspected to ensure that they are seated before any additional work on the structure if performed. Lock pins. 26). If. 5. Ensure that the loads are within the safe working load of the slings and other equipment in use. Eccentric application of loads reduces the rating of the derrick and may ultimately result in derrick failure.1 Derricks and Masts Erection equipment Winches. shall be re-certified on a six monthly basis and visually inspected prior to use. To balance further derrick and mast loading.3 Derrick loading Eccentric loading of a derrick should be avoided.5. A crown block shall never be shifted off centre to correct for derrick misalignment unless such movement is small and due care is taken to determine the effect it will have in reducing the safe working load of the derrick.
9 Deadline anchor/weight indicator Deadline anchors for hoisting lines shall be constructed and installed (bolted/welded) such that their strength equals or exceeds the working strength of the hoisting line. Wells within the mast radius shall be closed-in and isolated prior to mast raising or lowering operations. Guy lines shall never be used for aligning the mast.5. Regular checks for cracks and significant corrosion shall be made to ascertain proper functioning and structural integrity of the equipment. Guy lines shall never be removed during operations and shall be subjected to the same inspection procedures as other wire rope devices. 5. No other work should be performed underneath the derrick while it is being erected or dismantled. 27). A weight indicator shall be installed on every drilling and workover rig and it shall be maintained such that it registers an accurate indication of the hook load suspended (within 5 per cent at maximum hook load). 5. Failure of the welding of the drilling deadline anchor has occurred during jarring operations. There exists a real hazard to the Driller from the rapid downward movement of the brake handle when the crown safety device is activated. (If possible the line should be strung-out into the prevailing wind). If timber blocks are used as shock absorbing devices. the system should be designed such that a bolt failure does not result in the anchor flying.7 Escape line and slide On each operating rig a derrickman's escape line shall be provided.8 Crown protection Every rig shall have a crown-o-matic or other similar emergency stop device to prevent hoisting the travelling block against the crown block.5. Avoid systems which rely on bolts in tension. where a derrickman can make a safe landing by way of the line. the mast should be guyed according to 'Specification for Drilling and Well Servicing Structures' (Ref. or under the mast while it is being raised or lowered. Jumper bars to prevent drilling line from jumping out of the crown sheaves shall be installed so that no section more than 100° of arc is unprotected. 5. The cellar should be completely covered during these operations. If guying requirements are not mentioned in the operating procedures or are not known. The strength of the guy lines and auxiliary equipment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's specification. in a clear area.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling alteration to the securing pins or positive locking mechanisms shall be made only after authorisation by the manufacturer and application of change control procedures.6 Guy lines Guy lines shall be used to support the mast as recommended by the manufacturer. Precontract and major inspections shall include detailed inspection of the anchor assembly.5. 5. with one end secured to the derrick or mast near the derrickman's platform and the other end anchored at a point one mast length away from the well bore. Critical welds or other securing devices shall be regularly inspected. The weight indicator shall be checked regularly for calibration by comparing its reading with the 60 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .5. ensure that they are secured in such a way that impact does not dislodge them.
6. The function testing should be done under the permit-to-work system. Below are listed groups of deficiencies with recommended controls. Stabbing boards shall have a positive mechanical locking device in case of hoist failure. A closed load cell will not indicate additional loading.5 Equipment calculated drill pipe or tubing string weight. Friction devices alone are not acceptable. The load cell gap should be checked every shift.10 Stabbing board Prior to running casing or any other job requiring the stabbing board. attached to a derrick member above the stabber. The stabbing board shall be regarded. shall be worn on the stabbing board at all times • inspect hoisting system • inspect safety stops • check emergency brake system • ensure no loose objects are left on the board • never test stabbing board during other drill floor operations • good communication (visual) is required at all times between Driller and stabber. All deficiencies are the result of a lack of effective control systems. with particular attention to its man riding function. Controls of the stabbing board winch shall be fail-safe and of the dead-man type of action. • improperly made slings and lifting devices • corroded loose lifting equipment • loose lifting equipment damaged by improper use • unidentified equipment • equipment not subjected to inspection • damaged equipment accepted for downrated use EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 61 . It shall be subjected to the same rigorous inspection and certification process as other hoisting equipment. The following points should be checked or observed: • a safety harness.1 Lifting Equipment General Of all the hardware subjected to inspection during audits. for the purpose of inspection and testing. it shall be inspected and tested to ensure safe operation.5. Some rigs are equipped with a so called 'cherry picker' which is a mechanised pipe handling tool. 5.6 5. 5. this is the area where most deficiencies are found. Any maintenance work done on the stabbing board shall be concluded by a complete system function test to verify that all controls work correctly. as lifting equipment. This and other types of mechanised systems shall be included in the preventive maintenance procedures and be additionally subjected to pre-job safety checks. Stabbing boards shall be included in the rig's preventive maintenance procedures.
2 Inspection . whichever comes first • NDT inspection in disassembled condition of: – elevators. in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.3 Slings Inspection of wire rope slings. immediate inspection is required. hooks. kelly-spinner. every 12 months – crown block . shackles. • weekly routine visual inspection in assembled condition • thorough cleaning and visual inspection in assembled condition after every rig move or every month. jarring or working stuck pipe.general Inspection of drilling lifting equipment is based in part on 'Specification for Drilling and Production Hoisting Equipment' (Ref.wear of high points of the sling caused by dragging the sling across decks contributes to early broken wires.6. A sling which has wires worn to half normal diameter on high points should be replaced 62 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . etc shall be marked with the safe working load (SWL).HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • improperly stored equipment • lack of effective preventive maintenance systems. e. fork lift trucks and gin pole trucks shall be appropriately inspected and certified for hoisting/lifting with a clearly displayed SWL. top drive. unless properly engineered. Slings shall be rejected when there is: • severe deformation . lugs spider. This also applies to the derrick or mast after such operations. tongs every six months – Kelly. pulleys. wire slings.g. shackles and winches Slings should be tested and tagged on a six monthly basis and marked with SWL and inspection date. wire. shall be prohibited.g. links. kelly-cock.6. Only experienced persons from the rig crews should be authorised to operate hoisting equipment. The safe working load for a system of interdependent equipment shall refer to the weakest component of the system. 28). hooks. tested and certified and thereafter regularly inspected. 5. It is recommended that the Toolpusher maintains a list of authorised operators of hoisting machinery. Hoisting of heavy equipment. All hoisting equipment shall be adequately guarded. slips. Particular emphasis should be given to the inspection of top drive equipment. tools and tubulars is a major cause of injuries. The use of 'home-made' lifting gear. hooks. designed. heave compensatory and deadline anchor every two years. bails. Components used for lifting such as sheaves. hook and swivel. etc.travelling block. They shall be visually inspected by a competent member of staff before all lifting operations. Lifting machinery such as cranes. winches. depending on service conditions Whenever lifting equipment has been subjected to high dynamic loading. 5. e. and pin and box connections.where strands are severely kinked or the core is protruding • severe wear . The quality of inspections performed by junior staff should be verified on a selective basis by supervisors.
flat spots. securely attached to the elevator body. Check pick-up strops for damage and make sure swivel is in good condition .5 Equipment • termination damage • severe corrosion (be aware of the possibility of internal corrosion) • no SWL indicated or last inspection date/colour code missing. Check condition. broken wires.see notes on shackles. Secure pins with wire to prevent them vibrating free – threads of the pin should be undamaged and without appreciable wear • Never replace the pin of a shackle with a bolt. Winches • Check condition of wire . spacing and correct installation of bulldog clips • Check condition and operation of brake . Bolts may not be to the same standard and could fail • Check shackle and pin for distortion • Check alignment of the pin holes.4 Elevators Use on the correct size and type for the pipe being run.see notes on wire rope slings. 5. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 63 . visible core.brake rims and bands shall be in good condition and the linkage operating freely. heat treated for optimum strength and are a tolerance fit. Inspect latch. the untapped hole should not be too large. Hooks and shackles • Check that the SWL is adequate for the lifts • Use only hooks and shackles marked with the SWL • Check shackle and pin for excessive wear: – make sure that the pin is free.look for kinks. For single joint elevators ensure latch has a retaining split pin in good condition and of the correct size. hinge pin and body for any defects. etc Ensure that wire runs freely in the mast • Check condition of eye .a thimble should be used. Physically check by using a joint of pipe for the correct lift profile of the elevators. Shackle pins are made of high alloy steel.6. Check that shackles are not worn and that nuts have retaining pins . but not loose in the tapped hole. Avoid bands becoming contaminated with oil or mud or water • Check hook and safety catch are in good condition and the swivel is operating freely • Perform MPI inspections on winch pedestals and securing mechanisms (bolts or welds) at six monthly intervals • Winches with a free wheeling device should not be used • The safe working load of the wire and the winch securing mechanism shall be greater than the maximum winch pull (stall at overload).
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 5. The retention method shall be such that impact by the travelling block does not dislodge them • that there are no loose items at the crown block or travelling block and the water table is clean • that compensatory chain guards on the travelling block are properly fastened with safety straps (if applicable). Field operations indicate that the following safety factors should be used.5 3. complete with shaft end clamps to prevent the sheaves from rotating loose from their bearings • that jumper bars are fitted over the sheaves • that wooden sleepers are secured to the underside of the crown and are undamaged.6.0 2.0 3. This is to ensure that the maximum amount of pipe is in the hole.5 Crown block and travelling block Regularly check the following points: • that the crown block is securely bolted with clamps onto the water table.6 Wire ropes Safety factor Safety factor is the ratio between the nominal strength of wire rope and the calculated load. Minimum safety factor Sand line Rotary drilling line Mast raising and lowering line Hoisting services other than rotary drilling Rotary drilling line while running casing Drilling line whilst pulling on stuck pipe 3.6. should the well start to flow.5 2.5 When a wire rope is operated close to its minimum safety factor. the following points relating to this operation should be considered: • the operation should preferably be carried out when the bit is inside the casing.5 2. Drilling line When slipping or cutting the drilling line. impact and acceleration or deceleration of loads. 5. the drill floor shall be cleared of all personnel not associated with the operation • safety harnesses shall be worn by persons working on the travelling block 64 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . near shoe depth on the trip in. At this stage the well has been observed stable during most of the trip • slipping the block line shall never be carried out during any of the following conditions: – drill pipe out of hole on a non-cased well – drill pipe is in open hole • a kelly cock in the open position shall be installed • before starting. operating personnel should exercise care to minimise shock.
the crown-o-matic shall be reset and tested. There shall be no delegation of this task to staff of lesser experience and responsibility. Man riding winches are used to move personnel to otherwise inaccessible places both above and below the rotary table. This may require the use of radios and the placement of an observer in a position where the safety of the operation can be effectively monitored. Good communication is required at all time. 5. When using a bosun's chair. shall be discontinued until the operation involving the use of the winch is completed. Routine operations can be classified as follows: • work in general up to 2 m (6 ft) above rig floor • work on kelly and swivel. the travelling block shall be hung off or otherwise secured • slipping and cutting operations shall always be supervised by the Driller on shift. liners.e.6.7 Catlines and catheads Catheads shall not be used as winches as the SWL of the lifting rope cannot be accurately assessed or easily controlled. While cutting the line.g. The recommended slip/cut procedures are given in the Driller's Handbook issued by SIEP Training Division (HRTH/5) to all drilling staff. 5. The drilling line should be subjected to a systematic slip and cut programme. at the monkey board level where the height of the operation effects the judgement of the winch operator). Any other operation which may interfere with the movement of the winch.7 Blowout Preventers (BOP) Blowout prevention equipment shall be installed. when set back in its scabbard • installation of circulation head for casing. hoisting or rotating. 5). 5.8 Man riding winches Winches used for the transportation of personnel shall be equipped with an automatic fail safe brake and have non-rotating wire rope in good condition installed. i. etc • upper kelly cock operation below 12 m (40 ft) • operations associated with wireline lubricators All other operations are non-routine and will require a work permit.6. Derrick-floor mounted air winches should be used. Certification of the winch for man riding is required and the winch shall be so marked. After this operation. (e. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 65 . Close inspection by the Driller of end clamps on the fast line and dead line anchor clamp equipment is mandatory. Non-routine operations shall be carried out under the permit-to-work system.5 Equipment • during slipping use the dead line anchor brake. tested and operated in line with the latest version of the 'Pressure Control Manual for Drilling and Workover Operations' (Ref. a safety belt shall be worn and attached to the winch wire at a level independent of the chair. The winch shall be under the control of a fully competent member of the crew instructed on the correct procedures to be followed and the safety precautions to be observed.
All pipe fittings. 5. The manufacturer's instruction regarding safe operation should be strictly followed.3 Hydraulic bolt tensioning equipment In the past this equipment has caused some serious accidents. are kept in a BOP history file • to ensure that the manufacturer's BOP operating manual is followed and no alterations are made to the BOP equipment without written approval from the manufacturer • to ensure that only original manufacturer's spares are used on BOPs.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling The BOP stack in use shall be pressure tested initially before drilling out of the casing shoe and thereafter weekly. casing head housing. safety nets and work vests shall be used as appropriate during BOP handling. not mud. When failure of the BOP equipment or its control system is detected. Drilling or workover operations shall not proceed until blowout prevention equipment is found to be serviceable by visual inspection and appropriate pressure testing. He should also be in possession of a current well control certificate.2 Shear rams Shear rams on surface BOP stacks shall be able to shear the tubular section of all drill pipe in use with an operating pressure of 21. Working platforms should be built around the BOP stack. 5.7. Bridge crane. No alteration should be made to this equipment without the consent of the manufacturer. operations shall cease for repairs. then the testing interval can be extended up to a maximum of two weeks. 5. well casings. It should be verified that installed piston sizes and operating pressures are adequate for the forces required.4 Store keeping and spare part control Store keepers should organise receipt and use of spare parts on the basis of 'first in . When using ROVs to assist with BOP operation.000 kPa (3000 psi) at expected well close-in pressure. drill pipe or tubing shall have a working pressure rating at least equivalent to that of the component to which it is fitted.7. confirm that the ROV is fully functional before the job starts and that all personnel involved are fully briefed on job requirements.1 Recommendations specific to subsea BOPs All drilling units with a subsea stack should have a Subsea Engineer who is responsible for maintenance. The use of air conditioned store rooms for rubber goods is recommended.7. overhead crane or lifting rings with cable attachments shall be properly designed and functional. Suitable lifting equipment to handle BOPs is essential. Safety lines. Seals and packers should be stored under conditions recommended by the manufacturer. This is particularly important for rubber seals and packers.first out'. Water. 5. where ageing is likely to cause material deterioration. etc. shall be used for testing BOP stacks. both scheduled and unscheduled. For any operation it is recommended: • to verify that records of maintenance.7. valves and unions placed on or connected to blowout prevention equipment. 66 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Should a sequence of successful tests indicate that greater confidence can be placed in the stack and control equipment.
Chiksans and lines used for potential high pressure applications shall be snubbed and anchored. For service where reciprocation or rotation is planned. The use of equipment with metal to metal seals is recommended. appropriately rated hoses should be used with a swivel type circulating head. 5.e. The 'Weco' type hammer unions for connecting these hoses can be mismatched particularly the 2" and 3" 602. the following safety features should be considered for the control systems: • a relief valve installed • accumulator low-pressure alarm • reservoir low-level alarm • air-driven hydraulic fluid charge pumps • electric-driven hydraulic pump to be connected to the emergency generator • fail safe regulators • manifold pressure is consistent with ram closing force requirements at anticipated maximum surface pressure (high pressure wells) • accumulator capacity at elevated manifold pressures still meets requirements • fire resistant hydraulic control hoses and control fluid • appropriate location of remote operating panels • redundant functions plugged off • hydraulic control hose are tested to the rated pressure of the unit (i. All such equipment of 2'' diameter and above. 5. To avoid this it has been repeatedly recommended to standardise on series 1502 (15.4).7. testing and for kill lines.8. The connection of the union to the pipe shall be of welded or integral construction. fracturing. tested and operated according with the 'Pressure Control Manual for Drilling and Workover Operations' (Ref.8 5. which is used for service above 13. Chiksans shall remain static when under pressure. by-pass is opened).5 Equipment 5.8.2 Restrictions on use Never use a Chiksan in combination with any rotating operation. In addition to the instrumentation to indicate the availability of air pressure and fluid pressure. 5). Chiksan hoses shall not be used for operations where reciprocation under pressure is required as they are not designed for this purpose.1 Steel Hoses (Chiksan and Coflexip) Standardisation of HP unions Steel long-sweep hoses (Chiksans) or flexible armoured hoses (Coflexip) are often used for cementing.000 psi) couplings.5 BOP control system BOP control systems shall be installed. shall have unions of welded or integral construction (see 6.800 kPa (2000 psi). EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 67 . acidising. 1002 and 1502 series.
