Boeing 737

Other titles in the Crowood Aviation Series
Aichi D3AI/2 Val
Airco - The ircraft Manufacturing Company
Avro Lancaster
BAC One-Eleven
Bell P-39 Airacobra
Boeing 747
Boeing 757 and 767
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
Consolidated B-24 Liberator
De Havilland Mosquito
Douglas AD kyraider
English Electric Canberra
English Electric Lightning
F<1irchild Republic A-IO Thunderbolt II
Fokker Aircraft of World War One
Hawker Hunter
Hawker Hurricane
Junkers Ju 7 tub
Junkers Ju 88
Lockheed C-130 Hercules
Lockheed F-l 04 Starfighter
Luftwaffe - A Pictorial History
McDonnell Dougla A-4 kyhawk
McDonnell Douglas F-I 5 Eagle
Messerschmitt Bf 110
Messerschmitt Me 262
Nieuport Aircraft of World War One
ight Airwar
orth American B-25 Mitchell
orth American F- 6 abre
orth merican T-6
Panavia Tornado
Short Sunderland
V-Bombers
Vickers VCJ0
Peter C. Smith
Mick Davis
Ken Delve
Malcolm L. Hill
Robert F Dorr with Jerry c. cutts
Martin W. Bowman
Thomas Becher
Martin W. Bowman
Martin W. Bowman
Martin W. Bowman
Peter C. mith
Barry Jones
Martin W. Bowman
Peter C. Smith
Paul Leaman
Barry Jones
Peter Jacobs
Peter C. mith
Ron Mackay
Martin W. Bowman
Martin W. Bowman
Eric Mombeek
Brad Elward
Peter E. Davies and Tony Thornborough
Ron Mackay
David Baker
Ray Sanger
Theo Boiten
Jerry cutts
Duncan Curtis
Peter C. Smith
Andy Evans
Ken Delve
Barry Jones
Lance Cole
Boeing 737
Malcoltn L. Hill
I ~ ~ c l
The Crowood Press
FirM pubh,heJ In 2002 by
The CrowooJ Press LtJ
Ram,bury, Marlborough
Wilt,hire 82HR
© Malcolm L. I Ii II 2002
All right, re,erveJ. 0 part of thi, publicalllll1 may be
reproJuceJ or trammitteJ in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical, including
photocopy, recording, or any infnrll1fltio!l s(oragc (-lnd
retrieval without permission in writing (rom
the publi,her,.
Contents
Acknowledgements
1 TO MESSRS BOEING, A BOUNCING BABY
2 FIRST STEPS
6
7
23
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue rccorJ for this book is available from the
Brit;,h Library.
ISBN I 61264046
Typefaces useJ: GouJy (text),
Cheltenham (headings).
Typeset anJ JesigneJ by
D & Publishing
BayJon, Marlborough, Wiltshire.
PrinteJ anJ bounJ in Grear Britain by Bookcraft, MiJsomcr Orton.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Appendix I
Appendix II
Index
NEW CUSTOMERS, NEW APPLICATIONS
I TO ERVICE
IMPROVI G THE BREED
WORLDWIDE 1 FLUE CE
THE BABY GROWS
A EW LEA EOF LIFE
THE LAST OF THE OLD GE ERATIO
THE EXT GENERATION
THE BB] AND BEYOND
Early 737s - Comparisons with their Contemporaries
The 737,100-900
37
51
65
83
101
117
135
153
171
184
188
191
CHAPTER ONE
AcknowledgelDents To Messrs Boeing, a Bouncing Baby
American Airlines ordered a large fleet of modern 737-800s to replace older, less economic, narrow-body
aircraft on their short- and medium-haul network. American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum
Tu-134 had followed the design philoso-
phy of the Caravelle, One-Eleven and
DC-9 by adopting the increasingly popular
rear engine, Ttail configuration.
Of course, the launch of the 737 was
no overnight whim thought up by the
(Below) The first twin-jet airliner actually hailed from the Soviet
Union. The Tupolev Tu-l04 was designed for medium/long-range
service, although it was also operated on shorter inter-city
services on busier routes in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Via author
(Above) Soon casting off its 'late-
comer' image, the Boeing 737 went on
to populate most of the world's
busiest airports. Tim Kincaid Collection
The Soviet Union had later developed
the Tu-l04 into a smaller version, more
suited to short-haul networks. The result-
ing Tupolev Tu-l24 had been in service
since 1962 with its much redesigned suc-
cessor, the Tu-134 first flying in 1963. The
By the early 1960s it was certainly unusual
for the Boeing Airplane Company not to be
the trend-setter in producing a new com-
mercial aircraft type. However, the Wash-
ington State-based company was definitely
a latecomer when it came to offering a new
product on the short-haul twin-jet airliner
marker. By the time their new model 737
was made available to the world's commer-
cial operators, there were no fewer than six
alternatives either already in service or in
advanced stages of development, on offer to
the world's airlines.
Boeing's official announcement launch-
ing their 737 project into production came
on 22 February 1965. This was only three
days before the first flight of their arch
rival, Douglas Aircraft's DC-9, and only
six weeks before the British contender, the
BAC One-Eleven, actually entered sched-
uled airline service. The very first twin-jet
airliner design, also Russia's first jet airlin-
er, the Tupolev Tu-l04, although intended
more for medium/long-haul services than
short-haul work had been on the scene
since 1956. The first twin-jet designed
specifically for short-haul routes, France's
Sud-Est Caravelle had been in worldwide
service since April 1959.
Overseas Pioneers
Shop, Boeing Business Systems, Braathens,
Deutsche BA, Lufthansa and Military Air-
craft Photographs.
Whilst every effort has been made to iden-
tify the source of illustrations used in this
publication, this has not been possible in all
cases. All persons claiming accreditation
should contact the author via the publisher.
Gradidge, Joe Grant, Ivar Hakonsen, Chris
Harrison, Richard Howell, Tim Kincaid,
Jeff Luysterborghs, William F. Mellberg,
Larry Pettit, Brian Pickering, Jon Proctor,
Dennis Regan, Mel Roberts, Frankie Scott,
Becky and Buddy Scott- Ward, Robert Walz
and Tony Ward; and also to Aeroflot Russ-
ian Airlines, Air France, American Air-
lines C.R. Smith Museum, Aviation Hobby
Grateful thanks are extended to all the fol-
lowing persons and organizations, whose
co-operation, time and invaluable funds of
information and memories made this book
possible:
Thomas Becher, Steve Bunting, Ron
Carter, Sibylle Dietrich, Martyn East,
Phillip Eastwood, Thierry Gatouillat,Jenny
6 7
TO MESSRS BOEING. ABO NCING BABY TO IESSRS BOEING. ABO NCING BABY
The Boeing B&W Modell, the company's first aircraft, being manhandled at the
original waterside factory. Boeing
(Top) By the late 1920s, the Boeing factory was once
again busy with aircraft under construction, rather
than producing furniture as a 'stop-gap'. Boeing
(Abovel The Boeing Model 40B gave sterling service
to the company's airline subsidiary. NC178E is seen
wearing joint Boeing/Pacific Air Transport and
United Air lines titles. Boeing
the B-9, had provided a great deal of use-
ful data and solutions to problems that
were arising with the design of larger air-
craft. Although the B-9 failed to attract
an order thi new technology was chan-
nelled into a new civil airliner type, the
Boeing 247
The Arrival of the
Modern Airliner
The sleeker lines of Boeing' new high-
speed military types were oon being
applied to commercial designs. Research
and development of one military design,
was formed, called United Air Line, to co-
ordinate their operation, although each car-
rier retained its identity for the time being.
A major improvement in comfort for
passengers on Boeing's scheduled service
from Chicago to California arrived with the
introduction of a new airl iner design, the
Boeing Model 0, and slightly larger Model
OA, in 1929. The 12 to I -pa senger bi-
planes were pOSitively spacious compared to
the claustrophobic Model 40A and saw the
introduction of a new crew member, the
Stewardess. A number of American carriers
had already employed male stewards or
'Couriers' on larger aircraft and European
airlines had used stewards to serve their pas-
sengers for many years, but Boeing Air
Transport was the first carri r in the world
to employ female flight attendants.
While Boeing Air Transport and its
United Air Lines partners were introduc-
ing modern styles of air travel to their pas-
sengers, the Boeing Airplane Company
wa increasing it portfolio with a number
of successful military designs.
New Owners, New Direction
designed DH-4 'Lib 'tty Planes' that helped
the ompany survive the I '<mcr tlmcs.
By the mid-1920s, howcvcr, BOCIng was
gaining produ tion ordcrs (or its own ncw
designs again, as a series of fighter and
atta k aircraft were suppl ied to the U
military. More civil projects were making
an appearance too, with the Boeing Model
40A, designed to arry two pas engers as
well as 1,200lbs (544kg) of mail beginning
operations over the San Francisco-Chicago
route in 1927.
Boeing had set u[1 its own airline, Boeing
Air Transport, to operate the route, and
acquired another West Coast-based carrier,
Pacific Air Transport, to expand their oper-
ation. Boeing itself was purchased shortly
afterwards and became part of the new
United Aircraft and Transport Corpora-
tion that had its headquarters at Hartford,
Connecticut. As well as Boeing and its air-
line subsidiaries, United soon also con-
trolled the Chance Vought Corporation,
Pratt & Whitney, the aero engine manu-
facturer, and the Hamilton Aero Manufac-
turing Company that made propellers.
The airline side also expanded, with pio-
neer carriers tout Airlines, National Air
Transport and Varney Airlines all being
taken into the UATC family. The large
combined airline network became so un-
wieldy that a new management company
incorporated his aviation interests into the
new Pacific Aero Products Company.
The even more improved Model 3 soon
appeared, with a landplane ver ion, the
Model 4, of which only two were supplied
to the Army a primary trainers. The
S Navy eventually pia ed an order for
fifty Model 5s, as the company changed its
name to the Boeing Airplane Company.
The avy order was to be the first sizable
contract to the US military, which was to
remain Boeing's primary customer for
many years.
Postwar Slump
Throughout the immediate post-First
World War years Boeing enjoyed mixed for-
tunes. There were simply too many surplus
aircraft around for the military to be inter-
ested in sponsoring expensive new projects.
The small number of non-military sales did
little to dispel the gloom as the valuable mil-
itary market had vanished overnight with
the arrival of the armistice. The first two
B&W aircraft were sold to the New Zealand
government for postal work, Boeing's first
international sales and a small number of B-
Is, a flying boat design, were also sold for use
by airmail contractor.
At one point th company was obliged to
start building furniture in order to keep its
skilled woodworking force together. Con-
tracts were also gained from the US military
for conversion and modification of British-
company merely to keep up with airliner
design fashion trend. Boeing had been
studying their short-haul jet airliner
options for several years and were only pre-
pared to offer a definitive design once they
felt that they had got it right. ince the
entry into service of Boeing's first jet air-
liner design, the medium/long-range Boe-
ing 707 in 195 , the company had been
working toward offering a 'family' of
de igns. Each different member of the
'family' was to be able to serve the airline's
needs in different operational markets, but
with enough of a degree of commonality in
design so as to reduce production costs to
the maker and significantly decrease oper-
ating costs to the customer.
In the Beginning
Boeing had actually not been a major sup-
plier of civil airliners until the advent of
the 707 in the 1950s. Military orders had
been the backbone of Boeing's production
lines for many years, with the few civilian
designs produced usually being 'spin-offs'
from US military contracts. Initially, even
the Boeing 707 was just such a 'spin-off'
from a design study to develop an in-flight
refuelling tanker for high-speed jet fighters
and bombers that had emerged as the KC-
135. The suitability of the new type for
redesign as a jet airliner was recognized
very early in the design process and the
company made the historical decision that
changed it commercial direction.
The Boeing Airplane Company had
be n founded by William E. Boeing, a suc-
cessful Seattle businessman involved in the
local timber industry, and a friend, Cdr G.
Conrad Westervelt of the US Navy. Both
had been fa cinated by the new flying craze
and had founded the Aero Club of Seattle
in 1915. The club's first aircraft, a Glenn L.
Martin Seaplane, was damaged in an acci-
dent and Boeing and Westervelt elected to
build an improved ver ion of the aircraft,
rather than simply replace it from the orig-
inal source. Thus, in June 1916, William
Boeing piloted the new aircraft, the B&W
Modell, a single-engined, twin-pontoon
biplane from Lake Union, near eattle.
Westervelt was posted to the East Coast
and Boeing continued to develop the
design with an increasing team of engineers
and designers that he was able to attract.
A second design, the improved model 2,
the first real all-Boeing project, took to the
air in 1917, by which time Boeing had
8 9
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOU CING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCI 'G BABY
Boeing's 307 Stratoliner pioneered the use of a pressurized cabin in passenger service. TWA introduced
their fleet on transcontinental scheduled flights in July 1940. Via author
vitally needed work. With its wing,
engines and undercarriage taken from the
B-17 bomber, the Model 3 7, tratol iner,
was unique in its day for having a large
pI' ssuri:ed fuselage. Able to operate at
high altitude, above the worst weather, it
promised unprecedented smooth flights
for its passengers. Another Boeing bomber
project also provided the wing design for
another ivil type, the giant 314 flying
boat that saw Boeing returning briefly to
its marine roots.
The tratoliner saw only limited airline
service, with a handful being operated by
TWA, on domestic routes, and Pan mer-
ican on services to the Caribbean and
South America. The millionaire flyer,
Howard Hughes also acquired a Stratolin-
er as his personal 'Flying Penthouse'. The
giant 314 flying boat saw long-range pas-
senger service with Pan Ameri an, on both
Pacific and Atlantic scheduled flights. A
small number were aLo diverted, hefore
their intenJed delivery to Pan American,
to serve Great Britain's BOAC on wartime
transport services.
Although they failed to sell to airlines
in \'ery large numhers, mainly due to the
intervention of the econd World War,
the 307 and 314 models kept Boeing in the
forefront of airliner design. Once the war
was over, Boeing continued to he preoccu-
pied with military contracts, fuelled hy the
Korean conflict and ongoing 'Cold War'
with Communist Europe.
Bigger Boeings
truggling to remain in the airliner busi-
ness after the debacle of the 247 sale:, Boe-
ing looked to bigger, even more revolu-
tionary designs. A serie, of military aircraft
had been more successful than the civil
projects and provided the company with
among others, inviting tenders to produce
a trimotor, all-metal monoplane. Douglas
came up with the 12-passenger, twin-engine
design, the DC-I. Thi was enlarged to a 14-
passenger capacity in its production version,
the DC-2. As well a having a much more
spacious cal in, the DC-2 was actually faster
than the 247, wiping out all the 247' initial
advantages overnight. TWA placed the new
aircraft into scheduled service in August
1934 and both and foreign carriers were
soon beating a path to Douglas' door to
place orders for the type.
When the DC-2 was enlarged again into
the21-passengerD -3,in 1936,anyhopes
Boeing had for the continued production
of the 247 van ished. The DC-3 went on to
become one of the most successful airliner
designs of all ti me, wi th many examples fly-
ing on into the twenty-first century, over
sixty years after the type entered service.
Even United had to admit the Douglas air-
craft's superiority. From 1936, the airline
began to replace the 247's on major routes
with their own fleet of DC- 3s.
All Change for the Air Mail Act
As well as eHectively having shot itself in the foot by
forcing the non-UATC airlines to look elsewhere for
new equipment, United Aircraft was thrown into tur-
moil by the 1934 Air Mail Act.
Introduced to put an end to growing monopolies
within the transport industries. a Senate Special
Committee investigated both ocean steamship and
airline mail contracts, following questions being
raised on the subject of subsidy and the fairness of
certain contract awards. This led to the disclosure of
some dubious practices and decisions in the way a
number of airmail contracts had been awarded by the
Postmaster General, Walter Brown.
All airmail contracts were cancelled with eHect from
9February 1934. Another consequence of the Act was
to forbid the close tie-up of aircraft manufacturers and
airlines. As a result. Boeing became a separate com-
pany again. William Boeing actually resigned over the
issue from the company he had founded, accusing the
Roosevelt administration of unfairness.
Although innocent parties suHered as much as the
guilty, the airlines soon emerged from the legislative
gunsmoke relatively unscathed. The airmail service
was initially handed over to the military, but chaos
ensued. Following a number of accidents and agen-
eral public outcry, the airlines were invited to tender
for the contracts again. Certain airlines and their man-
agements were forbidden, by their past mvolvement
in Irregular practices, from applying, and a flurry of
name-changing and corporate manoeuvres followed.
UATC had already combined its four major airlines
subsidiaries, Boemg Air Transport, Pacific All' Trans-
port, National Air Transport and Varney AirLines, mto
one unit in May 1934, now oHicially named United Air
Lines. Anewcompany, TWA Inc, applied for Transcon-
tmental & Western Air's old contracts, and promptly
'took over' the old company assets once the contracts
were awarded, swiftly reinstating the original name.
Similarly, American Airways became American Air-
lines, Eastern Air Transport became Eastern Air Lines,
and so on.
large order, for sixty aircraft, was placed, to
be delivered to its airline divisions. It was
assumed that the exclusive use of the 247
by UAT 's airlines would give them an
unprecedented advantage on America',
airways. Itwas na'ive in the extreme for
UATC to think that the other airlines were
going to take this lying down and the rival
carrier soon a ~ proached Boeing to place
their own orders. However, the United
contract totally monopoli:ed the produc-
tion capacity for nearly a year. Rather than
have to wait until the initial order for sixty
was delivered, the disappointed airlines
approached other aircraft manufacturers to
produce an alternative aircraft.
Transcontinental & Western Air con-
tacted the Douglas Aircraft Company,
" .
---
United decided, albeit reluctantly, that
they were wi II ing to overlook the lower
capacity, in view of the new type's speed
advantage. At over 70mph faster than its
nearest rival, the 247 was a definite trend-
setter, the first transport to sport a low-
wing monoplane and twin-engined con-
figuration. The type first flew in 1932,
with the first delivery to UATC's airlines
being made on 30 March 1933.
The 247's Nemesis
The decision to produce the smaller capac-
ity aircraft was to turn out to be only one
mistake made by nited ircraft and
Transport in selecting its new·-airliner. A
The Douglas DC-1 was designed atthe instigation
of TWA and soon overtook the Boeing 247 in its
developed production version, the DC-2. Via author
(Above) The Boeing 247 finally brought modern lines
to airliner design in 1933. The first aircraft, X-13301,
was a production model. There was no designated
prototype and this aircraft was later delivered to
the Boeing division of United Air lines. Boeing
The nited Air Lines group had been
struggling against competition from Tram-
continental & Western Air and American
Airways, both flying more modern Ford
Trimotors or Fokker models that out-
classed the Boeing 80s. Although United's
airline partners were trying their best to
compete, they were soon looking to their
Boeing partner to provide a new type to
push them ahead of their rivals.
Although United had wanted an aircraft
as large as the 18-passenger Boeing 80s, the
Boeing 247 emerged with capacity for only
ten pas engel's. Boeing's allegiance to their
nited Aircraft and Transport partners
meant that it wa unable to consider the
Wright Il 20 engine, then under develop-
ment, that would have been suitable for a
larger aircraft. Boeing was obliged to go to
Pratt & Whitney for an engine to power
their aircraft, but they only had their well-
tried, but less powelful, Wasp to hancl.
Another factor in deciding to develop the
smaller design option was the rather volu-
ble opinion of United's pilots. They were of
the view that a larger aircraft would be
unstable and difficult to control.
70 77
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY
Agigantic aircraft for its day, the Boeing 314 flying boat operated luxurious pre-war transoceanic air services over both the
Atlantic and Pacific. Via author
(Above) The De Havilland Comet 1series blazed a trail for jet airline travel in the
early 1950s. Unfortunately their demise, due to unforeseen metal fatigue, was swift
and only three airlines and the Royal Canadian Air Force took delivery from a once
impressive order book. Via author
(Below) Contemporary with the flawed early Comets, the Vickers
Viscount was a much more successful venture. Aer Lingus was an
early customer, eventually operating the type for over fifteen years.
Jenny Gradidge
Postwar Airliner
Developments
Until the arrival of the 707, Boeing's sole
contribution to the postwar airliner market
to reach the production stage was the model
377 Stratocruiser. This itselfhad been a civil
version of the C-97/KC-97 military trans-
port and in-flight refueller, derived from the
B29 bomber design. Despite large numbers
of C-97s and KC-ns being ordered by the
U military, civilian versions had only
enjoyed limited success with the airlines.
