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CAGAYAN NATIONAL HIGHSCHOOL

MISSION: We believe that people are the most important resources of our country. We therefore make the task of educating the Filipino child our singular mission. VISION: We are a people organization committed to a culture of education in public service. GOALS: We enable the Filipino youth to discover their potential in a learner-centered, values-driven teaching-learning environment; thereby empowering them to create their own destiny in a global community. We prepare them to become responsible citizens of the world and enlightened leaders who love their country.

Episode 1 : THERMOMETER CHECK


Your Tools For this episode, please use the activity form provided. My Observation Report on Interaction Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui School Observed : Year Level: Subject observed: Cagayan National Highschool II English Section: 1

Observations: Student to-student Interaction Patterns Students whom we observed acted in familiarity among each other. They treat and speak to each other casually without reserve like brothers and sisters. They are always willing to work in cooperation during group activities, open to sharing and receiving inputs from one another. Even criticism and negative feedback from each other are taken impersonally so that miscommunication or academic conflicts during the period are resolved and shrugged off at the end of the day.

Student-to-Teacher Interaction Patterns The nature of teacher-student interaction in and outside the classroom that we observed is a reflection of the parent-children relationship which seems to be a common characteristic among the classes in high school. Although, the teacher is regarded as person of sole authority in the room and students comply with her instructions, students are still able to individually approach the teacher for difficulties in the lesson and personal concerns. At times, not all concerns are addressed individually due to the large number of students in the class. It can seem inevitable when one is dealing with over fifty members each with unique needs, traits and dispositions. Nonetheless, order is prevalent when the teacher calls for it Teacher-to-Student Interaction Patterns More than being an educator, the teacher acts as a disciplinarian and a counselor inside the classroom that I observed. The teacher, while delivering her instruction sees to it that she solicits maximum participation among her students and that focus is maintained during the whole period. This is done through reinforcements like on-the-spot feedback, negative and positive alike. Reprimands are given cautiously while praises are given generously. She encourages questions and dialogues among her students while she seeks to intervene when necessary. To do this, she goes around and does not stay put on the table platform so that discussions, not lectures, are delivered. This way, she is able to see each pupils responses to her instruction even behaviors that are uncalled for which she can immediately attend to.

Student-to-Non-teaching Personnel Interaction Patterns Non-teaching personnel like guards and maintenance people in the school are regarded with the same respect given to teachers by the students. Their language and dealing with them manifest a combination of respect of authority and consideration for the elderly. Teacher to-Teacher Interaction Patterns Professionalism and camaraderie are two characteristics that are observed in the environment of the teachers be it in the faculty room, along the corridors or in the classroom. Not one conversation or dialogue was heard that is not of academic nature or school-related. Teachers are well too aware of each others roles in school activities and programs; it is the theme in their exchanges. The manner by which they approach one another shows acquaintanceship and team spirit.

ENRICHING ACTIVITIES
Create a scenario where any of the above interactions occurs in the school. Make a script of their dialogue, bearing in mind that this partnership is built on developing a climate of respect, harmony and cooperation. Script: Inside the classroom, the teacher let the students group themselves by seven members for an activity. This group of high school students is in Second year, first section. Some students are attentively listening to the instruction of the teachers while others are chatting with their seatmates. Teacher: Class, group yourselves by seven. Youll be having a group activity. Student 1: Maam can we choose our members?

Teacher: Yes, you can. Choose classmates youre comfortable working with. Student 2: But maam it cant be that way. We should do random counting of so we can have a fair grouping. Teacher: That is a very good suggestion. Do you prefer it that way class? Students agreed unanimously. The students had a random counting of from one to seven after which groupings were made. Teacher: Are you now with your groups? Students: Yes maam! Teacher: Choose a leader and a secretary from your group and get a copy of the short story youre going to work with. List down all the simple phrasal and clausal modifiers found in the story and present it to the class after. Each group went to work for the activity but meanwhile, a cry was heard from a corner of the room. The teacher went towards that direction. Teacher: Oh, whats happening here? Why are you crying? Is there a problem? Student (Elisa): Maam John destroyed Cathes cellphone. Teacher: Why did you that John? John: Cathe was not cooperating with us Maam, shes busy texting. Teacher: So why did you break it? You could have just asked her to stop texting.

