Science process skill’s book = page S16 Science text’s book = page 78

Learning outcomes

  

List
Explain through examples the interactions between living organism

Justify the importance of interaction between living organism and the environment
Explain through examples the advantages and disadvantages of biological control in regulating the number of pests in certain area.

INTERACTION BETWEEN ORGANISM

COMPETITION

SYMBIOSIS

PREYPREDATOR

COMMENSALISM

MUTUALISM

PARASITISM

PREY-PREDATOR

A prey is the organism that is eaten.
A predator is an organism that kills eat and eat another organism. Prey-predator is a relationship where an animal capture and eats other animal.

Characteristics of

Predator = sharp claws and fang or sharp beak

Prey = has ability to run away

Example: owl is predator, rat is its prey.

PREDATOR

PREY

COMPETITION

Competition occurs when organism compete for basic resources.
Plants compete to obtain water, minerals, sunlight and living place. Animals compete to obtain water, food, living space and mate for reproduction.

COMPETITION

INTRA-SPECIFIC COMPETITION

INTER-SPECIFIC COMPETITION

SYMBIOSIS

Two or more different species which live close together and interact with each other.
There are 3 type of symbiosis
1. 2. 3.

Commensalism Parasitism Mutualism

COMMENSALISM

A relationship between 2 organisms in which one organism (the commensal) benefit while the other(the host) does not receive any benefit or harm.

COMMENSAL

HOST

Example: a remora fish often found attach under a shark, get free transport and feeds on food scraps left by the shark.

MUTUALISM

An interaction between 2 different species of organism which benefits both organism.

This relationship helps both organism survive in harsh condition. Neither organism will be able to survive on its own. They obtain nutrition and shelter from each other.

E XAMPLE

OF MUTUALSIM

•Lichen consist of fungi and algae living together •The algae produce food and the fungi provide shelter

A sea anemone protect the clown fish from predators and provides it with food scraps
The clown fish draws larger fish into the tentacle of the sea anemone.

PARASITISM

Parasite benefit by living in or outside the host. The host is harmed or maybe killed by the parasites.

PARASITE

HOST

EXAMPLE: 1. Mosquitoes (parasite) live on the skin of mammals (host) and suck the blood of the host. 2. Tapeworm (parasite) lives in human intestine (host). Tapeworm obtains food and shelter. The host losing nutrient to the parasite and lose weight, become weaker.

RAFFLESIA

The importance of interaction between organisms

In any ecosystem, when a population grows too large , organism of the same species will compete with each other for their basic needs.
Some will die and this reduce the size of population.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

A method in which a predator is used to control the population of the pest in an area. Usually used in agriculture to control population of pest without the used of pesticides.

Example

Advantages of biological control
1. 2.

It does not pollute the environment It does not kill other organisms other than the pests because natural enemies of the pests are used. It is cheap and safe to use.

3.

Disadvantages of biological control

In malaysia, an increase number of crow has posed a problem to people in Klang. Crows used to control the hawk moth. With food scraps available in Klang, the crow population increased.

EXERCISES

QUESTION 1

The following are interactions between living things except

A B C D

competition parasitism prey - predator photosynthesis

QUESTION 2
Owls and snakes are reared in oil palm plantations to A help produce carbon dioxide for the photosynthesis of the oil palm plants control the population of pests reduce grass and weeds help pollination

B C D

3. What is relationship in which
a) one organism has benefited and the other is harmed? PARASITISM

b) both organisms have benefited? MUTUALISM c) one organism has benefited and the other is unharmed? COMMENSALISM

L ET ’ S

DO EXERCISE

SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL’S BOOK = PAGE 70 - 73

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