CHAPTER – I Introduction



1. What Is PERCEPTION? Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. It need not be, but there is often disagreement. For example, it’s possible that all employees in a firm may view it as a great place to work- favorable working conditions, interesting job assignments, good pay, an understanding and responsible management – but , as most of us know, it’s very unusual to find such agreement. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION: A number of factors operate to shape & sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the context of the situation on which the perception is made. a) Factors in the perceiver – • • • • • Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations

b) Factors in the situation – • • • Time Work setting Social setting

c) Factors in the target – 2


• • • • • • •

Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity

CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR Behavior is a mirror in which everyone shows his or her image. Behavior is a process of responding to stimuli. Consumer behavior is to do with the activities of individuals in obtaining and using the goods and services. It encompasses the decision making process that precedes and determines purchases. In the words Prof. C.G. Walter and Prof. G.W. Paul it is “ The process whereby individuals decide whether, what,

when, where, how and from whom to purchase goods and services”. Consumer or Customer behavior is all the psychological, social and physical behavior of potential customers as they become aware of evaluate, purchase, consume and tell others the products or services.


Social and Cultural Influences Culture is learned behavior that has been passed down over time, reinforced in our daily lives through the family unit and through education and religious institutions. Culture influences, therefore, are powerful ones and if the company does not understands the 3


culture in which the particular market operates it cannot hope to develop products and market them successfully. It is important to recognize that culture although immensely powerful is not fixed forever. Change in culture tends to be slow and not fully assimilated until a generation or more has passed. Specific social influences 3.2.1 Social class This is the most prominent social influence. Traditionally, one of the chief determinants of social class was income. Since pay structures have altered a great deal in terms of the lower C2, D, and E categories moving more towards levels previously enjoyed by higher A, B and C1 categories over the past 30 years or so, classification of consumers on the basis of lifestyle is becoming more meaning today. 3.2.1 Reference groups

This can be described as group of people whose standards of conducts of mould an individual’s dispositions, beliefs and values. This group can be small or large. Reference groups can range from the immediate family to the place of work. They can also be found in a person’s social life. An individual is unlikely to deviate too far from the behavioral norms led down by the members of a club or hobby group. Reference group, but it does state that individualism cannot exist within a group, but it does suggest that even rigid independent thinkers will at least be aware of what is considered ‘normal’ within a group. 3.2.3. Motivation Marketers are interested in motivation when it relates to purchasing behaviour. This behaviour relates to the motive for wishing to posses the goods or services in question, and it has been termed ‘goal-related behaviour’. It can, therefore, be seen that a



number of motives might be at play when making a purchaser decision – some motives stronger than others – and the final decision might be a compromise solution.


The liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has taken place almost a decade ago, the focus point in any organization is “Customer satisfaction”. The phase such as “Customer is king in our business”, “service to customer is service to god” are no more a myth but turned out to be a reality. Customer satisfaction is the base of any business expansion because of the stiff competition prevalent in the market. Whether the buyer is satisfied after the purchase depends on the offer’s performance in relation to the buyer’s expectation. In general; satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance ( or outcome) in relation to his or her expectation. As this definition makes clear, satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectation. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations the customer is satisfied.

4.1 Perception

Unlike motivation that requires a reaction to a stimulus, perception relates to the meaning that is assigned to that stimulus as marketers are interested in how buyers perceive and react to products in relation to such matters as quality, aesthetics, price and image, since products not only exist in partial terms but also how they are perceived by consumers in relation need satisfaction. This perception by buyers is affected by the nature


by the circumstances of the individual buyer and by the buyer’s innate situation in terms of how ready they are to make the purchase in terms of needing it at a particular point of time.3 Learning In the context of marketing. Literature Review 6 . 4. This is why certain stores or companies go out of their way to engender favorable attitude and it is why manufacturer seek to induce loyalty towards their particular brand or product. learning is a result of information received through advertising or other publicity or through some reference group or other. the sum total of our attitudes can be regarded as a set of cognitions that a potential buyer has in relation to a potential purchase or purchasing environment. In marketing terms. More refined attitude develops later. In order to have an effect on motives or attitudes. marketing effort should associate the product with positive drives and reinforcing messages.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” of the product itself. 4.2 Attitude Our strongest basic attitudes are implanted in our formative years and these come largely from the influence of our close family group and other social interaction.