Although its luxurious, spacious cabin and
legendary lower-deck cocktai I bar were
immensely popular with passengers, it was a
horrendously expensive aircraft to operate
and maintain on a commercial basis.
When jet-powered airliners first came
on to the scene it was all about reducing
flying times over long-ranging flights. Only
five years before putting the world's first
jetliner, the De Havilland Comet 1, into
revenue service, advertising for the British
Overseas Airways Corporation 'boasted' of
UK-Hong Kong journeys taking 'only five
days'! This leisurely scheduled service was
flown by Shorts Sandringham Flying Boat,
with night-stops being made en route.
Although the first commercially operated
jets were usually obI iged to make a number
of refuelling stops, they were assigned to
long-distance flights, still managing to cut
piston engine-powered, propeller airliner
schedules in half.
The Turbo-Prop Era
The future for shorter-ranging flights, in
particular those involving any degree of
'mass travel', was perceived to lie in the
direction of turbo-prop, or prop-jet, power.
In the turbo-prop the jet engine's thrust is
diverted to driving a propeller, instead of
directly powering the aircraft through the
air. This is much more economical in terms
of fuel consumption, although giving near-
ly the same speed advantages of pure-jet
power. The Vickers Viscount, contempo-
rary with the omet 1, introduced turbo-
prop travel to a very enthusiastic travelling
public in the early 1950s.
Sadly, the Comet turned out to suffer
from chronic metal fatigue problems. A
trio of mysterious crashes, all involving the
loss of all passengers and crew on board the
unfortunate aircraft, brought the problem
12
to light. Only an extensive investigation,
on a scale not previously seen in civil avi-
ation, finally identified the metallurgical
problem that had lain hidden until the
accidents brought it to the industry's atten-
tion. Although the turbo-props were still
successfully making their mark around the
world, the pure-jet airliner was temporarily
grounded.
Soon, larger versions of the Viscount, as
well as much larger turbo-prop aircraft,
such as the Vickers Vanguard and Lock-
heed Electra, were on the horizon and it
was surmised that the turbo-prop would
rule over the shorter ranges, leaving the
jets to concentrate on longer fl ights. Long-
range, large-capacity turbo-props, such as
the Bristol Britannia, were also on the
drawing board to operate economical ser-
vices on far-flung flights, the plan then
being to leave the expensive pure-jets to
first-class travellers willing to pay a premi-
um fare. This rather cosy plan of action,
however, was soon turned on its head.
If the Comet had achieved one thing, it
was to prove the underlying market for jet
travel. The all-First-C1ass passenger load
factors on the early Comets briefly operated
for BOAC, as well as two French airlines,
Air France and UAT, had been well beyond
expectations. Tourist-Class travel was intro-
duced on a handful of the busier routes in
the earl1950s and its success surprised even
the most optimistic supporters of ' mass trav-
el'. As the Comet was being redesigned into
the larger, more robust, Comet 4 series and
Boeing were looking at producing an airlin-
er version of their KC-l35 jet tanker design,
France's Sud-Aviation was putting the fin-
ishing touches to their short-haul jet airlin-
er design, the E-210 Caravelle. From the
start, the Caravel Ie, and the jetliners that
followed it, were designed with both first-
and tourist-class travellers in mind. Only
rarely would there be any talk of ' First-Class
Only' jet travel, at least until the arrival of
the ultra-expensive supersonic transports.
13
Short-Haul Jet Revolution
When the elegantly designed, rear-engined
Caravelle started European service in
1959, it soon had passengers voting with
their feet. It did not matter to the paying
public that the turbo-props were more eco-
nomic over shorter distances or that the
time-savings over close inter-city pairs
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY
(Above) The Sud-Aviation Caravelle was designed from the outset for
short-haul inter-city services. It soon outpaced the large turboprops
originally seen as the answer to economic short-range service. Via author
(Below) The original purpose of the KC-135 design was as an in-flight refueller for
high-speed bombers like the Boeing B-52. Its potential as a commercial jet transport
was soon recognized and the design was modified to produce the 707 airliner. Boeing
Pan American introduced the 707-100 into scheduled service in 1958. The airline later took delivery of the
larger. more powerful -320 series. as seen here. MAP
Swissair was one of the few customers for the Convair CV-990A. operating them on long-haul services to South America and Asia. as well
as busier European routes. Via author
were minimal or even non-existent. Pro-
pellers were old-fashioned. The passengers
wanted jets and they wanted them now.
If it had a propeller on it, the public did
not want to know and soon sought out
the airlines with jet-powered alternatives.
Caught unawares, the British European
Airways Corporation, which had placed
,tll its eggs firmly in the turbo-prop basket
by ordering large fleets of economical Vis-
counts and Vanguards, were forced to
commission a 'stop-gap' short-haul version
of the Comet, the 4B.
The BEA Comet 4Bs were initially
assigned to the longer routes on their net-
work, especially to the eastern Mediter-
ranean, but were soon also pressed into ser-
vice on shorter trunk routes where rival
European operators such as Air France,
Alitalia, Finnair, Iberia, Sabena, SAS and
Swissair were flying their new Caravelles.
Although much less suitable for the short-
er runs, the Comets were required to win
back passengers until BEA could place a
more economically viable inter-city jet
into service.
Boeing's Jetliner Success
Europe's only long-range challenge to the
707, at least in its early years, was confined
to the De Havilland Comet 4. Even the
'new' Comet 4 was technically inferior to
the 707. However, the Comet 4 still
achieved the distinction of becoming the
first commercially operated jet over the
Atlantic when Britain's BOAC placed it in
service on the London- ew York route in
October 1958. This was only a matter of
weeks before Pan American World Airways
14 15
United's Postwar Growth TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY
United's Boeing 727s were among the first to roll off what was to become a long and successful production run. MAP
they would he putting the Boeing 127 into
production.
Wing high-lift devices were incorporated
into the design for an even more improved
take-off performance. As well as being use-
ful in the thin mountain air of Denver, the
high-lift devices would also allow the
727 operators to introduce jet service to
important East-Coast US airports such a
New York's La Guardia and Washington's
National that had restricted runway
lengths. Also, from the cabin floor upwards,
the fuselage cross-section was identical to
From Four Engines to Three
Boeing's first offering on the short-range
jet airliner market came about as a result of
direct discussions with airlines. Eastern
wanted a small twin-jet. United, with a
major operations centre at Denver in the
Rocky Mountains, wanted the security
and power reserves of four engines and
were pushing for a yet smaller version of
the 720B. Boeing's engineers managed to
persuade the Eastern and United manage-
ments that a three-engined, Ttail design
was a workahle compromise. On 5 Decem-
her 1960, the company announced that
The improved take-off and landing perfor-
mance of the Boeing nO/nOB also allowed
jet service to a number of airports not previ-
ously able to accommodate the heavier 707s
and DC-8s.
and CV-990 jet airliner models specifical-
ly with these markets in mind.
[nitially, Boeing had concentrated on
improving the long-range and load-carry-
ing capabilities of the 707. Larger, more
powerful versions were offered that elimi-
nated the need for refuelling stops on
many fl ights. However, encouraging early
sales figures for the medium-range Conv-
air jets alerted Boeing to a threat to their
customer base, several members of which
were already in preliminary negotiations
with Convair. Not surprisingly, an inter-
mediate-range version of the 707 was also
soon on offer.
Lighter, shorter and more powerful,
with a redesigned wing and flap layout that
improved take-off and cruising perfor-
mance, the Boeing no first flew on Z3
Novemher [959. Boeing took particular
satisfaction in ohtaining early orders for
the no from Douglas DC-8 operators
United Air Lines and Eastern Air Lines,
that had hoth been seriously considering
the Convair options. Established US-
based 707 customers, such as American
Airlines, Braniff Airways and Continental
Airlines also ordered the no, and the later
turbo-fanned engined version, the nOB,
in some numbers.
Away from the home market, several
foreign scheduled carriers also placed nos
and nOBs in service on longer-ranging
flights where passenger loads were lighter
and did not justify the use of larger 707s.
introduced their first imported Boeing 707
jets.
Booming worldwide sales of the 707
had soon pushed Boeing into the fore-
front of civil airliner design, overtaking
Douglas and Lockheed in a few short
years. Sales of the 707's main US rival,
the similar Douglas DC-8, had suffered
from being later into service than the
707, although respectable sales figures
were later achieved and developed ver-
sions of the aircraft kept the type in pro-
duction for many years. Lockheed had
elected to ignore the long-haul jet airlin-
er market, and concentrated on develop-
ing its L-88 Electra turbo-prop for inter-
city airline work. The rise of the
short-haul jet was to restrict the Electra
market considerably and Lockheed did
not attempt to return to full-scale airlin-
er production for many years.
Boeing and the
Short-Haul Market
The operationally and commercially suc-
cessful use of early model 707s and DC-8s
on domestic routes within the USA had
shown a market for jet services on busy
inter-city sectors. Douglas had been selling
versions of the DC-8 tailored for domestic
US service and another aircraft manufac-
turing company, General Dynamics, pro-
ducing aircraft under the Convair name in
San Diego, had offered their new CV-880
Hawaiian network, although these were disposed of as uneconomic compared to the
DC-6s and DC-7s that replaced them. With the arrival of the jet era, United greatly influ-
enced the design of the DC-B and the Boeing 720 and 727, as well as the 737.
Un.ited's acquisition of financially ailing Capital Airlines in 1961, saw the creation of
the largest airline in the Western world. When the 737 programme was announced in
1965, United was operating thirty-eight Douglas DC-8s, three DC-8Fs, twenty-nine Boe-
ing 720s, twenty-eight Boeing 727-100s, with eighty-two more 727-100s and -200s on
order and twenty Sud Caravelle 6Rs in its jet fleet. In addition, United still operated
twenty-three DC-7s, six DC-7Fs. thirty DC-6s, seven DC-6As, forty DC-6Bs. seventeen
Convair CV-340s and forty-five Viscount 700s in their propeller-driven, piston and prop-
jet-engined fleet. Most of the surviving propeller aircraft were planned to be phased
out and replaced by the remaining 727s on order, as well as the new order for 737-200s.
(Below) The DC-8 had benefited from a great deal of input into the design from United.
The type was to serve the airline for nearly thirty years. Via author
Once established as a strong, independent airline in its own right. United Air Lines
enjoyed a period of unprecedented growth. When the USA entered the Second World
War the airline, along with most of the nation's commercial air carriers. made most of its
carrying capacity available for military use. United operated atrans-Pacific air service for
the US Navy, as well as flying numerous domestic contracts for the US war machine.
After the return of peace, United turned its attention to modernizing and expanding
its domestic network. Unlike many of its rivals, it did not use its wartime long-range
experience to press for international service authority. Instead, United satisfied itself
with extending its coast-to-coast network to the Hawaiian Islands in 1947.
The airline remained amajor force in US airliner design, being heavily involved in the
development of the Douglas DC-4, DC-6, DC-7 series and Convair CV-340 piston-
engined aircraft. Asmall fleet of Boeing Stratocruisers was also operated briefly on the
(Above) The Boeing Stratocruiser served briefly on United's new prestige Hawaiian
schedules in the early 1950s. MAP
16 17
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCI G BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY
The 1940s-50s vintage, piston-powered DC-6 series still featured heavily in United's fleet in the mid-1960s.
AViation Hobby Shop
Wing-mounted engines al 0 meant that
more of the fuselage was available for fare-
paying passengers, with less 'dead-areas'
involved in mounting engines on the rear
fuselage. The wing-mounted configura-
tions also led to less problem' in achieving
a satisfactory centre of gravity in most load
distribution scenarios.
The engines could nor be hung on
pylons, as on the 707/720, due to the clos-
er rroximity of the smaller aircraft's wing
to the ground. Instead, the engine nacelles
(Belowl The Boeing 72Ts impressive flap system.
seen to effect on this taxying American Airlines
aircraft. was adapted for the 737. MAP
stall under certain aerodynamic conditions,
had eventually been solved. Unfortunately
this was not until after the tragic loss of the
prototype One-Eleven and its test crew as a
result of just such a stall.
Eventually Boeing opted for the under-
wing location for its engines, two Pratt &
Whitney JT -Os, with a conventional tail
layout. Apart from the deep-stall consider-
ations, the wider cross-section of the Boe-
ing made the fitting of the engines on the
rear fuselage an aerodynamic nightmare.
IAbovel The BAC One-Eleven had to cure a 'deep-stall' problem with its T-tail design, which led to the
loss of the original prototype on a test flight. The eventual solution benefited all such designs that
followed. Aviation Hobby Shop
T-Tail or Pylon?
Two groups of Boeing engineers looked
independently at either the T-rail or under-
wing engine design option. The Ttail,
with the engines placed on the rear fuse-
lage, had been a popular design with the
earlier type, especially from the point of
view of reducing noise in the passenger
cabin. A potentially dangerous 'deep-stall'
rroblem, with Ttail configured aircraft,
where the aircraft entered an unrecoverable
Boeing could rroduce a more flexible jet,
carable of carrying economic loads over
shorter routes and into mailer airfields, as
well as the larger cities, the company
would have a valuable, profitalle, new
addition to its jet 'family'.
In ovember 1964, Boeing finally gave
the go-ahead for their designers to investi-
gate the options for the new jet airliner
design. It was specifically aimed at recap-
turing markets being lost to the BA One-
Eleven and DC-9, where the Boeing 727
was regarded as too large. A reliable work-
horse aircraft, capable of operating several
sectors a day carrying economic loads at
low cost, was required. The Boeing sales
and marketing departments envisaged a
sales potential of more than 600 units of
the new design.
With their 'family' concept in mind,
the newly formed Boeing project team,
under the leadership of John E. Steiner,
elected to make the fuselage of the new
type the same width as the 707/720 and
727. This gave a definite advantage in
terms of passenger comfort. The BAC
One-Eleven, Caravelle and DC-9 all had
narrower cabins, with the economy-class
passengers in all the aircraft being seated
in a five-abreast, 2-3 configuration. The
Boeing aircraft would be able to offer an
exceptionally comfortable fi ve-abreast
layout or, as turned out to be the case in
most airlines' service, a more economical
3-3, six-abreast configuration.
Design Decisions
haul jets had begun to make inroads into
the denser markets, I940s and 50s vintage,
piston-engined, DC-6s, DC-7s and Con-
stellation, . hunted from longer, prime
routes by the early jets, still flew thousands
of pas engers on busy inter-city services
every day.
nited Air Lines also flew a sizable fleet
of Vickers Viscount turbo-rrops inherited
when they took over Carital Airlines in
1961. With the Capital network, United
had also taken on a number of multi-stop
routes linking both large and small cities.
It was these routes that saw the greatest
concentration of orerations for United's
remaining turbo-rrop and piston-engined
aircraft fleets. Passenger loads were not
enough to surport the Boeing 727 and
many of the airports were unable to accept
the smaller Caravel Ie, of which United did
operate a small fleet on East Coast and
Mid-West route'.
The first generations of short-haul jets had
already shown that they could operate as
cheaply, if not more so, and also attract
more rassengers with their modern jet-age
image. Although initial acquisition costs
were large, the jets were soon earning their
keep, carrying more passengers on more
daily sectors and beating any piston or
turho-pror competition into the ground. If
With the 727 making its development
flights, Boeing's attention turned more to
the market for smaller, more regionally
focused jetliners, preferably with even bet-
ter short-field performance. That such a
market exi ted was being demonstrated by
Douglas, ud and BAC, with the increas-
ing sale' of their Ttail configured twin jets.
That a major domestic customer for Boeing
aircraft, American Airlines, had ordered
no les. than thirty-one BAC One-Elevens
from Great Britain, to surplement their
much larger 727s on short-haul routes,
gave the design team even more incentive
to come up with a Boeing-built contender.
The 1960s still aw a large number of
routes served by ageing proreller fleets even
in the largest airline networks. Although
the Boeing 727, and other short/medium-
the Boeing 707 series and the idea offamily
'commonality' was finally ur and running.
Both airline placed their first orders, for
forty aircraft each, and the Boeing 72 7-
100 flew for the first time on 9 Fel ruary
1963. everal other carriers, including the
first European customer for the 727, West
Germany's Lufthansa, followed nited
and Eastern's example. The worldwide
sales figures for the tri-jet were soon
rivalling those of the already successful
707 and 720 series.
Surviving Props
78 79
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY Postwar lufthansa
Eastern opted for the OC-9 as its short-haul jet, rather than wait for the 737, still in its early design stages.
Via author
were of a revised 'string-tube' type, and
attached more directly to the wings. The
wings themselves were designed from the
outset with excellent airfield performance
in mind, using lessons learnt from the 727.
The increased dihedral outboard of the
wings not only contributed to this perfor-
mance, but also added to fuel capacity.
Features such as the onboard auxiliary
power unit and optional airstairs further
added to the 737's attractiveness, as it
would be able to operate from many small-
er airports with limited facilities.
By the time Boeing announced the defin-
itive design, as the Boeing 737, in February
1965, the aircraft had already grown from a
60-seater to a 75-103-passenger airliner.
The 'family' concept had survived, with 60
per cent commonality with the Boeing 727
design being retained. The 727's dual
hydraulic-powered ailerons, elevator and
rudder, the leading edge slats and Krueger
flaps were adapted for the 737, as was the
707's dual electric motor-driven variable-
incidence tail plane trim system, with a
manual backup. The company was also able
to announce its first order for the 737 on the
day the final design was revealed.
First 737 Sales
Surprisingly, this order was not from one of
the major US domestic carriers, despite
United having been a major target and
contributing a great deal of input into the
design. At the time that the design studies
on the Boeing 737 were being initiated,
United and Eastern Air Lines had been
the only major US carriers uncommitted
in the second-generation, short-haul twin-
jet market.
Although an enthusi::tstic operator of
the 727, Eastern eventually opted for
ordering a large neet of DC-9s, that could
be delivered quicker than the 737 that
was still on the Seattle drawing boards.
United, however, continued to co-oper-
ate with Boeing on their project. United
was more interested in the slightly larger
development of the Boeing design, later
to emerge as the Series 200, 6ft 4in
(lAm) longer than the Series 100. As a
result, West Germany's Lufthansa had
been the fi rst to place an order for twen-
ty-two of the initial 737-100 series, thus
becoming the first Boeing airliner to be
launched by a non-US customer.
20
Lufthansa had been looking for a jet
replacement for its remaining neets of
piston-powered Convair 440 Metropoli-
tans, as well as their turbo-prop Vickers
Viscounts, then operated on West Ger-
man domestic and busy short-haul Euro-
pean routes. Also earmarked for replace-
ment were a handful of piston-powered
Lockheed Super Constellations, long
since deposed from the long-haul ser-
vices, but sti II used on Lufthansa's h igher-
capaci ty domestic and European sched-
ules and some inclusive-tour charter
services.
Lufthansa was already operating Boeing
707s and 720Bs on long-range flights, as
well as 727s on both short and medium-
length routes. Originally approached by
both BAC and Douglas as a possible cus-
tomer for their own short-haul jet options,
Lufthansa had been less impressed with
the smaller capacity and shorter range of
the designs initially on offer. With the
addition of the 737, after disposing of its
last propeller-powered airliners, Lufthansa
would be able to offer Boeing jet service
standards to all its customers, throughout
its network.
The original company was formed in 1926, when two of Germany's pioneering air trans-
port companies, Deutscher Aero Lloyd and Junkers Luftverkehr, merged on 24 January,
resulting in Deutsche Luft Hansa. D.L.H. went on to develop into one of Europe's largest
pre-war airlines, both in terms of fleet size and network mileage.
The Second World War saw D.L.H., like most airlines operating within the protago-
nist nations, working increasingly for the military. A limited civil network was main-
tained throughout the war years though, and continued until the advance of the Allies
made the operation impossible. At the end of hostilities, the once mighty airline was
down to six serviceable aircraft, aFocke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, aDC-2, aDC-3, two JU-
52/3ms and aJunkers JU-88.
In the immediate postwar period, with the old German nation divided into two sepa-
rate countries, neither the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany, nor the People's
Democratic Republic of Germany were initially permitted to operate their own airlines.
An East German carrier, initially also called Lufthansa, later named Interflug, was
established by the Communist authorities. However, airlines of the occupying allies
continued to operate domestic flights in West Germany and international routes were
flown solely by visiting airlines of foreign nations.
