Florida Teacher Certification Examination

Test Preparation Guide

General Knowledge Test

FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
www.fldoe.org

First Edition

Developed, produced, and printed under the authority of the Florida Department of Education Subject area content developed by the Institute for Instructional Research and Practice College of Education University of South Florida Produced by the Institute for Instructional Research and Practice College of Education University of South Florida

Authorization for reproduction is hereby granted to persons acting in an official capacity within the State System of Public Education as defined in Section 228.041(1), Florida Statutes. The copyright notice on the bottom of the page must be included on all copies. Permission is NOT granted for distribution or reproduction outside the State System of Public Education or for commercial distribution of the copyrighted materials without written authorization from the Department of Education. Questions regarding use of these copyrighted materials are to be addressed to: FTCE Administrator Florida Department of Education 325 West Gaines Street, Suite 414 Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400 Copyright 2002 State of Florida Department of State

Contents

1

Test and Test Preparation Guide Development 1

2

Preparation for the Test

3

3

Competencies and Skills

5

4

Test Format and Sample Questions

11

5

Test-Taking Advice

43

6

Additional Information

45

1

Test and Test Preparation Guide Development
Teacher Certification Testing
Since 1980, Florida teacher certification candidates have been required to pass the Florida Teacher Certification Examination (FTCE), which has consisted of tests in reading, writing, mathematics, and professional knowledge. The 1986 Florida Legislature modified the testing program by also requiring teacher candidates to pass a test in the subject area in which they wish to be certified. In addition, the Legislature substituted the Florida CollegeLevel Academic Skills Test (CLAST) for the reading, writing, and mathematics portions of the FTCE. The 2000 Florida Legislature replaced the CLAST with the General Knowledge Test, effective July 1, 2002. The General Knowledge Test consists of four subtests: Essay, English Language Skills, Mathematics, and Reading. The content assessed on the test was identified and validated by committees of subject area specialists from within the state of Florida. A majority of the committee members were public school teachers, but the committees also included district supervisors and college faculty with expertise in these fields. Committee members were selected on the basis of recommendations by professional associations, experts in the field, and teachers’ unions. In developing the test, the committees used an extensive literature review, interviews with selected public school teachers, a large-scale survey of teachers, pilot tests, and their own professional judgment.

Role of the Test Preparation Guide
The purpose of this test preparation guide is to help candidates taking the General Knowledge Test prepare effectively for the examination. The guide was designed to familiarize prospective test takers with various aspects of the examination, including the content that is covered and the way it is represented. The guide should enable candidates to direct their study and to focus on relevant material for review. This test preparation guide is intended primarily for use by certification candidates, who may be students in a college or university teacher-preparation program, teachers with provisional certification, or persons making a career change to public school teaching. Candidates may have studied and worked in Florida or may be from out of state. College or university faculty may also use the guide to prepare students for certification.

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Instead.This test preparation guide is not intended as an all-inclusive source of general knowledge. 2 . nor is it a substitute for college course work. The sample items are not an exact representation of the content of the actual test. the guide is intended to help candidates prepare for the General Knowledge Test by presenting an overview of the content and format of the examination.

concentrating on areas with which you are least familiar. Answer sample test questions. Section 5 includes suggestions for improving your performance on the examination. Section 4 describes types of questions you may find on the examination. Section 4 lists question formats and includes sample test items. Review all of the competencies. Section 1 discusses the development of the test and test preparation guide. Section 6 identifies sources of further information. Section 3 presents information about the content of the test. Self-Assessment • Decide which content areas you should review. Section 4 gives you an opportunity to test yourself with sample test questions and provides answer keys. Section 2 (this section) outlines test preparation steps. Review • Study according to your needs. Overview • Look over the organization of the test preparation guide. Adapt these suggestions to suit your own study habits and the time you have available for review. Section 5 offers strategies for taking the test. Section 3 includes the competencies and skills used to develop this test and the approximate proportion of test items from each competency area. Final preparation • Review test-taking advice. 3 . Practice • • Acquaint yourself with the format of the examination.2 Preparation for the Test The following outline may help you to prepare for the examination.

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and district-level educators have determined to be important for beginning teachers. 2 Recognize commonly confused or misused words or phrases. including parallel expressions for parallel ideas. subject area specialists. This table could serve as a checklist for assessing your familiarity with each of the areas covered by the test. 2 Recognize parallelism. 2 Word Choice Skills 1 Choose the appropriate word or expression in context. These competencies and skills represent the knowledge that teams of teachers. and run-on sentences. The following excerpt illustrates the components of the table: Competency Competency/Skill Approximate number of test items Items ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS 1 Conceptual and Organizational Skills 1 Identify logical order in a written passage.3 Competencies and Skills The table on the following pages lists the competencies and skills used as the basis for the General Knowledge Test. Number of items indicate the approximate number of test items that represent the skill on the test. 3 Sentence Structure Skills 1 Recognize correct placement of modifiers. Skills identify behaviors that demonstrate the competencies. comma splices. 2 Identify irrelevant sentences. 6 6 4 Skill Competencies are areas of content knowledge. 3 Recognize fragments. 5 . 3 Recognize diction and tone appropriate to a given audience.