John: Actually Maam its her own fault. When I told her to stop texting and start cooperating, she got angry and threw her cell phone my way but I was not able to catch it so it crashed on the floor. Teacher: Is she telling the truth Cathe and the group? Student (Elisa): John is fond of teasing Cathe Maam. Cathe: Maam if he didnt keep on teasing me, picking at my ears and asked me nicely I would have not thrown the cell phone at him. Teacher: Both of you come to my table. Meanwhile, continue working group 4. Teacher: So John, is it true what Cathe said? John: Yes Maam. Teacher: Cathe, you could have injured someone by throwing your cellphone. Cathe: I am sorry Maam. Teacher: I need both of you to understand that we are a family here and when you are grouped, you should treat each other as brothers and sisters and cooperate like accomplishing chores at home. John: I am sorry Maam. Teacher: Dont say sorry to me. I would like you two sincerely apologize to each other and admit your faults. Cathe: John, stop teasing me everytime and Im sorry for throwing my cellphone. John: I am sorry too. From now on, I will stop teasing you. Teacher: Now, you two shake hands

Cathe: But maam, what about my cellphone? Teacher: Since you both are at fault, you two will share the responsibility of having your phone repaired. Do you both agree? John & Cathe: Yes maam. Teacher: Cathe, swap with Nikki of group 3. Now, go to your respective groups and continue working. Cathe: No need to swap Maam Ill work with my group. Teacher: Very good then, continue working.

ANALYSIS
Why is a classroom a miniature of a greater society? A classroom is a small model of a society because in it are elements that make up the same. It has a governing body, one who is looked up to as the source of directives, and one who has the greater authority among members- the Teacher. It has both long-term and short-term goals to achieve. It has members, the students-participants who are both contributory and beneficiaries in achieving these goals. It has rules and standards agreed upon by all members which they are required to align their performance and behavior with in order to achieve these goals successfully. Also it has external stakeholders who influences their decisions and implementation and who also serve as their evaluatorparents administrators, government. And like a society, roles of each element are as important as the the other which is an evidence of their interdependence. What are found inside the classroom that is similar to what can be found in a society? As a miniature of a society, a classroom has essentials of its larger model. It has facilities to assist the members implement everyday activities-chairs, tables, ceiling fans, boards, chalk etc. It has rules of conduct implicitly and explicitly communicated through writing or verbally. Moreover, like a society its members are as diverse. A classroom has various groups of student made different by ethnicity, socioeconomic background, culture and racial origin even.

Peace Concept on Focus:


Cooperation You are able to find pleasure in working with another person because you consider this person as a partner not a competitor. Through partnership, the task is done cooperatively and more easily. Cooperation and Partnership in Curriculum Design Any task done collaboratively is richer and larger in depth and breadth as it is product of various insights, ideas and consideration which could have not been produce if it were done by one person alone whose tendency is to look on a only few aspects overlooking other critical factors either inadvertently or just by sheer partiality. As the product encompasses more and is a result of deliberation and synthesis, it is more substantial and valid. Additionally, more hands and more minds mean less unnecessary efforts exerted.

EPISODE 2
Come, lets talk Your Tools For this episode, please use the activity form provided for you. My Observation Report Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui School Observed : Year Level: Subject observed: Cagayan National Highschool III English Section: 5

Observation: I observed that although majority of students attention are caught and maintained during a class period, there will always be one or more students who is not in sync.

Situation: The teacher is instructing students to write a composition. The Dialogue: Teacher: Class, make a composition entitled A Projection Student 1: Maam what specific details are we going to write in the composition? Teacher: It could be a projection of yourself in the future Student 2 to another student: What title will we use?

Personal Reflections on the Dialogue:


It may almost seem impossible to attend to each individual students needs because as one being fending to over fifty personalities at one time we can only do so much without purposeful attention from our learners. Thus, we should always strive to make them become self-directed in studying and learning.

