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Bahan Kuliah Me 29 03

Bahan Kuliah Me 29 03

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.C.H,,\!rfIH.

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Iron Pounders in Central Java.

iRO~ CASTING IN A.RURALB]>.;'VIRONMttNT
;.r(j~\TIWBI;;-r"WE~N·YO(;-fi\KART,\aJld Surakarta kf,bupi.tterl)

{S61o), Klate'l1 dlstricr
regions of

'iq~t:ml Java .h;;:~M<lp <1), The mai 0 r pBJt of [he dbtr.iu is an unbroken

is om; ~A' the .agricultl.lraUy most developed

;{ilS (Lgrlcultll,ral land is fertile anti

'iarn ~loping_gendy from the- norrhv .... i:owards rht so,tlthe~~uY:los~ est IT·rtg<r~edby water trom sp·rlng""

,that.art situated on the ..slopes (If the 'V;lH mountaiu area of GUHUl!Ig :&i~rapi. Small fidds sown with rice, wbatco and .s~l.gar CiH~(:· ,predolllinate: i.n the scenery.of this mQst"!knsdy populated district ·of :l:"¢"rlti"aJ Java, .Rice·k b}' fur th~ most important agricultural uop·in Kh~l:en.dj$trict

~and Lts cul d vat ion as J comrne rc lal.cH)'p goes· bad~ several cenrur ies, f!"t th~ end ofthe sixteenth century, Klalcn\v)l.$" already an important ~rice productien .centrc of fhe Mah~tam .kingdom. At that time, the, kingdom of Ma,t<'lfam was a major rice: SLL~_pi~e[to cities in JavA; including 15a.t~\lb (SlIW(in,do ~997: 48). Dl!fitlg_the: period o:t\:;o,~Oliiar rule, the cuhivation of 'a~h crops like sngar cane, tohACCO andindtgo wa~ inLTf'lduc;.(.'"d .1" large scale. To manage this proce~s, l)Jiva,te on C()rnp'1Hi~s\V.~·I.·e vp to take don trol 9f snd stimulate commercial set agricuhure i~~ region. The upshDt was th,~t laten district is one of the the K regions in J~va:that w~t)J('s~ed a vast expansion of i'l~estate economy from th c m krdlc of the nin 6(eel1th t,entui;'Y (S:ch~~'.¢irc·r 19S8 f· . ~.. .... To· Wr'v'e rhis c,arly ]J&:O(;et;.~· cCHHme,rcialiialion iEi ·agr.iCi;.lI'Lnre, a of
large number of ri..gro.proces~"ing factories were established in the b(e. nineteenth

and.early twentieth centuries, The: dr:yong- of tobacco was,
on a relatively hkg¢.,$cak,

one. of the acrlvities that were lludennkcn

B9

------=-~~l

~diet·iJ~lportaJJt activity in the fidel 6hgricultul'a1 diversification
."~Ir~S

[ava, At~und I.szo, th'er¢\~<er(" SUgOlr TTliIl.s 'in Kl.~ten ·d"i1"trjct. , "t1<.~~(1"lcitt than 40 pe"!cent ofthc tota] number of 53 sugar rl)ilh
.b"l

,. jJf{)ccsi;ing of

Ml$;U C'JW:· fo:r

which ·Kh.t~n was one of the main

n

entrilI JUiVi\ at rh~) tirHC, arid m0.ii_e than

.u per

cent of the total

.Il'U'lPb.ero t 'ISS' swgar mil h~1H lava as,a whole (Daldj oerri 1972: 3}:

~.

l_~i___j

.~

:t\frer. Indonesia 3a~Hedits independence in 1945~ the position of .~den distrkt a~ nn.ftgrbcultu'niHy advanced r~_gihriwent from strength lO"~trength.'1'his was most marked in the early J 9].0$>when J griculrura! evdoprnent accelerated following tho: mtroducrion of newrioe techno'~g}r which included h!gh-}iicld.ing varieties and imprqvred fann1rlg .mHllOtls. K1;ttt-ll.disH'ic.twas.one of the first areas [11 which the Indo'IPn ..:a.l1 gownn:l1e:n1 applied its m~ml£ i Padi: (mil\5S·gu idance ri.ce in tensifica1;Ion) p:a'ogramme. extensively (ULam~ and Ih;Hauw 1972:. 19)". Thi5 programrrit was fQllowcdby'.otlwx t:i~e ~nteijsjJicj_tion projects rhal in'~ll.l.dt1dhe inuoduefion ()f m~w types 0.[ fc,rtHizer~. These irnprovemen rs t 'io rice cultivation corl\~erg,ed to bring higtlCf pr.oduc!ivlty, Simihrpr.o,granm ics to improve agricul tunal produetio n were und ertaken ill tohKCO
'and
~tjgfrr

cane cultivation.

In spite of

the. fact that several tobacco

~~

Ra.itw~)"

plantation/ and sugar factories were closed down since the early 19.70s, cultivation.ofthese two cash craps remains an i:rnp.ot'tlnt (l~rect of lIte:· agri cul t ura l eco nomy'of this part ·of C€ntcal IaVJ ($uwo ndo 1997; 4,s':_ 500),. Anh,e end M lhe·.tw-,~.ilt;e·thcentury, therefore, Kbtert district w-as charaetecized by a wcl.l-cieve}QPr;:tU:gr:ic,ult.qral sector based orrjntensivc )' lm~dw::ti(m ofrice, ~u~ar cane, andtobacco, -S-iWZlte:dbstween the two urban umlres dfYogyablrp: ana Surakarta, Klatendisnict.has also long enjoyed 11 reputation as a centre of horne industries in the Tcgi(m, The:,;~home indt;.s.H'ies tnd.l!dc-the production
of batik, textiles, garments; roof tiles, "'~'o(H;lt::n and bamboo fll.l:nitm{:,

H'ignway.

The V(lrictr of tobaeco produced III tl ., -. '. .. . .. , .d ' . , . '. le \K·mlty of Klar~ll ..erlfoved ~ goo .reputanon. It Was lbM 1i; ,1, ... ,. . _.;' .. ,.. .., ..,.... ., . . .. ". s..t l~ outei wrapper 01 cigars· and expo! tc{I In large Q11antHH::s t~.,·th"'" pUi"po~(" (Stlwondo r9Q7; 9M.. ..... ' '.. . r. IS

iron ware for houselrotd.and indus! rial pur.p;OSI":\~i and various type-s of fuod preducss. Many of these. no n-atfric:u!turat activities-are located in lhc (,) ulltrysi4e aJl-~-are:.mft:.'$tlyclustered in villages thlH specialize in one .sptx:ifi c lype of activ i~y Es ~"iedan}' in the vi cinity M the y~)gy~h-rta•. S"ob" htghwlfy~ ·whe·r.t~many .vilbg~s are W~\!connected through ari Intensive network of metalled roads, trading and industrial activities .make up an important part· of the rural economy;

,

,[B

the re-cent j:Ja,')t,he non-agrt(.nltuml'entel'r)r~s,es t
.' ~ t

~.,1.·(0U

in ·t1·l·e .
'1>

Sl(1~we're ~lmost ·exdusi.vdr based Otl household

labour, but-Qv.:~tl',

an mt:r.e'10nrg humber of thern have ~ruvm from being home i JJlU~ intosmall-scale capitalist enterprises that employ ,,,,.<ige.lah' . lIK early 197~, this. lYfHr' cf t'utlli. :industrial :lc'tivi'ly~has .' :specral_ly mpidly j;t~ K~aten district" T~is dtV(Jopl'tl€:J.Jt.:of srri.cll~~l! ~ndust~'~~l, prQd~lc'tu(m III the C9untrysld~, ~~F{:ump~tnied.bt.a~~~ increase III medium and large-.'):(:illeenterpnses and tradmg~ . h~s triggered off a ~l]bstclut,ial s hitl: [,n [he share-of-the agdcull. ;atr\fi non-agticulru ra 1sector s 01 rh e ew'N.nuy- of Kbl en, from I '1 "P~I::: jn i 976, tte contribution domestic product "vent up of the 'business sector to the' gross
(0

dnstrl< '. ' '.' ." .. ' . ." ]rnber of cnu.ct.pris.(;:~ an~ employmel,n, is Iron.-(';a.S:l,lng: which is contl~ Tiltc,d in live ad,jolFllng villages. 'thIS dUSlCeU'IfflVC VIllages, known 'eilt ' '. "'.' d 'If,:.the f1fj)11~ bf the u;ri~ral~Y'loc~te..J hamlet B~,t~rl,i~~~,~tua:~. ~t~. ,1is~riceof less than a kilometre from the national \t~g}.~1hHa-Solo
!f ' i'.

.

"'11

acti~rny in kectr'nmtan

Ccper, lmwever): in terms both .of

li~\'i:hY (~~'ef,'~ap h , "1 .' , , '. .: _ .... ".. NthmlgJ; s~ttl:at6d u1 <111<It,''flcuit.LLr<ql}' pJO'''Fcroll5 env ironmestt, .13.~·iUrwhLch lies between the two'·~(.cnH<!.l Jav,lries:e J-:)'i'inc~paht[~,~f' o .¥oW~blttaand Surakarta, has 100lgh~eI'l a well-known centre of metad,\\«il:king in this part of [ava, Unlike that of the s.urn;)Unthng vllbg_es, .. ~~e.histqry of Batur is '-closely related to industry: 'Although 'it. may
id 1'''' ad ........",. .S~}U.t "~r~,J.ov;;'ab it ". can be.said lh.~t indusrrv ( "". -.',

}-'!'.pf::l'€ent in 1992 (Suwondo 1
WNt importance, economic

h the. tradition of Batur .

This in:dH::at:~nhat, althoughof

merit in Klaten di~tri(l has not belen limited to. .;lgriculture: " p ~ocC'~~ <J ctiv,i~~e.<;: i!'id.U::try j,~ a t~C.Lplay: n g.<I rna) or ro]e:' ~~ ~ng but. r.uml~i.';~)llOm~1of rhns part of Cen~-r,~UilY'L Th is overal i pattern ofet:on'Orn [c growth through rural divet$.!,:6};a~on is also typicaJ of QW: of the slll~distrids {f:e'GlI1wtan~ of Klaren, which is.sll.ill<lted about tell kilometres north-east of the admi ;' 'centre of the _d,istrkt., the tOWI] of Kl.~ren .. The' national ~()gY~'lll:i~ Solo highl~'(l}~ runs lhrOll!2)l th is subd i,strin, which abo has! Q;, OWp, s.ffitt~ on the lklIlclun:g". Yogyakar1"j-SQio--$!i to! Qa,yd nJi'iway~ine: A Ithoughj!:84~ ~·LL1'lt]r.al,.fillds tush .~j,l:~ rice and. ~~lW'lr, cane dominate tbe'!anJsc'J~~
01'

~O(.jety, ,. The pee ~le 0 f Bator were born tc) livi:{off metal. lJsually a ')liHagt fOUJi.d;er's·(tjakal b,akal) getH.:alow goe!' baek.to a Idng·(radja), "but in.thi5 hamlet geo«logt@>Jr<lcebackD.i·dy.to·i\.;eitiLi.n empu (master

n~n:~grt(:ll] tu ial actlvi ties wmpn~e an importa n t Ih1n'.gf th-: t'c9:n'9~ Ceper, Ahnost ·6q·pel' cent oftlle'\vorking pop-~~ra'~ion of tJ.li1i~u:!t

~listt'icl i~ employed iJ1activities Qub;de8.gr!culh!.~e·,

or 'which

'

half7'ti

almost 30 p-er (C~nt.ofthc working population,
of hi.mdk,raih,1

works either in indl~[" .

Although some of this hl~}1 levd 'of jndu~~rial emplt~yment)lil ket:amatan Cepercanbe attributed to.: three large indmt~r~1 enterpri\cf; the sugar mill Ceper Baru,.,. government-owned textile mc:tmiY1 <lJl;dJl private woodw()rkjn~ facrorv, but the major part of ind~.i~tt@ einplqyrhent rn(he .subdistrkf l'S gen¢rated h) small-scale pdvJte e[U~rpriscs; There is a cnncentratjon 'of entt'FriS~5 if1rm~ifuctudnS' n"HJ:f tiles in the vjHage of KleP~l and ,j substantial IHLtnber of-small::, scale tex;t8.e facWrie$ spread over the subdistrict. 'Chemos! important

.', Begin ning 'wi.L~¥ duple .i!:gricuHural tools ro meet the needs of the s ~',surrQulldlng vHbgcs. the era ftsmc I1 of thi s hamlet sl!o\y!/,~ewm to :'(ji','crsif!f their crafrwork dlUfng the colonial period by im;tuding-lhe. prod:K~io.;~ anti repair ()f ilOUseholJ appliances [kettles and frying pansland making spare pa r,tdbr va rio us Instruments and machinery; In the late .nine le~i.Hh j;;cnt.ury, the su ~imim .in the region would :otcasJon~H}' give' ,~jmple and. urgent repair workto to.cal smithies, but ~O[lJ}' ml"~~ty :dI011ky provide them with order.-; fot: the r,eplacen1:ent.of '~QmponentL /u that tirnc, all the ne~e~sai'Y spare I~~rts'and machinery fo( the agto·pr(Kessi[~s, factories in Java were. stHl imported directly 'from Europe. This, situation changed during. the f-<~rstOVorld\Val', \ '.'i'll-en imports from Europe ..'):tagt1aled.;lnd many of the sligar"mills be'gan to run out.oJ~parq1arn In desperation several ofthem decided 10 place trial' orde"~'swith lOU1! producers. As, Batur had a'll est:tb]ish~
reputation "N'~reahle as.a centre- for metalworking, the craftsmen of this hamlet

. r~ft~l1'la.nr(KI!lNlI(j\'firlj

()~~J1971:'49).

lQ ,a("J.ll~]rc.theirfirst

orders f9f simple .spf.lrelMl"ts Mound

19 1 8 CS oe roto and Hatmosuprobo 1979: 3:5),. " Even though the irnpMl'of spare r~rt~ from Europewas non~ahzecl .'agai n ~}Y earl y the once they were l~lmdi~ the wiftsmen of Batnr .tould 'cqritinue, t,o expand" their.businesses 'slowly in the' yearf there-

Enos,

·aft<;·r_ \'Vith.~ reputation cstihlish~cI by the SLt((ckl; of their first't) . and having the advantage of being able to. offer lower pl'ice.5an~L,.$. delivery times, [hey gradually caned out 11 niche in the pt()dtrc le0'" cornphcatcd components for 4.g!'h-i)r6q~ssing.·fu;d'ories,·",,-axles.gears and pullevs, In. Ellis, they were foilo·wing on the h. ~xpandiH$ e:~~ ecencmy in ()Z'ri~rA Javil~.wJu;:h gti1er.irted a r .tate high cot1<tit'1mt .ckni·and tor .spare parts for suga f 1n iU~ in the in sm·roundirlg.s of Ktlten d'i~tdtt_ Witb the Oil between thei:r t. 'had~tsg~rarted re-enter L:h~ marketfor span: P;l(ts.fOr"te..xtjJeJa-cro throughout-the whole of Java (Hraadhaarl1994: =26). 'the disruption of economic life i·n~~.ig,ltt~[l the world eCoilQ);"jji<; by i;t,'iiis in the eariyl,930s and thUap<'ll1eS:f occupation 942~:l\5). seem (0 have had. any major Meb'TI,tive effects on industrial d.e: ment in, {XlI]_] r, There ~11'e llCl i in5lL~;<\hons that these n~;()e~nm pi;Q C iI; ~.iev:l[l pEtu(S. to indust ri 111 prod ucticn, Alrh ough many ~~u~l"!.f i ha d to close down f(~HnWln g. the onset. (I [ til e world .eWI16'~l,c oCr' the 19)0,<;;those urat remained OP~Il repla;:;e~l 811incl'ea:l>ing num tne·ir· imported and expensive 'spare parts with cheaper kKally ~,;:;r~ compo nenrs a rid the' craftsmen in Bp cur ben (.Ii ted from these ..: -»r orders, Once ti;J:e' pattern had been established when most of the sugiiJi' mills were ready to resume production-at l}le- end of the 1930S'~~1 also a rijj i;:O~ched these H~e·i.'.lC) al. man ufactu rers of S.fmple, spare pa. c for agru-processingjndustrles, A .trenclwhidl inrensificd when.inipfl.t!W becameimpossible, folio·wing the outbr~e{i.k·Of th(!:":';econd \\fo-ri.d V\'~

1'}ld I1c..d~' acquired.skill in product diversification enabled the iron
in: .indu.strial demand '. . t9'. ·l.oplll made spa~~eparis ili_ the 1-95(h They" prc. rttt~d from the fact ~at inflation and shorta-ge of fo.relgn ~,xchangft g!'t~a_lly r<X[L~tc.d the \«)!UU1 e of im ported ,~parc pa r-t$ l Braad ba art 1994: 2l). T! H~ import~iLb.)titut ion p.o:Uct ~9f the n,ew!)i" ind~pell~:ent nldo~lesi'l~ govemm'en t .,.~ irs E-unten,.R PtoQ:~.mme to suuoort small-scale r:nb~m11entrepreneur~!1(1 '~' . .r -s.hlp (H'obis~)ll 1936) provided the hu,~ine~s Go.mnlUl~itY,QfHatll( with ~tnl orders and' .srare support £Qr.infrasLt-Lldli.ra;l facilities. , This period of industrial growth ill Ha.ti.!r was interrupted hy the politkal-~tlrbl;.!kn~e and violence which afflicted Indonesia in the. early -,lildm id-19.60~, Be.~ng(lone 0 f the co m munist stron ghoM~ of Central _J~v~I.lir~ in Klaten d istrict W~tS: eeply affected by the poli t i(;:l1 l urmo a d -around ]965 (Suwondo l~91; J'4-~7}. Despite d1,e~ere diswplipn ·in.,).n _C<l~dng~11 Batur quidly recovered frnm th~~$ period, The stabilization polie y . of t h~~"h::\v.Drd~t regi tne '<ln~lnf~ ins is tent em phasis on econo.nic devdopmt'nl gave. the, activities of rhe lron foundC'l'S_ of Batur anew impetus. EG0J;HJrn~£ growth Jed to' an increase in the demand for both s.p~1.re 'i-MHS' and hnlsht;:.d products forrbe ag·ri(L.Il.tural ~u)d industria] sectors of the economy. SpLtrtcd on by glowing- prosperity, tile: r.l:e.m~mJ (or consumer prod·uc:t:'i,c~l.ily LO()~ off in the-early 1980.~. De\fdopnlellt~.MKh as these stimulated the ~·'lrljtr process of product diversification ':iull!ol1g th.': iron fOllnd~'rs of Blltirr who added 8j Wide Y"M idy 0 f new products to t he ir "ange: d:f iran casti ng; l"f.()lnshaUo-w l,~'-;;'lC'[ :pllUlp~ and pipe-fitting.s)lw ornaments such as mirror franses and d.~(~)ratcd lnmp.posrs.
t', nd";'" of Bawl' to benefit. from theincrease
IO~I!''.,"".. .. 00

1Y, ,.

~-

n

in Europe".

The Jnp~nese occupa tion of 1ndouesis p~ovided another new imp·&.,~ to iron L!~tiog Batur, ·~~pecially ~timula.thJ.g product d:iv~rsiJ3.C<l!tjhll" iii After its a rriva !. "In Central Java) the. Japanese army wil$" q1.)ic::k-'1t:~ recognize the skilH 'of the iron fO:u!1de.f~. Batur and forced theriiifg. of produce gr.el1,;l{le-~heUs arld other simple corrrponents to boost.:ilit' Japanese war efforr, Althou~h the.craftsmen ~;)fB<ttm >...ere i;!M.]fhd~~tl"· .c0mp.t:n$~l:t~9for their work and .. uffered occasional Iiurdship; iJt L~ s q>~ ~ll wi n d which bJow~ riO one some gooJ'i\mJ this l y r{~ offorced pr©~ d ud. ro 11 .for the I;a:pahes~ armv P nJ.'.~ided lh.e~n "_;,_i'fh an op port unity Ko' . improve their .$~{lIsin c.asling different W'pe~of products (Nnsrucfdln
·A.nshori)' 1994),

Pollowlng

~:hh long-term

.deveiopment

in :imq casting in Batur,

there were (in 19(4)';). tout of 15S private iron fo~mdrie.s in this duster

of five villages ..As·(1, hole, these companies own "41g f;tCt()ry buildings w in '~'hidinbout :.\200 workers ~H:~employee! ona legul'1r basis.' The logical con~-ql.le[lCC' of the. e('OllOmic concentration is. that the appearance of g;ttm: contrasts sharply with that of the j;de~l-t"ypic"a~ bvanc~e village.Tnstead.of gard~hs and fr()m Y<l,d_~green ,v~th palms und banana trees, so common in most villages J'n J~V'h l3atut is c\jmin<tted by the "ights and 50um.ls of industrial J'wdu.c:ti.()rL The
,~n'atef part of itsresidcntia] area is <J n')a~~.e.of5~rl,~l1 allers·in which the

a $, In it~ epti,rety, thc-harnlet of Batutt H}:.!::" indul}trial island in an tC gllc middle of ail agricultur,ll envi1"0l1m0ilt, with rice and sugar cane t •. .' .. ffdds surrounding the residential ares and il~ factories.
l.L"f)USTJ~lAL DJWELOPMENT /I.ND '1ECIIN01.0GIC

is

..!o;.LBANGIiS C

gt n.e,.ui5are iliUMuslims. M~.st,'oordle.:;lJterptise~ r verY .-ecc1J~ly:alrnost two-thirds {<)OJ n~\'e' been

AU the

155 iron foundries

in'Hailu" <Ire pr.i';;'afeIy-"t).M'ned: and. the-entre-

housas art' packed together, with a.large number of factorv build' fitted' ill l)dWecn: The main mad through.the central hamlet GI.? hrgely of brick walls four to fi:V~.n'lC"trcs high with iron ga.tes that)Iii . entrance' to 'the t~tctp.ri:e.s mi l'';:i)ii:lencts of their owners, The s,ne:eti a are hUed by thif: .':;0 unds ofdiesel e:ngjofi hk)wing.air into tH~ gIQ\';;~ furnaces !n<J l melt tllt::6ron. and .whirr of !athe mach in es th;:'lt f;nish. ~h e;C1iUproducts. Reso u n dLng "from e\'-vr.y corn er' i$' t h.b si:mlld'of$tw~ iron~W"hic.h is· an essential" part ~).t"the .raw 11l~·terial.Ll~ed "iu:"'f:liproduction pr(}cess, .b{~jJl.gbTohn.llp in front the fac IOT!es. Duri'Qg _. :I' the day the thor,() ughf"ares are thl._-cm'ge<iwith people lin bkyde.s·:a.j)"j motorcvcles and in cars on their way to or from one of the' :fac(fi~' building"'. Sometimes J. grcmp' of women' 8.J)d children can be s¢t:lt' standing . In front of a t<,1dory .gal~. arrying a rnagnei and a . c bud:;ef'hwa.i{b~.tgto be allowed in to glean the lHtov;;Jr.~ Jrom: s.mc.!tihg.pxG~cs;<;"Hn:aUy, there is the;lgJ~t and ~ml.nd OfliO~qrn:(f~)J~ unloading of vehicles in the streets and aUers; sometimes tricyd~ (be,ca,l.,j are.used (or transport wilhhi the village, but_it i.1; much niore.. usual to find 'trucks hrgt" and small parked in front of the i1w:'!OE
• ,A

have_hE/.'tt estabNshe~ Ii:[->tabh:~bed- uno. since JUs~over halfcf rhese (51 factoriesl, or one-third of the iotal, weT.': fsti(blish<;d after 1980. Taking into account, of (he cKsapPi;'.;a:rance of at leJs.t 10--1:; w.cl.Qrieshet ... veen 1970 'and 1994, thlS means rh.~t the number of iro n fOri] Wrrics in Batur h,l~rrsen fro m a bout "10·f! 1970, to I 55 In i 1994, an;nClea,se· of almost. 11Q pet cent over a .25-·r~ear period, III Wt<l!.,the 155 lrD~l foundries in Batur employed ~,HO persons on ' >~·rcgt.~lar baS:~s. 199+,·\... jd~ w,orks:.ou t atan ~;'I1"~P1:\:C' 20;6 cm.ph.)yt>.es. in h "of 'per q~tcrpr.iAc. tnt' Jtl<lJi:Jril y -of the f01mdri"!~s-are small eJ;f~rp.~dS:ts: more th,lll'two-third~- (m6foundrk~~' cmplcy less them workers, of 'whtch almost half (;:l'O} , Of alx;ul on'iHhird 6fth~ total number of iron 'foundries in Batur, employ fewer thanl O.workers. Out orthe 15'5 iron 'fOlmdrLe~, 11{J5:p~.::iali'l~ the castingof iron products, 5 speci:aJi2.ccin in the casting of ahnniiJiun<l products, while: the l'em~ining 10 factMie.s:

zo

of

ctl~th{)r.h :\'ypC:scf metal, In ]094, there were two typ es of ovens q r ftmwc£,~ beiflg used to .srnelt the tro'll,-~lietung-kif.:. i:'ind the Kopufa, thes-e two, tlie t1.mgkik-type of furnac;,e WM' .~he rnos.t,p6pular on~, h?!ng. used by 148-.of the. 15U factor: es tha tcast iron p roduds.- Thi s ~'n~au~:r"fUHgkik l1iH;e wa.!' fLU introduced in Baurr in the early 19608 and replaced the h~r-ger k~)lmJa fu ,1CfC" which .had been used by some farniiies since t}) c early 19501>-he. t trlfJ'~kik furnace l.~a sled funnel with a diamder of abou 6S centl.metres and a h.eigh L of 911(.)11( two metres, in "which coke and a mixture ohctap iron/pig ifOfl and ItI'l'lt-SWR(:" are thtoWll at the top. By heating tbe (ok~, vtJ.ltilGlt~~bra diesel engiT1~, the mix of iron and lume~'>l9'hC L.~ ~mdt(:"d at ,~ kmperat1lJoll :()f <lb<O:~lL 1.,100' degrees ·C~~~n,) with a H18.Xirt1Ul1l. capi1:dtr' of 8'01J. ki.lo"g't~m~s hom- The ir(iid\Dilnd iHben per t:UHH::d over, or '.cl~ve/"{tw1Shk) 'as 'it ~1ere,lei: pour the. gr~y cast iron into a smal] miU'lWIHy-operalcd contrliner (cimhui1g) hfkd by means

or

1"1)

1,..

:.

,.