Observe the conventions of standard American English.Table of Essay Skills Competency/Skill ESSAY SKILLS Determine the purpose for writing. Maintain consistent point of view. Demonstrate a mature command of language. 6 . Avoid inappropriate use of slang. jargon. Organize ideas and details effectively. Provide adequate. Use a variety of sentence patterns effectively. relevant supporting material. and clichés. Use effective transitions. Formulate a thesis or statement of main idea.

including parallel expressions for parallel ideas. comma splices. and run-on sentences. Identify inappropriate pronoun shifts. 6 4 Items Word Choice Skills 1 2 3 Choose the appropriate word or expression in context. Recognize parallelism. Identify clear pronoun references.Table of Competencies. and Number of Items Competency/Skill ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS 1 Conceptual and Organizational Skills 1 2 2 Identify logical order in a written passage. Recognize diction and tone appropriate to a given audience. Identify inappropriate shifts in verb tense. 11 Identify standard punctuation. Capitalization. Spelling. Identify the correct use of adjectives and adverbs. Identify agreement between pronoun and antecedent. 7 . Identify proper case forms. Identify agreement between subject and verb. Skills. Identify appropriate comparative and superlative degree forms. 12 Identify standard capitalization. 3 Sentence Structure Skills 1 2 3 Recognize correct placement of modifiers. and Punctuation Skills 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Identify standard verb forms. Identify irrelevant sentences. 24 10 Identify standard spelling. Recognize fragments. Recognize commonly confused or misused words or phrases. 6 4 Grammar.

Solve real-world problems involving addition. and Operations 1 Compare the relative value of real numbers (e.. weight.Table of Competencies. mass. and volume. percents... weight. Skills. money. irrational numbers. and Number of Items Competency/Skill MATHEMATICS The test center will provide a 4-function calculator. Solve real-world problems involving rated measures (e. and division of rational numbers (e. and fractions including mixed numbers). cost per item. factors. protractors. rulers. perimeter. mass. maps. and gauges). decimals. Solve real-world problems involving the change of units of measures of length. temperature.g. Choose the correct reading. miles per hour. measuring cups. weight. decimals. area. and cost per unit). meters per second. and models). thermometers. Concepts. 6 8 . The test center will provide a reference sheet. 1 Number Sense. percents. time. whole numbers. capacity. multiplication. Solve real-world problems involving scaled drawings (e. subtraction. fractions. blueprints. and time. 10 8 Items 2 3 4 2 Measurement (using customary or metric units) 1 2 3 4 5 Solve real-world problems involving length. and multiples in solving problems. capacity. Solve real-world problems involving estimates of measures including length. Apply basic number theory concepts including the use of primes. area.g. integers.. to a specified degree of accuracy. integers.g. mass. using instruments (e. composites.g. and numbers expressed in exponential or scientific notation). and volume. perimeter. scales.. Apply the order of operations with or without grouping symbols.g.

tables. tables. Identify how the measures of central tendency (i.. Items 9 4 4 Algebraic Thinking 1 2 3 4 Analyze and generalize patterns including arithmetic and geometric sequences..Competency/Skill 3 Geometry and Spatial Sense 1 2 3 Identify and/or classify simple two. mean. 9 5 Data Analysis and Probability 1 2 3 Analyze data and solve problems using data presented in histograms. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving ratio. and turns). Solve equations and inequalities graphically or algebraically. proportion.and three-dimensional figures according to their properties. slides. Calculate range. and transformations (e. tables. Solve and interpret real-world problems involving probability using counting procedures. similarity. and the Pythagorean relationship. Interpret algebraic expressions using words. congruence. mean. tangency. symmetry. mean. bar graphs. Identify the location of ordered pairs of integers in all four quadrants of a coordinate system (graph) and use the coordinate system to apply the concepts of slope and distance to solve problems.e. and mode) and dispersion (i. median. parallelism. range and standard deviation). and the concepts of permutations and combinations. and charts... Determine whether a number or ordered pair is among the solutions of given equations or inequalities. Identify how the presentation of data can lead to different or inappropriate interpretations.e. and graphs. Calculate the probability of a specified outcome.g. tree diagrams. flips. median. and mode(s) from sets of data and interpret the meaning of the measures of central tendency (i. Identify real-world examples that represent geometric concepts including perpendicularity. circle graphs. variables.e. or mode) can lead to different interpretations. pictographs. median. 9 4 5 6 9 . symbols.

Each test form will contain four passages. Determine relationships between sentences. Distinguish between fact and opinion. Draw logical inferences and conclusions. 10 . Identify overall organizational pattern.Table of Competencies. Determine meaning of words or phrases in context. Recognize tone. Recognize bias. Analyze the validity of arguments. Skills. and Number of Items Competency/Skill READING All items are passage based. Identify supporting details. 1 Literal Comprehension Skills 1 2 3 2 Recognize main ideas. The passages will be both expository and narrative. Inferential Comprehension Skills 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Determine purpose.

and Reading. The Essay For your essay. you will choose between two topics. You will receive test booklets that contain the essay topics and multiple-choice questions. however. and edit your essay. The answer booklet includes lined paper for your essay and a grid for answers to the multiple-choice questions. For the Mathematics Subtest. C. The Mathematics Subtest consists of approximately 45 multiple-choice questions and is 80 minutes long. The judges will use the criteria on pages 14-15 when evaluating your essay. English Language Skills. Your work will be scored holistically by two judges.4 Test Format and Sample Questions The General Knowledge Test consists of four subtests: Essay. or D on the answer sheet. The following sections explain procedures for each part of the test and direct you to examples of each type of question among the sample items on pages 18 through 41. the logic of your arguments. the skill with which you express those views. Mathematics. and the degree to which you support your position will be very important in the scoring. and you will record your selection by bubbling in A. You will have three-and-one-half hours to complete the test. The personal views you express will not be an issue. B. Your essay will be scored both on substance and on the composition skills demonstrated. The 50 minutes allotted for this section of the exam includes time to prepare. Each multiple-choice question will contain three or four response options. 11 . write. Multiple-Choice Subtests The English Language Skills and Reading subtests are each 40 minutes long and consist of approximately 40 multiple-choice questions per subtest. the test center will provide a 4-function calculator and a mathematics reference sheet.