Eventually, as the Federal Republic recovered economically, permission was granted
for the formation of a new West German airline and a provisional stock company,
Luftag, was established in January 1953.
(Above) Lufthansa inaugurated postwar scheduled
services with Convair CV-340s in 1955. Jenny Gradidge
The Vickers Viscount was to be operated by Lufthansa on
European and domestic routes, Lufthansa
(Below) Lufthansa introduced the first 727s to Europe,
naming them 'Europa jets'. They were operated to North
Africa and the Middle East as well as on busier short-
range flights. Via author
Reviving the old name of Lufthansa on 6August 1954, the airline opened ascheduled
domestic network on 1April 1955. Orders had been placed for four 44-passenger Con-
vair CV-340s for regional services and Lockheed delivered an equal number of long-
range L-1049G Super Constellations. International European flights opened in May
1955 and the Super Constellations inaugurated trans-Atlantic flights in June.
Over the following years Lufthansa steadily expanded throughout Europe and
opened more long-range flights to South America and the Far East. Viscount prop-jets
joined the Convairs, the CV-340s being supplemented with improved CV-440s, in
1958 and the Super Constellations were also augmented by even longer-range
L-1649A Starliners.
The airline's success mirrored the financial recovery of the Federal Republic and
Lufthansa's first jet, the first of a fleet of Boeing 707s, arrived in March 1960, barely
five years after operations had started. Boeing 727s, dubbed 'Europa Jets' by
Lufthansa, began appearing on European services in April 1964.
The Boeing 737 order was placed with aview to replacing the remaining propeller
airliners, then consisting of the Convairs, Viscounts and the surviving passenger Con-
stellations. The standardization on the 727 and 737 on the short-haul network was
designed to offer cost savings by reducing the number of types in use, as well as giv-
ing the airline the public relations accolade of an all-jet fleet.
Boeing 737s finallv started rolling down the production line in 1966/67. Lufthansa
a requirement for small fleets to serve their
networks.
The Third Pilot Issue
The 737 also had a political disadvantage
in that pilots' unions and organizations in
the United States were insisting that the
aircraft be operated either with three
pilots, or two pilots and a flight engineer.
This arrangement, as well as being expen-
sive for the airlines, was also rather
impractical as the 737 flight deck had
been designed from the start as a two-
pilot environment, with only a small
'jumpseat' available for any supernumer-
ary personnel thar may need to be carried
from time to time.
The third pilot issue had originally been
raised shortly before the Lockheed L-188
Electra turbo-prop entered service in the
late 1950s. Although never intended to be
operated by just two pilots, the Air Line
Pilots' Association (ALPA), wanted the
third crew member to be a pilot, not a flight
engineer, as had been the case on most pre-
vious three-cockpit-crew aircraft. ALPA
wanted all jet-powered equipment to carry
the third pilot. As well as ALPA's stand on
safety and workload issues, the demand for
a pilot in place of a flight engineer was seen
as a political move in an attempt to seri-
ously weaken the rival Flight Engineer's
[nternational Association (FE[A).
Two of the Electra's earliest operators
were targeted by the pilots' un ion as test
cases during contract negotiations, with a
view to persuading them to take ALPA's
view and establish a precedent. Miami-
based National Airlines managed to reach
a compromise that deferred the issue until
it was put to arbitration when the Electra's
had been delivered. Western Air Lines'
management were less flexible and a bit-
ter strike followed a failure in negotia-
tions. From 21 February to 10 June 1958,
Western was grounded, with both sides
refusing to budge. Finally, after the airline
threatened to hire new pilots to replace
First Steps
Apart from the Avianca and Mexicana
orders, all were for the larger series 200.
The Lake Central, Nordair and orthern
Consol idated orders were for versati Ie,
convertible, passenger-cargo aircraft.
It is interesting to note that, apart from
major US carrier Western Air Lines, all the
above orders were for comparatively small
numbers. Many carriers were still uncon-
vinced of the prospective economics of
short-haul jet services. Two of the 'Big Four'
US domestic airlines, Eastern and TWA
had already ordered DC-9s over the 737,
due to their earlier availability. American
Airlines had long committed itself to oper-
ating a mixed fleet of One-Elevens and 727s
on their medium and short-haul network.
This left United as the only 'Big Four' carri-
er still interested in the 737. The medium-
sized and specialist airlines, although eager
to upgrade their services with jets, only had
New Sales
The finalized design for the Boeing 737-100 revealed a practical twin-jet
airliner with great potential for growth and development. Lufthansa
CHAPTER TWO
Despite the difficulties, by the time the first
aircraft was assembled and 'christened' in a
much-publicized ceremony at Seattle, on
17 January 1967, no less than seventeen
carriers had been wooed by Boeing's ever-
efficient sales department into placing
orders for the 73 7. As well as the launch
orders from Lufthansa and United, the
order book now included aircraft for
Avianca (two), Braathens (three), Britan-
nia Airways (three), Aer Lingus-Irish
International (two), Lake Central Airlines
(three), Mexicana (two), Nordair (three),
Northern Consolidated Airlines (one),
Pacific Air Lines (six), Pacific Southwest
Airlines (six), Pacific Western Airlines
(two), Piedmont Airlines (six), South
African Airways (two), Western Air Lines
(twenty) and Wien Alaska Airlines (one).
737 was completed, in 1970, following a
major reorganization within the company
due to financial problems, all final assem-
bly for the aircraft was moved south to the
nearby Boeing factory at Renton.
Located 15 miles southeast of Seattle,
the Renton faCility was already responsible
for much of the company's commercial air-
liner production and the 737 production
line initially ran alongside that of the 727.
The move of the final assembly work to
Renton was greatly facilitated by the 737's
production jigs for the wings having been
made portable from the beginning. Origi-
nally this had been to enable the entire
assembly process to be moved to Wichita,
if required, at a later date.
With the placing of production orders
by Lufthansa and United, and other sales
in advanced states of negotiation, the 737
had finally been firmed up from an ever-
changeable 'paper' proposition to a defin-
itive design. The serious task of trans-
forming the paper design into a flying,
commercially viable, working airliner was
now underway.
United eventually
for forty Series 200s,
Pulling It All Together
TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY
At first, the final assembly of the 737 was
centred on a new 218,000sq ft (20,252sq m)
plant at Boeing Field, the company's main
plant, at Seattle. The wings and main body
of the aircraft were built at the existing Plant
2. The tail was constructed at the Boeing
facility in Wichita, originally established for
Boeing by the US government during the
war to build the B-29 bomber. The B-47 jet
bomber was also later produced at Wichita.
Much of the 73 7's other components, such
as the building ofthe landing gear and much
of the airliner's interior work, were con-
tracted out to third parties.
[n 1967, Wichita was given responsibil-
ity for the construction of fuselages for all
737s, which were then transported to the
assembly line by train, a practice that con-
tinues to the present day. After the 271st
into production.
placed thei r order,
on 15 April [965.
Lufthansa's Influence
Lufthansa had actually been responsible
for persuading Boeing to stretch the origi-
nal 73 7 design. In particular, Lufthansa's
Chief Executive, Technical Services, Ger-
hard Holtje, pressured Boeing into pro-
ceeding with the design to match the air-
line's needs more closel y. As fi rst offered by
Boeing's designers, the 737 would have
been a 55-60-passenger airliner. Holtje,
however, insisted on an aircraft capable of
carrying up to eighty-two passengers, the
capacity of their Super Constellations,
each with 20kg (44Ib) of baggage, as well as
up to 450kg (990Ib) of cargo and mail over
a 500mi (804km) sector with fuel reserves.
[n the end, even the smaller 737-100 was
to exceed these performance criteria, with
the larger, higher-capacity Series 200, ini-
tially with less range, offering even more
revenue-earning potential.
Lufthansa signed their order for twen-
ty-two Series [OOs on [9 February [965,
three days before Boeing officially an-
nounced the launch of the 737 project
22 23
FIRST STEPS FI RST STEPS
of Lake entral's long-serving DC- 3, had
hegun in 1960 with the arrival of several
ex-United Convair 340,. Thc sturdy, but
increasingly unfashionable, DC-3s had
been in service 'ince the airline's found-
ing, as Turner Airlines, in 1949. In 1965,
the Nords arrived to bring jet-prop service
to Lake entral's less busy routcs, where
the onvair was too large and the remain-
ing D -3s were in de perate need of a
more modern replacement. In common
with many other regional carricrs at the
time, Lake Central started converting
their second-hand Convairs to propeller
industriali:ed region, thc airline was ham-
pered by bei ng obi iged to serve numerous
short inter-city routes in between these
points. Some limited non-stop authority
had been granted between larger citie' on
the network, but it was not enough to turn
red ink into black. Rc-cquipment was a top
priority and the 737s, as well as two 727-
laOs also on order, would have been the
first step in replacing a fleet of Convair
580 and ord 262 turbo-props, of which a
dozen of each were operated.
The airline had placed a lot of faith in
the small, 27-passenger ord. Replacement
After struggling with equipment problems
and a precarious financial position for
many years, Lake Central Airl ines, of Indi-
anapolis, was to vanish before they could
takc delivery of their 737s, after hegin
hought out by Allegheny Airl ines. The
Lakc Central network stretched from east
to west from Chicago to Washington DC
and north to south from Buffalo and
Grand Rapids to Cincinnati in the south.
Although serving a prosperous, largely
US operators of the DC-9 and BAC One-Eleven twin-jets were not directly affected by the AlPA campaign
for a third pilot on the 737. Pictures courtesy of Aviation Hobby Shop
The Loss of the Lake
Central Orders
Lost Custom
rebutting the ATA-AIA arguments, point
by point.
Until the dispute was settled, the possi-
bility of having to operate the 737 undcr
these conditions was to deter a number of
possible U domestic cu'tomers. This
espccially aided Douglas in selling both
their standard and stretched DC-9s to scv-
eral smallcr American regional airlincs.
The disputc rumbled on, with Boeing,
thc airlinc managemcnts, thc FAA and
ALPA, as well as several other bodics, all
making thcir vicws as well known and as
volubly as possible.
In addition to the three-pilot issue dcter-
ring some potential customers, not all the
seventcen carriers representcd at thc
christening ceremony were to take dcliv-
ery of their ordercd aircraft.
orthern Consolidatcd and Wi en Alas-
ka Airlincs combined their operations in
February 1968 and the 73 7 were deli\'ered
to the resulting new carrier, Wien Consol-
idated Airlines. Mexicana later cancelled
their order, leaving Lufthansa and Avian-
ca as the only initial customers for the
Series 100. However, Malaysia-Singapore
Airline' did eventually order five Series
100s, followed later by a further order for
Series 200s.
The negotiations had failed to solve the
issue by April 1967 and a mcdiation board
was appointed in an attcmpt to find a com-
promise betwecn ALPA and United. How-
ever, the board was recessed on 25 July with
no agreement reachcd. ALPA took a strike
vote at nited and 92 per cent of their pilots
were shown to favour striking if the 737 was
not operated by the three-pilot crew.
During the Summcr, ALPA proposed
to FAA's Westcrn Rcgion and the FAA
Administrator that thrce-man crews
The FAA. hy estahl"h111g a reqlllre111ent for a
three-man cre\\' for ,urlllle Jet transl'{)rt llpcra-
tlUlb, coukl en"oUfe that no carrier would h a n . ~
L'C0!101llIL II1Cl'l1tl\"L' to pronde '\cn'icc with les...
than the highest p"",hk degree ,,( ",(ety 111 the
puhlic l11tere,r.
operatc on the Boeing 737 and the One-
Elevcn and DC-9. According to ALPA:
Following instructions from its member-
ship, ALPA later dropped the request for
three-pilot crews on thc One-Elevcn and
DC-9. onetheless, thc union stated that
if the Boeing 737 was to be legally required
to operate with three crew, ALPA would
reopen the issue on the other two types as
well. However, in eptember 1967, The
Air Transport As ociation of America and
the Aerospace Industries Association filed
a report with the FAA, supporting the
two-crew position. ALPA rcsponded by
Two or Three on the 7377
A bitter dispute between the pilots' union. AlPA. and Western Air lines' management centred around who
should occupy the lockheed Electra's third flight-deck seat. pilot or flight engineer. AViation Hobby Shop
the strikers, a new contract was signed and
once again the third pilot issuc was
deferred.
ALPA and FAA representativcs wcrc
shown a mock-up of the 737 flight deck
design in the autumn of 1965. Although
the FAA was unable to make any dctcrmi-
nation as to likely certification based on
thc mock-up, which was very basic with
no working (c,lturcs, Unitcd's pilots wcrc
quick to make it known that they disap-
proved of the two-crew conccpt bascd on
this mock-up. Twelve months later, an
animatcd mock-up was uscd to tcst crcw
workloads on thc aircraft, Once again, thc
United pilots' group concluded that a
three-pilot crew would be required.
O\'ember 1966 saw the meeting of
ALPA's directors adopting a rcsolution
requiring three pilots on Bocing 737s at
all times. A month earlier, annual con-
tract negotiations had opened with Unit-
ed and the question of crcwing on the 737
soon bccame a major issue. Howevcr, at
the same time, the FAA notified Boeing
in writing that it tentatively acceptcd
that the 737 could be operated with only
two pilots, barring any changcs or ncw
information that may result from the
flight tcst programme.
24 25
The airline pioneered a number of highly
original passenger handling methods, such
as integral airstairs on their DC- 3s, keeping
an engine running on tight turnarounds and
employing travelling in-flight pursers to
issue tickets. Although it worked, the new
system was not further exploited by South-
west. More conventional handling methods
Pacific's Problems
Yet another of the numerous post-Second
World War local service carriers, established
to take advantage of the increased interest
in air transport, Pacific Air Lines was
originally known as Southwest Airways.
quite neatly and the merger was the first
step in a substantial period of growth for
the airline. Through later merger acquisi-
tions and a vigorous pol icy of route expan-
sion, Allegheny grew from a purely local
service carrier into one of the largest air-
line operators in the USA. But, at the time
of the Lake Central takeover, the Boeing
727 and 737 formed no part of the airline's
plans and the orders were cancelled.
great surprise when merger negotiations
began between the two companies. These
culminated in a vote to merge by both air-
lines' stockholders on 14 March 1967,
with Lake Central's absorption into
Allegheny taking effect on I July.
The Lake Central network dove-tailed
into Allegheny's more easterly system
FIRST STEPS
done Lake Central any favours and the
tragic loss of the three crew and all thirty-
seven passengers on one of the Convairs a
month later, caused by a propeller shaft
failure, saw more passengers avoiding trav-
elling with the airline.
A new management team took over and
began promoting the carrier as the 'Airl inc
with a Heart', painting large white hearts
on a bright red ta iI. Th is was aIso deri ved
from Lake Central's earlier advertising
claim to be 'Serving the Heart of the
ation'. New route extensions saw the
carrier reaching St Louis in the west and
Louisville in the south, with Convair 580
flights from Indianapolis. But it was too
late to save the airline. Many of the new
management team had originally come
from Allegheny Airlines and it came as no
not return to service until February 1967
when problems with water methanol and
mineral CorroSiOl, that had caused the tur-
hine failures, had been sorted out. At this
time, negotiations began with Boeing to
acquire a small 737 fleet, intended for ser-
\'ice hetween the larger cities on the net-
work. However, the bad publicity had not
H4040S
Pacific Air lines' choice of DC-3 replacement was a mixed fleet of Martin 202s and 404s. N40408 previously
served with TWA. Via author
turbine power, with Allison 501 prop-jets
replacing their original piston engines.
Unfortunately, serious engine problems
led to grounding of the Nord fleet in
August 1966. Ithough not leading to the
loss of any of the aircraft, on no less than
four occasions turbine wheels had failed in
the French-built aircraft's Turbomeca Bas-
tan engines. In one incident, on 7 July
1966, an engine actually exploded in
fl ight. The crew managed to regain control
and land safely, but passengers had been
badly injured when parts from the disinte-
grating engine had punctured the cabin.
Following another engine failure a
month later, the Nords were grounded and
the old DC-3s taken out of storage, where
they had been awaiting sale, and swiftly
placed back into service. The Nords did
lake Central Airlines had relied on their
faithful DC-3s (above) for many years
before introducing larger Convair CV-
340s (left) that were later re-engined as
CV-580s with turbo-prop power plants.
Pictures via author
(Below) The French-built Nord 262 was
a great disappointment to lake Central,
although the modified aircraft went on
to serve Allegheny and its associates for
many years after the merger. MAP
FI RST STEPS
26 27
were utilized when larger aircraft, in the
shape of Martin 202s and 404s, replaced the
DC-3s. Ironically, it was left to one of the
larger major US carriers to refine South-
west's novel ticketing methods into the
highly successful Eastern Air Lines 'Shuttle'
between East Coast cities.
Expansion had led to the company
name being changed to Pacific Air Lines
in March 1958. Despite operating a mod-
ern fleet of Boeing 727 jets and Fairchild
F-27 jet-props that had replaced the Mar-
tin 202s and 404s, by the mid-1960s,
Pacific Air Lines was beginning to suffer
from severe local competition from both
low-cost and mainline carriers in its Cali-
forn ia-based network. AIthough it operat-
ed between several important West Coast
cities and boasted an extensive network
that stretched from southern California to
Oregon and across the evada border to
Las Vegas, Pacific Air Lines was held back
by unprofitable local service routes. Most
of these were left over from Southwest's
original network, designed to feed traffic
from suburban Californian points into
San Francisco and Los Angeles area air-
ports. Legally obliged by its route licences
to serve the uneconomic smaller commu-
nities that it would dearly have liked to
have dropped from its network, Pacific
relied heavily on revenue from service
between the larger cities such as Los
Angeles, Sacramento and its home base at
San Francisco.
FIRST STEPS
The 100-passenger Boeing 727-100s had
entered Pacific service on 20 July 1966. A
giant leap from the 48-passenger Fairchilds,
the new jets were necessary to compete
against the major operators in the region
such as United and Western. As well as
already operating 727s of their own, United
were also utilizing their larger four-jet, medi-
um-range Douglas DC-8s and Boeing 720s
in the area. Western also flew later model
Boeing 720Bs throughout the region.
Pacific's attempts to compete by plac-
ing the 727s into service on non-stop
flights between the few major cities on
their network were hampered further by
increasing competi tion from local low fare
rival, Pacific Southwest Airlines. Effec-
tively suffering competition from both
mainline and low-fare sectors of industry,
costing it large amounts of revenue, Pacif-
ic was finding its situation increasingly
untenable A fleet of 73 7-sized airliners
was seen as being necessary to compete
more economically.
onetheless, events overtook Pacific
Air Lines' fleet planning and, in April
1968, the airline was to merge with simi-
larly disadvantaged West Coast Airlines
and Bonanza Airlines to form Air West.
The hope was that the combined opera-
tion, with a new network extending fur-
ther into the Pacific northwest and east as
far as Arizona and Utah, would form the
basis of a commercially much stronger
carrier.
Air West favoured the DC-9 as their
preferred smaller, short-haul, jet. Both
Bonanza and West Coast had operating
the type since 1966, and Pacific Air Lines'
737 orders were cancelled. Pacific's 727s
continued in Air West service for a while,
and larger 727-200s were later operated
before the company lost its identity in yet
another merger, in June 1979.
Airborne!
After the January roll-oLit and christening
ceremonies, the development Boeing air-
craft, registered N73700, was prepared for its
first flight and the ensuing flight test and cer-
tification programme. Taxi tests took place
on 8 April 1967, a year after the order book
for the aircraft reached the 100 mark. In the
year, sales had increased to 141 aircraft.
The next day, at 13.15, local time,
N 73 700 took to air for the first time. It was
commanded by Brien Wygle, Boeing's
assistant director of fl ight operations, with
S.L. 'Lew' Wallick Jm, the company's
senior experimental test pilot, as co-pilot.
The first flight lasted two and a half hours.
Although it departed from Boeing field,
N73700 was to make its first landing at
Paine Field, Everett, also in Washington
State. This airport had been designated as
the base for the first ten flying hours, for
preliminary assessment of the 737's han-
dling characteristics and aircraft systems.
FIRST STEPS
The Boeing 737 prototype, N73700. took to the air for the first time. from Boeing Field on 17 April 1967.
