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SEPERATION OF CORE LOSSES OF 1-PHASE TRANSFORMER AIM: To separate the core losses of a given single phase transformer. APPARATUS:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter Rheostat
( 0-300)V (0-5)A 300V/5A L.P.F 570Ω/1.2A 290Ω/2.8A 18Ω/12A (0-9999)RPM
THEORY: Due to rotations of iron core of the armature in the magnitude flux of the field poles there are some losses taking place continuously in the core known as iron losses or core losses. The iron losses consists of 1.Hysteresis losses. 2.Eddy current losses. HYSTERESIS LOSS: This losses is due to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core passes under N&S of the rotation pole alternately. The core under goes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal after passing under one pair of poles. If P is the number of poles , N is the armature speed in RPM then frequency of magnitude reversals in f=PN/120
The losses depends up on the volume and grade of iron ,maximum value of flux density Bmax and frequency of magnetic reversals. For normal flux densities,hysteresis losses is given steinmetz formulae, according to this formulae. Wh = η B 1.6max V watts V = volume of the core in m3 η = steimmetz hysteresis coefficient. These losses can be minimized by detected proper magnetic materials which has low hysteresis losses. EDDY CURRRENT LOSS(We): When the armature core rotates it also cuts the magnetic flux , hence an emf is induced in the body of the core according to the law of electro magnetic induction this emf through small sets up large current in the body of the core due its small resistance this current is known as eddy current . We = K B 2max f2 t2 v2 watt Where Bmax =Maximum flux density. f =Frequency. t = Thickness of material. v = Volume of armature core. It is seen from above that this loss varies directly as the squire of the thickness of laminations, Hence it should be kept as small as possible.
PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Keep the motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 3. Switch on dc supply to the motor. 4. Start the motor with the help of 3-point starter. 5. Adjust the speed of the motor to rated value with the help of motor field &armature rheostat. 6. Now switch on the supply to the excitation of alternator circuit and adjust the alternator field rheostat to rated voltage which is suitable to Lv side of transformer. 7. Calculate the speed of different frequencies are 55HZ,52HZ,47HZ,45HZ etc. 8. Note down the readings of the voltmeter,ammeter,wattmeterand measure the speed. 9. Now vary the motor armature rheostat until the motor speed to reduce to required value . 10.Again calculate the speed at different frequencies. 11.Note down the readings of voltmeter, ammeter, and wattmeter for different frequencies. 12.Keep the rheostat to initial position and switch off the supply of the excitation of the motor. CALCULATIONS: Wi = Af+Bf2 Wi/f = A+Bf Wi = Core losses or iron losses. Af = Hysteresis losses. Bf2 = Eddy current losses. N = 120f / p, poles = 4 Hysteresis losses Wh = Af
Eddy current losses We = Bf2 Core losses = Wh + We
I V N amps volts rpm
W W/F V/f watts Watt/hz Volt/hz Wh
PRECAUTIONS: 1.Avoide loose connections. 2.Take the readings with out parallax error. 3.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 4.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.
NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. 2.slip for a 3-ø slip ring induction motor.Φ SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To conduct no load and blocked rotor test on 3-ø slip ring induction motor and find efficiency . The data necessary to draw the circle diagram may be found from no-load and blocked rotor test. The speed may be assumed synchronous speed. Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A 600V/10A 150V/20A (0-9999)RPM 415/0-470V 4. Tacho meter 3-ø variable THEORY: The performance characteristics of an induction motor are derivable from a circular locus. So that for all practical purpose.NO LOAD &BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 3. 3. APPARATUS: S. The speed of rotor would not be synchronous but very much near to it . NO-LOAD TEST : The practice . Instead the motor is run with out any external mechanical load on it. . 5. not possible to run the induction motor synchronous speed.