25 . The economy segment made up the remaining lion's share of the market. Washing powders were categorized into four segments economy (selling at less than Rs. Nirma and Henkel (through its joint venture with SPIC. a leading petrochemical company based in the south Indian city of Chennai). The major players in the Indian detergent market were HLL. The fabric wash industry in India was characterized by low per capita consumption.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” DETERGENT MARKET IN INDIA The Indian fabric wash products market was a highly fragmented one. premium (Rs. Of the 23 lakh-tonne market. 120 per kg) and compact (selling at over Rs. 90 per kg). while powder accounted for the rest. Detergent cakes accounted for 40% of the synthetic detergent used. mid-priced (Rs. premium and medium priced segments together accounted for 20% of the volume share and 35% of the value share. especially in rural markets. 90 . MARKET SHARE 7 .Rs.Rs. 120 per kg). laundry soaps and bars made from vegetable oils accounted for around seven lakh tonnes with synthetic detergents making up the rest. P&G. The compact.25 per kg). There was a sizeable unorganized sector.

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Major Players:       Surf Excel Rin Arial Tide Nirma Wheel 8 .


In such a widespread. which took on mighty multinationals and rewrote the marketing rules to win the heart of princess. Now. 00 crores. Nirma.India is a one of the largest consumer economy. with burgeoning middle class pie. 000 employee-base and annual turnover is above Rs.which is instantly recognized as a true Indian brand. Looking at the FMCG synergies.000 per annum.000 tones. it has about 14. SURF EXCEL 10 . i. making it one of the largest volume sales with a single brand name in the world. Nirma stepped into toilet soaps relatively late in 1990 but this did not deter it to achieve a volume of 100.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” NIRMA is one of the few names . the proverbial ‘Rags to Riches’ saga of Dr. This makes Nirma the largest detergent and the second largest toilet soap brand in India with market share of 38% and 20% respectively. the year 2004 sees Nirma’s annual sales touch 800. is a classic example of the success of Indian entrepreneurship in the face of stiff competition. the consumer. Nirma aptly concentrated all its efforts towards creating and building a strong consumer preference towards its ‘value-for-money’ products. 25.e. diverse marketplace. Karsanbhai Patel. today. Starting as a one-man operation in 1969.

11 . the new ad features two kids taking a Puddle fight to distract their fighting parents fighting over a car collision. The voice over says " if some thing good happens because of dirt then Dirt is Good".The new campaign too strikes a chord with the consumers.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Surf Excel is currently running two campaigns riding on the popularity of the "Daag Ache Hain" ( Dirt is good) campaign. According to a report in agencyfaqs. Continuing with the earlier campaign. the creative team had a tough task in continuing a classic campaign and no doubt they have been very successful. The ad features a group of kids preparing for World Cup 2015. The second campaign takes a cue from the World cup.