Boeing
Pacific's Boeing 727s were taken over in the Air West merger, but were later disposed of in favour of more
DC-9s. Aviation Hobby Shop
28
On finally landing at Paine Field, Wygle
reported: 'I hate to quit. The airplane is a
deligh t to fly.'
Clocking up the Hours
With the programme already well behind
schedule, the company needed to get the
test and certification work underway as
soon as possible. In its first month,
73 700 managed to achieve a total flying
time of 47 hours, 37 minutes. This was 30
per cent more than the 727 prototype had
put in over the same period, and over three
times that of the Dash 80, prototype of the
707, Boeing's first jet transport, over ten
years earl ieI'.
The first of United's Series 200s flew
on 8 August 1967 and was one of the five
early production aircraft that joined the
test and certification programme as soon
as they could be released from the
production line. Together with 73700,
they accomplished more than 1,300
hours of flight testing that included,
for the first time in a certification pro-
gramme, approaches under CAT II bad
weather conditions. Ship number 3 sacri-
ficed most for the project. Never intend-
ed to fly, the aircraft was subjected to
vibration tests, stretched and overloaded
to destruction to prove the strength of the
design, and show that Boeing's engineers
had got their sums right.
The FAA Two-Crew Decision
During the 1967 Thanksgiving holiday
week, the FAA undertook a series of
fl ights wi th the 737 in the busy Boston-
29
Washington corridor, using a two-pilot
crew. One pilot was from the FAA, the
other from Boeing.
Two round-trips were made on each of
six days that week. Forty hours of flight
time were amassed, including day and
night flights. Both IFR and VFR weather
conditions, below minimum landing con-
ditions and diversions to alternative air-
ports, were examined. In addition, simu-
lated instrument failures and crew
incapacitation were included.
Primarily as a result of the Thanksgiv-
ing week flying, the FAA issued a state-
ment in December 1967 regarding the
two-crew issue.
The far-reaching evaluation of the Bocing 737
was starred in Septcmber 1965, with the evalu-
ation of the cockpit mock-up. Continuous eval-
uations over the p a ~ l two year:, included regular
FIRST STEPS FIRST STEPS
months later the resulting aerodynamic
modifications were introduced onto pro-
duction aircraft, and upgrade kits were
made available for adding retroactively to
aircraft already in service.
As the first production aircraft were
delivered, the prototype, 73700, switched
its attention to developing modifications
to allow the 73 7 to operate from unpaved
runways. Changes included new high-lift
replace conventional doors over the main
landing gear, were tested on the prototype
and soon discarded.
A more serious problem that was brought
to light by the flight test programme was the
increased drag, particularly during the
cruise, over the predicted amount. In fact,
drag was over 5 per cent more, resulting
in loss in speed of 30kt. Fortunately, more
lift than predicted and the availability of
more powerful, flat-rated ]T8D-9 engines,
allowed an increase in operating weights.
This permitted the basic mission guarantees
to he met. For the long term, an intensive
wind-tunnel testing programme was em-
barked upon to cure the problem. Ten
were made as a direct result of the data
gathered. In particular, the 737 was origi-
nally fitted with 'clam-shell'-style thrust
reversers, as previously used on the 727.
These proved to be ineffective on the 737
configuration and a new deflector was
designed and tested on the 737 prototype.
It was retrofitted on early production air-
craft and later became standard equipment.
Also, inflatable seals, originally designed to
Certification Awarded
In December 1967, both the series 100 and
200 Boeing 737 received simultaneous
certification for airline operations. The
early production aircraft that had partici-
pated in the test programme were finally
handed over to their new owners for the
first airline crews to be trained and con-
verted to the aircraft. Once the first crews,
and other operational and maintenance
personnel, were trained, they returned to
train their own colleagues and prepare for
full-scale commercial operations.
The value of the test programme was
apparent by the number of changes that
operations of [he aircraft in " high-density air
traffic environment to determine workload ,
cOl11plexi[y, and safety of opermions in a fail-
:-,afe concept. were part of (-l vcry
extensive programme accom-
plished by [he FAA and Boeing personnel. The
[echnical Findings cOl11ing oU[ of [hese evalua-
[ions are [hm [he aircraft can be safely flown
with (l minimum of two pilots.
N73700 visited remote rough airfields to demonstrate its versatility and rugged nature. Via author
Western found themselves obliged by their
agreements with ALPA to operate the
aircraft with three crew members on the
flight deck. However, they were the only
carriers to be so encumbered, other US
operators and foreign carriers were under no
obligation to consider adding the extra
crew member. Most of the operated the air-
craft with a two-pilot crew, as originally
designed from the beginning.
Even once the issue had been settled as far
as the federal regulators were concerned, a
number of American Pilots' organizations
insisted on three flight-deck crew for the
737 as part of bargaining negotiations with
the airline employers. Both United and
EA
-
(Abovel Lufthansa's first 737-100, D-ABEA, participated in the new type's certification
programme before being handed over to the airline for initial crew training. Lufthansa
(Top) The first of the slightly larger 737-200s joined the flight test
programme on 8 August 1967, wearing full United colours. Boeing
30
31
The 737's New Home FIRST STEPS
as services to Mexico anJ to husier, com-
mercially important California-Pacific
orthwest regional flights.
However, cities served between the ter-
minal points were usually only ahout an
hour's flying time, or even less, apart. These
routes were earmarked for jet service by
Western's new 737s. A large fleet of Lock-
heeJ Elecrra turho-props and a handful of
surviving piston-engincd DC-6Bs were
operated on these US West Coast, we tern
regional and multi-stop California- outh-
wcst-Minncsota-Canada routes. A mall
number of piston-powereJ Lockheed Con-
stellations and early model, non-fan
engined, Boeing 71 jets, operating an
Alaskan network, were also to be inherited
DC-9. Initial models of both aircraft had
finally been dismisseJ as too small. The
only larger version of the DC-9 then avail-
able, the series 30, was also thought not to
be big enough and the five-abreast passen-
ger seating was seen as inferior to the 737's
six-abreast layout.
Western, that claimed to be the United
States' oldest surviving carrier, was then
operating a network that, although cover-
ing much of the western half of the USA,
mostly comprised short inter-city service.
A fleet of Boeing nOB jets already operat-
ed on longer non-stop routes, linking the
more distant parts of Western's system,
such as Los Angeles-Minneapolis, as well
Western's Short-Haul Plans
Although from one of Boeing's more arche-
typal 737 customers, the Western Air
Lines' order had been an important boost
for Boeing' corporate ego, and not only as
it was for a si:eable number of aircraft.
Western had seriously considered the 737's
main rivals, the SAC One-Eleven and the
Canada, served by only basic airport facili-
ties and unpaved runways. The Boeing 73 7's
ability to provide jet airliner service to
remote areas with dispersed populations was
set to become one of its major selling points.
Just as Western was poised to take delivery of the then ultra-modern 737, it became
the proud owner of a fleet of vintage ex-Pacific Northern Airlines piston-powered
Lockheed Constellations, following its purchase ofthe latter airline. MAP
33
The first 737-200 was also used for numerous test programmes. Seen here on water ingestion tests,
examining the characteristics of the 737's then unique engine installation. Via author
devices and braking improvements and
low-pressure tyres, as well as new deflec-
tors fitteJ to protect the lower fuselage and
engine intakes from scuffed-up stones and
debris on rough runways. FAA certifica-
tion for gravel runway operations was
forthcoming in February 1969. In April
and may, 73700 demonstrated its new
rough-field capabilities to airline and gov-
ernment agency representatives.
Particularly interested in these modifica-
tions were operator such as Wien Consoli-
Jated, ordair and Pacific Western. These
carriers were already planning to fly their
737s into smaller, isolated communities on
their networks in Alaska and northern
(Below) The Boeing Model 367-BO, the precursor of the
KC135 and Boeing 707 models, first flew from Renton in
1954, Boeing
Renton production lines instead. However, Boeing ceased production at the end of hos-
tilities and only utilized asmall part of the once busy facility for storage.
The immediate postwar period saw little activity at Renton, although the War Assets
Administration turned the deeds over to the City of Renton and it became Renton
Municipal Airport. However, in 1949 Boeinveopened the factory to build the C-97A
Stratofreighter, the military tanker/transport version of the StratocrUiser airliner.
The 875 Stratofreighters built at Renton were followed, in 1954, by the single Model
367-80, forever afterwards known as the 'Dash 80'. The Dash 80 was atotally private
venture project by Boeing to develop a tanker aircraft to refuel the B-47 and B-52 jet
bombers in flight. As well as being ordered in large numbers by the US military, as the
KC-135A. the design was further adapted as the Boeing 707, American's first jet airlin-
er. The phenomenal success of the 707 led to agreat deal of expansion at Renton and
production of the 727 tri-jet began on the site in 1963.
(Above) The Boeing facility at
Renton, known locally as 'Jet
City'. Boeing
32
Boeing's decIsion to move 737 fmal assembly to its Renton facility came
at a time of increasing hardship for the company. Commercial aircraft
sales had dipped severely, resulting in massive lay-offs in 1969. Pro-
duction delays and the three-pilot controversy had slowed down sales
of the 737 since the initial spurt of interest The 707 was nearing the end
of its production life, with the 747 wide-bodied airliner project barely
underway and suffering its own teething and delayed production prob-
lems, particularly affected by late engine deliveries. The 727 production
figures that had experienced steady growth, dipped sharply in response
to worldWide financial problems and overcapacity within the airlines. As
part of its cost-cutting measures, Boeing decided to consolidate the
707n27 and 737 production lines at Renton, the first Renton-assembled
737, a Senes 200 for Indian Airlines, being flown in December 1970.
The company's association With the site dated back to ItS earliest days,
with aBoeing B-1 flying boat havmg been based at amakeshift seaplane
facility on the shore of Lake Washington in 1922. The flYing boat was
operated by Edward Hubbard (who also flew part-time as atest-pilot for
Boeingl, as amail service to Victoria, over the Canadian border in British
Columbia. Anew, unpaved, landing stnp was built on the same site, at
Bryn Mawr, later that year. Hubbard sold his mail flight operation in
1928, on his becoming avice-president of Boeing Air Transport.
In October 1928, the airfield was renamed Renton Airport. Over the next few years,
although overshadowed by the development of Seattle's Boeing Field as the northwest's
main aerial gateway for commercial airline operations, Bryn Mawr remained in use as a
busy general aviation field, serving the city of Renton.
World war was responsible for Renton's sudden transformation from backwater air-
field to major aircraft assembly plant July 1941 saw the US Navy and Boeing announc-
ing the immediate erection of a new aircraft construction plant on the shores of Lake
Washington, on aplot of land to the east of Renton Airport Originally, it was intended
that Boeing would build large flying boat patrol bombers on the 1.6 million sq ft site.
Opened in April 1942, the plant had an immediate effect on the local economy, with
Renton's population rising from 4,000 to 16,000 during the war years. Although few fly-
ing boats were finally built at Renton, 1,119 Boeing B-29 heavy bombers rolled off four
FIRST STEPS Ship One
N73700 was initially placed in storage at the end of its 737 development work, before being rescued by NASA. Boeing
A New life
Re-registered N515NA, the aircraft was delivered to Langley on 17 May 1974, after
considerable work was completed for NASA by Boeing. The most striking modification
was the addition of a second cockpit in the forward cabin. This cockpit could be
equipped with experimental layouts and could be used to control the aircraft, with the
conventional cockpit still manned and capable of taking over at any time.
For over twenty years, N515NA participated in the development of many advanced
technologies. The 'glass cockpit' flight display, microwave landing systems, GPS per-
formance evaluation, windshear sensor and wake-turbulence testing were only a few
of over twenty aerial research projects assigned to the aircraft over the years.
Following its replacement at Langley by aBoeing 757, retirement finally came on 19
September 1997, with all due ceremony. That evening it was flown back to its birth-
place at Boeing Field, to its new owners at the Museum of Flight. Initially stored at
Moses Lake, Washington and still with a modest 3,000 hours flying time, the aircraft
will eventually join aBoeing 247, 727, the prototype 747 and aDe Havilland Comet 4C
in the museum's new airliner extension at Boeing Field.
configured aircraft, the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program eventually selected the
redundant N73700 as an ideal airborne test-bed.
Once the initial certification and test flights were completed, the first 737, development
aircraft N73700, was effectively redundant. Apart from the rough-field operations
research that continued into early 1969, work assignments for the pioneering aircraft
were rapidly declining. Later production-model aircraft tended to undertake any devel-
opment research, any modifications being able to be made during that particular air-
craft's manufacture. As such, several 737s took on N73700's Boeing livery, with similar
generic test registrations. However, the actual prototype was parked up, engineless, at
Renton, having completed 978 hours of test flying.
Having been much modified during the test programme, conversion for resale and cer-
tification for commercial operation of N73700 was out of the question. It would have
required an expensive rebuild, even assuming acustomer for asingle Series 100 could
be found.
After four years in storage, N73700 finally found asaviour in the shape of the Nation-
al Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA had originally been formed to promote
and organize the US space programme, in response to Russian success in the 'Space
Race'. As space-oriented work declined, NASA became more involved in research into
fixed-wing aircraft operations and technology. Much of this involved work on civilian
projects and an aircraft was needed for anew project at NASA's Langley Research Cen-
ter in Virginia. Established to investigate advanced technology for conventionally
Both Wien and Northern Consolidated made good
use of the DC-3 on their Alaskan services for many
years. Via aUlhor
conditions on routes into operationally
difficult airports, many at high altitude
with basic facilities and restrictcd run-
ways. The Avianca aircraft were intended
for the busier dome tic and regional route
network, ba ed on the Columbian capi-
tal, Bogota. Even Bogota's own airport
was at 8,355ft (2,547m) above ea-Ievcl,
with notoriously difficult, mountainous
approaches.
By the mid-1960s Avianca was operat-
ing it longer-ranging services to the U A,
the Caribbean and Europe using Boeing
720B. ew Boeing 727 jets also flew major
regional and domestic fl ights, alongside
Lockheed Constellations, dcposed from
international routes by the 720Bs. A large
fleet of piston-engined, Douglas D -3s and
D -4s operated on the domestic nctwork.
Many of these were fitted with uprated
engines, and even rockets, to assist takc-
offs from hort runways at high elevations.
The addition of the 737 to the Avianca
fleet would allow the retirement of more of
thc agcing piston aircraft and see the intro-
duction of jet ervice to more regional cities.
Thc type' promised high pel{ormance from
smallcr airfields was especially attractive to
Avianca, and others, operating routes into
airports locatcd among difficult tcrrain.
Any disappointment within Boeing over
the initially slow dome ticsale of the 737
were offset by growing interest from export
customers. Avianca's choice of the higher
pcrformance Series I 0 was dictated by
Foreign Interest
the geographically challenging Alaskan
terrain. Wi en also flew a handful of larger
aircraft, such as DC-3s, -46s, a Fairchild
Packet, as well as ingle examples of the
much larger DC-4 and a Lockheed L-749
Constellation on busier service. Both air-
lines had also been carly operators of the
Fairchild F-27B turbo-prop. Their F-27Bs
had large forward cargo doors and were
convertible to a variety of passenger/cargo
configurations. This flexibility was impor-
tant for the rugged, cver-changing, Alas-
kan commercial air transport scene.
The merger of the two carriers was
approved by the Civil Aeronautics Board
in February 1968. This crcated a much
stronger carrier, better able to compete
with an increasingly strong Alaska ir-
lines and the powerful new entrant into
Alaska, Western Air Lines, following the
latter's take-over of Pacific Northern. The
Wien Consolidated Airlines' 737s, espe-
cially those fitted with cargo doors and
convertible cabins, were to provide new
jct service to morc rcmotc arctic points, as
well as linking the major laskan cities.
Northern Frontier Customers
AIthough the one-plane orders of North-
ern onsolidatcd and Wi en laska Air-
lines were destined to become a 'fleet' fol-
lowing the merger of the two carriers, it
was still a small order by Boeing standards.
However, for the airlines concerned it was
a major leap forward in equipment policy.
Fairbanks-based Wi en wa the senior
airline of the two, tracing its origins back
to pioneer 'bush' carriers in Alaska operat-
ing as early as 1924. Northern Consolidat-
ed Airlines had begun operations in 1945,
from Anchorage. Both had benefited from
a postwar boom in the Alaskan economy,
as well as a redistribution of a number of
local trunk routes previously operatcd by
Alaska irlines and Pan American'
Alaskan subsidiary.
Routes were served by a variety of small
typcs, such as Cessna and Pilatus single-
and twin-engined aircraft, well suitcd to
when Wcstcrn took over Pacific Northern
Airline in 1967.
The much publicized 'commonality'
with other Boeing type also worked heav-
ily in favour of Western ordcring the 73 7,
with ome part, such as tyres, being inter-
changeable with the Boeing 720B fleer.
Larger Boeing 727-200s were al 0 ordered
by Western to supplement the 737s and,
eventually, rcplace thc 72 Bs.
34 35
from S regional carriers were sympto-
matic of the interest in the rapidly expand-
ing sector of the U airline industry, pro-
viding profitable jet service on local
routes. Two other regional US carriers rep-
resented at the 'christening' that were to
take delivery of their ordered aircraft,
Pacific outhwest Airlines and Piedmont
Airlines, operated very different networks,
s('rving very different customer bases.
onetheless, both were anxious to take
advantage of the 737's promised flexibility
on their regional routes.
CHAPTER THREE
Despite the Lake entral and Pacific Air
Lines orders being cancelled after the car-
riers vanished in mergers, other order
US Regional Interest
for which it had originally been conceived.
Although a number of such customers were
placing orders, the 73 7 was increasingly
being seen as a candidate for charter ser-
vice, regional international routes and even
some longer-range operations.
New CustoDlers, New Applications
New Markets
The neat, two-pilot, flight-deck of the initial Boeing
737-100. Lufthansa
When the orders from various pontificating
carriers did start to come in for the 737, it
was not always from operators interested in
utilizing the aircraft in the purely short-
haul, inter-city, scheduled airline climate
arrangement for the single Comet had been
terminated when five second-hand omet
4s were purchased from BOAC, the first
having been delivered in late 1965. The
new fleet enabled jet services to be extend-
ed to Manila, Taipei, Perth and Phnom
Penh. Longer-ranging ambitions saw a pair
of Boeing 707s being ordered for new routes
to Europe, and the 737s were ordered to
eventually replace the Comet on the
regional jet flights.
(Belowl The first 737-100s displayed lufthansa·s then current tail livery, soon
replaced by a new design before delivery. Boeing
FI RST STEPS
supplemented a fleet of DC-3s, a DCA, Vis-
count 700s and a new fleet of Fokker F-27
Friendships. The omet flew regional trunk
cheduled services from Singapore to Hong
Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta and Bangkok.
A change of name to Malaysian Airways
followed the 1963 formation of the Federa-
tion of Malaysia. The next change, to
Malaysia- ingapore Airlines in 1967, oc-
curred after Singapore had seceded from the
Federation in 1965. By then the leasing
Eastern Market Entry
(Above) Ex-BOAC De Havilland Comet 4s were the first jet equipment for the
Singapore-based carrier. Aviation Hobby Shop
The choice of the 737 by Malaysia- inga-
pore irlines, the type's first Far Eastem cu -
tomer, had less to do with operations into dif-
ficult airports, although the high take-off
pelformance would certainly prove useful
under some tropical conditions. M A,
which began operations as Malayan Airways
in 1947, opened jet services in December
1962, with a leased BOAC Comet 4. This
36
37
Southern Regional Pioneer
Piedmont Airlines had followed a tradition-
al evolution in US local air service. Formed
in 1940 as a charter and general aviation
company in orth Carolina, Piedmont
moved into scheduled services in 1948. As
the new carrier expanded during the 1950s,
a large fleet of DC-3s was built up linking
numerous southern towns with larger citie ,
roughly bordered between Washington,
Charleston, Atlanta and Louisville.
404
NEW CUSTOMERS. EW APPLICATIONS
The airline had been a pioneer among
the local service carriers in operating
turbo-props, Fairchild F-27s, a version of
the Dutch-designed Fokker E27 Friendship
built under licence in the SA, from 14
November 1958. However, Piedmont was
not to totally abandon piston-engined
operations, placi ng the fi rst of a large fleet
of second-hand Martin 404s in service in
1962. Larger Fairchild FH-ZZ7s began
replacing the earlier F-27s from early 1967.
A surprise order, for ten japanese-produced
ihon Y -II A, 60-passenger, turbo-prop
airliners was placed later that year.