ANALYSIS
How important are dialogues and substantive conversation in the classroom and in terms of students learning? Dialogues and substantive conversation in the classroom stimulate the learners to think and reflect from their vicarious experiences and contemplate about daily learnings application to everyday life. They reinforce critical thinking and develop reasoning skills as students participate in discourse among one another. This also addresses their communicative and interpersonal needs which are most relevant to everyday situations. What learning benefits could teachers and students draw from intentional classroom dialogue? Intentional classroom dialogues are beneficial to both students and teachers as they serve as channels for open and less-academic communication in a classroom. Because these types of dialogues have intended outcome as objectives, teachers can easily detect students learning lapses through their responses and interaction. And as such, teachers can easily create a strategy to overcome their difficulties. It can also be a form of diagnostic method from which teachers can draw what are the students weaknesses and strengths are in a particular topic by examining their responses to a prepared conversation enacted by themselves.

Field Study 4
Exploring the Curriculum

School Observed: CAGAYAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Observers:

Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui

Submitted to: Beatriz Clemente, Ph.D.

EPISODE 3
TELL ME

My Observation Report Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui Year Level: II Subject observed: English

Resource Teacher: Mrs. Dumayag Section: 1/Aluminum

Analysis: Why should teachers know about curriculum design? Theres no denying what a crucial role teachers have in curriculum design. It is one of their regular tasks to create a small-scale curriculum in the form of a lesson plan. It is required then that they have a good understanding of what components are to be included in a curriculum and how these components are to be assembled such that it reflects the schools curriculum and is adapted to maximize student learning. A background of curriculum dimensions and the principles behind each will allow her to explore which to adapt and consider addressing learners needs and characteristics with learning outcome in mind. The product of this understanding is replicated in the objectives, contents, procedures, activities and evaluation that a teacher makes use of daily in her profession. Moreover, a teachers understanding of the underlying principles behind a curriculum that was designed to be implemented will direct her and the amount of accountability, involvement and commitment she contributes.

What do most principles and theories of curriculum development have in common? How is this commonality expressed or spelled out in the curriculum of the class you have observed? To a certain degree, the principles and theories in curriculum development has learning as their goal and they all recognize the active role of the teacher and the learner along the process. In the classroom that we observed, the teacher constantly asked if she was understood or if the message shes trying to get across was grasp by students; seatwork, quizzes, group works, homework are also conducted to test and for the learners to show evidence of their learning. In some instances, learners are asked to explain a concept among each other in a peer-to-peer activity to test their ability to transfer what they have learned. Still in other instances, they are provided opportunities to represent their learning by constructing it in the form of dramatization, stage adaptation, dramatic reading, poem and short-story writing during which students were asked to observe critically which is followed by insights and feedback given by the teacher and other students alike to reinforce learning. The assessments given were not only meant for students to score well in but also to develop a love for reading, writing and appreciation in doing these. This is the typical proceedings in the 1st year English class we observed, one which religiously follows the UBD (Understanding by Design) framework.

EPISODE 4 Bridging Educational Processes My Observation Report Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui Year Level: II Date of Observation: 09/07/2011 Subject observed: Section: 1 English

Calendar of Activities: Activities Election of Student Body Nutrition Day 1st Periodical Exams Festival Contests Recognition Day Awarding of 10 Most Outstanding Teachers Sept. 18 Intramurals Sept. 28 *No mechanics given Administrators, Faculty Students, Faculty, Administrators Date July 15, 2011 July 24 Aug. 8-9 Aug. 13 Sept. 2 Participants Students Teachers, Students, Parents Students Inter-school Students, Faculty Mechanics

ANALYSIS: How significant is involvement of all stakeholders of the school in the schools program and activities? The extent of the stakeholders involvement in the school and schools programs is translated to how successful these activities will result to. The school administration holds the responsibility in leading the implementation of any program. In a public high school, it is obvious how significant parental involvement is in providing permission for their children to participate, contributing and funding the needs that these activities and programs will require of their children. Community leaders and organizations are tapped upon for resources- human and material resources alike. Students and teachers are the main recipients and contributors at the same time. The outcome of these school activities is only as good as all their contributions summed up. What specific principle of curriculum development justifies the importance of cooperation and collaboration among all stakeholders of the school? Two of the characteristics of a good curriculum as declared in the book Curriculum Development (Purita Bilbao, Ed.D., et.al), substantiate the importance of cooperation and collaboration among all stakeholders of the school. The first of these characteristics states that The curriculum is democratically conceived. A good curriculum is developed through the efforts of a group of individuals from different sectors in the society who are knowledgeable about the interests, needs, and resources of the learner and the society as a whole. The curriculum is a product of many minds and energies. The second affirms, The curriculum complements and cooperates with other programs of the community. There is cooperative effort between the school and the community towards greater productivity. Additionally, this approach which has been encouraged in more and more education and training institutions around the world has been formally recognized as the Participatory Curriculum Development (PCD) processes.