;afa long hambpo' cane. I-'fom there, the. molten sWbft dr6tanc:e and pouted .into moulds _lwpe[);,

iron' is carried over a usually made of sand

"~(S(}il;lettl'n~~haped by a moulding press. s . In tWO b(;tm~~"5that ps,t iron, the pt"Occss'is still carded curusing

t.kCiptjkr, while six of [he factories which cast iron in <1' tungki,~ also jn1\'likcu.5~·of a k,opuln (dr p<ir~ the'lr pr.oJu~tic.m. ·After"it had become bb'$Oll"l~ in the 196{)5, th e 'kofYlda' ~l,l a~(;~w<Lf;re:intrt) duced by these t m ~J~,e:r prises r rom the JaN ~nbs for th e d [tal P(l rpose ·?f jM nu facturiug various typ.e$'ofl-;d·gcr-si:7..eJ products ilpd cn-lafgi.ngtheir producti(:lIi i.~PJCitr- The kopuJa ["lJnhlCe is an' iron funnel ~jih "3 di;!n:J.e't>er bout a ·tlle.~,un::.'sizeas <l trtn$kfk, but much tallerwith a height ofabout five. 'jIletres,.It can r.~a(:ha temperature of! ,400 diegrees Celsius and is able. .to'produce up to 1~500 hilo_g,pll11s of moltenrrori.per iy~m,.<lbn1.H tt;,iice·r.heamount thar a l1,l,ngkik produces, tn contrast to th~ ttmg~ik,·the·· "{!mild otthe kopJlw doe-s IJ[){ .m.ri~oyer but rC~1~iJ;jJl~'mH~ml hen the Iron w ).s-i){iured. t\lth0UgJ\'~1 uses 13 larger amount of fuel 9-11dnt.~,D'"I'!-lcr1-al and requIres J more powerful diese] tn-gin(: to ventihte the. beaLong · Pl'(KC"j, the production process of a kapu{07.~J,I)e3. not differ fr-qnl that of a WIJ:tkik. Because the quantity of iron cast is 1111.](;11 larger, it is first pbllrr:.'(l into a larger, cleqrically (){" lWul.ually Ol)~rated container (,ko.~lIli) .carrjf~d by" lw'l,) men, from which it ~s eJth<:r poured into the smaller .containers tha~.a.re(1;ho used w~t.h·th.e·wngkik or directly inm the moulds

or

·~;qrhrrg~r-siz~dproducts.
Although

iron i~by

(8.,,[

the most important

.l1l.cLt~lC~L~t in.l1iJtur.

there are five fm.m.Jries thaI sp&ciali'l~ jn the. casting. of (Lluminium p~o'~luctsand Len fac;:tOl'iescast both iron and .a>lumil).ium ...The casting ofaluminium.e.a t:.eli11ii.!el}'i-~cent ph~n:Ol}lerton.ln thesevlllages, inrrodm.:rd·arqtlltd I975. The smelting burner "th,IL heats thea.hrminlum a gas or k~n)sen.e infl hole in the ground, which is sometimes h,icked .' fhe m~ )hen alurninium is the;';']scooped into a ma,Uu ~ ilny upetated.coBvd.per fWll'lwhkh' it is poured into moulds n:mdi:e-·of ~<inJ.. Aftt.r ~QliJ~fit:a,do:n) the p'wducts a-ri;:taken out of the<\~.and, cleaned ~1"!dfill:.ished v...lh a small; ba[H:.l-op'qa.:te~i .,~andi1:1g tnaChL::ne; i The g:p<[l"iitf: parts arc then \~'ddcd t(lgdher,1I1d painted, A larg-e 'variety or products.can be rmmufadured in these iron and aluminium f{)unch'ies of Barur .. Products that ,!;l;T~ \:::ast ]11 the, iron
pliKC~Sis':d()ne using

~gr.i;c;:·~nu:raltools, tro~t;hord app]i~.r as frying p,,1.11-S, wide- r.1l'I"\~~ o fspJrepjut$ ftr~ text ile mills, a. .. rice H1U!S, ~tawh for ,<;.~":alG ..se.1iJ.i;g nl~l.chfn:~,<;,. f?~·~ijtHng.s, ;~nd Fi ::;iie'S', train b;~'\N,,-d aTi.d more-or less compkh!, products Scl.!-cl'l"; [Be and roM-tile presses, ltr8.inage fi'ltc]~~· .:rnd~1vJllCiw ,,;,+a~f;l!,,:P.. me(:l'lio:rrlrut.a f~w.I;x.cep t felr }'iry k!1'£W rr6dHct~,almO$L -, ("~:tM in. Ulf;$~,fucto~-les can be 'prndpl;:E.l41 by lbtqg",eithcctne't:. the k.bpu3a. firrnace, The p'lwdu.t:t:5" rna:nuftlcmred in, ttte ahJJ fOlP1:cir'i.esindtH:ie oi:n4mei\t~such as mirror &~rnc.~, decorated ~'ffl!BtJ£;a 00:hanging hunRs .an(~wl~~lampposts ror urban stl'ed lighting n\q,.~ji"' att~l' the·slylc·fi.f anUC]1,le .Eu[QP~<lu:k:i.rnp posrs, , TIJe fcj ulrlciri,f!"-t in B:rtjl1\ l1$;1;laliy do not .['l'od nee' to 'buii.d: u . stock but tend to starr production only after rec.dvin,g.SiI :~~n-(k.{1 ned o[q.el's, In tni:"H';t :ca~e-$) enneptew:urS .to:q;l;,~t.c~lS:tom,~:s: th~
feundries include simple

la['ge-"t iron f(:)1Jil.~l~n,Most of these, rj~~t:e 1\'!.ltslim trilder~ act -as ~nc.<!l imerme",w.Ties who b:uy their :r.qdHCtS hom b~ChjJ\<rie tl"a,Hri t;'fho uses. thar op~ra,te 8ir [,h: national Of e\'"t;O' intcrhaltonal.1eve1. In the ea.rly 19~){L~f.tlne~"Of the l.8.l'g.er on. n fullntkrs 1";([:1LI? .thdr. O\~'11 trading Ct)[lI:lP1H'Iy to import raw materials" L' m,~tly frem Chi nit" CJne.of them, visi 1K{L~(::,hi'1i11 .l9~ J Hnd tl~i:::'o.U'U::.r i [:y10 ~nowed in hi~, fO()itsteps. in 19.9."::1:'. The pnrpo~~ VLlhd'it [rip~'\\<1],( tbi.rrt~j(l).'l (.~)kt.. iindTlg;.ir{m dLt{:'Ctiy, partly for th.eir (~WTl foU!ndti,~t :....~d PJ r l!yioJ: th'ei;: tr('ld:i n:g:adi');I itles. Tn. both cases, the j ~0n :f0uR:d~rt W'.Il;n(in the of.omp.any of ,m Inck'ln~t;.rarH''':.hln~,~"C<tfader from Jakarta . wlrh W!WHt1 they liad ~If~,l;dyeeo ~~ping b rJ$lncss fbi: ,a Lqng: ti Il}e.: b lhts'div~"Jsi1i(at:Lo[) ofeconomic Q::;:tiyHi.~~1):m,nngthe ironfounders rei Thitur h"<;~pet~jny co N{PLCUQUS ·anlong the r6m'lg€'f grmt,rat.~{)in Get' , f~Heprcri~\\i' .. '~ar:ne tllel1't.h~)einvesf~:d-p(lr:~ yf lh~it .~ti.pit?t! I[:lthe ). Gf
_!mn.:ha~e'of trucks; not just to rransport th,e products manufacture .. d h~ their own foundry, 10m <i±~Q t~) rent QuuQ. 9~her lmil fo'umkr~ in B&tllJ::~jlflr.:rs·h~ve"l<r.ll'.tt~dle.J 'acfi'Vifif;:s l):J.iLL a_r(::' Ihlm'd,ate~d~o their '(9n;: · hnji:tiEt.~~;"'~l1eh as a \',i"QOc!-Cil'fvihg o:;:o.mpa[1Y" a pri!1th'lgp"teG"s and ili .~sh~psdJlil1;gc:"On''ilm~e~. ·go~,d$. y br~h~ir n1(;~tc\mmtOil lnvc::sbr~ellt B outsidethe- industrial w:"cto has been i!~ agdcu ltural b nd. Almost twor thirds of them Q'wlls6!.p:~ ~jg+icjjlrural li£l {,(]OSt()( wb ich [I> h~·C"aed nd, t .lIt the iunncdlate vicinity of B,~luL Tht <lmOul1t. of latl..Gb··.rr~hlti<vilf ·sr'l'LaIl~o:fhm notmere than-a [e,....,.. pathaK ((U:5 ~~a~ with an aWfage of · <i.b6v(fb:l;ee,pathok p~ih.ttnii~y,Norte of the '~nt rq~r,~n~urs farm dSe~l'oWn: bnd, Theym,ualFy rent '11out 1'0 peasant.s· 0IJ."::1 ~~)an::aflpplngbasis, Most of it is lQGa~ed near l'H~;i'oa&~id~ is (lfte n [Mus:ht \;-il h an eye and to C:OUve,tlL'llg' it imo non~OjIgriCrihLlntl. L;1E~~_l> t® b~ used as Ib.~.-'?-ii.t ~}r1 not..\, fktmy

irif rh~m dO-$f;Jr l't::ld~~(\tothe

to rnakii.:~.dvaucej)~_ymen_~s_ ~.nf},~o r·~rcent QfLh~ rri:n!wbe~~ 5~Q .Pbc~:.~b~u'orde rs.•Berau!9f:i.. of lh~ CU~tG'l11 of not fin~~1u;::lngh;.1;r :s't"'ati,,. access.to-eredit is: ~)ften nor ,J ma)or mf.l8Itm(inUl'J.~his indusH'Y"'hrlJ:mc~"Se'a: thliJ alum j nium .fm.mdl' ies.cus t()U].et::;'oo;:ta-siona~lreJpp'(Qoiii1i;~ ~¥.::tdnc.sdi r€~jJr· 'Jb'9<:lter fu:r ~hisc:)i f~tt (lldonre"l:'·tta~de spln~ entcfr:rJiWj have a ~mal] xhowroam a ttached to their fonnd.ry ,w+~ef.e ~r th disp , &Wl'lple of their ·,..... but prd{~r~'i_!cqJln'ei:1" in thl~' ~~}· ,ue:t W m;Jh;:. lIP .()~: ';;ery\~n<iil propnrrion ~~J rfndl"1i(tioH,ol~ht~ ~Tl.teTpd~esin. B~tl)r,,~Jm Ure.
almast every ['mtance, the entrepreneurs of"1:h~.alumirnum <J;h

foundrrss

a4i:uir~!,heir 9rd;e'l'sLy makiqg

r~g_l~b'r tti~~ Ql)tsi":

village, Nh'l~ efthem spend sev.eral d,lYS a week entside tbtur.eilh.C't,to search- of new ,q rders or to·~()l]i".dpi! ymenh'. The~~l';dUe-ren t.l:epJ~J,f~ . .i,lhm,J]y go by ~~<i:I~Q v.i$)t small-scale.factenes, shops .aud tra:~fp~\'j; cl)mp<l~nies all over. .J 1I:'..'<a. br'g~:f 'u:sh.l:(:Frl'lf.n '0 Ben fir ~Q J~~~ Tf:te b <t"nd'Qvher major citiet ill Indonesia oo~e""0rtwice il:.nion~tb. w'cl!liLtiw:$'" t'hdr JDng"tta TJ.d1ng business ·comad~with big customers ,~Lwh as stata enterrNI'$~$-;2rivat~ c:o.n:g'om~i1tt~0; .nn,dim:fnicliiil cbrp.or'a tibH5, The ril~ m~'teri.at<; u$ed in the iron and alu)Jl.initlm .cilstfngproq;;~~ c.ollsist of :coke., scra~~ iron and p~K.t.r{>n1 ~}r :lIt!m i@'.~ lln;t..a,nd .l! !1~~t(r~~ /'.lrhough {lHq~'r~tf tben~h~'Ie:f)Cm~0.lni Chin .. husJ nei£m2n, wB~ ese;
c

·J.'hiS,T'd~t1~d.y level ·or ~.(DllOmic;·d.iv¥:r~i"fi~a·tjoIl:-is low fe{a.re.d t9 tbi;:;

f()r (he ('hih:l~ren'onQ'b#w,~d

(.):ff wl{hV !'Ofi1" at a later

dah:: .. ,

(lc(':llp.rt"ion<llb.n,k:E:mund o f the Iron founders, Th e f;l!,~ilies-of almost

at] the l?';S,intl;~'pr.e-neurs ba·v,e'ili..l6n.g' hisrery in iron Gl~t'in~, Mor:e Jhan 40 p;r·~tnJ of rhern belong to the;{"tccmd ot's"0111ttime't oven third
i

gen~j"'f'lh~m .of

'\yho bdpiig

~o~d'coke ..;wJ (~c:rap~ imn in i~alu:r, most ufthe

haveesta.blLhe.d

·them,~eh'cs.~ &~:er tbe' ye~r1

are

privat.e trll~l~;r:>.1$'9, \ toea! ~\l'lJslinxs•. &iVt~

or·htthe(,in-hw. 'iN~5 a pa.rNt,meh1'Oker in.·irCj"J)r (<tslrncg whQ r;Hd nQf h..~v€ praduqitm c..1;p(1.cify a'f hi~' Wn h~it o
[hen::: HW: m.any who~'ie bthet

founders 'in theit {;.fl:nily. And t;'ven <lmonw;thocS~ to ·th(~ first 15t'l')er\\t,[oB, -.in ~b_eirf"mil"y to ·&.wJJ aftl.i'n~~(j;r.

iwo

"' .

had his prodiJcL~.C1l;,st in one of the larger. furnaces ..Held back bY'lii.\' Juyw.ort expericrrce-outside iron.eMllng, most families hav~ recently started to use' some of their surplus Lo.diyers.ify int~i[!!j~7f <lqiv;H~~', most ofrhcse closely relatedto theircor(' business, . this b.rlef SlIJ11J1'lin.g-J-rp shows that 'most of the iron fO:Ull~ ,,,.
Batur are small enterprises and. use
,t, rd~tively

lld9S.2, 'fbi'S itlCl"eil:;_eJthe ql.p~Ldt.y·tq .1,,51}0kilograms
~'.

clsmehed iron meant that
.

,er ho'ur at a temperature Tht: hrtroJuaion
()f

of 1,.40n degrees Celsius, l.hesete.'chnoiogicill. developments into two in BatLlr·'~';sdtvi.ded

'the group

of iron

founders

strata.

The:

ourdated

srrteltinfjJ:~~

"l~pet stratum consisted of those eight fiuni!ies ""'h(J{)wn~d:a kopuw. liir:o<;q:\ but the'm~j6rity of ~)m;,ine~sIIic:nwe'n~ SIn8JlI brokers who were

n~qHe:, which l~~ even n~~(c~%htin_ terms .of qU,aHty and rro.j(:(c~~@ .capaer ty over ta m e. Precarious.as this may. seem, 11 does- not il;Ie®, rba-t
there has be~n n~, structural industrial dft-veiopme.nt or techn

~rdr

ocC<lsionaJly,abict()

win orders

Wheri th.e}..did sorhcv

easr ir in

improvements in the production process. of rhe::;.C· iron foundrf tbe pi':lstfe-w decades. There. ha-vebeen various w;~y~ which the:'Q~ by of t~le.~ iron foundries haveenlarged the sc~kof theiroperario introduced technological changes, Fh.(it, a substantial number " ,
prises has, increased than two-thirds in size-and as
ii,

_{meof (he private kol),u1a furnacesorin the furnace-of the newly estabi.shed co-operative !>()cie.ty-. ~t thit time none of these-small brokers .derived ~. sustai nable income from iron .casti n g, To suppiemen ( theji' iiVd i h oods ~b esidcs scm r; ")1ddiional iucorn e from farm] ng, many of t

.~meinused to operate one rir '()J few hai).cllQNn~ in their fr{iut roomsor
~~11hcrr t

verandas.
s~ruttlJre

consequence
~':<J;

of this g:rm...~th.m®t~

This secio-economic

?f the

.
business tQmmuni~y of :Ratnr

of the ~"";9rkfonf in Bi1tur

employec( in

factories that have more than 20 wor kers, witb ,_m.aVeI.'8.ge fA4.8 . o vel" en terprise. The til Iargest i'r61~ toundries. even have an. a\;e¥afW wo r:kfi)rce of:stJ A' per to undry, Second, as time pa{;s;cs, various technological dtl/clo;pmenh,;-ha~. beenintroduced the em:!y decades

imo thisrural
ofthetwenticeh

ind~l~tdal cluster 9F iron it)
centurv,

most of.rbe mClal;;".

was craftworkcarried ra.rtly with tl!fc'help

out. by family labo\lT in home-based s E~'cnat that time, the technique o[smdtil)g larger quantitieso,

::;civlillg'2dwi~11 the introduction ofthe tL.mgkik furnace around 1962~ ,AJlh~ugh tlii s smaller fu rnace ,,;lsL iron M a lower temperature than the ,fwpula ri:i.mace--.alld therefore pr(),J:lCes iron ,6£"", educed h;mincssr it ~as 'in tact a rnore efficient modUication ofthe :koj)u/..a furnace. Its il1trodu(~ioii madt itpossibleto p:.s,t smaller quantities of iron in-a m(H'Ceconcmica] wrfr~ which gave man'y new f~)nili:t$the opportunity ~H~~tabliShtheir own iron foundries, This chance was seized especially by several Qf the. smaller brokers. From eight owner-families of kopf.ll.a fmmLt~C'5 1958; ali of w horn added a WIl@,kik totheir turnaoe capacity, in
the::- ["I'!ber of families havi n$ 11U f~rmKe arrd mentioned, reintrodnced

of non-family

Iebour.was

also net Ul1.CVEll'

their own production

capacity increased

these-villages. Th 1..s rech n iqne was carr led out' in ·iI, furmlce called 8t ~area round-shaped brick chimney heated b~i harcoal through whi c was-hand-pumped by means of a tamus (bellows made of cow The- daily c'.Ipadty ot tniS be~l~l-iurnace Wi!) around 50-6l) kil6gr.~ f 9J smelted If(:iJJ_in the late .I.930s/eatly I 94th} oneof the iron fo'~~1$S
IJl';idt an: important

to about 70 in 1970,. By this t~.me' almost ,all iron was- cast in a tiJ.ng~ik

.only rarely was the kapf~la furnace .srill in use, A$ was since the late·.1970,~ some of the larger corrrpanies-have
the kop,ula.f~lrn3iCe~:l~Qng&ide their ttmg,:kiK.., to m.murfanure

Va'riO:lI,~ types

'of larger-sized

pipe-fittings

<:1S

wen as

to

boost their

improvemenrto

the

bes'ah:fiteplnu:: - he J5'!.trodt1!~~

-FmJud.ion cap<H:iry. In the 1990s" fnLlt of these larger iron 'to~Qpemtion 'with an Indcnesiancouglomcrate, bhor'ation, while tlrercruaining two set uptheir "i.'1ltb:. Orw~-of t h ei r rela ti ves-curn-su bconrractors s
,-5j{);~

placed, hand-operated' hdkl'wG made 0f woOer, ... replaced thcverncal ones made of cow 1,ide: (ku.lirMpi) thet wel' in traditional smithi.es.·j'his technological improvement i!:nGreis,~dtlit-e capacity of the b8saf.~~ furnace to a.bn Ll t ~·O kilograms of smelted ]' 4ilJ. FolloWElig in thesarne innovative t raditiori it was this rio 'fu:milywho introduced Lhe rid madiine-opcrated kop~la fl:irn~CeJn:::Ba~ horizontally

founders :esbMi5h.'~:-4.de~u:ica.l induction furnaces, 6ne entrepreneur did sa in .
i)n't with Japanese colventure in p~rtnC'.r:ship., in Batnr,

A1Qng. 'A~dl these changes in. tech n qlog}' <Inc:! Ihe subseq uent expanin {ndu-~trialJJw~iuc:tiopl there have beenalso various improve-

mcnts in the machinery that is usedto finish the cast iron pwc1h.lcfid::} the J<.Hmdrie:;; over the YCM~. s« €;Jrly;n;. 1955 the Indonesian go;"~etl'l'" rrrent had already set up a technical support unit in Batur i.ndnded several large machines for finishinK. Althnugh a few Pl'l]. o~... ed maclnnes were introduced it) slilt~'cql1ent }'e~Hs, by they~)' . n ~gl10smost ofthe imnprodw;:.(s still left Lh~yirrilge ia.a-semi-fin .. ~ form, to be fi'lll.4H;ld by the customers tliem&d""BSOr by $peGi<\i~M off wOI·kshop,q}l.lt~i4e the .region. fnHowiug requests rtolH several.o
larger iron founders, in.the carly 19705 the Indcncsian govcrnp: decided to donate new machinery ttl the business cornmnlJ:tyif.l·~~dtl' ltd} O(lst .the. added val ue (J f j ndustria 1produe II0 n in H<1lUr;

~e~.

in the wake of lhis support from the Indnnesiar; ·g9ver.nm.r:;u.d, tITh number . of p:rjtat~ly"Qwned .lu{ger typ~.~, of machinery En tbe·£wlfi foundries Increased more than renfbld in lets than 20 rears - from 6~~ 80Jn·achirl@ irr 1.976 ro mt'l~ than 700 mi(chinis in 19;94. lije' up:~~ is (hat rnore tha~)6:0: per cent of rhe foundries, l.t. 94 O~Lt of the own lal'ger types of mad finery ~uen.as la thes, d~ming rna chines, lin]:. .machin'es, scraping rnachirres and \'Ii'elding units. 10 l~~a] theSE::;1Q¥ factories o, ..'U iZl) machines, or an aVenl$c ·(1f7.8 per foundry; 0 Fwht~ ahtrost 50 per cent consists oflathes (362), ahuost 40 J-1'C!' CCflL of dr.illii'fg machines (-iB7j, and the remaining 10 per cent of mill iel:£!; and scr<lp~ machines and ~A'cldjng units (/O))· inkrestingly, it h1l~ tfaJl.s;pire:(nW,i those 49 t::r,otorie5 that emph5y 2-0or more wo~ktn ~}.\r(1almost 75_·~ cent qf the.total number 0 f machines OWE1lC>d the foundries in Ba:£~ i)}' [The~e facto:ri~:.$..flnish their own cast p:rod{]~.t~.d.tberLn~he ,saulebung$:, lnwhicli die ir [mna ce ishoused, in an ,~r~a rna rked offo illy by a sma~ cue-metre hlgh w~11tor at a dilferent location in the: village .. . In 1995> fhe:. first computer-controlled .nil1shing machinel:y.:\~f In t rod need in 13atu r by one of the own ers 0 f a n 111~! uction fum ace Wh:(ll; needed more sophisticated machinery to fuNll the quality reqllircm~1 r~jr the new t:rr)e oforders he had acquirer], His example wa$ titJjidli!y followed by th 1h tee other Own t'r5 of ind uctio rr Furn aces who bought }ever~i CQmru{er-~'r)'j-itrQUed nl<Lchi!;!?;, fOl; their compan NOl COn[(Ill with this in n ova tion, all four of {hern in t reduced nlOLiid· illg· machines i11 their enterprises l;rl m~lImfi.cnll;e specialized mohl' . for their induction furnaces, The combInafion of lhese.l-w(Jtc.dmo
(:1
Q

J9gj~~il'hangE'fn,:n<~b1cd t rhesefour large iron founders to manufacture lllort: ;;:(llnl'>liL<;atE:d ~nJ:e~of pr.ridu~ts and thereby ro enter thestakes fer nt:W En~\fkets by supplying goods to large- conglomerates ..and intern-ation~1companies, liv.f-rltfJ[iilYt it turned out that this ability to produce f{)T cu$(()n1~D'S abroad W(tS.15.t1e ~,lft.h~ reasons wby these large businesslJ.1en·M,;rc Jess-affecred by rhe-econcmic cr isis ~oll.nwt]''l& collapse of the the In.dOn(i~i:an .rupiah ttl:' 199,7. In "Short; a!lhoLLgh most of the iron f~)undrie~ are indeed $oman enterp.r-ise$ and usea rdatkdy outdated production t-echlliglH~ - so ob$ol~·:>centit even llDdei';~~nl regression in terms of ·qu,dity .. d m C;lFilcityat one-point inrime- the Iindingsprcsenred here-iueluctably show that this ·does not mean rhar jhere have been no strucrural induw:i al development of technological.imprcvernents in the production process of these iH)"TIJ{YLlndrid, Several of the entrepr.tneHr.~~ Batur in. _h,wt' been a br~ 'to inG:]'.:asc the sea le ()f their ¢pf-ratio'i')$, over .th c;' years by en(omaging internal gro,wLh·;ro achieve which they expanded their marketsand widened t~~ raj1.ge·of their peoducrs, There is even more to it th<lr!l this. There have been varjous forms. of technological
improvements, both in the production pr{)n's~~nd jn the ~hllshing of the a

cast iron pruJ~j<;c~ by these enterpris-es, as. is sbv:Wi'i .in. the folkiwing case study.

IF

AhQul Prni>dyo (ag~d 45 in ]994) and hi~ yt)lLFigc~l hf.alht:(A;g~~5 {'1.g~d n)a·r~ the ·o·w·n~l:·~ th~ iron fnunch-y Indah LogMH in R~nn. Th·eir of f~·th~r was a b';·Qker·in the 1950:;:. lO. used to make. Spiln~'parts tor d t,exti.!e machines, which. h'~'d~l in the kop!.l!,ahnnace. belonging to a reiat·j"e_ ln [.%4, Abdul k·fl schoolat rhe ,~W~f fourteen, VI/heLlt mice o ~l.skedhim why lie. had left school at-such .<1 YOlLnKiigl;:, Abdlll told me:
lh tflm
1im:i' f W~JS·1r; !!dlifU i:IJ ,~ 5ecowiarl'xJlOd

~~(.so!o ,.;md iM'ed witll my

illait'.< Jf.lI1'fil)·; The PKl Um[iim~.~IMI Co.t,IJ m !mj_<r· 1~ rty} ~fi(lJ.va}' sfrong.in r;:im~'I! thm rtg lhG'$@ re"1; anri 5(110 W(J5 th~ .~i:~n<:: !'mldl p.otihw1·L'iote.1Jr~. lu 1%1, mYft,I}1(!~)h IIgh I I! w.~N(ja t!rn1$ero.l is jor! tfe J(J.tr.mqil1 i1,1SQl? He t'l/d.m~~ 10 k-a~i' scuoo! ,r7/'1dl(l (OI11,~ !wdt £r) JM!·l~r ro.l~dp hi1t1 j tl ltr, orJSir!f~;'
(J

or

The year before his return from Solo. AbJuh farher had COI]siructcd a nnigkik furnace. in the hUlkling at the. back. of their house t~otabout six ye,\rs~ MAu! worked in his father's iron foundry befon:

he dowly Wntu[{!'(ll(J I)egiu,~ ~i~k b~[.o:ijHes:S',6fhiiOwn..W

'iljnag~~. 'the-'sai1Je')'Uir; In

he .abopur-dW\s~Yd, from thd<'l,brhl

'C9[1l!W·'H:l'f,

two school (rk;ads$:om .u.at.w,w)los~ hthen~lso ow~ed an~~e ~bmrt n;lnJ~ ng.small (lnkr~ for tpare :paTt~·by v i:~iting:s set b,zwne~ 111.1 m:er~)m rral.ansl West )a ,,'<Ii, D tLdn.f\ l hose 're·aN. . {dendA used h) rust t~.leirorders in their f:a~hD.ri'.f(h!.ndrh:si,d£t:· ~he C(L~to:nefS ssnt ~Jteil'products to ·sp6-j<iliz.ed·workshr?t:fVi;j

v.

h0r,il.:'ch(l.d,h(l;nd lathe nnc-hiw,~'s. one: cti'lHirsg an~,on~ .tD.l1hng ~'l)~¢hjn'e" :n~it. o~;'tlay WK'j. fdlowed in 19.84. by three ne-\;\:!y impor Led ma~h1i.les frQll'i CJ:ri~~i, h~{~t~],00Il in hIs En!~hlng rnachjn~'rf ,\I1QVo;~dhinl/W T
m'an ufaet Ul.;::·'a .l3r';g~rV8.r i'ety of p'ro.dW .. :b~tfldudi!'lgID_;m:d r L).mp.r 'r()rv.':}tLcbhe\'ia~' ~~f!Z:to ~Wqjf:{ a bi~ order .i1) 19$7. . ln 199'1', \Mlll s"t~ftt\d a tradingc:QUlp.any ~ in c(ll~ and ~crap. lE"9H, 'ij_'Id5 was dtl.h~ if! ~~<).wwr~hi17wi th- ~he ~oi].ofone (if ~he J;ar.g..cs-t .entrepr~neurs i~lBatuT. ,;_.fev,~ye:ll(i l~'tt:T rh~ fhrrdJ.Y'lS.ked Abd'Ulw loin; ·~b.ern as a minor p~rtnef.. theirE1rtiwlY es,lablis~hed ..cle(tri(a1 11~dtlctIo!'l fttrill~.a. M'C1Sl'of the ~pitsJ J~dCXf~r.tise fpr this ,factory was: rrQ~ vitkd by a national €Ong!dn1eratft in Jabr'lll .... with wfiomiAbdl\h-r.OI1"~;nm

, B)' k97'3, _Ah~ll1Il.and his iw() :frieIldlfi ha(l'8. ~llffkielltty regt ,1)19,n::lJr&to. sHrl their m... ·H.l.ion ft\~lUdr;y ina U'nL6_d buiI&' :~~.~ r~·.p[ ~ tH!7. rl11ey .~.liQ' petan fo, t~l~; IJ;:l1er'srh~t'lI)clud~; ;t.:

tm6mshmg.

.G.n_l~hlog;ot~.he plod

B.~.

in

~!(J~, A.s_th~y

r!'i.eIDseJ:V(;sh@ri 9lJJJ,t'Dl;l.'

hand rlrininF maclrme .v\t1~h which they could uf\d£(~ak~Nlme
ruiner- fLl)i~hing ~""ork, the Iarger

fLuisbJng.of

~h(:" ~L Fn.muO;S)\'i.'l!il5 u

b:<!d
'

.subcontracted to a specialized workshol~ in Solo. .1'hisPilrt!I€l'sl)ip between Abd ul and hi~ ~'0 ::tHendseJ:lded in At:mrdrng tG Abdul there were·.difTeteTLt.es of flpinion' (wedn"\I'e:s:t:c' be11;-vet:"f1 1;hn~1l the partners, :~fwd jUf;!: iJlP.n ,/f,.ll!IQgd·d[a."i'if(m~rr In lak17I;'a: I fim'1erli{lterr' ni,rlh:s'd
cr;'!dd
rrl.l1Htfal:rl. a (<!.ri.aiJJ

t

jr)rlhli 1n~~e5N ittm._fT{JIn.tl big
t,}U1.!l"uo'l1id~'nly frdfjt .ne C{l;liftn1

q1l'<11it)· iif"msti.J1ZarlcifiI1i~hitli;·' Ir1mj'efi:lre:iliqtl~~ 1f1~t w~:_.~hiJ!tMir(.'( be d~Ntute.f.lt 011 (Jth~'",)()r the f<nithhlg lftArt fi~ proaua:09IJ, b~ Illm:t W~ should havR OtWOWN n'l.I<!dml [~ry. rfd:s 'M'GuJii ais~$ifl. ·dude w. !1foVl? .~~PC!,MY)Xlli1dhW ~ffl11 (,tw~>J:, Ue-r.&If;>~ d1~mll! Wit Wim~ ~~lMg: r (JJ th.. t p tnerdld J M i!f1YUI1.011gh $Y'f.f:(: W .i.'~;:;fl:,'rle,.fA finis.hi11g ser.tiim ..iVy: ~)@ ·.P<lrltJef;S;- W4r~.~mfqt.!~h1ri'a~. .II:IO!lg!~.~it Wtb teo .r~s'ty to,tl' m:ld "
iI1v~~11mm~~ ...,m){nd·kw)wil:gj(.'r .. ~·j,arj·wr.e~~lf.r

w,;; ~nnlhl!1'1i1·6: .~i~

il~ ,rhg fr~tu Fr, TiJe)p WqJI16Y..I'9. rOil tin ri~ ell! r .lm5~;ilt.';_( lIS .h.~ji.,u.". irl a, ithftff b~~nJi.rt.g ii11l"Hit 1¥i1i rriad'JiI1eT'/: Af~~'r,.t{w.rM w Yl'f!:<':htf di.,\ctl.;!!i(:m~, l'1ic ded~~ that i r W{~~b:!r~t t.tI'tpli'J: ripl ns p~rrtrm·.b.~fqre-a,rJy- iW~1li1!'l;; (~rii;l/.l·;iN, ,<

0~JLll'!i st~)'r}":'() hh~' \)j;~~J;:)~11: f~hei[ 1~artnersh ip \.;'<1s o by hLi?x-pjr.tri,e,,~.Wn~Tj l met one of ~hen-( ll a 9·C(;1rsiol'l, he lo~d rIll::;')
t.onfJTIued

(liuY'
.ati(Jt

r~r:lrt~}"f>hlP' be'cai,JJ3e'of his €*perienGetH ~91~~!mng'lhe fjnj~l~fugs.etfi.cm. in OJS iIOll fOlll}d:('f.- l'lS p(l.rr·of thf! agreement, Abclul';;,youo,g.esi b~ther, AgW, ":,/,0 sent i(),a'sted.-(~nst;i.ng, ~fid~machinery course in lkmdl,log, o,gapi'led by the MiJ1i~,t0~ of!nOA;!.5.try. Aii:€l-WJ:;o:ph::tingtnis- course, "'PiS phfed il m<~'w~o)e th~ tSli1!l:Gfec'of knowledge . .d1Fli1g iJ1<;, in in it,i,ll M~ge of ops:rtt,jon o'r the intlu~~j:on 'fl.Il:'J1·acc d also supt:Tvjs.ed M E8l fi 0 f Ibiintrl3d t;ctio,~ ~;f.tlrc'c~/m fw'te'r-~[))t)J.Jltj_lfi n..ishiq:gm~dlines ~hat were 'hrol!gfd in ,H:OUB\\.i the ~8J.lle.,,~me. In th~' first \n~~t8Hi,;;t\ be. f,j Q<lnc;jl)l Gr!sit th~.th tt. Indo ne;si~' irI 1997 t .;]n~i'th~ p()li~tc<il wrrl1ui~ sinu:!)h(!"p.. ;W:;~I~,~~j~dp){sti:~ a ;:h.h"'i)ii"'i,~g·of Aljdllr5~~ritell}');sf.5, This was shott-tlved ~Ad. by Jb.eend 1f 1998 .it. seemed that AlfdllVSbusiness .1l11ct .rhat of his par!'nq ">'le.t; ai:r.e1tdy ;IFpro~i~hi'L1ig he:~~?:~J~WiIS hcforethe.tridi.~, O,~·ieoJ ~hel11ajn~a&nr\s ~ ' ,w<l,$lb;:l;t tbey had bte'11 atl~.t'i,~Cllr:~'·a la:~ge:.o:rder. to cast ~~lw.D~nillJ.l~ spot1~. rims 'tOl' all ~W~trillian ct)rnp<'my.At~h:aL lime Abdul a~ me!1,t~Qnecl rlw ~ he bad. J ust j)o ught t h LOCC pl yt1 ,0 f hrid~g;,ll' l~le wa.~Lld~, 11~ had been ~Ll.;>. gc't rh ern ~br <I. rcl~~i\'d,/ 1 p;6~~ 6!l.)t·niron toml:deu::'\'il:to W 0"'" werC" in nnfL;ra,~L trOHbl~'he.smt~~ 9ft:h~ t rl1;ik ~Ir it d.O'Uhat h,mnt ro
I i

«!cmg.-l$"f<lndingbuslness

rdwtiQn;;b ~p"Thq offered.A. p'dttL1I mi Elm

beC(m~~a (armel", he·told me:
I~rl ~(.g f

<'ln1'l}l;,Ci!

