Tourism Industry CHAPTER 1: INDUSTRY AND WORKINGS

Tourism is an industry that operates on a massively broad scale: it embraces activities ranging from the smallest sea-side hotel; to air-lines, multi-national hotel chains and major international tour operators. Originally, non-traditional industries such as tourism emerged as a solution to strike a balance between ecology and industry. The tourism industry is now one of the largest sectors earning foreign exchange for the exchequer. In the face of such benefits, many countries have started assigning due weightage to the tourism industry in their national development agenda.

Tourism statistics:
♠ Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries at present and holds the status of the world's no. 1 industry. ♠ The tourism industry as a whole is presently estimated to earn over US$ 3.5 trillion worldwide. ♠ The industry creates a job every 2.4 seconds with every one of those direct jobs creating another 11 indirect ones. ♠ Spending on tourism amounts to 5%-10% of total consumer, spending in a year worldwide. ♠ India's share of the total market is a pittance at 0.51%. The non-tourist countries like Malaysia and Indonesia get much more tourists than India. ♠ However, the average duration of stay of foreign tourist in India is one of the highest in the world. On an average, it exceeds 27 days in the case of non-package tourists and is 14 days in the case of package tourists. ♠ Tourism has the distinction of being the third largest export industry after gems and jewellery and readymade garments in India. ♠ The Tourism industry's foreign exchange earnings in India are around $3.2 billion. Tourism is the highest foreign exchange earner if we consider the fact that net value addition in Gems and jewellery is less than 30 % whereas, in tourism it is more than 90 %.

India: Tourism Revenues and Expenditures 1990-2010

♠ It also has one of the best employment multipliers when compared with any other industry in India. It generates maximum job opportunities, as it provides direct employment to 9.1 million people and indirect employment to another 12.4 million. But these statistics do not appear so impressive when viewed in the global perspective and compared with that of other countries shown in the graph below. Tourists Arrivals and Receipts From Tourism 1996

Source: 1. Report, World Tourism Organization - 1996. 2. Study by Mahajan and Aibara, Consultants to the Tourism and Hotel Industry, 1997.

♠ Tourism has been a neglected sector in India. Though it was recognized as a priority sector in the Seventh Five Year Plan, hardly anything was done to promote this industry. ♠ Though the government has promised to give industry status to tourism, still, budgetary support for this department is a mere Rs. 379 crore. This is despite a total tax collection of about Rs. 2000 crore in 1996 from this sector. ♠ The tourism industry currently stands 127th on the list of priorities of the Indian government. It is true that India has yet to reach the prosperity level where leisure activity can be included in the priority sector but, if solving the country's unemployment and foreign exchange problems are on the top of the national agenda, the potential of this industry cannot be neglected.

A S.L.E.P.T. Analysis Of The Tourism Industry In India:
Social:
Tourism was always looked upon as something that led to the destruction of the social fabric of a place. The more the amount of outside people coming into a place, the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. A good example is Goa. From the late 60's to the early 80's when the Hippy culture was at its height, Goa was a haven for such hippies. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state. This had a ripple effect on the country. People became cautious, especially of the international tourists. Whenever a certain place became famous, the example of Goa was cited to discourage the inflow of international tourists. However some places such as Kerala and Rajasthan have been able to strike a balance between their own culture and the demands of the international tourists and have profited handsomely in the bargain. People are now adopting themselves to the fact that tourism pays and it can be a major source of income for them. In addition, tourism as a form of recreation has really caught on. People themselves have started traveling and are willing to travel to a place that is out of the way and exotic. While traditionally traveling on a holiday meant going to a hill station or a beach, now people are willing to go in for adventure tourism and also visit places that might be exotic and cannot really be called hospitable. For example, now places like Leh and Lakshwadeep are mentioned in the same breath as Goa or Kashmir.

Dividends on such investments are repatriable. 100% foreign equity is automatically approved. especially on food and beverages. 51% foreign equity is automatically approved subject to meeting certain prescribed criteria. the World Travel and Tourism Council has observed that “Tax paid by tourists in India is the highest in the world.g. It is to be noted that the Ministry of Industry provides final clearance of FIPB approvals. the Environment (Protection) Act 1986. Many of the laws that are in effect are old and archaic. which ensure sustainable tourism. e. including having a capital base proposal below US $143 million (Rs. Indian hotels charge about 40% tax compared to other Asian countries where it varies between 3% and 6%". but are subject to FIPB approval. clearance must be obtained from the Central government (RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board). These are the Wild Life Protection Act 1972. There are several Acts and laws. In fact. Eco-tourism policies and Guidelines have been formulated by the Government in consultation with the industry and are being implemented on a voluntary basis. In the case of NRIs. The National Policy on Tourism lays emphasis on sustainable development of tourism. but such areas have to be identified by the State Governments and obtain the required approvals/relaxations.75% in West Bengal. With respect to taxation. Further. 6 billion).Legal: The laws that govern the industry are not the same in all the parts of the country. Economic: The tourism industry not unlike the other industries grows with the increase in the spending of the people. the sales tax on imported beverages varies widely. In accordance. These do not set aside any specific area for tourism. there is considerable disparity between state level taxes. the Government has brought out a comprehensive Eco Tourism Policy and Guidelines. 63% in Karnataka to 28. With respect to Foreign Investment in any tourism related venture. The more the people spend the . Such high taxation renders the tourism sector as a whole uncompetitive. and not geared to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Foreign equity holding above 51 percent are possible. and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986.

The hotel industry has been getting many incentives and many State Governments are encouraging the growth of major hotels in their states. Since we are concentrating on the international tourists. All the support services like the hotel industry. an increase in spending does not only limit itself to accommodation. This has led to a tourism boom the world over and India has been no exception. That is under the control of the Government. However. Political: The political factors are the main driving force of the industry. After years of . The Indian tourism industry is built on the backbone of Government support and the industry cannot sustain itself without it. The neglect of the Government in developing the North-East has led to a situation where there is practically no tourism in the seven states. For example. Any policy change that comes into force can have dramatic effect on the way the industry players perform. the large increase in the spending power in most developed countries has left a large amount of idle cash in their hands. The major reason as to why tourists visit India is for the vast and rich heritage that our country has. The spending power of the people has been increasing in the country and all over the world. However.more the industry grows. People who previously used to come to the country on a shoestring budget and hunt around for the cheapest accommodation can now afford to go in for luxury hotels. Similarly. There have been more people coming into the country with more cash than ever before. There are many areas where the growth of tourism has not been rapid or has seen dramatic fall because the political environment has not been conducive. The increase in the spending is also evident in the increase in the number of people traveling by air. the political turmoil in the state of Kashmir and now in Gujarat has caused a virtual decimation of the flourishing tourism industry. This has led to an increase in the number of hotels in the country. Examples are the North East for the former and Kashmir for the latter. the airlines industry and the tourist operators to name some are heavily dependent on the support and the cooperation of the Government. the roads and the railways are all in the hands of the Government. The various archaeological sites and the places of historical importance. there has been a change in many of the policies of the Government with regard to the tourism industry. Even the number domestic tourists traveling by air has dramatically gone up. This has lead to an increase in the demand for better hotels. the Government charges high rates of taxes on the luxury and the star category hotels and this has always been a cause of disagreement between the hotel associations and the Government. through the Archaeological Survey of India.