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2 Taking tubulars on site The following points should be taken into account: • check that the pipe rack area is clear of obstructions and ready to accept the tubulars in the correct order • ensure that an experienced banksman is positioned so that the crane operator can see him and the load at the same time • take care when removing bulldog retaining clips from transit slings: remove the clip with the crane taking the strain then stand clear as the crane relaxes its load. and forbidden unless the upper rows of pipe are fully choked and secured in position • use tag lines to steer and steady the load • make sure the maximum weight to be lifted is accurately known • separate rows of tubulars with dunnage. Keep footing clean and secure. This applies to air winch lines. elevators. tubulars handling equipment should be cleaned and inspected. ensure that racked pipe is adequately secured • ensure that any cleaning of box and pin ends will not create a hazard while handling. slings or swivels attached to single joint elevators. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 69 . sheaves. links. generally by the Assistant Driller. breaking down and tripping a drill string.1. chains. Retaining posts shall be in place offshore and end stops securely fixed in place on land locations. In general. Refer to 5. 6. to ensure serviceability. ensure that the hooks are inserted into the pin and box end of the same joint. The running of casing is also discussed. before removing transit slings • beware of joints that have not fallen into line • if using 'Pelican' hooks to sort out individual joints. 6. 29) They are considered to be items of lifting gear and shall therefore be subjected to the same inspection schedule as other items of loose lifting equipment.1 OPERATIONS Tubulars Handling This paragraph considers the safety of the process of moving tubulars on the rig and the operations of making up. swivels. Inserting one hook into the pin of one joint and the other hook into the box of another can cause personnel to be trapped when the crane lifts • in the advent of adverse weather. blocks.6 Operations 6 6. and any high pressure cleaning away from the handling crew • walking on top of tubulars should be discouraged at all times. pulleys. shackles. Threaded lifting subs/plugs/buttons/caps used for handling drill collars shall be manufactured from suitable material. single joint elevators. lifting eyes. will have the same properties as drill collars and conform with 'Rotary Drilling Equipment' (Ref. etc.1. hooks.6 for details. overhead cranes. Bear in mind the load bearing capacity of the soil when racking pipe at surface locations. slings.1 Certification and testing All lifting equipment shall be certified. Prior to every usage. chain hoists.
Two slings should be used.5"/ 8. or a side door elevator when a lifting plug is used. the rating of the other may well be exceeded. one at each end and the drill collar(s) will be lifted horizontally. when an 'outline' is in use between a drilling tender and a jacket. use a lifting cap with a shackle installed in the eye or bail. Drill collars Drill collars size 6. but ensure that the recess shoulders are indeed square and do not impose loads on the elevator latch.25"/ 4. Extreme care needs to be taken in removing the bundling slings to avoid trapping feet or hands 6.25"/ 7. either attached to a lifting cap with a shackle. They should also be dimensionally checked periodically to ensure that they have not become worn below the diameter at which they can be adequately supported by an elevator.1.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Pipe bundles All bundles shall be lifted and transported horizontally. either a full strength or a single joint elevator should be used on these recesses. In many cases. Tag lines should be used to steer and steady the load.3 Drill pipe Transferring tubulars to the rig floor For manual handling of singles of drill pipe. secured with bulldog clips.25"/ 6. All other sizes of drill collar should be handled by crane one at a time. If one winch is inadvertently slacked off. This requires that the single should first be set in the mouse hole for torquing up. In this case. a securing device shall be used to prevent the pipe rolling off the forks.75") can be picked up by crane using a two-point lifting sling keeping joints horizontal and presenting them to the derrick floor where they can be taken over with a full strength elevator. or use an appropriate single joint elevator under the tool joint box. 70 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Remember that the lifting sub/plug should first be torqued-up before the drill collar is added to the drilling assembly and subsequently the full assembly is lifted out of the slips and run in the hole. The most widely used method is with a crane and wire rope slings on each end of the bundle.25" to 4. is to suspend the bundle with two wire rope slings and raise or lower with an air winch. Do not use two winches to pick up heavy drill collars.25" and smaller should be bundled in groups of not more than three.75") can also be picked up using a suitably rated air winch. supported at each end. Small sizes (6. either a centre latch DP elevator when a lifting sub is used. Drill collars All sizes (9. or using an appropriate single joint elevator under the shoulder of a lifting sub/plug/button. An alternative method. When transporting pipe with a forklift. be aware of maximum load rating to avoid overturning forces being applied. When using a forklift truck. Lifting bundles (and/or suspending them) from one end only is prohibited. drill collars are provided with elevator recesses at the box-end (normally squareshouldered).
For picking up singles of casing, use a single joint elevator. For certain types of casing (e.g. flush washover pipe) it is necessary to use lifting nipples. Alternatively casing joints can be presented to the derrick floor suspended horizontally from a crane with a two-point lifting sling, and then be taken over using either a single joint elevator or a full strength side door casing elevator. If quick release pin protectors are not being used, verify that steel pin and box protectors are properly installed. Improperly installed protectors may drop off during transit to the rig floor and frequently become cross threaded and difficult to remove.
Same as casing, though small size tubing joints or externally flush pipe (such as blast joints) can also be picked up by an appropriate single joint or full strength elevator under the shoulder of a lifting button.
Conductor joints are normally presented to the derrick floor whilst horizontally suspended from a crane with a two-point lifting sling, and then picked up by a purpose built full-strength elevator (e.g. a MACK elevator) either under the shoulder of a coupling, or under pre-installed pad eyes. Short conductor strings (depending on their weight) can be picked up by lifting slings suspended from the travelling block or hook, attached to a pair of pre-installed lifting pad eyes (welds to be checked for cracks).
Marine riser joints are normally presented to the derrick floor while horizontally suspended from a crane with a two-point lifting sling, and then picked up by a full-strength elevator latched around a lifting sub (or nipple) which is part of the marine riser running tool. When handling the telescoping joint, ensure it is locked in the closed position.
Rigging up and running casing
Running casing safely is very much a team effort. High levels of awareness and communication are essential if the operation is to be carried out smoothly. Hold a pre-shift safety meeting to ensure that all personnel are aware of the operation to be carried out and of their duties. Do not compromise on safety. During the early stages of running, allow the team to get into the swing of the operation before increasing the pace. Points to be highlighted at the safety meeting are: • awareness - be aware of what is happening around you. Look out for yourself and other crew members • communication - know your own job and that of others. If unsure, ask. Do not let dangerous situations develop, tell the Driller immediately • do not block the Driller's view - the Driller must be able to see everything that is happening on the drill floor and in particular the joint in the V-door • be careful where you stand - do not allow yourself to be trapped and crushed if the joint swings free. Select a position that allows an escape route
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • familiarise crews with the operation of any new tools.
• Ensure there is an adequate weather window to complete the job. • Ensure that slings and shackles are compatible and of a similar rating. • Secure shackle pins with wire. • Never use a transit strop for any purpose other than securing the load in transit. • When rigged up, take the time to double check lifting equipment. If in doubt, ask.
Making up or laying down tubulars, e.g. drill collars
The crew should be briefed on all aspects of the job, i.e. the intended method, the lifting equipment to be used and the duties of the individual crew members. Below are listed some basic safety points to bear in mind when carrying out this operation. Check the SWL of each sling. The SWL shall never be exceeded. The approximate weight of various sizes of drill collars (DCs) are given below for guidance.
Size 6.25" 8.25" 9.5" Weight for 1 joint (9 m or 30 ft) 1.25 tons 2.5 tons 3.5 tons
Allow for the angle of the wire when estimating the load. Note that when lifting or laying down DCs to or from the end of the catwalk using the deck winch and the V-door winch, the load on the V-door winch increases by approximately half as much again due to the angle of the wire. An 8.25" collar weighing approximately 2.5 tons, pulled to the end of the catwalk and suspended just above the catwalk will be exerting a load of approximately 3.75 tons on the V-door winch wire. Lifting caps shall be in good condition and hammered up tight. Lifting lugs on handling subs are for lifting the subs themselves and not for lifting tubulars. If the use of two winches or a crane with a winch cannot be avoided, clear communications between all parties involved is essential. Do not stand on the catwalk or the V-door stairs when tubulars are moving up or going down from the drill floor. Do not allow yourself to be trapped if the pipe breaks free; always have an escape route. When using the winch ensure the winch wire is spooled onto the drum properly. This will prevent the wire from being crushed and avoid shock loads when improperly spooled wire jumps free.
Elevators and slips
The elevator is a major cause of injuries on drilling rigs. They can be generally classified as follows: • caught between elevator and pipe
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
6 Operations • caught in the closing mechanism • caught between elevator and other object • overstrain. Elevators should be maintained in accordance with 'Specification for Drilling and Production Hoisting Equipment (Ref. 28) and 'Hoisting Tool Inspection and Maintenance Procedures' (Ref. 30). Latches, latch springs, hinge pins and elevator shoulder should be inspected before use. Jarring with the elevator is potentially dangerous. Jarring should be carried out using the kelly. If possible, after removing the kelly spinner. Following any prolonged jarring operation, an inspection of the hoisting equipment shall be carried out. Manufacturers of top drive systems have documented procedures governing such inspections. Use the correct size and type of elevator for the items being handled. For drill pipe use only drill pipe elevators For picking up casing and tubing use single joint casing/tubing elevators. Never lower the first or subsequent joints in the hole with a single joint elevator.
Drill floor operations
A high proportion of accidents on the drill floor involve the use of tongs. Injuries result from being caught between tongs and being struck by swinging tongs. All tongs should be securely attached and anchored. Tong safety lines should be of sufficient length, preferably allowing a 90° breakout angle between the lines, but short enough to prevent over rotation of the tongs. The tong jaws including the dies should be inspected regularly for size and condition. Tongs shall be maintained and replaced well before they become worn to the point of being unsafe. Hinge pins should be secured by a nut which should itself be locked in place by a device such as a split pin. All tong counter balances and parts thereof shall be so restrained, guarded, or located as to prevent them falling or striking crew members if the suspension line breaks. Remember that suspension lines are classified as lifting devices and should be inspected, certified and colour coded in the same manner as slings. Their history should be recorded in the sling register. While changing tong/slip dies ensure that: • goggles are worn as hammer blows can cause splinters to develop • gloves are used • working area is clear and unaffected by other operations in progress. Back-up post failure has potentially serious consequences. A systematic approach to back-up post inspection and planned preventive maintenance is required which includes MPI inspections on a six monthly basis. They should also be included in the weekly/monthly drilling equipment inspection check list.
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995
During back-off operations. Keep the forces involved fully under control and keep the crew out of the potentially dangerous area. pump a heavy pill to avoid pulling 'wet' pipe. A communication system should be operational between rig floor and monkey board. Note the following: • before starting a trip. slips are often used to transmit the required back-off torque. Make-up and break-out of assemblies Drill collars and other assembly components should be made-up at low speed. Working torque in a string Particular care should always be taken when applying torque or releasing it from the string. the clutch shall not be engaged fully until the floor crew are at a safe distance from the tongs. the Driller is satisfied with the hole condition. Crew members shall never stand behind tongs when assemblies or tubulars are made up or broken out. Use a pipe spinner • never make up a connection with rotary table while using a tong as back-up. taking into account the correct friction factor. ensure that the equipment required is in a serviceable condition • avoid using the rotary table to spin out pipes. Consider severing drill collars (at the stress relieving recess in the pin) as an alternative to backing them off. flow checks and use of the trip tank should be part of the routine tripping procedures in and out of the hole • do not install wipers until. It is mandatory that slips are properly secured with a wire sling to prevent them from being thrown out of the rotary if the drill string jumps during this operation. the shock loading could result in breaking of the back-up wire • never attempt to stab a single into the mouse hole when the Driller is lowering the travelling block • ensure the crown safety device is correctly installed and adjusted at the start of each tour and following drilling line slipping or cutting operations • monitoring of mud levels. The make-up sensators shall be maintained in good working order and final torque should be applied with a 900 angle between the tong arm and the make-up line. Once the strain is taken on the tongs when making or breaking a connection. Where height above the tool joint prevents the operation of the kelly through the rotary table. Spinning chain shall never be used. Power tongs (hydraulic or air) should be equipped with a safety relief valve with a pressure setting not higher than the manufacturer's specification. though hydraulic tongs or an iron roughneck should be considered to improve rig floor safety. they act as obstructions to the visual checking of mud levels • while pipes are being moved from or to the rig floor the catwalk should be kept free of personnel • when hole conditions allow.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Tripping Ensure that the crew is up to strength and individuals are aware of tasks to be carried out. consider an initial blind back-off such that the kelly or top drive can be installed prior to attempting further releasing operations. 74 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Use the kelly or top drive whenever possible. Chain tongs can be used for initial make-up. Make-up torque values should be checked in the Driller's Handbook to ensure that only the correct torque loading is applied.
g. All hazardous substances shall be stored in proper containers and properly labelled in languages understood by all on the rig site. Prolonged use of coveralls contaminated with oil based muds should be avoided. in addition to goggles and gloves. calcium bromide. Personnel shall be made aware of the potential hazards and the required protective equipment. and from each other as appropriate (e. as these chemicals may burn skin and damage eyes. swallowing or inhalation of harmful chemicals. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 75 . In view of the similarity of atapulgite salt water gel to asbestos. goggles.1 Handling of Chemicals and Gas Cylinders Handling of harmful chemicals Personnel required to handle or use hazardous chemicals shall be instructed regarding their safe handling. Rubber gloves. be injurious to the skin.2.6 Operations 6. Attention shall be paid to the provision of adequate data on chemicals used in mud logging and mud engineering applications. the use of this mud additive is not permitted.2 6. protective apron or other protective equipment shall be worn as appropriate when handling chemicals that may irritate. Skin/barrier creams shall be used by personnel who actually come into contact with muds and brines. The hazards should be indicated by signs posted on or near them. use and disposal. Hazardous chemicals shall be segregated from benign chemicals. or harmful if ingested. Solid free or low solid completion brines such as zinc bromide. Slicker suits shall be used for zinc and calcium bromide brines. etc shall be handled with extreme care and only under supervision. The rig medic shall hold copies of all Material Specification Data Sheets (MSDS) and the clinic shall be equipped to neutralise the effects of skin contamination. calcium chloride. fire hazards).
1 Gas Oxygen Acetylene Hydrogen Nitrogen Air Gases used in drilling operations Bottle colour Black Maroon Red Grey + black top Grey Valve thread R-hand L-hand L-hand R-hand R-hand Valve outlets • Combustible gas cylinders are screwed left-hand (anti-clockwise to close) and non-combustible gas cylinders are screwed right-hand (clockwise to close) • Never open a valve more than three revolutions. • Keep cylinders away from electrical welding tools and sources of heat. • Store cylinders upright if possible. skid or container. • Know the regulations concerning storage of liquids and liquefied petroleum gases in area of operation. A purpose-built basket. 76 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . (first in . and be raised off the ground.2. protected from sun and rain. Keep cylinder and valves clean and dry.2 Storing and handling of gas cylinders Gases most commonly used in drilling operations are: Table 6. • Always shut the main cylinder valve before moving a cylinder on a trolley. • Always store acetylene and propane upright to avoid the possibility of the gas in liquid form being discharged into the delivery hose. and chained/roped in position. Storage of gas cylinders • Cylinders should ideally be stored in the open. • Other than cylinders in use.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 6. • Never oil or grease any part of cylinders or fittings. • Do not use compressed gas stores for other products. One full turn is usually enough. Transporting of gas cylinders • Never roll a cylinder. • Do not use magnets or chain slings for lifting.first out). subjected to lifting equipment certification and inspection requirements. • Set cylinders in racks so that every bottle can be reached. Rotate stock. shall be used. segregate oxygen from acetylene and other combustible gases by a distance of at least 7 m.
flowlines. Movement of the BOP stack on a production platform.3 6. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 77 . 6.3. The risk can be reduced by closing in the relevant wells and depressuring the lines and vessels. drive or purge any system. This applies particularly to the use of nitrogen to charge high pressure systems (e. Tag lines shall also be attached to any load over 1 tonne weight and to any long loads such as bundles of drill pipe or casing.g. Portable analysers are available which indicate any Oxygen contamination. wellhead. for example.2 Heavy lifts No specific weight is given as the threshold for what is considered a heavy lift.6 Operations Using gas cylinders When there is any doubt about the quality control standards of gas suppliers the contents of bottles shall be checked before use. Failure to verify the purity of nitrogen has resulted in explosion and fatality. drillship and onto or off of a supply vessel. Oxygen shall never be used to fill. pipework and vessels under pressure.3. It is not unknown for combustible gases to be supplied in bottles colour coded for non-combustible gases. 6. It is important to ensure that tag lines do not become caught • Due account shall be taken of weather conditions before making any lift especially heavy lifts or loads with a large sail area such as steel sheets • Crane operations shall cease and the boom shall be laid down when necessary to prevent obstruction to helicopters. Similar hazards exist when raising and lowering masts on land. and loss of containment of. It is more a matter of considering what hazards exist and the potential consequences.1 Crane Operations Safe operating principles • Cranes shall only be operated by fully trained personnel who are authorised to use the equipment • Cranes shall only be operated when safety systems and instrumentation are in good working order and not inhibited • Crane drivers shall only be assisted by personnel who have received instruction as banksmen • The banksman shall check the security of loads and the slinging before signalling to the crane driver to commence the lift • Only the banksman is allowed to give hand or radio signals to the crane driver • The banksman shall always remain in sight of the crane driver and the load • Tag lines shall be attached to any load being moved on a semi-submersible. pulsation dampeners). presents the hazard of damage to. The operation of carrying out a heavy lift requires a work permit which will stipulate the appropriate precautions to be taken.