(l1·!.dJh.i(.>.'J,~ n.~(m r:_ld/IXJt 'w~rlllfd .UJ .hff~1!)tllJl1,irr~\5!.i·pI .11'1$ "I rv~im, #1IJ. nm.f. ~r~~uegor rne ·prg om~n Jor ~,I'oQ)~ pal bases frOtl;.! Iak~rm. w Abqul 'Slld1e~jJy iI1dlcatel~%;ii; hI! ~~'t!,'1 wi U(li;( di~ {N"(Ttfl.fr-tltijl w:t1.W .5((1# 1<",;[ . f),'d .em h_i~nlf.1'1. !t~a5 ?ttQ-":"rlllaT~~!J!d$ ihm: ,+ejoy/:d- (J.lft ',h&lr Ii~' a,4 mte'h h "th"E (c1.\r<riGpider W'Hh h1in, !:r.~r.lo' melJtfa-wdrll6 large .c!ts~mn:f.tt This .cf,iif lia%p~£ iH .flur liJ.ie'{1j·rl!i~:f1"'-o';S$ll~.;·.diI1~Te.iNf(J";. ffI 11J; ),\,u l:iffn ·J(I iJ,btl1t i~~.,
n?

~nfif

[ diN:'~ bl~~Wi.Hry-_(hl.'-1i,,"llmJ.it /wINing.

Aly

li1mil~'

11m

1,1h~~lsi~~ru"iJ[

'~j"(;I'I:ca;riI1~t A:g::<l{Mld
.tltj.~w
tl~'(l

fvo·j,<J:"_"! p~ho): of.~(!il{t Jim ..... rer"~ it aU 1' #frmtr~. h •. 1UJdgh&<'l'll'("[,r)g ~··ilhlgl:.'whQ '9~Uil'i1:tii r'i:ce Qltmlr·I~I~d.
J1()~~}%IVf."

I

w~'il5[~ 011;
J phn
[I)

,iJ&i"re

(.'f M·le Jlfi·!dul?e.l(j

riM:.l.~~

f1)odf(J"r[h~

wor,bil'}i~'n'wpcw.r~~
·e<iOtfOIp.ic

..

W1m~1.'1 iW{J p/:.::H~ i11iQ ~101;<~gh(lI.Nw·ail j'{lird :wheti(!1e

':sii'II,,'ti(/12

I f1WrJ7~'~'/i1" gl<i IT." bi'{n}!£~ ~X~'. a ;\g;~)!Ow"

Are

tjril1~'i;'~lJ

(if -ImHa'iF1g
.

ano(fleY

!rrDwTy!or

~h;lIhf :I'~{'lW·:dyg(f.t·mf~ri:iM

.

. hi ]9:7Si A])d~LLWIqtfuct~cJ ,1 .l~e",,.;;: lG~LtQ;tY9ui!din_g {HI a L1i $0:.O:f' 1 la nd '9\IJn!.:~4 by his falb ~~.~itp[{ ted illimg ibc maln. ~ntrance road tl.{i'i1i' r. . ~..

168 :ilbj(lperatibll :an(i s'ypp~r_t from H:l~ltive.s.andfr?rn ot.he:n~ntr!:prenenrs

, ~1a;ri()Usields ot aC,hvIW; both m. the runningot f the enterprise at J an d at t.:Leti~e ot-....its esta b,1lAhment, hav~ heentl~,e me1 rather ~~b€ eXceptIOn within the bUSlJlcsS()01J1n1Ull.lty of.,flatur. ~_Qperat ion 'wi~hin t:h e faUl ily is an L mpo rtant aspen or the ~f:lom~c b~haVlOt~r ,of these ,elltr.epr~neurs .. An ~t1·~tial!(lrd.iption of diis is rbCl[act thatniore tIp._n ~n.e"(Lliarh::r otthe owners (1'3 families) ~'(€ in all extended type of L~.mUy strw:::turc. These families usna tl y 'tonsi,~.tof' merl1l>eYs ().f lheee 'or more generations: One-third 'of them
~el1t

flitG ..

i'

~L~)do not.share a common residence or a common kikhen, but have

-it np );,cparate
,togetbccover.a

households

h) run their d;ti.!fdomest.ic._affa,irs. Slaying period of time bas ('nab~€(I these families to_.~·xpa'nd
W

~tbetr f.'uterprise.s, to find the finance

introduce

new machinery

and

~ 'J._

.

INmv[DU.\I .

'['''''~.'\''.

"'J']"'1<' J X'[l l!:'(- - cd):-fOM!C

CO-OPFRATION

asnec,··, l? -;, .. , 1. ". 1~ J.tOn rou n.. ers 0 f Ba tur. Most {)ftheITi.,~·",,~ q H~uctan t b.hld mit t hal thev'eyC'r recei.,.ve-!lhel ~_,or-support . in M::ttHl1!' 'fC . '. ..'~ '. _. _ ., ~l 01 ...,' tunml!1g·fh-e.l.r .enterprises Thcvr .ate -s: - b f ern ." -' q~ . '. _ . .., ...1on\:J. emphasizing that
.·Co ....' _~- ,{ }'. .:j

Independence and sclf-l UJ. de entrepreneurship .' . 1 ..._.. '. . e e . .. o t t ae lnHIY~p'ortrave 1 b <thei t:

, are important

Sr;:vel1l1of thdar.ger ll1d tecb nologkaHy more-ad ",anced iron foundries . .:1n.B<U\.u' owned and managed by e.x~endeJ families. In.most ('A these are ~.p~es.Lhe'll1;~nage:rilent ~,l~k$ are divided between the fJinily·;nelTlbel's). :onc 'or two bcjng H:spQ.l']I~ibk 'for (he .supervis'ioll Qf the p-;oduc:'lion. pW'ceS$andt h.di nish lUg deparrmcn t, w'h ile th EO: Ol!l€!'$. rake care.o f the .external side of the business, in partiqJhn the acquisition cf orders. In some of these instances the fi\mil'y ent.ef]!r.isc has been It'g<lliy split up
into separate units, each owned by one fam)1\j meIliher,·fhi'S:l·~, usually .done to a,vol'd parinfrf{k~' [[lillCb rax (lnd tt). circumvent labour regulations, On paperthese units operatejnd~f)'e:n(l~"lttly, hut in ~kality they_ fl1lK~iorl as different dep8:rtm~llb'()f one large cnmpa.n-y owned by extended family. Although in the-end most.pi these .diflerent departrnents indeed become separate enterprisf;'.s with, the split up ofthe

~t4~p ki re 'new market s,

non uunders who do hdorwt h ( , . "" _ _. 'P. _1._ 1i." 0 t. f.:. .lry:~ 39lerahor.l nt il1:du;S'lJ'.LaNsts'ro. <jml[~~.~ wh(j. .amc ( ',-re.l'at,vdypoor b.ilckgrounds., ~nd who . .' d'd . ',. .' L.-,. (:, rom 1 no ~ I eceivc 111U ch .~ssist (,.1 .....I.:=! '-r.' ~'11'.-'. elfn . ',,1 . -.... eJ' . , ~ .' when e~tal)ll:d'li' l". f' .~. _, . r <a.LVl.:.s_.~)r athe] Hon fOl.lnde1f . Ilg t.l~lr'h"tonj.:_,~, lhe~'t. .t~asro"'ll-D•. r.11"~.rj·', cx;(ep t' . ' .~.> •. v~~.<, , 1 JOUS,
"']l'oC . f".' .
' .. c]r
h • .' ....

'.' ..' , .. -, " _. .. ., ~samlt «em, mJnY(JWl1;(:TSare (lute!.."!'< ra _stal.: tFm~ rhev 0IN:T'te the bu Sillesses .!Udepl;o1.1de.tlt!v oforher e'l"t"i'~ . .r "'. ~.lr .'. nnSes',.. and tIM.t Cl~y.Od not makeuse of , ..•. " hi . .J.,I ,'" A .U.' J: .'.., ".' of G . _ '. ..,'.. "' . . -r ; ' _. !~!H,ners ,llpS. or other foutts 0 wi .h operanon " !Ii a.ny .held·.oj activity" ·cit·I·" ., ,: 1-.... ..'- membersoe r-f -. ... 1.<:., '" It 1t<ulllir H .. non- amilvI members . , d ~ ., -'j' nresent or i ., . .M lFl••>J \e past .. To <l t-arge extent. , tlu [[1:I<J ze ot..t h C -ind '.' , .eLl" ~m(,.se li'-'ma d e lion . ... . ~ts. - " ~. I . - .' t! tnd .' .'. . epend lQ'L1Tl~e.s ofBOlilm is.a mylh. ALb ..'.' , '. '. .~.". _,' .. ,1' -~ ~ _-, .. .... t OUg!1 m Batm t b0re ~,r.e,<1'few C);S.t<~ t,,f
y "

stat ted lheii enterpnses from scm rc h ' . :... h· '. '.' ::> ". '._" , . ..' ...t.e, Wl[ out any help from . iududin g p<l rents o r W:J.<l nves, l nih e s ~-,,. . ..'

0-

.

an

'L

,,;a.. ...

;-,

j

F<lm'ily property, <I process which is not £dJQHlthe result of f3itnily quan'ct<aud confli(.~~, the-very fOld (hat they have Cip~ra..tcdas one large COfnpany for J: numuer of years cna blcs thf;'.se families to acq llire·suffit.ient tapital to divide the.prnp.dt)' into several indept'l1denH::nw-piises. En iCrpr!y':::s, Qwned. J;nd hl<1TIaged by ~t~nd~d f..lniLHef;ar:e lher(~fon: . ntrt'exc('ptional.amoElg the irqn founders in.)htm- Nor. are they a new phcrfomcnon. An exanrple of an early extended ropTi:ty enterprise in l1:llut is the '.KelaArg<;l;' (f.:1Dliry) gl'OUp which built tbC·.fir:",( kOpH.trl fu(nace'in Batm in 1952. Thidalnlly l)Ol1s~$.t.cdoffive housdwlds:: the:

h~,ad of the H:l.rni!y··with his v.:ik ~m:(Jwo. unnrarrjed chlJdren.; t his married .~.on"with their (amiJies; one o.ffli.~ dau_ght,ets,.. ' husband, and nne youngcrbr.o~h¢:r withhL';'h1J1.l,ily.·I111958~.i. households c;on:sUu.cted t.hfii·seco.nd kOfT~dJ. ~Utna~, they erected a Ea:ct:Oty huilding all tile ()ul.-.kins of' llJtUI;) (f d';vnoo by the.yo unger l_)hAher, At the h~ight of their (!:C:ono~li~ in the early 1%Qs Lhe·' Kduatga' gn::)J.Jp. owned ei,g,(lt ..co.mpar_ ti;KLories with a k(wukr furnace, two enterprises ",y(th ;1 hmgkik:· ,.. E'lO finishing companies", and two trading enterprises, Mo,,;t adult descendants Iived separately wirh t-h(:jr,~)Wl.lfillflllies b continued hY {Jrerat~ as one' extended famiIY··as fat <~-s,'. rn:a~I :~: eeonorntc interests were concerned, Some members, includ head (Jnhe·family, ~re responsible for getting th~ (~rdns, >'<fh' then sh,tred among (he members of the group <1m.! 'm DIJ~~ ,k.vpuh~·or tungk£k furnaces owned by the fan~!ly_4

io bm

r~5Fe(:(sof l1'l<1~·.d"i,lg(.';' customs ~1·ndthe division at Ismily ,·.··pcrt\o' .,?~o.. muong the Muslim businessmen in ])atm- have contributed , !:'u .. 'he- huge proportion of iron 1:t:nmdl'i"es owned and managed by .. .. ~~leal" f,m~iLies. Ahh~ligl~ this pr;,:domi~la'JKe 'pf th~~.~],(;:l'e<!j- umi~y f ~f,Ol of busin ess OT:1:wn v:atlO n seem s ,to bci n concert ·wlth the eml)ll~:SJs .m05r~l1trepr¢nem~ plaeerm independence, it does not mean thactthi!Y
Thest
I . .

.'rt sdf-maJe businessmen who have never received support a.br1 '~s1~fajrce 691Tl relatives ·OT friends, This is shown mostconspicuously

~'f.Eht' filet thar m(~SL of the QWLle~S were ?nly ~ble n~ establish ~he!r ~J.C~{)rie'~ because ~JH:'-}' !""t(.CiY13d th e sh aresto wh [ell t hey we(·~.;'11 tJ tled ;oltcnindudc a piece or land, with or without a factory bttHding, ;fm~D cialca pital and, 0 f paramount in'lporta net. a share in the clien tele .~f;il"':}'hU~en(~ factory, It i$..(Qmmon <1.111011£ the.iron (oundcr,~ ofBatur tohand over some of the regular customers of the'enrerprise lO one's :childr~~ilas pa:.n of 'Lhi:ir inhe,l;i,t.imcc·, Thb·q;[Sw.fn dates hack to the wlonh.l f){~'i(·Hl \"i1en orders frpm I.h:t: sugarmillsin lava made up au important part of the business' assets, of [he mOH prominent if-on f0.undets- The value <ltt~~hed to this i:l~·p'ecl of the inhcrhaacc is shown the remark made by. one of the -owners of <1. I'dativeJy large iro)l f()undrv, who stated that 'cliems arc as important to iron founders as l;~ltll~ to fa:m;f.'.l~;,hoLh nave '~.Qh~ taken care ·of in order to, gt:l. a good return on one's dfu rts, Beca use o"f" t11is, children of iron round ers j nhcfi t C!J.liWlllhs,just like children offanners inherit land fr·0IIl their pUll::nts', In most cases.support fr{un the family i~, ot Iimited to providing n various t}'P.e$ uf c,lpi-l'a_l for the new enterprise, Man)1 of the Iron foundcrs, havebenef ted frOlll.ot her [~)l' of assistance {1O)Jl- rdatrv.es- at rns the lirfl~;t'}fsctt~ngur their businesses and in the t:;~rl>r years.of running them . First, many are aIM to.gain <I numberof years' experience in the Iooudries of rhcir fu~herJfilther-ill-law or elder brother/brother-inbw· prior 'to theeatablishment of.their own l1M::tol'Y, This gives them ... lhl:" opp01'lUl1ity lem'n the various aspects of the p-r.od_ucl.ion process of irati o:;a,<;ling. On the n-l;Hll'gement ~,ide, it enables them to underst.md the ll1ai:ket and W become familiarwith the potential clientele

·h; 111\= property

of (n,d.,

parents or parents-in-law ..early, Such shares

CJ~t

Although the extended tyVe' of. 6mily .i,~ neither it rare nQr··<;ll\~. phenomenonin Batur, the- ['nQSt. com men '[}'pe of fu mil r 0 r-g,aniza'tiij'lll~ amongthe owners oftlH:.,jrnn foundriesis the.nucl~arf"ilnJ.i.IY;Al{n"l)' tln·ee-qu;an~,t$. Of rhe_c [Itreprene m.s cu 2: btlt':oftnc·~55) iivein nucl~~F.· families (i_e. husband, wife and their offspriug). r n most C<IISe.); .tlw}e: owncr,~tep;al"ated [ro,m their pa(ents.soon.aftcr' nl;tlTiage.,.ilH~t" . residence, property and bUSUIG:~S. Hence lhe large mafor"ity of. (:_'·nl;reprenenrs·:(·St,[hli:shedtheir foundries at a i"elarively f9ung."ag,et{ 1J!'lder 30.1\l.thc)ugh the YOl,lngesrson'ili.j family sometimes wnf· . the hm!ly'~~_ enterprise, _it 1,~not uncommon in Batur tty find au. _ man r'LHmirctg the l'amHy's· f.qrmd.r.y';vhil~_aJ!·his:~cm_<:, ave e~tablishtct. h their G~...n f<i,(:tQ']'~c.( . .. . .
'nH~ .(HV1~!Onof I<Im:iJy pmpett y in the' Mus Iim.busi ness M iratm ,~l.ffec1....~ ,Qnly·s,6ns not
q~.}fll!')"'Ql,IhjtY

br

shilres~equal to half ~11(dof a ·son, One of the cOIh<~tl\l!.~nCegof-this observation of the Islamic Jaw of inheritance is that, over the past f: 'if decad es, there ha vc h een quite a few men ftQ rn owts ide B~rur who ha~~ set up their own iron fOUJldries ilXBatur with the _l'inanc.iaJ assi~t<lnCf; and personal ,~UpPJl't of ~hi::,ir [rthen-inola""" ·Om of the 155HJ.a,fe o\~ner$ oJ tht:" iron fOiHH.fri.es·in r0:c)d,. 39'w.{'l'c born ourside Batnr, '01 whom 14:.rte even li'OIn outside Klaftm·dlsrri¢L .
. ' -i .. 1}

Ibm aisr» daugjHet,~, ;''';'h"Ciusually

ij:e:t

to

in the business community

of java, The 9PpMlllnity
iQ

is th~~e ready and

'Nailitlg tor them tf),b.C abte

€<;ttfbli&n new business contacts oftheir

ow n, s~'tme. of who ~tl~"'illthen b ecornc the lr first chenis when Jh~ ....
up their own enterprjse.

,Iii

;lsUliiP"
< •

Then, man}' entrepreneurs are Supp(}rted. byrdative$~hil':h'i perl£ ~d in ·....",h .they are CS [a bl ishing lh~i f ccmpa [1'Y. Th~ assis . i.ch rcla bV"6 wh Q hav~ ,J] read y ownedthe ir A)W n bnsin esses for son is f.tequend)':of inestfmtlble ~'ill:llt l'6.peDple j:UM .~'~i~fting out.·St.l'cl:t~ hallds can pas~ ?n Much 9t what they-know. The transfer ot . ledgeand experience in the field of n:jaHdigementj,s:encouraged;; .. errtreprcneursarc $o(~n initiafed in the :i~\'ingoof .things, partkldfa:t into ~".aryofcir(umyenti.ng and evading all manners of ablif:,'ati:@,
the areas of labour legislatio» and ~a,;qHl·on. A,rh.Rhe.i' wayin
.,

'Iu.s, sh,uing. of \,,'0d.· is a practice used by m~~rr~' ron founders to i . .. .' .. ' .' ".je,·~·. "" .' "'()1l1\.: dea we. of fle:xihilttv in production. lt is more lik I t h a t leI)' t1 '/ ..-e wk'rp:r.i,se::; that are the: 0 urcome of a split up ot an e>{teu~e:d fill~l~ly O'ftenooE1ttm~e lo work cit)Jdy WL h f>. 'mother' .c9rnpany in \'itr1{),us rht 'VIiJ"fS. ~6giqll 'Con.';.@qlle;<t1~ tha~ the transition fro,fa a [~f'~te:n~Le~ 'The is ..
:. . . &1 ill!c1""'1' familv f"
~n
J. "

enterprise ,Oft'.
"

,~~.

is

oft-en a .g.l\ldual proces~~nd. rt II>SO,me· "'"

'ie.enter prises in v.oJv'ed .. . , .co~(.)reration between i nH! round ries is 11QJ'4nnfilied .sim ply to the.
16rnl of assistance, advice and the.sharlng.of orders; in .SDD1f in partnerships,
GtS(:8

tll"

'~its-diftk.Llh: to determine the exact nature of the 1.'ei.a.tronstriP between

it.

lia,:; lead1ed rhe

st'<!l_i;c

of being iorrnalized

Although

which relatives hi'!p in tbc intti,d phase of;s, inif) fOUl'lpri,C'~is by armnging for some of th~LrWQI'.kers.td be:

ferred to th~' new faclorr·!..;astlng Of iron a nd 1h e rnec hOi rlleal. fi the ptfJ,JuCts inc' ,'(t.tiviti.:l3 t requ'ire,sktl ted wor kers, 'J 'he judi . tha balanced mixture of iron, coke and lime to be' used i]j th~ s . process 'is,m;~lally' not the result bf a 'Wc:ig-ringprQct::;I;S, but is a.;ni'.eM'e"; ~ by rouch. One of the reasons for this appal'ently·c.~valiei'attit' . 1h~Hdifferent products require a diffe're:nt bllrdn~~ss, hich c-aIW w varying mixture of-raw materials ..S.()m~ entr.eprellellrs·Ctm.W<u'e:

of

fi)rm partner~i~ip'$;cr Jlt k~L:Ude not v\'.a[ltto <ldm~t to .tnf;ITl, this hasnor prevented men] from undl'.'.f~aking 1i,;m:]oUs'_fonll\{of partn ership.nei ther fiJ p r.;.~ent :il9'1" in the pasr. M.os,tot rhesc partnerships an.. einformal ,tg.reeme]~h, ,:ften of ~ shoH-rerm:imd ad hll(nat.ute, ~NUp to undertake a specific
'llctivilY, TLlman"
C<1':';('o;,

IDo.stbf the t::n1!'epnm<::ur&emrba~il.e their relucranceto

the partners Involvedare'relarcd

to each other,

:snle~tin& P~O(~~~ thcir.li.lmacc with ~he~i[che. n in

~.fa.rcShlluant:w.·k$;~ ..

c:ophng,n:;qmIr.::s the skilisot a chef. Lack of skilled and expen.en~ wo~'b::r.~. :lUr the ca~tlng prooe.~:and for op8.ratin$ thf finish.iqg mfi..:G:Jm.er.;; ~e,HhtD"a,higtl percentag~ of rejects a nJ, (i(lmeq'll end}' to hig'l:ifQWe~ To hiv.-e: the ooppoi:ttniily 100getexperienced workers Prom .anatlle. tliCtoryat the time at which one .Ii> establishing one's Own f(nlIj(]}~~ .'
therefore.an importan+asser to these ~.nttcpti'en.eurs,· '.

,lOne example is'di,W ()f'il founder of aluminium 'products who set up 'a'~)~{ttne['shipin ~rder'w acquire ,l' large order for lain·p.lj('SlS;~or urban 'streftt lighting from the ~L111atlSof So!o~ Brunei and a MalayMaii state. "'fhi~ partnershipinvQlvhl t1;VP othercompanies; orl<!: wnedby his S(JfiI o '1Dd tfle othenfoundrv by his scn-iu-law, In orhcrinstanres, parHl~'.T<}hips ~.n~·ora more long-term rrarure .. Some' of tb esc I nvolve t rading (OU1panie~" in coke and p.c]:ap or pi.g iron ..
Pox inst ance there
'iN~5

anenterprise

set u"p in 1.992

:L6

irnport raw

Finally, in addition. topmyiding supportand.assisrancs d1U"i~~ initial rrd - u p phase, . in seVentl' instances ftI.llliJv~ members . . eonnn ~'.v . . ,;;. pia); n lll<1,QJ role'for thcfirs: few yt:~uS' f a company's life, pflrttcWIa:R~' o iE t sharing orders-and pro,l u ct rna rketi f1$'. EkF}.~;e of the Lime and$6f,5,~ invtlived) n 'b~gimfi i~'kVt .lUdri~ ~ !'HptOG¢S~~roncas tin.g !~onty ~ffl~~' .j if <J certain minimum. weight of products is-cast, AnQ,iher f<ictQtjs·tf~ ir is ofttn irnpossihle ~cf·sPN:dup the r;ntting W~Kes'~ b~ymid'a~~lJ~ Leyel h{_'{a~is~ usually takesseveral dfly:';JO prepa re nev{ moulds of:~-.alt.4}. it l'her\,:fore, both. when there is a shoft~ge·cjf Qrden and whcn th~~~t~.a

materials fr<Hl1 Russia <1li,dChina. This company was f(.H1.]je;db.y four brethcrs-iu-la ..... all -or'them owners. of in Irrm' 'foundry in Batur, '. BetwNm 1902- anslI997"rhey inrported coke from Russia and coke al;d~ig iron from Chi!l~~AhilPSt· ali '01 i1 was used. i.n. the,ir o~vn .. tompan'ies', and h small residual amount \",;,L~ resold to other fm:;ton~s. A.~-imila['activitv was..~1ll4(:;rt~kenby two other iron-fourrders in Bator. Re:twe,E!n ]9~N ;nJ 19'~7., thes.c· t'i,~,;) p.,frtners weJ{t 19 China :$eve['a] thlte~ to import cor!::anc! pig iron, Senne of it was usedin their ~~'I1 f~u.ndries, SOH~C' of it te.~old n.di[i~;es in tbe 'Vma.gt:~·biut a.substantial £0' aJ.llOntlLwas fh€' rl']1jo((.()mmocliry in the trading activities of one' of tbem, wht:'l W;l.Sthe:sewnd large.~t private tracic'i in raW LTI3.teriah. in the area.

Alrmj~t ~l:~ h.~ r.ri~t~tf:adem l·d in Batll'r -a reIocal lv(iJsJi ms_,'In 1'" the:re""'ei"~ onJ,}, three partli€J~hip5, of lecal Muslim t·nH€:pr. wbith Indonesian C}linese busrn·esilttl·ii:n WC-~f' .iny~v(:_'"(t:,()n~ p<lr't~tnt:' ship ran a woo.dcruting factory ~o.c;ftd {m·b~~.Le Hat'm', This: ~tJh!is'h~dbr a local irort (QtqiJ.el;·iHtd tHl IndJjn.~sjJn Ch1l1es-e b InA_Ii_t~D~~$'u6l!baY<I" T'~te ~tht~ two pilrtne.~~hi~):sone, ad hoc b::.;ai'iJ!~ a~tlvI·ne,~,each ~ r lh em l~Jjkl ng ho,iQ_l.oC~!.Ml"lslim i['OJlfoundcf~an~.fMt . JndOl1.t.sl'lll r;h!rt~.~~ bu~n~Eissnn~.1h"0tb1}abna:"IL'"I the ~afly 1970!S;'tl5,~ wen- aEiw i\}hL"Jim f:nJrepr~neurs: who.owned.an iron ft)undr}' iF.f.Ba~t· .• '?IL~t in rm-t i1el''fjhip wj~liInci9neslltn.Q1 tnese .bl~sinc8..~merrhom !VIa:t~ dr:;tt _, .Che h;·h.l,iiUm nnn' founders rn\lo:lv~d.d.a"Lrn that lh I,j r p.~! rtnership d~d]¥~ last 1.0;llg because of conflicts OVCr Jlna!H:jH~ m~t1if:'l'5, They indi UHt: the <lIitij-Chtjlf·U.·' ~l.cr(Lp'ristrati?[)_~ io 1974 (tfreM~lari'a: . ]%ndJ;Ul..gd0t~\ had tUT4+~(,~' dj~(~Qlrr:a-1.teJthem. from estahli~hing·.,Wo forms of ci;:)n~b~H"{lt.]onwith Ind.ciR~si<:tn~Chih~$·e bllsin;('s.'i;melT_'·0': ]n'ti)9tt irl$t2 nets, F~~U1~% [.?lations bi::l\m_'t"I'Firml undries til rt»ti~ .fo are no t b ~ween·equal partners but ate a ~:u.bdmlH.dint~ n~t1~~~ u"_;,,H<lly tny~"51Yfng one: larger and ':S,~)'eq:t].s']Tl<t.Il~r fbuJ.1g1res, Itf' s~~ ~{lJ€>.~, th~ smaller subcontract ing fu ~md fy operate:s.reiat]vdy lnde:p.e:n~ "-end}' Once it has m0:rtvcd tht,tH"der from the:. Iarger firm. It b . oYrl1 raw Jn~lc.t~1!$, ~~k~~ own master oopy;~)y the rnou m irs:. . fi·ii~s.he~~ h~ V·r()(.hlc'Th on irs own maoslyines" 1\"10.;co ~ rrc:q,Henl1 y th e {rv.1t1~ii;, fi1' the smaller ;·Eibro.ntrilcrit1!g;firm doesnot hA',I.e· (Ltfid~i)'t C:ilpi~l $ .~)~)!~n~Je independently and a~ts mOrt: !th>~l,~..,'(:)r1<~,fQwmiln_rI'es;:€fuu;j' I ror 11 fixed 1;'1;.~(~ sp ecit"J.ed p.it:t(;::~ he provj.Q.ef s-paCf t h bqur; " pel' 'J.I:\-9. upervi£i~El,.\~hai)lit Pthe:r_~9_~ts smJI'OLS wo·.rki.ng~c~piLat rn'd' ~ .and n~w materials-arc borrlG" hy the largerentt&f:_)n:::Elew', 'who often ~~k~"~ .pl.re'@f .[:hefin~h:ingiQf the pn).,d:nf:'rs. :ia hi~. Own nlp:ui,)" 'D~·· Olln1nl:C~, are.a converrieut afrang~]'~J\i:.n'l lJw:l(;:T which a large f 0 L(nJ-,,~rby contracting (jill ~aTt rhe pJ;()riuction. relieves thf.!·bllfden of labour m;;;l.nagt~l1it'ntmwl Jb5(9rbs.flutt~l,i1~(Ml.s,.ir