WEAKNESSES a.e. Lack of adequate infrastructure. and beaches. mountains. Similarly better transportation facilities have lead to a dramatic increase in the number of tourists visiting any particular place. d. This has been made possible with technology. c. Better communication facilities are one of the first prerequisites for growth in the inflow of tourists. b. The presence of an airport and the availability of frequent flights are a great convenience to any traveler. for example. Swot Analysis: STRENGTHS a. e. a blend of various civilizations and their traditions. Technological: Although technology does not seem to be a major influence at first glance. This provides better margins for the industry. And that is very important if any place wants to be on the world tourist map. India's geographical location. A very wide variety of hotels is present in the country that can fulfill the demand of the tourists. Thus. There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi. Improved technology in the field of communication at cheaper costs has resulted in many remote and inaccessible areas of the country getting connected to the rest of the world. the needs of the international tourists and travelers are seen to while they are on a visit to India. A wealth of archeological sites and historical monuments. Better communication means access to media.tight control over airport infrastructure. a culmination of deserts. Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world. The airlines in India. Government has finally taken the decision to privatize the airports. Diversity of culture i. forests. This connectivity has made these places visible to the world. are . it plays a major part in the promotion of a place.

THREATS a. More proactive role from the government of India in terms of framing policies. Growth of domestic tourism. b. c.inefficient and do not provide basic facilities at airports. Aggressive strategies adopted by other countries like Australia. and diseases. superstition. The case of Plague in Surat in 1994 led to a decrease of 36% in arrival of foreign tourists in India. No proper marketing of India's tourism abroad. b. There are many places where the image of India is one of poverty. . c. Allowing entry of more multinational companies into the country giving us a global perspective. OPPORTUNITIES a. b. c. Political turbulence within India in Kashmir and Gujarat has also reduced tourist traffic. Foreigners still think of India as a land of snake charmers. Economic conditions and political turmoil in other countries affects tourism. The advantage here is that domestic tourism and international tourism can be segregated easily owing to the difference in the period of holidays. Singapore in promoting tourism. A xenophobic attitude among certain sections of people. The road condition in India is very bad.

Education: Literate. Status: Rich. Education. Blue collar Another method of classifying users of tourism services is on the basis of the frequency of usage of services. Users Of Tourism Services The users of tourism services can be categorized in a number of ways. General: Domestic. Women 3. 1. Executives. Seniors Students. Youths. Sex. desire and ability (income & leisure time). Artists 7. Illiterate 5.CHAPTER 2: TYPES OF CUSTOMERS & SEGMENTATION A. Profession: Executives. Sportsmen. Poor 6. Artists Politicians. 2. Occupation: White collar. Teens. . Non-users: They lack the willingness. Potential Users: They have the willingness but the marketing resources have not been used optimally to influence their impulse. etc. 1. Academics. Region: Rural. Movie stars 2. Sex: Men. Region. Foreign Kids. One such way of classifying the users is by dividing them into categories such as General. Urban 4.

In a nutshell. This makes it essential that the marketers analyze their behavioral profile and undertake segmentation so that they know the level of expectations. etc. transform them into actual tourists and further into habitual tourists. one of the most important is Lifestyle. cities. Lifestyle Personality motive Knowledge Age Sex . They are also affected by other factors such as level of income. There are a number of factors that influence the behavioral profile of consumers. Users have values. BASE OF SEGMENTATION Holiday CATEGORIES Demand Geography Psychography Demography Mass market Popular market Individual market Primary Secondary Opportunity International On the basis of regions. C. 4. the users have become more discriminating in their using habits and therefore their needs for different services. Actual Users: They are already using the services generated by the tourist organizations services regularly. Habitual Travelers: They have formed a habit and avail of the B. Traveling decisions are fantastically influenced by changing lifestyles. tourist organizations need to undertake segmentation in order to simplify their task of creating and stimulating demand. perceptions. Need For Segmentation Consumer behavior can be defined in psychological terms as the whole range of the generation of wants and their transformation into buying or using decisions. In this way they can identify the potential tourists. Occasional Users: They have not formed the habit of traveling 5. etc. products and brands change constantly. In recent years.3. availability of leisure time. Segmentation Though there are a number of bases for segmentation of tourists. preferences and expectations which are the result of environmental influences.

For example: ♠ The mass market consists of vacationists that travel in large groups and prefer all-inclusive tours. Poor Rural. They are generally conservative. Urban Literate. etc. consumption of services might change. ♠ The popular market consists of smaller groups going on inclusive or semi-inclusive tours. but once they have children they would prefer family vacations where there are plenty of activities to entertain kids. a newly married couple might prefer romantic holidays. . senior executives. ♠ As the lifestyle changes. For example.Socio-economic Purpose Age Religion Rich. ♠ Teens and youth might prefer adventure holidays whereas senior citizens would probably prefer more relaxing vacations. ♠ The individual market consists of chairmen. Illiterate Business Travel Cultural Tourism Common Interest Convention Teens Youth Seniors Such segmentation is useful when deciding the offerings to target a particular segment. This group includes pensioners and retired people.

coach and bus travel. Passenger rail services have also changed. Thanks to the increase in tourist traffic. Accommodation Accommodation includes hotels. ranging from the biggest international chains recognizable worldwide such as Hilton and Holiday . This shows the important role marketing plays as competition and demand intensifies. not only in terms of frequency of flights and number of destinations. cruise and ferry lines. and other shipping lines involved in the tourist industry. and differing levels of service to meet different passenger needs. passenger railways. for example. the range of airline services has considerably. are broadening and upgrading their range of services and facilities to meet consumer expectations. Cruise lines are operating different services tailored to consumers’ budgets. to the luxury of Palace on Wheels – where the train voyage is the holiday. but also in terms of different services.Chapter 3. especially the ferry operators. car hire. and their role in tourism is as wide as with. The Tourism Industry The tourism industry comprises of the following main and distinctive sectors:  Transportation  Accommodation  Tour operators  Tourism Destination Operators/ Destination Management Transportation Tourism industry is heavily dependent on the transportation industry which comprises of airlines. Euro rail tickets allowing extensive international travel at basic(service) standard for students and budget tourists. over the years. and to remain competitive. Coach and bus companies have acted in a similar fashion and so have the car rental companies.