Take a few minutes at the beginning of the period to plan your essay and at the end to proofread or revise your work. Spend your time writing and editing your final essay. 6. Take a few minutes to prewrite. wrap up quickly.GENERAL KNOWLEDGE TEST – ESSAY WRITING GENERAL STRATEGIES FOR WRITING THE ESSAY FOR THE GENERAL KNOWLEDGE TEST 1. informative details. Use all the time wisely. You should not run out of time before you are done. or an announcement. Determine what the topic is asking. Indent each new paragraph. nor should you write an incomplete essay because you did not use all the time allowed. Develop the essay according your purpose. and what experiences you have had. Consider the larger point you are trying to convey to the reader and what you want the reader to understand about the topic. Check your time. If the writing period is almost over. NOTE: You do not have time to write a rough draft and then completely rewrite it. 5. so you can provide concrete details rather than vague generalities. Watch the time. State a point of view in your thesis that guides the purpose and scope of your essay. Provide a concluding paragraph that ties together the essay’s points and offers insights about the topic. Avoid a thesis statement framed as a statement of fact. 12 . Sketch a quick outline or group your ideas together with arrows or numbers. Write a thesis statement that provides a clear focus for your essay. Do not limit yourself to an arbitrary length. Develop paragraphs fully to give the reader examples and reasons that support your thesis. others you may discard). Jot down your first ideas (some you may like. Begin to “see” your essay taking shape—even before you start writing. Think of how the topic relates to what you know. Tie your main ideas together with a brief conclusion. what you have learned. Avoid a conclusion that merely restates the thesis and repeats the supporting details. Read the instructions carefully and select one of the topics. 3. 4. a question. so you can proofread or revise. Note that a good essay for the General Knowledge Test may be longer or shorter than the basic five-paragraph format of some short essays. 2. The key is to develop a topic by using concrete.

Look for words. Write legibly so that the reader knows what you have written. Read each sentence from the last sentence to the first. or even paragraphs that need changing. Look for particular errors you tend to make. Mark out errors and correct them.7. You will never be penalized for clearly crossing out errors. 13 . sentences. Revise/proofread the essay to conform to standard American English usage.

usage. and organization is mechanical. Point of view is mostly maintained. 14 . and mechanics frequently interfere with the writer's ability to communicate. The paper contains occasional lapses in logic and coherence. usage. Support is developed with generalizations and lists. Point of view is consistently maintained. and mechanics may interfere with writer's ability to communicate. Point of view is somewhat maintained. SCORE of 3 The paper states a main idea that is developed with generalizations or lists. usage. and sentence structure is disjointed. Vocabulary and sentence structure are repetitious and often ineffective. Vocabulary and sentence structure are somewhat varied and effective. The paper may contain occasional lapses in logic and coherence. SCORE of 4 The paper has an adequately stated main idea that is developed with some specific details and examples. A variety of errors in sentence structure. Organization is notably logical and coherent. Errors in sentence structure. Organization follows a logical and coherent pattern. Point of view is confusing and distracting. SCORE of 5 The paper has a clearly established main idea that is adequately developed and recognizable through specific details and/or examples. and mechanics sometimes interferes with the writer's ability to communicate. and mechanics are few and insignificant. Organization is mechanical. Vocabulary and sentence structure are varied and effective. Occasional errors in sentence structure. Supporting ideas are presented in a mostly logical and coherent manner. usage. usage and mechanics do not interfere with the writer's ability to communicate. Vocabulary and sentence structure are mostly varied and effective. SCORE of 2 The paper presents an incomplete or ambiguous main idea.SCORING CRITERIA FOR THE GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ESSAY SCORE of 6 The paper has a clearly established main idea that the writer fully develops with specific details and examples. Occasional errors in sentence structure. Errors in sentence structure. Word choice is simplistic. Point of view is ambiguous.

Significant and numerous errors in sentence structure. usage. Vocabulary and sentence structure are garbled and confusing. Organization is illogical and/or incoherent. Point of view has not been established.SCORE of 1 The paper has no evident main idea. and mechanics interfere with the writer's ability to communicate. 15 . Development is inadequate and/or irrelevant.

Scenario Examine a situation. or case study. Command Select the best response option. or a chart. a table. page 32 Item 1. a geometric figure. page 30 Item 18. page 35 16 . make a diagnosis. Graphics Choose the option that best answers a question involving a number line. Passage Read the passage and select the correct answer. Word Problem Apply mathematical principles to solve a real-world problem. Data Analysis Examine and analyze data from an experiment or study. page 19 Item 2. problem.Table of Question Formats Type of question Essay Select a topic and develop an essay explaining the topic or supporting your position on the topic. Sample item Page 18 Item 2. page 27 Item 5. Sentence Completion Select the response option that best completes the sentence. Direct question Choose the response option that best answers the question. page 29 Item 11. Then answer a question. page 28 Item 8. Then answer a question by selecting the best response option. or recommend a course of action by selecting the best response option. graphs of lines or curves. page 34 Item 4.

Answer keys follow on page 42.Sample Items The following items represent both the form and content of questions you will encounter on the examination. and they can only approximate the degree of difficulty of actual examination questions. these items will acquaint you with the general format of the test. However. 17 . These sample items cannot cover all of the competencies and skills that are tested.