'PtQvidcs lh~m with 'workirL'!J c,rpit~ 1.)€'fh ~l~dl.kn:ow-h,::w ..<all,d "':e.r;i~~ l ~~b()"u~ transfer of!abou:r:ers'and flHKhHJ.t;l"y:b~t"w0Crr the foundries, the :ihere ere thI(~f: .-sLIGh .clusrers in ~~~,~pj- 1.1w.hqch. ~<;twn, ele1!<'~n' and L f"5iKt~Cn eompanics ~'H: in.~~[!oonne(ted, major p;tr1. uJth~ pr~(dllctfon A ~;Uhe; IMd in:g CQJ;:nFj:nL~s 1n these clesters consists ~}f ia~:ge "COn ~Taos .for pi'@{htcts; such as rdpe-Hl~illg,~ aud h<lu~lrumps.. ,5(~meyf'ti"re,se".· :~(lr{I>e:Ts manafactured by~he leading company ~lrt' itself.but some.are ;ilb6:Hl(l;~l,erc~._o.'l.H to. tIw.srtl;rlkr Ilji~l~ie~~~.J~j Barun Under this·iI.H'()nge"meo.t the ~{!"..a~jqg fou.nd.ry pa\:!'i!:W.eJ<the. rtI().1.I1ds, 1;:lW l1\8.teri"ah and A(f~li(~ti.meS" a lso J;ll::r1. (,If thd~ bO~H' .[OEc·e-Af~e;rth.;o- pi pe-fitrings-or ha ud i'~t~nJP~ have ber;n '£a"t ii-~ the snfallei'~~lten"rhre~ tn~y '4.rt' transported to the leading 11Hi1oryfc)f fin.i1hing. and.lMjnting, ()yt:,r ·wlld ab~'h'cthis j~:il.ch ~:]~aer"wor"k:} dils:ely 'with ~t)E)(:'· trading 0Jnp,(Jn"")i""i)Wrl-t.'d h-y a "re:hliv~·;(j(rM leadingentrepeeneur in par'rluedhip wlth-~ r.d';'at:e~rad~~r. ..
;T~eSt {ridingcorripan.ies provi.d<;>.~hi:! nrembcrs of the clnsreuwith

.~JJ

br

or

hi

Suh(.ontmctil~g.flllbw:ds·not
-UI"ti~~ ".a

a rebtionshrp· t~~a~cx·L>h only

two tactb.ri:e~:,n(:ir' 16 it re,~~ricp::dsoldy to bri~ine$jJ~$p~ct5, 'In. ~\4'M;yJ ;llr~te~'of' i[~QJ'L fo:u nJri ~'~j~ j,nten::'o11il'lie.;c.:ted witl e nnothc:rthn:mgh-subcon,(racllng li{:'$~ the'top 'OfsU~JHl cluster ~s&j)ItW i'lt ~ai¥c;; i,roll tb~ul~~er\"'houbc;on h·,~(l:s orcl;t'J'5 a111Dn,:;;-i;h.t ~}tlwr facto~t~ s hiJ.

tbtl.l'cq~Li.r~« ra.,w·ri!aT¢t'i,ik The-relations h~t.~'c~n the.iron fo~mdl'ir8 within a clusrer are not' fkt;Lri"cted solely to busin e,1::;a.~pcpts; they also h,we .;~. ~:('dil.and political. :P)IUpon:ent. The .firs1;.'.r.Q~nt l:o r'~;cIl'C'Ulb..eti~tll<lt·l1:lost'·.Qf t'bE.~t;:mall!t( ~rr{ln foundries ·~.te owned by rdatLvc,";"or the kading el)!il:~'preHcut; ~tri!(hig Lh(:,.rn S~JV;)SO:B:$~~n-.l'Ow r,ebll\(e,~·ofhiS I1folh.e.r)~fitTolly: hr~ iL'ld .The other €[Iierpt.t">csare oft~l'l.owmA by persons who .u,secll'O wad.;: ~~as'~h1pqV~S().r's" the fa'~toryd tJl,deJd~l1"t €>.'Tltn~pre:.neur. Second, the in ;owners ~it~~,e:l'<lii col·n pariy not emly p:rqv(q.e O"fy\"r~, they also :g,ive'· ding 0p~]'s6mlLloan;.; and othe1"'m~ail£ Qf'sttpport to their,. .'i~lbtO(1)lractor's. Phll.-Y .oftell ,,~~a d surety tor bank 10 irlS' artq hel pthem iiI ~pfii"·p)n:tp~.~ n w.itb: ...the Iocal hu·n~aucra(,y·or in thej{a1:t~u1pg to ·get·~he~t ;:;:hildn:~.n ~adnli_tted to: 9.tgfler !:"Kl:uuilqn, I n retU:ril~~~~~ .smaller iron fbumle.rs· "S!!1p!J()H the polirical ambiLionu.'.tthe: le.aping e·nf[.ep:r~n[juJ:, Panty <a> j. wsur~ of their sub.cDHtlacto-rt' Iny<flrrar~d that of.their relatives and ~fl:ieJrds. l Vl!0 ·.,.of ~h/ leiVJing e:nh2p'ren¢.ur~ htld the p6::-ii-rkmwf ~.bair rna n I he .1 oeal co-operati Ve~,~()C i.;;:tr r Or. m an.y years, a rn;itl~.r I ~wil] l'C1..u'rllXQ!·[l_he fifth 8C'C';tion·l..,srill~iligpilig~ :I Il'9), t Sub~G.Qtr<lcti~g r~latiomAr:criiit l'esti:'itteilla (.th~E' iron f6~tnd.ri'e5, .but sometimes also .in\~olv~ ·~;trg{-~ C()"rl1p~.nl1b, o.rGon.glmt1e1'at~~,a( national ~nJ ~:~~h iJlWrn:al!OnaI leve~,$e.",enk6f lhCst:..'n~lati6tJ.s·hip8.aTtpaft of

of

the .iov~j";'1in~fn bapqk- "i:lt4t.k-at ,( f.oster l~th<:r) n:;herne; u ~~der t's
l"J.rge:(pn::tp<\nks are-'~U'FpfD'0ed to act.asfester fathe~s' tel a man "~L1ia]I-£C8:k enterprises: by p:.rayitijug them. with tinaJ1(Cifi:l, ted '~<ip;dn']<'Il'kctin:g SLLi)po~rt lrof.i10undrie$· in f3atur that are invof -such rdatiorwhip~. ""'~ith arloaal arrdintemational (rr~a]J]iy n con.'lpap.ie~ b€::] flg t~. the '9ifl;~gGrY'Qf larger fo UHilrie?. As· m'("nt1o~ @ .above, t"ii,,'{) oftb.e f9j.Jr e.nt!trpr1.'$;i tihilt':establ~'Shd all elecnic ... :"1.IIJ1dl.l~M fi.lt!~ac:c:in Bawrdid'so in ~'oIJ1tbor(\'sion'with'ri rJ;aeioncl00r~gIQnj ..:' ~ .afra.tt Ja:i\<ln;'£s,e·0,m.pany."fhe other h"'OW~·N norlett st[.l!ndiqs; P'Wl but were also suppo-:ned in terms ~)f roviding cap ~ta-l l~iaI, p "technical kqow- [-10M! by riV9 1!'lqo[let;i i n .;;:-dnglml1 era t~,~ (n{~hi and A.st:f<li). Although severJl of these rd<'lYti(mshjp'~'di(f indeed h' , .part of the' hr.rpak- i1Ntrk~r~ scheme, these f:;lmLlj es h 1cd ·]?~lsines.sC \<{j.th.cmnpmk,) (It dir p8.1ion;db'cl prior to (h~' intm(Juc;tLop., govern [rwnt ~1Chem_e. They. ,are certainly the sm~Uer b llStnc..~\i P<li in the'~evenrures, arid: .tnel~fwe,.:to ;3 'Lnge ixtent.":d;ep'~~dent' ~ 'Odie{p~rtl1;er~, Desp iu;:'this.: it wo uld g'iv<:;oil one-sided pj c;t!1!.l .. e ofZt1~ P().-;it10L1 no -.ehann:ledze lh.em:· 'A~~lh ~ath'ct' de.r,~~g'~~btr the teffti "(1ndk~an2"kaj (f0st~!'(:bJid). the {(),;r;g()'ug analysis incli cates (he CO,]!UilOn practice o~:Ii((Ql' i ro-opererion apiong ~1V:: '~m fq\j,l~de!'s of Ratur; betli wl.tltb~.and: b the ~fl'mtly,\'yhen we' kN ~t the hi~ to rvof t1~'ei"r nUJJy; en t~.:qYP:&~J <1:t E thd·r r:nnnetships' and ·their subc(mtn~~tillg ar:ra,ngem:~nt .... . , tha t .t.hq~ b aV0be:~n J'Ufl ny 'C'hang~$in these diffe ren l typeS of b co-eperation 6\~~T time, Extended family ent("!tpDl&eili expand an4 ~Mn ~;plit up iULo r~l.cle1!f,_·entttp.L~~.S, p;Jnrtn~hjp0, ate set up .and bi:.e·ak.L"rp bic<Ll,lse of CO:rlfll!;"b, ;:)nct $LIbcpntl.~"Jiqi:i·dus~e;r,~ eXi indm:lin~" D tw' enterprises. er cont ract j H:i;:JUSe; of ·cr.mllit:t}011 'a' in dem'iJud. Flu:idily '~mJdi~H(ge lhel.l:&j,re cliar~(:t(Cri7~& the v'a! ~b:rrn;s_ofewnqn:lk co-operation ifm0ng.th~ iron fount!el's ofBatumm: i·sshewn in lYlE:: following t::xZlrriple,

y..! hile hls f~'qym~nJ){~ ·pn'~.dl'lHghLer "l"rtlfw \f'v ii~rs hf.Lh"t, o.th;jrthre~ e)IMi"p.l:i£es..V.ih~'ni:.'yer I\d:~.Mu~htti,refer) w lh(,.<s~m;)llr·~11tr.·:I:'.f1r~e·$, this d().e.~' sto p.h irn ta~kjPg jllNl.d them more in tcr ms of dc.partm€;tlt~ not .ut' one l~rt,'f" c{)'mpa n:)' fhan in ~et:ms. of four ~epar;1t~ enterpr Ises, '~hgof.th.(:'r,his toUT G.or:rrp<l.nies b,nie,t~m,;(:' ftJr~aq'~,·and·.cigMc(tn ra~~e: fini~hing machines. T0work thea';:, Hn~y emplov 75 .... zorkers GD ,\.

reau lou I)·a~i:·(

»,

;:,Pal Mu(~nHr t\stablE~hed hig fir~t 'fmHl(h-y ·in ]·9?1. Since then, 'he bJ'~ ,~oI.:'tHP new t:'rd:~tpri-(e~ ei{e-ry time his business J..>..xp~lnd~d·.~lndhe. has n-e-e:d~d.l,{(G;L1:i;tIllU)i~)tw t"luLldingto ip.cre{l~.e.hi-._<;productiert cai;ri,i.Y:··~\hh~1t[gl(.i'n· h'~~'~n~t1mc£finilJl:ciII~t(~.llildei';j[lions. WN-e th~ j l"h'~rq_;lii~r'e~l~Qnl7eh in'd:~st~fr..h~h S\:.·FMF,te enJ~pJ'ise.s;~hi~\tt\.1:tt:gy i~L1g ~i,~~) b~.;:;;(n1:fa·~·V~s~nli",lJ.'i<lft df l?:ak Mll ~'J~ r's: ait€.n~pt· lQ'it Y1jd. p'(jssrbk t t') fLHur,t probkrns ~j.rwrdw di.'(~~iOn.(j1rcipt~rt'!\"' l'h~t is 'I.;';hy hd)l~it~'1l p ,btl.l'l"g·8.lp:~\i' "eadl of hj~ three children hext to rhf.:if. ()"'!"".l1 fucltyut'.~. tor Si.rKe .bi$·''r!nm1;g~'~t. got married 8J)d moved out oYth{: paren tiil hOUB"e ~.o.n liMyr::ar~ U1rt.-3 bnn)¥.~ows are now ~)cQupied,Pak lyriKhtrrr:;;tnct his... '1111 ',,,..i'll~~'.(i;nt[b~le m Jive on fb.(;!lr.ow.n in their .renGv.,~h''HjnOLg¥ a, [runt ()l

f'

·Although we-all l~ve';)(-:p;lrludy)··w~·M.m():p.erXl"le as one HY(nil/. Pak, .\~LI.C:b1:'~,L<l.lw'1f'.s·f.p.1ph~s~zed whet; i't"t,~ll.lzed ~bont lris, husifH:?ssM~t-u:r.
~'<ld fami·kitr.uch.lft'.
. ~ • I' ~.~ ,. I

his

!lIst hdoI);".

,

tlw 1\'1;'lt.u"UO~ Ii!liiffdR'm fil .. iiif[S ~dl','1(&e t~<'i:!si~'r 1'J'j:)' d~i1.rlrar mJ)"~ : fur di"ide:rlj) ti;~ 1H"{J{Ji!J"1 r ·i'i'h~neili;r.th~y' r"lll'ft to. But; {4' t:.:lil rse.] (:;til c!t,ily' !a[ki1~£ 1)bOll'l'th& d~st(,jn ~j'u:Wrf" ll;~ ~li~ i .f:lomt"1d.~.operate ·as "011e.hl~'i~'fm: Ori!! ,href.' f'.i'f:lcit.L~ rlt,e·lm';ueJ i fl·,hs frruory bfdl~N 11£S ofh;y 1M'!) 6·1);I:I.~,arlil· rw t
to

d1-l~ghI6f all-a a:efini:.;hJ·1;tmtu:ht1~"" ari!·I~.<d)t1 'h~·.orjijfl.~lfiu4(Jj"ri¥lth·ur m2' j;()~I$~. Wh~J't iMe g~llJrd,~r:> jfj~ Jro.l1, w~~I,1~~; J th\"i.Je .!h~H1·0l~f ,/;'r tl;re(~: i0:l'li'uiM.r,< (!fi!i_Fho sc ht.d,dl!: ~he fi)] ioS!'dt~g ·.wodc."SuAa, /i:~\!l} rhr~ I~~;{I Sot15}, {H,';'! [:~II1tr(~) i> .~m.l-·il~,law1.'-:,:j\r.h t{~ (,\:"l{<':. of r Tw. ~!!{Hl...gfJne':I' .of rile. ~a:i.6itt (li tI'l rhe,rr.:o.WJLjfi()m;y,,fi'Jile J k@p atJ·-ey,~ :o.tl rfl.e /irlr):i11J.: :p·t()~!e"!tS.-

Q.

/

>

H..efen) n g. to th ~ division of income, i?,Ik:Much~aT {)!ltC' indi(<:.fed tJ\ci~ each family ~uscq\1.rt-of the inc-{_.m~€' fts ~-)}In']f.aeto~·yy of W,~:0\'ef dai~y twpendiwr.e>, but t.n'l1:' rhf'y decide ,wW2-lJW( on large e::pen ses: 'w,,;: ,MIl. IIve"lntl ~.,,()rk -s-e.pa:mtdy b.cc;':~'rSt 1t Is 'more (on\1~ni'ent, ut Y>1e'are: still h .. .• Paf;~l\tckt~r pot ,on Iy l,i kO::f; ~n'itmphl\l'ite th~ fa m j I} natlue oJ h t$, CJ;m!JVIHj'..he Zll~()§r~.fe,t.~, Ldk iH' [~1mil}'Jer.rn~ ~bo.LLt l.heather cs~en' to fOLJndri~0 ill hb bm;incss dtl$ter, s.()ine1f)fthes~;-::"Llh:::on..tracLing rebtltln~ g~l~~l'tk ~o 1Sl76-when h~ R.,i:ivH' hr:, Jj r,~t1",rge_.prd~r (or pipe-flu !Its;' b

IF

=

one br15~ famil'i'~'

f Iart1lnto lvhlCh:.1L>]; ·{a.ge(.i ~6 ~ 18..i h(f lead iD$ b ll:s:E.tlb;:srmln ~n 3: clltst' ti'Jeven !(O!¥ [01] ndries .[)1.1hlur ..FOtlf or" th'd,e ot") tHerrdsc.~ 1I:It his til.ml1r. 4~@l+F' P',tk Mudn:a.r ~s dle owne& o( DUe f:ow;v;lrt~@!rlJ,%

fron~ a ..municipal

"cOJPPJ;~.tt:i·~)tl.i.~L )"<lki'il't03" In:

.G·rde.rfg.oomplNe

111<1t

IJtU~'ff, PrL'jt'tr-itrj'.rO gil h i~~ 'I/,~·ttwa}~ J'hi_(', ma t,raok l:h~ wDrk~~'{)Jtthe' 9t1~ei'" t 'b~ti1lr$S11um fwd since d1i!t: hI: iras tl oi :rece~peJ<Ii!)' trt'l'i" qrd€-,'s from Pal!; "Mj,J~l;u~r; OJdy ~WI) I)HH<!h; b,.d, ] a!:J9 had ,'1 pwMem w'irh Sub (ffik' ~ffILh~l+t'~ dd(!£i 'Sl~'1J- A_Mf.ml ofmilll/rm1l! Silj~j f{ji.'Tf!,1 'trt some chilliI' ,l.cl'ri(i' aon. A/though I '~s only plmlf;,:i~g (0 u~f.,irfof one o.f'(!I1-~ ilriiers I .~tk~ 'aca~'fr~'d my QW11.,;Suk~,wid mf.,drm I ~(>m(i.(Jt;ly flrlY my raw nWlet"i~lh (m jr(I;,)j i'rUlidmd~Jlg COll1(lt:l!Jy, .Ifl 'die end.! rjJOI,.ighr it Ititru not to b, fJl:t/'lf.,$c:mp ,'(OYI F{~l,!jmxfrie:'~d, ~'e((,i:l~S~ Pt.k ,M 'Id, kA r ,is.my, ~!.JaiI·:e tlJtlt 'I 'dp no: WLF'1f , 1,-' :~f'''i1 )'dari(jtr.~{1ip- WitJl him. He {ll\,~~},,; m,_,i,aes me with (JI:dHS ~t1rl thl' p til,s.; ;o:o,lah'up O)i! b~~1k i~{ bllSH-W'oS_ •

wi

I ..~

soCt;\j, r>.-t'01W..lTYj,NO DIFl;ERENTLto,TmN

~n,dtti01d.o;x)f employment .in the l5~ foundriesi» B;th.l,r"ValT\.',~ith the :rye of work ,1PIJ the type of contract. Most of fhe 3,oyn or 'so labourers who ate; rtgl!l;;ldy erllpJdye:d in the foundr,~'e5 arc paid on the .~hiisi~ f'rhe D umberof days w01:J;.;,t."d.There i!)';I,:S nag 'as usually fu ~ wages o r
(~ raid n:nly after tt~t<workcrs havecompleted a. sp¢cifi( numbe:r of

,r.roduas or {aiks,il:$J result 'Of\\Thic:h'tbi labour al'I<Hlgemr;nts in these, fa'Ct(~J'ie.s.ofien eqllal that ofa piece rate system. Alongside theregularly e:mployeJ workers, there is.a large p6o! of ti).suall.:ibom which the entrepreneurs-recruit .... vlien the demand cannot Ibe m~L hy their 'Own hcb:our kl.j"CC. A.mon_g these casnalIabourers.are small group;;; of workers wh,o ;W~ speclalized in operating the furn-a.c~ ,ina (}StiHg the iron. It isthe small cl1~dprise;:;,~~pe'Ci.allythat make use ofthese gTolJp.sof si.e!;:iaUzedworlers. Thesefactories also avail themselves of the services of 10 cal artisans who sp'e;;:i(l'~ze in nU1Iltl(acnrring IP1\~ffTcopies ofmoulds, \"\fh.i1e t1wir regnhll: labou r'fCJ'S shapethe moulds and Ch,';;l n the P rod ucts, MQ~l,()fthe work performed in the ((Hlndri.:s is,ht<l\iy, dangerous, e1'\lremdy"u;n.healrhy ilnd rhc pay is low, Minor accidents involving
burns
Q'CCll.T

regularly and many labourers

,)X~:

therefore

unable to

v.'ithstun~1 the working o_wrlit'ions for more than ren '~.m. Almost all
'the. workers arc men, about

half of thpn:r below 25 years of age and

unmarried.
wOllers,

,'Vomen -are employed o,nlyby thl:: Im;g.e:f' firnrs in which

tbey carty. out ~Ji'"I'lilli"-'tt.at(ve jobs or prepare foo.d and drinks for :thi'(

n&n FQli~d~ ,;j1.w~~:a§N~.

1:31

The .D.w)10ri:ty 'Of ~he ~ml(e!fs .... Pligr.;ln~~ Wh0 have c-ome re; poorer rl~gi()llIS the' $O~!th.l)f Central J;a\'Mor from East ,lava..Th ill vftm _:employed. in ~IHafi teams headedby a f6J.~C:hi.a.H ff'§ni'"Hltf;.s}:r,ml' 'area, who is al-so ~·cs.pou$ible for .their recruitment. Dltring the:i ~ in Banrr the 11iligl,:an~~,;m;kerCS" t()g¢thcr'ins.pecial1>hM~d:!e.hh , live "factm;y. b ulid![rg 'n,nd i.ClUrrl hnm~':.on iy {'Ht~e~r l"wktl 11 y~al' fQr(t~ ..
n1afot f~stlva1s, TheIr 24-h~·j{j.r·av~~!Lbil~ty-ftH ork i~oi1,(~ w .o:(t!te'.r-

n

.1M

r(:~N)n~v\!'!hy'l.hfdl"on f0vn&~r~:'in n.'ltut· b'der mlgr<mll;a~oll( to~'1 wQrker~_ The entrepreneurs complain, that' heal labonrers.are ;ah~~l~J because: of sacial?bh:gatii)ll;s",.sudi.as m~rrlagr::s,mnC$~ i fi\n::rily, or fl,Xnerab,1yligJ<ltlt Iabourerswho .. o no'Lhih~t'the:iJ- ' d w'ith them in Barur art' Iher~,f:01'1? not,d[~tntc'le-(Lhf·t;w::h social Besides, it is CrlS,lVr 10. se n(,l Lh~'rYll:m:n'lt v;:he Q"r<J~l;~' .,orwhe _' r:.f rhem -suff~r,~,aIl.a~ddenL Th b TuLhlt~};.n ess w,~~· oM .clea rho:seend nring the eeo ncm tc. rB 'II~alh it ~Jl (~pneiin_ir) )):lid -i 991. lb.. t)~cemb~ .• 1;:M3, .:alb 1-['t 7:5 pe.r ~;. O .of the-iron foundries-in Batur.had.eirhcr closed down, i_e_lhcyhaii: J;it~t i(OJi1 fpr several nV:1l1 tlis, 'br had' slowed .d(~)wuprn(hK6 all to, .ca~.t1 nil';process pel' one .w 1woO rmlnth:'>_ ;'yfo.'!t 0f the workers had 4e@1to dism issed :£ nd had S<Llb~;~qHetlt~'t' sapp~~an'.cl fro~u the villagedi Th~,.~~wneh; ~rf tht-~f0t1 fmlJ.l.d~iO'.·cbdnl that th,~ w.6'l~e:!'s had back to their home Yiihg:e'~. A search in some of thcse.';nlag:e:s.·inlhe; stlti)1h-(if(ent1<lJ ]<i\iivso.QIl shpw.e"d",th~y w!!re not rh,ete:Mahy ~flJh~ h;td f!lL'lceflt re turned <}Eterthe tac tori es clo.0('J do~vn,J~ u t they ,nad: stayed fO'r it' '!rely short while, B£C:1L1M~ their f,am;m,~£. ere ill w hiOHe}'; nlf~~r Lh.6m }r~(l~il:;·E;'!~HJ}'.lY'H of their vUltl'ge ~ga1n .after .&1. '~~ weeks w;g:p il r search of work Their relatives and ndghbeur\S- dial:n~~ know wht~,<: ltfe wotkeh; vier!: 'at that time, It 5C'~n~: that th:ey moving aroundin (:en:n'<l,L.J.~1JEl in.search qA'·wOI.')r[", Among t Reo nets of d~e 155 iron ft)~mdFl,~-5 lnI9~4,:a hn:.ost . ow of them 'p~rforwl.:.'d'~'l'lar;~].~J labour in their: fil·c·tQries,.lt Vii'iISA di story in l~hcrecent pa~~L.ufltU. the late: 19t~Os" <i~~ytilthet\~'6fthe pres~f1J . m g·e;ri:el·ali~·M1.of"i::o,trepreneuij; med to .reg;lLl<ld'y'~dke it lBtuT.n v(uth' I?Lhpureg fo 'work in·the caSTing. prQeG~~~,Atrh~ '4mh)ftht'! J.99'Os, a.few Q f the veiy ,small bud n d~:men'n.c(:a~~i fly $.till pi.r(Onn ,rna (jl'ti 1ab9l;,!r. ·T.Mcs.e'el1tl'epH~th!Ul~~ 'dbo p"imofKl'Uy s1)p:ervj~ tht.··C'"<\srii~g
[1

Jllli~h i.ng process, spending most of t:he"h'da{~ \¥orl!; in,~.jdt their KiC-tory builP1J;lg_.,sometimes d):e~e{l. Q:lir;dn'a T-Ahiid a,n.d'Bh."Ort~. The smaller en te.rprises !n Bal LLTdo notha W separate office sp'aG~\ t.t~ept.fM a desk in the re,~<jd,~'nlL>d I h(m~e. of t~e. owner, which is k.IC1:!:Nd ill :frQnr of" each Y()'und'T'y'_ Th ore' f-D.'terprlse,s ::that; ern:ptoy more .tl1:an i)I,fi-'30bbmm;n' .usuallv have a special office room illkH:hecllo the fitTar'}' .b'uiYding, V' is j~1..lhis Gjfice that the owners. pf fh~s.~ t:a(g~t e-rlt~rpMses,s;p~lld most of their w0d{il1 g day~· wh en Ule.y are ' inBatur, On!}' ()CC<I,>sibMlly do- th~y enter llkir fuCl;tHy buildingwheu the fll:rH<~C~ !!>i,n 'flo'PeJ;atio ~~ .. \i>,i'he:lh0r !hcy are nWfl ers of~'lTl'itH ol>hrg"efoumdries, .alnrcsr ilU the
ent~pl'(:"Tl;t~:~' .i!Je.f1d 1iif.;:v.era·] ~~yft· a ·w,~:(."k ?l.,l.t#d e Batur

(lro~>

in' searelr

'Ii}f

tq$l

orders or to (91lcct payments. Except tOl' .th~ 1oi'erymall husin C$~men, s r)~e! 'nrps tdkn -cower the whole of Iavaand .so [het"ln\(:~1ndudt B~l]l r SJHrlA.tfaa nq 'su[awcs'i,. Among th~ l:i.r_g~ren trepreneurs it b;. nqtlro(Oll'L;tnon to fly to j akar ra several £ i JT'I!<:~ a· month and or;c<liill::m·ally to l].~~'lk~' t~")T"cignbusiness trips to Mahrr~f.r; Cl1in:a QJ~ spm~ 'other "1<h~n ·cou nl ty" Th [~, eograph j cal Dl:Q bi] iJy<1roong; the.entrepreneurs g m Batnr "is n of a r,~c:.ent p'n~nome.l1on but date's b":;lG.K fmul dYe late C(l!o)nr.~lperiod \IjI hen t;lv;~:j:r ,f<ftbiefs )UM. gl.··~.nd€'lthel~S~ fC:g~lUd t'(t;.(tcd rllgar nil] k fill y f:)Vf;t.J.<lV,~.tQ se(,ur-e ·castln;g.ofders [-Or ,'">:pare fXld$: [) n tht%e' 'da ,'$. :th~ltf~£'Ci~ tn::WE'!1£Uft; are 4y.f.-~.idt :JJ,lt~,l , tlie )Jl<t.ern,al r , tn~ n'<'l_gc.ttl:i.::'H the crtt erprii'e .h n;U<lHy tilke~~ OV6l by a you nger r or relative or .. somd;iliu~~by'fhf;t· ~wifeof the owner, Although almost <l:ll ·t'iiH'epp'f~(::tlfS,'ilfe'n1.ep, l~e ["~lc':of ,ofQn1~i1in the' itdl) 'romldtje.~ ot ·Kln.if·i$ 'certainly not ne,glig:fDl].e, Exospt In the la:rgcre:n lr1'rpdsc$1 it L~not 'IlTliXm':lr(l\l,n for the wivt~g. anq d:o:tuZ_h LCI~'OLEht_ t·_iil:P.;pyerlf.tn-s l.o,_tike i:::al_'~ ~',oqpaJ't .afT~IlC' ndltll~ni,~.11f}ti6r!f.·'[n th¢\;;'l,se qf'f(H]f" ijroJJ.fQun~.bje-$, 1he k.'enkrpr!u,.. i~:Fllny"O\'o!nf!d ,and' m:m.aged by ff female e:mreprene.urri1 ~ho·~t.-15-hirreer CQiP.palYies that enip f6y .more ~h~.n)O 1<i!tiO"}l r"en-, 'lh€ wives <.~nd daughters of the: hus.ine~..:slnen do. not ~ake ·any pa rt in the. ·tunh in:g of the §:htc[p.d~{:.The i.e)kkrlAird hOir""!:'l,1'.~::6f llilise .ttMepteneVifS
j

~-M(' :~~(ten MtllHtd

at J..,diff€reL'lt
pei§-lBS

lOGl!lOfl

~n thf·viijagli:

1h1cd thc'f:l!lhak

Il)'*Jl:lbeh of
hBktanl: n~<ll.l(lgers

I;heh~.farn·Lli~sb;trdly

iilauve$ or

0 r adnrin is,U'1J!tive'

ever vis-it the fQ~mifty or,tbe offi{:'e, frQm ~,msMe'·.a;;e eillpjoye>iJ tis ihte:rna.l ~.t<1l cr, .dong wi~h' SeNel'.<I.t a,~·~stf!ms h O:::;'~ w

Job it i~so run anJd..3~(h,(it:.rtalldg. rU'td he at. the·:beck and Gilt OW1\,s.r~irrn'rtb'gedL \Vhen ..vUti;n ~ [h e .q.fJ:i:te~of !lhll1;~L~Jgr::Tenter ttte:r~fnre- Hrf!"re w,ill ~lhV~y~ ~nj(~m~ h;::;. p~r,t~;~~ {i:O[l), of the h~l!]d:f.rw [11,
or In

,fO

H1P"C'l",!:U&t..adiilln;isUat~~ matters,

, vl.Mi ness ~:OlJ, breis, nr J0 w0.¥k out h~ detll,ih .of fhl<iHu'd J5u:r,inc:s:'~ deals. ., An6the r importa n L reason 'for t he increase inresident ial mobility