Current Io by ammeter and voltage by volt meter.5. Wo = √3VLIocosΦo cosΦo = Wo / √3VLIo BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: It is a short circuit test. The power factor would be low i. 1. No-load „Wo‟ to the rotor consists of . then ISN = Is X V/Vs Power factor on short circuit is found from Ws = √3Vs Is cosΦs cosΦs = Ws /√3Vs Is . The input power is measured by two wattmeter‟s. In this rotor is blocked mechanically and then we applied armature voltage till the ammeter shows the rated current. As the motor is running light load. Core due to friction and windage. If the normal voltage is applied to the stator.The no-load test is carried out rated voltage. 2.Stator core loss.e less than 0. 3. Small stator cu loss + small rotor loss. Hence total power input will be different of two wattmeter readings W1&W2. The total power will be Wo.
4. no load current and wattmeter readings. apply the rated voltage. 2. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. 3. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. 4. Ammeter and wattmeter. Vary the 3Φ Auto transformer until the ammeter reads the rated current. for the no load test load is not applied on the rotor pulley. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1. By varying the 3Φ Auto transformer. Note down the readings of no load voltage. Note the readings of voltmeter. MODEL CALCULATION: NO LOAD TEST: WO = W1 +W 2 cosΦo = Wo / √3VLIo BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: Wsc = Ws /√3Vs Is Short circuit input current ISN = ISC x VO/VSC Short circuit input power WSN = √3 VO ISN cosΦsc Output power = Full load output power/ power scale . 3. 2. Connect the load at the output terminals.
The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.NO Isc(Amp) Vsc(Volts) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) W1+ W2 PRECAUTIONS: 1.Avoide loose connections. 4. RESULT: .TABULAR FORM: NO LOAD TEST: S. 3. 2.NO IO(Amp) VO(Volts) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) W1+ W2 BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: S.Take the readings with out parallax error.
The motor is run & the load on the motor is adjusted till it carries its full load current . Let S1 .NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. Tacho meter THEORY: It is a direct test on a induction motor . 3. In this load applying a brake to the pulley mounted on the motor shaft. The net pull on band due to friction at the pulley is (S1 -S2) lag Wt or 9.S2 are readings of balances . APPARATUS: S. Shaft torque Tsh = 9.81(W1 -W2) If r = Radius of the pulley in meters.81 (S1 -S2) r N-M Output power = Tsh 2πN/60 = 2πNT/60 Watts. The brake band is fixed ith the help of the belt with spring balance .BREAK TEST ON 3-Φ INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To plot the various performance characteristic curves of a 3-Φ induction motor by conducting the break test on it. Voltmeter Ammeter Watt meter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A 600V/10A UPF (0-9999)RPM 4. One end of the belt is fixed spring balance S1 &other is connected to spring balance S2. Input power = VI Watts. . N = motor of pulley speed in rpm. 2.
voltmeter. Supply is switched off after removing the load on motor pulley. MODEL CALCULATION: Torque = 9.81(S1-S2) r n-m Power factor cosΦ = cos[tan-1 √3(W1-W2)/ (W1+W2)] Efficiency = output/ input x100 Output power = 2ΠNT/60 Input power = W1+W2 %Slip = NS-N/NS .slip. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Gradually applying the load on motor pulley step wise increases. 2. voltmeter. Make sure that motor is at the no-load . Take the readings of ammeter. 3.power factor. Calculate torque and efficiency and after calculations graph is plotted between speed.N/ Ns x100 Torque: It is proposal to product of armature current and flux. efficiency to output. 7.Slip: The difference between synchronous speed Ns 7 actual speed N of the motor expressd as a 5 of N is called slip. 6. 4.torque. Increase the load up to full load current of the motor and take of ammeter.wattmeter. Ta ά Ia Φ PROCEDURE: 1. spring balance and speed of motor for each load.wattmeter. 8. 5.current. 3-Φ supply is given to stator by closing TPST switch and start the motor with the help of star-delta starter. % Slip = Ns . spring balance and speed of motor for each load.