Sanzar . Check (powder) 10. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Though there were many detergent brands in the market – Det. Chase. Pont. Mazda . Plus. Name of the Product Multi National Company Proctor and Gamble India Ltd. Plus. Henkel Spic India Ltd. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Key. When Procter& Gamble India (P&G) entered the detergent . Bricks Ltd. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Hindustan Lever Ltd. some of the soaps of the local industries. Hipolene. White (powder) 11. market of India at the beginning of the 1990s. Henkel Spic India Ltd. Rebit and Colman India Ltd.Vimal 01. Surf-Ultra (powder) 09. Vijay. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Tej. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Colin 14. Wheel(cake) 06. 255 Chabi Ghadi Doctor Hipolin Fena Dhara Date Dot Superfine. Aril. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Tide 02. 501. Sunlight(cake) 08.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” WASHING POWDER and CAKE Sr. 555. Rebit and Colman of India Ltd. Rin 04. Vimal. the market had just calmed down after a decade long battle between HLL’s Surf and Nirma of Nirma Chemicals. MARKRTING STRATEGIES OF ALL THE MAJOR PLAYERS. etc – Surf remained the 12 . Surf-Ultra 03. Hindustan Lever Ltd. Sunlight 07. Vim(powder) 12. Wheel 05. Rebit and Colmen India Indian Substitute Nirma. Harpic 13. Adhunik.

Choosing the price conscious.800 crore market. by then the detergents market of India had grown into a Rs 1. In fact. HLL also introduced Sunlight detergent powder. In addition. The latter had been the market leader for years without any significant challenge whatsoever. Hindustan Lever. the rivals around the world. and its leading brand. Nirma Chemicals offered a low-priced brand and promoted it aggressively. The company will stick to this plan even if 13 . a brand extension of its Sunlight washing soap taking advantage of its time tested brand image. HLL introduced a low priced brand. P&G and Lever. The company stepped up its promotion of Surf. Yet. How did P&G go about marketing Ariel? What marketing strategy did P&G employ? P&G Seeks leadership position in the industry: P&G laid down its marketing strategy in respect of Ariel: P&G aims at making Ariel the leading detergent brand of India. Also.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” leader and Nirma the challenger. HLL had to defend Surf with all its might. squarely confronting the exiting market leader. were now combating on Indian ground. relying heavily on aspects like quality and value for money. Nirma garnered a share of 35 per cent of the market and literally shook Hindustan Lever. lower segment as its market and taking advantage of the concessions as an SSI unit. the P&G-HLL battle finally turned out to be one of the major marketing encounters of the 1990s. and positioned it directly against Nirma in the same segment. Wheel. It was into this market that P&G entered with its Ariel as a direct contestant against Surf. within a few years. Our marketing strategy will be centered around this major theme. Surf.

people used soap preparations made from plant or animal fats. but the relation between personal and environmental cleanliness is a less obvious one. says Toxics Link.S. DETERGENTS UNDER SCRUTINY The virtually unregulated use of pollutant chemicals in the Indian detergent industry is a situation that needs to be quickly reversed. Soap making dates back to about 1500 BC. The detergent 14 . P&G put Ariel on the Indian market in 1990. This was followed by the development of allpurpose laundry detergents introduced in the U.Cleanliness has been an important consideration for human beings from time immemorial. The first detergents were used chiefly for hand dishwashing and fine fabric laundering. India has a diverse range of detergents available off the shelf. in 1946. In ancient India too. positioning it directly against HLL’s Surf. Today. Modern technology has provided synthetic detergents that have slowly replaced soaps. October 2002 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” it means sacrificing profits in the short run. The formal sector with its increasing ability to influence consumers via advertisements is expanding its market share aggressively. the earliest records indicate that a combination of animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts was used to form a soap-like material. The annual consumption of detergents in India ranges to hundreds of thousands of tonnes.

showed that 77. Synthetic detergent powders consist of surfaceactive agents. enzymes. bleaching agents. They contain wetting agents and emulsifiers. builders and fillers. They cause 15 . based on nonsoap synthetic surfactants. organic sequestering agents. boasting of technologically dubious terms such as fighting granules. A study done to understand the Indian consumers knowledge of harmful effects of detergents on health and environment. optical fibre brighteners (whitening agents). foam regulators. etc.6 percent of respondents had experienced some kinds of skin irritation due to detergents. bluing agents. Detergents and health Detergents are household chemical cleaning compounds used for laundering and dishwashing. perfumers. Of these the majority comprised of dhobis and rural women. and substances that regulate the density and assure crispness of the material they are used on. In addition they have additives like anti redeposition agents. These residues enter our bodies either through the skin or through the lungs. Each brand claims to clean whiter.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” market has evolved into a highly competitive one where a myriad brands vie with each other to get the customers' attention. power pearls. Conventional laundry detergents leave chemical residues on the clothes.