PCD approaches create working partnerships between teachers, learners and other stakeholders, and aim to increase ownership of the full learning process, thus improving the potential for effective learning through participation (Taylor, 2003). PCD is underpinned by a number of basic principles: o o that participation is not only a means but an end in itself stakeholders in education who might normally be marginalized gain the right to take part in decision-making about teaching and learning o that as a basic human right, education can help to reduce poverty and social injustice. Greater participation increases the likelihood of this goal being achieved, and so should be a prerequisite for education o participation by relevant stakeholders may take place throughout the entire curriculum development process, including planning, delivery and evaluation.

REFLECTION Peace CONCEPT on Focus: INTERCONNECTEDNESS

A multiplicity of perspectives is important if we recognize that education is socially constructed thus it involves interests. It is not easy to reconcile these individual interests, conflicts are likely and easy harmony will not come effortlessly. Thus recognizing and being open while encouraging participatory dialogue and negotiation is one way to move forward and avoid a stale and stiff outcome as in any human endeavor. A sense of power is obtained when a member is heard and considered partner in the process. Through establishment of collaboration, individual differences and interests become enabling forces for change rather than remaining barriers. Compromises maybe needed but optimal participation and interconnectedness, when practiced well, can allow us to see and think, from a vantage point, about the various facets of one of the worlds earliest and largest restructuring efforts -Learning.

EPISODE 5
Collect and Critique My Analysis Report Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui Year Level: II Date of Observation: 09/09/2011 Subject observed: Section: My Analysis Report The Topic Literature: Reading and Writing a Paragraph o o Reading Comprehension Paragraph development Writing a paragraph about How they see themselves 10 years from now. Recognizing Mode of Development in Paragraph/Selection Recognizing Base or Root Words Adjectival & Adverbial Clauses Quiz o Telling a story or anecdote and reporting of events, Learning Activities Assessment of Learning English

1/ Aluminum

The Topic Verb Tenses -Present Tense -Perfect Tense -Present Perfect Tense o

Learning Activities Dramatic Reading of The Women with the Wooden Bowl

Assessment of Learning Diad to work in identifying verbs and tenses used in the school paper editorial article.

Simple, Phrasal, Clausal Modifier

Writing a short story Supplementary reading of the topic

Assignment

Information Assessment: Distinguishing facts from opinion.

Individual Reading and interpretation of familys most recent electric bill.

Seatwork: Classifying random sentences taken from Science textbook.

Critical Reaction: -Clause expressing hypothetical situation -Clause expressing probable results

Stage Adaptation of Kalabashi Kids.

Group activity: Providing feedback to other groups presentation.

My Interview Report Name of Teacher Interviewed: Mrs. Aileen Ibanez

Year Level & Section of Class Handled: III -5 Date of Interview: 08/11/2011 Interviewer: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui Challenges Diversifying of Instruction Resources Needed To vary instruction and to address a large class, teachers will need: a. Supplementary Reference books b. Instructional videos c. Text Projection d. Reading literature e. Websites f. Experts to interview Differentiated Instructional Strategies includes: a. Flexible Reading b. Games and Authentic Assessment c. Real World Learning/Authentic Planning Strategies Teachers need to differentiate 3 aspects of the curriculum: 1. 1. Content -All students should be given access to the same core content. Struggling learners should be taught the same big ideas as their classmates, not given

-to accommodate the full diversity of academic needs that children bring to the classroom.

watered-down content. -Teachers should address the same concepts with all students but adjust the degree of

complexity. 2. Process -Teachers activities, can to modify provide these some

students with more complexity

Tasks d. Tiered Questions and Openended questioning e. Self-Assessment/ Peer Learning g. Peer Assistance/Grouping

and others with more scaffolding (include step-by-step directions, reteaching, models and and additional examples),

depending on their readiness levels. 3. Products can reveal apply whether learning

students

beyond the classroom to solve problems and take action. -Teachers need to recognize that different students can create different product. Assessment should judge based on their

readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. -culminating projects that are

given should allow students to demonstrate and extend what they have learned by working alone or in groups.