Turbo-Prop to Jet
Expansion of Piedmont's network, with a
number of non-stop route authorities
being granted, led to the airline actively
looking for jet equipment. The acquisition
of jets by regional carriers was initially
resisted by the Civil Aeronautics Board,
which was re pon ible for allocating mail
subsidy payments, a vital lifeline for most
of the local service carriers. However, their
awarding of routes encroaching on the
major trunk airlines left the CAB with lit-
tle choice but to approve the upgrading of
equipment in order for the smaller carriers
to be able to compete with the 'majors' on
their new routes.
Intervention by the CAB had led to the
cancellation of a number of early orders for
the British BAC One-Eleven from U car-
riers. However, such action was resisted by
Mohawk Airlines, who per isted in their
wish to acquire a jet fleet for their local
routes. Mohawk eventually convinced the
CAB that they would not require any extra
subsidy to operate the jets. Within four
years, everyone of the local service carri-
ers, as designated by the CAB, had ordered
jets. For the most part, their orders were for
the Douglas twin-jet, the DC-9, but the
larger 73 7 was also attracting ome interest.
Piedmont's Jet Debut
Piedmont actually began jet operations on
15 March 1967, when a Boeing 727-100
was leased from the manufacturer. As well
as providing a competitive edge on new
direct flight to New York and Washington,
the use of this aircraft wa to provide Pied-
mont with valuable jet experience before
taking delivery of the 737s. A second leased
727-10 arrived in April. However, tragedy
struck on 19 july when the original aircraft
NEW C STOMERS, NEW APPLICATIONS
was involved in a mid-air collision. Climb-
ing out of Asheville/Hendersonville, dur-
ing an Atlanta-Asheville/Hendersonville-
Roanoke- ew York/La Guardia service,
the aircraft collided with a Cessna 310 light
twin aircraft that was approaching the same
airport. The seventy-nine occupants of the
727, and the three in the essna, all per-
ished in the en uing crashes. Piedmont Air-
line's initial 737 order was for six series
200s, earmarked for longer routes between
larger cities on the network.
California's Jet Commuter
Like Piedmont Airl ines, Pacific Southwest
Airlines had already be n a jet operator
before ordering the 737. Their Boeing 727
fleet had entered service in 1965 and a
fleet of the larger 727-200 were also on
order to replace their initial erie 100s.
The 73 7s were on order as more economic
supplements to the 727s on services with
lower average loads, in addition to replac-
ing the last of a fleet of Lockheed Electra
turbo-props.
PSA was seen by the trunk carriers as a
'maverick' carrier and its continued sur-
vival was a major headache for United and
Western ir Lines, encroaching as it did
on their traditional West Coast operations.
Initially operating as a flying school at an
Diego, in southern California, founded by
Kenneth Friedkin in 1945, P A inaugurat-
ed a scheduled service from an Diego to
San Francisco on 6 May 1949.
A single DC-3 was operated and Pacific
Southwe t's early passengers were checked
in through the lobby of the old flying
school, using a set of bathroom scales to
weigh baggage. Despite the primitive style
of the early operations, 15,000 passengers
were carried on the route in the first year.
o doubt this was mostly due to the low
P A fare of 10, instead of the regular 25
charged by nited and Western. PSA was
able to undercut the other carriers as its
cheduled services were wholly conducted
within the borders of the state of Califor-
nia, and therefore the federal CAB had no
jurisdiction over the company. s long as
PSA satisfied the California Public Utili-
ties Commission as to its fitness to survive,
it could set its own fares with no out ide
influence other than market forces.
CCA's Failure
Although concerned at the loss of their
traffic, the incumbent carriers fully expect-
ed PSA to be a passing phenomenon.
nother low-fare carrier, California Central
Airlines, was also operating under Califor-
nia PUC authority at the time. CA also
began operations with DC-3s, in january
1949, with scheduled flights from an Fran-
cisco (Oakland) to Los Angeles (Burbank).
Larger DC-4s, Martin 202s and a single
Lockheed Constellation were acquired to
cope with the demand for seats sold at
9.99, one way. However, alifornia Cen-
tral hael made the mistake of expanding far
(Above) The piston-powered Martin 404 was introduced into Piedmont Airlines'
service after the carrier had already acquired turbo-prop F-27s. Aviation Hobby Shop
(Be/owl The Japanese-designed NAMC YS-llA turbo-prop also
served on Piedmont's regional and local services. Via author
38
California Central's colourful fleet of Martin 202s failed to make money. despite attracting high passenger
loads on their low-fare services. MAP
39
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS
(Above) The use of new lockheed l-188 Electras made PSA's major airline
rivals start to take the San Diego-based airline seriously. Aviation Hobby Shop
Braathens' Shipping Origins
• ... u
. .
Beginning with a handful of enterprising
operators in the late 1940s and early
1950s, the inclusive-tour industry had
mushroomed, until by the mid-1960s it
started to rival scheduled services for the
carriage of the majority of air travellers
within Europe. The road had not been an
easy one, with many early operators run-
ning foul of regulatory authorities, or suc-
cumbing to commercial pressures.
A subsidiary of a long-established shipping
concern, Braathens had begun operations
as a long-haul scheduled operator, flying
services from Norway to the Far East and
South America. Norway's involvement
in the formation of SAS (Scandinavian
Airlines System), the joining together of
the Danish Airline DOL, the Swedish car-
rier ABA and orway's DNL, meant that
the orwegian authorities were unable to
renew Braathen's authority for internation-
al scheduled services when it came up for
renewal in 1954. The agreement between
the three Scandinavian countries meant
that SAS was to be given the monopoly on
such routes.
Braathens survived as a scheduled domes-
tic carrier within Norway and continued to
A new market that was to become very
important to Boeing in the following years
was the rapidly growing number of charter
airlines, especially in Europe. The indepen-
dent Norwegian airline, Braathens, had
ordered the 737 for its scheduled domestic
network, but also operated an extensive pro-
gramme of charter flights. The bold place-
ment of an order by all-charter operator Bri-
tannia Airways, based at Luton in the
United Kingdom, for brand new 737s sent a
message to their commercial rivals to mod-
ernize as well or soon risk losing business.
The postwar explosive growth of com-
mercial charter flights, especially in the
European inclusive-tour holiday market,
had been an extraordinary phenomenon.
Charter Airline's Choice
competed. When, in 1965, it opened ser-
vices from San Jose to Los Angeles, it
practically wiped out the long-standing
operator on the route, Pacific Air Lines,
overnight. PSA was able to charge $12,
while CAB-controlled Pacific was legally
obliged to charge $24. The adverse eco-
nomic effect of PSA on Pacific's opera-
tion was one of the main factors in Pacif-
ic Air Lines' eventual dire need to merge
into Air West.
The Douglas DC-6Bs served Braathens on worldwide charters as well as seeing service on the busier
routes on its Norwegian domestic network. MAp
l
A New Fleet
PSA made a very bold move in 1957, with
the announcement of an order for three new
Lockheed Electra turbo-props. Friedkin had
actually announced his intention to order
two French Sud Aviation Caravel Ie jets for
PSA earlier that year, but the deal was never
finalized. Instead, the 98-passenger Elecn'as
were acquired, entering service in Decem-
ber 1959 and quickly replacing the DC-4s.
With the arrival of the Electras, United
and Western finally began to take PSA
much more seriously and introduced low-
fare jet services to compete. However, by
now PSA was firmly established as a popu-
lar alternative to the trunk carriers and
managed to fight off the big guns. Three
additional Electras began arriving from
1961 as frequencies and loads built up
throughout PSA's exclusively Californian
network. Even with the arrival of the first
727s in 1965, the Electras continued to pro-
vide valuable, economical service to PSA.
As well as the trunk carriers, PSA's
operations also had a major effect on
local service carriers on whose routes it
establishments up and down the California
coast. As a result, PSA soon gained the
nickname of 'Poor Sailor's Airline'.
Los Angeles-San Francisco (Oakland)
flight in 1955. The 31-seat DC-3s were
replaced by 70-seat DC-4s, purchased in
ovember 1955. The frequent, low-fare,
services were popular with passengers from
many different walks of Californian life.
They were especially popular with person-
nel on leave from the many US Navy
(Below) Pacific Air line's F-27 turbo-prop services from San Jose were badly
hit by the arrival of PSA jets on local routes from the area. Via author
United and Western sat and waited for
PSA to follow CCA's fate, only introduc-
ing nominal fare reductions and schedule
changes to combat PSA's intrusion into
their 'territory'. However, they were to
be disappointed. Four DC-3s were in ser-
vice with PSA by 1952 and new routes
were only steadily introduced, including a
P S / ~
too quickly and was struggling to cover the
costs of day-to-day operations, let alone
expensive re-equipment costs. CCA record-
ed a deficit of over $1,000,000 in 1953,
notwithstanding the impressive total of
137,000 passengers carried. In February
1954, California Central Airlines went
into voluntary bankruptcy.
40 41
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOMERS. EW APPLICATIONS
The sudden demise of once-busy Overseas Aviation left travel companies like UST with angry and
inconvenienced clients throughout Europe. Via author
43
Euravia's Constellation, G-AHEN, had originally been delivered to BOAC. It had later been California
Central's sole Constellation, wearing California Hawaiian titles. before being sold on to los Angeles Air
Service and EI AI. finally joining Euravia at luton. Jenny Gradidge
The arrival of second-hand Bristol Britannia turbo-props prompted Euravia to change its name to Britannia
Airways. Jenny Gradidge
Britannia Airways. Although the Constel-
lations continued in use until late \965,
they did not take on the new name.
A well as offering a more modern, com-
fortable, quieter ride than the onstella-
tion , the Britannia also enabled Britannia
irways to offer one of the first hot-meal
catering services by a British all-charter car-
rier. Their reliability became legendary in a
ector of the K's airline operations far too
used to operating ageing airliners with dubi-
ous maintenance schedule. As Britannia,
and the other IT operators, switched over
to more modern types, the industry finally
began to gain a reputation for a much high-
er quality of product and attract even more
of the mass travel market.
The Expanding IT Market
Euravia eventually chose to re-equip with
a fleet of ex-BOAC Bristol Britannia 102s,
then in storage at Cambridge Airport.
Configured for 117 passengers, the Britan-
nias entered service with a Luton-Tenerife
charter in December 1964. Their arrival
also saw a change of company name, to
much of it was snapped up by other inclu-
sive-tour companies and Euravia's reputa-
tion within the industry grew apace.
The eight onstellations in use in 1963
were oon averaging 1,300 hour of rev-
enue flying a month. However, the trusty
Lockheed were rapidly reaching the end
of their useful life and Euravia began to
look at their options for a replacement.
42
hangerage at Luton Airport, north of Lon-
don, in early \961. Three second-hand
Lockheed Constellations were acquired and
the first UST clients were carried from Man-
chester to Palma in May \962.
With the financial security of T
behind them, Euravia's management were
able to offer a standard of professional sel-
vice rarely seen in the independent sector
before. After only one summer season,
Euravia bought out another Constellation
operator, Skyways Ltd and, with the addi-
tion of the Skyways fleet and more second-
hand Constellations, the airline had a 160
per cent increase in passenger capacity on
offer for 1963. As well as using the extra
capacity to increase UST's operations,
Euravia Takes to the Skies
Euravia (London) Ltd, as the new airline
was initially named, established offices and
a number of abrupt bankruptcies among
Britains' independent airlines, including
several contracted to U T.
The most significant of the e was the
ce sation of operations by Overseas Avia-
tion, which operated a large fleet of
Canadair Four and Vicker Vikings from
Gatwick. U T was just one of their cus-
tomers left with client stranded all over
Europe. The tour company wa deter-
mined never to be left in that position
again and to take more direct control over
the air transport section of the hoI idays
they sold.
Britain's Holiday Specialists
and jet speeds of the 73 7s on order was to be
welcomed by Braathens in both markets.
It was the order from Britannia Airways
that drew other non- cheduled operators'
attention to the potential of the Boeing
737 as a charter aircraft. till a compara-
tively young airline, Britannia Airways
had started operations in \962, formed as
a subsidiary of Universal ky Tours, one of
the UK' leading inclusive-tour operators.
UST had previously chartered from sever-
al different companies to carry their
cl ients. However, the summer of \96\ saw
fly internationally on charter services
throughout the world. Defiantly continuing
to operate as Braathens outh American
and Far East irtransport AI , which was
conveniently contracted to 'Braathens
.A.F.E.' in the aircraft livery, the airline
enthusiastically entered the IT market as it
grew in Europe.
orwegians enjoy a cheap halid::lY as
much as any other Europeans and soon
Braathens was flying clients for several
Scandinavian tour operators. The charter
network rapidly expand d to reach as far as
southern Europe and Africa. On a daily
basis, Braathens' fleet of Fokker F.27 turbo-
props and piston-engined DC-6Bs were just
as likely to be carrying sunseekers to a
M diterranean island resort, as carrying
Oslo bu inessmen to appointments in cities
near the Arctic Circle. The extra capacity
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS One Rule for One?
BEA used much of their fleet's spare capacity on 'night tourist' schedules, improving utilization for their
Comet 4Bs and other types. Alarge proportion of the available seats were sold to travel companies for use
on IT holidays. Via author
The upgrade to jets was seen as a serious threat by the independent to BOAC's own
established services. BOAC also protested that the Bermudan subsidiary was little more
than a 'paper' airline, with the bulk of its operations now undertaken by the UK-based
parent company that was not licensed for the scheduled services under its own name.
However, the whole argument suddenly became immaterial only a few weeks later
when the shipping line owners of Cunard Eagle sold the trans-Atlantic network, along
with the 707s, to BOAC, in June 1962. All the Cunard Eagle Caribbean and Atlantic net-
work had been absorbed into BOAC by September. The European network of Cunard
Eagle, bought back by the airline's disgruntled founder, Harold Bamburg, was later
rebranded as British Eagle International Airlines and expanded its UK-based networks.
Cunard Eagle Airways registered its Boeing 707 with its subsidiary, Cunard Eagle (Bermuda), lor scheduled
trans-Atlantic services. Aviation Hobby Shop
BOAC imported a large fleet 01 Boeing 707s, claiming that the UK-built alternatives were less suitable lor their
operations. Via author
(Below) Following the acquisition of Cunard Eagle's Atlantic network, a number 01 BOAC aircraft carried 'BOAC
Cunard'titles. Aviation Hobby Shop
Past Loopholes
One independent carrier, Cunard Eagle Airways, had found itself with an alternative
option in the early 1960s. Eager to replace its fleet of Bristol Britannia turbo-props with
jets, Cunard Eagle ordered a pair of Boeing 707s. Despite being powered by British-
built Rolls Royce Conway engines, just like BOAC's early
707s, Cunard Eagle was faced with an import tax bill. Orig-
inally intended for a London-New York service, the licence
for which was revoked following BOAC's protests before
operations could begin, the Cunard Eagle 707s were quick-
ly reassigned to Caribbean routes.
Cunard Eagle, when still known as Eagle Airways, had
established subsidiaries based in the Bahamas and Bermu-
da in the late 1950s. Operating Viscount-scheduled ser-
vices to mainland USA, and later across the Atlantic to the
UK with London-based Britannias, the subsidiaries were,
effectively, local airlines outside the control of UK authori-
ties. Thus, the first Cunard Eagle 707 was re-assigned to
the Bermudan company, with a Bermudan registration and
opened scheduled trans-Atlantic services from London to
Bermuda and the Bahamas, in May 1962
BOAC was unlikely to let Cunard Eagle's actions go
unchallenged and a legal appeal was expected. The original
licence for the route had been granted on the basis of low-
fare, low-frequency, 'coach class' services being offered.
British government permission to import such expensive
items as airliners depended on there being no alternative
item available on the home market. Otherwise, expensive
customs duties would become due on their importation.
State-owned BOAC had managed to avoid paying inflated
duties on their largely American-built fleets over the postwar
years by consistently 'proving' that the UK-produced alter-
natives were 'inferior'. Even where BOAC had, reluctantly,
accepted aUK-built fleet, such as with the Vickers VC-l 0ver-
sus the Boeing 707, BOAC would demand some sort of sub-
sidy to cover alleged extra costs of operating the British type.
Also state-owned, British European Airways had not been
able to persuade the governmentto allow it to import aircraft
from abroad. BEA operated its services with afleet of British-
built Tridents, Comets, Vanguards, Viscounts, Dart Heralds
and Herons. The last foreign-built BEA fixed-wing aircraft in
service had been DC-3s that had been with the airline since its formation in 1946 and that
were disposed of in 1962. Asmall fleet of American-built Sikorsky helicopters were oper-
ated on scheduled and charter flights, in the absence of any viable European, let alone
British-built, alternatives. Perhaps in an attempt to placate the UK industry over BOAC's
apparent pro-US tendencies, BEA was repeatedly told to 'Buy British'.
neer of eighr Britannia's wirh identical seating
capaciry. Brimnnia Airways will he the firsr
operator of rhe 200 Series in Europe, follOlved
closely be Aer Lingus. The invesrment, includ-
ing spares is abour £4,250,000.
Of course Brimnnia Airways would have pre-
ferred ro buy Brirish jers. However, our srudies
led inexorahly to the conclusion thar Brirish
jers offered ro us could only he operated, in our
particular set of circumstances, at a loss.
Ar rhe requesr of rhe rhen Minisrer of Avia-
tion we rried again last December wirh a lead-
ing British manufacturer to find some way out of
our dilemma. This efforr too failed. The Min-
isrry of Aviarion have never quesrioned our
basic G-1SC presented (0 them months ago in an

Under rhe rerms "f rhe Import Dury Act of
1958, a Brirish airline requiring aircrafr of foreign
manufacture in order to compete with foreign
airlines on international routes may be allowed
waiver of import duty. This waiver has not heen
allowed on rhe grounds thar similar aircraft arc
procurable in rhe UK. Britannia Airways refutes
this vicw and are asking for a rcvcrsal of this deci-
sion. To describe an aircrafr which can only he
operated against strong competition from forcign
airlines at a loss (similar' to onc which can suh-
smntially assisr rhe development of rhe Brirish air
transporr indusrry is clearly preposrerous.
Unlike the government owned airlines, our
traffic rights arc nor protecred, nor is rhe chaner
rare we charge conrrolled in any way. If foreign
airlines can offer bettcr rares than wc can there
is nothing to stop them taking away our business.
Britannia's Case
Although still Iiable for a 14 per cent
import duty, Britannia Airways went ahead
with their 737 plans and finally announced
their order for three Series 200s in June
1966. Reacting to sensational newspaper
headlines of the 'Britannia Orders Ameri-
can I' variety, the airline's then managing
director, J.E.D. Williams, was swift to justi-
fy their choice of the foreign option:
Rrirannia Airways has nbwined government
permission to import rhree Boeing 737-200 air-
craft for delivery in spring 1968. The new twin
engined jer will he operared on package holi-
days wirh 117 scats in addirion to rhe exisring
44
Eleven, but soon dismissed it as a viable Bri-
tannia replacement. The early One-Eleven
models lacked the Britannia's capacity and
although the stretched Series 500, still on
the drawing board at the time, would match
it, Britannia wanted to increase their pas-
senger-carrying capacity. The only other
home-produced passenger jet of suitable
size, the three-engined Hawker Siddeley
Trident, was deemed too expensive opera-
tionally on charter services. The airline's
preference soon settled on the twin-engined
Boeing 737, in particular the larger Series
200. However, the major obstacle of import
duty had to be resolved before Britannia
Airways could take delivery of any aircraft.
The Competition's
Jet Services
The use of jets on UK IT services was very
limited in the early 1960s. The Comet 4B
fleet of the state-owned British European
Airways operated a number of night-time
IT charters and cheaper, scheduled, night-
rate tourist flights when not flying their
European schedules in the daylight hours.
The imminent arrival of BEA's fleet ofTri-
dent jets would see the Corporation mak-
ing even more use of spare capacity for IT
charters and tourist-class flights.
The independent British airlines did
not offer jet services on any appreciable
scale until the introduction of British
United Airway's BAC One-Eleven and
VC-IO fleets in 1964/65. British Eagle
International Airlines followed with their
One-Elevens in 1966. Both BUA and
British Eagle sold much of their jet capac-
ity to IT operators from the beginning of
their One-Eleven operations, supplement-
ing their use on scheduled services. More
One-Elevens were on order for operators
such as Channel Airways and Laker Air-
ways, which were already major players in
the IT market. Dan-Air Services took
delivery of the first of what was to become
a sizeable fleet of second-hand Comet jets,
with ex-BOAC Comet 4s entering IT
charter service from Gatwick in 1966.