2. 3.TABULAR FORM: S.Take the readings with out parallax error.NO V I N Spring volts amp rpm balance W1 W2 Input T P. 4.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. RESULT: .Avoide loose connections.f %Slip (W ) nm Output cosΦ (W) S1 S2 kg kg η PRECAUTIONS: 1.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.
65 tap and is known as teaser transformer . One end of teaser primary is joined to the center tap on primary. If we neglect magnetizing current Io then teaser primary current.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. It is frequently referred to as scott connection. Load 3-Φ auto transformer 4. Voltmeter (0-300)V ( 0-600)V (0-5)A (0-10)A 3KW 2.Φ is accomplished with the help of two transformers since it was first proposed by Charles scott.Φ TRANSFORMER AIM: To study Scott connection and compare currents in the primary and secondary by drawing vector diagram in balance load and un balanced. One of the transformer has center tap both on primary winding is known as the main transformer. APPARATUS: S. Let the teaser transformer secondary supply a current I2T at unity power factor .Φ to 2.SCOTT CONNECTIONS BY USING TWO 1. Other transformer 86. Ammeter 3. . 415V/0-470V THEORY: This is a connection in which conversion of power 3.
Calculate primary current (I1) by consisting of secondary current (I2) at different loads and compare with readings obtain by phase diagram and calculations. Repeat above step by applying un equal loads at different points. For the balanced loads apply equal resistance loads across main and teaser transformer secondary. The total current I1M in each half of the primary main transformer consists of two parts . 8.I1T = I2T x Transformation ratio = I2T x N2/√3 N1 /2 = 2/√3 x I2T = 1. One part is that which is necessary to balance the main secondary current I2M . record ammeter and voltmeter readings of primary and secondary.15 x I2T Where K= N2/ N1 = Transformation ratio of main transformer. 9. 3. I2M = I2M x N2/ N1 PROCEDURE: 1. 5. Switch on the 3-Φ power supply by closing TPST switch . MODEL CALCULATION: K = V2/V1 I2T = P/COSθ V . 4. Auto transformer output voltage is adjusted to supply rated voltage of 415v to the primary of main and teaser transformer. 6. Record ammeter and voltmeter readings of primary and secondary. For un balance loads apply . Repeat the process in step wise up to rated load current of transformer. Its value is. 7. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram . 2. 10. These are given bellow. 1.
15 = K IR = I1T = 1.15 = K IR = I1T = 1.15 K I2T IB = IY = I1M = √( K I2M )2 +(1/2 I1T) 2 UNBALANCED LOADS: Line current IA = I B = √ I1T2 + ( ½ IM)2 K of teaser transformer .BALANCED LOADS: Line current IA = I B = √ I1T2 + ( ½ IM)2 K of teaser transformer .15 K I2T IB = IY = I1M = √( K I2M )2 +(1/2 I1T) 2 . K = 1. K = 1.
RESULT: .NO VL(V) IR(A) IY(A) IB(A) I2T(A) I2M(A) V2T(V) V2M(V) PRECAUTIONS: 1. 3. 2.Take the readings with out parallax error.NO VL(V) IR(A) IY(A) IB(A) I2T(A) I2M(A) V2T(V) V2M(V) UNBALANCED LOADS: S.TABULAR FORM: BALANCED LOADS: S.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.Avoide loose connections.
Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-600)V (0-10)A (0-5)A 360 Ω/1.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. 2.8A 18Ω/12A (0-9999)RPM 3. APPARATUS: S. Rheostat 4.2A 290Ω/2.REGULATION OF 3-Φ ALTERNATOR BY SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDENCE & MMF METHOD AIM: To find the regulation of 3-Φ alternator by synchronous impedance &MMF method. The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as the change in voltage when full load is removed divided by rated terminal voltage . % Regulation = Eo – V/V Synchronous impedance method: . Tacho meter THEORY: Regulation : It is clear that with change in load there is a change in terminal voltage of an alternator .