800 kPa (2000 psi). 6. ensure that no dummy components (e. • The potential energy level of compressed fluids shall be minimised by purging air/gases from the system.5. fatigue and other factors.1 Pressure Testing General • Ascertain the maximum working pressure rating of the weakest section to be tested. valves and fittings subject to pressures above 13. • Chiksan runs shall be avoided where possible and otherwise properly secured. appropriately set pressure relief devices shall be incorporated.4. Where spec. • All hose connections shall have a back-up jump chain or sling secured across them to restrain the hose in event of connection failure. All wellhead connections. • Pressure relief or limiting devices on the pump shall be verified as operational. slacken or hammer any item under pressure. the tensile load applied shall be within its load rating. this determines the maximum test pressure which can be applied. 31) • 'Hydrogen Sulphide' (Ref. has resulted in the Group recommendation that they should not be used in applications above 13.500 kPa (5000 psi). past experienced of failures due to corrosion.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 6. Available literature should be studied before drawing up H2S procedures. • Never attempt to tighten. clamped or welded. post 'DANGER' notices (if applicable).5 6. Cup-type testers should be suspended from drilled-out plug-type testers.4 6. 32) 78 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . If for any reason the test tool is suspended on drill pipe. thread protectors.800 kPa (2000 psi) shall be flanged. • Cordon off work area. breaks occur in a closed system. breaks) in a connected system. Personnel can be incapacitated by relatively low concentrations of H2S in a very short time and equipment can suffer catastrophic failure due to H2S embrittlement. • Visually inspect all equipment to be tested prior to testing. at the appropriate pressure before the test begins. • Announce testing is to take place over the public address system (if applicable).1 Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) General During drilling and workover operations the consequences of leaks or kicks with sour gas or crude can be very serious. Prior to applying test pressures. Recommended references are: • 'Guidelines for Detection and Control of Hydrogen Sulphide During Drilling Operations' (Ref.g. corrosion caps) are still installed on the equipment. Where possible avoid changes of specification (spec. Also the volume to be tested should be kept to a practical minimum. • All non-essential personnel shall be evacuated from the vicinity of equipment to be tested. Though screwed line pipe is covered by an API code up to 34.
shall be of chemical composition. 6. proposed well depth and H2S concentrations. heat treatment. • designation of briefing areas • evacuation plan • authorities to be notified in case of emergency. Kill and choke hoses shall be of a type suitable for this kind of service. Information about the area and known field conditions. The drilling programme shall highlight this hazard and give details of controls and recovery measures in place. 33) • 'Contingency Plan for Drilling Sour Oil and/or Gas Wells' (Ref. 35). hardness and trim which complies with current metallurgical specifications defined by 'Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells' (Ref.5. outlining each party's responsibilities.5. by whom and at what stage • a list of emergency medical facilities including locations and/or addresses and telephone numbers.3 Equipment Blowout preventer (BOP) equipment Blowout preventer equipment selected for H2S wells. The contingency plan should include: • procedures for the following conditions.6 Operations • 'Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulphide' (Ref. provides a powerful H2S awareness aid when training personnel. including ancillary items such as the choke manifold. 34) The video 'The Silent Sniper'. available through SIEP. should be obtained and taken into consideration. A study should be made of the geological and geographical features of the area. pressures. in order to predict the expected areas where H2S may be encountered or may accumulate. including responsibilities and duties of personnel – pre-alarm condition – moderate danger to life – extreme danger to life.2 Planning for H2S A contingency plan shall be drawn up when H2S may be expected during well operations. Be aware that H2S can arise from stagnant mud (sulphate reducing bacteria) and may be found in little used tanks and in casing annuli. the Company Drilling Supervisor should review the drilling programme with the drilling contractor and service contractors. 6. In the pre-spud meeting. Procedures should be in place 350 m above and/or one week prior to the anticipated encountering of a hydrogen sulphide zone. including temperatures. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 79 . A mud programme should be drawn up which will cater for the pressures expected to be encountered. All personnel shall be fully trained in the use of H2S-related equipment. but should also include the use of an H2S scavenger and/or inhibitor to reduce the reaction of H2S on the drill string and related equipment.
4 Monitoring Each drilling facility shall have a fixed H2S monitoring and detection system that activates audible and visual warning alarms at a level of 10 ppm H2S in the air.5. Experience has shown that weighted drilling fluids heavily contaminated with H2S cannot be successfully treated. Flare lines Flare lines should be installed from the degasser. Vent lines shall be sized so that the back pressure they impose upon the separator vessel does not cause the mud leg to be evacuated at designed operating conditions. Drill pipe Lower grades of drill pipe. All flare lines should be equipped with the means for constant or automatic ignition. Disposal of such contaminated fluids in suitable ventilated locations with appropriate hazard warnings is therefore required. Note that H2S is denser than air and if not flared will still pose a hazard in low lying areas.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Flange. choke manifold. 33) 6. It is recommended that this system should have emergency battery power back-up. should be used in order to minimise hydrogen embrittlement of sulphide stress cracking. The equipment manufacturers instructions should be known and followed. A mud-gas separator used to extract gas containing H2S from drilling fluids should be tied into a vent line for burning. 36). Fixed H2S monitoring systems Fixed systems shall have a central readout panel located in an area where it will be constantly monitored. and mud-gas separator according to 'Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulphide' (Ref. H2S detection heads require regular calibration to retain their accuracy. Required locations for sensor heads: • bell nipple and/or diverter opening 80 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . capable of keeping the system operational for 12 hours without recharging. 33). so as not to release the gas into the atmosphere close to the rig. This requires that the line terminates away from the rig and not at the top of the mast. or pipe made from steel with anti-corrosive properties. Means to minimise hydrogen embrittlement and sulphide stress cracking or drill pipe can also be found in 'Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulphide' (Ref. Vacuum degassers/atmospheric mud-gas separator (poor boy separator) The vacuum degasser should be capable of effectively removing gases containing H2S from the drilling fluid. bonnet cover. Calibration checks shall be logged. bolting and nut material Each of these intended for H2S use should meet requirements prescribed in 'Valves and Wellhead Equipment' (Ref. The vent outlet on the vacuum degasser shall be extended so that the extracted gas can be routed to a remote area for flaring or connected into the atmospheric mud-gas separator line.
All warning devices located in hazardous zones shall be appropriately rated. 31). in order to establish a universal H2S warning system. Such devices shall be regularly checked and calibrated to provide a clear audible alarm at a level of 10 ppm in air.5. Personnel designated as 'essential' should move to assigned stations or job functions after having put on their breathing apparatus. warning devices shall be present at various stations on the drilling rig. For equipment selection.6 Operations • Driller's console • mud tanks • shale shaker • ventilation system of living quarters • wellhead cellar Suggested additional locations offshore: • lower hull pump or ballast room entered by hatchways located on main deck • mud pump room • barge engine room • poorly ventilated areas where personnel work. Portable gas detection instruments Frequent inspections of all poorly ventilated areas should be made with a portable gas detection instrument. move to the pre-designated briefing areas after having put on their breathing apparatus. The meaning of each warning signal shall be made known to all personnel on or around the work location. At least one portable instrument should be available for the detection of SO2. at the first warning. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 81 . 6. Detection devices should be available for use by all personnel on site. refer to 'Guidelines for Detection and Control of Hydrogen Sulphide During Drilling Operations' (Ref. This instrument should be capable of reading a minimum of 10 ppm of H2S.5 Alarm systems (H2S detection) In order for rig personnel to act once H2S is encountered. Non-essential personnel shall. Because of potential language barriers and the possibility of misunderstanding by drilling crew personnel. Amber warning lights should be of a rotating or flashing type. Warning lights on offshore rigs/platforms should be shielded from the outboard view so as not to be confused with navigational aids and lights. and be connected to the fixed H2S sensing system. The audible warning should be a yelping-type electronic siren. everyone shall be trained and conditioned to react to the audible and visual alarm system.
5. Practicality will normally dictate the installation of a cascade system in these circumstances. however.7 Additional safety equipment The following items should be available on the rig: • chalkboards and note pads or other communication aids • bullhorns • resuscitators 82 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .6 Personal protective equipment All personnel on a drilling location where H2S is anticipated shall have available to them a certified breathing apparatus. Refer to 'Hydrogen Sulphide' (Ref. 6. The use of chemical cartridge respirators is prohibited for service in H2S environments in drilling operations. Personnel shall always have access to a portable supply of air. Locations for breathing apparatus should include: • rig floor • derrick monkey boards • mud logging unit • shale shaker unit • pump rooms (mud and cement) • crew quarters • Toolpusher's and Company Drilling Supervisor's office • each designated briefing area • heliport • standby vessels. to cater for the eventuality that escape is necessary. 32) for further information. Individuals on site who are designated as essential personnel.5. if gas is detected. The storage locations of all protective breathing apparatus shall be such that the equipment can be quickly donned and is readily available to all personnel on and around the rig. as this will ensure the availability of a continuous source of breathable air. audible and visual: • Driller's console (audible and light) • engine room (audible and light) • mud room (audible) • living quarters (audible at each level) • central area of each structural level (audible and light) • control room. shall be provided with an apparatus that supplies air at positive pressure into a full face mask.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Location of H2S warning alarms. 6.
6. On land rigs.5. warning signs indicating 'DANGER .6 Operations • wind indicators • bug blowers • hazard warning signs • first-aid kit • stretcher • blankets • eyewash station. If it is necessary to pull the string wet after penetration of H2S . H2S detection equipment should be specified in the contract. When drilling in an area where hydrogen sulphide gas might be encountered. The H2S training programme shall be developed prior to the commencement of drilling operations and should include: • a new employee/visitor H2S induction training programme to be presented to all personnel arriving on site for the first time EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 83 .POISON GAS' shall be displayed in languages understood by all personnel on the rig. Breathing apparatus should be worn by personnel in the working area prior to circulating bottoms-up in case H2S is indicated in sufficient quantities to require the use of breathing apparatus.5. The same contractor. increased monitoring of the working area should be provided and protective breathing apparatus should be on standby and if necessary worn. will also provide detection equipment.9 Personnel training It is usual for a specialised contractor to be employed to install both a fixed (cascade) system and provide portable breathing apparatus. The following guidelines are recommended for the training of personnel. Cores to be transported should be sealed and marked indicating the presence of H2S. particularly on a land rig where the drilling contractor may not have a rig system installed. Where mud logging services are contracted. Maintenance. training and certification of personnel should be included in the package. Coring operations in H2S-bearing zones Breathing apparatus should be worn from 10 to 20 stands in advance of retrieving the core barrel and especially while the cores are being removed from the barrel. During the above operations. training specific to the H2S hazard in the area shall be carried out. flags at the location entrance gate are to be used to indicate that a hazardous situation exists. 6.bearing zones.8 Tripping Well control Every effort should be made to pull a dry drill string.
5. which may expose them to H2S. This examination should address conditions associated with respiratory problems and hypertension.5. including rest periods. drills for H2S emergency conditions shall be carried out once each week or more often if conditions warrant. and it is possible that breathing apparatus will no longer fit.10 H2S drills The contractor shall have a comprehensive H2S drill procedure in place which shall be agreed and practised prior to commencement of operations. Dentures Personnel wearing dentures. should be advised that they are to be worn at all times while they are exposed to the hazard. 84 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Of these two areas. while working in an H2S atmosphere. The purpose of the drill is to rehearse emergency response procedures and verify that all personnel on site know their duties according to the plan. or locations for assembly of personnel during extreme danger condition. At least two briefing areas shall be established on each drilling facility. This could prove fatal. the face takes on a different configuration. After training is completed. Records will be kept of drills and personnel that participated. Dentures should only be removed for cleaning purposes. Any individual with facial hair (beard) that could interfere with a complete mask seal is not permitted to work in an H2S environment as equipment leakage could prove fatal. including addresses and telephone numbers. should receive a physical examination.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • general information and physiological response to H2S and SO2 exposure • the use of self contained breathing apparatus and emergency escape equipment • procedures for operating conditions: – pre-alarm condition – moderate danger to life – extreme danger to life • responsibilities and duties of personnel for each operating condition • search and rescue procedures with designated staff • briefing areas. 6. 6. should be designated.11 Personnel Physical examinations All employees who are to work on a well site. If dentures are removed from the mouth. the one upwind at any given time is the safe briefing area • evacuation plan • agencies to be notified in case of an emergency • a list of medical personnel and facilities.
ladders. fire. etc) • the use of hearing protection. Once identified.6. From such a map. 6. ramps. health and access hazards. mufflers. They provide guidelines and recommendations concerning protection and preventative measures to avoid permanent hearing loss from exposure to noise. 38). However. often in the form of Shell Safety and Health Committee (SHC) documents. 40 hours/week. areas of noise over 85 dB(A) can be identified. 6. walkways and platforms shall be kept free of objects or substances which may create a tripping or slipping hazard or hinder or prevent emergency egress of personnel. this level of noise can interfere with mental concentration and certainly with sleep. It is therefore recommended that noise levels in sleeping areas are below 45 dB(A).1 Occupational Health and Safety Housekeeping A high standard of housekeeping is a necessary prerequisite for any drilling operation. A complete list of HSE documents available is printed on the inside back cover of all such documents. the inside BOP assembly). The acceptable noise dose limit of 85 dB(A) is applicable for shift lengths of eight hours/day or more. The work area shall be kept free of obstructions to allow free movement of personnel and machinery. 37) and 'Management Guidelines for Hearing Conservation' (Ref. provided the exposure time over one year does not exceed a total of 2000 hours. The accumulation of rubbish should be prevented as it presents. high noise levels can be addressed in three ways listed in order of preference: • the use of better engineered equipment • the use of noise reduction techniques (sound insulation. or access to emergency equipment. Contractors should have an occupational health programme in place in accordance with legal requirements and Shell Company guidelines.6. These contain recommendations for the implementation of a hearing conservation programme designed to suit the wide variety of Company activities world-wide.g. In practice. In particular the rig floor should be kept clean of any equipment which is not in use unless it is required for safety reasons (e. control of noise and the requirement for hearing protection can only be effective if a noise map of the worksite is prepared with all machinery running under normal operational load.2 Noise control The Group have issued the publications 'Noise Guide' (Ref.6. Details on specifics are available through HSE/2 in The Hague. Companies should ensure that the contractors' occupational health EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 85 . or in case of occasional overtime work. Levels in accommodation used for off-duty activities shall not exceed 70 dB(A). Local legislation may demand a lower limit in some areas. such as the cementing unit also need to be mapped. Signs indicating noise hazards shall be posted and appropriate hearing protection equipment shall be freely available for all personnel working in the high noise area. Stairways. Areas less frequently used.3 Contractors' occupational health The following is guidance from Group Health Advisers for specifying to contractors the requirements of an occupational health programme.6 6.6 Operations 6.
Appropriate records should be held in order to be able to monitor the performance of the occupational health programme and to identify problem areas requiring more attention. engineering controls. Each drilling contractor should appoint an occupational health focal point with the task to co-ordinate the implementation of the occupational health programme. and those associated with life style and the environment • assessment of risk to health to determine the need for and type of control measures (e. smoking). use of personal protective equipment.7 Permit-to-work The permit-to-work is a written document authorising persons to carry out a specific task. sanitary facilities.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling programmes are managed in a way that is compatible with Company standards by specifying these requirements in contractual arrangements and by regular monitoring and auditing the contractors' performance regarding occupational health. instructing and training of the workforce • health surveillance • record keeping • first-aid and medical emergency response procedures. potable water. In general. Sufficient resources (expert advisers. It ensures that proper consideration is given to the risks and that they are dealt with prior to work commencing. facilities and budgets) shall be available to ensure that the implementation of the occupational health programme meets legal and Company standards. 6.g. warning them of the possible dangers and spelling out precautions needed for the job to be done safely. work procedures. use of alcohol and drugs. accommodation) • noise and vibration • ionising radiation • ergonomics • lighting • life-style factors (e. contractors should apply the same principles as are contained in Shell's Occupational Health Management Guidelines with emphasis being given to the following aspects: • identification of all health hazards (covering health hazards at work. practices and programmes • informing. vaccination programmes and employee assistance programmes) • planning and implementation of control measures and preparation of in-house guidance on procedures.g. The objectives are: • to ensure the proper authorisation of non-routine or hazardous work • to make clear to the person(s) carrying out the job the risks involved and precautions to be taken • to ensure that the person responsible for an area of the installation is aware of all work being done there 86 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Specific aspects to be addressed normally include: • infectious diseases (including tropical diseases) • dermatitis • general hygiene (food storage and preparation.
emissions of substances which are harmful to the environment.8. The greatest impact drilling operations have on the environment relates to the discharge of mud and drilled cuttings. extra precautions will be necessary to reduce it to levels at which it ceases to be a significant nuisance. 6. These levels will vary depending on location. As part of the effort to minimise this impact extensive research is ongoing to find viable alternatives to oil based mud systems. EP 95-0315 Guidelines on Permit to Work Systems provides recommendations on implementing a permitto-work system. 42) 6. All personnel shall have a good understanding of the permit system which should define: • the types of work requiring permits • documented procedure covering the permit system • clear definition of authority levels for permit issue and authorisation • checking of workplace conditions by the competent party • centralised holding and control of live permits • permit close-out system • permit handover mechanism • mechanism for checking effects of changed conditions on permit validity The permit-to-work is authorised by the senior person on site after he has assured himself that all necessary precautions have been taken and that all those working in the area on other duties are aware of the activity. The rig contracting strategy should include an assessment of the planned programme of work with respect to the environmental issues and define such things as noise limitations in the tender documents. 39) • 'EP Environmental Assessment Guide' (Ref. 41) • 'Making the Most of Drilling Waste Management' (Ref. Documents addressing environmental subjects include: • 'Environmental Management Guidelines' (Ref. Noise maps of rigs being bid should be requested.8 Environmental Hazards Group policy is to reduce. 40) • 'E&P Waste Management Guidelines' (Ref.6 Operations • to provide a record showing that the method of work and the precautions needed have been checked by the appropriate competent person.1 Noise When working in the vicinity of housing or other areas sensitive to noise levels below the threshold where hearing damage occurs. 6) • 'Environmental Auditing Guide' (Ref. Where simultaneous production and drilling operations are taking place the Company Drilling Supervisor shall be a signatory to the permit. Permits shall be revalidated at the beginning of each shift. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 87 . and ultimately to eliminate.