In order for your essay to be scored. In your essay. and clichés used a variety of sentence patterns effectively maintained consistent point of view observed the conventions of standard American English Take a few minutes to plan what you want to say before you start writing. and it must address the entire topic. READ THE TOPICS VERY CAREFULLY TO MAKE SURE YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE BEING ASKED TO DO. you should write as legibly as possible so the evaluators can easily read your essay. Although your handwriting will not affect your score. 18 . They will pay special attention to whether you have observed the following: determined the purpose of writing formulated a thesis or statement of main idea organized ideas and details effectively provided adequate. An invention that should never have been created Read the two topics again and select the one on which you wish to write your essay. Topic 1. it must be on only one of these topics.SAMPLE ESSAY TOPICS DIRECTIONS: Two topics are presented below. relevant support material used effective transitions demonstrated a mature command of language avoided inappropriate use of slang. An entertainment personality who is a positive or negative role model OR Topic 2. Select one of the topics as the basis for your essay. You may cross out or add information as necessary. At least two evaluators will read your essay and assign it a score. jargon. you should introduce the subject and then either ---explain the subject you have chosen or ---take a position about your subject and support that position. Leave yourself a few minutes at the end of the period to proofread and make corrections. Please see pages 12-13 for advice on writing the essay and pages 14-15 for the essay scoring criteria.

land. 2. land. land. Garbage litters the streets. Another problem is the draining of swampland for irrigation of farmland. read the entire passage carefully and then answer the questions. B. Even proper disposal of this litter pollutes the state's air. (10)Unless citizens and government officials cooperate to address these serious environmental problems. the beaches. and water. select option A. and 4 that provides the most logical sequence of ideas and supporting details in the paragraph.ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS SAMPLE ITEMS DIRECTIONS: For items 1 and 2. sentence 10 19 . (3)Another problem is the draining of swampland for irrigation of farmland. Garbage litters the streets. (5)The drying up of the swampland reduces the supply of fresh water for South Florida residents. (2)Garbage litters the streets. especially land and water. and water. the beaches. (4)Even proper disposal of this litter pollutes the state's air. (6)A third problem results when offshore drilling fouls the coastlines and kills marine life. the alteration of this habitat threatens the survival of aquatic species and waterfowl. Florida's resources soon may be inadequate to support its growing population. in addition. Another problem is the draining of swampland for irrigation of farmland. and water. and the waterways. Garbage litters the streets. sentence 7 sentence 8 C. (9)Moreover. (8)This development results in excessive demands on the state's natural resources. If no change is needed. land. C.) (1)Florida's citizens face several serious environmental problems that may leave the state with fewer resources in the 21st century. and water. and the waterways. billboards are another source of revenue for the state. the beaches. land. A. the gravest environmental problem is the rapid rate of urban and suburban development. and the waterways. and the waterways. Select the arrangement of sentences 2. the beaches. Even proper disposal of this litter pollutes the state's air. Even proper disposal of this litter pollutes the state's air. 1. and the waterways. sentence 9 D. 3. Which numbered sentence is LEAST relevant to the passage? A. and water. D. the beaches. (7)Finally. (Note: Intentional errors have been included in this passage. Another problem is the draining of swampland for irrigation of farmland. B. Another problem is the draining of swampland for irrigation of farmland. Even proper disposal of this litter pollutes the state's air. Garbage litters the streets.

3. B. intervened persisted C. If no error exists. Choose the most appropriate word to complete the sentence. No change is necessary. located in the west end of the building. B C A. A. and endurance. speed physical size however without C. Everyone except the principal is suppose to attend the meeting. accept principle C. choose the option that corrects an error in an underlined portion. No change is necessary. without quick thinking." 4. Students in Professor Garcia's algebra class should seek help in the Johnson A B Learning Center. the football team __________ and won by a field goal. thinking. B. Although down by 21 points at halftime. 20 . relented DIRECTIONS: For items 4-17. C A. West D. physical size. A however. B. No change is necessary. they will not be effective team members. B. they D. choose "No change is necessary. professor Garcia’s Algebra C. 6. 5. supposed to D. A B C A. Basketball players clearly need speed.

Since its founding over a decade ago. the student should have went to the library instead of watching television.7. 9. a national best-seller. A. Club a national best-seller. families and D. No change is necessary. B. B. Amy Tan explores the world of A B Chinese-American families. B. Because the teacher had assigned a research paper. 21 . Amy C. cover is C. No change is necessary. No change is necessary. A. of gone D. No change is necessary 8. B. Habitat for Humanity helped to build homes for the poor throughout the country. In The Joy Luck Club. have D. The report that covers the results of several months of investigation are in the A B blue folder that the clerk has already filed. has helped D. C A. have gone had went C. and we realize how similar all families are. helps is helping C. C A. 10.

C A. she you C. A. I us C. No change is necessary. No change is necessary. was have C.11. 13. it D. B. and once there. B. 22 . was D. San José. they fear the sea turtles will lose B its habitat. A tourist can travel to Costa Rica by flying from Miami to the capital. As urban development increases. 14. No change is necessary. his. they can rent a car. No change is necessary. B. 12. C A. B. Residents and their state representative are concerned about pollution of the A coastal areas. their D. we D. My little sister sat between Andra and me as we watched the basketball team A B defend its title. One of the boys in the class were on the team that has already finished the A B tasks that were assigned. he fears C. C A.