2.It is also known as emf method . Calculate Xs = √Zs 2. 3. E1 = Zs I1 Zs = E1 (open circuit)/ I1 (short circuit) 3. Eo = √ (V CosΦ + IRa )2 + (V SinΦ +I Xs)2 5. 2.It is a straight line passing through the origin. Find IFT = √If 12 + If 22 ± 2 If 1 If 2 Cos(180-(90+Φ) Take the corresponding readings voltages for IFT 4. It is a straight line passing through the origin both these curves are drawn on common base of field current . % Regulation = Eo – V/V x100 Mmf method: It is also known as ampere turns method . Similarly Sc is drawn from data. Occ is plotted from given data . 1.In this method also utilize the oc & sc data. % Regulation = Eo – V/V x100 . Occ is plotted from given data .In this method following procedure steps are. Similarly Sc is drawn from the short circuit data . 1.Ra2 4. In this method following procedure steps are involved .
3. 6. note up to rated line voltage &field current . 2. Start the dc shunt motor (prim mover) by closing DPST switch & 3-point starter. Effective resistance Rac =1. 4. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: 1. 7. 4. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 5. 6. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Draw the graph between ISC & If . By adjust the rated field current to zero by drawing the field rheostat. Note down the readings of ISC & If up to rated current . By increasing the field rheostat of alternator . By increasing the field rheostat & note down If and short circuit current (ISC). 5. In this method stator winding is short circuited through ammeter.RAC2 EO = √(V cos θ + IR)2 + (Vsinθ + I XS)2 % Regulation = Eo . Draw the open circuit characteristics graph between field current (If) and phase voltage (Eph).PROCEDURE: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: 1. A 220V dc supply is given to field winding as shown in circuit diagram.6 xRdc. 3. A dc shunt motor is used as an prime mover to the alternator .V/V . MODEL CALCULATION: EMF METHOD: Impedance Zs = V1/I1 Reactance Xs = √ZS2 . Armature resistance is find out by using multimeter. 8.
MMF METHOD: EPH = V + I a Ra cosΦ If = √If12 + If22 + 2 If1 If2 cos (180-(90+ θ)) TABULAR FORM: OC TEST: S.NO If(Amps) EPH(Volts) .
2. 4.Avoide loose connections.SC TEST: S. RESULT: . 3.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.NO If(Amps) EPH(Volts) PRECAUTIONS: 1.Take the readings with out parallax error.
APPARATIS: S. The equivalent leakage reactance Xo as referred to primary (or secondary). 2. Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-150)V (0-20)A (0-2)A 3.OC &SC TEST ON 1-Φ TRANSFORMER AIM: To find the regulation and efficiency of a given 1-Φ transformer by conducting oc & sc tests. Open circuit test. Short circuit test. wattmeter 150V/5A LPF 150V/20A UPF THEORY: The performance of a 1-Φ transformer can be calculated on the basis of its equivalent circuits. The equivalent resistance R01 as referred to primary (or secondary R02) .These parameters can be easily determined by two tests . 2.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. 1. Which contain four main parameters. Open circuit test: .
W =V1 IO CosΦO CosΦO = W / V1 IO Iµ = IO Sin ΦO Iw = IO COS ΦO Xo = V1/ Iµ Ro = V1/ Iw Short circuit test: 1. 3. If W is the wattmeter reading then. In this test the one winding is usually the low voltage winding is solidly short circuited by a thick conductor. The purpose of this test is to determine no load loss or core loss & no load Io which is helpful in finding Xo Ro. voltmeter & ammeter are connected in the low voltage winding in the present case. With normal voltage applied to the primary normal flux will be set up in the core . leakage reactance (X01 or X02) & Total resistance (R01 or R02) of the transformer as referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are placed. 5. . One winding of the transformer which over is convenient but usually high voltage winding is left open and other is connected to its supply of normal voltage & frequency. This loss is used in calculating the efficiency of a transformer. 2. 4. This is an economical method for determining the following. 3. Hence normal iron loss will occur . Copper loss at full load . Equivalent impedance (Z1 or Z02) .1. 2. 4. Which are recorded by the wattmeter. Wattmeter .