The strategy can be applied to drilling operations to deal more effectively with waste. evaluate and verify information obtained • formulation of conclusions and recommendations. 42) sets out the necessary steps for carrying out an environmental audit. 'Making the Most of Drilling Waste Management' (Ref. which contains many recommended practices on drilling waste management should be used by the Company as a planning tool to develop an effective programme suited to the operation. The above referenced document (Ref. 6.8.3 Waste management General aspects of waste management are described in 'E&P Waste Management Guidelines' (Ref.2 Environmental auditing The 'Environmental Auditing Guide' (Ref. diluted or concentrated. focusing on business issues associated with waste and the implementation of new techniques and technologies in waste management.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 6. 6) has been prepared specifically to address drilling wastes. changes in technology and changes in products • Reuse by returning the material to the process in its original form • Recycling material for resource recovery or as a by-product • Recover by incineration and making use of the energy developed • Residue is the final resulting waste material which cannot be managed by any of the previous four methods and is either used as landfill. chemically or biologically. A structured waste management strategy is important from a cost standpoint and for environmental protection. or stabilised physically. 41). 88 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . The elements of such a strategy are: • Reduction of waste through good operating practices. namely: • the preliminary collection of basic data about the site of operations and the operation itself • inspections and interviews at the site to extend. incinerated.8. 6).
With respect to radioactive sources. Only certified slings.000 lb. In addition a two-way intercom shall be installed to enable good communication between the logging winch operator and the operators on the rig floor. shall be considered as lifting equipment and shall therefore have the safe working load clearly marked on each item. which shall be updated whenever changes take place. etc shall be cleared from the drill floor area. The rig floor is to be cleaned of mud. chains and shackles are to be used to secure the upper or lower pulleys. The upper and lower sheaves. The pad-eye shall also be load certified and inspected (NDT) annually. grease or other extraneous material. The chain shall be in visibly good condition.1. and that the rig floor is cleared of non-essential material and equipment. 7.5 micro-sieverts/hr.2 Rigging up When the Driller is entirely satisfied that the well is stable.7 Associated Activities 7 7. generally the drilling contractor Toolpusher on land rigs or OIM on offshore rigs. A secondary safety sling should be used at all times. Non-essential equipment such as bits.1. Rotary tongs are to be secured away from the rotary area and cover plates are to be installed over the single hole. which includes a diagram indicating the rate of radioactive emissions at the edge of the container and the distances. he shall also be provided with storage details. rotary bushings and any other open spaces. Such chains shall be tagged to clearly show the age and rating of the chain. He shall inform the senior person on site and the contract holder of any precautions that need to be taken to assure safe operations and of any eventuality which impacts upon safe operations.10 for further details. It is essential that there is sufficient lighting available for the logging winch man to clearly see the drill floor area. Continuous monitoring of well fluid gains or losses during logging operations is his prime responsibility. The chain eye should be secured to the lower sheave shackle by a single chain which is attached to a main member of the rig substructure. in all directions. See 7.1. the logging contractor can commence rigging up. retains overall responsibility for all site activities. If the fixing point is a pad-eye. then it shall have been welded by a coded welder and certified free from any defect. together with other equipment suspended in the derrick. lifting plugs. Throughout wireline logging activity the Driller on shift remains responsible for overall safety on the rig floor and for maintaining primary pressure control over the well. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 89 . If the upper pulley is to be secured on the elevators. at which the rate of emissions are measured at 1 micro-sievert/hr and 2. bottom hole assembly components. less than three years old and a minimum of 5/8" diameter with a SWL of 22. his employer and the Operator.1 ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES Electric Wireline Operations Responsibilities The senior person on site. The Logging Engineer is responsible for ensuring that all wireline operations are performed to the technical and safety standards laid down by legislation. ensure that the elevator latch closes properly and that the swivel on the travelling block is locked. The intercom shall be certified suitable for zone 1 hazardous area use. The lower sheave is attached to a main substructure member by chain.1 7. He shall be provided with an inventory of all explosives and radioactive sources on site.
Prior to starting work. During the job.1. fill-up pumps and BOP controls.3 Logging operations During logging operations.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling The lower sheave shall be fitted with finger and spoke protectors. All other persons are to be excluded from the working area throughout the operation. A register of explosives shall be kept on site by both the Logging Engineer and the Person in Charge (usually the OIM offshore and contractor Toolpusher on shore).4 Pressure control The pressure rating of the wireline lubricator shall always be at least equal to the maximum anticipated surface pressure.5 Storage and working with explosives General All operations involving the use of explosives are to be performed under the permit-to-work system. Crane operations shall not be conducted over or close to the logging cable. nor should any logging crew be on the rig floor without the presence of a drilling contractor representative. 7. A tool catcher shall be fitted immediately above the BOP and verified as functioning correctly. personnel working in proximity of the device shall be kept to a minimum.1. ensure the brake is securely chained down. 7. A guiding principle is that the possibility of a tool string straddling both the lubricator BOP and the master valves on the Christmas tree shall be precluded. 90 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . 7. When the travelling block has been raised to position.1. It is the Driller's responsibility to operate the drawworks. Ensure that the logging wire does not foul the derrick. a safety meeting shall be held to include as a minimum: • Driller and assistant on shift • Senior Toolpusher/Offshore Installation Manager • Logging Engineer • Well Site Drilling Engineer • Company Drilling Supervisor Work requiring the use of explosives shall be carried out only by authorised specialist personnel (usually the Logging Engineer). plus an excess to cover such contingencies as squeeze killing or bullheading. It shall be of sufficient length to contain the tool length and preferably have a margin of one lubricator section to cover birds nesting of the cable. explosives and detonators shall be transported and stored in separate containers. however in all cases. It shall be tested to this pressure. It shall not be used as a lifting device. the number of drilling crew permitted on the rig floor should be kept to a minimum. The Driller shall monitor the status of the well and maintain adequate fill-up on the hole at all times. Explosive storage The local laws and regulations governing the storage and handling of explosives shall be observed. Neither Logging Engineers nor crew are allowed to operate any of the drill floor machinery.
1. even when positive indications of firing have been seen. Guards and warning signs shall be placed around the working area to prevent unauthorised access to the work area by personnel and vehicles. strike matches or use an open flame lighter in the vicinity of explosives. Unless using a detonating system which is impervious to stray electrical currents. Use only electric flashlights • do not leave explosives where they may be exposed to flame.7 Associated Activities On land.6 Safety procedures in use of explosives Electrically activated firing systems Arming and disarming of guns is to be carried out by the Logging Engineer only. and the source of any AC or DC voltage. For more complete coverage of this subject refer to EP 95-0200 Survey Operations. the rig grounded to the wellhead by grounding straps. charges and other explosively activated devices such as packers. during perforating operations. knowledgeable of radio silence procedures and charged with their enforcement shall be on duty at all times during a perforating operation. The logging unit is to be grounded to the rig. Such sources of voltage include: – cathodic protection – electrical welding – non-destructive testing – top drive systems – static electricity – radio transmitters including microwave transmitters. A senior supervisor. The following is a guide to the safety precautions which should be taken when operating with electrically fired perforating guns.25V. Restrictions applied when running explosives shall also be applied during retrieval operations. shall be eliminated. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 91 . Surface disassembly controls should take this into consideration. Keep well clear until the fire is completely out • be aware that in some types of gun pressure can be trapped internally after firing. guns shall not be armed while an electrical storm is in the vicinity. spark or impact • do not expose explosives to direct sunlight • do not leave explosives where unauthorised persons can access them • do not handle or store explosives in the vicinity of flammable products. compressed air bottles or welding equipment • do not fight a fire in a building or vehicle containing explosives. 3. or forecast. 7. heat. which results in stray voltages in excess of 0. 1. 2. 4. Operating with explosives The general rules which shall be observed when using explosives are: • do not smoke. buildings constructed to contain explosives shall be completely separated from living and work areas and well separated from other stores containing flammable material.
Portable two way radios shall be collected.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 7.1. All other potential sources of stray electrical currents such as cathodic protection systems and electric welding operations shall be shut down. Two hours before each gun run the Company Drilling Supervisor or Wellsite Drilling Engineer shall communicate to the base office the estimated time of commencing 'radio silence'. and locked away. road signs are to be placed at a minimum distance of 150 m from the location.1. radio transmitters shall be switched off and. to prevent the access of vehicles possibly using mobile transmitting equipment (e. where possible. If the presence of large commercial transmitters pose a hazard. The table is modified to give transmitting power in watts. the Logging Engineer shall request computation of a safe field zone prior to undertaking any work with electrically detonated explosives. On land.7 Radio transmissions During periods of radio silence. The Institute of the Makers of Explosives (IME) gives recommended minimum distances between 'shot point' and 'transmitter' as indicated in Table 7. Offshore. The monitoring of radio receivers should continue as normal. taxis). isolated. the co-ordinator for the 'radio silence' procedure shall be the OIM.g. Radio beacons are to be turned off. The standby boat is required to maintain station at stand-off distance and warn any approaching shipping of radio silence requirements on the installation. Actual times are to be advised by the installation radio operator. the control of radio silence shall be maintained to a distance of not less than 500 m. The notification procedure should cover this. checked against the inventory kept by the radio operator. Offshore. In some areas third parties such as the coast guard and the military authorities may have to be informed. 92 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Helicopter flight control will also require sufficient notice to reschedule/divert flights so that aircraft do not arrive at the installation during radio silence. Emissions from high tension lines either carried by pylons or buried can constitute a radio frequency (RF) hazard. Offshore vessels shall therefore be notified in adequate time to stand off from the location.
000-10. It is emphasised that these relaxations (i.8 Systems impervious to stray electrical currents In order to avoid the necessity for complete radio silence or electrical shutdown. VHF air band communication between platform and aircraft may be established using either the fixed VHF air band transmitter or a portable air band set from the helideck.000 1. 1-watt hand portable VHF or UHF set (not less than 10 m from the logging cable) for communication outside the platform.25 V (DC or AC). These systems require a minimum voltage of 150 to 200V DC at the cable head to operate the tool and to produce the 2500 to 3000V DC to which the capacitor will be charged. In addition.000 (IME Publication 20 revised March 1971) After isolation of all sources of stray current. which do not contain EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 93 . ii and iii) are only permitted when the explosive device is more than 75 m below ground or sea bed. charged to a high voltage. The systems use the energy released when a capacitor.1 Recommended minimum distances between shot point and transmitter Minimum distance (m) 150 300 750 1. ii) The use of a single. This may preclude such operations as perforating during the hours of darkness. if a 1-watt hand portable radio cannot raise the assistance required.500 2.000 10. a UHF communications system may be used for internal rig operations provided no more than the base station and one hand portable are operational at any one time. use of one fixed VHF or UHF transmitter. This compares with 10V AC or DC required for standard detonators and 1V for high temperature detonators.000 7. and only one may be applied at any one time.25 V. 7. Relaxation when explosives are more than 75 m below ground or seabed When the explosive device is more than 75 m below seabed (or ground level). is discharged through a thin conductor or foil to directly initiate high order detonation of secondary explosives.500 5.300 (ft) 500 1.500 Transmitter power (W) 0-250 250-1. all sources of electrical supply may have to be switched off. In the event that the observed voltage exceeds 0.000 2.7 Associated Activities Table 7. new methods of detonation have been developed.000-50.000-100. the casing-to-rig voltage shall be observed by the Logging Engineer in the presence of the Drilling Supervisor or the Wellsite Drilling Engineer and verified less than 0. iii) In an emergency. The design of these detonators is very similar to conventional detonators except that no primary explosive is used.1. Explosive backing-off operations are not subject to any restrictions once the gun is 75m below ground or sea bed since detonation is unlikely and would not result in any damage to personnel or property.000 50. the potential hazard to personnel is greatly reduced. and relaxations can be permitted as follows: i) To allow helicopter operations to continue.
in which a detonator and shaped charge are lowered from surface on wireline to fire the gun. around the riser and BOP stack.1. 6. drilling crew and rig supervisory staff. in which fluid pressure is applied from surface to tubing or annulus to fire the gun • electrically actuated systems. In addition. in which the current is sent from the surface via an electrical cable to fire the gun • electrically actuated systems. This often means a considerable extension above the explosive charge and may not be practicable. due to the need for close operational co-operation between the TCP contractor. and borehole conditions. a high level of awareness must be maintained regarding the precautions required in the use and handling of explosives. These can be grouped into four main types. 3. then there shall be provision for dropping the gun. During assembly and arming of the gun all personnel shall be cleared from the area beneath the rotary table. Various methods for firing the detonator of a TCP gun have been developed to enable reliable firing of guns in wells with differing geometry.9 Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) systems There are several suppliers of TCP systems using a variety of detonating devices. Provision shall always be made for retrieval of the drop bar in case of doubt. 7. then proper consideration should be given to perforating by conventional guns. Only disarmed guns are allowed to be pulled to surface.7 above. 5.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling internal safety resistors. 94 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . TCP guns shall never be pulled to surface without first retrieving the detonating device (drop bar or battery pack). a full safety meeting prior to the operation is essential. The precautions specified by the manufacturer shall be fully understood and stipulated on the permit-towork. The early reliability of these tools is less than that of conventional detonators and there is a substantial additional cost per run. as operating procedures may be confused. 4. particularly in areas where conventional systems are also used. It is anticipated that with time. It should be stressed that when introducing such systems. in which a metal bar is dropped from surface and free falls under gravity to mechanically initiate the firing head • hydraulically fired systems. Their use should be considered where radio silence is difficult or expensive to achieve. There should be no possibility of the drop bar hanging up in any of the tubulars prior to detonation.1. The firing head should only be armed when the gun is in place below the rotary table.6 and 7. If it is not possible to verify that the TCP gun has fired and the firing head cannot be disarmed by retrieval as in 3). If the provisions for either dropping the gun or safe disarming of the gun cannot be met. No one is allowed to work above drill floor level. When planning a completion which includes a TCP gun the following safety aspects should be considered: 1. mechanical configuration. safety precautions shall remain as detailed under 7. the additional costs will fall and the reliability will improve. 2.1. Warning signs shall be posted at all accessible deck levels to ensure that no personnel approach the wellhead area. Because explosives are involved. which are: • drop bar actuated systems. The above restrictions can be relaxed when the entire gun is below ground (or sea bed) level. Testing of the systems has shown them to be incapable of unintentional initiation even when exposed to powerful electrical and magnetic fields.
2 Approximate barrier distance from source container Segregated Distance (m) 2. calibration.7 8. All radioactive logging sources are housed in dedicated carrying shields. neutron. Full precautions should be taken if a TCP gun has to be pulled. The Group publication 'Ionising Radiation Safety Guide' (Ref.mrem/hr at 1m) 1 3 5 10 15 20 25 Note: Typical full complement of sources (density. This task is only to be done by specifically authorised personnel. the transport container shall be labelled with a TI equal to the sum of the source TIs contained therein.0 Transport Index (TI .5 micro-sieverts/hr.3 7.10 Storage and use of radioactive sources The storage. Table 7. Never trust or rely on self-deactivating TCP systems. Allowance shall be made for a possible requirement for barriers above and below the container where there are working or living areas in proximity to the storage area.5 micro-sieverts/hr shall be designated as no stay and marked accordingly. The basic rules to be applied when using ionising radiation are given in Publications Nos. e.7 Associated Activities 7. Upon arrival of radioactive source materials at the rig site. Carrying shields are to be clearly marked with the Transport Index (TI) number. shall not be exposed to radioactive emissions in excess of 2.5 4. the transport container shall be placed in a segregated area away from personnel and chain barriers erected at a distance around the container determined by the Transport Index (TI) marked on the external surface of the transport container.5 micro-sieverts per hour and where practically possible below 1.1. 7. etc) The radiation dose rate at the periphery of the segregated area shall be less than 2.0 micro-sieverts per hour.5 6. In essence personnel. other than those classified as radiological workers and subjected to special monitoring precautions. 26 and 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). transport and use of radioactive source materials used for logging operations is governed by local regulations enforced by appropriate legislation. the Logging Engineer on site. the source materials in their carrying shields shall be immediately transferred from the transport container to the logging contractor's source store.g. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 95 . They are intended to provide extra safety. 43) uses the recommendations of the ICRP as the main source of guidance.0 3.5mµv/hr 2. Where dedicated transport containers are in use.9 10. Barriers shall be erected to prevent access to areas where this rate of emissions is exceeded. and the areas where the rate of emissions falls between 1 and 2. In the absence of such authorised personnel.