The need for freedom is intrinsic and vital. You guys wouldn't want to eat with them either. surprisingly rudely C. Harvey. requesting the senior privilege of eating lunch outside. competative D. the cafeteria is overcrowded during lunch. No change is necessary. My learned and esteemed staff. The cafeteria is too crowded with noisy underclassmen. Choose the most appropriate opening statement. 17. No change is necessary. No change is necessary. D. most tall D. president of the student council and a senior. B. We seniors are the leaders of the school and practically grown up. A. is addressing the faculty of Union High School. Their surprising rude behavior hurt us deeply. As you know. A B C A. Isn't it time we were given a few privileges? 23 . 16. B. taller more tall C. C. She was hoping to recieve her letter of acceptance into the competitive undergraduate A B C program by March. Jack is the tallest of the two athletes. A. 18. deep D. B. Allowing the seniors to eat outside would ease this problem. B.15. receive acceptence C. A. please consider the ponderous issue of dining al fresco.

by the time school started in August. 24 . D. C. A. Choose the sentence in which the modifiers are correctly placed. B. Paul bought a donut from the local bakery filled with his favorite fruit. A. in three dormitories were repainted by the time school started in August. B. C. Paul bought a donut filled with his favorite fruit from the local bakery. Choose the sentence that is correctly punctuated. Filled with his favorite fruit. 20.19. The men's floors in three dormitories were repainted by the time school started in August. Paul bought a donut from the local bakery. The mens' floors in three dormitories were repainted by the time school started in August. The men's floors in three dormitories' were repainted. The mens floors.

A. 3 1 Bh V= 3 4 3 3. Surface area of a cylinder equals the sum of the bases and its rectangular wrap. Volume of a sphere: V = πr 3 25 . = 2(πr2) + 2(πr)h 3.Mathematics Reference Sheet AREA Triangle Rectangle Trapezoid A = 1 bh 2 A = lw A = 1 h (b1 + b2) 2 b = base h = height l = length w = width S. V = Bh 2. Surface area of a sphere: S. r h S.14 or 22 for π 7 Circle A = πr2 Circumference C = πd = 2πr Surface Area 1. Surface area of a prism or pyramid equals the sum of the areas of all faces.A. 2. Volume of a pyramid or cone equals 1 times the Area of the Base (B) times the height (h). = 4πr2 Volume 1. Volume of a prism or cylinder equals the Area of the Base (B) times the height (h).A. = surface area KEY d = diameter r = radius A = area C = circumference V = volume B = area of base Parallelogram A = bh Use 3.

280 feet 1 acre = 43.g.x1)2 + (y2 .760 yards = 5. t = time Distance formula: d = rt d = distance.y1) and (x2. 9960 kilometers) For metric numbers greater than four digits. p = principal r = rate.g.560 square feet 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 liter = 1000 milliliters = 1000 cubic centimeters 1 meter = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters 1 kilometer = 1000 meters 1 gram = 1000 milligrams 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 ton = 2.. 12 500 liters).y1)2 ♦ Midpoint between two points b Simple interest formula: I = prt I = simple interest.y2) ♦ Slope of line y2 . a space is used instead of a comma (e. 26 . y1 + y2 2 2 ) Conversions 1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches 1 mile = 1.Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2 a c Given a line containing points (x1.000 pounds Metric numbers with four digits are presented without a comma (e.y1 x2 . t = time (x 1 + x2 .x1 ♦ Distance between two points √ (x2 .. r = rate.

00 $ 565.3 D. A. Find the greatest common factor of 42 and 70. 23. 2 . Simplify: 8 .25 per mile. 32. 3 .00 3.4 27 . 2 3 √73 2 C. √73. 32 2 2. 13. 23. $ 345. √73 2 D.00 D. 2 A. 14 4. 3 2 13 √73. 3. 4 1 C. 2. C. B.10 ÷ 2 A. .00 C. $2825. B. B.4 ÷ 2 . A. 3 2 13 2 . Order the following series of numbers from smallest to largest. 2 4 7 D. Find the rental cost for a 2-week trip of 500 miles for a family of 5. A motor home rents for $220 per week plus $0. . 3 . 1. 2 B. 13. $2200. √73.MATHEMATICS SAMPLE ITEMS DIRECTIONS: Read each item and select the best response. 13.

Rodrigo wants to paint the walls and ceiling in a room that is 14 feet x 16 feet with an 8-foothigh ceiling.90 per square yard. is it between the two cities (to the nearest mile)? A. Alicia wants to buy a carpet that is 12 feet x 15 feet. Without including tax. The cost of the carpet. One gallon of paint will cover 350 square feet. B. If ½ inch represents 25 miles. 5 gallons 6. The paint is sold in gallon containers only.60 D. how much does Alicia have to spend to carpet her room? A.5. which has a measurement of 6 feet x 7 feet. 4 gallons D. in miles.30 C. B. 850 miles 7.5 inches. $ 5322. He will not paint the double door. 2 gallons 3 gallons C.00 28 . 425 miles D. How many gallons of paint will he need to buy? A. B. 106 miles 213 miles C. $ 1614. $ 598. including installation. On a map. how far.00 $ 807. the distance between two cities is 8. is $29.

square rectangle C. The tower will be supported by three cables. What is the total length of these three cables? A. B. 22º D. B. 13 feet 39 feet C. 20. What is the temperature to the nearest degree? 30º 20º 10º A. parallelogram D. 42 feet D.5º 21º C. B. 51 feet 10. each attached to the top of the tower and to points on the roof of the building which are 5 feet from the base of the tower. A radio station is going to construct a 12-foot tower for a new antenna on top of a tall building. trapezoid 9.8. B C A D A. 24º 29 . Select the most specific name for figure ABCD.

y2) = (5. -3 -1 3 1 3 3 12. B. Find the missing number in the following sequence. B. Which of the following geometric objects contains a correctly drawn line of symmetry? A. y1) = ( 4. D. C. -3 D.54. 2. ___. C. B. -6 30 . . 13. 162 A. Find the slope of line segment AB. 6) _ (x1. y (x2.11. 6 3 C. D. 3) x A. 18.