family. infrastructure. Like many other countries worldwide. incorporating travel and accommodation needs for the consumer. The services and the facilities are such that the hospitability of India gets revealed always. There are plenty of hotels and resorts in India that cater to the needs of tourists of all kinds. notably self-catering apartments and club type complexes.com. many smaller independent hotels have grouped together. Under a central brand name. facilities and comforts to satisfy the client’s at the most reasonable rates. they can offer central reservations services. these categorizations help the common travelers zero down on the accommodation option he can afford or wanted to stay at during his/her visit. location. Other types of accommodations are also well established in tourist markets. Then there are several Indian & International Hotel Chains in India. Hotels in India have been categorized on different parameters all of them taking into account the factors such as service provided. and present a recognizable identity to consumers which enables them to compete against the larger. In order to gain recognition in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Standard Hotels. for eg. who customize every kind of trip that you can dream of. heritage value. adopting a consortium approach. Throughout the length and the breadth of the country that is dotted with tourist destinations the hotels and resorts are available to make your experience of India unique. more established chains. The country where tradition and trends fuse to give you the best the range of possible accommodations is vast. . The hotels and resorts in India provide high standards of quality of accommodation. The incomparable and incredible land of India offers plenty of accommodation options such that the visit to the wonderland suits all pockets. With the innumerable dream destinations India offers the best of the accommodation facilities to the travelers to the land. There are the exclusive hotels and hotel chains that boast of luxurious amenities and world-class décor. and types of guests accommodated. The variety of hotels and resorts in India ranging from Luxury Hotels. to large operators offering services at all different levels to cater for budget. or singles holidays to ‘near’ or ‘faraway’ destinations. They range from highly specialized operations such as Indianvisit. Budget Hotels to the Heritage Hotels In India. Tour operators Tour operators are the firms which specialize in providing the whole holiday package.Inn to small independent establishments.

and many transportation companies also offer holiday packages. With its inexhaustible range of culture. With this in mind.com believe is worth taking interest in. Sand. and mountains India is huge. In today’s competitive market and with the increased bargaining power of the consumers there is only one way to survive in the rat race and that is by segmenting the market and offering different products pertinent to the demand of that segment. we believe. But obvious. the civilization and continuity of it that makes people look beyond the obvious. For many of them India is the exotic orient where you can find only the snake charmers or sadhus. India with its long coastline of 7500 kms. wildlife. There are series of eco tours for India that provide the coolest hangouts to take pleasure in indulging oneself into the God gifted environs. traditions. An independent local coach firm may also be a tour operator. it is about life. the country presents itself in the plethora of colors. What you need is something different. offers some of the most exotic .Thomas Cook is one of the best known of such operators. they also offer travel agency and financial services to their consumers. what does a holiday in India symbolizes? This is a question that every traveler to this vast subcontinent of human beings. Beach Holidays: Has the combination of Sun. For the ones who have seen the exploitations of Indian expats in Silicon Valley might consider the country as a future hub of knowledge economy. and shapes. something that is new. India is an organized chaos (as described one of the renowned writers and sociologists). hues. and religion asks himself at least once. The balmy beaches of India are perfect escapade for the fun loving holiday tourism seekers. dust. For few who have gone through contemporary literature on the country. and something that is exciting. Wildlife Holidays Heritage Holidays Pilgrimages Ecotourism in India: India. is not the choice that you are going to make while visiting India. Sea and Surf ever tempted you to take a break from the daily monotonous chores that you perform so religiously? Then we have just the right package for you with the sure-shot itinerary to relax you completely. There are several ways to enjoy Mother Nature in most pristine way. chaos. These operators give you a number of exciting options categorized according to the interest and concept to tour India. For a quintessential vacationer in India. beaches. Concept tourism is one exciting option that a few tour operators like Indianholiday. the land of geographical varieties offers several tourist destinations that not just de-stress but also rejuvenate you. The country is not only about chaos and ways to control them.

Adventure Holidays: Ever felt the waves of a river on your face. e. the desire to meet challenges makes people take up any of the adventure activities and rejuvenate themselves. Ayurveda. The never-ending shores and the untouched oceanic horizons seem to be mesmerizing. The terrain of the sand dunes and long stretches of barren land is ideal for desert safaris. Try out the aerial. their lifestyles and the inseparable culture cannot be done solved in words but can surely be enjoyed with experience. It offers the perfect spot for the novice divers. India boasts of many beaches of Goa in the West. the nature is for sure at its best at the beaches. So you may head towards any direction of the Indian peninsula and be invited to the sun bathed beaches. the fun of watching the wildlife at the Corbett National Park gets multiplied when enjoyed riding an elephant. the queen of rivers. i. the adventure holidays and tourism in India are just for you. the beautiful waves. culture. The mysterious ways of the people. experience the magical power of Traditional Ayurveda. • • • Cultural Holidays: Ever wondered at the cultural diversity of India? The enticing unity represented by the people of the country who display a wide range of religions. customs and languages. Ayurveda and Rejuvenation: India adheres to the age-old philosophy of Ayurveda . the Ganges is irresistible for the water sports and the scenic beauty of Jammu is picture perfect for the paragliding. wish to see to the land and everything on it from a height of 18. the traditional Indian system of medicine holds out to the world the promise of a healthy long life. The young state of Goa certainly happens to be the Beach Capital of India. The rich and varied heritage happens to be one of the many sources of pride of the nation. The great peninsula with the Indian Ocean in the middle and accompanied by the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on each side besides the two archipelagos of Lakshadweep and Andamans is perfect for beach holidays for tourists the world over. The blaze of glory. where healing is a ritual and nurturing life a tradition. The quest to do the uncommon. You name the adventure and India has the right spot for it. The photogenic dawn and dusks at the beaches are sure to be repetitive visitor to the shores.000 feet? Fancy trotting from one palace to another riding a camel or perhaps get a better view of the jungle sitting smart on an elephant? Well if any of them is an affirmative.in a traditional way . India is the land of variety and diversity. Kovalam in the South and Gopalpur in the East. Ayurveda recognizes that each individual is different and so treatment too should be customized. step into the world. aqua or land adventures and enjoy. Ayurveda .that's what makes India a different locale to visit. the swinging palms and the many hues of the sky.beach holidays and beach tourism destinations in the world.