which may develop into dermatitis. causing serious health effects to people with asthma or chronic heart problems. The usual result of a continuous and excessive exposure of the skin to detergents is drying. In India. The figures are of concern because high quality detergents have as much as 35 per cent STPP in them. per capita consumption of detergents in 1994 was 2. According to Prof Narinder K. Phosphates are a major source of water pollution that has become the direct cause of 42 per cent of human and animal diseases. Kauschik. fissuring and dotting of the keratin layer leading to increased permeability that causes sensitization. This is projected to rise to over 4 kg/capita by 2005. Any natural process like this 16 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” many common health problems including allergies. In rural areas the use of detergent bars is expected to grow 7-8 per cent annually. Professor emeritus for environmental biology at the Canadian University of Guelph.8 kg per annum. cancer. skin infections and in rare cases. Detergents and water pollution Most laundry detergents in India are phosphate based. The fragrances used in laundry detergents can prove allergic and be highly irritating to lungs. Elderly people are more susceptible to infections that may lead to developing eczema. "the main problem is that of phosphate-based detergents promoting eurtrophication of aquatic environments." Eutrophication or Nutrient pollution is a process by which water bodies gradually age and become more productive.

this is a grim situation since these water bodies are the primary sources of water for a large section of the population. These plant nutrients are supplied primarily in the form of phosphorus. cause odour and increase pathogenic animals. and at times. near anoxic situation. and manure run-off is down to one fifth of the total annual rate. Findings show that during the dry seasons when the run-off from agriculture is virtually zero. In India. The presence of excessive plant nutrients causes pollution of water bodies.3 per cent which poses significant eutrophication impact risks. The algal boom leads to consumption of the oxygen dissolved in water. In the Indian context. but also due to fertilizers and manures. nitrogen and carbon to water bodies in various ways. it is not uncommon to see ponds.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” might take thousands of years to progress but human activities accelerate this process tremendously. Seasonal impacts Run-off of phosphates into water streams is not only due to detergents. This can lead to excessive eutrophication that kills the fish. 17 . detergents are responsible for additional loadings of rivers by about 7. creating hypoxic. Sewage perhaps is a particular source of phosphorus when detergents containing large amounts of phosphates are drained during washing. lakes and part of rivers choking with algae or other aquatic plants.

Industry ought to label its products voluntarily for containing phosphate so that it can be left to the consumer to decide.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” The Detergent Industry Detergent industry refuses to take any action due to a lack of mandatory legislations. As a proactive response to environment risks as result of increasing levels of phosphates. Kaushick strict regulations in North America and Europe makes it mandatory for the multinational detergent industry to produce detergents with nominal phosphate content (or even phosphate-free detergent). Industry representatives have declined to do so on grounds that the amount of phosphate used in northern countries is higher as compared to that in India. According to Prof. Better options . where it manufactures detergents with a high phosphate content. The industry vehemently opposes any regulation of phosphate use in detergents. The fact is that India relies only on Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) which are not fully functional even in metropolitan cities unlike northern countries where STPs are installed for every few households. It is not prepared to indicate the percentage phosphate content on detergent packages.Eco-friendly household cleaning powders 18 . the industry needs to reduce the perilously high phosphate levels of 30 per cent to far lower numbers. The same industry absolves itself of this responsibility in India.