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-Overthe yeaTS'~ tb~' Iron foundriesin I\tmk bav'e_brot:l'ght pro(l121l.(, and lux.ur.y to.the. D'lajol'Ity of the indnstrialists and theIr famili imporrant .bJJ01nere!' of their s#ifJ;chi.rd iff living is rht·q U<8 Ii.ty of homes, A !;:u:gelll.l mber of the iron' ~i::l")..ln"d,ers nnet",l y-"{_'{)l1&tn,l.(;~ 1r.~e·) spadGusbil1::r~a~o\'ill, A! most tb,rec.:tj tNi.rLer,~ thern ~!i Hv.o;: nex.HQ· " -of n r t l hd.t:in d u~iti~] V (e[ni~e;';",Kl0$t tach) .i~~ l:UPbt'cl i nfhe .resfd ' ~re qltl'"drtftr~ qf fhlm wheJ1::, th~fl~st iron f~~l)...rghue5w~.J~ established · h()llSf:ts;i,n ih%e:fy..rmLehst:aw:l: p~&ed.d0se together. They"-"hav.e·;l1!Of~ and thrir \... ;ir~'~n~~tr-;tted'only by n-a!l' ow' alleys. :alls. v The- increase' in..illdft8trial-aWher~h!.p i~l the' 196Us ~nrl eadv: 1 oi....,)~ ~; ;!'.~\~ i~ 10 ov~~£rowdinfl tis n'l<'(tE)i u.:w ~ntt:tp{en.elrr~ .buiU lhd~ fui:~:l~~ the J.'ear.>ohh~i~'residences. Inthe Iuid-1910sthi~ dr;l1sity Qf(:or.v:;entrJl~ tion led roa sprt:aJ (}f,unciu$ki1ll df;:v,~IQpm~Tlt. to .th'\:. northern ,~,oI::l~h&tn'1i:l-est7,Q:f .Hatiii.'_M~r~ mvJ more eJ;;Jtepreri.e'o;r~ decid~d io thei r.en tt:rpTisl;'~ to the' ollwkiH50 t the villa me. 'The !a.r~edjUb'1iness~~€T:i' 'fm:0ri.g them ,used tb~s opponunitr also to shift th"i::: ~ite OF d~~~ re&idenhiltl.bpus.e,to a lecation separate from lhc~r found']"Y"'<i\\~ty' ~~t the noise of thediesel engjnes and tht s{r't~'~~'in;g lip.of ~cmpiro;i;]:< . 11'HJSt I.iupu!lar Im;ati~'Hl for tJ1C,$~ ne,.\! f~l\;t(iirie?;<i'r;i~l rei;.i'd~J1Ce-5'm-entrance reads 1~ad ~ng"fmm the Y(~gyaJ_Gln£) -Solo higln~'a}'w the. '.' Gt'n.tr,,_,The upS:l;:lQti.s~}ia~ ~~bn~ loadsldes st;.:m:d.large ~ung/ these (lftf:1T) irh expensive fOlES parked ill front of them, w Fifteen entrepreneueshsve -even shifted (pa·rt 'M) theil"n:::'shjgii~ olJtsicie Fatui, 'So,n,~,e l:h~$(jUrniHes h'avi~ blktn ur)f(:!:sidf;',llte i; ('"If near by .i:Owns{)f Klare [l, VCJ5Y1lkarta or Solo, and three- 0'.( the I iron h')'L1JJ.d:e!~ .own h6uf~,~ ill J~kai}a, Th is dl~pers~l:iJT tcs;ld.e:~tY!i abo lo~ation ~~ rtLy l~ia ted to the busines:s-iw{i;itje,~ o f these iro n 'f~.Llt=l~~~ PJ By l ivi ng in cities like YO~Y<tb eta, Solo a nd.I ~tkarta:, it is (t1hj,i& flit H\ml.
r,~

est~blt~hc~~~ita

... ts: '.V.LtmrL l.h LlTht~ n· b;l1>~~l bV>Ene£~ com m.U). c

tbere· <lnd to Jl.[~Lt .gowrnm en~.offioe} and huge ,cOm pames, Those Hi~

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ni~~r~

en.n.(~:I)tCLtQ:l.n\~· (}WT) hGus~s. in J <lKarni: n~gu,t'a1:1y fly up :an,d wh'Q 't,o rae C'alJi:ta~.One; o.fthf.-~6:J.ldi:yes fn ~be house for seV0fa:l.weckS on

the' U:DD (6u (rrle]'s, of Batur h~"h',h gntilL deaL 16. dq with the:; .~tltntion-·of their chJJdwen, The level ·of educJt:ton· of lhe-entreprencuts .'~i:t ll,l,e;r f<i'milr IT:l~nibe;f~i';, te1rt,lJvelY·hig~"im:_istJJoticeably~o flitlo'r1g: tht'"" yo l!ng(;:F gen~tMrOXl" .'~oJ.roo,!it~J~n~I.["j,ay.tri.emheribetwtr:::lfl<thwjge;t. .Qf 2P" and 4:0 hsvecom pl.ete-d .«etondt'l ry school edo.Gati~m) and a l"!.njv,t.'Tsity-dezr<,ei~no lQllge:ran ~xcerlt}oTl among the:jp.lm~~~Jybl;:J/1w lh~ -<.'lglc· 3'O~{)yer. the ymH'sl it has b~N;WD~ of incre,tsingly common for. [ht; in/Ill feunders to ~efld,.l eir ..zhiM..t\"'J) o $f;h,0~)6 (,)utside the' vilbge· h t fo;.thdr ptl;,l8.ty ~d~';~i.ltE)On-M),ny ofthem 'indicate. U):111h¢ st4i14aTd ofedu("l~i.t);'i L"ttC village sc:hmAt i<;'E1'HC1c.h lower than .that available "il'l. rhe ~hf$"; !~'J);l)~' ~~I't~~~~ 1,~·fanillE~\.i Those \,,'h,01jwn' houses in KJ~t~r1,Yhgy~kAi't~ or$blo have b'Ol,.~ght [hem .mainly.t<o provide aecernmodation {()'rthe'll' ~cbx~oL-age,c~.ildi·en 1xn.:.lsOrnelill1}::~:ibo ft).r tht: (iff~vringGf their near rtht~ycS') Tl1.e~e,~TJJr~'IHe:rttur:s. a";'e dtQetmoy~~cL h the cilr "tli~");JJ~ ,S~+,.~~ l:i~e~sked. J hr0t.her or .sisrer to-move w ;thlris· or her ramil y or .'"jilQ to fa 1f"~ern'!';" the ~Jlild \~ }1(), .Ji"e g:Otug. to $chm),I .. ren A ff,w of those entrepreneurs 'W hn send th eir chil~lt~r~ schools La Clurs'ide:Batll,t .give p.rtfer.ente to nou- ~>~bmi{ 6:iUtatlOH, These hu~i essn JfJ:c'n·$a~ that n;oI1·T:\>b,mic. schools- in bJcVo.+m .hh;··:Kht~n, Stoll_{f(n~i yc«takar.ta p(l'QviJe their children with the. 0ppar~l.:ml,ty to .interact l/i'ith (Hhcr c·dlnEc::gto~~pj·. ~ti$"_~hi~,qlj;m.bin~tj;o~·l}f,a·qerwr ed~01ti~}rJ .aud an .{;:Hrlf .CKpOS·Ur-e: to other {5.om:I'l').t~ajt..ies,.e~p'f;;(;·i1llJy peop:l.e ,of t'J Chii\Fs·e.df:'.s~,Ec1:li,q-rn,ti~1¢.\ved by these businessmen <Js.inll~(jtHntfor v business $UCl::f'S~;' , These: are the :i.)xcertim~,,," Most of those ... ron (0 i:.md'ers .... sen d i ~,ho Ib~ir ,c.bi!i,ireri t"o sch6Q.ls- ou[sip:'c the vi~~.:{ge l~n'.'fe~I:~l:dmit ed~KlHinfl. Ah hOT~gh so me send thei:t eh ikht:n l_t'J 0 rthod 0';:;' 151aTtl it:. sch':ooh, rhe !llaIoritJ.£1'l.'OW- mptl¢,l'n Is:]a·mi,,'edLH.:gtLQl~. hese elttrepre.ne.U1'} emT P.husize that it h the ,~ombin1nl.(m of r.d~g:iO[,(8.rl¢}Jbedi:eIlGii te il:l._ies lh<[t llKrke,5 this typt_;; ·oJ~dutil~lon atuactive. Disciplin~.J nd re.sveE l fo.! turd i1i"hn nrf viewed by th~ iroJl f6 Lmden, 0 f B.a,f:Llt" t~]mp()rtarit Tne-ans a to incuka!~ in the.~r ~Jlildren ,unenttdH:f<th,lt: prt:pi8:'f~'?' fhenrt<'n; th~ ha:rd\voH~i:ng lif.(lh a b usi,n e}:s-miitJ:).,

.' ;1[HO ng-

~q

of

At J.ea.ir-~5 of thY: I S.~iron f0und~r~ h,<,!Q (part of) the;JT ed a ~a p(mdri/; "Pe5iu~tr.e.n in Cearral or East J ,It'''il~nwstly :()J1.ew: •. fairly l}l9d~l"n, in bJ.:lt~o?k. :tv~mW of tb:e'Jn ate. bot-'1rding. S(:h0 li~Kf'e"C:s,::Niu~ ~l'i.irepl'ltL1eurs even.artended thc.~·An-)ie'bol!nii the Po.udGkModern Darusslarnin Cwn~or (P'MG)1 Ponor .edtlcatb~~;al pr9S2tl'f:ltin.c;of ih !~~hbQI, M~hk ,m:df.r1Jt,1Sihtake a en l pJ.8..\,:e. h)Il;g. wi~h ~tri\!in$ to· cn~ut€ H S~J'J se of 'I.shH~;ic b A hooai.lht:pond(~k fm..1Q,n,tl;;¢rJ P-I\'JG.pvts i! strong ~mp'h-a5Xs fl.d;iscQ .and ind~p~odenct~ l);i~d'rhn"e'~si\~ejt J1"1e.an·lbrpr:l)g_fe<~ 'de~dtl~, . ;;l.fldi menr of P:l\;iG. ".VOCa.lj01'l<l"l·guida.nG~ is aimed at cresting stu be)eif idi;ill~:e,..tUk), It.is cipe(_;t0i:l. tt~~t g:.ra:.dUlU_¢S ;fJ'f :pMO co}. create-job snd not i;)C' job tit.".ektr,'~ . This jMderC'Ilu:: [91' ~'dut:ali{,Hl."(mfdde: the vUh,ge, ;;Flung: "W\~QFM;tc.rtd.~t1cc;}' f~\~m0v&a'w1yfrqm th~yruJge sesidential ~r¥a" hlsOOHtrJ~ roa w ~d~ni,ngsocial distance between' the entrcprcll,euri:al.farn··· the: rr:m1\j.nJng ,,,mage population, This: sot;.i<t] :di ffertn~e: i~un-(l even more sharply by rhe;'&is-p1<:ty efwealth and alTllleIlL~ <imon;;~~tblt~· families, which is l'tJ..ciSltJcadyvLs~bkhl.n tht: 'QJ.I\!TJ(,11"h~p of f;X;p.e.· Itlxu-ry'oo.nstl:ffiC:.t gCJ:(,MJS~'t(,)(1\">'11'a -r1;ft-'ig~r,~:rtir,).10r~ rhan Qne~·.,. l cassette recorder a:nd a televisio» ~.~thaos.·b eccme GO~j,mlEmp~a;~ atMmg ll1.ci.kmjliE-;S of trOD "f0llnQelli:'in P,a~Ul': f:bQfU.( ,pri'i::-·gu. ' them ab'{l OWr! a (,:ompJit disc phyei', a yj-dc;(.l r~o.fder anda sal di"s},/wothet illnsjration of:th:ei r high lev("Iof pr'ival€-. con S1J.D;tptiQr{~ th;e: Q"'_"'I.Ie;rs~lilYof ~n~~fq~'izc9 v,t'hicks :S:ll.!th W> motor q;d~3~ §lt~h§~~ and cars, .Almo~~[all hrllil"ies have one or' uLore."mowi·cp:!.eS'1a..f scooters ';_ ilhllu a v:~n~lge Q f.;tllJ.J;ost twx)" iJeif.:imilfy. P)'c ~~~ld the W t~ll~, l),\:t).- ~'r,dsof the families have one .01' HJO{e cars, with ag:aoJjr;'~}1 avtr"age of tltmost:.two per -fatnity. Amnrrg them, six. emrl:: pl'eB.e~(Sqw:!~ a: Me~r:6e:de'sa nd" 1"'>'10 ve rl! B1vf\V '. .., ,

~~;W.i;h 'pke~'p'J ace-ill' Solo. of YOFakar~.~ eHhf.< HL a 18~ge~ ,m~rr.i<lg~~al~ h of the h..lx'U~io~J~·tlC~teb. mam reasorrto OIg1mze the (f;;f;ept!On The l'lide Bailll if. W e.ntf;;rtai n. ih(;:uiroiln,. InQsdy ,'J'ut:ii1f{s~~r,cli!Jtedcon [acts ~f.tile iatilHy, Tn it:. pa rt of Ute.,war riJ,£e js thel".€pore: at;t'e:nd{:~{ main leyby

~(]J:)il1

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d

the m.ania;ge isrhe n~.c.er.·· t~(ln,
'. .... .. .

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bo:Sln~5~inenk gq\~.C'rnm~nlof~~~al.~. nd ')'ll.~k.eJ'[JpJoye(;i~ a •. Thepopl1l.arlt.y Io!' NgtU,lizibg t1t-t:milrnxgeser12tnony in rv;:-ostases
r-aWQllg the larger irorr fou'ITikts" in Ba tur ~j.ugment~ the S"\.R~r.'l1 di~.t~nc.e ~Lwten. {ile.econoiT\it ~hte' and 1;he:\paj9f~tY.:or. the vj~bge PO~!Jlatl011- .j 11. e .o~t tnsLanC€!~, Ito lfgn.~po.if~ to Solo .()r \ogf'~kartao ~ 0 rg<1y.ued by thr; ~m·jJv. of t)le ill ~de.or b"r,id,egto( ~rn fa r-p"OQrerrelat ives who.do nO:t h<.L-v~ lo.~elr;))wn n.1~arb.-p.f.~r<n'\-SPb'r.t, The po'uni-r .~~"il.t.h!":(\~ .com.plain tha~ this ~ffmi~1~>lgab"11 slID""" that, a1rhdl~gh they are formally iny.i1~9, ~he''fti.re·not ,u]Jitc:tcd 'hHhb'o/ vp ~.~'thhmore pf:e.~tigiQ'u.~~ p;wto.f the marriage- -r M,NIY {ofthrrn. thet:efor.e, h2:rd4y"e:v~rcftteJ.1d the ltc;.e-pt.i6n ~'anofth em.<!_r,p.a.~e ...ceTe:m:pYi}. (~fthetr l1lotC":we.ilth_yl'eIativcs:, Nihol1$h same react to tJns. 6"tdnsivFj:" by 6diq..l.iifl"lSthe d],~phy-uf ·wealth ;a nil ·$.tatLl"S.··of the larger f:"iro[lh~~r1.d~rs in pri'\';ite mfive-rsil:tfcm.':l, (J.~hers,-ar~ mtabl~ t\:l b.id.e~tn.·ei;dk.appolJ.."Itment"'is hi:hrever the iSsue..i~ .b:r0Qght Up! n soci 31'gathe'l!"illgs, '[l'adi6oua:lly; rhe·ol'ga.nizado.!l of yc/aJ11.i:Ui1F was paimec~ed W 'vt;t:y '~qg~.iGceveng in tbe Hie: c}'cle of fami~y- embers ..Over the. pa-,:it few m Jec::adt~~. th"e-n;:.ilas ht~:n .a.i11angG·~n,(:llhe·h;\ul ~o:und~r$ (if !5:i.\tm ha.v:c 'in.cre'~.$¢"Jhe fr~-quencJ' b[ suchoocasioes t by org3irlizi"urg_,s"(ld1iulJan t"O: . r~1at~g.lJ"(P.tCnew b·~Lsi·1:le~$. {¥',dh1);- 'Ihis practicft ororganjl,ingsel~mm,&ry a~.ilvehic' e, todisp lay,bu:sint.ss s~wtcs;: U iill trr.;l~h~ the mr~.feC9i1t.p'iw" ·.an om. by the.~u·i:;.tpm tt}!;erv"i;:: {'::\;p<;,ni~~ver~.ady-mad6,.snacks: _pn' ~hqs~ (lcca~io~s,It i.~~i~~'()llg1lJhlstJ:seof th G'" n:ad~~ro,i):~J.s~Jl«lN wtatt, 'ana th.€ CQsl:;th}t ate in'vQlveJ~;t~~at ir.on.[QUfl{lm.ofBalur. tl'Y'tr:rp:3ira.de,l:h~jr the eco Darn i.caHr S\1p e.d:of ptJ:sitiO!l and h.r,g}lcr socia! sratus in -«()·11W.L~t to th(i'se who, are netable-to :iHGur~udh e;-;:p'~;l&~Sa:t ~5ucfn~h-ott lriteJvaJ&. Th~ch<).ngc.~ in 'bdtaviQ~lt. tlfid Il1i6hji~t)'of {hefa!TIilles of iron fOU),ldpr.s. i,n Ba 1u 1';~i1~ terms of.b:Ll-sine~~LC(hica ti on, r.e~:~;i;cIi¢nt~;·" CO]Jsurn:pUon.~nd 0d~L<lt .c<:;t'C'n.wn:k~ has oon tri b"\<l to aTJ l"frnft:Jsing ~lcf:t b0~w·~en.tpeln ted and .the btS.e lll<rjQ r.il~r"of the vil Mge p.opnla tion. This' i$,a~s,ovisjh;t~ in , their le.isu.ni'-tim.e ac1:iyitil~0. Reg!~litr O-u~:ii(.g;s CiI:' tp·.rd<Jtir"ves anJ by friend~"i~l So 1(/ and YQ.Q\\:.aka i1t ~he weekend have: b.c'(o'II"re Pt1rt 0.1 the: rla ~~ ...
Y

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following .dong hadi(i(m~ m'H'T~,ige$ ;ilnd 5idmmua.u tCOm:IrI1.ll@ feaSts) ·aJ·eimportan; Qs:;cadoiliifur the t::kher sedicifis ,Vithiu: the hU6'in$i::fl eornrmmii y. (' r"IbtuJ:' hH..1i~.pkty their we·al.N~ enh~ncc"th dr·.sla:[t!1S. F~~p ecially among, thelarger iron fCil.i'i1dcrs En fh,tur h l~ .(mruno~rto'" ¢f'~! e:brate"B'lAHi;£lges of· clrd,d (~n 1ltv kh I}i ~rhJ pfkn~bl tWO -Sta.g~.i~ m~n1a'ge c..eren1O.nYL1SLLa:Uy ta·hs pbce+rll~aWritsdf. Thi~ pa-nof rn~ iT~lge l~.~tt.endl::d by r;;:J ativf~, lTeighb(lUl'~, i1if_Ld 10(HI frLcr.!J~,... fli$ 1

,md

..

"

!ife,s{yle bhloc {tluniJi'f's of:~rQJJf()UNde13 in Bi4tur, Amnfig the y~n;g.~' genen\(Lql1 \}{~l'l:lrf)p'~~nl?!;ll's'; tn 1994,\:her€ Wel'€' ten wno QWR«k"" SUi',tM f.2~4,(·(:if-mad m{j"~orq:e:l~ On wh idi '~h~raVe, rm)l~llrt~ outi~ h in each 'f:lther\,c{~rnpJny ai'lii with othe r yo ~H),g~t.cn:hom Solq, Arilo~ tb.l's g'~-fj..l;~p ,~l<;(j 'be Found, several iron f01..l:ndets who,ocf::i=Lsion,aij can visit night-dubs ~md.taTi\okt b:1lr.s; t!:H~!~e;n:by_cirjes6fY.ogyakar~a;~~ in '0plo.;::() fie!! in the (dmpaw ~}f ther bt:l~'~ncssmen fro m the n:gion" 0 One i.nc::vir.abk result 'of thi,~nJ:0bihty, in' trlisi!1et;..~,l?elfi'Jv.i.~)IJl[ zyti~fI W~sWle <Itn·(-),A.g:~h~ iron fmmdus,LI1. Bat\ll' is thatmQ;stohhe sot~< contacts "of IJH~ entl'~p:-r~ile;u.rs <1"1:H.\ ttl).eit: b.mHy i.l1kmhcrS' 'are wj'tt~ pt':l'U') ns frmn 0 utside the v lllage. I~ i,~ mh~to' fH".l'2·trtre'¢11 tr~prtn~'1.:lld-:M C!n€;~)f!::hevilla,ge;,~lr.ee;b, except in fhe;~r cal' 'eixJkt. 00 thel.nvay hottl~ ;0 r to one Q f thei r f@e~ortbvif~irigs, In gtJ')el'~l,they- s-htw;:hardly
interestie the lives of.t:heii llIe~hboux~ or rcletives, hut ~p\~n~!rr)
:1.
,

rh~l[' time ;if'L 'Rat tJ r 'ffils{de tb;~ir horne Qr'- office, Th~y -dis;pby lack of interest
irn'I?'f,Q';,'erH~nh •.un pubJ,lt:

p'lbe-d,~

in the w;'lf'al'e, qf tn,;': vill;(l:g,'{:'~n4 its p;pulatl?{l, .E'ild~

Q\,,:nt."rS of the hlrg;et h,6'p e'ie.cJdJ;:l,ly'lnt:b

faciliries i'n lsatur \veremosdy jnitiated b.y,ili,'ff ttl i:J n'drk~- fif'lilndaJ xu ppCi.d JrQI11't:\I,'H1.'~~ p'Oli.t~tii~onr:;!tt."oj-rhese'f{)'l.lre:pteneu'L'$ made it p~.65in)e toi'rt:LmJiI~ o

bHng~lo ..... bek~,L1W' ri;' ~(fA~1ai SllYTI¢l,~(.aged 37 in 1,194):" An1t~':i~' t be" (lwne.r of Sm'}A J'mLl:lrfrj',v;tn t:r~ .r-ol~Jtd~y., ~<d 't),\a,s d i:1SLab.hsht;d In 19fEl ,am:,! e'rtlplb}'S tkil~et~(;:l'llab6ur€,f."j' Uu,ring its £kst ye~r~,::.Surya hlt,~u..~trl wa.,<;.J9cal~cIfn j:j rented hU1Jdiflg3n ~~le:(cnlr~~ 01 [!.i.e yiH,,) ~w-- \ l..tha.t ,timt~, An:1S~ rod h i~ f;m~tly were ,Jjying in a smaH " house lth~;t beloJ];ged: to, one ·of h i~r-daJL ves %'ho IMe!recentlv moved to SO!qA In J 087, All<1:; COD structed his mYII [;inol,}, bu j1diDJ[ on l'h(t pi:et.e of land tl%lth( h-ad fnnHit'ed fro m his parents situated ;Ji'(lFJ;gthe Inain C~11:t'(iJKefoad, In ~~l!~[r€~L' he ako added'~ private company trgqin.g In t'"mi'; m,atel'l;lb W h ls ,b nS'l'ne-Ss' ac:t!v'jff-:3~_ Br that ti~ne~I\n:as,,<)n'(l his Wife h.f.(i,tnJ:tie,dlikh::eJ), Ti~eyd.ccidp:J to r~U[~_d.~chcw hC~lJ,~eDf.:'f t01'b.,eir fuCt{)r}' 10 \",hk'h th0r:mQ,\~;ih 1~S'9:;'nt,; Y:1!'~DJec~ turncd into } [,ig, lllX~lJlOJJ~S th:mf.-alowiHid 'is in lll;an}' re.'Spectt' ,i a;l~ph1yof fU'ili,s" r-Qd::ntly dt'ClJlil'in we~hh, When ~<1kht'g the northern entran Cf' n;ea.d~o Ba,):U f,. i1 ij lrnpo~sih'~ net to Nod.:;e i~s whi te'\"'<l,~h~d walls .:1 nd 0nLning roD f tiles ~c~ppedbY'a p.HTab.crJ~"rb,e ,bl~ ll'orqrate. and " ~he, ~Jri '\.<{....,va?ehind it, ...f th ,Ntkln_g space: .for hi 5, T'~M\.\""a nd' TOy.:Ha b i Ki).ang, ?re HYIOfh~r indicmiiolTGf.lhe luxirricus l!f~stvk·oi Ani1rs,"8nd' l~joS, family, This Wtlti~t~0S' inside tlte; house. The bl'Hli~10·"",h,a;fil ~irge Ilvlncg 'rD(Hn 'w(rh all kinds of luxuTY (coB;s[lB'ier'lroods such as a b,b~ 1~<lther touch. a b rge tdev[~io,11 se L, <I. Y ~df.::.o.J'e2·md;i'r, it'..,!<1'.s,ei:disc a[iJ

or 11at ur, One 'offh~sti

th~,vmage;in

l,9,M:,~nd to'i!!sl:'1hah the main

\'illJ:g't'!;Q~~

J'n 19:67 -fiR,: Since thi~' httrs;t,jmpr0V~m~IJ:hin pLl~li\. bt'i1 ~lf:e~hil'l€: , fcw aqd.:fai' between ~(l'!0opiterhe €nor[i~'ou.s.gn)\..tb: in weal t:h witru:U, .' ln~s'i;l~SS. '~rtlrrhLn~ty 'd.url~tgrJl'ls fH:~rio,d, The shift ~n~'est(kl1dt&Way£rom
<

~h;~\lll!a:@!~, ~~ntfe. H~ .. the.' ~~dfly ani.!ab rt iiF of priYlI,ldy 'in~t{lll,~S1~V~ d P1.:rrt'tp);among the :nche[t~[I{repre~l'enAij of Bann:, ~u:~p-a;ft ly H~5pons]lIl~il for thbhckof (Jont~rn'tor tl1~ (lU~liWQf 111:ci'tHag·e:ma&~ ,1Ued' th~{$-~ \ ~ha(,did. noth,l~ve, its ow'O p ~p,ed:'0I<1~~'r'~;(~te~n, Kf~Yms tha t over the ye'a§.-S;r. the ~con01nic 'Ytlcxess <lnd S'ocialmub ilfi:yha V{;~Ilgelldf'i);i;;'da sUF~' lqcd,l 'od¢ntrtt~:6iT a~~<1 .r~giQ:mli bei).l1viC)l1r'~nwng m.any 'Of Uw ' f(lUnd~Tf; in Bilitur, wJ,kb, deilJl". sc;ts (h~:t11:;qxrrr'B'om the m<i~0tJhe viU'Jge pOPlllii.(l.:OTI, as ~S':d}OWi'l l.n'the fd~nwjng Cil'S,e., ~tu&y.
. . Y(;

~rcorn PY!l;t dhc lilay.eLTh,e:I;~us~ also contains:~"' rnVJq:ern kit,ch~l;' at rh~ h\,;::k aud [(')kl t bcd,~)·~dn~~:~ ~h-e..mWi th Ml1 H~.fu,tTtli,;lN:Jen fU ife h}I'o+ ball-iWfH11 with r,iJnning'\'r'dtte'r'fhH:i1' a ptiva-~fl'lymst(1iUed '",,'n'kr p~mp_ To 1;Q,oik~herth~,daily ruE~ning ofr\Re hOll,~ehokl, Anassnd I~is wift 'l':mpby Hhll r fe1:vanrs. Three of ~heB~'l';;Ihcl:l'R' of th q:i'ea ning, w.'l_sh~ng.. anq cooking, while the fourth one looks after thdr ~Ml..mgest (hih:t
1 neuse, T'", 1-5,l~ve1'L ms. nWrl'

!)'lrring the d~y"there

,1tr~.therefore SO'

·'h" re momi n_g~\!heil; lh~ drl:V·it'r CO['n~li to mt

,1h~"lYS people ttl 'fflJtL 1m;dJ1d their

th ateven

~n.19;94 B.itL1 r was

sun among

these .villagesin KhHen di~,ttr~

Cka:l.ltit{! '(~HS in the fwnl yard before A]i.1'~ setsout dEl;, ne oLhis, o t Lld[ie~~q-[P%, l(tJ!'(L'.L1g. m~j_tt d,"J,p qf lhew.e~t;,)\J~~.$. is, npt in qiltnr 1u1'd ,nlll}? ~}(1,'afi niLli)' i~he: W '~,A~U11d ) n hldd Gwr:y. At !e\iJst r(~urcf~:vs ~ 1I'l'6ek, iei .Al:l~~S'travels 10 'ltt'sfi ri~rtj'tH~'~ (ly~ r ,Centr,t,j Jrrd t:~st l~'~~~'f.o all. ,s~~J.re: .k',w ci ,~1 :'ll1t~lQ ~oncct. f~}·mt:l;t~ for ,goods deli~e ~~:i'OC(ils)'onai]y] ~h 11t, fI je~' W J abtrta and 0 Lhcr m.aJor, ,d tk~~in h1do,nesia to Y1i,~X(l the, Qflict'iSof .~: il_atiowd ',conglomerate o.r rnuttliicip,al co:rpo·t.'ltion, In

geueral, hLj;daih·' -(here Jrequik' a n~!D.1bel' n(nc\\1~y c.()n.~th;l(,tcdbungn16t'r.-s '81'OHR:fdt1 the m,tlJ1 't'ni,r;tnc{' ~'fd ITPrn th~Yogy;,lka[~~.-Sijl0 hfgh",.,.:af to t}u::"</ill;a~&~

nW

~ine ,1S fA rl'lcr

CT r<l"ti.c.

Ou -st'J,r('mloo..',\'~i:ton~~ vJhm

"[ vhitcd htD.l a:t'h6Filein t!wT),rotning he' .recd\J~'K1.a phol1e.ulll fro'~l 0.n (!, (if Ms- buslIlt'S$ ~ls,s,xiak); oy dient< ,H\J W~ -:;ubse-qcuen,tly lOlHl'd bu r$c?J'"'es h\ i!) i\e 0 f L,ht JllI,iror ~.,ltLis: 9f'Cefl'p',ll J 1Y'.'li{1. dw ,d1::t',.fl100U.