efficiency & % regulation on 1-Φ transformer for given load &power factor. 4. . the mutual flux is also a small percentage of its normal value. Hence core losses are small with the result that the wattmeter reading represent . Adjust the auto transformer output voltage such that rated current flows in HV side. If Vsc is the voltage required to calculate rated load currents then Z01 = VSC/I1 W = I12 R01 R01 = W/ I12 X01 = √ Z012 – R012 PROCEDURE: OC TEST: 1. 3.e both primary and secondary copper loss. First make the auto transformer output voltage is zero. Give the supply by closing DPST switch &adjust output voltage of the autotransformer equal to rated LV winding. First make the auto transformer output voltage zero & HV open. Note down readings of wattmeter . Since in this test the applied voltage is a small percentage of the normal voltage . 4. 2. 5. short circuit current & short circuit voltage. no-load voltage (Vo) & no-load current (Io). Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 6. Take the readings of power . 7. SC TEST: 1. 3. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.5.The full load copper loss or I2 R loss for the whole transformer i. Calculate the parameters of equivalent circuit . 2.
Cos 2 Φo RO = VO / IO CosΦo XO = VO / IO SinΦo K = V2/V1 SC TEST: Z02 = VSC /I SC R02 = WSC / ISC 2 X02 = √Z02 2 .R 02 2 R01 = R02 /K2 X01 = X02 /K2 Efficiency η = X KVA CosΦ/ X KVA CosΦ + Wi + X2 Wcu X 100 % Regulation = I2 (R02 CosΦ + X02 SinΦ)/ V2 X 100 .MODEL CALCULATIONS: OC TEST: CosΦo = WO/VO IO SinΦo = √1.
NO VO (Volts) IO (Amps) WO (Watts) SC TEST: S.TABULAR FORM: OC TEST: S.NO VO (Volts) IO (Amps) WO (Watts) .
Avoide loose connections.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 4. 3. 2.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.PRECAUTIONS: 1.Take the readings with out parallax error. RESULT: .
. It provides data for finding regulation & efficiency under load condi tons and is employed only when two similar transformers are available . Voltmeter (0-600)V ( 0-150)V (0-5)A (0-20)A 150V/5A 150V/20A 415V/0-470V 2. One transformer is loaded all the other hand both are connected to supply . THEORY: This test is also known as back to back test. Ammeter 3. APPARATUS: S.The power taken from the supply the supply is that necessary for supplying the losses of both transformer and are negligible loss in the control circuit.SUMPNER”S TEST ON PAIR OF 1-Φ TRANSFORMERS AIM: To determine the efficiency & regulation of a 1-Φ transformer at different loads by conducting sumpner‟s test. When the primary of two transformers are connected in parallel across the same supply switch “S” open the wattmeter W1 reads core loss of the both transformer . wattmeter 3-Φ auto transformer 4.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1.
8. 2. observe that the readings of voltmeter across the switch “S‟ is zero or not. Hence W1 reads the core loss and W2 reads full load copper loss . 5. Core loss & copper loss of each transformer is calculate by dividing by 2.Secondary‟s are so connected that their potentials are in opposite direction to each other. If it reads other value than switch OFF the power supply and reverse the any one of secondary of transformer terminals. But it reads other value than switch OFF the power supply & reverse the terminals of the transformer. Note down the voltmeter & ammeter readings of both primary secondary. 6. 4. PROCEDURE: 1.Applying rated voltage all primary side with the help of auto transformer . Apply rated voltage on primary side with help of auto transformer. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. MODEL CALCULATIONS: CosΦo = WO/VO IO IW=IO CosΦo Iμ = IO SinΦo . 3. Now close the switch by increase 1-Φ variac from zero position up to attaining rated secondary current from the secondary circuit. The readings of two watt meters will directly give the iron & copper loss of both transformer. The voltmeter reading s across the switch it will read zero . 7. Calculate regulation of each transformer.