• • • • • and Rejuvenation programs include a few programs combining Ayurveda along with sightseeing and other aspects of tourism in India. The perfect break from the stressful routine religiously followed otherwise. the tourists are overwhelmed with the beauty at the major stations of Jaipur. Junagarh/Veraval. . the mounds. Handicrafts Tours: Festival Tours Museum Tours Railway Tours: Kuuuuu& Chuk Chuk !!! Doesn't the whistle of the luxury train.crafted out Ayurvedic treatment package that would rejuvenate your body and mind and make you face the hustle and bustle of the city life again. is what you are passionate about and you happen to be an avid traveler then the 21 day Golf Holidays package of India being offered is something you cannot refuse to go ahead with. the Royal Orient and the Toy Trains are the pride of Indian Railways. the comfort and the style have made the first tourist train of India the most sought after. the toy trains of India have attracted many a tourists. Ooty/ Udagamandalam or Ootacamund and Matheran. the climate. Besides the Royal trains. Mandvi/Palitana/ Sarkhej. Add that extra touch of versatility in you by playing the different surfaces in the various golf clubs developed in several cities of India. Golf Tours: If Golf. Darjeeling. The turfs. Jodhpur and Bharatpur. Be onboard the luxury trains of India. Gir/Ahmedpur. The wondrous miniature of rail engineering that offers the most scenic beauties of the Himalayas from Kalka to Shimla and another from Jal Pai Guri to Darjeeling. You may even opt for a voyage onboard the Royal Orient. Ahmedabad and Jaipur. The lavish lifestyle. During this excursion. The marvelous train that today is a joint effort of the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and the Indian Railways. Chittaurgarh. the facilities. Somnath/Sasan. It is a project of the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Limited along with the Indian Railways. The toy trains are called so because of the narrow gauge railway lines they ride on. the largest passenger train service in the world seem to invite you. The rainbow of cities trotted by the royal extravagance of the bygone era include Delhi. Jaisalmer. and Agra chugging through the culturally colorful states of Rajasthan and Gujarat. the Palace on Wheels. The ride on the train with a 4500 kilometers track chugs through the popular hill stations of the country like Shimal. Chittaurgarh. Udaipur. An extensive and well . the train offering both style and comfort. the décor. The Palace on Wheels lives by its name and is no less than a fort on the swing. Just catch up with the Golf fever that has caught the entire country in a big way. the yards of green all make golf better than ever before.

Some of these tours offered are: Special theme parties: Under these the following options are available Moonlight Boat Cruise on the Backwater of Kerala: Guests are ferried aboard a spacious. The frequently visited tourist destinations amongst the backwaters in Kerala comprise of Kovalam. All these tours have been designed keeping in mind the requirements of travelers coming from different parts of the world. Backwater Tours in India: Cruising along the backwaters of Kerala is an ideal way to discover the real Kerala. it's the most authentic and unexplored way to explore the beauty of the backwaters. The spiritual city of Rishikesh happens to be the Yoga capital of India. The placid backwaters that stretch for over fifteen hundred kilometers are covered with swinging palm trees. There is also a thrilling firework display. The tourists may indulge into tourism activities like boating. mussels and prawns is finger licking good. The various corporate incentive tours that are offered have been planned in a manner to rejuvenate and refresh the employees for the forthcoming assignments. there are some organizations which specialize in custom made tours. Rajput Wedding: A traditional Rajput wedding ceremony where the group members participate as 'Baraati' (the bridegroom's family and friends who form the wedding party) and the bridal party. The backwater cuisine. Kottayam and Ernakulam. Corporate incentive tours: In today's world incentive travel is one of the most effective marketing and motivational tools especially in the corporate sector. The city hosts the International Yoga Week every year in the month of February attracting several experts and participants. specially decorated boat for a delightful moonlight cruise on the backwater of Cochin.Along with the corporate incentives tours arrangements can be made for conferences. Apart from these. fishing and sightseeing while exploring the backwaters of Kerala. Bollywood: Guests in garish costumes. barramundi. romantic leading ladies. Alappuzha. Tourists and travelers flock to contemplate and practice Yoga and meditation in the lap of Himalayas. crabs. The Houseboats that float on the backwaters are the improved version of the Kettuvalloms. ruffians live their dreams of becoming a star. which comprises of delectable fresh fish like pearl spotted fish. South Indian culinary surprises are served. some posing as directors.• Yoga Tours in India: India has been the land of saints and sages who meditated and practiced yoga. . some as action heroes. After all those long hours at work let the corporate employee get the much-deserved break in the form of an incentive. The tourists are left spell bound by the tranquility of the backwaters while riding the Houseboats.

client presentations. pulsating palaces or the happening hotels and make your dream come true. training programs. From champagne bottles and confetti to photographers we can arrange it all for the special you and the very special occasion of your dream marriage. and the continuing trends. as it is an area of the tourism industry which has seen a massive growth in the development of theme parks and other types of artificial tourist destinations in the recent years. The feast to your eyes and ears will be equaled by the sumptuous food that will treat the taste buds at the dream marriage. However Disneyland and Disneyworld in America were the forerunners of this development in tourism marketing. Celebrate the biggest and the best occasion of your life . workshops. At your dream marriage there will be fun and festivity all around backed by the music of your choice and decorations with your favorite flowers. which make it area which should be considered separately as a tourism industry. Get married at any of the captivating castles. The new EuroDisney theme park in France is an example of a tourism destination operation. which attracted over half a million tourists in 1991. .Marriage. On a smaller scale.in the most beautiful style. and they have been well established for decades. board meetings. dealers meet or any other relationship building activity in any destination in India. seminars.conventions. Dream Marriages: Tie the knot with your knight in shining armor in the most royal way. and similar attractions now represent a significant amount of tourism activity. It is due to the recent growth. heritage parks which being developed from Britain’s industrial wasteland such as Wigan Pier. The setting for the realization of your dream will be splendid and the arrangements will be spectacular for your marriage that will bring smiles on every face and heart! Tourism Destination Management Operators/ Destination This is new category in many senses.

is the most important player since the land is owned by the Govt. players. which has marketed well . In the following part we have considered the case of Rajasthan Govt. and they also have a lot of resources at their disposal in comparison to pvt. of India (GOI): The Govt. Some Players Some of these players mentioned in the above graph can be explained as follows: Govt.Chapter4.