B. A. Solve for x 3(x + 4) = 6 A. Determine which of the ordered pairs listed below satisfies the given system. (3. half the product of m times v times v the quantity of half the mass times velocity. B. -2 2 3 10 3 6 C. B. 3) (1. x + 2y = 3 2x + y = 6 A. 0) 31 .14. Translate the expression ½ mv2 into words. (0. Kinetic Energy (KE) is calculated by the formula KE = ½ mv2 where m is mass and v is velocity. 1) C. D. (2. half the square root of mass times velocity D. half the square of the quantity of mass times velocity 15. 2) D. 16. all squared C.

5 Essay Score 8 5 4 2 4 1 7 8 C. B. 3 4. 3º 5º C. 15º 18. 4. The graph below represents the monthly average temperature for 7 months of the year. 5 32 .9 D. Given below are students' scores on an essay (possible score range is from 0 to 10). 10º D.17. B. What is the median of the set of scores? Student A B C D E F G H A. How much higher is the average temperature in July than it is in April? AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURES 85 D E G R E E S 80 75 70 65 0 MAR APR MAY JUN MONTH JUL AUG SEP A.

what is the probability that it will be a red marble? A. He also may select a red tie or a green tie. 2 blue. 9 33 .19. or blue shirt. Given a bag of 20 marbles containing 8 green. A man has a choice of a white. 5 6 C. D. 1 20 1 10 1 5 1 4 B. and 6 yellow. 20. 4 red. yellow. How many different outfits can he make of 1 shirt and 1 tie? A. if a person picks out a single marble from the bag without looking. 8 D. C. B.

1. Physical fitness refers to the capacity to perform at an optimal level in three closely related areas: strength. The martial arts are practiced worldwide by people interested in character development. in addition to these physical and psychological benefits. this multifaceted approach to fitness constitutes a more interesting and motivating way to "get in shape" than more traditional forms of working out. bold stances significantly stretch and strengthen the muscles of the legs. Certainly. Martial arts students are continually motivated to improve in each of these areas in order to better perform the skills associated with their art. 34 . Repetitions of karate hand strikes improve the muscle tone of the arms. The martial arts provide physical and psychological benefits as well as valuable self-defense techniques. fitness becomes the byproduct of effort directed toward another goal: self-defense. the practice of martial arts also provides valuable self-defense abilities that might at some point become necessary in order to maintain—in a more obvious and literal sense—one's physical well-being in the case of assault or attack. one form of martial arts. and upper back as well as enhance coordination and reflexes. therefore. and improved self-image. both of which lead toward greater self-confidence and improved self-image. its emphasis on character development as well as skill development promotes a positive attitude and goal orientation. B. acquiring selfdefense methods. Finally. Improving physical fitness and psychological well-being. Confidence in the ability to defend oneself reduces the threat of intimidation from others. The martial arts provide a variety of physical benefits for health enthusiasts. and flexibility. conditioning. In terms of mental health or psychological well-being. The physical benefits gained from the practice of martial arts are achieved indirectly through the students' concentration on the improvement of skills. thus producing another very positive effect on one's psychological well-being. shoulders. in addition to strengthening the hips and back. Furthermore. Martial arts serve not only as a complete exercise form emphasizing each area of fitness equally but also as a vehicle for stress reduction. The martial arts are a form of physical exercise that should be practiced by most people. in karate. D. For example. and emphasizing character development all make martial arts training a popular choice for health advocates worldwide. C. Any combination of the above karate skills practiced vigorously over a period of 15 to 20 minutes daily will also provide an excellent aerobic workout and promote muscular endurance. The martial arts provide a well-rounded and fulfilling way to achieve physical fitness and psychological well-being. increased self-confidence. Which sentence best states the main idea of this passage? A. while kicking drills improve flexibility and balance.READING SAMPLE ITEMS DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and answer questions 1 through 6. the practice of martial arts is a wonderful method of stress reduction.

5. flexible. B. The tone of this passage can be described as A. B.2. the practice of martial arts is a wonderful method of stress reduction. According to the passage. enhanced balance 3. D. positive. Identify the relationship between the following two sentences in the fifth paragraph: "In terms of mental health or psychological well-being. objective. C. Furthermore. As used in the second paragraph. high. contradicts the first. D. pessimistic. restates the first. both of which lead toward greater self-confidence and improved self-image." The second sentence A. what is one way in which kicking drills contribute to overall wellbeing? A. basic. improved muscle tone in the arms strengthened leg muscles C. D. adds to the first. 35 . C. the word optimal most nearly means A. B. B. its emphasis on character development as well as skill development promotes a positive attitude and goal orientation. enthusiastic. C. 4. redefines the first. caustic. increased coordination D.