Large teacher-centered classes -students have little

The teacher creates and fosters a non-threatening learning-

opportunity to deliver enough output to be judged fairly or receive constructive feedback to enhance feelings of security and success.

ensuring atmosphere using his understanding of the students background - cultural, socioeconomic and the like - which play important role in

determining learning success and its rate and pace. Teachers will use a more natural type of interaction in the classroom with a greater role for the students in

controlling the content and the flow of exchange. Testing, evaluation and remedial teaching have to be done to have a proper assessment of learners Understanding. In teaching English, literature for example, is to be offered under properly planned

divisions of the syllabus into

units and sub-units to ensure conscious learning of language structures, and an insight into how they could be used for compositions in oral and

written discourse. These parts are to be further reproduced to a format that ensures comprehension-

questions are asked, vocabulary exercises for synonyms,

antonyms and then right words in right situations and

expressions, expression etc.

idiomatic are given,

composition exercises based on the selected paragraphs or the ideas with which the class has been conversant are assigned and work produced by students where they show evidence of what they have learned.

ANALYSIS: How important is it for teachers and curriculum planners to anchor their curricular plans to specific theories and principles of curriculum development? Teachers and other curriculum planners should anchor their curricular plans to specific theories and principles because it is the only way that they can own and contextualize the planned curriculum by fitting it to their own abilities, to the needs of their students, and the available resources and environment they have access to. It is also through this that they are given acceptable standards to begin with, that they are made conscious between practice and theory and eventually bridge the gap. For example, if a technical vocational school is to follow Tylers model, it might be found difficult to operate perhaps due to contextual constraints including lack of planning culture, lack of time to plan, and inadequate teacher training to plan their work. The principles in curriculum development will prompt curriculum planners and evaluators to examine reported problems in detail and modify the curriculum to fit their context and their objectives bringing about a more effective translation of the model they have assumed. Aside from the teachers, who else should be involved in the curriculum planning? Expound your thoughts. Curriculum planning, together with the teacher, should involve administrators, parents, students and other stakeholders. The curriculum should be planned in the context within which it would operate. This context can be explored and examined thoroughly if all these individuals participate in curriculum planning. We can expect to find a variety of concerns among these stakeholders that motivate them to lay claim in the development of the curriculum. If students were in charge they would support curricular items that incorporate field activities, trips, and hands-on experiences. Parents support highly supervised activities for students and ones which permit them, the parents, to come into the school at

will. Teachers support curricular items which enhance their control over costs and benefits of their position as do administrators, school board members, and community groups. To gain support from them in the long run, curriculum planning should endeavor for a structure that provides consideration to each stakeholders interest and possible contribution so that the content and the organization give the advantage of credibility and accountability to each of these power-holders of the curriculum.

My Reflection: I will read friends Facebook news, Check out the political views Sweep the floor, do the laundry Almost anything to avoid Curriculum planning!

Running through the check list Does every needed lesson exist? Or is there an important one missed? I can addif you insist

I understand the necessity Of Teacher accountability But sometimes I wonder if really We are better for this intricacy.

Meanwhile, I will sweep the floor Wash the dishes, then check some more I have finished episode 3 through four, That just leaves another two to go

Oh, Socrates, wheres my tree Where I can just a teacher be? Oh, wait, perhaps a guide on file Would have stayed that fatal cup a while. Guess Ill continue curriculum planning! ;)

EPISODE 6:
CHECK POINTS

My Observation Report Name: Ruth Ann Tuddao Glenda Jaygee T. Calagui Year Level: II Subject observed: English

Resource Teacher: Mrs. Emma Dumayag Section: 1/Aluminum

Observations: Objectives The students would be able to: I. a. Identify modifiers b. Distinguish simple, phrasal and clausal modifier Strategies Assessment Remarks The objectives were stated simply and clearly with the desired competencies specified. The strategies used to achieve the objectives are parallel to the objectives. The assessment tools used appropriate measures the competencies specified in the objectives and developed in the activities done during the instructional strategy.