riotous colours and sense of gallantry. The loans and subsidies are being given on liberal terms to owners of forts and palaces to convert their properties into hotels. The other side also embraced this idea fully as it gave the royalty a chance to once again play kings and queens.aisastillaveryamuchaalive. but treats the tourists to an experience of times bygone. the Land of the Kings.aThenawhataisadifferentaforaRajasthan? Before deciding what to offer to the international tourist.and the second case of Sikkim Govt. a parcel of Folk art and a lot of sandainatheaeye. speckled with desert forts. Although the fortunes of its former rulers may be in tatters. which in spite of having a lot to gain by tourism has a very lackadaisical attitude. with its battle-scarred forts. No-one visits Rajasthan without taking home superb memories. The harsh Rajasthani landscape and tribal customs have fashioned a people and culture which are visibly different from those found in the rest of India . Some of the noteworthy state government actions are wholehearted endorsement of private investment in the hotel industry leading to the number of hotel rooms growing at a fair rate. the culture of Rajasthan. What Rajasthan offers is not a mere site-seeing tour like any other historically significant place. It may be a ride aboard 'Palace on Wheels' or a stay in any of the Heritage hotels strewn across the state. There are 17 heritage hotels recognised by the department of tourism. for the right price Rajasthan makes you royalty for your stay there and this is what attracts the people. so what? They are also present in other states like MadhyaaPradesh. Rajasthan-The Land of the Kings Rajasthan. And as many as 56 properties have expressed interest in offering themselves for the heritage status. a group of warrior clans who have controlled this part of India for 1000 years according to a code of chivalry and honour akin to that followed by medieval Europe's knights. .Though these resources are there. They have also endowed the state with a magical air of romance.from the huge. a state should first find out that what is it that this tourist wants? Rajasthan seems to have found an answer to it and thus hasabecomeaaafavouredadestinationsaofatourists. 30 other operating heritage properties and 12 are in the planning stages. This has not been any easy task to accomplish. lush oases. The combined efforts of the public and the state government has made it possible for desert state to triumphantly march in the country's otherwise funereal tourism scenario. pastel-coloured turbans and soup-strainer moustaches sported by the men to the bright mirrored skirts and chunky silver jewellery of the women. and exotic cities that rise out of the landscape like shimmering backdrops to Tales of the Arabian Nights. is India at its exotic and colourful best. It is the home of the Rajputs. amazing palaces.

aIt is run by 27 years old Vikram Singh and Yamini his wife who till date thank a certain hotel chain who approached them to develop the property. DeraaDundlodaKila Dera Dundlod Kila. Nestled in the magnificent Himalayas this state is nature at its most beautiful. Today.The pure air and clean water does wonders for one's senses. Sikkim.AnaIgnoreda Land Sikkim the tiny Himalayan state and one of the smallest of the Indian union has the potential of becoming a large tourist attraction. The father-and-son duo decided to convert the property into a hotel with a dual purpose in mind: it would. Also the local crafts are finding a new lease of life with the increase in their demand. has 19 rooms and will soon offer its guests a swimming pool. save the sprawling fortress from turning into a ruin and. No one lived there after 1860. The various local arts are also reviving due to the same. the Singhs are reaping the rewards of their sagacity. In addition. the deal could not be made but the idea was implanted and today Luni Haveli is beginning to find itself on tourist itineraries. Its reins are in the hands of Thakur Raghubir Singh and his dynamic son. Thus we see that if managed properly tourism is beneficial to all. However. with 27 rooms and an annual turnover of Rs 10-12 lakh. better known as Bonnie. on the other. the untouched air of this state takes one back to the time when man and nature coexisted harmoniously. It has achieved a 50% averageaoccupancy. In 1992-93 it all changed. extensive renovations were carried out and today the Luni Haveli is one of Rajasthan's more impressive heritage hotels. on the one hand. a 250-year-old fort in the heart of Shekhawati. NarainaniwasapalaceAaarestahouseaforacamelacaravans! Today the palace in the golden city of Jaisalmer has a yearly turnover of a neat Rs 70 Lakhs. The property extends over two and a half acres. Kunwar Raghavendra Singh. generate some badly needed income for the family. Everywhere one marvels at sites of a . save bats and sundry reptiles.A few of these turnaround stories are: LuniaHavelia-Aadreamainaredasandstone Luni is a small village some 30 km from Jodhpur and the haveli is at least two centuries old.

One could really question government's decision about security here when it is itself encouraging tourism in border states like Rajasthan. Despite being endowed with virgin resources. Apart from the Govt. Their guest service team has a cumulative experience of 100 man-years in tourism industry. players there are pvt. what of the international tourists. To visit this state one has to go through number of clearances and if one is a foreign national then this number increases exponentially. The infrastructure in the state is so poor that the locals would not rely on them. and Srilanka. is tourism. The company specializes in inbound tours and offers a host of tourism related services to inbound tourists in the India and neighboring countries like Nepal. the state remains in the backwoods of such activities. yoga & meditation tours. who are well versed with the complexities of Travel & Tourism Trade.com is a part of Indian Holiday Pvt. But this seems to be a silly excuse by the government to hide its inefficiencies. (earlier known as TRAFFORD TOURS & TRAVELS). Transaction level operations are executed by a team of professionally qualified professionals. The tourism in the state is virtually absent. tour operators. Tibet. which virtually throttled the development of the state. The team is well aware and equipped to cater to requirements of various market segments and understands the nuances of tourism in India. Indianvisit.Presenting India in a Way Never Seen Before Indianvisit.spring stream orchard bloom.com . safaris. They are a professionally managed closely held agency and management control is vested with the first generation promoter entrepreneurs. Bhutan. its profile is as follows: D. religious tours. Ltd. Indianvisit. Tailor-made packages. Basic facilities like roads are absent what to talk of the rest. Rejuvenation & Ayurveda tours. adventure tours. the reasons sited by the office bearers are -the security-oriented approach of the centre. It has cities like Jaisalmer and Jodhpur open to tourism which share border with Pakistan. which could turn it into a major international destination for special kinds of high-value tourism. . Services Tours They have been operating a variety of tours for their Groups and Individual tourists and have been able to mastermind their tours with great deal of efficiency. We have taken the case of an online tour operator. Whatever the reasons this jewel of the Himalayas lays wasted when India is crying out for international tourists. Various tours they offer are as below.com. cultural tours. a proactive travel organization in Indian tourism industry for the last 10 years. special interest tours.

Air Booking: Their exceptionally good relations with the Domestic and International Airlines enable them to come up with very good discounts for their clients. all organized in such a way that they start . Rest all leaveatoathem. incentives and much more in the Indian Subcontinent. and having the fleet itself is not enough. Itinerary Planning and Tailor Made Holiday: IndianVisit have long been helping their guests with necessary arrangements in many exciting programs. Just tell them the time of arrival & departure. City sightseeing and tour excursions: They can arrange city sight seeing tours for individual / group traveller in any of the touristic destination. Transport: They have a large fleet of cars / coaches at their disposal.Abacus helps us in confirming the bookings instantly even in the veryabusyasectors. A four hour half day trip would not give the tourist short exposure. Their online reservation system . their meticulously planned and well executed tours have won a number of young friends for them. to the city and a full day city tour is there if they have more than 04 hours to spare. they need to see that they use best transport for their clients. they are always in a position to offer very lucrative discounted rates to their clients. and provide them a good value for their money. the total duration of travel and your approximate budget. hence they have maintained a separate department taking care of all their transport requirements.conferences. Even a small problem in the tour can dampen their enthusiasm or can drive them crazy so everything has to be absolutely perfect for such tours. Other Services: School and college group tours: College and school group tours are probably the most difficult one to handle as the young boys and girls expect and demand far more from their travelling experience than other travellers and they have and an insatiable appetite for enjoyment. Beat area of all the cities are covered with a variety of excursions. Their professionals will get back to you in no time with a number of suitable options. The city tour can be provided in an a/c and non a/c car or coach. Enter their hotel query form and just let them know the name of city and category of hotel and wait for sometime. Apart from above other various travel related services they provide are as below: Hotel Booking: Individual or group booking in any hotel of any category and in any part of Indian subcontinent can be provided instantly. Owing to their very good connections with the hotels in almost every part of the country.