\l\rh~m::~vel A flllSjS in B~t:Llt ~u6Dg d ;rh~~~hndl he-likes to go eounrrv motor-cycling on ~illld'l':rw'lth S\(1IIllC his Fr~ends[:rto. of

;~T_./\SSAND,RBWGj,ON .All irnpotlgm char::actcdstic of the business uehaviotu of lh~ iron JC!und US 1)1:·13<1. ·lVls·l)eert the. estalYli5'!:u:nenl 01:·· rg~·niza:tion,s 16 lake tur o

Por

[his,he LOtlghL.a-,$uzuki
then..

nm~' ~ nil

!2Sc.coff~rG)aJ motorcycle jn ]9~tl their mQt.qr~~p:;;..le ·mHing is .part of a fam i~yp~CI(

wh,f"h dlElir.wives·-and·'ChHdren are a:l$o·.inviil:cd" -, O·ne ofH~(;.famnitS"lhli;t"oft~·lnal;.(,::;;.p:m t111;hesf' l:;i.~:IIi(-cl1rtJ.~ ; cycle outlngs·1s the' (an1·j Ir,0tAp.1s 'f.Iawmm (aged 39 in 1-9941. abo origin:8"tes·horn Batur and with his ·younger, 'h rother, he· own~r;·fan iml! [ound.rr in the~':iUage in wl~~c'h some ):"2:bbour:~; tmpl(~y(l'(l In ]'988) he Tn.Qvel"'l lei Solo widt hill :flm~rr•. \'Vhe'H ·l~ ~sked:" himwhy they Lad nh;wed m:n of Eatut, h~'·.a]J\weri:'&
WI; lj.'f.nl
I~~

dre

Df tlicrr. (4) nomic' interests. Al though even

ill the lSicilOshere w.r:;.re t the. larger

·~ifell,dy some forms or ecq.nornic

~.o-~rei~ati_9Fi between

:;.010 In(li~'!y for;

A~Vjawt:d o!,~.. ¥.mrio~J :h yery r

p'1'l): !1d.n1lp .il!IJX j11Sf J,qc JiI~,b.f~~'r.r· W)I' fer;llikIJ, nd 1:& N(fI JD 11J S(l[lt Hft""~.(It ·Sc.ll&ti,&. # ~hi/drHI [1t!]!}1 db:ie!iIT~ ~':/mi,;w11b/ "tn~y ~<iJ!11p[e.#~,their ·.edl:IC(il hOff aMf Tf(;~fIin r.t1n:rIYJf<' ilJttJ_'iTjjoorJ HI:)il~r9it)' i r1 £Q1'1/~1' hityaka rffl. $ y~T, nJYlm'hl~r's·s.on ha:i,ik~).I.:ie,ttl·~i(~'Jldi.tTidli~.\,-'hpd, Rr~jablg,~·o. hr· srq.ys·wirlJ~:s "dllr1r)w Ihh~k·,' . . .,
r•

nfl.~edNa, trO'J1 wi IJ) Ixr chUd:re7'l.. .1~1lja! low, Th~·U~H:(~!'T~are ·n~t wdi quaU' tU"I<':"Juio1"1.W di'5Piplhie, cm,d tbe, fbil,.ke:rl' are o!rel1 ,alh;,w!t~
p

~u5iM1lSme"n~ the First. two Q:i'gahiie~l interei.~ gr'Diup:s arnoug the irtdl ·fJ.'i'unofJr£ a:fl1atur.were;established in the ill'St dec~de.a~erihde(pemlence .. -Following the i~[r,t')dl'l.ct!(H1 bftfle,nlad1ii1e-~per.~:t'ed kQt)da f~!fnJce. ~Jl,19 Ht~rt~ ,,~:cn;: we hav.e, seen, m~l~ !copti/a furnaces in ·.IJaf nr in 31; ,.as 1'938.,(}[ which e]'sh~:Wcre privately owned. This had akf~dy resulted '

i~an)niLbtivt afnu.i.'S these p:bv<i.1;e i~o11 iOl1Jmters W $ifit 1).~.{L b~y:e&'~' ,(:on1Jbine/'l!h~production process olthe-kotwl:a. furnace, .compared to
.thJit n;fthe hes6.lli fin::-.placc,. needed a.larger amount' ofi:av..' m,nerials (Inc! ~"i{h"(u~f4r(~p!4clfig d~ arcosl as tucLth.ey lieeded ;r kind ·.011<jwlilil1tedJ] t~ley had nf<<e~dealt w.ithbi::fore, Tojoi~n forces to face theunknown, th.e'; b~Jr:~T8' tQmhin<ffJOp.ct8:si B/tTUK·tBJhrAn· IJ.umgmr RaKjat~l...~r.i;,i JUJkTi,ri I;Qured by the peopld wa.s . officially esw:bhsh.@d on 1 May
19;5-&,:aIt.n9V.Sn,

Anas' vie\-';' on ~hoS .stand ard .0 f ed ncatton Is simiktr to tlwt of l'iiM fi~~,encl Ag,1,]!). 19% he sen ~his ]'0 unges t SOn l() .l ptn·rJok pe.~a'rlt-ne#'l~~ In ~;ast J'1;\'.j, ReUgious mo live$ seerued .bj!relf~O·have·played .a role 1,1)·. choiee. AI1a..~.j~,not kn~wll in trte'>'ill'<lge fo"t his rdiguou$· hehaviour the CC)]1tmry, he has ,1 n:put.ation of Lilil'l.g l{J:aniLc I'Ubl"t"1,'<1J;di.n.g d~' ,ntd fastiNg ligl1l~Y. Oil $C"\·uah.d· hik~\l~tne#trips Alj~:S.invited hU¥e a b~:C"rlIi :3: hu) .,."hfle h_e:dht not mlj>£l.t'atl~rg d,L,L~ing th,e-·fu mnn~h 1;n 4 ~estal,.H',m~ tiuJJ~rg_.J1yli~1i(;; jI1,he·was,~t.a·sat~di~w~;c.e J}atw a~.th~1.linw. \-Vhi"!'I,1rne] him in 1996 flOes~lted th''l.the had s ' " )o'olJ~Jge~t .tofl· iwtuio.k Ifei4m~thto provide l;im~"rth:~bettIT~dl!lc ~n . 1l1:l~ to h~wc.:dl&dpJi i~'q.iIi,SitiHid upion }r[l])-·;vVh'~l T' <\sk¢d hi.Hi,w~t ~Iift

~

had r.ro.hdi6s{n·w rrteveto, Sht'(l like hiS fde~~d Agus,h~ r,C:pil(.;ch·
I d~ Illl ve Y£JJNJgitf!i'liiltlT ,'ilqe Ag;IS "dlO, cai.(/f}Qk "!F(fr tiH~fil(t()_rj! l'/ [ !hi£! i.1~ S'9i(L [h,.,'1!"~ w. sr~f tJfar rrilfa"cf0ry 1!~!!df!1~do b~'a:He!n ~gJ!~;idy.wnri(s,goiJ'1g.1J<J1,.1~1~'H;4il! f<?hs.o.f! ·r:ht..!J 1~~ m¢v~ t() ,h~5 if1.mti~tl 'Ii th~ r rliere l-l-a,$ n& h;m"~~~J(I~ it[ :~Ile'i'i!i4ge. Bw j ,Im~f~~ £h~t ·alj .a4@ , ~ Sl!y rldwn t~¥f' i~tk(~twe Nr~ 110 11J<rr_zar c&I:>!m~ lEy y~\il"j ~!y 11~,-itlir~.:u/;i1'l1 rda.ti11e:;fI..:r,0 11~~j S()m~jirr.dnda! hdp &r'tupp&H; fu'u t1J rl,l lil1h"!aar I mtfCil.b'ism.);r (foi1am:;,i~1 crisE) has qffr-cted 1ht !il,f; ·~f m6~!· pMJp!1r itT B,;])j1lJ;& l·Ve fed 5m:r}f,9Nh~Jr,', 1)fJ{Wf.C1l1~'.1 d,1 11'1 lAb- dwvrit. By Ii~!ifrg here,.(J~tsiiie'" the JJW~g~\ Wl~ flJ:1! (,'tl~15t ,~o~·CCi!J#,~ntl}'.b(]lh ~red /)y-.dleir jJn;ihlt1#S ..

t.a~ f

ni1l'~

The:inain'·IKtl'i"1t)"'pf :K(~opt:f~s.i ~ATUR wa-s ,w p'm\::hase hullr coke. and pig ir.un~ w h id,r ,va,) then sold to· its members, 1~he.lll05t prominent pos~lions 0 n rl'l e..::b.qru:doi d;l r-eClorkiof this prg;aniz<lt'ioH'were occupied by the owner ... of the dght priyaL~ k.(~pulaTh'tmaces, who l',,:er~:\mQ'b.~} s i t heweqhb~e.;;t f~mi li~S in' t'}] e ~;llage-';J.l IlMl·riIne. Besides these directors i and lheir 11~ilrrelati Wii,J h1CE:mfjer'~hip of th.~~ lj'LlFci's-':tom bitlfGQhsisted those Hl'l<llkr broO:l~!~ wb(j w!::r£L~'~)$·d}' related to these 'families .. Most of these members "WeJ'~fo.lh:")w('T~ of the more modern 'trend in ls!~in"and p~'e.f:err~ p~ihli(:l;:.ho.Jl;~ Id~mk M.llld60r~for their ~till.d s t(l ven. MalW ofthcmwerestroug Sl!Pptlftt'f.6 of the Ma$jumi~ a p~"j~tica1.parrY of rdor.tittst Muslims ,thal wtJ:i l<);t~r anned by H~·~ b Jndrrneslan govern~ ,.' ment In ]960, In the 1955 .gen~raLel~ctiions, the nmnlel ef:Bi\tul··\X,L~· th eTf3fdre rna rked wr Masj umi-donri nated. 0 :Ceci"g~.,~phita)ly, th.e u·pper ~~b.tlHh ·of JJ,afur'$b.uslne{s elite· in. the'·.' rg5{J~- who· OWrl~(le~ght0f the nine k(lp~lla ftH:'IJ't(;e~'i- o6ginaW·d jJ·om.· the r~D tr~l ~l~d .:'-;jt;~~rn.J,a l't 0 f -the- h~, kt. m n inth ~wpula; f]..H'nayc .thah~sw<D![l~ing·n lkl-t~l-r in! 958 .WH'5 .loca.ted-on i [he ~{)j;der of c€tll.ral.and west B~tur :&no was owned· by fumiti~ mocS;to(whi,ch

it had alread y b0~n Hcti\\-;l for semeyears

pdor.

to that.

or

-:-

'lr~

in the ~~{;£ter~1- .of the .l1':HI~}e5. This krrp.rd(l hir:l~ite; ~:;arr ())n,,'~'.r:gcd di.~p(lt~ !..lwolved the two .co-Opt'1<ll.L'''"efja6~t.les, I~~bwht.il thalt waS;the-second one to. ~e established in Batur, qekmged to it, 00;:' iug a tug~of.~'imTbN\1~cn the boa-rd memp~rr ·of K().Qp~·.m~i .Pr:asQdjQ operatiye socicry byJh:e nsme 'Q("Koo-pe~sL P,asodj.o,. The: ma1n Lnltbt ~,r:tdK60rkraBi BATUR ®y_cr whQ wO,ldd l~c-t~i$ mair; host'd u:riniil'"the v0it and Ilicn1hct~~of th~ boa rd; f."J t; clL;rertms of 'lh~rCo~(iPer{i!t-iie?odet~: .. , ED Batur of the former vitt"vr:e~fdem ni"Jndouesia, Hi\ttir,j!'l"'Sept~rr:lber smaU h(ok;£',$ who 'W~l;e, at tha Lti me, not ~iMe h) sec-cure i he·.J."~U~ ]'9 58/,the}l.n~nhol1: of tire Jftod .g9Yel.1J J1ljx.t 'of Klat~A dislr.ic~ was )lr a;w 11 flow of6rJ.e:rs, ~!ra.twO!:,.ll,d;r.rmk.e :t!;lepdWlt~ Q\'<W;,g'!.tliV bf it k0i)nlctflMT1.a~ to l~ie:.e¥i,£{dH::Cf two ·~'imilar co-operative societies in on-~\image, o econ omi(aHy viable, ·ll.54 result, In f9-53~54 these .f;jm·ilies decided .ttl': ~bll:tet!~iffgwhich· Wa~ fOTbi·ddelI bY~<iw; .Arrer rh.c~r'n2'gu~aJ:ity·v.~iis join t;ogeth6r-l~}constl"hH rheir own :kopT! ltl- furnace in the fron t Y:ll;nl hlVe.s[i,g~i1:e4J.rhe laca.i ,goye611nent decided in faV()Llr nfthf Kao-pe"-rasi qfom~ of their members, P·?f that purpese they. eit<fIPIishec\Kq9.PGf~ Pr.aw£1j(:_)'1 on the grounds 1:'hat it wa." the r,irs'l-rG:gj,stemd co-cperarive Prasodjo, which was kii ned by several other :rumEHes of small b.rOke.lt:. sl}"Ciely of tl1e·rWOjand :s;tJb.seqU"en~ltto;r(kr¥~i·~he\:1q~ulS of K.o,qpera,",>j Vlhe,neve:r iTt rnembe:r;s haG. (,ollectCd SLlllic!.eilt n.f:ilcr~ h:t ,b:m::p:r:9dtH;~~p, HATUit Protests by th·e board I·r(gmb~r-s..()f K"0opet'asi . BArUR, whQ process, (hi'r would (jperi!J.~e rh~~~r:{)- jper.at.ivf:'" kopulCl ~~rl'l~kt) flJr wh~ (C "arg ued tha 1" t<ht two (I~·gau1,zati.~mWere .(}t'<I 'd ifferem or-der - O!'i1Cr'hell1 g s they cllarg.ede1lcn p~trtic,ipar:lt ~ln .~!m:('lli:ntp:er kik'l"l!;l:~m,oJ 1,1'lo-heni1:~~ ·'aj~m4·ucli6n b"j-Qp'h~d'ive,'the·otheq b'Ll.yer.stqo.~hl~lnc - wen~ in vain. :f£t, the' fJ;;td o.f tJW "J95P~.'.<ll1.Hj£01~·iJpm be~n to ·btl~M."l!ph~:tw~e,I~:t~b1 TD ] 9.ffl2.f0s'n:pc;nl'5i 13A:l·.Ug was o"Eiic.i"-'iUy·disrm.wHed·.i).nclsuQCeeded by ti.!?~ginah:d
W~!~l

pWlnment

members

of Kooperasi Erasoo1Jo an.d Kooperasi BA1'll~

S~:ef9J ·of the board ..members (if KQ.opeJ.'.<I.s,iPr,~,~GdfQ .~·l1aHel}ged legihmaq'·Of ih~ bi1Sin~ss"~J.ICct:SS. rhe'.p:~omil:"iCErt [~.[~liht&~)f'"~fu, ,

or

an ;bso chtlnn wJtbJ the name ofGP3T ~Gabun~iH'l Pen gp$,~ &. Perusaha ba~n Ped~hil'Hl1)Qr: A..s~0dMlOJLdf iron f.o~m(kV-j,®d iW[l f()undr~es}< ,A!thoug~
]fl.

BATUR They chimed rha t these fammc~'"OWL"',J t hefr· weah h to th,f£lt

that rhr;::yhad:~pprorittaL¢4' w.dbf)Jq;Porti~).cf~lltd}i~m:g~~b;li'~~()nhe
milk that d~·QLllcJ have be(;tH· ~ pan of thenbusiness.aseets,

$1Dj.~

Th~,.,€ fed.lugs of an ta gOli-i~n1l between the b 0': rd memb Pm\;;~d5a @nd ·Ko?perils~B/\fmi arose Trot ~nly fi'oill . eoouomie -diffenm:ces between ramdlfrs~ rlievalao mlnd.ded -with euces ill. i'e1LgiolES orientatlon, We ha'),l,tdhc~.~y s(:en that m~st men'lb~rs of I\QIQPoi;·['a;;LBKFUR, wh0se'h:mili·q ofi:.sJ.nated frO central and e-M:Urn plrrL: .0 f th~· h~n;11 belonged ~I, tp.e mteg i~fo.rrni,jt ~lU$Ii1·TI.$- «lid }V€t'_e. ~.~ron~:s'npp~metS" the ·MaSj1Jl:J.i.,~'f, of of the'members of Kooperasi P.rasod}e;,on the eith~r ·hand, we.re+oJJ(~$~{li (If 1~In'Ec o..rthodQxy, 1.11 contrasr to" trrem.enilp:ct,~ Q~·K(,').opt:'r:a;s~B it ·W<4S.rnore CQl1(1!)JO n amo i~'8 the r.nc:,mhq$. of [(oopef'l'.o:;j Pf::~s. sendtheir d~ adre:[l to p(mdi~k P(i;,'ill~; t·n"11 in ·t<iltt· and {:·emra t heir ~c.tlLrca,ti(~(Lt~. $ ther·e:f~)l.;e riC. ,coinc:id ~llte til iit it w;as in: 1 of the hamlet, the We5~er.n side of Batur, that ·~he· fi.r.~~unOMlJUe· viU~g.e'i.'8s bu ih in the :L9?Cls. At the ,end of the 19 5.(lsthcs~ s(l:t.io ~con0 rni,c. polilk,ll·<JrilJ Ni· dtlt~tences WilhlU thl2: uppet ~trJihJ.\nl·Qf the l;msj;n~s~ {,vmnmnJ.!y@
K,O(ptr<l,s).

assets, <l¢"tiVities.?nd mbnb6:':$' oftn~ bO<)i~ 9f directors tifGPH w£t~. '~a.(tt]y .~h~ a.s~ho~@of.:k~}·op~ra8i 3ArbR - this d isputc l fl L'£tils~lted 1 thc·lc0ring;~ Of~Jf~tilJ50{1!i~m betweentheprominent f1tembeq; at the

prarsical terms nMhin:g. ~eemed FO· heve changed - the

r~m;

·tW() [H_"I:Lons:within ..U~itit:fs business

e!.h'"e;:fccling,,!-. thet would

surface

to

7

a.gnin 'in..a similar .setringin the early l 970:7.'., The: diillige tn,~~.('Jlil(:)logyjn:the·eady 196Wkd to il, de~)indn Hie· :'aclivities of both Koo;pem,'l'i J)·m~od}o ilnd Kooperasi BATURjC·W 3T. The inlrbdutt~oJJ of L:fH;'·sm,j,I.I;ol;T tNngkik "fun:liLCe Piwed. :the wX>'fOr- :3•. widening ('if in (h.btrl·aJ own~l.sJlip:..Wi th ,mat)r fanli! fe,~qWrlinIl; rL'lr.!)1.lCe1}; tthrtneed for a PfCi(fuction co-operative was. ohV~iL1:0(1. N(~.wbbso.!.~~e, th~ !;(/operasi _iFfaso djd. l:tCfB.nr~ .L [l'~tti 'if f~·(),m ~M 11.'lljd~196{h, ·Tlj>e. ;Same h:a.PP:&H6cilQ Ko0pera$.i BATUWGP"J. The increase-in industrial ;tll(j(runion ();penttd 1,] p.P(j&;~~bili ((Jrpdv<Ut:: trsders in. ra ~ymatetjjal,s~ ties ·'~eVefi\lof ~hp.lu:!loy,;';ly::rd<l.te·~· the i~lrti~rotsif"K()Qpe!,j~~i j,ATUN! to r I iG!/:h': (l;".)mequ.endy;: the buy.ers'coruhfEw Gl).~rrHl~o ih purpose: lost ,and its m;trket hJrlwl. aad b eca (fie ii, t(fmn/m torg_.aniia ti.0J;:L llri";)'stal'e cl QrgaJli~.aljona.l jn.acth,.ttr ·aJ.'NiQ11g the iron f.(HllJ.d~rs o( l'1atu r lasted unta tb e t.~rlY 197{15 ,.D'j.fhirg those: J;"e<lJ$, the]l'Idonesla:n ~gD"''t:miJl~n t u::rrhsed hj;' ;,millgn~·s~ fa,donale- n"eW1fil+,ish~·n~thil'1dy !

to the ~)lI;~in2ss':c9n~m.\:l~:!it,y~'jfiMitl,1i",'(O'fl,raw up fUlt.h¢;:-""(:letaild~ t.iri& propos<lJ,,~.u'id.partitula.dy toser Up.,ul"Of.ganizilJtiCill to-manage th~ machines JiftA'h~~J by the gQtllfTI7i!D ent ,. ;f committee Q f local entr '. pn",u-cuI'S~~"?iHe~1101 l\der lh€ name qf'TeO)nl P.Htisip.asi Err\ycy Ptqa1f' 1u kerntesiltl'ln lbt(.rr~ five ofth~ seven sears OMdt~~prepa,t~ttm'fc(mjr.n~ttee. . wen~ ('Kcu~~ie[! by n#mbers 'M the b"DtJrd 'of 9.iTtcLor:i tyf KOpptl:~f HATUPJGf'3I' and Koope.r1lr,~!'Pn.'l~'<Odjo.. Du·r~n.g ~e'(i.f;:rj;l. m.t-nings.·&ti the'. committee in J 975. and. 1Q76 .tbe~··we:fi S'trQA_g &i:fft:X~J.;i;c::escif op.i:rJ.i(llJ.l, about the for m 0 f' prga.n~t:rl ~:i.~).n be ·s,;;;tup, To ,v.g;pea rextent thi'S ttl I.:Hv.iskmwhhf[~Lthctommitl:e'e'wlJ owed' the division between the It\em~ ci f Koo_pe ra~f n,AT.u R!<:!]>3T~ ,·,110 ,h:rgued in ~vom: ~(}t:n -,l~fo::::i~\I:[qa1 ar ~nd IbO$e '{]If theKooperasi Pra:sog)o, who ;adV()CavN.f.a. co·ope,ati~ ~tructu ff;:':'. \Vith rhe.sllp'pon o;flho~e farn i~ .v:n0hiJ.:.d Il:Ct:t ,b.~tj;<lJl1{:):!i [t's' the'1)r-bm'iuen~, entrepreneurs !,ILtirel9'SQ, all d .foUb~""~n;g prdneQ~ the ofrhe hC'aLauthQ6ties for aw"opcHlittVe '~(DGiet.y,a co-operative structu t v.~l'l'o:po.sed Iri the fi('Ldl fr.']~q.rty:r:the prf:p~l\~;l~ty c\:in-rmj~tee) wht~ 't~m submtued IQ the ~QWrJiJ.OTof Kl;J ten, 11'):.t.~ne W 1ih HlL'S'repoi~ Kope'(;]~~! PUi;at p.t:'rrnt~Jm:f1"!P:en;ge:rjaan Logajn~]3attwJ~ya~)or trIdlifiti)..{l ~~~el"Mal)[·!f~.ctudng' C;oopl.!!;at'L1vc Bfirur J~1\t.W8K OlJlci.~l~ty frt<thMib~~ in 1976. }<o:t:"aee it ofYer·ed the 'iin !~<;,h~ inmprod ucts-and d ivide~ f ng}>f .gO'i.:er.lu:ni:n rcentraets and '6rd~T-$fr6.r:n prh~,~t~p:lllrpimi~.B .~mo~~g~f& members, Over the rears, It n.1l',;~iYJ~d several national aW,'(:fds.EH,th~ field of industrial co"operat~Lm. 5tJ.rting with. 67 .n)er.l:lb;t.·r'~ 1~71~ 'in I~~,~nlber:shp .0'.1 the ,(O':c;i,perative' ~pdCty, Ba.tut J-aya,.l n,(r~as~'dto 1 in l?hHj aniUo l57 it::! 19-94.. T'h~ ·e..,tib1ig.Jim~nt oj this, r:l.CW c;o"-(')pr:;:ratl",e $q~;i~f,y, Bat~lf 1'il. . indicated an, unequivocal cb<'t.nge jJ1 the bela.nee 0'£ PQW.e;!' wirhi: bl~sineisscommw'l~ty. On lh~;>1("11;ol'S;-\he balance of p()w¢:r~"'ir..h~.n upptr ~lmtLlm of the business :COmmunitY?f Barur ~';'I'Mt~d fr.():m'tb."f, n1e.tl~beJSOrK()Op~'[:aSiBA1I.'1JR/GP3T to a coaJitin(j bE.\t..t""ef'lthe n}emt~ .·bY .Pra1ocij(}' ilJ..ldse~ral n~ri;:tn~ ~gln'g "~pl,:en~uri;l.l f<tlnih~ys~ €nt 9f Whonl.h~d~cruplllQ u.s·!}' t. bb emsel ves outside. the power str bp between KGope.ra.<:i BATl J H/G P .If ~lJ:d .Kb9Pe.tasi mW}d:j_{L This. Oi3!itl~ . ,do m.iil,at:cf'! the lir~tir-$aeJ bo~ rds fof dire:~(tjis (Jf ~n nfw co~ 0 p :' ' f! ~ociety> RaL.ur'}aY;l. 'Many,"of their tam.aicshad b{~rrf.'~ted [rtf e:xp'ansiqn .o.fiL\ldusn~.tJJ devdopHlent iii th.~. 19608 <:Illq h~d i.

YrAi

p~'i-Lofth;CLf Cj!pJ;t<Jli1 tir!':,;Cxlens'iQti'bfth.ei,r pt-qd:v(;tion pa.pin;:ity aad i 1l1S."0~1ine ry [Qr finishing, Their .econon) ic rise elso set a d'!ift iil~lsl.~ ,Political b;l1<'luc:e·~t t!t0 local kv(',l i.n ni(M~m, While th'i!: te.£m.:rtl.Lst i-1asjumi F<1tly-ci'ow:irw.I{,"'J·lh:e 'V~llagf;:in the 19$bs,j;~ the f:arly 191D..-; rhc.Nahdatul U~an~~'{NU), a poli6qil partyof orthodo« Nh~,~lims,<gillm::q' !l TT.t,~jOtity.iJi the l/ma.~t'.·:·l:(,;·\;jl}g WP11' alee. ;.;~.pp()tt dfJuerobertDf'th!': [) « business ~ljte who even in I 99'g still forrm::d an important part M e H~local execut !\'e boa nts, Thli att~v:tbe~ ~f the ne.w. L'o-operNti~'e ~0cietv, B-at'LI.r Jt\:Y'~" have therttf(JH\ been dO£ely related Lwthe J.~~j(ofa new .&:tl~t'rath-) n q.:f iru,J,l f()lmd'ers. whoh,W(l{:n~:etged rr(wil f<fmilies r~-a't were t)(f;E::":()n(Ll~~nt in ~hc 1.9~(}~,bl[twh:o:w~n,:,aht{;to climb tG.thdopmn.g ofth.e indu·sttia.1 .olUll1l.lmi1Y'Gif Barurbetween.the l,att I9.9tls arl.ll.itl the:.l97©s, This aFo. rnld.t.;"!t:-l',s;tltt:CS:~~de.p:~l;dent in ttl; imrf!'ed{1!t~,intcr~fs o.ftbis g-taup 'C ef ~lllr('pr~n<;:u~. ThiS-is de<ldy\~cen 1['[, positiOll'i)hl:H:lkman of the the oq;:lnl'riltio,[l-, Betweerr 1'1'76 tn1d 1994, '~h:iSvosit~Qrr 'j.\~~'odHF'i.ed'by twt) large :entr{\pren,eurs, both' 'of whom belonged to the up;w,m::liy mobile irOH,t(jl1ndcr~ of l)iltklr. After ha:.vjt~Kl?cc,tl!n:i)ti,,\,r~r ftlr:<1uno~.t ftinrt'ee'll'yep.~\ th,t: t~'r$tcb:<1"'um.an ,~;a),~ 'pefc9 ~ed in r he el-eo<:tion.iil .J.$I90. AlthQugh ,';G:ver<tl 'fi\'.t<ni'lles. (lccused-rhls tL:rt~ chai{l1l<m of havi11g abused hi·s p,0wer byh,,"Quxtl:!g,.liis own· ¢nt:erprLe-, and thOSi(of his t;k;ise r:eb.c.iw~. when djstril)ut!ng on.k:r~ <1mfHlg cc-operative's.members, the h(, alr-e.ady·seemed to kH,i~ lostinrerest in the or:g.~lnizal~n"having bC ;'\.H'l.l(£ i:o,ta.H.y p tdfC.~'l~vi~d w~ h~-5b]is'i"ilC$S activit i~)L t the ~()tionaJ .aml iE.~Wn)'H~Q]]al levels, 'He Was nor alone in. ~'hi'5.A similar less in terest irf th e ;~0~'&pt'1a:~i'le" .. ·.sh,ow[)..b)" -rn osr @f the Isrger iron ... ~ b fnu.nder.~ of.' B<l(ur, who ,lndic;Hc'd in.- 1994 that ·they were no' .longer keen do p.h.y.i.ng nil a~nlve rok if:! the Qtg,miza~i6n, They BEtted, .tb'e!.t they ~li~ not n~ed. lh ¢. 0-'!l ppox~ of the' co-eperative SQcjc,t >' ~int-e ther ha.d their own machines f~rfinf5Ihir'l.:g· &[1;('[ Wr:re 'I'lble te) .'i~~un·~ a.·suhJ:tie:ra :~ll.lfn.h~'[ orders ljit6ugh private cont~tt~.As intere'st ..9h;~ir~tril wtth qf : the W~'lni.ng of 3!dVafltages to b,€ ,g~.ine.cl,the biwnnual dectju~l to the ~o"'ld of directors ~HlJo,1:h~r iD~e!'ings p<l'gan.,fl¢'db;y t,he,",·6,·opera.t1M6 Sti(kt X,;,jere po or:ly ,(].:I, t'end eJ. I ~~i9~1, t:he second ch,jirman of l3,;_a;tor J"'y.1 'steprmd dow;((. <lttel' .onl.v :four wars, ~ndi.L{!tingdrar he,c.ould 11@ ICoNge( S'ti(~nclthe til'ne reqWfed by l:h;? po~itim'l,·.Aldwugn dWQ6idaj
in
f

tn

or

.
(l1;Ctriber'.Sh~p wa.~ )l lRl1t~ time 157,j~Ql,:.niCJr~than 54

'

en terprises In 1994·-:. $,;;- ou t. of lllt' 155- turned co- til"ltfJ fj,q~ $p(idy'" l~atu:r J aya_;::

