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EDSP 101: Special Education (WF) Children with Communication (Speech and Language) Impairments DEFINITIONS Communication Disorder

(in general) a. Department of Health (DOH) Communication Disability An impairment in the process of speech, language or hearing: a) Hearing impairment is a total loss or partial loss of hearing function which impedes the communication process essential to language, educational, social and/or cultural interaction; b) Speech and Language Impairments mean one or more speech/language disorders of voice, articulation, rhythm and/or the receptive and expressive processes of language. b. IDEA Speech and Language Impairment means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a childs educational performance. Speech Impairment a. Van Riper (1984) (cited in Smith, 2004) speech is abnormal when it deviates so far from the speech of other people that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or causes the speaker or his listeners to feel distressed. b. Senate Bill No. 907 (Special Education Act of 2010) 15th Congress The Speech Impaired are those whose speech differs from the average so far as to draw unfavorable attention to the manner of speaking rather that thought conveyed. i. Articulation Disorder atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions, or distortions that may intefere with intelligibility. ii. Fluency Disorder - an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and repetitions in sounds, syllabes, words, and phrases (i.e. stuterring and cluttering iii. Voice Disorder is characterized by the abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for an individuals age and/or sex. Language Impairment a. American Speech-Language-Association (ASLA) the abnormal acquisition, comprehension or expression of spoken or written language. The disorder may involve one, some or all of the phonologic, morphologic, semantic, syntatic or pragmatic components of the linguistic system. b. American Speech-Language-Hearing-Association (AHSA) A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax), (2) the content of language (semantics), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics) in any combination. iv. Phonology the study of how individual sound make up words. v.Morphology the study within psycholinguistics of word formation; how adding or deleting parts of words changes their meaning.

vi. Syntax the way words are joined together to structure meaningful sentences; grammar. vii. Semantics the study of the meanings attached to words and sentences. viii. Pragmatics the study within psycholinguistics of how people use langauge in social situations; emphasizes the functional use of language, rather than mechanics. Examples of Language Disorders i. Central auditory processing disorder a problem in processing sounds attributed to hearing loss or intellectual capacity. ii. Aphasia language diroder that results from damage to parts of the brain responsible for language. iii. Apraxia also known as verbal apraxia or dyspraxia, a condition where the child has troble saying what he or he wants to say correctly or consistently. iv. Dysarthria speech condition where the weakening of the muscles of the mouth, face and respiratory system affects the production of oral language. c. Classifications of Language Disorders a. Primary Language Disorders i. Specific Language Impairment no identifiable cause ii. Early Expressive Language Delay significant lag in expressive language iii. Language-based Reading Impairment reading problem based on a language problem b. Secondary Language Disorders communication impairments of individuals with other specific disabling conditions such as mental retardation or autism spectrum disorder. CHARACTERISTICS / NATURE a. Problems in receptive and expressive language b. Difficulties in understanding what is meant by spoken communication i. Inability to follow directions ii. Improper use of words iii. Difficulty in expressing ideas in oral, signed or written forms iv. Inappropriate grammatical patterns v.Minimal vocabulary c. Difficulty communicating and expressing their ideas d. Difficulties in grammar, syntax, fluency and vocabulary e. Manifest significantly low academic performance f. Reluctance to participate in school activities g. Difficutly in carrying on a conversation Etiology ETIOLOGY As with so many disability areas, causes for many cases of speech or language impairments are unknown. Despite this fact, many causes are well known, and for some of those conditions, impairments are preventable. The causes can be congenital when the disorder is present at birth or they can be adventitious or acquired after birth, in infancy and early childhood and in the later years.

Etiological factors can be traced to: a. Brain damage b. Mental Retardation c. Hearing Loss d. ADHD e. Learning disabilities f. Autism g. Schizophrenia h. Cerebral palsy i. Celf palate j. Vocal cord injury k. Disorders of the palate l. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome Injury, accidents, diseases and trauma can result in childhood aphasia or loss of language functions. Damage to the left hemisphere of the brain causes language disturbances or aphasia more than damage to the right hemisphere. PREVALENCE a. Local i. According to the UNICEF Situation Analysis of Children and Women in the Philippines (2003), Children and young people with disabilities totaled 158,302 with hearing and speech difficulties as the most prevalent type. ii. The Special Education Division report on statistics for the school year 2004-2005 gives the following data. Categories No. Of Children Gifted and fast learners 77, 152 With learning disabilities 40, 260 With mental retardation 12, 456 With hearing impairment 11, 597 With autism 5, 172 With behavior problems 5, 112 With visual impairments 2, 670 With speech defects 917 With orthopedic 760 impairments With special health 142 problems With cerebral palsy 32 With disabilities = 79, 1998 Grand total = 156, 270 b. International i. In the US, approximately 20% of children receiving special education services are with speech and language disorders (Inciong, et al., 2007). ii. 10 to 15% of preschool children and about 6% of students in elementary and secondary grades have speech disorders; about 2-3% of preschoolers and about