2. colour and brightening agents. For a simple formula to make your own detergent. To identify most preferred brand. 19 . The toxicity of detergents decreases by non-addition of additives like perfumes. To identify the major players of Detergents. builders like phosphates can be replaced by sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” An environmentally superior detergent is the one that makes use of lesser chemical ingredients. Objective of the research 1. dyes and fragrances can be eliminated or minimized. write to Toxics Link. To study the determinants of consumer prefrence against detergent in durg & bhilai. Detergent use can never be a totally non-polluting activity. Synthetic surfactants may be replaced by non-petrochemical surfactants or vegetable oil soaps. Using 'green detergents' that do not contain non-essential additives like perfumes. Consumers must press for implementation of labelling standards and regulation so that they may avail of environmentally friendly choices. The consumer needs to be informed that the smaller detergent products can also be the least polluting ones. Minimal packaging can also reduce environmental harm substantially. colour and brightening agents in minimal packaging will go a long way in ensuring a cleaner and healthier environment. 3.

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 4. To study on the effect of advertisement on customers for purchasing the detergent. CHAPTER – II Research methodology 20 .

5.  Research design.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Research Methodology 1. 4. organizing and evaluating data. Data Collection METHOD. formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions. The research process is carried out to a series of step. making deductions and reaching conclusion. Research Methodology The research comprises of defining and redefining problems. 2. Sampling Design. 3. which are required to be taken in chorological order. 21 . 7. and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit formulating hypothesis. Data Source. Research Design. The major marketing research steps are as follows:  Problem identification. collecting. Research Methodology. Sampling Size. Sampling Unit. 6.

then the research result may be completely useless for the management.  Report Presentation. and the research effort of the investigation will be a futile exercise. Research Design A research design is a master plan or model for the formal investigation. There are three basic types of research design:- Descriptive Exploratory Casual 22 . On the other hand if the problem identified vaguely.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK”  Fieldwork. The step has very significance. A research design id the specification of methods & procedure. a wrong problem is identified. or research is not clarified. Questionnaires are tested. samples for investigations are planned. once it is said “A Problem well identified is half way to solution”. Once the formal investigation is decided. Data gathering forms are prepared. the researcher must formulate the formal plan of investigation.  Data analysis & interpretation. for acquiring the information needed for solving the problem. The formal investigation plan will concentrate on the selection of sources of information and the selection of methods and procedures for gathering the data. Problem Identification The first and foremost step in this research is to identify the problem chosen for investigation.

. those in which little or no grouping has been made. which are originally. In social science and business research we quit use the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. which are obtained for the first time by the investigator himself. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. In order words. Source of Data Primary Data: Primary data are those data. i.e. the instance being recorded or itemized encountered. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exits at present. by primary data we mean those data. or of a group. DATA SOURCE There are two sources of data collection:  Primary data source  Secondary data source. which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual. 23 . Descriptive studies are those studies.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” In my research I have used the descriptive research design Descriptive Research Design The descriptive study is typically concerned with determining frequency with which some thing occurs or variable vary together this study is guided by an initial hypothesis.

To provide the best end results without any kind of biasness. In this cause he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data.e. they refer to the data. Precautions are not necessary in the use of the primary data. DATA COLLECTION METHOD As a data collection method I have used the Questionnaire Method. When the researcher utilizes secondary data. sampling size and sampling procedure therefore it is necessary to find out sampling plan if population is 100. Primary data are according to object of investigation and used without correction. energy and time. which have already been collected and analysed by some one else. Sample Design Consists of: 24 . Why a Questionnaire Method has been adopted? Questionnaire had been prepared to get the response of the people as per guided by the organizational guide. then he has to look in to various sources from where he can obtain them. SAMPLING DESIGN Sampling plan consists of sampling unit.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” The source of primary data used in my project is the questionnaire. Primary are the raw data like raw material. Secondary Data: Secondary data means data that are already available i. which can give a brief idea about sampling and would be beneficial for making inferences for tabulations and calculations with research instruments? I made a survey through questionnaire as prepared by me. The collection of primary data requires large sum. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data.

