This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PHIL ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
COURSE: ESCI 610 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY QUESTION: CHALLENGES OF WATER SERVICE DELIVERY IN GHANA STUDENT ID: 10362863 DATE: MARCH 27, 2012
One of the international goals set for the year 2015 in the United Nations Millennium Declaration and in the plan of implementation of the world summit on sustainable development is reducing the proportion of people without adequate access to water and basic sanitation by one-half. whatever their stage of development and their social and economic conditions.gov/docs/owmitnet/water-efficiency/pubs/supply. has noted that: “public water services in many African countries have been assigned to a single water authority and the abilities of governments to deliver water adequately have been negatively affected by a number of factors. “access to good. the diseases that arise from contaminated food. However it is unfortunate that many people in the world today are lacking such quantity and quality of water needed. an organisation that deals with capacity building of water supply and sanitation utilities in Africa. It is understood that our body is made up of about 70 percent water and that it controls virtually every aspect of our health. water and hands are among the world‟s leading causes of premature death and serious illness. have the right to have access to drinking water in quantities and of a quality equal to their basic needs”(Mar del Plata Water Conference 1977). bathing. Although water covers about 70 percent of the Earth‟s surface.epa. It is the most essential necessity of life after oxygen.htm). washing and other activities. The importance of water is not only attached to the drinking but also to cooking. safe and reliable drinking water is one of the most basic needs of human society and as such requires integrated approach. Where provisions for water and sanitation are inadequate. The challenges facing many countries in the world today in their struggle for economic and social development is increasingly related to water. (http://www. The Water Utility Partnership. . Anything that disturbs the provision and supply of water therefore tends to disturb the very survival of humanity. 2004). Water is the most important of all public services. Research has shown that access to good. reliable and sufficient water supply increases the health status of people. (IWA. According to International Water Association (IWA 2004). close cooperation and partnership between all stake holders”.Introduction “All peoples. only 1 percent of it is available to us as a source of drinking.
http://www. About 58% of urban water supply goes to domestic consumption. Various strategies are always being developed to make water accessible to all inhabitants. Although the number of people with access to safe water and sanitation grew between 1980 and 1990. the gap between demand and supply of water continues to widen. at about 47 percent for water and 45 percent for sanitation. 200 leading scientists from 50 countries around the world identified a scarcity of clean water as one of the most pressing problems facing humanity. but clean water is denied millions of people. there are serious constraints to meeting the challenge to provide adequate water for all urban residents.itt. (http://www. http://www.afdb. Most of Africa‟s populations live in rural areas (62 percent) and yet access is lowest in the rural areas. (http://www. Currently about 44% of the population is urban. Between 1990 and 2000.ghanaweb. an extra 900 million people were born in places without water and sanitation. 24% to commercial/industrial customers and 18% to government and public institutions. governments face problems of provision of social facilities. Urban water supply coverage keeps decreasing from the 2002 figure of 59% just as the investments needed keep dwindling by the year.htm.165531&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL Ghana‟s population has multiplied several times since independence when urban pipe-borne systems were constructed. Water supply shortages and quality deterioration are among the problems which require greater attention and action. However due to insufficient structures coupled with rapid population growth and urbanisation. It was found out that 20% of the world's population lacks access to safe drinking water. population growth erased any substantial gain. .asp). especially in urban areas. In the developing countries in particular.org/portal/page?pageid=313. Low access to a safe water supply and adequate sanitation is the root cause of many diseases that afflict Africa and a contributory factor to the high infant and maternal mortality rates.com/GhanaHomePage/features/). especially the supply of sufficient water of good quality at a reasonable price to their citizens.In Ghana rainfall is not scarce and several rivers do not cease to flow.com/waterbook/mega_cities. In a specially-commissioned survey for United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) dubbed GEO-2000. Similar to the urban water sector in many developing countries.grida.no/geo2000/pressrel/water.