Which word or phrase. when substituted for "Furthermore" in the fifth paragraph. B. In contrast Therefore C.6. In addition D. would maintain the same relationship between the two sentences? A. Obviously 36 .

sore joint. we walked. but since he was such a clever chef anyway. my father managed to get bargains on bones and organ meats. In the late spring. Of course. buying only such staples as sugar. Although we lived in the highly industrialized city of Cleveland. comprised the astonishing 25%-40% unemployment rate nationwide. make tomato juice and root beer. and meats. however. D. trying to survive on what little money was rescued from the bank before its collapse. C. joining some 13 million other unemployed who. To save precious gasoline. we treated ordinary ailments with something called "anti-phlogistine paste. and eggs from the meat market. as did at least 25. boxes. dried beans. we always had a good meal. and tin cans. summer. When those split sheets wore out. even if it was only creamed. hard-boiled eggs on toast with a vegetable. 37 . toilet paper. At least we didn't lose our home. or headache. A resourceful and optimistic soul. entertain with interesting stories about the Great Depression. To save on the cost of dry goods. My father did lose his teaching job. and hem the new outside edges. Frugal by nature. in 1933. flour. Frequently. and early fall we would make trips to the countryside to pick and/or buy in quantity berries. and cereal from the grocery store. sew the two selvage edges together. During the Great Depression. volunteering to work for a hot dinner. she would convert the usable material into pillow cases. tomatoes. I am always struck by how the determination and generosity developed in order to survive such adversity rendered insignificant—even inspiring—the great hardships we endured. our life resembled that of a farm family living off the land. spicy. B. When I compare my stories of the Great Depression with stories of other people who grew up during that difficult time. My father had fixed up an old stove. and apples.DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and answer question 7." a substance heated up and poured into a cloth. we shared these simple meals with less fortunate homeless people who went door to door. illustrate how difficulties during the Great Depression built character. which he installed in the basement. The primary purpose of the passage is to A. even in snowstorms and rain. and put up jellies and preserves. grapes. which we then applied to the offending chest cold. identify the causes and effects of the Great Depression. To save on doctors' bills and medicine. my parents and I lived with my grandmother. my grandmother would rip worn sheets into half. we walked. argue the benefits of saving money during the Great Depression. poultry. 7. he and my grandmother would can tomatoes. Nothing was wasted--but much was gained. peaches. he planted a backyard vegetable garden and took charge of planning and cooking meals. There. we economized in every way possible.000 other families displaced to "Hoovervilles"—shack towns made from crates. Ohio. using a wash kettle. soap.

this educational impasse leaves us with generation after generation of students who learn that their frustration with writing stems from being "blocked" rather than from being inadequately informed. "Bob and me went to the movies. "The lock was broken" is in passive voice or is instead an instance of a participle functioning as a predicate adjective. outlines proper steps for teaching grammar. Many writing teachers maintain that students need "freewriting" and other such exercises to unblock their ideas." as opposed to "They didn't get married." The difference in meaning is substantial and definite. they benefit. for example. I believe that grammar is currently in disrepute because so many teachers have forgotten the rules of grammar—that. I have had some very lively class discussions because of that sentence. for example. their idea that certain knowledge." therefore. D. provides illustrations that support the teaching of grammar. If "Bob" is removed. I maintain that students frequently clam up when they feel their prose is error-ridden. Grammar stimulates creativity by giving students confidence that they will say things "right. I dispute those studies on the basis of my own extensive experience as a college teacher. There is a logic and beauty to the language that students come to appreciate. Unfortunately. is clearly wrong. It is simple for a student to understand. Over the years. Although those who advocate a back-to-basics approach in education are chided as being reactionary and uninformed. or they find the subject less interesting than another approach. 38 . they become self-conscious and afraid to express themselves at all. as in the example of "They didn't get married because they wanted their freedom. C. Under such circumstances. 8. Students love it. contrasts views concerning the value of teaching grammar. that breaking down compound constructions helps to determine the correct pronoun usage. by making some of the fine distinctions required in analyzing whether. summarizes many years of teaching grammar. The truth is. and once students learn to have command of the rules and the usage. they feel empowered. Among the more important basic skills a student needs to have—and have as early as the first years of elementary school—is an understanding of grammar. grammar also provides a solid foundation for other thinking skills. For this passage the author uses an overall organizational pattern that A." an unlikely construction indeed. While studies are often cited to prove that grammar is not successfully taught apart from writing. they cannot teach it. Students also marvel that one comma can actually reverse the meaning of a sentence. Believe it or not. grammar is not difficult." As unlikely as it might seem. too. and critical thinking skills need to precede other courses and disciplines is a concept that certainly can be defended. First of all. much grammar is this easy. B. I have had many students say that knowing grammatical rules has in fact freed them to write without fear. the sentence reads "Me went to the movies. because they wanted their freedom. Frankly. information. consequently.DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and answer questions 8 through 11. on the contrary.

39 . teaching writing skills to college students. This passage illustrates bias against A. invalid because insufficient factual evidence is presented. C. C.9. B. D. D. The author's claim that "grammar is currently in disrepute" (paragraph 5) is A. teaching students grammar instead of writing. valid because the author relates personal beliefs and experiences. valid because the author makes logical comparisons. using "freewriting" to unblock ideas. 10. D. invalid because the point is irrelevant in the discussion. requiring students to know the rules of language. B. This passage illustrates bias in favor of A. B. teaching grammar to young students. 11. encouraging students to "freewrite" to unblock their ideas. stressing the importance of punctuation. C. making grammar rules more difficult for college students.