Classes Student Service class Business Class Household Total No. I have considered 100 as sample size. 2.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” • • • Experimental Research design Exploratory Research design Descriptive Research design. 3. 4. Research Plan Research Design Data Source : : Descriptive Research Primary Data 25 . SAMPLING UNIT Sampling/Unit is the total number of samples differed in different locality. S. All the area had segmented according the population of this area.of Classes 25 25 25 25 100 Data have been collected through the survey method while surveys have been conducted in one city: i) ii) Bhilai Durg All the data are primary in the nature as they had been collected first and personally.No. 1.

preference. Sometime the respondents are not available at their place. practice cannot be assessed correctly. in such case their habit. 3. Very often the responded do not express their true feelings.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Research Instrument Measurement scale : : Questionnaire Likert’s Scale Sample Plan Sampling Design Sample Size Sample Location Sample Element : : : : Simple Random Design 100 Bhilai & Durg STUDENT SERVICE CLASS BUSINESS CLASS HOUSEHOLD – – – – 25 25 25 25 Limitations This study is only modest attempt and not be claimed as comprehensive one. further it is to be pointed that data are inebriation for the study and consequently the findings made out of it are reliable to the extend that the respondents have been forthright nourishing the same. 2. During conducting this research I come across the following limitations: 1. The research period was a short period to carryout study with almost precautions. 26 .

genuine. Some of the respondents refuse to give the important information best known to them.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 4. and fulfilling the objectives of the reports. However in spite of these limitations all efforts have been put to make the report correct. Chapter -III WASHING POWDER AND CACKE HISTORY 27 .

This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces (glass. each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules only on the water side. However. which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process. the liquid commonly used for cleaning. at the surface. has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water. it is helpful to have a basic knowledge of soap and detergent chemistry Water. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. fabric). The drop will hold its shape and will not spread 28 .they may be: 1) Detergent Soap 2) Detergent Powder Detergent Chemistry? To understand what is needed to achieve effective cleaning. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of water onto a counter top.intended to assist cleaning.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Detergent is a compound or mixture of components .

Now let's look closer at the chemistry of surfactants. surface tension must be reduced so water can spread and wet surfaces. They are said to make water "wetter. Surfactants can also provide alkalinity.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” In the cleaning process. which is useful in removing acidic soils. Surfactants are classified by their ionic (electrical charge) properties in water: anionic (negative charge). emulsifying (dispersing in water) and holding soil in suspension until it can be rinsed away. Soaps are made from fats and oils. cationic (positive charge) and amphoteric (either positive or negative charge). Soap is an anionic surfactant. 29 . or surfactants. such as loosening. Chemicals that are able to do this effectively are called surface active agents. Other anionic as well as nonionic surfactants are the main ingredients in today's detergents. or their fatty acids. SOAPS Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. nonionic (no charge)." Surfactants perform other important functions in cleaning. by treating them chemically with a strong alkali.

three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of glycerine. Each fat or oil is made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides In a triglyceride molecule. There are many types of triglycerides. each type consists of its own particular combination of fatty acids Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. oils and alkalis.Fats and Oils The fats and oils used in soapmaking come from animal or plant sources. and one carbon (C) atom. They are weak acids composed of two parts A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” First let's examine the composition of fats. 30 . it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two hydrogen (H) atoms. plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. then we'll review the soapmaking process . two oxygen (O) atoms. Generally.

the alkalis used in soapmaking were obtained from the ashes of plants. This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) plus glycerine. also called caustic soda. Originally. the term alkali describes a substance that chemically is a base (the opposite of an acid) and that reacts with and neutralizes an acid. and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The common alkalis used in soapmaking are sodium hydroxide (NaOH). but they are now made commercially.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Alkali An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. How Soaps are Made Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soapmaking process. Today. 31 . also called caustic potash.

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” The other major soapmaking process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerine. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap). a potassium soap is formed. a sodium soap is formed. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and 32 . Potassium soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It is called the hydrophilic (water-loving) end. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide. Sodium soaps are "hard" soaps. When the alkali is sodium hydroxide.