5 microsieverts per hour. The logging company provides advice on how the tool might best be recovered and should be able to furnish the fishing tools required for 96 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . The register shall be kept by the Logging Engineer and the most senior person on site.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Given the space limitations at offshore locations. The carrying shields shall be transported to and from the designated store area by the shortest possible route and the route shall be kept away from rig personnel as far as possible. that a pre-job safety meeting is held prior to embarking on a fishing job so that all involved are fully aware of the potential hazards of the operation. albeit temporarily. Carrying shields are only to be removed from the designated store area under the direct instruction of the Logging Engineer. Before handling any radioactive source the Logging Engineer shall ensure that all possible open floor areas are securely covered. The prime objective of a fishing operation is the safe and complete recovery of the downhole tool. during handling of the source by the Logging Engineer. The Logging Engineer is responsible for the supervision of all work involving ionising radiation. the segregated areas may be difficult to achieve for transport containers. an authorised person shall be available to transfer sources into a suitable protected store upon receipt. The transfer of sources between carrying shields and logging tool shall be completed in the shortest possible time. A register of radioactive sources shall be kept on the rig to record: • Full details of all sources on site • Transport record of the source • Destination of dispatched sources. In the working area the Logging Engineer shall ensure that adequate notices displaying the trefoil (three-leaf) symbol are in place. The controlled work area shall be defined as where exposure of more than 2.11 Fishing A logging tool fishing operation is never routine. The Logging Engineer is the only person authorised to remove sources from their carrying shields.the distance to be advised by the Logging Engineer. Moving of source materials is to be covered by a permit-to-work. Once a logging tool is stuck or lost in the hole decisions concerning fishing operations shall be agreed by the Company. He shall ensure that exposure to such radiation is kept to a level which is as low as reasonably achievable. The Engineer shall endeavour to keep collimated (directional) sources pointing away from personnel on the rig. the Logging Engineer will ensure that only authorised personnel are allowed in the area and then only within the framework of a written system of work procedures. therefore. In addition the Engineer will check that all logging contractor personnel working near source materials wear both gamma and neutron personal dosimeters that are valid for the period of work involving ionising radiation. the Driller should keep well clear of the radioactive source . It is essential. not just the logging company and the drilling contractor. Access points are to be chained off to establish a controlled work area. Well Site Drilling Engineer. The Driller's doghouse is exempt from the 'controlled work area' status for the reason of maintaining full surveillance on the well.1. with instantaneous dose rates in excess of 2. 7. Good communication between the Company Drilling Supervisor. However. Logging Engineer.5 micro-Sieverts per hour exists. When this is the case. In any segregated or classified work area. Driller and wireline winch operator is of utmost importance. Toolpusher.
23) shall be used to define hazardous zone requirements. The appropriate authorities shall be notified prior to any production testing. To break the weak point.1 Well Testing General All equipment used in well testing shall be fully certified for the purpose intended.6. the preferred fishing technique is the reverse cut and thread method. The requirement for such notification is often defined by government legislation. Burners of the type that minimise oil drop out should be utilised. and the action and precautions necessary until the operation is completed • verify that the wellhead and production valve ESD systems function correctly and that emergency shutdown activating buttons are manned in a safe area throughout the test whilst flowing formation fluids to surface • check that all Weco type hammer unions are properly matched and according to agreed standardised type. the cable clamp and travelling block shall be used. H2S and abandon location drills are held • adequate weather window forecast • shipping and aircraft warned to stand clear during flaring • standby boat advised that this operation is to take place. 44) as well as the previously referenced 'Ionising Radiation Safety Guide' (Ref. Never use the logging contractor's winch (the upper sheave becomes a high stress point and the cable is likely to break around the sheave). prior to the logging tool being latched into the fishing overshot. For stuck tools.2 for further information). Breaking the weak point. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 97 . it is important to monitor mud returns to detect any possible increase in radioactivity. The document 'Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations' (Ref. 7. 43).7 Associated Activities the job. especially where it is performed near populated areas.2 7. Thereafter the production test may continue during hours of darkness. the opening of the well to unload the tubing contents and the initial flow through the separator shall be carried out in daylight. Noise should be monitored and hearing defenders issued as necessary (see 6.2. When attempting to fish a tool containing a radioactive source be it either wireline run or LWD. shall never be the method used for fishing operations involving radioactive sources. After perforation. Detailed information on radiation safety can be found in 'Radiation Safety Manual for Well Logging Operations' (Ref. • a pre-job safety meeting has been held to discuss the test and ensure all personnel are aware of their responsibilities and any restrictions imposed. The production test (onshore/offshore) shall only be commenced under the following conditions: • all test facilities are fully pressure tested and checked • fire.
Lines from steam generators shall be clearly marked and guarded to prevent burning injuries. Equipment and material to fight oil spills should be available on site in the areas where such spills could give rise to a hazardous situation or have detrimental environmental effects. testing operations should be terminated. 46) also contains useful information. Cooling water hoses shall be laid out on the flare side.000 psi) Using Temporary Equipment' (Ref. Do not interconnect air/oil/gas lines. including vent lines. Refer to the document 'Guidelines for Production Testing of Wells up to 103.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling All hot work shall cease during the production test. flowlines. If the annulus pressure cannot be bled off the well shall be squeeze killed or reverse killed. A close check shall be kept on the casing/tubing annulus pressure.000 kPa (15. separators. This will produce a visible flame should the methanol be ignited. Volume 6 of the Production Handbook 'Production Operations' (Ref. They should not transmit hydraulic vibrations to the wellhead. and icing problems are observed to be occurring as a result of the cooling spray.2 Fracturing The equipment up to the last wellhead valve should be hydraulically tested to a pressure above the expected fracturing pressure. All piping. a supply of salt should be kept close by to spread on any spillage. When methanol is used as an agent to prevent/dissolve hydrates. Glycol/water mixture and low freezing point hydraulic fluids should be used in all critical lines/ systems. Aviation fuel tanks and all pressurised bottles shall be located away from radiant heat and cooled. 98 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . shall be adequately anchored. brine or mud prior to disconnecting. Firefighting equipment shall be placed at strategic locations and be easily accessible. Cranes shall not be used over or near wirelines. In the event that the ambient temperature drops significantly below zero. heater or choke manifold. Receiving vessels for relief or bleed-off lines from the wellhead or pumping equipment shall have adequate venting. 45). Gas shall be checked for the presence of hydrogen sulphide. If this pressure increases it should be bled off (noting the volume and type of fluid bled off) and the annulus pressure checked for the rate of build-up. depending on circumstances. if required. hydrogen sulphide detectors and sets of breathing apparatus shall be available. shall be used to ensure that this system is not contaminated with hydrocarbons. for detailed procedures and information. 7. This pressure shall not exceed the safe working pressure of the weakest component in the system. After production testing all lines containing oil shall be flushed with water. A check valve or other device shall be installed in the system to prevent backflow should a leak in the system occur. Gas explosion meters. An independent air supply. Contingency plans in the event of significant H2S production shall be in place. Personnel not directly involved with the operation shall stay well clear of production lines.2. not connected to the rig air system. possibly being restarted using brine as a cooling fluid.
Eye damage caused by liquid nitrogen is usually permanent. Wearing full eye protection is essential. causing severe burns.2. Lines from the pumping unit to the wellhead shall have a non-return valve installed in them as near to the wellhead as practicable.195°C) and because it can displace air in gas form and cause suffocation. Contact of human tissue with severe cold will destroy tissue in a manner similar to high temperature burns. gloves and boots. The following protective clothing should be used: • face shield • insulated gloves • long sleeve shirts EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 99 . A pre-job safety meeting shall be held to appraise personnel of their responsibilities and any restrictions that may be imposed. An increasing dimension of hazard is added when liquid nitrogen is under pressure.7 Associated Activities If crude is to be used as fracturing liquid it should be weathered for at least 24 hours to eliminate the more volatile components. Personnel not directly involved in the operation shall stay well clear of the discharge lines during the pressure test and acid pumping operations. A 'hose down' team should be on standby properly kitted out to deal with any spillage. All equipment through which acid is handled shall be thoroughly washed inside and outside with water upon completion of the operation. Pump operators should remain alert for communications from the Toolpusher or Company Drilling Supervisor throughout the acidisation. 7. Freeze burns will result from contact with the cold surfaces of piping and equipment containing liquid nitrogen.4 Cryogenic operations Liquid nitrogen Liquid nitrogen is hazardous because of its low temperature (. Breathing of the fumes shall be avoided as even small quantities can damage mucous membranes. It is essential to obtain full HSE information before execution of any acid job. A pre-job HSE meeting shall be held and the job performed under permit-to-work system controls. Personnel handling acid shall be equipped with protective clothing including respirator. An adequate supply of water and lime should be available to neutralise any acid spillage or contact with skin. Acid inhibitors are toxic. A pressure test of not less than the maximum expected treating pressure shall be made on the discharge lines to the wellhead. 7. goggles. These facts emphasise the need for protective clothing and a high standard of safety by the nitrogen operatives.2.3 Acidising Hydrochloric and other acids used for stimulating production from a well are corrosive and rapidly affect skin.
They include: • carbon steel • low alloy steels • most rubbers • most plastics. It is therefore necessary to ensure that no potentially combustible materials are left around liquid nitrogen equipment.g. Tidy housekeeping is mandatory for a safe operation. Avoid skin contact (as liquid nitrogen causes immediate damage) from: • liquid leaking from equipment • cold equipment surface.: • copper and its alloys • stainless steels • aluminium • high nickel content steels. Liquid nitrogen pumping Basic rule: keep suction pressure as high as possible above suction vapour pressure. liquid air can result in puddles containing approximately 52 per cent oxygen. Materials for cryogenic service Most construction materials are adversely affected by extreme low temperatures.33 times the SWP. In addition a manually operated valve shall be available to vent the unit if necessary. Allowing liquid nitrogen to be spilt on carbon steel or structures is dangerous as carbon steel becomes brittle at approximately -40°C. As the boiling point of nitrogen is lower than the boiling point of oxygen.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • cuffless trousers (worn outside boots). Liquid nitrogen containers shall be fitted with a safety relief valve set at the safe working pressure (SWP) of the container. Non-cryogenic materials These will become critically brittle if subjected to exposure to very low temperatures. This oxygen enriched air may cause normally non-combustible materials to become flammable and normally flammable material to burn at an increased rate. Liquid air hazard Ambient air condenses on the cold surfaces of liquid nitrogen piping systems. Therefore the line pressure must be maintained at as high a level above the saturation pressure as possible. Whenever such a spillage has occurred the area should be checked for cracks. It is imperative that components engineered for use in cryogenic service be chosen from suitable approved materials. e. and a bursting disk which fails at 1. 100 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Boiling occurs when the saturation vapour pressure equals the line pressure.
all recover with treatment 4 Coma in 40 seconds. CT fishing operations shall be detailed in a clear CT programme specific to the application and site conditions.3 Coiled Tubing Operations The use of coiled tubing (CT) for a wide range of applications in drilling. death Percentage oxygen at 1 atm 12-14 10-12 8-10 6-8 A slight oxygen deficiency results in deeper respiration. poor judgement. 100% die. Also note that one full breath of pure nitrogen will strip blood of necessary oxygen resulting in a loss of consciousness. pulse faster. respiration ceases. which includes the following historic data: • type of work done • depths run • number of cycles (tubing passed through gooseneck) EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 101 . unconsciousness. so that the importance of moving to a well ventilated area may not be understood. 7. vomiting. 50% die and 50% recover with treatment 4-5 minutes. A number of hazards associated with CT operations have been identified. judgement deteriorates quickly. Any operations with CT in a potentially live well shall be treated in the same way as any conventional well control requirement along with its associated BOP equipment. 6 min. It is a rapidly developing area of the business and it is important for users to stay abreast of changing methods. ashen face 8 min. workover and well treatment operations is established as an economic means of operating to save rig time or to operate without a rig in situ. lips blue Nausea. As oxygen deficiency increases. completion. there is always the possibility that gaseous nitrogen dilutes the oxygen around the area of operation. faster pulse and poor co-ordination. The company providing coiled tubing services shall be fully involved in the planning of operations and verify that the CT unit to be used is suitable for the application planned and that the operational procedures provide a level of control that assures the safe conduct of the operation. Any CT operation with other adjacent wells producing shall be treated as a concurrent operation and subject to concurrent operational restraints and safety precautions. Every CT unit shall maintain and have available for inspection a full 'Reel Utilisation Data Sheet'.3 Symptoms of oxygen deficiency Symptoms of O2 deficiency Respiration deeper. co-ordination poor Giddiness. Operators shall brief all personnel of the potential hazards of oxygen starvation. Table 7. convulsions.7 Associated Activities Oxygen deficiency Whilst using nitrogen. techniques and controls as technological improvements widen the scope of applications.
due to their interaction. 7. Surface facilities. generally by supplying examples from other Opcos. SIEP can assist in one's development. with potential hazards identified before work starts.4. result in an increased operational complexity and enhanced level of risk. reference shall be made to the local concurrent operations manual. This is a particular hazard during fishing operations. 102 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Such activities would include the following: • production • construction • maintenance • drilling • workover • well testing • well services • diving • heavy lifts • transport operations. This subject is summarised below but prior to any concurrent operations being undertaken. Where no manual exists. Complete and detailed procedure are required for CT welding.4 7. A full toolbox meeting shall be held prior to each CT operation identifying responsibilities. BOPs. Any non-routine repair work to coiled tubing during operations shall be covered by a permit-to-work. During CT operations. Particular care should be taken when working on systems where there is relative movement between the injector head and the rig. It should be pointed out to all personnel working in the area that CT can fail causing potential sprays of high pressure acid if the tubing busts or unpredictable whiplash movement if the tubing parts at surface. non-essential personnel shall be kept well clear of the CT and unit.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • welds. While this process is ongoing. channels of communication and emergency response in case of equipment failure or local alarm. specific controls shall be agreed by relevant supervisors at co-ordination meetings and approved by department heads. lines and Xmas tree shall be tested to at least the maximum anticipated operating pressure prior to commencing operations.1 Concurrent Operations General Concurrent operations are defined as the simultaneous execution of two or more risk activities which. Any combination of the risk activities is considered to increase the probability of incurring risk consequences when carried out concurrently. All welding carried out on CT shall be fully documented giving details of subsequent X-ray results and Rockwell hardness tests. The incorporation of a mechanical locking device on the main CT reel is recommended so that undesirable reel movement can be positively prevented in the event of power failure.
conditional and prohibited concurrent activities. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 103 . This plan shall cover at least the following areas: • a narrative description of all operations • individual duties and responsibilities • arrangement and location of equipment • integration of alarm and emergency systems between rig and platform • integration of mustering system between rig and platform • routing of all pipelines and their service • integration of hazardous zone delineations • periodic special testing and drills of safety systems and devices • conditions for securing and restarting of activities • communication procedures and reporting lines • escape routes • contingency plan • dissemination of information to all involved parties • on-site containment.2 Procedures Clear written instructions and plans are required in order to limit the extra risk associated with concurrent activities. Some general observations are: • all supervisors involved in concurrent operations should meet daily to identify and resolve any potential overlap of operations and responsibilities • a fundamental rule for concurrent operations is to classify all operations as either hazardous or nonhazardous and only allow one hazardous operation to occur at any one time • single point responsibility is essential. 7.7 Associated Activities The advice given in this sub-paragraph is particularly aimed at operations involving an independent rig working alongside a production platform. rescue and evacuation training • an activities matrix determining permitted.4. All supervisors controlling operations shall report and liaise through the single point • the person in charge of concurrent operations shall be trained/competent to be able to make sound decisions • management inspections should be carried out jointly by platform and rig based supervisors • plan directional drilling logically. An operations plan shall be prepared for each location where concurrent operations are to take place stating the conditions to be met and procedures to be followed.(high angle wells from outer slots) to minimise collision risks and make well paths uncomplicated • have a well-defined cone of uncertainty and a resulting well shut-in policy.
Escape routes to and from the rig shall be clearly indicated.4. or accounting for. Personnel arriving at the installation shall be provided with any required personal protective equipment for transit from the arrival point to the accommodation and report immediately to the OIM or his nominated deputy. 104 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . drilling. minuted co-ordination meeting attended by all on-site department heads and others necessary for the effective conduct of the meeting.4. personnel on the two locations shall be in place. To this end. Each individual activity shall be supervised by a competent supervisor. and change of status. shall chair a daily. The meeting should cover the planned operations for the day. At no time shall there be more people on the rig or the platform than life saving equipment exists for or certification allows for. 7. and permits or other requirements necessary for their safe management. maintenance or construction operations shall be rigorously controlled by the use of work permits signed by supervisors of the individual activities and the supervisor/manager responsible for the overall operation. any hazards which may arise out of the individual operations or their concurrency with other operations. The responsible person will be the Offshore Installation Manager (OIM) or his equivalent in an onshore facility.3 Principle Supervision Concurrent operations necessitate optimum co-ordination of activities and defined lines of responsibility to ensure operational efficiency and the safeguarding of personnel and equipment.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling 7. well known and practised. Changes from a previously agreed programme shall be highlighted and adequately discussed with all involved parties. to the single point co-ordinator. Procedures for the mustering of.4 Specific requirements Specific requirements shall be detailed in the local concurrent operation manual and should be used in conjunction with any local statutory requirements to produce the written plan for each case. Control of personnel movement The movement of personnel between drilling rig and platform shall be strictly controlled. Permits-to-work All concurrent activities other than routine production. the OIM. or person in charge. He is also responsible for reporting status. who has the responsibility to verify that the activity is adequately protected by a minimum of two barriers with proven integrity. Overall supervision Single point responsibility for management of the location where concurrent operations are being carried out shall be maintained at all times. Communication Regular meetings should take place between the supervisors to discuss HSE issues and the planned work programme.
or where a tested cement or bridge plug is in place. The drilling fluid shall be subject to continuous monitoring to qualify • a tested BOP stack • cased hole where the casing is unperforated or has not been drilled out. it has a working track record). For completion and workover operations the following barriers once tested may also be considered: • deepset wireline plug (below production packer) • drilling or completion fluid in the well of sufficient density to overbalance formation pressures. in case the barrier fails. Well interference Attention should be paid to sub-surface cones of uncertainty of adjacent wells. Surface Controlled Sub-surface Safety Valves (SCSSV) A Surface Controlled Sub-surface Safety Valve (SCSSV) shall not be considered as a 'programmed' barrier with regard to well intervention.e. immediate action shall be taken. provided that it was in place and tested before the emergency arose. an SCSSV may be regarded as a barrier. In cases of emergency. (i. with the provision that neither of these barriers becomes nullified by virtue of the concurrent activity. The following may be considered as barriers: • drilling fluid in the hole of sufficient density to overbalance formation pressures. management consent shall be gained prior to the start of work and contingency arrangements.7 Associated Activities Barriers Each individual activity is protected by barriers (protection mechanisms) which would have to fail before control is lost. to restore two barrier integrity. shall be in place and tested. Operations may proceed if each individual activity is protected by a minimum of two independent and tested barriers. The fluid shall be subject to continuous monitoring to qualify • Xmas tree • a two way check valve is installed in the tubing hanger and on the annulus side: • a tested packer/completion (production) packer • tested seals on the tubing hanger The safety of the drilling or workover operation may be threatened by events occurring in other concurrent activities. 47) should be expanded to include consideration for: • the situation where well bore paths are converging • actual survey depths which are frequently 10-15m off bottom EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 105 . The criteria for terminating as mentioned in the 'Borehole Surveying Manual' (Ref. with travelling cylinder collision plots being produced for critical situations. where other barriers cannot be installed and tested. Even in this case. Where a barrier fails. within the constraints of concurrent operations.