Eager to remain competitive, Britannia
Airways also looked at the BAC One-
\
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOM ERS. NEW APPLICATIO S
Caledonian's Dilemma
London/Gatwick-based Caledonian Airways faced a similar duty problem to Cunard
Eagle, afew years later, when it attempted to order some 707s to replace its Britan-
nias on trans-Atlantic charter services, Faced with a crippling tax bill imposed for
importing the Boeings, Caledonian was forced to lease out its first 707 to an Ameri-
can charter carrier, Flying Tiger Line, for ayear before the dispute was finally settled
'amicably' with the UK Customs authorities. The airline still had to pay a sizable
import duty.
Caledonian was very keen on ordering the 737-200 for use in its European IT services.
The Boeing 'commonality' with Caledonian's 707s was a major factor in the airline's
choice, as was the high performance promised and its increased capacity available over
rival types. Caledonian came close to signing the 737 contract. but found the customs
issue getting in the way again.
Face with another long debate with the authorities, the airline was also warned that
it may be expected to pay increased duty on its already delivered 707s if the 737 order
went ahead. Under increasing pressure from tour companies to replace its remaining
Britannias with jets as soon as possible, Caledonian was forced to withdraw from
negotiations with Boeing. Instead, a fleet of British-built BAC One-Eleven Series 500s
was ordered and placed into service in 1969.
Refusal to waive duty in sueh circumstances
would weaken the British air transport industry
without prorecting the manufacturing industry
to the slightest degree.
Britannia A irways advised the government
six months ago that under no circumstances
could their operation be viable with a British
manufactured jet and supported this assertion
with technical and economic data. We stated
that, regardless of the government's decision,
we could not buy British.
If our assertions are accepted there is no ques-
tion of protecting the home industry and no
case for the refusal of waiver. If our assertions are
not accepted we should be told why. We have
repeatedly offered to give the government any
information they may desire. othing has been
requested since our original aide-memoire.
Very detailed studies of the capabilities of jet
aircraft currently offered by British and Ameri-
can manufacturers, in Ollr particular c i r c u m ~
stances, led us to these conclusions:-
I. A commercially acceptable return on invest-
ment could not be obtained in our particular
business on any British jet.
2. If we hought a British jet we could be sW8mped
loy any of several foreign airlines if they bought
Boeing 737-200s or DC-9-30s.
3. The procurement of a l30eing 737-200 fleet
would en8hlc us to offer che8per than ever
tr8nsport between the UK and the Mediter-
ranean, giving the opportunity of a holiday
in the sun to an even larger sector of the
population.
l3efore commencing negotimions with Boeing,
we placed our studies and our conclusions before
the leading British aircraft manufacturers and
begged them to knock holes in our arguments. We
offered them access to most confidential data
regarding our business so that they could check
for themselves. They did not make the slightest
dent in the inexorable logic of the case.
We gave I3ritish A ircraft Corporation from
July 1965 until February I, 1966, 1'0 come up
with a proposal that could m8ke sense. They
were not able to do so.
The Foreign Threat
Britannia's worries about foreign carriers
being able to obtain 737s on more
favourable terms, and therefore be able to
undercut them in contract negotiations
with tour operators, were more than mere
'make-weights' in their argument against
import duty. When the inclusive-tour
industry first took off, the carriers used
were almost exclusively from the passen-
gers' originating countries. However, both
nationally and independently owned car-
riers of the resort countries soon latched
on to the lucrative financial possibilities of
the growing IT industry.
Spain's Iberia was particularly busy in
this market, via its subsidiary, Aviaco.
Iberia leased or chartered out surplus
members of its mainline fleets to supple-
ment Aviaco's own charter operations.
Iberia's Super Constellations were kept
especially busy operating Aviaco charters
once they had been displaced from sched-
uled services by jets. The 'sub-charter'
arrangement allowed Iberia to undertake
IT work at lower charter rates than it
would have been allowed to under its own
name by stringent lATA rules.
Alitalia had also set up its own 'non-
lATA' subsidiary, Societa Aerea Mediter-
ranea Spa (SAM), operating DC-6s of
various marks, deposed from front-line
scheduled services by Jets. SAM was so
heavily involved with the UK originating
IT market that a busy seasonal base was
eventually established at Gatwick, serv-
ing several Italian resort areas.
As well as the threat to their livelihood
from these subsidiaries, Britannia, and the
other independent UK charter carriers,
were facing competition from an increas-
ing number of foreign independents. The
better financed, but still vulnerable, carri-
ers such as Britannia and its charter col-
leagues from several other European
nations were starting to look over their
shoulders at their southern rivals. Spain's
Spantax, TAE, and Trans Europa were just
(Top) Delivery of Caledonian Airways' first Boeing 707 was delayed by the question of import duty, Via author
The expanding operations of 'non-lATA' subsidiaries, like Alitalia's associate, SAM, soon started to provide
a commercial threat to UK charter carriers, MAP
G-AWWX CALEDONIAN
(Above) Eventually, Caledonian was forced to abandon plans to acquire Boeing 737s to complement its 707s. Instead, three 'stretched' BAC One-Eleven Series 500s were placed in
service on European IT charters. Via author
46 47
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS
UK charter carriers accelerated their jet acquisition plans once continental charter operators such as Air
Spain began modernizing with modern turbo-props, such as the Bristol Britannia. MAP
as likely to be carrying British holiday-
makers. Lower operating cost were often
the key to their gaining contracts frolll
northern European tour companie .
everal of the Mediterranean-ba ed
independent charter carriers had already
expre sed an interest in acquiring some of
the handful of fir t-generation jet that were
starting to come on to the second-hand
market. The 'non-lATA' subsidiaries already
had access to jet fleets, through their sched-
uled parents. The new jets were more than
a fashionable whim, they were becoming
increasingly vital for commercial survival.
Pacific Western
Another airline represented at the 'chris-
tening', Pacific Western Airlines, would
use their 737s for a mixture of charter and
scheduled flying. Initially operating as
Central British Columbia Airway, in
1945, the name Pacific Western Airlines
was adopted in 1953 as the network
expanded, mostly by the merging or pur-
cha ing of smaller operators. By 1965 the
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIO S
company was ranked as Canada's third
large t airline, operating forty-seven air-
craft on a scheduled network throughout
Briti h Columbia, Alberta, askatchewan
and the orthwest T< rritories.
A pair of DC-7 operated international
charters, including trans-Atlantic services,
while the schedule were operated by a fleet
as diver e a DC-6s and DC-6B , DC-4s
and DC-3s, C-46s and several smaller types
such as Beech I s, DHC Beavers, Otters
and even two Grumman Goose amphib-
ians. Turbo-prop CV-640s entered sched-
uled service in February 1967. A giant
Lockheed Hercules turbo-prop cargo air-
craft was also on order to operate interna-
tional and domestic all-cargo flights. The
Pacific Western 737s were intended for
both regional scheduled and longer-rang-
ing charter flights, especially to the south-
ern SA, the Caribbean and Mexico.
Aer Lingus Second Choice
The Irish national carrier, Aer Lingus, had
been operating jets ince late 1960. It trans-
Atlantic division, Aerlinte Eireann, had
introduced Boeing 720s on the Dublin-
hannon- ew York route, replacing leased
Lockheed Super Con tellations, on 14
December that year. On short-haul routes to
the K and Europe, Aer Lingus operated a
fleet of OC-3s, Viscounts and Fokker Ens.
A small fleet of Aviation Traders' Carvairs,
converted DC-4s, operated car ferry and
cargo services. The propeller-driven fleet
had initially encountered only limited jet
competition on some European routes with
rival carrier such as Air France and Bel-
gium's Sabena-operated aravelles.
Nonetheless, Aer Lingus was anxious
to update their image and modernize the
fleet by operating jets on the short/medi-
um-haul network. Initial plans to order
their own Caravelles were thwarted by
the Iri h government's refusal to finance
the purchase. Eventually, however, the
airline was able to refute the govern-
ment' obje tion to a short-haul jet fleet
and a quartet of BAC One-Eleven were
introduced into service in June 1966.
Even before they entered service, Aer
Lingus recogni:ed that the 74-seater One-
Pacific Western's varied operations included scheduled local flights by DC-3s, supplemented by Convairs,
DC-6s and DC-7s on busier routes. The larger Douglases also operated a substantial international charter
programme. Via author
48
later versions of the Vickers Viscount continued to form the backbone of Aer lingus's European services
through the 1950s and 60s. Aer Lingus
49
NEW CUSTOMERS. NEW APPLICATIONS
Aer Lingus had been an early customer for the BAC One-Eleven, buying four Series 200s. The airline soon
realized that the aircraft was too small and argued for a larger version to be produced. Via author
Elevens were too small for the projected
markets. When Boeing 707s replaced the
720s on trans-Atlantic routes, the medium-
range Boeings were transferred to some of
the higher-density European and UK ser-
vices, especially the Dublin-London route.
The 115-passenger 720s had the capacity for
the busy roUte, but operating a four-engined
jet airliner on such a short sector was an
uneconomic proposal. When the last two
720s were leased out by Aer Lingus, to US
carrier Braniff International, Aer Lingus's
even larger Boeing 707s supplemented the
One-Elevens on the London Service.
Bigger is Better?
Aer Lingus was very keen for the One-
Eleven's manufacturer, the British Aircraft
Corporation, to build a larger version of
their twin-jet. Several others among BAC's
early One-Eleven customers were just as
interested and Britain's BEA had actually
refused to place an order for a long-awaited
'Viscount Replacement' until a bigger ver-
sion was available. Unfortunately, BAC
procrastinated over their decision and by
the time the larger Series 500 One-Eleven
was finally launched, many of the potential
customers had lost interest and/or patience
and had ordered rival Douglas DC-9s or
Boeing 737s instead.
Aer Lingus' own patience had run out in
1966. On 9 March, a 6 million order was
placed for two I 17-passenger Boeing 737-
200s. It had been announced that the 737s
were intended for use principally on the
Dublin-London route where traffic had
continued to increase. In 1965 over 285,000
passengers and 4,700 tons of cargo were
flown between the tIVO capitals. However,
extra orders were eventually placed for more
737s and it became clear that Aer Lingus
had plans to operate their new jet on more
far-reaching routes around Europe.
Poised for Launch
Far from restricting their customer base to
the short-haul scheduled carriers originally
50
envisaged, Boeing's sales team had found
themselves talking to a very disparate
cross-section of the airline industry. It was
clear that the 737 was poised to make an
impact on more than one market, with
some carriers even making a stand against
their governments for the right to operate
the aircraft.
Orders were soon added from a number
of other operators scattered around the
world. Canadian Pacific Airlines and
New Zealand ational Airways, among
others, had placed new orders and some
earl ier customers had ordered further
737s. II ippon Airways, of japan, was
negotiating not only with Boeing to place
an order, but also with their own govern-
ment for permission to import the aircraft
for their extensive domestic network.
Even before carrying a single fare-pay-
ing passenger, the 737 was promising a lot
to the operators. Would they prove to be
promises it could live up to?
Lufthansa Leads the Way
In keeping with their pioneering order for
the 737, Lufthansa was able to take del ivery
of their first production Series 100 on 27
December 1967. Remaining in Seattle for a
little over a month, the aircraft immediate-
ly began to be used to convert the first of
Lufthansa's crews to operate the type. This
was less than two weeks after the 737 had
received its FAA type certification and
only a little over eight months since the
prototype's first flight in May of that year.
After receiving its West German regis-
tration D-ABED, the first Lufthansa 737
made the trans-Atlantic ferry flight from
Seattle to the airline's maintenance base
at Hamburg, in Northern Germany, arriv-
ing on 4 February 1968. Greeted by a large
crowd of Lufthansa employees, media and
well-wishers, D-ABED was soon whisked
away, after due ceremony and much
speechmaking. Work then began on fit-
ting out the passenger cabin in preparation
for scheduled service.
Within the week, after further busy days
of training and route-proving flights, D-
ABED joined Lufthansa's operating fleet
as the first '737 City jet' as the carrier had
chosen to promote the aircraft. D-ABED
was to receive the individual name of
'Flensburg'. Previously, the airline's Boeing
72 7s had been christened as '727 Europa
jets'. The distinction between 'Europa'
and 'City' was prompted by Lufthansa's
initial plan for operating the larger 72 7s on
medium-haul flights around Europe and to
the Middle East, while the 737s were
intended for the ultra-short hauls within
West Germany and to neighbouring states.
On 10 February D-ABED took on its first
load of fare-paying passengers, for flight
LH147, the 07.25 departure from Frankfurt
to Munich. From there, it became LHO16 to
Hamburg, then returned to Frankfurt as
LI-l709, arriving at 12.45. A little over an
hour later, it departed for Cologne as
LH731, the first of two return runs between
Frankfurt and Cologne, before closing its
engines down for the last time that day, back
CHAPTER FOUR
Into Service
D-ABED arrived at a very cold, very damp Hamburg on 4 February 1968. Luhhansa
lufthansa's Chief Executive - Technical Services, Gerhard Holtje (centre). was on the
delivery flight. Holtje had been a major influence on the 737's final design. Behind
him is Capt Emil Kuhl. lufthansa's Chief Pilot - 737 Fleet. Luhhansa
57
INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE
The Boeing 737-100s quickly became busy members of the lufthansa European fleet.
Lufthansa
Boeing 727-200s and six more Boeing 737-
200s. The largest single aircraft order by
PSA, it was worth $69 million to Boeing.
PSA was hoping to expand their previously
all-California services to Portland, Oregon
and Seattle, Washington and the new air-
craft would be needed to operate the fl ights,
as well as speeding up the replacement of the
airline's remaining 727-100s and Electl-as.
The 737s were beaten into service as
PSA's first twin-jets by a pair of DC-9-30s,
the first of which had been delivered in
1967. However, the Douglas jets were
replaced by the 737s as the latter's numbers
built up. One of the DC-9s was sold on to
Ozark irlines in 1969 and the other air-
craft was used on PSA's extensive training
The Trickle Becomes a Flood
more 727s and 737s arrived from Boeing
and were placed into service for United.
As production aircraft began to be deliv-
ered, albeit a month or two late, to their
patient customers, the 737 finally started
to make an impression on the world's com-
mercial airways. Western, Piedmont, PSA
and Wien Consolidated were among the
US domestic carriers that followed United
into the US 737 family over the following
months.
February 1968 had seen PSA placing a
record repeat order for no less than nine
As the delayed 737s were finally delivered,
United swiftly distributed the new aircraft
to other bases on their system. The
stretched 727-200s soon followed the 737s
and the increasing short and medium-haul
jet fleets were rapidly dislodging the remain-
ing DC-6s and DC-6Bs from even the qui-
eter routes to which they had already been
consigned.
By the beginning of 1969, the only pro-
peller-powered passenger aircraft in regu-
lar service in United's fleet were the jet-
prop Viscounts. However, the British-built
Viscount's days were numbered, as were
the airline's less economic Caravelle twin-
jets. Both types were already earmarked for
disposal within the next two years, as even
William F. Mellberg (left) and his cousin Dave Mellberg enjoy United's
legendary 'Friendly Skies' cabin service on the short inaugural 737-200
flight from Chicago to Grand Rapids. William F. Mellberg
(Above) N9003U was allocated to United's first 737-200 revenue service
on 28 April 1968 from Chicago O'Hare. William F. Mellberg
That morning I hoardcd Unitcd Flight 648 at
Chicago-O'liarc with my cousin, D""c Mcll-
bcrg. \Y)c wcrc 16-year-old high school studcnts
who shared (l keen in airliners. So,
when we heard thar United inaugurating a
737 ,cn·icc in thc Unitcd Statcs with a flight
hctwccn Chicago and Grand Rapi,", Michigan,
wc madc ,urc wc wcrc on board' Taking off at
7.39am, our brand ncw 737, N9003U, 'Cit\' of
Gnllld Rapids', touchcd down 30 minutcs latcr.
There were inaugural celehrations onhoard the
flight and a rcd carpct W,ls rollcd out for us at
Grand Rapids. (Flight 648 was thc fir" schcd-
ulcd jctliner rn bnd thcrc.)
Chicago Debut
Promoted by the airline's public relations
department as 'The Biggest Thing in Little
Jets', the 737-200 entered commercial ser-
vice on regional flights out of United's
busiest base, Chicago's O'Hare Airport, on
29 April 1968. William F. Mellberg was a
passenger on the first flight.
aircraft. The first United 737 was deliv-
ered to the airline on 21 December 1967,
only two weeks after Lufthansa's first
Series 100 was handed over.
version of the Boeing 72 7, the Series 200,
was due to enter service, joining the origi-
nal Series 100s that had been in use since
1964. The arrival of the two new jets
would see the final stage of the phasing out
of the airline's remaining propeller-driven
lufthansa's passengers soon began to appreciate the 'big jet' feel of the 737's cabin.
Lufthansa
While Lufthansa was busy introducing its
new '737 City Jets' to the European travel-
ling public, back in the USA, United was
also busy, converting crews to the larger
Series 200, in preparation for their own
introduction. s well as the 737s, a larger
Into the Friendly Skies
at Frankfurt, at 19.25. Typical of what was to
become the daily utilization of a Lufthansa
737, D-ABED's first day on the line marked
the beginning of a long and very successful
association between the airline and aircraft.
As further 73 7s rolled off the Seattle pro-
duction line, or were released from devel-
opment or training work, the followed D-
A BED over the Atlantic. Lufthansa W<lS
anxious to introduce the aircraft through-
out their intended network, following the
production and delivery delays. On arrival,
they were quickly assigned to more and
more of Lufthansa's domestic and regional
flights. The remaining Super Constella-
tions had already been retired in October
1967, in anticipation of the 737's arrival on
the busy inter-city domestic routes. The
Convairs began to be withdrawn as the
737s became established in service and the
airline was soon close to its ambition to
become an all-jet carrier. A handful of the
turbo-prop Viscounts were to remain in use
for another couple of years, but were soon to
follow their piston-engined colleagues out
of Lufthansa's fleet.
52 53
INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE
International or Burbank Airports. This
journey, even by highway, could be a tiring
one, especially in the Los ngeles rush
hour. As well as saving the Orange Coun-
ty residents the trials of a drive across Los
Angeles, the major tourist attraction of
Disneyland was nearby and could be relied
on to attract traffic to the new services.
The young businessmen were joined in
January 1966 by a number of seasoned air-
line executives, includingJ. Kenneth Hull,
formerly president of Lockheed Aircraft
International, and Thomas Wolfe, ex- Vice
President of Sales for Western Airlines.
They became President and Chairman
respectively, of the new carrier, by now for-
mally named Air California. Incorporated
flat-bed truck, complete with Air Califor-
nia stewardesses, to Los Angeles Airport.
On the side of the truck was a banner read-
ing, 'If you came here from Orange Coun-
ty ... You could have been in San Francisco by
now", emphasizing the time-saving of
using their local airport.
Early results were very encouraging and
the first of a pair of short-body DC-9-14
jets entered service on the original route
on I April. The introduction of jets had
been achieved only after a number of
objections, on the grounds of noise nui-
sance, had been overcome. Orange Coun-
ty-San Francisco flights now operated
seven times a day. Services opened to San
Jose and Oakland on 23 September and
the badly-needed additions to the fleet.
In mid-1968 Air California announced a
$ [ million loss on an earned revenue of
$6,650,000. Finally, Air California found a
solution to the twin problems of the need for
larger aircraft and financial aid in the form
of the GATX/Boothe Aircraft Corporation.
Specializing in leasing out aircraft,
GATX/Boothe had taken over a number of
cancelled 737 delivery positions, including
the Pacific Air Lines places. Built as Series
200s, the aircraft were intended for leasing
out on both short and long-term contracts
to airlines. Wi en Consolidated had taken
advantage of their aircraft's early availabili-
ty by leasing in GATX/Boothe 737s to inau-
gurate their jet services in Alaska, in May/
Western's Boeing 737-200s were used to link smaller cities on a network stretching from southern
California to the Great Lakes and midwestern Canada. Jenny Gradidge
June 1968, whilst waiting for their own de-
layed aircraft deliveries.