they would come back to the place where they started from.in the morning and after an experience to remember. ground transportation. optional excursions.com your complete travel guide to the incredible land of India offers tours at the lowest discounted expenses. guides and personal drivers. sightseeing tours. Italian. They provide guides who with their eloquence and immense knowledge about the city and the monuments make the sightseeing a gratifying. in the evening. Limousine/luxury car/ coach services: They always have a large fleet of cars and coaches at their disposal and can provide the same at any part of the subcontinent for sightseeing tours. . On special request. The operations of their Transport department are incredibly swift and silky smooth thanks to the large and luxurious fleet of air. Multilingual Guides & Professional Experts: Sight seeing without guides serves no purpose and can just be a dull and boring experience. Their quality control concept allows us to not to use more than 03 years old cars / coaches on longer drives. but with his / her vivacity would add to the enjoyment and would keep on appraising the tourist with the inner and deep beliefs of the local residents. combined in the discounted package tours and low transportation charges. package tours. the professional escort from the company accompanies the guests during the entire tour at a very nominal cost and help in making their trip all the more interesting. Their chauffeurs are well aware of the basic ethics of the travel trade and hospitality industry thus a personalized service to all the valued guests is guaranteed. even if they are traveling only along with the chauffeur. German. well trained and dressed chauffeur driven cars and coaches at its disposal.conditioned. They provide not only the English speaking guides but also arrange the guides who speaks French. Discounted Tours: Indianvisit. Opt for any of the discounted tours presented to you and end up saving while you spend. An accompanying escort would not only ensure the smooth movement of tours. Japanese or Spanish etc on prior request. for airport transfers or for any such purpose. Besides the discounted tours are the special packages and customtailored tours are available for various tourist destinations they provide services including accommodations. comfortable and entertaining. The accommodation on the discounted tour will be of the tourist’s choice and as per their budget. memorable and enjoyable experience.

why they are important and how performance is measured. Internal Customers The image of the company begins with each and every employee and is reflected in his or her attitude about the company. 5.Chapter5. who come into contact with customers the authority to make decisions and take action in a large number of potential problematic situations. An emphasis has to be placed on the need to view people. an internal market for the firm's offerings as well as for its external marketing programs. But there has to a limit as to how far this authority can go. and these limits must be carefully determined. Everything that the service provider does for its customers is first perceived and received by its own personnel. but also significant personal risk . Empowering employees means to give employees. If employees do not believe in the promises given by external marketing activities then they will not be able or willing to perform as effective part-time marketers and contribute to a good interactive marketing impact. The five approaches or paths are as follows to ensure the above are: 1. Empowerment and enabling employees These two concepts are to be understood as not only they motivate the employees but also are important for the effective implementation of internal marketing. with few rules about behavior (the entrepreneurial spiit path). 3. Offer reward and bonus system to support accomplishments (the reward and celebration path). clear to employees and follow up results in a consistent manner (the process and metrics path). to whom internal services have to be provided in the same customer-oriented manner as to external customers. If empowerment is correctly implemented as a part of an internal marketing process then it can have . Show respect for the individual achievements of the employees and recognize quality performance (the individual achievement path). Give employees personal freedom and opportunities for earnings. The employees are a first market. 4. Make everyone's tasks. functions and departments internal to the firm as internal customers. Create a collective pride in the mission and values of the firms among employees (the mission and pride path) 2.

Management Support: so that supervisors and managers give information an also take over decision-making when needed but do not interfere unnecessarily with the decision-making authority of employees. Creating a knowledge base that makes possible for employees to understand and contribute to the performance of the organization and 4. Knowledge Support: so that the employees have the skills and the knowledge to analyze situations and make proper decisions. HOTELS THEME MULTI LINGUAL HOTELS GUIDES (5 STAR. SPECIALITY SAFETY B. Chapter 6. Rewarding them based on the organization's performance 3. DESTINATION/ TRANSPORTA-TION LODGES ETC) FOOD TOUR PACKAGE .a decisive impact on the satisfaction of employees. Empowerment does not mean a static relationship but a continuous nurturing of trusting relationships between management and employees. Empowering employees means: 1. Technical Support: from support staff. But empowerment cannot function without simultaneously enabling employees so that they are prepared to take the responsibility that goes with the new authority. Enabling includes: 1.Core Tourism Pdt. TOTAL PRODUCT CONCEPT Augmented Product THEME TOURS CUSTOMIZED MULTI CUISINE TIME TRANSPORINSURANCE MEDICAL SPECIAL INTEREST A. 3. TOURS Formal Product DIFF. If this support is not provided properly then proper conditions for empowered employees do not exist. Giving employees the power to make decisions that influence organizational directions an performance. SHARING LOCAL TOUR GUIDES TATION PROFESSIONAL EXPERTS ILITY SOUVENIERS BASIC STAR. Enabling means that employees need support to be able to make the independent decisions effectively in the service process. 2. systems. technology and database that provides contact employees with information and other services required for handling situations. Providing them with information about the performance of the organization 2. 3 AND ACCESSIB.

CHAPTER 7: MARKETING PROCESSES (SERVICE MARKET TRIANGLE) “THE SERVICE INDUSTRY TRIANGLE” .

For example. ‘Internal Marketing’ External Marketing: It makes promises to the customers. Providers: The Providers include all the entities that finally fulfill the Company’s promise to the Customers. local bus transportation. the different hotels within Malaysia (Tanjam Putri).g. Unique Characteristics Of The Tourism Industry There are four main characteristics which distinguish the tourism industry from other service providers: Inflexibility: The tourism industry is highly inflexible in terms of capacity. for e.Company: The company in the Tourism Sector can be the Central Government. the Malaysian Government maintains the local transportation within the country. The company carries out ‘External Marketing’ as well as. this would include the transportation providers (Malaysian Airlines. etc. ITDC. Twin Towers. the State tourism Corporations. Pizza Hut). Tour Operators such as SOTC. Chapter8. etc. etc. etc. Truly Asia” that promises a veritable cultural paradise to the customer. Mary Brown. hotel beds and airplane seats remain empty and unused in . local trains in Kuala Lumpur. car and two-wheeler rentals). They undertake ‘Interactive Marketing’. souvenir outlets at tourist areas. tourist spots (Genting highland. maintains the tourist spots such as KL Towers. Air India. KL Towers.). Thus in the case of the Malaysian government. The number of beds in a hotel or seats on an airplane is fixed so it is not possible to meet sudden upsurges in demand. the Malaysian government’s advertisement “Malaysia. Internal Marketing: The Company enables the Providers to fulfill the promises made by it to the customers. Similarly. restaurant tables. because they are in touch with the final customer. restaurants (KFC Joints.