Rig moving operations When moving a rig or tender on or off the platform and while positioning same at the platform. 106 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . The appropriate operating procedures and equipment shall be used as mentioned in 'Well Services Guidance Manual'(Ref. Well testing using temporary facilities Well testing activities using temporary facilities are not permitted concurrently with any activities except routine production and maintenance. production and marine staff shall be held to plan the move and assess the risks. so that a downhole barrier will not be available. the lubricator shall be pressurised and tested according to procedures. Selected safety precautions from the referenced manual (chapter 8) are given here to emphasise their importance: • A wireline blowout preventer shall be used for work on all wells capable of flow • Control of the SCSSV and surface safety valve shall be transferred to a remote panel operated by the wireline crew during wireline operations • Where possible. the production well shall be closed-in and equipped with an inflow tested downhole plug located below the packer. gas should be vented through existing facilities • Depressurisation of a lubricator shall be confirmed by opening the second 1/2 inch connection in the lower section of the lubricator to check that hydrate blockage of the primary depressurisation needle has not occurred • After installation on the wellhead. A pre-move meeting attended by drilling. 48).5 for additional information.5 Wireline activities (slickline and electric logging) The surface integrity for completion and production wireline operation is assured by the following barriers: • the lubricator/stuffing box/BOP assembly • the Xmas tree with a remote-controlled upper master valve with wireline cutting capability (or an actuated valve installed on top of the tree). For this reason wireline work in live wells requires special attention. Conductor driving operations also require special attention which shall include monitoring the conductor path and closing-in wells within the cone of uncertainty. it may be necessary to cease and secure all other activities if an unacceptable risk exists to the platform or personnel. Wireline work may have to be interrupted and well made safe to allow other critical work to progress. An effective well handover procedure shall be in place which details the status of wells and other production facilities on the platform. Normally the wireline retrievable SCSSV will be pulled (or when using a tubing retrievable sub-surface safety valve ( TRSSV) it will be hydraulically maintained open) during wireline operations. See 4. when depressuring lubricators.4.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling When the well being drilled is on a converging course with an existing production well and the criteria mentioned above apply. 7. No hot work permits shall be issued for the immediate vicinity while these activities are in progress.4.
7.1 Special precautions • The diving system should be set up on the rig clear of any drilling equipment but still close enough for the bell to be within ready access to the subsea equipment for diver convenience and safety. 49) shall be followed. equipment. In this context 'monitor' means to record both the time/depth exposure of divers and any chemical and physical factors which may be hazardous to health • inspect/audit the personnel.5 Wireline Operations (Slickline) Wireline (slickline) operations may be conducted through the rotary table for a number of purposes. When a Christmas tree is installed. The same guidelines as listed above are valid for non-rig assisted logging work.1. recommendations and instructions contained in the UK Health and Safety Executive Diving Safety Memoranda) as the underwater service industry consensus of the 'state of the art' for diving operations • require contractors to utilise underwater service industry accepted techniques to monitor and protect the health of divers. raised pressure/underwater) environments • contract all diving work as a service • invite bids only from those diving contractors with a good record of capability. During any wireline operations the Driller on shift is responsible for the overall safety on the rig floor and for maintaining primary pressure control over the well. Pressure integrity shall be confirmed prior to running tools in the hole. • Notices shall be posted on the rig when diving is in progress and everyone made aware that nothing will be put or dropped into the water when divers are in the water.6 Diving/ROV Operations Diving work is undertaken less frequently than in the past as many of the tasks which required human intervention are carried out by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs).Diving' (Ref. Operational safety procedures are similar to electric logging operations. His advice on matters involving the health and safety of divers shall be followed. see 7. health and safety in all aspects of diving • apply as a minimum contractual standard the UK legislation for diving operations (and require contractors to adopt the guidance.e. The following guidelines are taken from the document 'Diving Operations Management Guidelines' (Ref. The Diving Supervisor shall be kept fully informed of all on-going work. Where diving is undertaken the requirements of the document 'Underwater Handbook . 7. the wireline operator shall use wireline blowout preventers and a lubricator. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 107 . 7. procedures and controls against contract conditions • require contractors to demonstrate proper functioning of critical systems • require all diving operations to be carried out under appropriate Work Permit procedures.6.7 Associated Activities During concurrent operations the work shall be discussed at the daily co-ordination meeting and appropriate controls put in place to assure its safe conduct. 50): • seek to minimise the need for exposure of personnel to hyperbaric (i.
7.2 Restrictions No diving operations shall be carried out during the following operations: • top hole drilling • during total losses or dump flooding the well from the sea bed • well control activity. 51). the following operations shall cease: • movement of equipment outboard • use of thrusters. 7. and any necessary changes to standards and procedures have been made. Typical are the documents 'Assessment of the Suitability of Standby Vessels Attending Offshore Installations' (Ref. which shall be immediately available for launching to rescue personnel. survey and operation of standby vessels.6. it is decided not to provide the service. 108 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . e. for any reason. 7. rules and regulations govern the construction.7. H2S or fire • seismic recording in the vicinity. though the firefighting system should not be incapacitated The standby vessel shall be informed that diving is being carried out. Fast rescue craft shall be kept on board the standby vessel. 52). If. This should therefore be avoided.7 Standby Vessels Offshore rigs should have a standby vessel in attendance at all times. particularly if using explosives.1 General requirements Standby vessels shall at all times be not more than 20 minutes steaming distance from the installation it is supporting. this shall only be done after a documented risk assessment has been carried out to consider the implications. The vessel shall be classified as capable of carrying the total number of personnel on the installation and shall be equipped to provide first-aid treatment. and 'Offshore Installation (Emergency Procedures) Regulations 1976' (Ref.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • In shallow waters visibility under water can be very poor which can be made worse by the dumping of mud or cement.g. well under pressure • pressure testing sub-surface equipment (floating drilling operations) • during heavy lifting • loading/offloading supply boats • emergency alarm status. In some areas of operations this is mandatory. When the dive is carried out. except on DP vessels • ballasting or de-ballasting • dumping of mud • sea suctions shall be isolated as required. In some areas.
EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 109 . In lieu of legislative requirements in some areas.g.7. clear of the flight path of the helicopter and with both engines running • the vessel observes for and reports to the rig any gas bubbling during top hole drilling • the vessel reports to the rig any oil/pollution slick observed. vessel and rig shall closely monitor each other's position and the position of other shipping on the radar • the vessel proceeds immediately to the area of an emergency.7. 7. regardless of its source • the vessel monitors for and collects any floating debris (e. plastics. In case of poor visibility. logs. The rig will indicate by radio/horn/signal and give full details of the emergency as quickly as possible • on arrival or departure of the helicopter.3 Responsibilities The standby vessel shall be under the authority of the senior person on the installation (the contractor's Senior Toolpusher or Offshore Installation Manager).7 Associated Activities 7. the following details some other standby vessel requirements: The Master of the standby vessel shall ensure that: • the vessel is under power with at least one engine running 24 hours a day and the other on standby for immediate start • the vessel is at no time further than 20 minutes steaming from the rig on one engine • a 24 hour radio and visual watch of the rig is maintained at all times.2 Duties The main duties are: • to rescue personnel who have fallen into or deliberately entered the sea to escape from the installation • to assist in the evacuation of the installation and accommodate rescued personnel • to provide first aid to survivors • to monitor the safety zone of 500 m around the installation and to warn vessels to stay outside this zone • to maintain close observation of personnel working over the side of the rig • to provide radio communications with rescue facilities in an emergency situation. the vessel is to be within 500 m upwind of the rig. the vessel regularly performs emergency drills of all types • the fast rescue boat engine is run at least once per week and the boat is launched and tested (weather permitting) The Master of the vessel shall also ensure the following: • the prohibition of alcohol/drugs/weapons • leaving the location is permitted only after the prior permission of the rig's OIM • vessel is moved immediately upwind of the rig in the event that an H2S alarm is given • regular checks are made of the vessel's portable radio sets and life support equipment to ensure that these are maintained in full working condition at all times • no waste is dumped overboard. as indicated by the rig. etc) which is sighted within the 500 metre exclusion zone. thus protecting the rig's DP system from damage (as applicable) • in conjunction with the rig.
8. Regular 'man overboard' drills shall be performed and logged.8 Helicopter Operations Helicopters will generally be used as the principle means of transporting personnel between rig and shore in an offshore operation. and where appropriate. Additionally a Helicopter Landing Officer (HLO) shall be appointed and appropriately trained. 7. These drills shall not be conducted when weather conditions present unacceptable hazards to standby vessel personnel. 110 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . the Company Drilling Supervisor on the installation is required to ensure that contractual obligations are fulfilled.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling If the standby vessel is contracted by the Company. Likewise. 7. In addition certain rig crew shall be trained in helicopter marshalling for the handling of slung loads. in refuelling procedures. 53). The drilling contractor is required to train and properly equip helideck firefighting crews. which requires the support of the standby vessel shall not be undertaken if conditions are such that attempts to rescue a man overboard place the lives of would be rescuers in jeopardy. one of whom shall be present at every landing and take off. Regulations governing the use of helicopters are contained in Shell Aircraft Ltd Manual (Ref. routine work on the rig.1 Training All personnel travelling by helicopter to and from an offshore installation are required to be briefed on safety procedures prior to boarding the aircraft.
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• • • • Endorsed by the Committee of Managing Directors . 112 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling APPENDIX I POLICIES Figure I.June 1991. of know-how developed by Shell companies in these fields. Environment Shell companies: • pursue in their operations progressive reductions of emissions. and to promote. Safety Shell companies work on the principle that all injuries should be prevented and actively promote amongst all those associated with their activities the high standards of safety consciousness and discipline that this principle demands. when used in accordance with this advice. effluents and discharges of waste materials that are known to have a negative impact on the environment. provide them with relevant information and discuss with them related Company policies and practices develop and maintain contingency procedures. • • Common HSE aspects Shell companies: • • • assess health. as appropriate. They aim to be among the leaders in their respective industries in these matters. in order to minimise harm from any accidents work with government and others in the development of improved regulations and industry standards which relate to health. freely or on a commercial basis. safety and environmental matters conduct or support research towards the improvement of health.1 Policy guidelines on health. safety and environmental aspects before entering into new activities and reassess them in case of significant change in circumstances require contractors working on their behalf to apply health. safety and environmental standards fully compatible with their own recognise the concerns of shareholders. safety and environmental matters. employees and society on health. safety and the environment It is the policy of Shell companies to conduct their activities in such a way as to take foremost account of the health and safety of their employees and of other persons. in co-operation with authorities and emergency services. safety and environmental aspects of their products. with the ultimate aim of eliminating them aim to provide products and services supported with practical advice which. and to give proper regard to the conservation of the environment. processes and operations facilitate the transfer to others. Health Shell companies seek to conduct their activities in such a way as to avoid harm to the health of their employees and others. the health of their employees. will not cause injury or undue effect on the environment promote protection of environments which may be affected by the development of their activities and seek continuous improvement in efficiency of use of natural resources and energy.
3. The normal Company benefits which apply in the case of any illness will be available. intoxicating products and medication. 5. Substance abuse is the use of these substances in a harmful or improper way. on a first time basis only. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 113 . The Company may conduct unannounced searches for drugs and alcohol or any other substance on Company locations. treatment and unannounced testing). the Company is committed to maintaining a healthy and productive workplace. Unannounced. distribution or sale of illegal drugs or substances on Company business or locations – the use or possession of alcohol on Company business or locations unless previously authorised. The Company will assist an employee to obtain treatment and employees who seek such help will not place employment in jeopardy by doing so. Dismissal will normally occur in the following circumstances: – failure to co-operate with the implementation of this policy – failure to comply with the appropriate rehabilitation procedures – the use. periodic or random testing will be conducted when an employee meets any one of the following conditions: – holds a safety and environmentally sensitive position – holds a dedicated management position – holds a position where testing is required by law – holds a position where the individual acts alone or unsupervised. Background The Company conducts its business against high standards of safety and concern for the environment. and can be a serious threat to safety and environment.2 Definition Substance is defined as any substance which chemically modifies the body's function resulting in psychological or behavioural change. The illicit use of legal substances or the use. The Company recognises alcohol or drugs dependence as a treatable condition. and to follow appropriate treatment promptly. the Company will test for substance abuse.Appendix I Policies Figure I. Employees who have an alcohol or drugs dependence are encouraged to seek medical advice. It may also require employees to submit to alcohol and drugs testing where a good faith reason exists to suspect alcohol or drug abuse. Policy on substance abuse 2. contractors who perform safety or environmentally sensitive work are required to provide evidence of a comprehensive substance abuse policy and practices at least equivalent to those in force within the Company. All employees are expected to share in these objectives. Preceding employment. education. All contractors are required to ensure that their employees do not create a presence of substance abuse on Company business or locations. Also. The abuse of substances in any quantity however small can impair performance at work. distribution or sale of illegal substances on Company business or locations is strictly prohibited. the following policy will apply and will be part of the employee's conditions of employment. The Company wishes to ensure that all employees recognise this threat and aims at minimising the risks involved. Being at work while impaired by drugs or alcohol is strictly prohibited. counselling. 8. In all areas of activity it pursues the reduction of risk to both. In addition. 6. health and productivity. 7.g. Policy 1. possession. possession. the employee will be allowed to continue in employment provided there is compliance with the appropriate rehabilitation procedures (e. in most cases. If a test result is positive. In order to achieve this. although alternative work might be considered. and the use or possession of alcohol in safety or environmentally sensitive positions – a second positive test result following a prior positive result from a Company initiated test where employment has been continued. or after an earlier identification of an abuse problem. 4. In this context substance includes but is not limited to alcohol.
maintenance and monitoring of policies. 114 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . under their respective contracts. II. Core activities will include: • the specification. direction and consistency throughout his area of responsibility for HSE such that staff discharge their duties in a professional manner and to a consistent standard. procedures and standards • the harmonisation of Company and contractor policies.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling APPENDIX II RESPONSIBILITIES OF KEY STAFF II.2 Company Drilling Supervisor The Company Drilling Supervisor is the Company 's senior representative on site. procedures and standards to a consistent and unambiguous approach • the dissemination of technical information • the maintaining of appropriate contacts in the Shell Group and with external resources. As such he should be familiar with the provisions of the various contracts and be competent to verify correct implementation. in a manner which assures the health and safety of staff and avoids harmful emissions to the environment. • the provision of guidelines to his subordinate supervisors • maintaining an awareness of the professional competence of all staff and co-ordinating their development through appropriate operational exposure and training.1.1 Company Operations Staff Responsibilities Head of Drilling Engineering The Head of Drilling Engineering shall be responsible for ensuring that appropriate technical and operating standards are in place and to provide cohesion.1.1 II. His specific responsibilities relating to HSE include: • verifying the implementation of hazards and effects management controls • making quality assurance checks on contractors inspections • taking part in accident investigations as dictated by the application of the 'Incident Potential Matrix' • participating in HSE meetings • making structured inspections of the facility in conjunction with the senior contractor representative and following up on corrective actions • verifying that well integrity is being properly maintained • verifying that effective lines of communication between the various contractors are being maintained • alerting base supervisors to any changes which have a significant negative impact on well or operational HSE • keeping themselves fully appraised of ongoing operations. His role with regard to HSE is to verify that the drilling contractor and service and subcontractors perform work.