GU

no be .mJ':mbel's

pCT<cent

pfnt.·
Q.t&

A.Ldi~ll~gh the tr.Ql1 fihmd'f!'~~_h~.d h~Fdly~n'!:iil\lci~stn. the \l.'CtivltiJi· i of the CG"operatiVif'-S"O'C:l<HY Ba.tmjaY'l in 19!94).$(:":,,'"ertl.! of thc-Iarge:e u'ltrepf:eTlcqr;S i\h:~i'l:dy saw'-il' a~.,.. need fP'f ~:allribr'nr~i~~,nat l1bt tir,u~ h~ ISl9'?,.lhey of&iaUr requesredrhe.Iccal oftiLZ oCthe dt1l~Jtnlenf9~ inJu~~lry ~Q make out ~ case 'al the uaticnal le:vel to' ¢st;thl.j;sh~~ !llh(,)t~N.M'ck tqtiltg:Lh:e .hanirri'@'~ 0 Cm;ctal.p.r.o d ucts man u.fa(t:lWelj. for Batur. §u(h ,~local fadli)tr atwh-kh the hardness of metalcould b~ te.3tf::d i!;!mainly'J.J.J. the .inter.e$t of tn,€: laTgef t~nlni'p[erl¢.ll(S, WftQ 'P.rt' able~iQ.produce wIth AQP~llaJL~rnJI(eS wh.a intend tf)f~',t upd~G:tri~ or induction fu~·naa=."S;, fo.tv.'hidl ibm of them indeed dkeady 1;iLd ach'anu,et pl~nA ·J.t tlta t time. '\Vid'l' dte:s~ ~co.l1sl,del'ati'olls hi tIl ind, in. 1"9~~~~ l·here '~,,'erC- tt[~,cussions within the upper stratum of .rhe bus.iHe:SS ... r~1inJm,unity 1i.bqut wb¢th~r 'LQ"'~ft;~iva"te thif:·.co~opetative soci~t1 Bfl~.:iJ:!i. Ja}'-i\ q:J' wh-rtbeJ' to set up OJ .o:;,i;.';rarat~, parfly,-gOYernm.ent-ct?ntrdrlJ.all institution to run such ~ l;1DoQfory- ]'1:1 'fht: ·end they dec~(h::d 01'111# sep·8.r:a)e lnsti-rnti"Q,n ~s they had 10:1 all G(;mfid"e'~lCe in the 11;l;aP:i1g~rh-t

ili~

All the. owners .of th.e .155irf>O fOUIlJ.dt:~ ir.L llatUTRre··Musi.im.'l and ji~<Wly of them.' '0OLllJ b~ c.:.aHed !f(lnlrl1\l~!,~Unl~,.bd,n~ ~rrictaild piou$ f(tHo·wen· of ~~'\~a Out il~he 155 (l1{le;s:t Q,'~'ril~en m, (~akiilgAs Tne '~Jrmple tbe. a~,JcsJ cnLrep{~IJeur vteach firm), 72 bear rhe.ritle 0 f }mj'i."Sotnc of' ~herl1 haw n1<i1.~ ;th~l?iigriinil;g.e ii1bre than 'bnGe".Jnd ·tl1r.,e.e entre:pre.n:~\"lT:Save ('Yl~n taken. the luxurious and v,e.r.y C'rpel.l,~i'~~o rrn of h f pilg;rlmage lO(.{llly know 11- as haji p"/ tis. MQst of' thc:hr.gct"cnl tepreiJ..fmn. in B',~tutt9d~r.itre sUJ.-vr.(lrt(:!ts.~){ onl:!l.)lqoxy_ THi~J0 fV!fA 1J1Q,{~Mr0ngly ~pra.ren-t HmongEhQ~~ethi rty· ni!l£ ~l1trep reneuts whowere bern butsirt.: BatHr, !l\ohlY'l"rl I~1l:,)~:.c)·rjlf.her p.wrt~··o:fCe).'ttr<d Ja.\Ii\: Ma..!]y Q{th.~$e :'. :irbu founders. n~c-ej~ {<tt least: part of their) e.clu."C<uiol) ·a1: a.pow1tJ:K ..e,d pe-s+1 nl!-retL Em-l~h<l5iJ;il1g their :1l.1t.i$Jim 1);:(2kg0Uit~'·::; ail ittipQrLHn.1. i,yay 'b}" i
\~'h,jc.hthe 'iron founders-lit This Bstur promote their business interests.

ab.iJi.tyof the co-o perative society The'

0 utcomeef

rheir deliheJatlQl~

was that ~n 1 Q97 fi: se pa n'{te' la b'Om..toxY 'tv.is .set up. in .B:atur, with JtJ;~ , f!na.nci.al ,'lil.lP.K)'~Ht o:r the [HlL()nal g{)~~rnm:C'nt. ~fH.;I1W~Y lndonis~~
(.ongk)mf;lFat.:::~K ]~n,e; ji-i(ju~ Qr&~'rljZ<ttjj9~~'l.>Jlnd.cPfl)in?n inter~.}t gtollpt ':",;hid~ha~ V

rs sJ.\o\'l.t) most Ul1H{nJ.~Jg\g}n~l.y-in the .(nt~t1ill mai1.~g,~J;J.le:n:t ~[T~t"(;,~ie.s· 1)yl:~it:M· (:;:ntrep-r<==J'lt'Llnl'_ YYh~n d t'8Jing wirh w().Ik'n~ on u~¢1d matte rs ·Idat·~d to .worik ing .nOlldi f;i,Gins· i(nd p<lym.e.n~s, they (ift·en· phy up the··(,:(fmm:_a.n I$~<l.J.TI.i'i::b,<lt;;Wgr6un&onabout'J'u,dcapital, Theyd.aii;n ~~at thelack otb.b&nr·unre:x~ in B;;llU;!t'l.sdl~ result on~h1t:mlc:M')H(lar~tr between.rhe wn.d;er5 ,mq t~c:tGl'Y o~net~ M lln:Y·C'1ltrc]p:r~nellr~. eI1$u.re dIe Ofi:h"b:dC\X:Y'(;t.their·~mp1oJec,:; by prderring to r~.crl;l.ifp,an of their
workforec in.H4"i, t;h08e:ilrE:1lt

inJav:a th!~ havE! a

nTllt~t:l-(}"ll JI)"StWl1g;-

BaHw·in the csurse 'Qf time tJ-iG~ for~ do not ne.V!:'i,~.sH!.~iJy.}'l.i]J!Y CfJUahcir~lTion b·e,t\ye.eu·equal pav.tJ.lIet$.i¥ili'" i $t~'qi~ b~$inc;s~men ~v]to.loit~:fN:~C,~1(1 'I'~;::):," .. t l~c·~t:\'~rsei.s; rue . Mq' . t . thr1 t:llilabnnll.iotl bt:!t'weetf~h€ inH:] h~,uti~1f·:r~·has, l,)ten ~nsu~rhltl Yb,~.0P'&te3i.:i. d~f.f.er~b:tiiltj of onwithin the {ndtl'itd~jlx:()nljD "ni ty. l)l
been set up by Ih'e ilon fmmdefs.of the use of co-operanve societies and a~01Q~i.ahQ~]Sf he elite of t

entrttnen~ll..t:,iaJ r3!m~lies: as.·.be,enaUlt tQ enhance,'mid w.l~.so:Jia:ar~li~ h (:·rond.mLc·p·q.Sil ion and 'Sotial status t'ii ~iJ··y0 tji t ma] 0 riry' of s.illl,lJitf. husi"(l~5"H1tn:' C()g:endy~.thE::fotial his10rj ifhju~tTi'1l1d.evdopIriti 1"lJ l'k.t't,ut aJ;;o show:,_;: liLe ~)d3.te-}l(e o$'v;:ldQUS '6cti('~~~s:'with hi th~ bu:sjn~ dit~. these factions .c.oincidc,\ ..... d ivis£oHsalong . fumily and gcographfYJli . i;th lineS-<lnti nm)- on~to v~ P:ilr.tly relar1:l'~:Hos.OcLorreligiOl,% .dmere~~*,
()f
"

I~bm) Ml~P Pe-kakH~ga_;n a:fid·l!?on"on)@o. This 'tfalqS even more strongly nOoti~~ablea.iIJ,Ong those-entrepreneurs wh·o were bcnr'eurside Batur, m:a:ny of-whom then,1iSe!ve.s_ "O~'iginate tldm Due' e,{ tht~se l·~giOns. N'o t' ~mua(:~u:·'~H.y,theil::' ·en.tr4p~tn~r;'lW(;:h ),C:1~ c0't'tacl~ itt r11eil'htr~ncarea' to recruit newwcrkcrs fo:rtfitirta.d(1(y: 'th'f$. make,~ rs()XlttO! Over 'lh¢ w(')rkfdrq~~n.l{~ttur.A~~!~T¥~t ~roYid~1 :1 the iron'f~luIl:~F;l:$" wi th y'l.r.i,Qn,<; means thl'o.],.l,gh which they .can check the behaviour and acti vI tit:.S ·of.tn-:ej r Ia:bti:L) rers. n.ciM$·(;>f orthodox

A 5imiku' utilization Of.lhi! .M\.fshin.;b~cdgwund 0rthejl:(nTl1)WJd~T'~ in Barur L<;,'"sbO\.,.;!~iuhtir ~exLe:rJ]a:irtJam@,!!memt ~tratcgieS", ~peci<fH;{ in t s
lht~r cont~~l;; wi ~h.goveifl.i-n#H~age.fl·~.\~:s~ <ikf;'a:d;ibdn m.~t;nncd It hils: ~hat.[[lost ofthe ~n)J.l Qtinder~.in Ihtuf iixe sU'P:PQJ:ter,~pf~h~N:ahda(ul f ULntba (NU.J. Dmil1g.rhe New OEuel' per.~od, n~t<p'l.b€rs ofrh:e pm~t1inent eJ1tt:t:pr~ile.lt~;'ialtitm lIie~ ..of Bat~ f oec Llpie,d p.0s:Jti~)iil,s. on it~·:egiol~'3)l i

L

boa n.is of.f;jater~ djsUliCUll'lci ifnpott~otpoH~k~\l ;t1.i.J adfu'hThlS!4-.;tti p'ositiotts w with ~u Bat ur it'le If were 8.I~O mo n~~polized by· Y"adheren ts •. Thiss] ~uarion .. .. 9t'ctrlt ..ttj. have to.n l ii nred j II $p..il;~ of
fXOCUl:E;.'C

i.nWortan ce duri ng ~,l~.~conm:rtic '~"rtit that l),oll I nd9'l'le.s:ia in mid- (997 e i :~t:l.J ,~rriJI ontinues. c th~ iron fourrdries Ahh'Jns.h 11r theend bf 1'0%, About 75 per-cent of

political changes thai have La.k(?Tl lat~, in In{}o'Hi;&ia 'aft(~r ',~997-98 p the; 19V9gcJ'T08a~ d'ei-ti:0M tly£ village of tl'[lh.irW~0 .m?I"k,ed.<l~.~lon:iil) by the .r\flcl~liKE;o;b..a1;lkitilO B.a'ngsJ fPKB). 'Ihe rise at :this'NU-allkil po1it.ital pil.rry-·at tJJ,i;l r~gilO)nal.and naricnai level, culminating in:. .d~fi0n of ;:,\bdupah,rt<i'li' Wa.hia :as i..rl\ioi:}egiil:Srle~'f presid;rtl;,.', helped to stimulate the political ambituons.o[ st'vct:):l,oLlFrc large", 1:1:'04 founders in.Baarr.In. 19W1", tJltrtpn.·Hcpr f'n.:vn .B,HW wa~' sdec,!,~~;, (we
j

<I,,)

a: n:t~iHber of a ffiinis;t(:r i~L~d !~;'()'['Y b nard in J;ika rt4 on v
t, wI] ile ~inolhe-:r wa~ a~ked to

CO"ClperJt~

be iii m ember ofa min:ist.e~M co (1'; rn ~t~ce fuc~J1f2 "~l~ ,,~dp;P..nl!;;nt·Of qllJp-:;t.ale enterprises, '111H)ugh.their .contacts withiu the .gov..ermuerd at the Jo€alr .rc-g.i.()11at' "~ndn~ti-pp.'Jll~'V~!, the iron founders o.fBatm' ha:vc:,bq2"!'rablc'lo ben~fi' I)M~f the y;eJT:Sfrom ~t.lte: p"folj:!."Xe:s Hi" p.ro.mOlC' pFi.b md .1:: f1tr~pl~r;I.'l'~ilii ship in Indonesie. This 'sort,.ofpoIiC)' rrlal,irrffi hegan in the. J950~ wim theJmpOl'qHL~~~.lt~Hm1 p'onc~;:11JAl tht B-t';nt~]l'g Pn:'}gitii'(Jlne, a'S a -spll't.of( of which the hil .. ~jnr:s~community of fhtm received &iI<lk'.SllP.lPQt· in 'l.h-e fOr'm ~J:1: td;i1nkal vnif with finishing. machinery Pi. ~~i1'l::ljh.li iyi~e~X .o:;bt~.:0111)P.Dit: provtdoo :;"l new tm~p'etuB: 'to the, developrn ell (. q,> in:.)!').casting in RiI,tnr III the J 97fh. (In this "l;}ctaSbrf the nation<f~ gG.v.e.r'nll~eb.y"gJa~llij:l 'a .hrg.c .am () Lull ~f Ii i:li~hin g n{a(hint,ry tD" ;tlt~ newlyestahlished co~·ope·FlJ.t[\'.(".·M·Kietr atur J'~ra..Therapid lFIdtlSt'f.i:1W! H growth l38!t.l;)thap vii [tl~~t:E~J 6in,e tJ:H~n' b 8~. bee)l p;il:tly 'S'umuk'l ~ed.li.fJ~
devdopmcn
• •• N"

[.!

the gtYv.e:rl'l1)l}2n1: i)Q)i;(y

OJ

:dtr~crin'g' govern ment

8!iende.~ .a)'~d :Sla~

~!~~efpri&f;S-~OhaJld om. COntracts to.. t~al1~sml~. p6b[~mi en1.!·(?prerle~rsll." s and: ~f 6).):C{!U raglJ1,g national (:{)I).gJQrnt:d.l:e:~LQ '(1-st4bll ~ihsubcon tr~.Gtp:lre; rdatlonshipswith zhis "sc(don. of TndOr!e~in\j husil1tS"S"wmnmnif}% The various /9apak,-angkat l:d{idon;hi:ps are ill pa:r,l: the off:s;p.tin:g q,jt th~~ptiHc'y, while 'rhe involvement of tlie n~.tionriJ gQ\(~rnmtnt !!'r the~ s,e:Uing up ott!:'e lab0:ratm:y in 1997 i5·,mo{bwr fecC'J:tl.e'K~.l.hltjk ~tate,· (~"f :->Ui{P:}"]:t fQr th~ ind.l.Istp]il~":qi11n1W~[lY of 13.:rtL:n-.
r,

The5e-~h'oug·llnb

bctwetil the

~~iOJ.l{}m.kdue

of iJ.a~l.;l.r n· the ene' o

in J3.<rnrr had dowetl·d~\I\1n 'prcfducticm' or ".had ir(J,pp.ed iron caM:lng -altogfl',the '; the laq:-;e.r .t:P.'l:r~pre;[~~u rs were already on ; hei r""";'a lLfL At the h~igh.t ,Gilhe cr-isi1l,se\'-"en\~of them ~ii~td. ari-tlU'" >' y 6s.il~ to. govettlIl:re[{L ngMcie~ and priya;tnl,\tion~L~md international wmp"nnies ),11 lakarta, 'fhWL[~h th.~l, e<1Jdibtcontacts "'lilh high offl\l";ials ~n,Ih,e p"ti'V"Jese~tor ;jlhJ the rF~L[~L~Lrl,c8Qn~ldilstr5'.?.l:Ki c:b:~ppl;irall~m. _ ((HH~(t-.s tha t the .. ha:d ()f!~ll e.. y ~LlbJish cd j fi t hei r (.:IlP<i ity as, c 'r,qJfi::~tT11i\"tjves'pithe' co-operative' \iO(,:idy E~ttu:t.n:'l.Y<l- they w.ere:able W JGq U! r.8 Tt~'~:'.';. ;JJr:g'i?orde FS' 'lli .:t, time ,\... hen niGEl. ~.6f the smHlI,Bl.' l ~ bt rsinessnrerri ti Batu r '\,V'ere .be~:.~~g ~orced to close d O\-\;'Tl f},h'1Lr fa,dory. Am.dug ~b i.~\.!l ..t\::gOryOfhtrgcr c ntrt~~t~"t:ltLlrS WUGreglll<~dy aper.'<it.e at t.he national <lmd jnt:~!r,Tl.1ltivnallcvel, th€r€ is a. l'e.i;Jtlyely higID l:l;u.Olbl'T of.iron found,ers wb';o 0.,\lg_;n:~k fr.orTl ousside Batur; These l:msLriekmen 'have {l h ig);el' edllc:~ti.(nl.aI bd,dcgroll nd ltnq wider w~ol'k e}."pf"'Jien(i: 'ih<H"Ithe TJ1.81or·Lty of the eutrepleneurs in tbL'UL Mtlillrof them wete brought up in ~Hlh:o.dd!.'i: religious i<tmilie.s"in l';"!stJ1lva ifld educated in. -"islwl'llc bWI(ling_1>dmok All Of'them .~~'e.n'l.,m]ed to daughter .. the. ~"Of weal thief iron fOWJJd(~r!;; lblur. Trl ii n").&rr~age"o an "Ol'rh0dox Ll:imic ,l.n t lmJ h,;,~:1.ly (:'.dU~ilte0 man 'jJ.-U(l1u f~it~ hK~'add&! p~~sr,igeand 'enq'llDiied y the ~t.ilrns 'of these entrepreneue'ial farnilie','l: .iB Balm', The- present-dayimj1ilin~ent pi?t;ul ~(}hof th.e~e 'outsiders' hi! s o;;;l~~lh0tlsome )eal9us}" w ijhiR 1he..lo.(:a.l·(:wnmrUli ty ,OJ 'Datu!', wher~ they a Fe somef mes hb(?Ucd 'nonprihumi' busillts"jm~[lj, All1)mlgh 'orthodox.Islamic f:flil"l"<TrtncLl:ts are .the~(:'[ote :~mdng l~e rims,i 1>pcce.,\sfLil businessrn .. in Ba:t.ur, tht{r eu eL~)n(j m it: success is more to-thank on ,t heir milrd~g.,~.stra tegy than Qi·r. thd r LTAm.ie ~~fc.kgi\"l\nid. The .cornpl k;tlled na rure of the relatio n,.;hup b~l ween lslJ;il;~ h;1(kgm~uHJ .andecon (·)·nil,(,_- en ln::pre:nc.ur .. ship in B;i1 r i~ahcnev:caled tu if: th~b(gt: .n'll m bero i ~nLJ.:t~{n·~: ·\, hf:)bca r rlre title h~R- Alrhcmgb IJ curs .... 72 OLlit ofthf: 155 11'0.[1, 'founders if!' M~.tur vvt."rC entitled to themsC1v6<r haF in 19~4,.1~(!.,mO"t~ th,~n H 9n,hem'b.;~,d madc.ti}epilpdmage b~f~re Ii/SO, ',rh~ ,mmainiBg 6.1 b:u81nesslTl~nbad nt!J.dc thl"': fj'cfj;Qnty

c~n

ha·m.-l, ~nd :go\,ernnte:nt. ~lg~[lj;Ctef~> wate eBt~r;pfiset ,an(;j large' p~:i\(a.~ cc)n1.~l~Ipttal,£"" .011 the o!{her ~an~; h<lv~ tl.1med ot.H" m t·~e·of .(;:n1cia!,

\r~r''r' :re«n:tly: Ii) .th~e·y"~~.of fflll:nf .of thefti/the pi1g-rimag.e 10 Metca is p'an li~~olltcqm'M,f:e<;OJlQmLc }[~¢~es.$.<tr1.d ml~dl, itS..;¢.l\llSe~

,';r

not'$(')

'Md que through

~".hkh they can . ellh:ancet11 ei i' ~la.l us ,!>~irhlr:i"~llib
~~,~a.S(_)!') to

h\ld l~'H<l.bl[sh~d -conitl.zt.s ,a'S oJ)~ of thebqil.rd

Ll1eInb£.~·!; ofw-~ofe~',~l.r:ive·

~'P,mm!flH"ity;/l.l~b"a.tlgh t.b.¢r~ is th.C'J;"dqr:eeve..t:}'
~.TJ

qilegtj.ont~

~}..:adnature of the .causal relationEhip between khm.je; b:qi,Ckgwltlttl.

j;od(.ty B8tnr ]aya, He SUb~·!(:lPtrltl.Y b~'H}gh:tj hense in 1J~irtfi inAnier ro ~(:' .1.1)IE: to Q'i.Jng.~e IUGT? with th~ ),.'1'~Lsl[m:1.)Us"~ness tri~e f Indonesia, ,p

d i¢CO HQmk .~llCC~'SS, m<).~iI}g ti1{;:' pllgti.n_Tatc lias P rlwideG ,$t'\~era'~ r,h'eiion fOLH:lpe'r~ wii:h new Iw~i !leSS,C:Ql~ taots ~b~xtb.in Hat.!£r it...:dfirlM<: , .~ in the wider l"f;:?i.on; ,as is. ,~I~()wJJ,~J.J.:the follow ung'case stud V;
'.'

Ir
\vtthiu Ibl'r~si,on ofKlakn d~slrk(,.thc vifhlgl: of Barur ha:s'~h€'1iep'1:J!~" tin n, of hting,_ H'WB{)_en ~:r<lt,!o~t of ,sal.J1I'iMlIsJ"imf, Thein;t,\g,~: of )3,[ JIll (mg. the. people o Khwtl r$ One i'n wb.i:eh ~l fl'lo~t..ever}' ,;;'\(hd~ . '" the ~,itk: hajj_ Some ~vcn (:"Ja_fmthit L it ~s \:;~,.)toll:i,\!':Jlr.:.:n ~.;dcr:r~p;g' t~ ~OJHeOIfe j,t"B~anl!', to ask ~he·q\~esti0.J'Fa'k H~_jl Sial)af'.twbi~bMistg;(' Hajmin5n::HtL~Q"f the'llsll~l"<VaK Si~i)a?, ('f'..lls!er wlhdn.1?\ ()ncOf"tJto&&h.,;i}i ~;IlBatur 0 Haii,-S\~t,w_wC~gt~ ~2). S~kL.m!:il.wfflxr: {6-1\t{_'(;ca fo't- the fi'ftt ~lm~jnJ~!l'0, In theye:'H'sbe[~).Je, he ha4 already posipo£](:.,J i,t:5ey~):";ar times, "! wcil!Fed .to ,qp,wJ.d my fttc<ory first aIlJ n.e.e,ded niy %vings (Ol' rh~tt', 1l~()J);<6.()_ncdoJd mfdn,,'his.gt-oup, ~herg 3

'T tQ ..Jai~n;'j. twi«:~, n1o~~fh -;wd $taY'lh~rC" f(j(·... fe}'l 9 ily,s , I a~ll_~ a IOlig~stj;lnJhig rf1t'nl:oV Qf~'h~ b~<lrd or"the {xg in Klat~t:i a~]dhe.tauw· ·fl.!' rh~t" [~l9W many pf?oplt ..in .Jaka]'Fa,.t"sp~ciaU'Y ILl UK' InlIli~tfie~.ol jnd',I~try ami QO-~t't'J.·~tiyq·~,When I amin Jakan.11 I till}; ,w l1lcnl :and they._Lnform HIe ;')OO'Ht. orders CQ.miHg up :[,n"tate (~'ltf::rrriS'e$'; :\l'llt<"lIlW CH]·Ct' wId me in I. 994 ". In Ba.tm,.sulanW b (,}ne,()fthO$~ lfOt! founderswho QPt'Illyhprvse:~ rmany qtne·r. in.r,,1;epreae CIHi n t/l:1.cu' -agt'€€ wirh hLm, t\1:,Q Their village i.~·~J" .:gliat imp0rt,<J:nie tiO IndO-L'lC"$,k/s fulur~';~nJ~st:rjaJ deyel~pmeit~'In .~j tu r iSJh~hcx~a"!npte-of~!.l,t;.e~sf1J~Mfl.Mllni.cl jt:r.cprcl)tur»hi})~ Til!?}: 2f~ l,heitfbr:c q f the .u;piriihn that thar Jb ~}'Jw..,e every dg'h L tt), m'qrit. ~btt -. :suppi:wt a'hd largct,6:':Hl:lr~cts JTqll1 sbt!'; enterprises .a~ld·iMt,ion~l.Q{}n&Iprneraf:es. T".l:uriQ:g,tlle yisit. of the minister e)n.ildusny to lMm in 19:94, :-;~lla'nto. WM Ol~e of the bnsinessrsen who hwugJ:rt t hi~ d:m.~J.'lgtire up i:V~Tl~mi a[~c'll~'ai()n ~ t ~he end ;"of' t'he day, fJk~ ''IY'at· -OHe of ~Iw~~e ho w stood rrpasrdtold the' minister that they,.,~s·creators or crnp!~)"ymeD~ ~nd w'Wlth, .(fl~sc~ved L~cll' ore [,ltppO"rt ft-OI~~he.g0v¢i'ument)111iciJ rn m t claimed ·tb:at .It ';;'(l.J:l,ted. 1(") promote ii1dtgf{n.Oll!-.,~nr~pi·eh~U'n;. 81l~1 t.:!Ia.J:1G/~e powny_ .At: th~'eBd of h.b.1HiV0mp'L~i ~p~t·th thE:'re'·w:a&.lgt~d .appl.Jus·¢ r;"rdl th~ :ludil11.1 c,;:! .., ' l"11<r c(ortjyrrii¢.tr;~~is· tlrat ha) .ilffe::t:ted In~to"n6]<1 ']:991 ,1ir~o affe.ckd Sm.<in16$ hH~ln(',ss,tldj~i~ie',~ n~~eJmla l'}' 19-9), he h~Q .@lmQst ,! .tkdded t.q close downhis f<liCl()ry kmpoVlT~ly because of·f:!.. bdf ur:d"(:~r~, In the p1'ecqding .D.1O"Nhs he had approached maIlY of his ccnraeis in. the 1:)1n ts.ti\ EW,Sl'ate .enrerp rises <lnd jJ.dvtlte ((:mg!oHlcTtrl1::~" i 50 fu, his drQtts'J~a~~ b@<::LilB vain. The pdlitIc81 ;H~d economlc '51(iHtri(),nwas too uns table and wnlpHte'ly mwredicr<lQ le, MJj~y~bonMp'<lules lL1.dfl9r~)e(lpW?1..H;tJp1:rand !-to 0Uf: (brl:)~:~ pl?-st :P.e.""" (~rQel"$" A~i"(ng to D one ~~fhl:~v1Mts (o"(he heaq,"OHk:e of Bllf;aka, h?\~:~'ve]-,~~l:t;rntf.)got .

riy

hisviews o'n Ih(:.cWI\,(Hrl'iG

policy of the lo:vetljj1~en't,

i-Ie 'daiH"~s',:a11:d

r

w;.:~emore ,thim 3D peopk from K"lat;enof whom
V{hNl S],:lt1"H~tosl)o"lM.::d rne th('pihNogmphsofhi~

I~H~'el'eIrorn Hil'

fiqg:r~I)lJgc tG.Me' r recognized !'<<lQ·ofbtr iron wundcr,s fr(:~mBatur. lknew that with'. of them, H~ji I-hj~dJonb, he ]"egt1l<!rly Sh:m:'f. Q.r~ds" ;.'H'Ji.d·tfl{1' b..~2I. started to Dtl1" [hei r r~w rn~~t~ripgIoiq~ly.Al~.l.Olr~h $~il,it~to'f\)~d m'O- . H Wt\rt~a.ktady -acqui,l"int:ed ~~'i1h~~~h' (ixher bt:fm:oe th·e.y W(\rtt on .tile: Nig;.il!11tSce. t:!l;ey}ml:v b((;aII"l~e fl'tcr'~J~ durjJJg"th6r.lr"ip_ There was ~ ~ ~l'<jXk,[·fr..:~mK(athi in theit .gfQUP t~:hQJvmed'~tLt te h,we·m.afiM.; husi n~s~ 0011 ta.ct{:.in S:urabaHl_ TIH:o~.lgh. him) SrJti"ll'):h:r ttncll, HardJouo.. W~l:t ~lble~6' JGc~llire several new orders l;or th6x fu-Clori6' .. Suro:nWl j nd1caH::d t1~~t 1hcre-w~I"{~ 'JJ leas t hSi(i.'mhe,r pa rto ertr irs in Bntllf t'll0,'il' I1n.d been hOfl~_ H Jr~t'n{+$hljp'('s t~lHr~hed dur iIl:g the- pi tgrima:ge,_ of III J 994" 8uwn tij 1iWl,~ ~:he;O\\1fl\:f of an' j'ron f:ouqcb-y 'empldyio;g

sinGe

or

l..bou ret's. Sin.;;:e I 9,H, :5utrll'l~(1hiis pecn r

It 5~b~qnl~<liCt"~;d~}l" B

htgthtd OfleSLiin c;QI*lbm:cra'fe; ocwwlri.(h h:~ctnY:hi.Ot'S_ \emj· nn'i iro:n ,prGd;utxs,. "9n(;::' (}f th,e ~Ji!n'.ctors (if th)~.Sornp,my ~"''<l.~$blta ·<s,z:tfoollii &Wi b'Oih h~...mk: ~Q:a rding 5.d~o()1 j;l:l})~t~lW'l.It .is' t,hr J tll~S.11:k'r:id:hirtl1at 'S'll:t~miorf6dpdrr r€.c~iv{:.<.l '(:},der5 and .t~d'l,[Iro the "'support kgm RL1k'lka,.,~Yl1[ch en~b<k:.dhim to €Xpllnd his e.nterpris~ [hIil,~ru.Jking it f)l'lE:. of t!1iI:_[argH ifouta undries (i EMtJ.f, Inr'99Q EIil:I,an~orJ .~¥'l$ ilMe to g~t (~rdersfrom a ~btt: eD..terJ~'ri>e-w:lth""'lHCh e~:dict· on-hN

,m

]l~Clty. It. turned out that" a..o. j\ustr~1i(1)f ;OItlP.~{J;l/ V;:1l~ lot-iklrl¥ for a ~\I.bco (l[rad (~.rto' 'P}'(h~uce 11 Ilft:M i~1llmi'.prod:uc.ts" S.lll~nto~g friend In r~u.k,<tk:3 askedh.LUl w .Dt'come fheir p;trlnerin ~hi$ '·l~ntl~~''iNIth th€ f!t:i.a.n(..t'll ;5llpporl of .~h(;.All,~,t;J·aJjull l'Omp~Hy -,\l~d w'i'th te(hnkal help fT0111 Hll!<Hka, 5tUOlnto'lhcn eonww:d oa~ & hi,,; mi::.tor-y ·bu,ilJ"i"r1gs in Ih1.ur :;m:().alnodU01.iol1 UHl.t for ,{lum;;nium pn:iJucts. \Vhen I 'o'isited litii'lIf .[11 D.<Jt~n:d;rer 19'9.8" emplbYl'l1-cnr ill hi'S': €H1Crp1\h~ h-;'1() alte:lIdy inC!'e<i.sed 10 '15 wo(}rk;e1'~ and there v&re' eVen ,pI'" n'S·fql":' further {:0q,l<lIJ;sioH •