RO = VO / IW XO = VO / Iμ R02 = RSC = WSC / ISC 2 ZSC = VSC /I SC X02 = XSC= √ZSC 2 .RSC 2 Efficiency η = X KVA CosΦ/ X KVA CosΦ + Wi + X2 Wcu X 100 .
TABULAR FORM: S. 2. 3. 4.Take the readings with out parallax error.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. RESULT: .Avoide loose connections.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.NO VO(Volts) IO(Amps) WO(Watts) VSC(Volts) Isc(Amps) Wsc(Watts) PRECAUTIONS: 1.
Tacho meter (0-9999)RPM THEORY: In this test the value of Xd & Xq can be determined by synchronous machine given by a separate prime movers at a speed slightly less that synchronous speed. .Flux is equal to the difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed Ns – N i. The field winding is left open & balance voltages of reduced magnitude around 25% of rated value & rated frequency i.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1.e applied across the armature terminals under this condition the relative velocity between field poles & rotating armature .e slip speed . Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-150)V (0-5)A 3.2A 4. APPARATUS: S. 2.DETERMINATION OF Xd & Xq BY SLIP TEST AIM: To determine the values of Xd & Xq by conducting slip test on 3-Φ salient pole transformer. Rheostat 18Ω/12A 570Ω/1.
By using the DPST switch give the supply to the motor. PROCEDURE: 1. At this instant the ratio of armature terminals voltage per phase to corresponding armature current per phase to given axis. Xd = Vmax /Imin After one quarter of slip cycle the peak value of the alternator flux adder all the entire poles or q-axis‟s of the field poles.70V. 2. Find Xd & Xq of the machine. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Give the 25% of full load voltage to stator terminals by varying 3. 3. Repeat the experiment by changing applied Ac 3. MODEL CALCULATIONS: Xd = Vmax/ ph / Imin X q = Vmin / ph / Imax TABULAR FORM: . Take minimum & maximum values of voltage and current values .At one instant when the peak of armature flux wave is in line with field poles or direct axis‟s the reluctance offered by the small air gap is minimum . The reluctance offered by long reluctance is maximum .e slip <1) 4. 7. 5.Φ variac.Φ voltage at 100V. 6.At this instant the applied terminals voltage per phase divided by corresponding armature current per phase gives at this reactance. Switch OFF supply after adjusting variac & rheostat to its original position.(i. 50V . By varying armature or field rheostat adjust the prime mover speed less than the synchronous speed.
RESULT: .Avoide loose connections. 3.NO Vmin(Volts) Vmax(Volts) Imin (Amps) Imax (Amps) PRECAUTIONS: 1.Take the readings with out parallax error.S.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.Double check the circuit before giving the supply. 4. 2.
Ammeter 3.Φ induction motor by conducting no load blocked rotor test on it. WO = VO IO COS ΦO COS ΦO = WO / VO IO Magnetizing component Iµ = IO Sin ΦO Xo = VO/ Iµ . One winding of the transformer which ever is convenient but usually high voltage winding is left open and the other is connected to its supply at normal voltage & frequency . Voltmeter ( 0-300)V (0-150 ) V (0-15)A (0-10)A 2.NO LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 1-Φ INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To find the parameters & equivalent circuit of a 1.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. wattmeter 300V/10A LPF 150V/20A UPF THEORY: No load test: Purpose of this test is to deter mine no load loss or core loss at no load current Io which is helpful for finding Xo & Ro. APPARATIS: S. A wattmeter W and voltmeter V & all ammeter are connected .