the biology teacher who clashed with Marshall could not have known that by discouraging a would-be dentist. unlike other leaders in the civil rights movement. who would become president of Nigeria. attorney-at-law. Thurgood Marshall. And likewise. Jr. an organization for which Marshall won 29 out of 32 cases. which requires that suspects be informed of their rights. and Nnamdi Azikiew. Marshall's eloquence won the case at the local level even though he anticipated having to take the case to the Supreme Court. testimonials. Alabama. Outspoken and articulate. 84. In Texas. boycott led by Reverend Martin Luther King.DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and answer questions 12 and 13. Marshall argued as Solicitor General. and biographies. died of heart failure. remembrances. could not know what they started when they goaded their friend to join them in a vote for the integration of their college's faculty. who would become a writer. under President Lyndon Johnson. His legal acumen was responsible for the Supreme Court's decision that made segregation on buses illegal. It took the force of law to enable the drive for equality to gain momentum. After struggling in private practice. The high school teacher who made Marshall read the Constitution out loud as a punishment could never have foreseen the irony of the act. "The first black justice on the Supreme Court". the movement could have died. 1993. Later. Eventually. Marshall did argue cases in front of the Supreme Court. But his legacy was guaranteed more by his presence in front of the bench than behind it. which legally ended segregation in schools. he was hired as an assistant attorney for the NAACP. Marshall argued the case that resulted in the Miranda rule. it would have earned him a place in history. These usually began. Many were on behalf of the NAACP. Cab Calloway. Thurgood Marshall worked essentially behind the scenes. a precedent that paved the way for the successful Montgomery. retired justice of the Supreme Court Thurgood Marshall. Marshall's intimate familiarity with the Constitution enabled him to emerge successfully from the antagonistic nomination hearings in Congress years later. he located a college graduate who had been denied admission into the University of Maryland's all-white law school—as Marshall himself had been denied—and took the University to court. college classmates like Langston Hughes. On January 24. was creator of the civil rights legislation that took the movement from marches in the street to the law of the land. In Maryland. he obtained protection for black jurors. In college. The significance of an event is easier to see in retrospect than it is while the event is occurring. and if this alone were his only accomplishment. he was creating a dynamic attorney. As Solicitor General. But without his expertise and willingness to face prejudice and fear head-on in the courtroom. Marshall graduated from Lincoln College in 1930 and went on to graduate from Howard University's law school. The media marked his passing with eulogies. The most famous case that Marshall argued before the Supreme Court was the landmark Brown versus Board of Education. who would entertain millions. 40 .

The media marked his passing with eulogies. C. C. Marshall did argue cases in front of the Supreme Court. He served in Congress for many years. B. He was antagonistic toward government. B." A. D. Eventually. D. remembrances. testimonials.12. Which sentence is a statement of opinion? A. 13. The significance of an event is easier to see in retrospect than it is while the event is occurring. and biographies. Marshall graduated from Lincoln College in 1930 and went on to graduate from Howard University's law school. What does the following sentence from the second paragraph suggest about Thurgood Marshall? "Marshall's intimate familiarity with the Constitution enabled him to emerge successfully from the antagonistic nomination hearings in Congress years later. He disagreed with the appointment process. He studied the Constitution thoroughly. 41 .

D 7. C 10. A 6. C 12. D Mathematics 1. A 9. A 11. C 7. C 10. D 12. C 20. A 18. A 17. C 42 . A 8.Answer Keys English Language Skills 1. B 2. A 14. D 15. B 10. A 12. D 2. B 2. D 6. C 5. D 4. C 11. B 5. A 16. B Reading 1. D 14. B 3. D 3. A 9. B 13. C 5. A 15. B 8. B 4. B 19. B 11. D 9. C 18. B 8. D 17. C 19. A 13. C 20. C 7. A 4. A 16. C 3. D 6. C 13.

and well rested. Take the following with you to the test site: Admission ticket Picture identification Watch Money for lunch and change for vending machines There are many strategies for taking a test and different techniques for dealing with different types of questions. It is to your advantage to answer all the questions on the test. If you change an answer. eliminate as many options as you can and choose the response that seems best. go back and check every question. Then go back and tackle the questions that require more thought. alert. Complete your travel arrangements prior to the examination date. Plan to arrive early so that you can locate the parking facilities and examination room without rushing. you may find the following general suggestions useful.5 Test-Taking Advice • • • • Go into the examination prepared. Be certain to mark your answers clearly on the answer sheet. • • • 43 . be certain that the number of the circle you mark on your answer sheet corresponds to the proper question number in the test booklet. Check periodically to be sure that you are correctly coding your answers on the answer sheet. Go through the entire test once and answer all the questions you are reasonably certain about. Dress comfortably and bring a sweater or jacket in case the room is too cool. Also make sure there are no stray marks on the answer sheet. After completing the examination. Verify that you have answered all of the questions and that your responses are correctly entered. Pay attention to all of the details. When you are not certain of the right answer. When you answer a question out of sequence. • • • • Read each question and all the response options carefully before marking your answer. even if you are uncertain about some of your choices. Nevertheless. erase the first pencil mark completely.

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6 Additional Information Write to the following address to request an FTCE registration bulletin. or the Florida Educational Leadership Examination. FTCE Inquiries Florida Department of Education 325 West Gaines Street. www. and score reports. pass/fail status. Florida 32399-0400 Write to the address below for an order form and price list if you wish to order additional copies of this test preparation guide or guides for subject area tests. Test Preparation Guides / USF The Institute for Instructional Research and Practice HMS 401 4202 Fowler Avenue Tampa.edu 45 . You may also request information on test administration. the Professional Education Test. or offer comments about this test preparation guide.usf. test registration.cefe. and score reports. retakes. Suite 414 Tallahassee. Florida 33620-8360 Refer to the following Web site for additional FTCE information including upcoming test dates.

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