The policy also highlights the international legal framework for the domestic and transboundary utilisation of water resources. Ghana Water Supply Policy Three directions for water and sanitation management commonly advocated in the international policy arena in the 1990s were: to develop more integrated water resource management at the river basin level and manage demand more effectively (rather than simply withdrawing more and more water to meet the growing demands).The World Health Organization publication in 2000. the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the “Africa Water Vision” of the New Partnership for Africa‟s Development (NEPAD). The policy document contains sections on integrated water resources management (including water for energy. The UN World Development Report „Water for People. Water for Life‟ shows that the amount of disease and lost man hours due to unclean water is vastly greater than the cost of improving water systems”. to rely more heavily on private sector enterprises and . Given this phenomenon. food security and transportation). The National Water Policy is underpinned by the principles enunciated in the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS). says 75 % of all diseases in developing countries arose from polluted drinking water. Ghana had since the mid 1990‟s.php?ID=64473 Ghana Water Policy In response to a non-optimal production and utilization of water for consumptive and nonconsumptive uses in Ghana. in concert with other stakeholder institutions and interest groups. a policy document was developed to ensure efficient and effective management of available water resources. That same year. urban and community/small town water delivery.com/GhanaHomePage/features/artikel.2 million deaths annually. The implementation of these reforms failed to achieve their purpose due to lack of an effective interface among key stakeholder institutions with a view to integrating and harmonizing their various activities. the Ministry of Water Resources.ghanaweb. UNICEF said that: “the consumption of unsafe water contributes to about 2. http://www. in 2004. been implementing a string of reforms in the water sector aimed at enhancing the efficiency of the production and utilisation of water. commenced the process for the formulation of a consolidated national water policy which became a reality in 2007. Works and Housing.
irrigation and livestock watering. Notwithstanding the availability of water to meet water supply. as well as ensuring the availability of water for hydropower generation.000 hectares. government has undertaken major reconstruction towards liberalization of the provision of potable water. Water Utilization in Ghana Consumptive Uses The main consumptive uses of water in Ghana are water supply. Good governance and a stable macro-economic environment are expected to provide the enabling environment for sustainable potable water supply development and management. to cover a projected area of 100. the rural and small town coverage is 51. which is equivalent to only some 12% of the total surface water resources. water transport. and is therefore committed to ensuring that all Ghanaians have access to potable water. the consumptive water demand for 2020 has been projected to be 5 billion m3. watering of livestock and sustainable freshwater fisheries to ensure sustainable food security.market mechanisms to provide water and sanitation (rather than depending on public sector) and to devolve responsibilities for water and sanitation management to the lowest appropriate level ( rather than keeping all decision making centralised). On the basis of surface water resources alone. and recreation in the country. industrial use. The policy objectives are to provide affordable.(UN Habitat. . While urban water supply coverage is estimated at 55% (2004). 2003) The government of Ghana considers the provision of potable water as a critical element in its policy for sustainable economic development of the country.000m3. equitable and sustainable access to safe drinking water throughout Ghana through the establishment of efficient and effective institutional arrangements and improvement in management and investment in the sector. In line with national policy objectives. With respect to irrigation. Among the government objectives are also to guarantee the availability of water in sufficient quantities for cultivation of food crops. A key objective of the policy is to involve the private sector in the management of water systems and to attract private sector capital inflows for the rapid expansion and rehabilitation of the water sector in order to increase accessibility of all Ghanaians to reliable potable water supply. there are deficits in coverage. the projected demand by 2020 is about 400.6% (2004).
river navigation is undertaken on a 415 kilometers stretch.500 km2 at the Full Supply Level of 88. They execute the Ministry‟s programmes. Impoundments and reservoirs have been constructed for hydropower generation.Non-Consumptive Uses The main non-consumptive uses are inland fisheries. is located 100 km from the source of the Volta River. 20 km downstream of Akosombo. Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) and the Community water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA). and Local Government institutions. The non-consumptive demand can also be met from the surface water available Ministries and Institutions in water delivery services Several institutions play various roles in Ghana‟s Water and Sanitation Sector. plans and strategies on water resources management and drinking water supply in the country. There are three key public sector institutions/agencies under the ministry.733.5 metres. the Kpong Head-pond. water transport and hydropower generation. as well as a bit on External Support Agencies and NGOs Sector Ministries Ministry of Water Resources. The projected demand for hydropower generation by 2020 is 378. the Water Resources Commission (WRC). was created in 1981 when another hydroelectric dam was completed at Kpong. potable water supply and irrigation. These include Ministries. On the Volta Lake. The first hydroelectric dam. Agencies. covering an area of about 40 km2. This section presents brief information on institutional arrangements and how they link with each other from policy and coordination to implementation and regulation. policies. The dam created one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. A smaller. and co-ordination of the activities of donors . The Ministry has established a Water Directorate to oversee sector policy formulation and review. Other important impoundments are the Weija and Owabi Reservoirs on the Densu and Offin Rivers. constructed in 1965.380 m3. shallower impoundment.430 m3 as against a projected supply of 1. monitoring and evaluation of the activities of the agencies. from Akosombo to Buipe. covering an area of about 8. respectively. Works and housing (MWRWH) The Ministry is responsible for setting policies and strategies for the water sector in the country – including water resources management and supply of drinking water to both urban and rural communities.