SURFACTANTS IN DETERGENTS <>A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. both petroleum and fats and oils contain hydrocarbon chains that are repelled by water but attracted to oil and grease in soils. 33 . Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film Detergent surfactants were developed in response to a shortage of animal and vegetable fats and oils during World War I and World War II. At that time. Petrochemicals and Oleochemicals Like the fatty acids used in soapmaking. In addition. Today. petroleum was found to be a plentiful source for the manufacture of these surfactants. It is known as the hydrophobic (water-hating) end. These hydrocarbon chain sources are used to make the water-hating end of the surfactant molecule. the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. a substance that was resistant to hard water was needed to make cleaning more effective.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” repelled by water. detergent surfactants are made from a variety of petrochemicals (derived from petroleum) and/or oleochemicals (derived from fats and oils). Because of their chemical makeup.

are used to produce the water-loving end of the surfactant molecule Alkalis As in soapmaking.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Other Chemicals Chemicals. Nonionic Surfactants Nonionic surfactant molecules are produced by first converting the hydrocarbon to an alcohol and then reacting the fatty alcohol with ethylene oxide. HOW SOAPS AND DETERGENTS WORK 34 . A second reaction adds an alkali to the new acids to produce one type of anionic surfactant molecule. Sodium and potassium hydroxide are the most common alkalis How Detergent Surfactants Are Made Anionic Surfactants The chemical reacts with hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or fats and oils to produce new acids similar to fatty acids. an alkali is used to make detergent surfactants. sulfuric acid and ethylene oxide. such as sulfur trioxide.

One important reason is that oil and grease present in soil repel the water molecules. Warm or hot water helps dissolve grease and oil in soil. the water-loving end is attracted to the water molecules. At the same time. Let's assume we have oily. The surfactant's water-hating end is repelled by water but attracted to the oil in the soil. greasy soil on clothing. Let's look at how they work together. Water alone will not remove this soil. Washing machine agitation or hand rubbing helps pull the soil free. 35 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” These types of energy interact and should be in proper balance. Now let's add soap or detergent. These opposing forces loosen the soil and suspend it in the water.

“marketing is concerned with people and the activities involved in the flow of goods and serves from the producer to the consumer. promise and distribute want satisfying goods and services to present and potential customer.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Marketing means understanding and responding to customer needs.” According to American marketing association.J. “marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan.” According to W.” NEED PRODUCT SERVICE WANTS DESIGN PRODUTION SALES SATISFACTION 36 . a pre-requisite (condition) for any organization success. prices. Santan.


X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 38 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” DATA ANALYSIS Likert’s measurement scale HIGHLY JUST LITTLE DISSATISFIED 3 2 1 0 Index Determinants Brand Advertisement Price Availability Parameters Fragrance STUDENT Colour SERVICE PERSON Safe side HOUSEHOLD Quality BUSINESS CLASS Size STUDENTS HIGHLY 13 2 21 0 6 0 12 21 0 JUST 11 21 4 20 13 4 13 3 2 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 1 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 5 1 17 4 0 0 1 0 16 7 TOTAL 62 49 71 45 49 25 62 70 20 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 .

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” SERVICE PERSON X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 HIGHLY 5 0 11 2 2 0 14 12 1 JUST 17 3 14 7 18 1 11 13 6 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 3 0 18 4 0 0 12 4 2 3 20 4 0 0 0 0 13 5 TOTAL 52 24 61 32 44 22 64 62 28 HOUSEHOLD HIGHLY 6 0 22 2 6 0 8 24 0 JUST 19 15 3 16 16 6 17 1 9 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 0 0 8 2 0 0 7 0 3 0 17 2 0 0 0 0 15 1 TOTAL 56 38 72 45 53 29 58 74 33 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 BUSINESS CLASS HIGHLY X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 16 2 17 8 8 2 21 19 0 JUST 8 5 7 14 17 7 4 5 12 LITTLE 1 16 1 3 0 15 0 1 11 DISSATISFIED 0 65 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 TOTAL 32 66 55 58 35 71 68 35 39 .