For·d-ti$,ltt, b(ppt".Hl.i:: (ollldl US.~'5&nre'6f bb €O~!~~Kts within [he; Kt"'b8i1IDtari, l},HlgS,l CPKj3), ef ri-.'.bkh h~' .b'ld rer:<"!ntly bec.mne· Qn 'liJ'e 'E:):~~utive h{~~·rd rnem bers at t b·e l:egi.D\'1 al kvd.~. '

l'hT;:~tO.t!tb~ii t!@1a ~ld:~pn~~Lhl:tc·~ c fixed m~~d.,they ate ~.ubfied --With p~.(tkLiI.¥ k0.~l;;)i pr.\Jduct;o() ,;~~ CI:::iJ,l~~mp.tj~~ 'aQd· 10:::[ Ll~i¥r~nt· wh.ell d)"~y e~<l,"~~~()W)Klrtir.:l!l~ l~~h;d' '"\I'ce<1 ~KHlrtd'';''iJjojo 1.9l1: 56, n~.... r mi, '·This, 81h11Ho.H dots
·.J335Cd Hot

III
CONCLUSION

seem 1-'0 hhv,ci;r;qpwv~q
.(.

much

.~.j nee

Hv;p,.

on ,;I ~UT \f.ey cOl'J.ciu.2.te(j in Ian..t!<lTV ] 9.93",Helmut -..'Web~T arrd Mnsa ." . . A;S~(~_rle:~ohd'lld€l;J lhM there had been lltJrea] iJHlth~trial devslopmene

them ~rrt:jwned by nuclear (~['liill:c£i·t&"Op"Cra.l:i~Jl >,vith oH!ei· l ;p6"se~;i:>' often in ~he-fonn of,'ful~ltor:ltraclius·~eb:ti.ondttr,~.i(~ whic' .' lW,r.!. .fourld.£(8from Batur ~Te·ttWtlny the ·sirl1.ilk[ :l;H,i~~"K;$Spnrtn ... the:;'feIlliJrf,;-_ Empha'j;jt!E1g lhdr MI:l,~lif'r'l k\ckground is.art [~l'lPQf.~~ way hy "v'hicH I hcse tn'lrepre"neuTh p ronWte t'h ek'b u,~;·i"~e:.~s interes ~(.:rm~~'G.f ~~oc(a! qc;:h"a\.".Lbut; the, Hf[·~"t.;ire or th~ .i.nm fb~m~kri(i.f B<1~l eha rllct~I izcd by .gcognlpb icalmo bll~ty) Im:.ur~ia;E}d PrJi'nr::re1Lsing & .. distance fr(~m .lhe utaJor't l:y () f th G; ·",:l1~~gc popuLtt ion, ;rlo0'w ~ht~~~4 lht:tt t:hara(;tex,ihL~~;~pF ~he Ij9!s.n;df' itt~lt:~gy .j~~ ~ocK;t bchavio u r Qr the iron fQltnJers in i~aLlll·be explain ed? ln Iin61 ~""Lth n~:i::: .dL~,CLL·~.~i()IH" M~t~ln:t·e~tJ;t:;pr>e.h~·~tsh_i.pin Indonesia (n:l t'W CLl*p~h l]eilr1ieT'ft;mlie~ OJ, rhe· iron f()l,lndf;1TS in ];~.tl~r h..",(~ empJ:w"Sjg;~ tho prev1liling idea] {)f iTld~\'idua.Ji.'p':n ·and ltidepe.1'I,tknt .etJt:rtp~WlBt(t'" s.hii~:,-uriQrig Ki ti§~~n1·l1Ll~111e's$:min;., n.t_gtdi:ghti ng t1~f;.la[.~k 6:( (_V'{r<\OR1~ t ';.n ~ 1.LOmU ~kiH.!\. nd ~h d r rrefp't~n~~~0)" «m.s.unlpliQn that is. fe~.ll-onsjbie a fm l:he l1Qn"re1~1al'l'~ld~pf.'r)d"f;'nt Qatpte .of industria! de1i,.~lop:L11e.nt rhf~lr_ nil~e9. ,a- short '\:lsit in VeC::?ll}ber 19?Q; ~lI.ili'oWi9}qjq~ , t"XrlI1lpl~~ .'~1:g~1ed tho;: iron founders of :BaUlf had already trrmsfonneGl; t:n('lt fh~rlj.wl!,fi4 fi'Gl1J (: raf6men to indu~q-i al erit l:eW:,erieUl~· and r11.' fuC'c#ckd. In. 6.btai!1iilg wealth. tl~mugh indu.sn·~Jl acti'v.ilY, Alth· t,~l.ey 11~(la~;"h~:e·'lie~1-this~'therehad been no further changes in organisationai tonn nor N,hi"r.olpgiaJJ [mprp\'en1:e·n;ts-it hhe pm,cluction Fw:o!Ze~ He th,l}ftJcne·GQnd u ded that the iren ((J)Jndcrs. of Bar ur 'Ire "ihQu,r:g.ooWhut cf ~ rural. natp-re.:
0

The. fmdiug,<l: oJ lbr:. ~~~Lldy,. pr'~8euted hcr.c dVm' ,.13 p~cdQ[ntn,anCe;)iC!'" small ·ctlttrp:rb::,~ i.tmoHg thG 1\c1u.~~;n, iron founder" of [btur. 1\1dS~~

·~n~t;

in B,~tul' sii}ce.lJ],(fepen~erl"t.e: there has (inly been an ~[~ae,8.s.'e the in .IH~mber oienwrpri.ses~·.Sl:)Jtl;Ew/hat ·od~et by -tbe..bilJl,kn,.lpt'GY: "Oh~v~I'al. (}theCi~wl.th~)Utariy -g·ti"\_I(tlJj:?-Jft"O nomic ,tfld tec;bno10-g:i~a~~;.:peilrIM~}n having blkC'~l place, They <vrgu eel iha,t the:;: main re.a,sq11 ttr t his p;;lt\~r[l . of~ nw.zg'Ol~e~1Baustrial developmentis Lh~.>;Lra:d.itL-Ol'l<ll' orientation o{ th~ ,"~rrtte:prf'lr;.:·iJ r~ inyQlV:e,d., 1n B~Wl~ t1J:e qt'.C-hi9hto setup a D\\'; fi~croty is AN· ,1 ra4i;:}nal·one based on m~lik<;:t 0Fpo:nl;lE~jt(es.· they .:n;gu(; but is HJ.;liil1y the'ri;'{L~t. of the right of n,JGct~%L6n practised
alflong Musjlnl~, hl~r~ler t() m·akC' P fti>-'i;i·Qf}"j for 01£1fige ii;~d to?CClll'(', takes over the fiuniiy firm thdr '(:bild.n:~ds fLHhre, ~me ;of the,children

,,~

J...

~

,m

~l
-r.

Y

r~HlL~"L r:i't~,Hld ,mmn1,*..:i.a] };·nd in"i"li£pne[-)l" (if G1:p"it~l\ ·C--:o1t'smnpCi(Hl []'c'cdi ,t? ill: ;i?npml~nm.r.;~a·Way of ~IJgidriI~g f!b{·ll~ ... __ [l_~:i~rlis. d'lat,tn<:'(lt \'lealt]) (s jJ~ the: ~Li[-e~I· h~i.1igJ"w Clot in ~h('{t vi k~tiJmjug_
lUi"} bC~J1m_'":!foH~ to

!h&rc

~et ~f'.diffetem

~nter.pd~·s

(l[:)t theil~CJF.d$f:, '."(;m~miot\~

while f.ht::()thet c.h.itdn~n who fi;,,#' i"r1 Ll~e ·vat,age- soJ.:]s.~·'~~w~Ll a,S daughrers ,...'<HI:: provided ,';1th ·capit"JiJ to ~r;::~Lup Lh~ilC own businesses, "11ie ~Hbsie"g;Lten iricr~a!(e in l~'!en l,u)lber (:.i f b<.torif,>~·l""i::; urd~,el' encouraged, t I Wth~t snd Musa jrglij;):, hy the. ppe\f~li1ingi"cle,J,t (if ~ f!Jdep!i[c~d~nt:~ritl}~:prcw2'llrshtj) 'and t:he· rda"ti),,rdy lbW caJji~al requirem .. [OIt1"~s· result of ~ a. which U)in·ty n~~nih~[,s b!o;l-':>tfl~$.~[{jm~Hc$~nd several t<J...boul-em have df t'-'Sl8.blished t'h €'ir own firms. ·Ac.co rd~ng bO '\\~~bcr and r,:lu$,h Ul@· in)n f~Rllld ers f,)f l~<rt.1:.l r hive: not ·¢stabli.shed any rmH' 0 reconomic orgjl ni zation outside tht'b.-.aditi(H;t~l !~Llf0e~I1' fa~nHynrrn; lh~1fac;Ka wOlJk ~ethit - Q>;/~rtLnl\(:, doe-s not have" a.ny pnsI tive value' iii rid work,ing ha rd vJiu~out "any \.0'~'lti:~e·m:tion.9'ftime ~ii0~w¢d a~ ~'>Oinet!iitlg .ne'g;llh'I.:,"" :lo,dth.ey are consumpt Inn -oriented, .1>CJ:uan n g LheiI' surpluses- 0'fl luxitricus 4e:rci "VHl'.illiTIet" g()(l.c;b.,l\.ik_f-u j~~ COrl.ilm.ction with lhe· increase in.tb~ number of factories, rhese sr~j ftc ch i~bctd'istk8 'of th~ J11·,u~;(iQ'i ~11tf(p1.~r1eurM GInlli ~~~kNe,resul ted in a llo"r;l-produ0tive.', non-reel or surrogate form of iiltlu1l:r!;_tl d~v.~~bpnle!lt in. f:ia1.m, f()f whi!':,h th~/ pllplW tlmDerms '[[lvo.imion;.', 'd.l"1lngdC'ss ch3ng.e',." 'intruvcrL W·.Qw'tb~ .~ntl 'hQvlzcin,t.d ~x P<J.l1ionr CW'eber ·and MU9 ..19.93: 14,3-l4£9, 1St)" s The· fi.ti.dtil[;,s dE the Moudy ~Jn·~he '·s;JW:l' irm:l t"btm({ers· pr~enl.dLjn th,L~·"dJ"apHlr db'ergie~ ..tO ;t br.g:e· CX"t~'nL from these. (,:~.)ndllsion.s~· 'F~rfh
f()

th~ fottgQing a4.1l.1Y;~h~ how£ U'i[tt the irn~ge"of the indipe.ndeilt) stir", ~ l'najJe businessm en is a n'lyl h in-til e Cil~t'of t~ e Iron r6nn.GenS of Ba1.il~~ 'rh("~¢'cOWmtlS0Hy an.d$v,da:liy (!c:imil"l<u),t et)lt~p:ren6L~r.s ~mong Itbm g'roup ofMus·lim ~)U~inf,'~)n1~nilV~.in fact made use OL1 WIde y:a;dely.l h of d~m"T"":nt ~)l;~S of w~op~r8:tl(in ...either. sinmltmeot]f,ly br ":>uGte~~iveW J .at pTr;~~n ~1h~llnth't. ~ past, with I:egar~j o putd.t,~s~, t p~od uet LQrl, tecJuIO" bgy~sales ,. Gil_rit:al and labour, J3y eSlabli~lu.ng co- op~Faliv~ .-;ocieti~~ ~ssoci ilt~~:}l1:.~, an~t sho er-term .aridlong-terrn p'~~rfnt;ryhiv~~ ith bm1i:y w ... ai:)·d uon-family members ;In-d. wi!h LQcat.jlJvl ,110 a-loeal businessmen the, upper stratum (:If the. inclustri.(I;l community of Balm' h~,r.b';e~ n:aH5fOnrl~d int9 ~~;'~ahhy, n.icgr?lphit,llJy 1uoliile en\t:!'i~p.rcric'LLmwell~ g pmv.J.(k:d with f;:i1pitaJ <:Ind.{;hafJ';t~rizedby a luxuricus lir~stylL Sf:>tond)h e fl ilciinp"pu:!sented he.resli.qw lha:l aJ;tJ~rmghlX~6$t fill~ o item Joqndfjii 'are ·~nd,.ee.'l:i small @HtC'rpri,5c:"anc;J usea rela tivdy .0Lt~~ dared .r rud uctien 'technique - 0.'dridt at On e- P()~nt j 1'1 time even. mld¢f}) We,lJ.H period Qfl'egf,c~;:;s'iqrdnr.p.'m;?bf.qJ,laLH'ya~ld.'Zap.,f[ci:ty- rhls ,. .nor menu that thcrl.'~~as l:?",~nI'IQ ~'tE~:L"'=t:llr.al-inchl:5.trjalde"VdopmM:thV' E atur, ScVl::,ml0 r \he,5e entrepreu fjns': have been abk Doi n dt:tl5¢ tli~ .scale , of Lhfir' . :"p., era t ions over. 1hceu,.ea,r,c, ..~.. either ", b~' ach ir::-Vl'·n·.'" l' nt' er'l"~d" >., '. , " ._ ,D growth, 0 r by e~w:bli.~hing. linik.:rg.("i; Wl th: other ;(ompan,i e-s.& Not CifW( thi{~t,.th;;::ff ~ave b.efn various fntms.~.0 f ll~'(Chn()logjr:~1 imprQveii1.e~ introduced, both.in t·b:eptodu&~ion [If'Q.;:;e0S and: inthe finishing Olst".~on P;O~;l~~ 11!-these fi::r.lterpd~f~.Althoqgh t!~~~~e,tha:.J1g('s migl~ not h.~ve Been Sp,e-~~l~tI:: ~T OT h<l:ver,rccmre.d on a !a,rgc 'so k ~ !.h~y;~~~.' ttl nevertheless ,~igni:fiQLnt enough-to question the pr(O'V'aiiingc()ndesc:etltl~ ing.n()l fQf'l"qf Mu~lim eJ,lt~~pre.!.nenrs~i~.ir]."Ind(H;qi'a, wb ic.o· Fel:'etit;t~ 'q Ttj$e~ th:~ pred(;jl~lil'l.~nte-·ofM1HIHI ag:!'1.1H1teBterpris.es, devoid oh~ stru ctl'1;ill 11l~llSt:i'l'l! devd:opi1.rt:n1 'tYrte(hnological. in;l.~YrbV~l/tl.e.l);~li r.he. pTQdudlO n prove,%~
J
,A~

t'ilsxcrn p:wb~ the ha mler an d M

>h'r;·t~;~o)lQw,f;·x5: ..of

m.6·qCf rI tty in: Id1im ..
t~lt:·]

Thos~ famrlies th"l[. made up f3.JNr'.},husiness

elile.. in

ntis and

.l{IB,Os rigin'fted from the western pa rt-Ol the hamlet and "'~-re fQlli9t'leri;" o of onhorrcixy ~nTslani. On the basis of these findings, ..ther:e ilJi<lY bc'. ,~onwjusti.fi:(atien in quesrioniug the-relevance of thediscussien intlreljt&i~ture sm \'i'h.ether o.rthodoX: bLtreform ist Mu~lb:m' i~l,I:ridones1.~ 'are
.m{W;: indtn,~Jto bCc.onl,(:: ~"IjCc~:S~fu}.-cHlrCpIT;rtt:ur&~'

Th ~sstudy"al~(ld10'o .... that l!tt~\'itk'$nhntn:prerl1euY'ial Q!"g;tlriMhons t>

oral~

Th:e pattern OCi:{~·oP~l"JtiOni\Irr{)llKtht:

1"tO"l1our!Gh"',,) of Jbttu~~ f ..

~i:?LJr:s.cici¥ti~mj;.an;d{;O.~'9{)lf~)jliye ~~}(;:ie(ie~are: l1Qlct/nSt~nt, but come and 00' JCi:p~:Hding on the n (!:ed .()f .~},H:;d ~ ~(e.with in the bus! ness emu rn uni l y. TI1.'eyadotl~ {(HntiS t):Fc,,}-opcmtl o~l".a'motig,th c ,~"tlj~r{:'"p:re· neurs-in Batu:r:do n:qt :ftc:cc~Fari[Y'tl~c~n cn]la:r)"ol~iatio:rl, h:e.lwcen .. :'ll'ual ~ part ners O( ,~ma.ll.bu;'!~w=$mea who Join fo rces ..(in the <ontrar$' i·n0$[ .s GOlbhQFlL~lohs' b.Ct\Ve:~fl,ttt!':' iron h:l.]n:der~, as dcS'{!l.hel1 here, h~vr!' be~rt instrumenral in the p r{i(:"css;of d\iffereritlation v,'nhLti th--eindusrr tal oortl.mm.1w of Bat nl'.:/J Thro ttg_t:f~heuse of.oo,op":eJ'at.ive· societies, 3SSOE'la.tLon> sulJb;mtracJ~iL,g rda:tio~1ship:Si\.nd partnerships, tl'l;e elste of l~l'ge enrrepreneurial families has been able to enhance ana€,ollsQ1idiLte·[rs econornicposirion and SGdiL~.stams vrs-iY-vis the ll1I<ljority of·smaller businessmeriand sr.the ex;p"elis.e·:9ft!io~e working ii1 their facwri~es., Tn~~ .pro€CS£ I\f differentia tion mtght J1.o1. appreciated fYOlll a social be .or policypcmt of V\~e"i~·-many small £adori~s a~e,h8:rd rt~t to survive Wit: pi:e~ellt fiiii!,n'd~,l [rid·t, .<lpd tliu\e' h;bOl,lr~r$ wM' i~t~infd their fa~l().rrJob"s.M.Qrk under 'e1:lren':l"ely JklHJ;l~rolls·.~nAu nheaJt"h Y conditions for ":~i-yl(,)w Pi:lYY Em [i:om'~he Vii;::':"'PQ:!lIlt of ·c.ilpl li.~t<le·~~dopm w ~nt trt~!'f;is n othing 'blocked' not '5uXwg:ak' abou t the r i~e.vi this pnr.tin(lar. grO"upof MlJslim'·(.<lpitfJ~i",~ lti Ce:-l'ltr';tl ~av;~.). \~ih0$(:1 pr~~ent positbIl'is ~l()t.<! new ph~uq1l1m!f,m .but ~<\n be tnk~d bps;k19 the ~~Qli(i1;nif.)~Ctivit:llts of .th8"l( fan~irits d.ll~ing th.~ late ~p1(;JJb] ~'e'rj()~dand ~~dy y:ell~,'; of inde1!"(::udf':B'Ct.
i.llth

p.fe':~ie!ired hese, ..l:.:bes ~}9t Ltl1J+r n'J.~l there have: been 1io :.'0nn:f2i~ ~Jm()u:g (hem~ The foregoing analysis shows the existence -of vildq;tJfi b:ctr0n~ 'within the bm;[:nC"~~,~. 'di1:~,whtch coincided with dl.vfsknw n(()l1Ig f<i,mr.ly an'd gCCi.gra,phj(:a.l Jims and h:trn:ed out to b.e·H?rr;t~y " tq $odn~rdLgioLl~ di:lterencts, Tho~,e t:nn:tHC'~ th'lll. made '~.P "lEla tD Llstness cchtt" in l;b:e 195:03 and 19M.s 0 rn~h·ln l.¢'t:f frOID r Dt}t;:e;d lra}" ~
..... .... _.).. •• -"yo

1

rn&m~'l:li:l)n

De~~m~~J i,9'9:.t ~

hl""lm

sl)hdislrid

pg::k.e.· jHQ.~d? ~tlwJwgmjf

In·:o{1,l11Rl<1.:ll

Cepei)"

SlLrv~J I cm;du~fe.d>. ",;,Jth't~.·e· ltd]." of."thtee

1H~Hri:)ri :fCl~H:H:lri~.s h~~ed Glt·;i· ~~r~ ndf!Jafl:lJ;, in FeJjHl~ry.1991.,11'1' thissnn'l;Y f(:i:l!'I~d r"i{:~ ~"''1rc ,dcf:l rw~i"tl~ ~[j·l~r]''l.i.~.~"$'i ~ ~'If"aJ:Ch eitl~t [i\}jj'0f ~l!..tmlHium
11·)(:- {ll<\ntit~ihT fi,v;r~'. n:'5Cn.fG((oTi tfws\' ( p

,>,,'as {:as\aQ(!whidl had a m:il1!n::mm

tegL1Jar ~fTl'rl1rln~<ntQrOn~ [l9;1,"f~I,;nirYVf;'lgo/,\'

b0>O~WtT< 10. ~11~ ~urvGr,ohh~ 15S hun f~!l,f)QX:i~,:;., I'diq,Jwt il:1dud.e-lh~,"S-TL1;i,Uti In sJl(ii0~ hanSl"0,pemt'ed ~~J.l"fijug machines, no~ did I C:o~HlIall)~rtypG..ofjml used ihl1l~ ('Ol;mJri'¢s. Thet.doire'the [l1\!0be:r~ ~.?tf!~~:'nlc,clh,e~e'<lr~ OJ"y w_J,jndk'J:tiotL\ ~)(W~;)m(il njnnber' of ]fnchin~t arrdi [~lrlC111BiiJs used ill ~h~~~f()un.drk~~ 41'hi
S' 'KJ:hlarga~ group
OElt'Dr

.il

So~!.;:~rdL'Ell 1962

Vqna,

-1-oga~,r pro'Muc,kHl

()J ~ ~l'lr. rpri~l,:Hs- 'a!ro n'jet1ti{)J~'e'di il )m ,~nidefiL i,n' B>i(nT, vublished' irr the [)'l~

:::; ~r]~~@q~J'O:la't,i;ous are;dedved ,fm!H d~~;fmn pag'( of tl.l~ yel-lrbook W~rdIT;I'i' (fNStl/(! Akhii Jqhrm)., Fo.fJ.d~'k. j..1d::J~,rrJ' tUVI.,n' J~'~$. PO,n.do1> ~lpck.rJ1 [XiJ,fS~l~~~ } A (~oritQ( t",npi~)g~0" t3 hmcsia, 1994114'1 iL h

(r 'f;\mtowkljo:i
'/

0 (]

97

I:

51 ),

This fig_IJJie is'~a~d~)H my.-suryey, Tbe d,Aer':TI~(t b~lWr!l.t'llb :)1g';Jmtt!l(hft& tlgules ,pr?\l~at;!.d bYl'ile co~t+~(8:('L~~t",SO(l(:'tr is Lnain]y b,e"8t~~~I 1),,~pme 0~f~ (.eg~;~~~Thj members, b.nyi ~lrr.'ldy p~,~~cd,,~w~~'~ (2 J ,~(Jm0.(pf ~h~' T~gwe,l'&,d j no J otlr:ir icfisr, ;iny 'j rl:1'~l;'iI'r1~~' 3!"w1l'ie''!j:)f [h~l:rl~gi}'t('1'9d m{;ll~h;e1:;i bdQ,Itg' to ~ smne en re'q'lil'S~~ (thLs :,is, 'Iti,ake SL~,J:tI hal di:,6,i( ~nterj)rLSe \~ill 'g~t2: [~rger '8; wf'lerJ'or\!ers:are dktrihiJ..li:d}_ '
1

t?

g

:Sf.~ ilJ~[\ fh6 "

:stnaf'h

X(.l'ri Saw, who

~ttbG9lltm(~;.I~g~~'tkpl. Z{I{i{I: l6 [,J"

~H(i ft plltm)tl-olH

,e'~l:ph ~fi6~~, :;tn~ eo-ex I;(telic('f o;i'i,), ,sy.~lrrn..in the nu'?l di;IS'ie r of Jill:lttlr ~t\), @

"

, e'....,~llO[I·'[C

In Kis ¢,,:~tv~(:"w s(JJdie-s th~L (j~:llH~1l l'~futi()'~lb i:p b~lwe(:jl r~l~gjall; rhe rnodetnlza Li:!~Jlin I~', fn1aJl Abd~Jlr~h, TQDHlXb' th~t -in 'L$H" ' Mojd(lu~0 (Gee r1;o:I%l, 1968.) ;;j nd K~!d'h f.c~5!ks,1961J[he. rdQtmbis ~(

of

m~lln ,ii:(:toJ:~ in eOOI1Qln~C8([ IVlt,~~S, while

Bal'U.r were traditt0.[]a! MutJims, He refed hn~ Vi fu:,e--r!t[,!(l:y'l)'j( nm~~{ fY(l711. J"h().,e. (,-ouduo:;ion lS'h;>;~(~' Orl th~'si'ttli'Ltion 1Ji!'197n '(Abdullah 19 ,!~,ole 1'2'), The hbI{)j'~C,'tt i'Lr~o mH glven here, f:'If)\.~,~""Cl~ shows tlra t ;:!t d~ . . ~ J,·~i_ots.9ftime-, 40111 !,C£(mnis~ and tt,."di1jO!J~1M_~d~m~'were:.tJw m!:lj[\r~crors'i!lt'iThlg iw4u'~[rl~d~1/dJopme'JU (jJ HiL!~l(.. I
','

tbe di'~'fLmi,"' mcP;'J' ~l~tl'~p:re
-

or I h(:,1TINhrg

10

~n hi;;'5,~u(lydo'se,vef11

~hLSI~'wJj[jn~fl~tl'hl

lroil'~~(

iQ:g in

B~tU,1~ .Hen r~, Sm,d,cr'

tle',):t1N)m~m ln 0efi[[,tl J~rl.'i~ (t99.3) Lil~~ (~V cdc@o a

·.le(lding~ e[ji'n;p,c~lems. "dlQ' :'$L1b;Cont.m'ct PJJ:~ (J,f 'Ih~i~ 0rd~(B to ,-. <I cht.-l~{:~, My. tiJyd1ltg.~ ~(,~~lflwll (his. FtinchL\itil~. Th~':MiJcl )i\ui $,trn OO[)[)) ~'A)1Ieludes. that th ,~'n.:~ link e'yidence (lft~H m-dlwteT~iI~k i ,\1l1li) Ilg LC~W~ on:r15 k~all~e they '(OhSLde-f' ltcl1b<1~'~w~lh the ourer e{:'(rfli:lmy s'l r,~1q;j<3. The' fi [ld~(!J$$ 01' JlilY'.S(LH:lrindi{';,ri~ the ~Ci~e;.;:.i.stf':l1.ce ~or;d i~ltcToom1ettit:J.m' b~t"Keil e~N<f.ml~· nQ !Jvtm-du's 1,6' l~n1;age~~ HM ~J~, a j [1
'e~L~rl';r~(:!s w,ithin

II Phr '~h ,iNcr~'it'w,of the J~o~lr m!lditf0il:~ t.1111'1'(':, foundrlesof iion ~hr,i&r~,4'l: 1he .shfdiq ..bX 1__hHl;;trliI:.' {1.%f)~~1,?9,3bJ ~ Irel 1\1 rJ;;k M<l.ck r~_jI.iLlic~Wila (.L~.94\;

presented in the F',re\~i~ .,o,~.lS t.h(lplerS iudlcat'e that then~ a~e man;C'i.i.nt~la):"itie$;iIt'~"u')rkmJic ~nd "wcl.al behaviou r between Hind 11 1ndl_ls1:rra! i,~~,,;;,''irrce .. iltr~il Gl1jaJ-:1t> :~Di~'1c&c and Wi,alar entrepreneurs in northhn lY~~by..,i;j, :lptdMu..slinl < businessmen in ':Gentral java" :Whik, earliet.studjes on eutrepreneership in".s01l~ha nd ~bJlHxc~stAsia tended to stress Y<Ll'itlhilitYJ OO])vet'~e[y ,thi~'~l~iwlr PQ;i;lts out th~tI thtP.::,ate'SLr~kln~g te,'lC'fnbl!-'ll1.ees)n eutt~pfeneurial l;e.l:r<liv1tmr' a:r::rosnllr:: lwo,te~t-(}Jj,~~'A~ discussed 111 (lmptcr'1, the~s~snnilarities ale-usqaHy hi.dden -t;md~l; the Y3riati:om jn~H~;I~y[j;Crtl. ap,pmJdles that tend .ro 'ov~r.en'l.j)jna;8ize th;(f:'l.lDiqu~(:hal'Jctf?J'i~ticj, of. I:liIl:si.ndsrrtcn).n India, .Malay6ia_and Indonesia, In'tlle follliwi:rig'sc,d:ji'jil0{thisc6hcludirrg ,cha:ptel>l~.;:iJ! begiri'by brl.dly stlmtnar~t,i[l3 lhe similarjtics in business strategy and social bth,i~'j_9ln'Ofthe three gWI,rf!$. 'Of el1,treprl1T1~Uj-$ In ct:nLr,af Ch;j~iat1 'northern 1}:hlilysla and ,Centullavra, Fo]lop,\/'i.I'J2 ~h'i;: i:df;t[ di5~].:1,':iSiun~an w ClJtre!JI'en.enrshll-l;'set,Qur in Chaprer ~; I 0.i1l-orgi\nizethi;s~QJ.11p,rd,~()n Q.i the 6Jhpt~i'c,d fj;l,drtlg:S@1'qund the fhm'~thenle4 otlll<Hr~g~ltltlltAlJH invc.... stmen t ra:tU~rtll fCfr,Ul;." of business 0 rgan1za tfO:nI",s.ta~e~budnes~ reb t Lf1i1SIlip t <1nd.liitJtyl.e.';i'nd' s./..)c'j;'lf stat 'JC A Ilh()u_gh this :,.:pm P'~l'~tive ~Xt::r(.t5e 'cnxphastl:cs- similOirities ~'n S\Outh and So uth ~,t/)l A~ia, .it doe~ [(ot .~l~ppO;r,( \~i&w6f a,sp~i.fi£Asian b.!:!sinep:; p<Jtte'm.'tb,at i~dtwrg¢nt, the ~frVn) l~ir. riseof [lHrI-i\,.s'lluY, especially EU,n:ipe<nf, enq;ep~i'!['Lic:ltrs.In :(lrdor to .';ub~t;lntia this, \'iew.L.L [;>:, importan l to po i.nt ont tha~ the te .st ud y of 'q(j~ P nil :).b:~rth.edsC" t\sia n ,i;jJ t~0preli,eul:~h il'\ <)~ discllssed ~n rh
THE fw.\(tiU'{{3,S ,(),P T~-:rf.THRFt; F.'0.{PfaV':iH. pTUT)J,f;.s

{]1il,pleri

1

is partly based on unexamined

(1$$Umpt'iofc1$',

,ahout the

fJd~in ~li[l{lwture of the c.apit;<1.lrst.cV,ssin ,Europ:f;., with J,vldih the}' are I

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