0 micro-sieverts/hr is designated as 'no stay' • the radioactive source register is kept up to date • primary and secondary explosives are stored separately either in an area protected by a deluge system or on a jettisonable platform • the explosives register is kept up to date • mud chemicals and mud testing chemicals are stored and handled in a manner that assures the safety of staff • chemical safety data sheets are posted and a copy kept by the medic II.1. – radio silence procedures are observed during pertinent operations.5 micro-sieverts/hr is barriered – the area where radioactive emissions fall between 2.3 Wellsite Drilling Engineer The Wellsite Drilling Engineer's HSE responsibilities include observing that the following activities are performed safely and without endangering the health of personnel or damaging the environment by verifying that: • electric logging operations are conducted such that: – radioactive sources are handled in a manner that avoids non-logging contractor staff being exposed to levels of radioactive emissions above 2. – hazardous areas are prohibited to non-essential staff. his company's corporate policy and the drilling programme • maintaining the rig HSE Case(s) for the rig(s)under his control • establishing the organisation and controls which ensure that all activity. to select service and subcontractors who can meet the same standards as themselves and monitor their work to confirm these standards are being maintained EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 115 .5 .2 II.Appendix II Responsibilities of Key Staff II. including those performed by service and subcontractors.5 micro-Sieverts/hr – logging contractor staff wear their film badges. is conducted in accordance with the HSE Case • demonstrating his commitment to high HSE standards by making regular structured visits to the rig with specific HSE objectives and through providing the resources to effect recommended improvements • ensuring that staff are trained such that they develop the necessary competence to enable them to work safely and avoid damage to the environment • liaising with the Company. plans and objectives • developing HSE objectives and plans to meet those objectives which derive from the contract.1 Contractor Line Staff Contractor Rig Manager The contractor Rig Manager is accountable for the following HSE matters: • liaising with the Company's Head of Drilling Engineering to assure compatibility between Company and contractor safety systems. • radioactive sources are stored such that: – the area in which radioactive emissions exceed 2.1.2.
targets and accountabilities for health. II. The contractor Rig Superintendent is responsible for the execution of all well and associated work programmes. 116 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . with all involved personnel. and those having potential for serious effect are thoroughly investigated and that effective follow-up action is taken by: – establishing remedial action requirements – identifying action parties – establishing completion targets – regularly reviewing progress. action items arising. This includes.2 Contractor Rig Superintendent (Senior Toolpusher) On an offshore rig the contractor Rig Superintendent or Senior Toolpusher will often also be the OIM with responsibilities defined by legislation and/or Company policy. the repair of existing wells by workover and the maintenance of the drilling facility. the drilling. to ensure the job and its inherent hazards are understood. This should be logged. topics discussed. is prevented • the emergency/contingency plan is operable and tested and all site staff are competent to perform their assigned duties • safe working codes and practices are implemented for all operations in accordance with recognised policies. • establishing and discussing with subordinates individual responsibilities. controls are in place. safety of the installation and all personnel on board. action parties responsible for close out and target date for completion daily with work teams (crews) to discuss the shift work plan and any expected hazards. damage to property or the environment.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • making suitable arrangements for consultation with line supervisors. assessed and controlled and plans for recovery are effectively in place • injury to personnel. corrective action is taken to ensure future compliance • HSE meetings are held as follows: – – – weekly for all personnel with records being kept of attendees. perforation and testing of new wells.2. safety and environmental matters • making certain that all incidents involving injury to persons. standards and procedures as agreed by the Company • prompt action is taken to rectify any deficiencies in working practices or conditions • all employees receive appropriate induction and training in all aspects of their work and observe such safety requirements as the work situation warrants • safety rules and procedures are followed and should transgressions be observed. completion. assets or the environment. employees and service and subcontractors' representatives on health. the tools and work practices are appropriate. rig moving. safety and the protection of the environment and confirm these during performance appraisal • setting a clear leadership example by his own actions. in the daily report prior to non-routine operations. Key safety responsibilities include assurance that: • hazards are identified. relevant expertise is available and permit requirements are understood and verified as being in place.
the Driller's prime objective is to ensure that instructions are carried out competently and therefore safely. both personally and together with drilling crews. for the safe execution of all well work programmes issued through the contractor's Rig Superintendent. This requires that he: • enforces the provisions of the drilling contractor's HSE policy. The introduction of any consequent change in procedure should be implemented under the direction of the Driller with guidance and approval from the Rig Superintendent if appropriate. II.4 Driller As the first line in the supervision of personnel.2. Additionally he is to inform senior staff of safe working procedures suggested by his crew and other personnel. procedures and plan • verifies that staff under his authority are knowledgeable of their role and competent to perform it • ensures drilling equipment is maintained in a safe and operable condition • where necessary applies for work permits and verifies that their provisions are followed • ensures that all accidents and significant near misses are reported and takes part in their investigation. II.3 Night Toolpusher The contractor's Night Toolpusher is responsible. He disseminates to his crew information on HSE and new safety procedures. in the appropriate depth and that remedial actions are implemented • employees use personal protective equipment as necessary • hazardous work is performed under the permit-to-work system • all relevant information is communicated between personnel at shift change. during his shift. The Driller is instrumental for the following: • seeing that all instructions of the contractor's Toolpusher concerning work methods and equipment are carried out • ensuring that crew members fully understand their duties when carrying out a job • taking necessary steps to correct hazardous conditions and incorrect practices and checking that protective devices are in good condition and used when needed EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 117 . He is to verify that crew personnel are competent to carry out their work and use safe working practices.Appendix II Responsibilities of Key Staff • drilling and associated equipment is inspected and maintained in accordance with the inspection programme and the preventive maintenance system • all accidents causing injury to personnel or damage to equipment and all significant near misses are reported in accordance with procedures and are investigated at the appropriate level.2. and conducts a regular programme of exercises • acts as the link between senior and junior rig supervision by attendance at both groups meetings and disseminating information as appropriate. Disseminates findings amongst all staff in order to avoid recurrence • verifies the quality of safety inspections performed by subordinates • regularly monitors well conditions by liaising with relevant staff and ensures that proactive steps are taken to maintain primary well control • provides emergency response support.
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling • anticipating hazardous conditions and remove the cause of possible accidents • ensuring that crew members complete each job in an orderly way and leave no hazardous conditions behind • promptly reporting any unsafe equipment that cannot be corrected by the drilling crew • encouraging all crew members to make HSE suggestions and recognise their ability to contribute to accident prevention • assisting in the investigation of all accidents in his line of responsibility • seeing that all crew members are trained in correct operating procedures and policies. 118 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . He is to make a particular effort to make new crew members HSE conscious and verify their job knowledge • training the Assistant Driller so that he can competently perform the Driller's duties when necessary • being conversant with the Company well control methods and be able to react accordingly • setting an example to the crew by observing all HSE regulations • adjusting the pace of operations to meet the competence of his crew • ensuring proper use is made of the 'Permit-to-work System' • preparing an adequate handover to ensure continuity during shift changes • holding a pre-shift safety meeting to appraise crews of planned operations.
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III.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling APPENDIX III LAND RIG MOVE PLAN This appendix details the actions to be taken at each stage in a typical land rig move. III.1 Scouting Trip • Measure and photo overhead lines • Survey bridges • Obtain weather information • Survey port facilities • Assess security situation • Prepare map showing: – Fuel and water supplies – Hospital/medical facilities – Overnight stopping points – Road quality – Communication facilities – Hazards through villages.2 Establish Convoy Procedures • Specify truck requirements • Number of trucks per convoy • Distance between trucks • Truck inspection procedures • Verify driver competence • Select convoy leaders • Prepare load plan/prioritise loads • Establish speed limits • Organise police/military escorts • Establish journey management procedures • Define night driving policy • Hold pre-job safety meeting • Make radio checks • Establish drugs/alcohol policy • Define contingency procedures • Define safety equipment requirements 120 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .
III. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 121 .3 Loading and Unloading Procedures • Establish requirements and confirm suitability of: – Supervisors – Labour – Hardware • Hold safety meeting • Identify hazardous loads • Establish weight of loads • Establish lifting signals.Appendix III Land Rig Move Plan • Define refuelling procedures.4 Pre-departure Checks • Loads secure • Fuel tank full • Water available (truck and driver) • Lights and horn work • Wheel nuts tight • Tyre conditions including spare • Radios • Escorts notified • Route hazards removed • Toolbox safety talk held. III.
The parts of the facility which are not classified as hazardous zones can be designated non-hazardous but may still contain a flammable mixture under calamity conditions. high tension (HT) overhead no-go areas. inside tank Continuous Zone 0 122 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .1: Table IV. failure) circumstances.1 Grades of Flammable Gas or Vapour Release Continuous sources are where flammable fluids (gases) are normally present or present for more than 1000 hours per year. inside modules with ventilation stopped or less than 12 changes per hour Zone 0 No ventilation. ditches and mud treating equipment. The following is only a summary of the requirements of the Code and is provided to give a ready appreciation but should not be used as a substitute for the Code. because the probability is higher than it will contain a flammable mixture. Secondary sources are those which do not release flammable gases or vapours normally but can do so under abnormal (i. Primary sources are those which can release flammable vapours or gases in normal operation.g. wellhead or BOP system. Hazardous zone classification depends on the grade of release and the ventilation available as shown in Table IV. e.e. Particular caution in the mud-gas separator piping is necessary due to the potential of high volumes of primary gas released both through the vent pipe outlet and via the mud drain. Primary sources include vents and active mud tanks. at least 12 changes per hour Zone 0 Restricted ventilation. radioactive store hazardous area. IV. e.1 Grades of release Hazardous zone classification and impact of ventilation Open air situation and adequately ventilated spaces with unrestricted air movement.e. hazardous zones are classified according to the type of source of flammable vapour or gas: • the hazardous zone resulting from a continuous source is normally classified as Zone 0 • the hazardous zone resulting from a primary source is normally classified as Zone 1 • the hazardous zone resulting from a secondary source is normally classified as Zone 2.g. 23). e.2 Classification of Hazardous Zones The hazardous zone resulting from a continuous source will be a greater hazard than the zone resulting from a primary source.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling APPENDIX IV CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS The classification of hazardous areas with respect to electrical equipment shall be in accordance with the Institute of Petroleum (IP) Area classification Code for Petroleum Installations (Ref.g. To show this. Such atmospheres are normally present only in fixed roof tanks and at process vents. Hazardous zones defined under the IP or any similar code should not be confused with any other type of hazardous area established. burst pipes or blowouts. i. This includes minor and temporary containment failures such as occur from day to day. Continuous grade sources are not part of the drilling fluid circulation. not catastrophic failure such as vessel rupture. IV. sour gas.
The upper extent of the Zone 2 is 7.5 m above the rig floor. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 123 . i.g. the open air situation is the norm. except as described in the cases above. 1 or 2 the worksite is 'non-hazardous'. There should be no Zone 0 areas on any drilling rig installation.5 m radius from any point of egress from the premises as Zone 2. Outside Zone 0. Around the shale shaker Zone 2 extends 7. the extent of the hazardous zone is based on guidelines provided in Chapter 5 of the IP Code. ditches and well cellar areas. etc where the enclosure may be classified as a Zone 2 or even as a safe zone if the space is ventilated and over-pressurised. the vertical extent of the 'hazardous zone' above the highest source of hazard may be reduced to 3 m and extends over the whole classified area and below the source of hazard to ground level. extending to the top of any existing wind break around the derrick area. Any enclosed premises. the interior of the derrick or mast structure is classified as Zone 2. ventilation. If enclosed the enclosed space shall all be classified as Zone 1. Requirements are defined in the IP Code. cooling air and internal combustion engine air intake shall be taken from well outside Zone 1 and 2. Equally.g. A cylinder 7. Only the wellhead cellar and sunken ditches within the Zone 2 are classified as Zone 1. all electrical equipment in the derrick shall be suitably protected. For the purpose of ignition protection against small releases of flammable fluids around the rig floor area. from a designated nonhazardous zone. 2.5 m above and around the exterior surface of the shaker.5 m from any openings. A space around active mud tanks 3 m from the top and sides of each tank to ground level extending to 7.e. the point of reference is not the bell nipple but the stuffing box with other dimensions and zone classifications the same as with drilling rigs on land and to the main deck offshore. Enclosures around the tank.3 Hazardous Zone Dimensions According to the IP Code (1990) for Drilling and Workover Installations (where diagrams are provided). For full details refer to IP15 Chapter 6. fire walls.5 m around the bell nipple extending 9 m below the wellhead deck (offshore) or to ground level. and Zone 1 extends 1. offshore) outside the limits of the derrick or mast. For any gas vent outlets. If flow rates and type of effluent figures are not known the hazardous (Zone 2) should extend at least 15 m from the vent outlet in all directions. 4. Inside the tank walls is Zone 1. 5.5 m from the outer surface .Appendix IV Classification of Hazardous Areas Primary Secondary Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 1 Zone 0 Zone 0 For land rigs. with restricted ventilation only present where the drill floor is shrouded. unless adequately ventilated are classified as hazardous Zone 1 with Zone 2 extending 3 m from openings to the enclosure. the Zone 2 hazardous zones around the rig equipment extend to: 1. e. unless entry of a dangerous atmosphere is prevented by. Any enclosed premises not containing a source of hazard but located in a Zone 2 space should be classified as Zone 1. containing source of hazard which may give rise to a dangerous atmosphere under abnormal conditions should be classified as follows: The interior of the enclosure Zone 1. All purge air. the surrounding space in open air within a 7. Cellars or pits below ground level in a Zone 2 space should be classified as Zone 1. or inside the free space of active mud tanks.5 m from the sides of each tank at a height of 3 m. In naturally well-ventilated conditions (e. For wireline operations. 3. IV. with Zone 2 areas extending 7.
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling It must be clearly emphasised that the dimensions and conditions quoted are to be considered as the minimum case. 124 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . the dimensions (or even classification) of the hazardous zone should be increased by appropriate degree. and where any doubt exists.
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and the use of permanently installed diesel engines in Zones 1 and 2 should be avoided wherever possible. Alternatively. inertia or hand start. Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres' (Ref. Discharge of sparks from mechanical causes Generation and discharge of static from belt drives Discharge of sparks or flames from the exhaust system Flashback through induction system Cooling fan blades shall be made from non-metallic materials. actioned by excessive water temperature and low lube oil pressure. Electrical equipment shall be effectively earthed and bonded to the main engine frame. Alternatively.1 Recommendations for protection of diesel engines on drilling rigs which are permanently installed in hazardous Zones 1 and 2 (continued) Zones 1 and 2 A system using an alarm or trip device to protect the engine from Nature of Hazard Excessive engine vibration 126 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . a flame trap should be provided (Barber valve). Alarms or automatic shutdown devices shall be provided. 54) and by 'Code of Practice for Selection. Nature of Hazard Discharge of sparks from electrical equipment Overheating due to failure of cooling water system or loss of lube oil pressure Table V. installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive atmospheres). Any other electrical equipment associated with the engine shall be flame proof as defined in BS 4683 'Specification for electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres'. the exhaust should be designed to discharge to a location within a 'safe' zone. 55). Note: The effectiveness of protective devices is dependent upon a high standard of maintenance and inspection of the equipment. Table V. 1 and to a certain extent in zone 2 as defined by the document 'Electrical Safety' (Ref. or intrinsically safe as defined in BS 1259 'Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and circuits for use in explosive atmospheres' (see also BS 5345 Part 1: Selection. The use of permanently installed diesel engines in Zone 0 is unacceptable. All belts shall be of antistatic fire-resistant type.1 Introduction There are considerable problems in providing assured protection to diesel engines for use in hazardous Zones 0. Wherever possible. certain items need to be checked regularly. 13) V. air intakes for engines shall be located in a 'safe' zone as defined by the Institute of Petroleum Electrical Safety Code.1 Recommendations for protection of diesel engines on drilling rigs which are permanently installed in hazardous Zones 1 and 2 Zones 1 and 2 The starter shall be of the following non-electric types: pneumatic.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling APPENDIX V OPERATION OF DIESEL ENGINES IN HAZARDOUS AREAS The following data is taken from the document' Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Hazardous Areas' (Ref. A gas conditioner box and a flame trap shall be installed. spring recoil. hydraulic.
engines operated below their maximum power rating will have correspondingly lower exhaust gas and surface temperatures. determined by ASTM test D2155-66 is below 200oC. if fitted. Decompression systems should not normally be provided. In some situations cooling of the exhaust manifold and piping may be necessary. The surface temperature of the engine and exhaust system shall not exceed 250°C when tested under full load conditions.5 m3 shall be provided with relief devices. Note: The IP Code indicates that where the principal mobile combustible fluid is known to be methane gas.g. using water jacketing or finned coolers and/or high temperature cut-outs or alarms should be provided. if they are essential. reference to the original document is recommended. Dipsticks and/or filler caps should be screwed or effectively secured by other means. EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 127 .3 of the OCMA MEC-1 document. Relief valves. for the majority of refinery and petrochemical flammables in the regions of natural convection surrounding the hot surfaces of diesel engines. 56) is also used as a source to define the principles of diesel engine operation in hazardous zones. discussion and explanation of the above requirements. if fitted. Explosions in engine crankcase. discharge from crankcase and cylinder head relief valves and breathers An engine having a crankcase volume of over 0. Overspeeding of the engine due to induction of flammable gas or vapour A means shall be provided to stop the engine when flammable gas or vapour in the atmosphere can cause the engine to overspeed. preferably of BICERI design. and upstream of the shut-off valve. Given conditions of normal operation. Conversely. However. or breathers on engines shall be fitted with flame traps or alternatively discharge into the induction system downstream of the flame trap. If either of these two conditions exists. then the decompression ports should be provided with flame traps and ducted away to a safe zone. Intake and exhaust systems shall be designed in accordance with Appendix 3. The document 'Area Classification of Flammable Gas Atmospheres' (Ref. then higher engine surface temperatures (e. Exceptions are: Explosions in intake or exhaust systems Flame transmission to atmosphere by opening of decompression pots Reverse running of engine Excessive temperature of exhaust gases and excessive surface temperature of engine and exhaust system • when free movement of air is restricted by thermal or acoustic shielding • when the auto-ignition temperature of the flammable. surface temperatures of 250°C are acceptable. The fuel injection pump and governor where fitted should be so designed that reverse running of the engine is not possible. no engine exposed surface temperature shall exceed that determined for the flammable by the ASTM test. In this connection it should be noted that air cooled or supercharged diesel engines generally have significantly higher exhaust temperatures than water cooled engines.Appendix V Operation of Diesel Engines in Hazardous Areas excessive vibration should be considered. 500oC) may be considered acceptable. For a complete specification.