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 1.How much do you consider Brand in purchasing detergent? Y1 62 Y2 52 Y3 65 Y4 56 Brand Brand 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Brand 40 .

How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent? Advertisement Y1 49 Y2 24 Y3 32 Y4 38 Advertisement 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Advertisement 41 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 2.

How much do you consider Availability in purchasing detergent? 42 .How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent? Price Y1 71 Y2 61 Y3 66 Y4 72 Price 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Price 4.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 3.

How much do you consider Fragrance in purchasing detergent? 43 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Availability Y1 45 Y2 32 Y3 55 Y4 45 Availability 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Availability 5.

How much do you consider Colour in purchasing detergent? 44 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Y1 Y2 44 Y3 58 Y4 53 Fragrance 49 Fragrance 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Fragrance 6.

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Y1 Y2 22 Y3 35 Y4 29 Colour 25 Colour 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Colour 7.How much do you consider Safeside in purchasing detergent? 45 .

How much do you consider Quality in purchasing detergent? 46 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Y1 Y2 64 Y3 71 Y4 58 Safeside 62 Safeside 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Safeside 8.

“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” Y1 Y2 62 Y3 68 Y4 74 Quality 70 Quality 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Quality 47 .

How much do you consider Size in purchasing detergent? Y1 Y2 28 Y3 35 Y4 33 Size 20 Size 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Size 48 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 9.


Colour . The companies are therefore . Quality and Significant. Price.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” It is concluded that difference between the Parameters i. Brand.e Student. Size is also 50 .e Advertisement. They are also advised to make different strategies for different parameters as they are showing different purchase behaviour.advised to give more emphasis on cleanliness factors and price where as less emphasis on fragrance and colour. fragrance.Safeside. Households and Business Class is Significant. Also the difference between the Determinants i. Availability . Service Class.


altavista.Second Edition.1.wikipedia. Web-site  www. Gupta S. 2) Rampal K.com Annexure 52 .Project Report Writing New Delhi . “Research Methodology” New Delhi .M.“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 1) Kothari C. 3) Encarta Encylopedia standard 2004.com  www.com  www. 1990.google.Willy Eastern Ltd.R.Galgotia Publication 2001.

000 More than 30. Other (Please specify) …………. Which detergent do you usually prefer? a.000 .000-30. Surf S b. High b. c c. Little b. On an average c. Gender : Male 10.000 Female 5. Rin d. High c. How much do you consider brand in purchasing detergent? a.000 20.. Tide e e. Age(in years) : 0-20 20-40 40-60 More than 60 Business Class Students Occupation : Service Person Households Others (please specify): ……………………… 3. On an average d. Not at all 53 c. How much do you d.000 4.) : 0 .“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” QUESTIONNAIRE 1. High b. Arial Nirma f. 6. Not at all consider advertisement in purchasing detergent? a. How much do you consider price in purchasing detergent? a. Monthly Income (in Rs.20. 2. Little . Not at all 8. Little 7.10. On an average d.

......... On an average d....... How much do you consider size in purchasing detergent? a.. High b..... Date ……………….. Not at all 12...... b...... Little 13..... High c..... On an average d..... signature 54 ...... Little b.. How much do you consider colour in purchasing detergent? a. Not at all c. Little YOUR OPINION: …….... How much do you consider quality in purchasing detergent? a..... Not at all c. High b........ High b....... High c. Little b. Not at all 11. High c. Not at all How much do you consider fragrance in purchasing detergent? a... On an average d.. ……………………………………………………………………………………... Little 10. How much do you consider availability in purchasing detergent? a... How much do you consider safe side in purchasing detergent? a....... Place ………………..... Little 14. On an average d.... On an average d. Not at all c...... On an average d...............“A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK” 9..............

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