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. Short circuit current with normal voltage applied to stator . 4. 3. PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1. 2. 3. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Note down the no load current & power in ammeter & wattmeter. 3. 4. Power factor on short circuit. ammeter & wattmeter. MODEL CALCULATIONS: NO LOAD TEST: CosΦo = WO/VO IO IW=IO CosΦo . Give the supply to circuit & varying the ammeter & up to attaining rated current in the circuit. Both values are used in construction of circle diagram. Before giving supply . Total leakage reactance X01 of the motor as referred to primary . This test is used to find 1.Φ supply to the motor circuit and by varying the auto transformer give the rated voltage in the voltmeter. 2. 2. Before giving supply tightly fix the rotor with the help of belt. Total resistance of the motor R01 as reforod to primary. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. remove the load on the motor.Working component Iw = IO COS ΦO Ro = VO/ Iw Blocked rotor test: It is also known as short circuit test . Note down the readings of voltmeter . Give the 1. 4.
RSC 2 R2' = R01 . S = Ns – Nr /Ns XO/2 = R2' /2(2-S) = X 2' /2 = TABULAR FORM: NO LOAD TEST: S.NO VO(Volts) IO(Amps) WO(Watts) .Iμ = IO SinΦo RO = VO / IW XO = VO / Iμ BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: R02 = RSC = WSC / ISC 2 ZSC = VSC /I SC X02 = XSC= √ZSC 2 .R 1 X1 = X 2' = XSC /2 Slip.
RESULT: . 2.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position.NO VSC(Volts) Isc(Amps) Wsc(Watts) PRECAUTIONS: 1.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: S. 3.Take the readings with out parallax error.Avoide loose connections. 4.
. Lamps Load 5. Voltmeter Ammeter ( 0-600)V (0-5)A (0-10)A (0-20)A 3. The graphically relation between the armature current Ia and the excitation current If curves resembles the shape of V & therefore known as the V-curves of synchronous motor . APPARATIS: S.NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1. 2. Under lagging power factor the synchronous motor takes lesses field current for a given armature current as compare to the field current under leading power factor.V AND INVERTED V CURVES AIM: To draw the V and inverted V curves of a given synchronous motor. Wattmeter 600V/10A UPF 600V/10A LPF 230V/60watts 250V/3kw 4. When the excitation is either decrease or increase from the normal value . It is from that the current drawn by the motor is minimum at unity power factor is either leading or lagging . THEORY: When the power input to the motor is constant the armature current increases .
. Adjust the excitation of synchronous motor such that the voltmeter V1 connected across armature terminals should be equal to the bus bar voltage. It is known as inverted V curves of synchronous motor. 3. A rated Dc supply is given to the Dc shunt motor is started with the help of 3-point starter. 8.By this synchronous generator will convert to synchronous motor & synchronous Dc motor is converted into Dc generators. 7. 10. Adjust the speed of the Dc motor slightly such that the dark period of lamp should be more at this condition DPST switch closed. The synchronous motor is acting as a synchronous generator un till its operation . 2. The synchronous motor voltage is meet by voltmeter.Now .The relationship between power factor &field current . 9. the supplied Dc motor is taken OFF. PROCEDURE: 1. 11. Exciting field winding of synchronous motor by the Dc supply to this circuit by closing the DPST switch2. 12.when synchronization occur that is all the 6lamps bright at one time & dark at another time. The curve resembles & shape as inverted V curve .By changing the excitation (If) the readings of ammeter & wattmeter readings are taken. 6. 5. Observe the reading of voltmeter that is the voltage of bus bars between the lines. 4. Adjust the speed of the motor to a rated value by adjusting its field rheostat. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
NO If(Amps) W1(Watts) W2(Watts) IA(Amps) CosΦo .MODEL GRAPHS: TABULAR FORM: S.
PRECAUTIONS: 1. RESULT: . 2.The motor armature rheostat in maximum position and motor field rheostat in minimum position. 3. 4.Double check the circuit before giving the supply.Avoide loose connections.Take the readings with out parallax error.
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