Such protection should normally include the provision of an air source from a non-hazardous zone.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Fixed diesel-engine equipment shall be located outside a hazardous zone. unless adequate and effective protection to all electrics. rotary table and mud pumps according the document 'Classification of Areas for Electrical Installation at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and/or Marine Fixed and Mobile Platforms' (Ref. exhaust systems. the engine shall be fitted with an automatically operated combustion air cut-out to prevent engine runaways in the event of flammable vapour ingestion. etc can be achieved. in relation to the document 'Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Hazardous Areas' (Ref. 128 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . However. 13) preferably be selected for conformity with the IP Code. but if this is unavoidable it should be fully protected as for fixed diesel installations or have a minimum of protection and operate under a permit-to-work system. Mobile diesel-engine equipment should preferably not be used in a hazardous zone. in addition for Zone 1. hot surface cooling and. As it is costly to retrofit diesel engines on rigs. Rigs which have been designed and equipped with diesel engine power supply to the drawworks. in which case it may be located in Zones 1 or 2. The minimum protection should be spark arrestors. an automatic air cut-off. they should. Note: In no case should a diesel engine be allowed to operate in Zone 0. 24) do not always comply with hazardous zone restrictions as defined under the IP Code. hot surfaces. if this is impracticable.
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HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling ABBREVIATIONS BOP CT DC DP DP EPBM ESM HEMP HP/HT H2 S HSE HSE MS LMRP LWD MODU MPI NDT OBM OIM PMS POB PPE ROV SCSSV SCR SMS SO2 SWL TCP TRSSV Blowout Preventer Coiled Tubing Drill Collar Drill Pipe Dynamically Positioned Exploration and Production Business Model Enhanced Safety Management Hazards and Effects Management Process High Pressure/ High Temperature Hydrogen Sulphide Health. Safety and Environmental Management System Lower Marine Riser Package Logging While Drilling Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Magnetic Particle Inspection Non-Destructive Testing Oil based Mud Offshore Installation Manager Preventive Maintenance System Personnel On Board Personal Protective Equipment Remotely Operated Vehicle Surface Controlled Sub-surface Safety Valve Silicon Controlled Rectifier Safety Management System Sulphur Dioxide Safe Working Load Tubing Conveyed Perforating Tubing Retrievable Sub-surface Safety Valve 130 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Safety and Environment Health.
Abbreviations This page intentionally left blank EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 131 .
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling GLOSSARY A glossary of commonly used terms in HSE is given in both EP 95-0100 HSE Management Systems and EP 95-0300 Overview Hazards and Effects Management Process. 132 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .
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21979. Practice for the Site Specific Assessment of Jack-up Units. E&P Business Model. Recommendations for the Protection of Diesel Engines Operating in Hazardous Areas. EPO/515. August 1993. EP 90-3490. 1993. August 1993. Incident Investigation and Analysis Guide. Offshore Rig Move and Anchor Handling Operations. Jack-up Structure Condition Assessment and Condition Monitoring. EP 46804. Guidelines for Single String Venture Drilling Operations. 1989. EPD/51. June 1987. Seat Belts. Shell Safety and Health Committee. Accident Investigation. EP 91-0725. EPO/515. EP 89-1500. Publication 107. EP 89-0550. Making the Most of Drilling Waste Management. Guide for Safety Performance Reporting. Area Classification Code for Petroleum Installations. Shell Safety and Health Committee. July 1989. September 1993. API. Personal Protective Equipment Guide. Engineering Equipment and Material Users Association (formerly OCMA MEC-1). April 1987. Institute of Petroleum. November 1990. Shell Safety Committee. SIEP EPD/75. September 1989. April 1991. First Edition. SPE Paper No. October 1991.23/173 Substance Abuse Management Strategies. June 1991. March 1988. Part 15. EPD/5. 1991. Pressure Control Manual for Drilling and Workover Operations. SIEP. Mooring Standards for Mobile Units. Shell Safety and Health Committee. March 1990. EP 88-0550. E&P Forum. SIEP Practice for Site Specific Structural Fitness for Purpose Assessment of Jack-up Rigs. Classification of Areas for Electrical Installation at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and/or Marine Fixed and Mobile Platforms. January 1994. EPO/5/6 and EPD/11. SIEP EPO/512. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 134 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME). Management Safety Inspections. EP 93-1760. Incident Potential Matrix.HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 EP 92-2195. EP 93-0473. Marine Safety of Mobile Offshore Units. Shell Safety and Health Committee. Report No. Shell Safety and Health Committee. 1993. SPE/IADC. July 1991. May 1989. EP 88-1000. June 1989. Model Code of Safe Practice. December 1987. 6. Road Safety Management. Shell Safety Committee. EPD/53. Shallow Gas Procedures Guidance Manual. Shell Safety and Health Committee. Technical and Research Bulletin 5-5. November 1992. Recommended Practice 500. Unsafe Act Auditing. EPO/51.
Specification 4E. EP 53777. 1981. Guidelines for Production Testing of Wells up to 15000 psi Using Temporary Equipment. Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems for Drilling Wells. Shell Safety and Health Committee. EP 94-1980. API.Diving. EP 53738. EP 87-1006. 1981. Shell Safety and Health Committee. 16th Edition. 1989. Report No. IADC. Environmental Auditing Guide. June 1989. API. December 1991. Valves and Wellhead Equipment. 1987. 12th Edition. December 1991. Volume 1. Guidelines for Detection and Control of Hydrogen Sulphide During Drilling Operations. EPO/53. Section L3. October 1992. September 1993. EPO/53. Recommended Practice 49. EP 59300. API. API. April 1987. Underwater Handbook . Third Edition 1988 and Specification 4F. Ionising Radiation Safety Guide. November 1994. Safe Drilling of Wells Containing Hydrogen Sulphide. 1993. Borehole Surveying Manual. 1991. API. Specification 7. Specification for Drilling and Production Hoisting Equipment. Third Edition 1985 Specification for Drilling and Well Servicing Structures. Noise Guide. Assessment of the Suitability of Standby Vessels Attending Offshore Installations. API.58/196. September 1991. Recommended Practice 8B. Hydrogen Sulphide. UK EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 135 . Exploration and Production (E&P) Waste Management Guidelines. EP 93-1300. December 1986. Specification 6A. Shell Safety and Health Committee. Second Edition. EP Environmental Assessment Guide. API. 1990. EPO/51. Radiation Safety Manual for Well Logging Operations. Production Operations. Shell Product Safety and Environmental Conservation Committee. June 1992. Shell Safety and Health Committee. Recommended Practice 53. Contingency Plan for Drilling Sour Oil and/or Gas Wells. Rotary Drilling Equipment. May 1984. Hoisting Tool Inspection and Maintenance Procedures. EP 91-1645. 2. EP 93-0777. E&P Forum. EPO/53. Production Handbook Volume 6. Well Services Guidance Manual. EPF/52. October 1984. Second Edition. Derricks and Masts Report of Visual Field Inspection of Derrick or Mast and Substructure. Management Guidelines for Hearing Conservation. December 1993. May 1992. Fifth Edition.References 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Drilling Manual. Shell Product Safety and Environmental Committee. Shell Oil Company (USA). December 1991. Diving Operations Management Guidelines. November 1993. Environmental Management Guidelines. Specification 8A. EPO/51. Shell Safety Committee.
HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Department of Transport. BS 5345. British Standards. 52 53 54 55 56 SI 1976 No. 1991. March 1980. SAL (draft document under revision). 1976. Electrical Safety. Management Guide Aircraft Operations. HMSO London. SIEP. 1989. Installation and Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. 1965. MF 80-0470. Part 1. Code of Practice for Selection. Fifth edition. 1994. 136 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 . Institute of Petroleum. Model Code of Safe Practice. Area Classification of Flammable Gas Atmospheres. 1542. Offshore Installation (Emergency Procedures) Regulations.
References This page intentionally left blank EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 137 .
... .... ... ........... 20...............80 Derricks and masts............................ 56..... 82 C Camp sites..................................... 91....... ................................................................................................ hazardous chemicals.............................................46 Fracturing....... ........ erection............ loading....... ................................................................. ............................... casing...64 Drilling programme.....67 Coiled tubing operations.....70........................................ 89 Emergency procedures....47 Fire extinguishers............................. 28 Environmental auditing........................... 48................14... .57......................................39 Crane operations...........................59 Derricks and masts............................................................ .... 79 Drills......................... .................. 69..76 H Handling....... radio transmissions............80 Food storage.......... ...71. ............. 25..... ............................. 84.................................................... ................................................... escape lines...... 17..................................................... .................................. ................. 11.............................................. H2S... ..59 Derricks and masts...62.......................................... 56.................................................... 87 Environmental protection... .................................................................................................................HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling INDEX A Acidising........................ 28....... ............................... 126 Diving operations............... 110 Drills..........60 Derricks and masts................................................. .................. ... 83..... 102 Conductor........................... ................13...... 63..................................................... ...............65.. ...........................7....... 46...... 108 Explosives storage. 93.......................65 Certification........................................101 Competence.......75 Auditing..............................75 138 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 ........... ..........................................................................88 Environmental hazards............77 Cranes................ ...................................................................................69 Chiksan.............................................................30....... ................. ............ ............98 Fuel storage....... ...............46 Flare lines......... ...................................................................................11 Concurrent operations............ 106 Blowout preventer.....67 Breathing apparatus............ 72.. ............... 48......................... 24....77 Crown block. ........... 97 B Barriers.105........................................83 Corrective action........................... 106 Contract...... foundations......... ........... 44........... 37............. ..................... .64 Cryogenic operations.............. ..... crown protection.................................................................................... ............... 90.. ....65 Catlines.............. 101......31 Experience.....................................60 Degassers.... ..........45.......... ................... 70.107 Drains...............90 Explosives...... ....71 Handling... 54........................... 114 Coring operations......31 Derricks and masts............................................. .8...................................................................... 50........99 Alarm systems.. 72 Drill pipe........................... 89.............................. 20.....................45 Drawworks safety................................. in hazardous areas............................93 F Fire drills..................... ................99 Air...........99 E Electrical safety............. ..........................58 Drill collars........................... inspection....59 Diesels................................ 94...... 17....... ........................................... ..................... ................................................................................ 80 Drilling line..................................................28...70...................................60 G Gas cylinders.........................................46 D Deadline anchor...........8........ .... 79 BOP control system....... ..........59 Derricks and masts..........................................25................................. . .. .......................................................................... 16 Explosives........ ................... .... 46 Catheads...57 Elevators....... . ................................... ....81 Atapulgite........................... ..............
..... ....40 HSE Case revision................................................................................. 65....... 3............... ....................24.........56........ 86... 41 Induction programme. ..... winches..33 O Occupational health..71 Masts................................................................71 Hazard....... 122 Health.......... 23.. ..................14..... .................... 75........................... 52...........................6........................... 18....... electric fishing.... 32....106 J Job description............................. 16......... .................48 Logging..........78 Hydrogen sulphide............... ........... 35......................................................99 Hazardous zones.................. 7............... 16..63 Inspection........ .......................... .. ....... tubing.................. ...........24 Location.... ..............40 HSE Department.......................... slings........... 51..31 Offshore survival course.......... 98 Organisation...... 99............. management.......... ...37 HSE Case................ land.............................17...... 31...............................12 Oil spill contingency plan........... 45....... ...................... 69 Inspection................. stacking............. 116 Inspection..................... procedures...... 94.................. .................... . operations............ guy lines......... 42.......... 61.. 86 Maintenance............ 5..... ..................... ...........................71 Handling......................................................................10..... low temperature...........87 Noise control.......................................................... .. ....85 I Incidents.............. ..... hooks............................................................................................................ 97 Mud programme................99 Location approval......... ...............85 Heavy lifts................................59 Materials............... 83......................................... 56........32 Permit-to-work.. marine riser............ lifting gear......................................80... 19........................................ offshore............. . ................12............ materials.......... 98........... ............. . 102......77 Helicopter operations...... 102............... .................................. 19......46............................ 36.. raising and lowering.......33....94 Performance indicators..................... 37.... 106 Marine riser....... preventive......................................................................................... 45.... 33..........................82................... ........ ................. 106 Housekeeping....................30 Hygiene.... ......... electric.... electrical................... ........ ..................... 24................8 Oxygen deficiency...62........31...1.....................................110 Hot work....................... . 73.. . 103......... 18.......................................................................... 116 Manuals........................ 104.... 10.. .... ..................... ......... 41 Hydrogen sulphide.. 39.................... 83.Index Handling.......... ... 64............ .52 Inspection.............. liquid........ ....................................... 90.............96 Logging............... 98 Hydrogen sulphide................ .................... ... .............62 Inspection...... .79 Liquid......................................................11........100 Materials.....6....... 87 Mud logging.................... ............................10 HSE Management System...89 M N Nitrogen.............................. .... 37.....9..................29 Oil spills................................. elevators.. 114................................... .............. 22..........................................................99 Noise.......................65...........101 P Perforating....48 Mud... monitoring... 62.............89 Logging... 115 HSE Case remedial actions...............3...........85.................................60 Masts............. 5.......................... 47 Inspections. 83....... rig.... ............................................................................. 116 HSE policy... ..... 39 HSE meetings.......... ........................... 61 Inspection. 65......................... 97....... ......... ............................. 128 Personnel movement control.....52 Medical facilities......44 Location.................. ...33.... 114 L Lifting gear.................... 100 HSE audit....... ............... 32.... shackles................ 99....... ..... ............. 27...................................... occupational.................. 81.................................... ......... 62 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 139 ........61. tubing conveyed...... ...................................... ....................63 Inspections....
.................... .................. ........... substance abuse.......................80 Shallow gas... .. 114 Responsibilities.24..... sewage disposal...............29 Rescue of personnel.......................................64 TRIPOD DELTA...........................45 Site...................................... 108 Well interference........65 Winches...........105 Well testing........................... .......... ..62................. 30.............. use....... 88 Water.............. wire rope.............. 83 W Waste disposal........... ........................ ..... ................ ............... 113 Pollution........... ..........................108 Subcontractor.................................................................................................... man riding.......................................62 Wire ropes..53 Rig moving........................................................................................ .... ............ .................................................................................... ......................... HSE.95 Relief valves..................... 69 Weight indicator..... mud/gas.. ............ .92 Radioactive source register................................12 R Radio transmissions.......... 29....... contractor......44 Site................... ......................................................................... .................. 115 Rig.................................................... ............................9..................... operation of... ..................................................................................... ................................. 50 Rig moving.. 66.....7 T Tender assisted operations.................. . ..................................................................26 Weather................................26...................... .... ..................95 Radioactive sources..............59 Relief well plan........... 56............................ .....................................13.10 Responsibilities............................................................................. making up and laying down....51 Tongs. 79 Transport... ........................46 Weather forecasting..................................25......6.............................. 90 Pressure testing..............................................................52 Transport....... ... ..74 Training...................................................... 74 U Unsafe act auditing.. land....................... land.....................................53 Transport.......... offshore................ storage.... ...... working in a string........................ .................58 Stabbing board........................................ ............................................ adverse.....31 Tripping..............................................78 Pulsation dampeners...... Group HSE...... ....... ..........................46 Waste management............... ........... drainage...... .................HSE Manual EP 95-0210 Drilling Policy.....97 Winches...................62 Winches.............9.................................. ........... air.................... 83 Tubulars......... 46.... ........... .................................. 83...............53 Travelling block......................... ..... 72 Slips.......... ........ H2S............................................... ..............46............................... 95 Radioactive sources.74...........................................................72 Spare parts.......................61...............60 Well control............................................................. charging.................................73 Torque.......... 71 Training................................................. 49 Site survey.. 110 Q Qualifications......................... ......................... ........13....64 Separators.................................. ...17 Substance abuse.... ...............................31.. 48..................................... ............... ......................................................................72................................ .............................................109 Resources.......... 48 Site.......14.. company........12.....................................54 Running casing............................................... ............... ... 112 Policy...............................................45 Slings............96 Radioactive sources.. 37 Rig assessment........................................12........................ .......................................... ............................................................. sea. ............... ..............................64 S Safety factors......................................... 83.......61 Standards..19 Standby vessels..............................52.............. .................................................. ....................7................ .............. road......................... 66 140 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 .. ................................................ potable.......... ...........34 V Visitors....................... .48........................................................... 101..................................... 109 Pressure control.....
........ 107 EP 95-0210 Revision 0 16 October 1995 141 ........106.............Index Wireline (slickline) operations..
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