. which is why Tourism Services also differ. Chapter 9: Classification Of Services ON THE BASIS OF THE END USER The end user for Tourism Services is always the CONSUMER. frequently over a long time scale. Tourism Services fall under the category of ‘Consumers’. and therefore on the basis of the end user. An unused hotel bed or an empty airplane seat represents an immediate loss of that service as a means of earning profit. This has an impact on overall industry profitability. Perishability: Tourism services are highly perishable. This means that the level of risk and the rate of return are critically important to tourism management. Fixed location: Tourism destinations are fixed locations so effort must be concentrated in communicating the facility to the potential consumer. A consumer can conveniently watch a Hollywood movie at the local cinema but has to be persuaded to travel to India to see the Taj Mahal.periods of low demand. However these consumers may vary. The seasonal nature of tourism activity exacerbates this problem. Relatively Large Financial Investment: Every modern tourist establishment and facility requires large investment.

Almost all of these people are trained and are professionals. and falls under the category of “Goods + Services”. etc. Domestic tourists traveling through the country were 167 million approximately. PEOPLE BASED SERVICES Tourism Services are high contact services.) or by the agency/company they are working for (SOTC). However. and are undertaken with a view to earn profits. The core product is the destination.784 (Inbound Tourism).SERVICE PRODUCT CONTINUUM As per the Product-Service Continuum.908 (Outbound Tourism). tour operators.70. etc. IITM. The number of Indian citizens traveling abroad was 38. caterers. cuisine. The service people include travel agents. ORIENTATION TOWARDS PROFITS All Tourism Services are commercial. tour guides. Tourism services are very people-oriented services. They might be trained by professional institutes (IATA. etc which constitute an important part of any vacation or holiday any consumer might take. Tourist arrivals in India for the year as on March 2002 were 23. The consumer interacts with a myriad of service people starting from when he books his ticket and throughout the course of his holiday. Therefore it cannot be classified as only services. EXPERTISE Tourism Services are mostly professional services. hoteliers.10. as people interact with people at virtually EVERY stage of the way. Tourism Services fall under the category of “Goods + Services”. . tourism is linked to a number of tangible goods such as souvenirs. and the service people are plenty and have high contact with the consumers. DOMESTIC OR FORIEGN TOURISM As per 1998 figures. which is purely intangible.

Unless these factors are developed in the right fashion. The way to win the customer’s heart is through the peripheral services provided along with the core product. The Price Mix . Innovation in the tourism industry helps to raise the sensitivity in this regard. There is nothing fixed or fundamental about the tourism product. Thus the direct or indirect patronage of the government is essential to get a positive response. cottages. etc. havelis. Medicare facilities. and also developing and maintain hotels. airline seat. etc. Selling a holiday is ‘selling dreams’. banking. the marketing professionals would never be successful in making the marketing resources productive. The content factor is within the jurisdiction of the government that undertakes the maintenance. a free bag or bottle of whisky. water. including the destination. The government and private tourist organizations work together to undertake activities such as developing infrastructural facilities such as transportation. museums. because tourism is a multi-segment industry. Thus a tourism product is quite a complex one. occasional tangible products such as souvenirs. Also..Chapter 10: How To Market Tourism (The 7 Ps) The Product Mix: Components of a tourism product The tourism product is essentially an intangible thing. beaches. etc. lodges. the task of formulating a product mix becomes more difficult & challenging. development and conservation of tourist attractions such as parks. historical treasures. etc. hotel room.

travel editors. projected publicity. The tourist organizations bear the responsibility of informing. Promotion helps in maximizing the duration of stay. The tourism professionals are supposed to watch the emerging trends in both the markets. trade discounts etc. Eg. These may include discounts for cash payments. swimming pools etc. Intangibility can be compensated with the help of visual exposure of scenes and events. Kumarakom in Kerala after Prime Minister A B Vajpayee’s visit. Publicity: It focuses attention on strengthening the public relations measures by developing a rapport with media people and getting their personalized support in publicizing the business. There are different groups in publicity. well arranged restaurants and cafeterias. Sales promotions: Sales promotion measures are the short term activities seeking to boost sales at peak demand periods to ensure that the firms obtain its market share and are used to help launch a new .In pricing decisions. The Promotion Mix Creation of awareness has a far reaching impact. Its coverage is wide. seasonal discounts. It helps in projecting the positive image of tourists organizations since the prospects trust on the news items publicized by the media people. the product or the service mix of the tourist organization is important. The various dimensions of tourism promotion are as follows: Advertising: Advertisement helps in furnishing important information to the actual and potential tourists. Advertising is aimed at the public to create awareness of the travel offers available on a resort and its attractions to influence their business decisions. Pricing decisions are influenced by internal and external factors. They have to set prices in line with the quality of services to be made available to the customers. persuading and sensing the potential tourists in a right fashion. The marketers need to use the various components of promotion optimally so that they succeed in increasing the number of habitual users. They are required to think in favour of discounting price. The publicity programme include regular publicity stories and photographs to the newspapers. But while offering the discounts. structural publicity and personal publicity. such as advertising publicity. contact with magazines on stories etc. it is not to be forgotten that it may also create image problem since some of the value sensitive tourists may doubt the quality. frequency of visit by offering new tourist products in the same country to areas which hitherto have remained untapped or partially tapped. We can project hotel bedrooms.

specially in the eyes of the potential tourists. who instrumentalize the process of selling. such as flight bags. Personal Selling: Personal Selling is based on the personal skill of an individual. Money back guarantee to the clients who purchase the product or any tour operator known as trading charter. Matching of customers need with a particular holiday known as formal guarantee. a travel company offers give-aways to their clients. The high magnitude of effectiveness of this tool of promotion is due to high credibility of the channel. The development of tourism business has been influenced by the services rendered by the travel agents and travel . The hotels offer a number of facilities like shoe shine clothes. wallets for tickets and forex and covers of passport. shower caps and shampoo. The oral representation in conversation bears the efficacy of transforming the motivation into persuasion. The development of travel and tourism has been possible due to well educated and trained sales personnel. In the tourism industry.product or support an ailing or modified one. Further. In the tourism industry it is found that the word-ofmouth promoters play the role of a hidden salesforce. The marketers or the tourist organizations need to keep their eyes open. The tool of sales promotions is designed to appeal particularly to those customers who are price-sensitive. There are a number of techniques to promote sale and the tourist professional need to use them in the face of their requirements vis-à-vis the emerging trends in the business. Word-of-mouth Promotion: Most communication about tourism takes place by word-of-mouth information which in a true sense is word-ofrecommendation. identify the vocal persons or the opinion leaders and take a special care of them so that they keep on moving the process of stimulating and creating demand. The travel and hotel business depend considerably on the personal selling. specially to calculate expected savings. the VIP clients also get fruits and flowers in their rooms. Thomas Cook offered 3 tier sales promotion based on price and one more novel technique as detailed below: • • • • Cook agreed to match the price of any holiday they sold which was known as price promise. first aid sewing kits. The sensitivity of this tool makes it clear that tourist organizations need to concentrate on the quality of services they promise and offer. Eg. A business travel challenge in which the details of expenditure on staff business travel booked through other agents over a 3 months period were submitted by companies to Cook. provided the bookings are made through them.

