.Organization is group of Human being working toward for the attainment of certain common objective..

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to achieve organizational goals”  Moreover we now have better understanding that schools. The problem in this module addresses is to understand the behaviour of people at work in educational organizations. as organizations are complex and confusing places that are filled with ambivalence. ambiguity.  This is the central problem confronting educational administration is defined as “working with and through other people. . individually and in groups. and uncertainty.

quasi-experimental methods andb quantification . 1970s. concern was expressed that the theories and the research that had been spawned. Research was dominated by those who accepted logical-positivist assumptions about schools as organizations and about ways to understanding them.    The Theory of Movement. the period from the early 1950s into the mid-1970s produced a great outpouring of the theory and research in educational administration. did not fully described schools as they were experienced by people in them. It is thought that the means of discovery must be through the method that emphasizes measurement sampling.as described .

 This is one type of experimental design that is very similar to the True Experimental Design with one key difference. .

 They example the “ The Road to generalized knowledge can lie only in tough-minded scientific research. not in introspection and subjective experiences. Claimed that that it was believed that the assumption and the method of discovery (quasi-experimental method)were the only way to improve the training of educational practitioners. .

organizations are not real. but rather.  He explained that organization are invented social realities that actually exist ion the minds of the people. Articulated serious concern about thenexisting organizational theory that had been developing among both practitioner and a growing number of scholars. . viewed social realities that exist only in the minds of the people. rather as tangible.  According to him. independent realities.

examples and stories while academics use models and language of science. Principals see schools as ambiguous and even chaotic places while academics describe an image of rationality and orderliness.     Principals describe concrete everyday experiences while academic emphasizes theory and abstract relationships. . Principals describes schools in human and emotional terms wherein school personnel agonized over and celebrates their daily ups and downs while academics describe in them in terms of detached abstractions. Principals are aware of limits on rationality while academics stress rationality and defining problems in formal terms. Principal communicates through metaphors.

began to eschew traditional formal theorizing and the limitations of traditional quasi-experimental research methods. They began to go into schools. instead of sending questionnaires and compiling statistics to see what was going on and talk to school individuals in order to understand how they were experiencing their lives. . By the 1980s many students of education. who were well aware of these discrepancies.

. Became the intellectual backbone of the educational reform movements of the 1980s.

there have a number of attempts in the first two decades of the organizational behaviour era (that is. Karl Weick. from about 1955 to about 1975) to use social systems concepts an overarching explanation of organization under which other concepts (such as motivation and organizational culture) are subsumed.pointed out. this concept of using middle range theories in studying organization. .

 Described the organization as having a “technical core” in which the actual work activities (such as teaching) are performed. plus the “boundary spanning units”.  He saw that the fundamental problem confronting organizations was uncertainty and consequently.Described many new insights into the nature of organizations that laid the basis for a new impetus in organizational theorizing in the 1970s.  . described coping with uncertainty as the foundation of administration.

 Pooled coupling.  Sequential coupling.is the situation in which the workers perform their tasks one after the other in serial fashion over time.is the situation in which organization member share resources in common but otherwise work independently.refers to the situation in which workers pass their work back and fourth. Reciprocal coupling. .

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