1% of the school-age population have language disorders (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2006). IDENTIFICATION / ASSESSMENT Although most people can tell that someone has a speech or language impairment by listening to that person, the formal assessment of speech and language impairments is complicated and is conducted by an SLP or a Speech Language Pathologist. An SLP is joined by an audiologist if hearing loss is suspected as a reason for the speech or language impairment. Assessment typically involves the use of both standardized tests and informal testing. a. Formal Assessment i. Test of Language Development (TOLD) ii. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test iii. Auditory Comprehension of Language iv. Boehm Test of Basic Concepts v.Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test vi. Kaufmanns Test on Early Academic and Language Skills b. Informal Assessment i. Free Play ii. Interview iii. Observation c. Assessment Procedures outlined by the Special Education Division, Bureau of Elementary Education of the Department of Education i. Pre-referral Intervention 1. Teacher Nomination Form a child who manifests at least half of the characteristics of speech and language impairments is recommended for screening 2. Checklist of Characteristics of Children with Speech and Language Disorders findings are compared to the normal characteristics of speech and language development indicated in the Milestones on Language Development ii. Multifactored Evaluation 1. Formal Evaluation by a speech pathologist. PROGRAM PLACEMENT AND SERVICES Program Placement - The child with speech and language disorders is kept in the regular classroom as much as possible. Inclusion encourages immediate intervention as the teacher corrects the childs mispronunciation. Inclusion minimizes the isolation of the children from speech environments and social development. Services - Teachers and SLPs should work as a team so that all students have positive language learning environments at school and so that students with speech or language impairments have classroom experiences that support and extend therapy. 1. Clinical Therapy (Pull-out Model) 2. Therapy conducted in classrooms 3. General Education Teachers, Special Education Teachers and SLPs collaboration (teamteaching)

4. Counselling Services and Trainings for Family Members EDUCATIONAL PROVISIONS IN THE REGULAR CLASSROOM a. Instructional supports i. Match language with the comprehension abilities of the students. ii. Be responsive to students language needs by adjusting, modifying, and supplementing instruction. iii. Anchor instruction with examples relevant to students experience and culture. iv. Provide multiple examples illustrate a point or explain a concept. v.Use specific referents (e.g., instead of Open your book say Open the read geography book to page 105), and avoid indirect expressions. b. Content enhancement strategies i. Identify important aspects of a word ii. Compare and contrast meanings and characteristics of two concepts iii. Help students visualize meanings of words iv. Organize knowledge around expected sequences of familiar events c. Direct language instruction and development i. Direct instruction about the use of figurative language. ii. Instruction about figurative language can be integrated into content lessons. d. Language-sensitive environments i. Modifications in teaching style and instructional activities ii. Provide oppurtunities for language use and incorporate them into standard classroom routines References: Office of the Secretary, .. D. (2009). Administrative Order No. 2009-0011. Guidelines to Implement the Provisions of Republic Act 944, Otherwise known as An Act Amending Republic Act No. 7277, otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons and for Other Purposes for the provision o. Manila: Department of Health (DOH) Philippines. Estrada, J. (2010). Senate Bill No. 907: Special Education Act of 2010 (15th Congress of the Philippines. First Regular Session ed.). Manila: Senate of the Philippines. Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2008). Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education (with Cases for Reflection and Analysis) (11th Edition) (11 ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Inciong, T., Quijano, Y., Capulong, Y., Gregorio, J., & Gines, A. (2007). Introduction to Special Education: A Textbook for College Students. Sampaloc, Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc. Smith, D. D. (2004). Introduction to Special Education: Teaching in an Age of Opportunity (5 ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

By: Adrian Thaddeus C. Alcausin | Adrian Jeric G. Pea | Christienne Monique C. Torralba