At the end of the Wien contract,
GATX/Boothe negotiated a new deal with
Air California, buying the four Electras
and two DC-9s and replacing them with
the 737-200s on lease contracts. The 737s
performance was regarded as high Iy com-
patible with the noise-sensitive operating
requirements at Orange County Airport.
The improved rate of climb greatly assist-
ed noise abatement procedures.
The I [S-passenger 737s premiered, in
October 1968, on the Orange County-
San Francisco route and also opened new
Growing Pains
Air California's rapidly increasing passenger
boardings showed no sign of slowing down.
However, the still comparatively new air-
line's resources were insufficient to finance
two more Electras joined the busy fleet.
The number of passengers carried in Air
California's first year - 293,604 - encour-
aged expansion and investment to the
point that a new maintenance base was
opened at San Francisco International
Airport in early [968.
on 12 April, Air California was granted its
first route certificate by the California Pub-
lic Utilities Commission. The certificate
covered a minimum of five daily flights
from Orange County to San Francisco.
Turbo-prop to Jet
Services began on 16 January 1967, with
two ex-Qantas Lockheed Electra turbo-
props painted up in an eye-catching yel-
low, black and red livery. Aiming its sales
drives firmly at the residents of Orange
County, one gimmick involved driving a
The OC-9 was Air California's first choice of pure-jet equipment, supplementing the Electras. Aviation Hobby Shop
and the San Francisco Bay area. They had
commissioned surveys that indicated a
huge traffic potential from the area.
With a population of well over a mil-
Iion, Orange County was one of the fastest
growing metropolitan areas in the USA at
the time. A trip by scheduled airline from
the Orange County area would have
required a long car journey to Los Angeles
air service in California. [n December
1965, a group of five Californian business-
men met in Corona del Mar, in Orange
County, southeast of Los Angeles. William
Myers, Alan H. Kenison, Mark T. GatesJr,
William L. Pereira Jr and Lud Renick met
to discuss forming a new airline to operate
a scheduled service from the under-used
Orange County Airport, near Santa na,
'WESTER.N
(11 ••••••••••••••
The Boeing 737-200 proved an ideal stablemate for PSA's larger 727s, operating on less busy flights on the
intra-California services. Jenny Gradidge
California Competition
Others started to look to emulate PSA's
success in providing low-cost intra-state
and conversion programmes that it had
operated for a number of airlines and cor-
porate customers.
54 55
services from Hollywood/Burbank and
Ontario to the Bay Area. The airline car-
ried a total of 650,000 pas engers during
196 and, early in 1969, celebrated carry-
ing it millionth passenger on 27 February.
Yet further expansion included Palm
prings-Bay Area flights and 1969 also saw
Air alifornia offering first-clas 'Fiesta
Service' on its 737s, the first regional carri-
er to 0rerate a two-class service.
INTO SERVI E
Canadian Debut
Further north, as Western's 737s made early
appearances on their cross-border routes
into Canada, the aircraft's anadian cus-
tomers were poised to join the club as well.
Early orders had been placed by ordair
and Pacific We tern, but the production
delays meant that they would not take deliv-
ery until late 196 /early 1969. Canadian
Pacific Airlines, that had ordered their first
five 73 7s in 1966, took delivery of their first
Series 200 in October 1968. The aircraft was
the first to be delivered displaying the air-
line's new image as CP Air, in a bright
orange, red and silver livery.
The CP Air 737s, Iike many of those of
many new 737 operators, were being used
to rerlace outdated equipment on region-
al and 10 al service, in their case, mostly
within anada. Canadian Pacific had
grown steadily since its formation in
1942, from a collection of merged local
carriers into a major dome tic operator
within Canada. Long-range expan ion
saw the company eventually orerating
intercontinental ervices to A ia, Aus-
tralia, Eurore and outh America from
its Vancouver h<'lse. Dougl<'ls DC-6Bs,
originally operated on the long-haul
routes, were still flying on regional ser-
vices within western Canada after being
disrlaced from international and trans-
Continental services several years before,
initially by Bristol Britannia turbo-rrops
<'lnd, later, by DC-8 jets.
The 737 entered scheduled service with
CP Air with a Vancouver BC-Whitehorse,
Yukon Flight, on 20 November 1968. Fur-
ther 737 services were soon opened, taking
over from the DC-6Bs on flight' to White-
horse, Terrace and Prince Rupert. When the
final two 73 7s of the initial order were deliv-
ered in March 1969, the last of the DC-6Bs
were sold off. This left CP Air an all-jet air-
line, excert for a "ingle DC-3, operated on
local and charter flights. The 737s orerated
thcir first trans-Continental dome "tic rev-
cnuc flight forCPAiron 1April 1969. or-
dair had been the next Canadian airline to
rlace the 737 in -crvice, on an Arctic route,
with a Montreal-Frobisher Bay service on 3
Deccmher 196 .
11 TO SERVICE
The 200 Series Finally
Reaches Europe
Britannia Airways were eagerly awaiting
their 737s and had hoped to have them in
service in time for the peak of the 196
summer touri t sea on. However, the trou-
blesome production delay at Boeing had
ruled this out. Already suffering a slight
capacity shortage following the tragic loss
of one of their Bristol Britannia turbo-props
in a fatal crash at Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, the
year before, Britannia relied on the sched-
uled arrival of the new aircraft to fulfil its
1968 contracts. Instead, a pair of addition-
al Britannias had to be leased in from rival
carriers for most of the 1968 season. Like
those in their own fleet, these were ex-
BOAC aircraft. One came from Laker Air-
ways, one from BKS ir Transport.
The first Britannia irways 737, and
Europe's first Serie 2 0, G-AVRL finally
arrived at the airline's Luton Airport base
on July 196 . This was actually a fell'
days early, according to the term of a new
renegotiated contract with Boeing that
took account of the production delays.
ndeterrcd, Britannia Airway's initial
ordcr for thrcc aircraft had already been
increased w five. Ithough the delays had
disrupted plans for thc 196 season's jet
operations, deliveries for the next year
wcre expccted to bc on time.
A great deal of British equipment was
incorrorated on to the Britannia 737s,
including Marconi ADF, a Cossor transpon-
der, as well as the galley fittings and equir-
ment. To facilitate cabin service on busy
charter flights, the galley facilities were
accommodated in the forward section of
the cabin, with passenger washrooms con-
centrated at the rear. The initial pa senger
capacity of 117 on Britannia Airway's 73 7s
exactly matched that of their Britannia
102s, which assisted in smoothing the
transition from turbo-prop to jet opera-
tion. An increase in the 737-200's passen-
ger caracity, up to 124 on high-density
charter services, was planned for later
introduction and the new seats and their
layout had already received FAA
arproval.
Into Charter Service
The first five Britannia crews to he assigned
to the 73 7 received their conversion train-
ing with Boeing in Seattle. Thc training
was comrlcted back in the K by four Boe-
ing pilots on loan to Britannia. The next six
crews, rcquircd when the sccond aircraft
entered scn'icc, were to be checkcd out by
Seattle-trained instructors. After delivery,
the second 737, G-AVRM, srent much of
its time at hannon on training duties.
(Above) The Boeing 737-200s introduced Canadian Pacific's bright new image
as CP Air. Jenny Gradidge
(Below) GATX/Boothe supplied 737-200s to Air California in a leasing deal as
part of a major re-equipment programme. Aviation Hobby Shop
56
G-AVRL was to be the first Boeing 737-200 to be operated in Europe. and the first 737 to be flown by an all-
charter carrier. Via author
57
INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE
Early Jet Days at Piedmont
G-AVRL received its UK Certificate of
Airworthiness on 10 July, two days after
delivery. On 19 July a proving flight was
operated by G-AVRL from Luton to Palma,
Majorca, and on the 22nd it entered
commercial service with an IT charter from
Luton to the Yugoslav resort ofDubrovnik.
G-AVRM carried its first revenue load of
holidaymakers on 16 August with a
Luton-Venice IT charter.
Although too late to make much of an
impact on the 1968 summer season, Bri-
tannia were still well impressed with their
new aircraft. All five of the initial 737
orders were in use in time for the J969
season and plans were in hand to acquire
more of the Boeing jets. The 73 7s operat-
ed on most of the growing IT network,
not only from Luton, serving London, but
also from regional points such as Man-
chester, Glasgow, Birmingham and New-
castle. The increase in ITs originating at
regional points continued to grow to the
point that a number of the more impor-
tant cities gained year-round holiday
charter service for the first time in the
winter of 1968/69.
It was calculated that, even with the
original 117-seat layout, each of the air-
line's 737s was as productive as 212 Bristol
Britannias. A part of the Britannia turbo-
props were taken out of service at the end
of 1969, although the older type was to
continue to contribute to Britannia Air-
ways' charter operations, alongside the
73 7s, until the end of 1970.
Early Days with Lufthansa
While Britannia was introducing their
Series 200s to the hoi idaymakers of Britain,
Lufthansa continued to deploy their Series
100s on more and more routes on their
domestic and European network. Even
with their previous experience in operating
bigger Boeing jets, Lufth:lIlsa W<lS very
impressed with the comparatively trouble-
free introduction into service of the 737.
There had been no major engine prob-
lems. At the very beginning of 737 opera-
tions there had been a starter valve problem
when sand from treated runways was ingest-
ed. A filter screen had simply not been up
to its job and the problem was fixed using a
new screen with a finer mesh, as suggested
by Boeing. Unscheduled engine removals
in the first nine months of operation
amounted to only three examples, two
caused by reports of vibration and one by
high oil consumption. There had been no
in-flight engine shutdowns and no fire
warnings, even false ones.
The auxiliary power unit (APU) gave
some trouble at first. Thermostat difficul-
ties had led to crews having trouble getting
some systems on line without the APU
shutting down. New acceleration control
thermostats were designed and did much
better. A certain amount of nosewheel
corrosion was noted and put down to prob-
lems with the alloy used and there were
some problems with the ram air inlet sys-
tem that was solved by re-rigging.
The self-contained airstairs gave Luft-
hansa the most trouble. Although the
rear steps, mounted in the downward
opening door, were the most complicated
design of the two, these gave little trou-
ble. It was the simpler, forward steps that
folded into a small compartment under
the passenger door, that caused some
del<lys. The improvement in the electri-
cal circuit reduced the problem. As
stowage of the forward a irsta irs was one of
the last systems operated prior to depar-
ture, it was more likely to cause a delay
than any other problem that may be fixed
before departure time. Thus the blame on
the airstairs for most delays was made to
look worse than it was in delay statistics.
The rear airstair arrangement was an
option not taken up by many 737 customers.
It allowed swift turnarounds at airports
not equipped with jetties for embarking
passengers and saved having to have
expensive mobile step units hand. Howev-
er, a Ithough used by some earl I' operators,
especially Lufthansa, Wien Consol idated
and Piedmont, they were usually removed
in later years and a conventional door fit-
ted, as a weight-saving measure. A few air-
craft retained their original configuration,
especially the 'combi' aircraft that carried
freight in the forward cabin and passengers
in the rear section and could only load
their passengers through the rear doors.
The smaller, forward airstairs, however,
were a useful option taken up, and
retained, by most customers.
Being an early customer, Piedmont Airlines also played its part in ironing out the wrin-
kles as the 737 proved itself in daily service. Eventually retiring as a District Sales and
Marketing Manager for US Airvvays, Joe Grant was originally aUtility Agent with Pied-
mont, hired in 1966, after his honourable discharge from the USAF, with whom he had
been a mechanic in Japan and Vietnam.
Joe's first base was the airport for Staunton/Harrisonburg, asmall station serving the
Shenandoah Valley in Virginia that one customer described to him as reminding her 'of
Africa'.
Asmall station is tough to work as you must know everything about running it. For instance,
the ticket counter and customer service, reservations (all done locally in those days, no cen-
tral reservations office!. weight and balance of aircraft, weather, teletype, ramp service,
loading and unloading, air freight, air express, some maintenance and even some air traffic
control. Like I said, alot to learn.
As already mentioned, Piedmont had leased a pair of 727s to cover the late delivery of
the 737s. Originally intended for United, they still had the larger airline's comfortable
3-2, five-abreast configuration. Despite losing the first aircraft in the Asheville mid-air
collision, the 727s proved a success with Piedmont and boded well for the smaller,
much more economic, 737 on their network.
In 1968 Joe Grant visited Renton.
I boarded Piedmont's first 737, N734N, while it was still being built. It had aplywood floor
and the cockpit was protected from dust by being enclosed in ahuge plastic bag! Piedmont
was one of the few airlines to have the rear boarding airstairs installed. Several years later
they were removed because they were heavy 10 fly around, plus they were expensive to fix
if broken and they also got in the way of 'new' modern day catering equipment. The first Pied-
mont 737s were also fitted with the 3-2 seating configuration. It felt like first class. Later the
seating was changed to 3-3, all coach class.
The original engines of the 737 had rather non-efficient thrust reversers. These were
replaced by huge 'clam-shell' reversers that worked 'almost 100 good' compared to the old
ones. Captains said, referring to the old style reversers, that trying to stop with them on a
wet runway was as slippery as putting your feet in a pie! The aircraft always wanted to
hydroplane in those conditions.
Ron Carter was a mechanic with Piedmont when both the 727s and 737s went into
service:
The arrival of the 727s required a lot of training for the pilots, mechanics and flight atten-
dants. When the 727s were leased in we had Martin 404s, YS-11 sand Fairchild FH227s. Boe-
ing was very helpful in setting up our training needs. At this time Piedmont had avery well
trained mechanic group but we were not used to such complex aircraft and lacked training
in the electrical systems. Boeing held additional classes in aircraft electrical for us and it paid
great dividends later. The 737 was less complex than the 727, so the transition was easy.
Initial in-service problems with the 737 were thrust reversers and hydraulic line failure,
as well as abuffeting problem. These were soon corrected, with Boeing installing anewtype
of thrust reverser and issuing numerous service bulletins to correct the hydraulic line failure.
Vortex generators were installed to correct the buffeting. We also had to analyse the engine
oil and change it at frequent intervals. After about ayear this was changed so the oil was
never changed except at overhaul.
The P&W JTBD engine had initial problems but these were soon corrected. At this time,
the engine smoked and it was desirable to have this eliminated. The burner can modification
solved this problem - but started two others! One was off-idle stall of the engine and the
other was that the fumes were more toxic than when the engine smoked. Both these prob-
lems were corrected in about two years. The auxiliary power unit was aconstant source of
troubles, but we had good technical support and eventually solved some of the problems. Our
climate is very hOI and humid in the summer, but the cooling system handled it with ease.
The aircraft was very reliable, but needed afew years to correct alot of problems. Piedmont
could not have picked abetter aircraft than the 737 to enter the jet age, or abetter company
to guide us than Boeing.
Piedmont's introduction of the 737 had benefited from the airline's earlier use of
leased 727s, and the valuable operational support of Boeing. Jenny Gradidge
Britannia Airways had five 737-200s in service in 1969, with more on order. Jenny Gradidge
58
PIEDmonT
5 @
--
i5 @
N737N
••• ••
59
Interior configuration on the 'QC' 737 could be swiftly modified by seat units on
tracks, loaded through the large forward cargo door. Lufthansa
The 'Quick Change' Artists
Lufthansa took delivery on 17 December
196 of the first order for six 737-200Q
'Quick hange' aircraft. Ortions had also
been taken out on two more. The airline's
first long-fuselage 737 were equipred
INTO SERVICE
with large cargo doors in the upper forward
fuselage and strengthened cabin floors, the
convertible aircraft being intended for
passenger use in the daytime and for con-
version to freight services at night. The
swi tch from passenger to cargo configu-
ration was designed to take less than half
an hour. Lufthansa was already orerating
a fleet of convertible 727s on similar er-
vice, alongside their all-passenger 727-
100 and -200s.
The convertible 'combi-version' of the
73 7 was first placed into service in Alaska,
by Wi en on olidated in ovember 196
(Abovel The Boeing 737·200QC was able to operate
both passenger and cargo schedules on lufthansa's
European network. Lufthansa
In all-cargo configuration, the 737 ould
carry up to seven standard rallets or con-
tainers. The units were loaded slightly off-
centre, to the right, allowing a rassageway
to the left. With only six pallets, eleven
passengers could be carried, and with only
two pallets installed, up to eighty-one pas-
sengers could be accommodated in the
rcar section.
As well as serving the more populated
point among the 170 scattered communi-
tie served by the airline in Alaska and the
Canadian Yukon, the 73 7's joint passenger
and cargo-carrying capabilities were put to
good use on contract work for the Trans-
Alaska Pipeline System, from Anchorage.
Western's 737s were also soon reaching
Alaska and operating on busier local and
regional route taken over in the merger
with Pa ific orthern Airlines, of Fair-
hanks.
imilar rugged work was to be shortly
undertaken by convertible 73 7 placed
into service by Nordair, Pacific Western
Airlines and Transair, all serving remote
towns and outposts in northern anada.
The smaller Canadian operators' 73 7s, and
those of Wien Consolidated, were also fit-
ted for gravel runway operations. As well as
low-pressure tyres, deflectors were attached
to the undercarriage to shield the fuselage
from stones being kicked up on landing.
Vortex generators were also attached to the
front of the engine nacelles, to blow debris
away from the intakes and protect them
from gravel damage. However, these air-
craft were also just as likely to spend their
weekends flying tourists from major Cana-
dian cities, escaping from the northern
winters to the sun of Florida, the arib-
bean, or even Mexico.
INTO SERVICE
Further South
The New Zealand National Airways Corpo-
ration ( Z AC), became the operator of
three 737-200s on 14 October 196 .
Ordered to replace Viscounts on trunk-
cheduled services within ew Zealand,
the 737s would join a fleet of Fokker E27
that had begun to replace DC-3 on local
flights from 196 . The first of the trio had
been delivered to Wellington, after a long
island-hopring trek from Seattle, on 1
September and the introduction of the jet
fleet within a month was a laudable
achievement for the carrier.
NZ AC was the nationally owned dom-
estic airline of ell' Zealand, international
services to Australia and trans-Pacific flights
being the preserve of Air ew Zealand with
their fleet of long-haul DC-8s and Electra
turbo-props. Twenty-five destinations,
served by 4,000 miles of routes, comprised
ZNAC's network within and between the
orth and South Islands of the country.
ew Zealand's link to Britain, via its
membership of the Commonwealth, had led
to high hope in the K of a rossible order
from Z AC for the BAC One-Eleven jet.
One of BAC' development aircraft had vis-
ited ew Zealand during a world sales tour
in 1966, operating demonstration flights for
Z A between Dunedin, Wellington,
Auckland and Whenupai before continuing
the tour onwards to Australia. nfortunate-
Iy for BAC, it had been felt that inaprropri-
ate financial and political pressure had been
appl ied to sway ell' Zealand toward· order-
ing the One-Eleven and, as a result, the
British aircraft was rejected as a candidate
for NZN 's Viscount replacement.
The One-Eleven fared little better in
Australia, with only a pair of aircraft sold to
Australia's air force for VIP wmsport work.
Australia's largest domestic airlines, the pri-
vately owned Ansett-A A and govern-
ment-sponsored Trans Australia Airlines,
both chose the Boeing 727 and Douglas
DC-9 for their short-haul jet operations.
Nordair and Transair operated their 737s into
more remote regions. as well as busy inter-city
services and vacation flights to sunnier climes.
Via author/AViation Hobby Shop
60 67
INTO SERViCE INTO SERVICE
The Fokker F.28 'Fellowship' enjoyed amoderate success as an economic jet
alternative to earlier turbo-props. Via author
r ..
\. -s\\
mance. The F.28 series was later totally redesigned and updated as the Fokker 70 and
100 types, with new engines and updated flight-deck systems and equipment. The new
types remained in production until Fokker succumbed to economic pressures and was
forced to cease all manufacturing operations in the late 1990s.
j6:A Fit

7
U 1I (J US/ R/ SH/ NT ERN
,
.,-n
The Dutch Twin-Jet Option
The long-established aircrah manufacturer, Fokker,
based in the Netherlands, had a very different concept
for its offering in the short-haul twin-jet market. Delib-
erately aiming at a small capacity replacement for its
F.27 Friendship, the Fokker jet design, when it did final-
ly emerge, was originally configured for up to sixty-five
passengers, about half that of the Boeing 737. Fokker
also declared from the beginning that it preferred steady
sales over along-term period, rather than agreater num-
ber of orders over ashorter production life.