a number of intermediaries in the tourism marketing channel. the resort representatives cater to the need of tourists when they reach the destination etc.the customer is always right applies specifically to the tourism industry. The phrase. The quality of technology and the communicative ability of the telemarketers determine the magnitude of success of this component. receptionist. These facts are testimony to the proposition that the travel business is linked with the performance and behaviour of sales personnel or travel staff. proves an . It depends largely on the channel type. all of them play a vital role in ensuring that the tourism products satisfy the tourists. Tourism. however. Telemarketing: it is a method of selling in which a professionally sound telemarketer expands the business. however. Airlines. the personnel who attend tourists form an essential ingredient of the product. and sell seats on flights to tour operators. The intangibility feature in the service sector prevents intermediaries from taking possession or ownership of goods. the travel agents. It is important to mention that in the tourism industry. This makes a strong advocacy in favour of recruiting a person considered to be professionally sound. for example. No reduction in price would compensate for impolite and indecent travel guide. personallycommitted sales personnel having an in-built creativity. such as sales personnel are found responsible for dealing with customers behind the counter. Researchers in tourism must determine how and where potential customers prefer to buy tourism products and services. a solvent waiter and a surly or a haughty coach driver. offices of airways.guides since they work as information carriers. secretaries can’t work efficiently if the telephonic services are not up to the mark. Place Place or distribution management is concerned with two things – availability and accessibility. Personal selling is the personal presentation of a tangible product or intangible services or ideas to the personal customers. Other companies may also utilize more than one method of distribution. There exist. In tourism. and also offer travelers to book seats themselves through their own booking offices. innovation and imagination. Most tour operators sell their services through travel agents. however some deal directly with the consumers and eliminate middlemen. sell tickets through travel agents.

innovate and develop technologies. In the management of people. The organization has to make the environmental conditions conducive and focus has to be laid on the incentives to the employees for energizing the process of performance orientation. Transport also plays a major role in the tourism industry. They need a lot of credentials to fulfill the expectations of the customers. Also. transportation becomes a major logistical component. the related organizations are required to think in favour of developing an ongoing training program so that we find a close relation between the development of technologies and the quality of personnel who are supposed to operate and maintain the same. Like other industries. failing which even the world class services offered by the travel agents are found meaningless. In the tourism industry the travel agents and the travel guides are the two most important people who speak a lot about the industry. We also agree with this view that new generation of information technologies have simplified the task of decision makers. tour operators and travel guides lack world class professional excellence. People We can’t deny the fact that sophisticated technologies have been successful in accelerating the pace of development. the tourism industry depends substantially on management of human resources. The travel guides need professional excellence since the projection of a positive image regarding a destination in particular requires their due cooperation. It makes the destinations accessible to people from around the world. The tour operators also need to manage human resources efficiently. The tourism industry is an amalgam of the services of a lot of people and hence this industry cannot work efficiently if the travel agents. At the same time we also have to accept the fact that the sophisticated technologies can’t deliver goods to the development process if the employees operating and maintaining these technologies are not of world class. Technologies need due support of human resources who invent. valueorientation and perfection. Employee orientation requires due weightage to efficiency generation. Hence it . Of course the offices of travel agents depends on the new technology but after all employees and the other staff contribute significantly to the process.exception where cuisine and souvenirs are goods and ownership is possible for the intermediaries. in the case of tangible products in tourism such as souvenirs and cuisine.

good sense of humour. are expected to have a lot of patience. The training courses run by the Institutes are designed to suit the needs of the various target groups.month Certificate course in Food & Beverage Services. The purpose of the institute is to provide academic opportunities to graduates and undergraduates directly and in collaboration with the leading institutes and universities. Institutes which offer training for the same. The institute has successfully undertaken major initiatives for developing human resources required for the tourism industry. the Ministry of Tourism is running 21 Institutes of Hotel Management (IHMs) and Catering Technology and 14 Food craft Institutes (FCIs). linguistic skills etc. workshops. The IHMs provide 3-year Diploma in Hotel Management. hotels. 6. 1-1/2 year Certificate course in Food Production. 1-1/2-year Post Diploma in Hotel Administration and P. 1. The Government plays an important role in providing the right kind of people for this industry. accommodation and interpretation services. seminars and conference. specially designed practical training and field research.is imperative that they have to be at their best at all times. Apart from this The Indian Institute of Travel Management (IITM). 6. tact to transform the occasional tourists into habitual ones. Travel guides especially.G. Food & Beverage Service/ Restaurant & Counter service. foreign language training programs. transportation. The institute is working with the objective of total professionalism of human resources engaged in business of tourism through diplomas after graduation.1/2 year Post-Graduate Diploma in Accommodation Operations. 1-1/2 year Post-Graduate Diploma in Dietetics and Hospital Food Science. A student who graduates from IITM is absorbed in the middle level executive positions in travel agencies. thorough knowledge of the places. At present. domestic and international airlines. which comprised members of Parliament. Government of India. The institute took its shape after the National Committee of Tourism. is filling the vacuum for an institute that develops manpower exclusively for the tourism industry. established in 1983. House Keeping and Bakery & Confectionery. The institute is also offering courses in computer . Reception & Book Keeping. cargo services. and Pvt. Diploma in Fast Food Operations. As such there are a lot of Govt. The FCIs are engaged in providing the craft Diploma in Cookery. with tour operators. by the Ministry of Tourism. executive development programs for retired defense service personnel. tour operation. for successful careers in Holiday and Leisure Management. besides getting into government jobs.month Certificate course in Hotel and Catering Management. tourism orientation talks at school and college levels and tourism promotion competition among young generation. recommended that an institute catering to the requirements of tourism industry be set up immediately. transport companies.

Cargo and Tourism Management (IHCTM). basic course of air travel fares and ticketing. . Apart from IITM there are other institutes like The Institute of Hotel.applications and software studies. basic course on computer application in travel and tourism industry. another one run by World Tourism Organization and various other private institutes catering to the needs of the industry. basic course on airlines. diploma in tourism and travel management and foreign language. basic course in air and sea cargo service management. travel agencies and tour operation management.

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