Lecture Written quiz Group Work In a matrix form, each group will write the modifiers found in the story. Classify each modifier by placing them under column in which they belong. Modeling correct Group Performance: pronunciation and Dramatic Reading stress Group Reading

II. a. Read the story of the Woman in a wooden bowl properly with correct pronunciation, proper stressing, tone of voice. b. Able to give contextual meaning to the vocabularies found in the story.

Brainstorming

Quiz: Reading Comprehension

Why do teachers need to align need to align the objectives, strategies and assessment?
Objectives set what we want students to learn while instructional strategies ensure that they learn it and finally assessment tools should reveal how well students have learned. For this to occur, assessment tools, learning objectives, and instructional strategies need to be closely aligned so that they reinforce one another. If assessments tools are misaligned with learning objectives or instructional strategies, it can undermine both student motivation and learning. For example: your assessment tool measures students ability to compare and critique the arguments of different authors, but your instructional strategies focus entirely on summarizing the arguments of different authors. Consequently, students do not learn or practice the skills of comparison and evaluation that will be assessed. Another example of misalignment and consequence is when your objective is for students to learn to apply analytical skills, but your assessment tool measures only factual recall. Consequently, students hone their analytical skills and are frustrated that the exam does not measure what they learned.

How should teachers align their objectives, strategies and assessment? Suggest some strategies. Teachers should start alignment with objectives by planning backwards. Already they should ask themselves the correct questions. What is it I want my students to know after instruction? What is it I want them to be able to do? Once they have formulated objectives (proposed learning outcomes) for their instruction, usually that already defines the instructional strategies appropriate in which accomplishment of those objectives can be evaluated or measured. It is the verb in the statement of the objective that provides a clue for assessment. It is the verb in the statement of the objective that provides a clue for assessment. If one of the objectives in teaching English sentence construction is "The student will recognize incorrect use of quotation marks," determining whether or not a student has met this objective will need to

take the form of providing students with examples of correct and incorrect use of quotation marks and asking them to identify those which are incorrect. The strategies used should include drills pointing to what makes a quotation mark misplaced in the sentence. If the objective had been that "The student will use quotation marks correctly, the content taught would probably be the same. The instructional strategies and the assessment tools for measuring accomplishment of objectives should, however, be directed toward students' writing and correct use of quotation marks in what they write. The teacher also knows that in order for the student to recognize incorrect usage, (the first example), some of the instruction has to give students opportunities to do just that. The objective tells us that instructional activities must include practice in recognizing incorrect uses. It also tells us that the assessment of the students' accomplishment of the objective must be a recognition activity. The teacher needs to assess student learning using the same types of activities in the strategies she used to teach the desired knowledge or skill which she specified in her objectives.

REFLECTIONS:

What is curriculum? When I first started the course, I wasnt sure that I had an established definition at all. It seemed to me that many different people used many different definitions for the term. They still do. And while I believe I have more clarity on the issue, Im not sure Im ready to declare I have a definitive answer. The more I delve into the topic, the more I find myself forced to simplicity. In my opinion, curriculum is all the things that students learn. Where it gets exponentially complicated starts with the very first step away from the definition. Who gets to pick the things the students learn? This is much more difficult and opinionated. The written, taught, and tested is a big part of that to be sure, but it isnt all of it. Because again, students learn as much about themselves, other people, and learning from the things teachers chose to omit as from the things teachers choose to include. That means both the intended and unintended. When we start picking exactly what the students will learn, we begin formulating a construct that students will engage when learning. Obviously, there will be written curriculum that is to be taught and then tested, but there is much more to it than that. Because its the bigger construct of the scope of the curriculum that will likely have the greatest impact on a student. If we set up a curriculum that focuses on finite, rote recitation of facts as a major outcome, we will intend to have students complete our educational scope and sequence with a specific knowledge base that weve predetermined. Looking back at the few months of experience that I had as a student-teacher and the many years I was as a student brings me to a better vantage point to inspect schooling in general. What exactly is the purpose of school? It is all about learning. That is the purpose. But what exactly should be taught? What subjects should students learn and how should we teach it? Id like to say students should learn what is of interest to them, but that is rife with complication. I know if I had been given the opportunity to pick that which I would learn when I was in high school, none of the subjects would have had any academic value. Should we continue on with the just in case model; giving students a bit of everything just in case they might need it someday? Should we move to the just in time model that delivers knowledge and learning right in time when it is needed or in Filipino, in demand?