Sector Agencies and Departments The Water Resources Commission (WRC) Created in 1996 by Act 522. It is also responsible for the efficient administration of all local government institutions including the Metropolitan. The EHSD is responsible for coordinating the activities of all the key sector institutions including MMDAs involved the environmental sanitation sector. and District Assemblies. The health sector relies on environmental sanitation data and information to contribute to disease prevention and control. collaboration.The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development This is the Ministry responsible for the overall policy formulation and strategic guidelines. monitoring and evaluation of programs for the environmental health and sanitation sector . and Ghana Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report 2009 Page 24 contributing to regulation and standard-setting for health services. Municipal. coordination. planning. the WRC is responsible for the regulation and management of the utilization of water resources and the coordination of policies related to its functions. The EHSD provides sector coordination and facilitation of MMDAs in implementing national-level and other ministries‟ programmes on environmental sanitation Ministry of Education Through the School Health Education Programme (SHEP). An Environmental Health and Sanitation Division under the Ministry was upgraded into a Directorate in 2008.both liquid and solid waste. Among its major tasks are the granting of water rights and the allocation of water resources among competing users. the Ministry is tasked to implement the hygiene promotion and the school health programme in water and sanitation in all educational institutions particularly at the basic level. It should be noted that these MMDAs are also responsible for the management and coordination of water and sanitation programmes within the communities under their jurisdiction. Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service The Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service are responsible for the management of health services in the country and providing health data. . supporting health education activities.
through participation in (and sometimes championing) sector dialogues. MMDAs are also expected to establish a budget line for water and sanitation either through central government allocations or through internally generated funds. public and industrial purposes. the CWSA is a facilitating agency under the Ministry of Water Resources. does not include urban water supply. These roles extend from financial assistance to technical assistance and. 462. Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) Established by Act 564 of 1998. CIDA. it is a stateowned company responsible for producing and distributing potable water to the urban population for domestic. . Works and Housing. contribute to development of sector policies and strategies. Development partners Development partners play a very important and indispensable role in Ghana‟s water and sanitation sector. there is a lot of field evidence to suggest that the significant presence of both international and local NGOs and Faith-Based Organizations (FBO) in the WASH Sector in Ghana is indeed helping to accelerate sector growth. NGOs Though currently difficult to estimate the exact contribution of NGOs in Ghana‟s Water in terms of sector financing. Development partners currently contribute about 80% of total WASH sector funding1. MMDAs play a crucial role of ensuring that facilities provided to rural and small towns are adequately managed and maintained. Agence Française de Dévéloppement (AFD). They are required to ensure that Water and Sanitation Committees and Water and Sanitation Development Boards are formed and given recognition to manage rural and small town water facilities provided. Metropolitan. however. This responsibility.Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) Established by Act 310 of 1965 as the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC). Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) Established under the Local Government Act. Its mandate is to facilitate the provision of safe drinking water and related sanitation and hygiene services to rural communities and small towns in Ghana. and converted to the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) by Act 461 of 1993. There are many external development assistance partners working in the sector. MMDAs are responsible for the preparation of the District Water and Sanitation Plans. DANIDA. The partners include: African Development Bank (AfDB).
The formation of the Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation (CONIWAS) in 2003 has also contributed to a better sector coordination. especially at small towns and community systems. the Catholic Church. government budget allocations. Budget Constraints and Financing Challenges CWSA has not received the full complement of its annual budget either from government or its development partners over the years. individuals and the general public even before independence.WaterAid. and funds for administrative expenses have always been cut back by more than half ( MWRWH. Plan International and Adventist Development and Relief Organization (ADRA). In the case of government there has been little or no contribution to the investment budget. are among international NGOs sometimes playing roles of donors and implementers. Challenges in Water Delivery Services As has already been said. In effect this has enabled CONIWAS to bring its members to conform to sector‟s procedures and guidelines. private sector investments and donor contributions. Church of Christ. World Vision International (WVI). the challenge of adequate potable water supply to the people is of concern to government. This however was met with fierce resistance and opposition by a good section of the Ghanaian public in 2004. Limited Capacity at District Assembly Level for Water and Sanitation Delivery The capacity of the districts to effectively manage water and sanitation projects under their jurisdiction is still a challenge. Apart from the fact that the proposed Works Departments are not . having been collaborating with the MWRWH and its agencies. particularly CWSA. 2009) The key sources of sector financing include tariffs. and do not support any significant capital investments. in Ghana. It was out of the difficulties that government faced in attempts to supply potable water to the people of Ghana that led to the idea of privatizing the water sector in 2004. a situation which was previously missing. The reality is that tariffs are often insufficient to cover O&M. Below are some of the major challenges facing water delivery services in Ghana.
Lack of Coordination between Sector Ministries and Agencies Lack of coordination between various major stakeholders has led to denial of responsibilities and duplication of works. Institutional capacity issues Ghana enacted in 2007 the National Water Policy that provides an adequate framework for the sustainable development of water resources and the provision of water supply services. the difficulty arises in abstracting water in the mountainous areas. the rampant transfer of trained staff on specific water and sanitation projects also immensely undermines the capacity of the DAs. This makes the achievement of project targets difficult. the implementation and enforcement of the policy has been slow due in part to insufficient professional staff and operational budget at the Water Directorate and the Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate.established in many DAs. Hydro-geological challenges Hydro-geological challenges are more pronounced in the Northern Region where insufficient ground water leads to low drilling success rates. Water and Sanitation Development and other Boards There have been major incidences of political interference in water management issues especially the dissolution of well established and trained Water Boards. agency boards including . Long processes involved in the use of the Procurement Law The requirements of the Procurement Act are quite cumbersome. time consuming and laborious to deal with. In the Eastern and Volta Regions. This has also derailed our quest to expanding our water delivery coverage and quality. The evaluation process is burdensome especially at the DAs where the expertise is limited when it comes to water and sanitation projects. This situation thus leads to delays in the execution of some projects. However. whereas in the Brong Ahafo Region the challenge is mainly associated with mud drilling.
the Water Resources Commission. CWSA Board. Though the Procurement Act has introduced a great deal of transparency in the system. What happens at the moment is that some communities that are purely urban (according to the GSS definition of urban as a community with 5. recruitment of staff. change in Managing Directors and CEOs of agencies etc whenever there is a change in government. Conclusions and Recommendations The Procurement Act should be reviewed to reflect current circumstances given the need to accelerate water and sanitation delivery to minimize the health risk of the unserved masses.000 or more inhabitants) are actually reported under rural or small town by CWSA because they fall under the CWSA operational area as small towns. award of contracts and collapse of installed systems. Long delays in replacing and training such Boards and Directors affect the overall performance of the water delivery services as they affect major decision-making such as release of funds and disbursement. There is therefore the need to find common definitions for these terminologies for effective monitoring and reporting . Population estimates Ineffective estimates of population turn to affect management decisions and can distort all statistical data and give a very wrong picture of what is supposed to be the actual situation. it must be reviewed to introduce some higher degree of flexibility to properly align it to the development exigencies of current times Efforts towards harmonization and establishment of a sectorwide M&E framework and routine dissemination of available data within the sector must be accelerated. Data disaggregation should base on common definitions for urban and rural.
D. (2010). Works and Housing (2009). Sweden Adam N. The Bonn Charter for Safe Drinking Water.MWRWH (2007). Thesis submitted to Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm. HENRY W. Community expectations of Funsi small town water system in the upper-west region of Ghana. ( 2007). Ministry of Water Resources. . Water and Sanitation Sector Performance Report. Bonn Government of Ghana. National Water Policy. Assessing the Challenges of Water Supply in Urban Ghana: The case of North Teshie. (2004).References International Water Association.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?