I can absolutely see the need for students to learn how to communicate dynamically, and it is likely there is a certain level of mathematics and science that is needed to succeed in our world, but other than that, what should we teach? Nationalism, vocational skill, world languages, finance? What about specific classes in project management, collaboration (the real kind, not just cooperative learning), critical thinking, etc.? What about me? What can I do that makes a difference in the lives of learners today? As a future teacher, that is a valid question. For now, I know Im not in this business to make things. To manufacture items. To manage finances. Im here to learn how to serve students and help them figure out how they can most effectively learn. And I think Id do well to first remember that not all students run a mile per minute, nor do they learn at the same rate nor should they be gauged according to the same measures and that learning is not a race to run but rather a course wrought towards their own finish lines. As this 1-unit subject draws to a close, and Im considering my final definition of curriculum, Id probably have to return to a variant of my original definition. Curriculum is everything we want our students to learn; including the explicit and implicit of what our efforts or our system foster for learning. Im sure that will continue to evolve, and Im happy with that. Im not ready to stop wrestling with the concept quite yet as I still have another semester to complete.

REFLECTIONS: Episode 1 & 2 Ruth Ann B. Tuddao

Interaction between the teacher and the learner makes each one know each other inside the classroom. Students differ in abilities and interests while the teacher will likely employ different strategies to cater to these differences. Teachers should be sensitive enough to the positive or negative interaction that exist in a classroom discussion and her role is to take a appropriate adjustment in her methodology/ strategy should the need arises. Its the teachers primary goal to motivate the students to work harmoniously and inculcate values of cooperation and pleasantness. Classroom dialogue could develop a close relationship between the teacher and the learner. Every statement that comes out from the teachers lips may become encouragement or disappointment to the learner. Socrates method could also enhance learning among students. Thus in curriculum-making, it is necessary that the main priority is the learner. What is being implemented is for the learners future not for the institution. Teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction should be the focus. What is established inside the classroom will reflect what is established in the society. The classroom is a miniature of a greater society. What is learned within the classroom will be observed outside in the society.

Ruth Ann Tuddao REFLECTIONS: Episode 3 & 4 Curriculum theories are also concerned with the learners learning environment. Learning environment should be conducive for learning. It is where students owe the realization of their potential. It promotes and facilitates the individuals discovery of the personal meaning of idea. Learning environment must consistently recognize learners right to make mistakes. Where learners develop trust to themselves where they feel accepted and respected despite who they are. That the clear and enthusiastic voice of the teacher elicits equally eager and keen response from the students, help create a conducive and beneficial atmosphere for learning. Learning does not exist only between the teacher and the learner. It has to do something which happens in the unique world of the learner. It flourishes in situation in which teaching is seen as facilitating process that assist learner to explore and discover the personal meaning of events for them. As to subject matter, it should be aligned with the lesson objectives. Where it considers the learners interest and the level of their comprehension. Instructional resources must take into consideration in exploring the curriculum. The materials to be used must be easily found and necessary for the learning activity. The school must be sufficient enough to provide the instructional material.

REFLECTIONS: Episode 5 & 6

My most meaningful experience in this episode is the teaching strategy used by the teacher. Giving group activities to the students. Through group activities, students would develop cooperative and collaborative learning. Interaction among others would also be enhanced. An example of this is making role plays among group. Development of the different intelligence of the learners is being emphasized. The cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills are given consideration. Ive seen that this strategy is being enjoyed by the students. Not only is it enjoyment but it is also one way to break the diversity among the group of learners. It is not new to the teachers that within the classroom, students are not necessarily come from a certain group but rather from different families and culture. Ive realized that to become a better teacher, you must be equipped with such different strategies to catch the attention of the students. As they say, there are no dull students, no dull subjects; it is the teachers. How the discussion flows lies on his the hands of the teacher. A better teacher does not merely concentrate with the fulfillment of the subject content. But rather it is how much the learner have learned.