Powered by two Rolls Royce Spey engines, the F.28
received its first production order in November 1965,
some three years aher the project was officially
announced by the company. The production of the air-
crah was an early example of inter-European collabora-
tion, with Short Bros and Harland, of Belfast. producing
the outer wings and undercarriages and Germany's MBB
and VFW manufacturing the centre and rear fuselage
sections, tail units and engine nacelles.
The first order was placed by the West German charter airline, LTU. However, Braathens
was the first carrier to place the aircrah into revenue selVice, on 28 March 1969. Orders
followed from operators in Australia, Argentina, Columbia, Spain and the Netherlands,
from operators as diverse as Iberia, Spain's national carrier, the Argentine government
and Aviaction, asmall start-up charter operator in West Germany. All had avariety of uses
for the versatile Fokker jet's high performance, especially from short or rough runways.
Larger and more powerful versions of the F.28 were offered later and the type became
popular as an economic mainline and feeder airliner, as well as its 'outback' perfor-
The Aer lingus 737s were originally ordered specifically for the busy Dublin-london route and were to be
seen at london/Heathrow for many years. Malcolm L. Hill
route was one such schedule, with the extra
freight sales capacity supplementing lower
passenger loads at certain times of the day.
All-cargo services also included a number of
bloodstock charters, flying racehorses from
the Irish studs to race meetings and sales
around the UK and Continental Europe.
A large programme of IT services from
Dublin and other Irish cities kept the 737
and One-Eleven fleets busy around the
clock over summer weekends, when there
was less demand on the business traffic-
based scheduled routes. Aer Lingus had
operated substantial numbers of both
charter and scheduled flights to Tarbes,
transporting pilgrims to the Catholic
shrine at Lourdes, in southern France, for
many years and the 73 7s were soon regu-
larly assigned to these services. During the
busier months, daily utilization of up to 18
hours a day was getting to be the norm.
..
haul jet fleet of four BAC One-Elevens and
were also supplemented by larger 707s
when loads demanded it.
A 737 simulator was added to Boeing
720 and BAC One-Eleven examples
already in service at the airline's Dublin
head office. With more and more 737
operators starting to come on line, some of
them with comparatively small fleets, Aer
Lingus was increasingly leasing out unused
training hours on its simulator. This was
the beginning of a whole new source of
income for the ai rI ine, with th ird-party
maintenance and even short-term crew
and aircraft leasing gaining in importance
over the next few years.
The 'QC' aircraft were not only utilized
on night-time cargo services. 'Combi' pas-
senger/cargo fl ights operated on some
scheduled services to regional points in the
UK. The Dublin-Bristol-Cardiff-Dublin
New Zealand National Airways' 737s brought jet comfort to their domestic routes.
Jenny Gradidge
Braathens' Boeing 737-200s operated as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far
south as Mediterranean resorts. Steve Bunting
New Northern Highlights
Irish Deliveries
Aer Lingus, the national carrier of Eire, the
Irish Republic, was close on the heels of
Braathens in inaugurating its 737 services.
The airline's first aircraft, EI-ASA, 'St Jar-
lath' arrived at Dublin on 2 April 1969,
closely followed by two others. The trio
began revenue services later that month,
flying to London and Paris. Three more
737s, including two convertible 'QCs' were
delivered by the end of 1969. The arrival of
yet three more in early 1970 saw Aer Lin-
gus able to offer all-jet flights on their Euro-
pean routes, and the withdrawal of their last
Vickers Viscount turbo-props. The 737s
operated alongside rhe esrabl ished short-
The 737 seemed to be getting a reputation
as a cold weather native, especially when,
on the European side of the Arctic Circle,
Braathens took delivery of their first two
73 7s in Decen,ber 1968 and January 1969.
Within a matter of weeks, Braathens had
also taken delivery of their first Fokker
F.28 twin jet, intended for use on routes
where the 73 7 was considered too large.
The F.28 also possessed exceptional short-
and rough-field capabilities, making it a
worthy successor to the En turbo-prop
that it was intended to replace.
The arrival of the 737 did not see the
immediate demise of the seven Braathens
DC-6Bs that it was intended to replace.
The first Braathens DC-6B had entered
service in 1961 and the classic piston-
engined airliner was to remain a feature of
the Norwegian airline's scheduled and
charter operations for over ten years.
One service on which the DC-6B had
heavily featured was a regular charter from
Tromso to Spitzbergen, in the Arctic. Sup-
porting a joint orwegian/Russian coalmin-
ing operation by Store orske Spitzbergen
Kullkompani, landings were at first made on
the sea ice, then a gravel strip. Although the
DC-6Bs shared the service with F.ns and,
later, the F.28s, only the 737 could match
the DC-6Bs' load-carrying on the unique
service. Both passengers and cargo were car-
ried on the flight, with the 737s freight-car-
rying capacity being put to especially good
use. A tarmac strip was later laid in the mid-
1970s, but the special weather conditions
and unique operational restrictions sti II
meant that an aircraft of the 737's outstand-
ing capabilities was required.
62 63
INTO SERVICE
CHAPTER FIVE
SAL
with a single DC-3 on 27 ovember 1946.
The next spring, another DC-3-equipped
airline, Challenger Airlines, based at alt
Lake ity, operated its first cheduled er-
vices to Denver via several small cities in
outhern Wyoming. Arizona Airways
began its DC-3 schedules at the same time,
flying from Phoenix to citie in the Grand
Canyon area.
All three airlines struggled, although
they also managed some limited expansion
to their slTlall route networks. By 1949,
with the Denver, Colorado-based airline
since 1966. Frontier had a classic U region-
al carrier history, its antecedents having
begun operations shortly after the econd
World War, with fleets of ex-military DC-3s.
The first of three small airlines whose merg-
er resultcd in thc formation of Fronticr,
Monarch Airlines, inaugurated schedulcd
services over thc Denver-Durango route
Frontier Airlines actually ordered their first
737s as replacements for their fleet of Boe-
ing 727-100s, five of which had been in use
Rocky Mountain Boeings
restrictions. AIthough thc One- Elevens
were disposed of as soon as the 737s
entered service, Aloha continued to oper-
ate a small fleet of Vickers Vi counts on
local and supplementary fl igh ts.
the Aloha One-Elcvens had been popular
with passengers and crews alike. However,
weight limitations had meant that Aloha
had been forced to operate under severe
restrictions from some of the smaller air-
ports, with usable traffic loads making the
One-Eleven services less e onomic. The
73 7s, with their better runway perfor-
mance, were acquired to counteract these
South African Airways was to become a long-term 737 customer. Seen in a later livery, 737-200 lS-SIJ
displays its Afrikaans titling on its starboard side. MAP
IDlproving the Breed
73 7 customer had operated jets on their
short-haul networks before. The 737s were
intended either as replacement for earlier
jets, such as loha's One-Elevens, or to
supplement larger 727 on shorter or les -
travelled routes into smaller airports, as was
the case with SAA and ANA.
Aloha had been operating a fleet of
three BA One-Elevens on their inter-
island Hawaiian network since April
1966. Introduced to compete against D -
9s of their arch rival Hawaiian Airlines,
While Bocing was developing the 'Ad-
vanced' version, the original 737 models
werc continuing to spread their wings over
an increasingly wide range. ewoperators
wcrc as scattered as South African Air-
lines, Aloha Airlines, Frontier Airlin s
and All ippon Airways. Many of thc new
Worldwide Distribution
A Day-to-Day Success
extra expense and continued to operate the
unmodified aircraft under their original per-
formance criteria, ordering new 'Advanced'
aircraft in any repeat or new orders.
The 737 in 196 and 1969 established
itself in service with several airline
around the world, operating a staggering
variety of operational scenarios. For the
most part, the airlines and their pilots were
pleased with the aircraft. One pilot com-
mented that it was: 'A great aeroplane. It
just goes and goes
l
'
There was an increase in the droop of two
slat sections, the exten ion of the Kreuger
flaps inboard, sealing the gap between spoil-
ers and flaps and smoothing the leading
edge that was exposed behind the flaps
when deployed. One result of the refine-
ments incorporated in the 'Advanced' 737
was an increase in range to 2,370 mile. All
ippon Airways, the japane e domestic
carrier, placed the first 'Advanced' 737-20
inserviceinjune 1971.
Significant as the improvements were,
although kits were made available to cus-
tomers for converting their earlier aircraft to
the new 'Advanced' standard, none were
sold. Instead, the operators shunned the
(Belowl United's 737-200s were soon scheduled on
busy inter-city routes throughout the airline's
network, linking smaller airports to major cities
around the USA. Aviation Hobby Shop
Malaysia-Singapore Airlines was one of the few
customers for the smaller 737-100. Aviallon Hobby
Shop
The Series 200 Carries On
Onc the outstanding orders for the erie
100 had been delivered to Avianca and
lalaysia- ingapore Airlines in 1969, the
eries 200 was the sole offering from the 73 7
stable. Although various combinations of
passenger/cargo configurations and rough-
field-equipped versions were available,
there was only the one basic 737 to hane\.
As well a the aerodynamic improve-
ments already made to reduce drag, and the
option of the later, more powelful, versions
of the jT8D engine, from the 280th aircraft
much more substantial improvement were
introduced to the production standard
Series 200 aircraft. The extra changes
included more aerodynamic refinements,
espe ially concentrated on the wing design,
including a thickening of the enginc strut
and a minor repositioning of the slats.
Improvements in short-field takc-off and
landing characteristics had been brought
about by refining the flaps system and the
installation of an automatic braking systcm.
64 65
I IPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED
Frontier's first equipment comprised a fleet of tried and trusted DC-3s inherited from the three local
carriers that merged to form the new airline. AViation Hobby Shop
Changes at the Top
ineteen sixty-eight saw the arrival of the
larger Boeing 727-2 Os and the award o(
nell' routes into Memphis (rom Little
Rock. Thus, Memphis hccamc thc I 16th
city and Tennessee the [6th statc to he
served hy Frontier. In terms of the numhcr
of citics served, Frontier was noll' the sec-
ond largest air carrier in the U A.
The following ycar Lcwis W. Dymond
resigned from Fronticr and was replaced hy
E. Paul Burkc as Prcsident and Board Chair-
man. Onc of the new management's first
decisions was to replace the original Bocing
were soon to be disposed of as more jets
allowcd the transfcr of Convail's to their
routes. Within a couple of ycars, thc CV-
600s were replaced by morc CV-580s, to
standardize the turho-prop neet on one type.
not begin scheduled scrvice until Septem-
hcr 1949, using a nCel o( small Beech
Bonanzas on routes from Fort Worth to
Dallas and points in Oklahoma Statc. DC-
3s had entered scrvicc in latc 1950, with
CV-240s following in thc carly [960s
when Ccntral rook ovcr a numher of local
routes from American Airlincs and East-
ern Airl ines. Ccntral had also optcd for
turbo-prop convcrsion of their Convail's,
although they chosc to fit British Rolls
Royce Dart-. As such, their 'nell" Com'a-
irs were designated CV-600s and markcted
on Central Airlines sen'ices as 'Dart 600s'.
Thus, when Fronticr mergcd with Cen-
tral, two different versions of Convair turho-
prop wcre in use on the network. The result-
ing neet consistcd offivc Bocing 727- [OOs,
twenty-two CV-5 Os and c1cven CV-600s,
as well as no less than scventeen surviving
DC-3s that were still in use with both carri-
ers at the time of the merger. The DC-3s
FRONTIER
The Central Airlines Merger
services and the extension of routes from
Wichita and Topeka to Chicago. The air-
line hegan to apply for several more route
extensions, including services to Seattle,
Houston, New York and Washington, cit-
ing their use of 727s which allowed Fron-
tier to operate non-stop hetween most of
the cities concerned. Frontier also claimed
that the addition of the extra services to its
network would allow the airline to forego
its nccd for its 7 million annual suhsidy.
Howcvcr, the CAB refused most of the
more amhitious reque -ts, such as non-stop
California- cw York nights, claiming that
'routc :trcngthening does havc its limits'!
On 1 Octohcr [967 Frontier took ovcr
Fort Worth, Texas-based Central Airlines.
Ccntral had been founded in [944, but did
(Below) The 727-100s were to be ousted by the 737s
from 1969. Via author
The Convair CV-340s in Frontier's fleet were
converted to turbo-prop power to improve
performance. The increased speed and smoother
ride of the redesignated CV-580s was much
appreciated by their passengers. Crews appreciated
the extra available power at high-altitude Rocky
Mountain airports with short runways. AViation
Hobby Shop
to do so. The re-engined Convairs, redesig-
nated CV-5 0- when fitted with the Allison
5 1 prop-jets, were placed into service on I
June 1964. The 'new' CV-5 Os could oper-
ate 100mph faster than the CV-340s. The
extra power provided by the AII isons W,lS
greatly appreciated at the small airports
served by Frontier, many of which were at
rarefied altitudes that had restricted the pis-
ton-engined aircraft's operations.
1963 and 1964 boardings had continued
to increase and new non-stop authority was
granted between several of the larger cities
on Frontier's network. This prompted
Dymond to place an order for the five Boe-
ing 727-100s, at a cost of 55 million. The
first two of the 99-passenger jet were intro-
duced on bu ier routes from Denver and
alt Lake City in [966. By the time the
72 7s were in service, eighteen Convairs had
been converted to 5 0 standard. on-stop
nights were inaugurated between Denver
and t Louis by the 727s, with the CV-5 s
nying new Denver-Kansa City-St Louis
services, on 13June 1967. Trans World ir-
lines took a very dim view of Frontier's
entry into its traditional markets at St Louis
and Kansas City and trebled its own com-
peting jet services to Denver.
Other new routes awarded to Frontier at
the time were non-stop Denver-Las VeW1s
orth and outh Dakota. The next year,
four more citie were added in Montana.
New Management, New
Equipment
The expanded network called for more
modern aircraft and the first of what was to
grow into a large neet of second-hand Con-
vair 340s entered service on busier routes
in the summer of 1959. The 44-passenger
Convairs brought great improvements in
passenger comfort over the DC- 3s. They
were pressurized, which allowed the air-
craft to operate at altitudes above most of
the rough weather, especially important on
the Rocky Mountain services. Their
increased cargo and passenger capacity was
useful and attracted further revenue where
the DC-3s had struggled to accommodate
available traffic.
A new management team took over
Frontier in 1962, headed by Lewis W.
Dymond. Improved schedules, nell' 'stand-
by' and generous family fare were intro-
duced, resulting in a 26 per cent growth in
passenger boardings for the last six months
of [962. Dymond also signed contracts for
the conversion of the CV-340 neet to turbo-
prop power, the first of the regional airlines
Challenger had reached Billings, Montana
and Arizona new as far south as EI Paso.
With Monarch's network neatly sand-
wiched in the middle it soon became clear
to all three that a merger would create a
more viable carrier. Approval for the merg-
er was granted by the Civil Aeronautics
Board in 1950 and the new company was
named Frontier Airlines, serving routes
that stretched from Montana to Mexico via
seven states in the Rocky Mountain and
Southwest regions. Operations began under
the new name on I June 1950.
A period of teady growth followed, Fron-
tier utilizing a neet of trusty DC-3s through-
out the network. Although stretching over
a large territory, the airline still served a
region where populations could he sparse,
with few big citie. However, growth in
exploration for oil, natural gas, uranium,
plus reclamation dam projects and tourism
to ational Park in the area provided a de -
perate need for transportation where little
other public transport existed and road con-
ditions could be difficult. Growing use of the
airline was made by businessmen, construc-
tion finns, the military and vacationers.
1n late 195 , Frontier's hard work was
rewarded with the award of routes to no
less than twenty-four new cities in Nebras-
ka, Missouri, Wyoming, Colorado and
66 67
Frontier's 737s filled a vital niche between the larger 727-200s and the turbo-prop
fleet of CV-580s. Jenny Gradidge
727-100s with more economic Boeing 737-
200s. The first aircraft was del ivered to
Frontier that summer and by the end of
1969, ten 737s lI'ere in use. The smaller,
more flexible, 737 lI'a· able to operate from
smaller airport than the 72 7-lOs had and
introduced jet service to more cities on the
Frontier Airlines network.
The 737 was also more economic on
some of the non-stop flights bet\\'een hug-
er cities and proved useful on new routes
all'arded in 1969, such as Kansas City-Dal-
las and Salt Lake City-Denver-Dallas,
operating alongside the Boeing 727-200s
when loads might not justify the use of the
bigger aircraft. In total contrast, in 1970, a
small fleet of 19-passenger de Havilland
Canada Twin Otters was introduced on
local flights in northern Montana and
North Dakota.
Financial Problems
Generally, 1970 had been a bad year for the
airlines, with a sharp slow-down in traffic
growth, brought about by inflation and
excessive competition. However, Frontier
fared slightly better than some carriers,
although it was unable to produce a profit
that year. ell' route awards lI'ere still find-
ing their way to the airline, with jet service
inaugurated between Omaha, Chicago,
Denver and Phoenix, amongst others.
The steadily increasing fleet of Boeing
737s was useful on the new routes, being
better able to operate profitably with the
lower loads encountered whilst traffic was
built up. The four main elements of the
Frontier fleet, the Twin Otters, the CV-
580s, the 737s and the 727-200s provided
a wide range of capacity and performance
well suited to the airline's varied network.
However, during 1971/72, following
another management change, increasing
financial problems led to the disposal of
the 727-200s to Braniff Airways. Other
internal changes were made and the ser-
vice standards were overhauled in an effort
to reverse the carrier's decl ine. The mea-
sures were highly successful and Frontier
Airlines carried 13 per cent more pas·en-
gers in 1972. The revenue loads increased
again in 1973 and the CAB statistics
showed that Frontier Airlines received
fewer passenger complaints than any other
regional carrier. With the departure of the
727s, the versatile Boeing 737 fleet had
become Frontier's front-line jet equip-
ment. Its ability to operate both local,
IMPROVING THE BREED
regional and trunk line was a major factor
in Frontier's being able to survive a diffi-
cult time in the indu try.
Repeat Business
Repeat orders sail' original 737 customer
such as nited, Lufthansa, Piedmont, Bri-
tannia, Aer Lingus and Braathens fleets
increasing on a yearly basis as the airlines
came to rely on the 73 7 on more of their
services. Piedmont retired the last of their
piston-engined Martin 404s in 1970, oper-
ating to their network of seventy-eight
ci tics wi th a fleet of 737 jets, supplemented
by FH-227B and Y -II A turbo-props.
They carried 2,234,999 passengers in 1969.
Services had been introduced into Chica-
go that year and more nell' services lI'ere
opened to Charleston, outh Carolina. By
1972 Piedmont was able to report record
earnings and a net profit of 3,323,317 in
its 25th year of operation.
Britannia and Braathens, in particular,
appreciated the increased range and
improved short runway performance offered
by the later, 'Advanced' 737-200 models. As
well as being able to offer non-stop services
to further ranging points, travel companies
were able to develop new resorts and offer
their customers increased choice to points
only served by basic airport f:Kiliries.
68
Cargo operations also featured more
heavily in the charter carrier's 737 service·.
The ability to convert the 737 to all-cargo,
or even 'combi', configuration alloll'ed
increased utili:ation during traditionally
slack time when the aircraft might other-
wise be idle. Britannia introduced its first
convertible aircraft, G-AX A, into ser-
vice in early 197 and the aircraft was kept
especially I usy with bloodstock charters
between the K, Eire and France. Britan-
nia 737s were also used to carry the British
Show Jumping Team from Luton to Kiev.
As their last turho-prop Rrisrol Rrirannias
were withdrawn, the Britannia Airways
737s began to operate much longer-ranging
(
passenger flights, albeit with necessary refu-
elling stops, including services from Luton
to both orth America and the Far East.
Bangkok, Colombo, Hong Kong and Kuala
Lumpur lI'ere all served on affinity group
charters from the K, although fuelling
·tops had to be made en route, u·ually at
Zagreb, Damascus, Dubai and Karachi.
Braathens also exploited the convert-
ible 73 7s, taking del ivery of cargo-door-
equipped 'Advanced' examples in 1971.
When not operating passenger flights on the
orwegian airline's scheduled and charter
network, the Braathens convertible 73 7s
flew cargoes throughout the world. A reg-
ular operation was the airlift of oil-drilling
equipment ::Ind personnel, from orway to
\
IMPROVING THE BREED
Pltumunl

(Top) Piedmont based a considerable expansion programme around the 737-200 as more were delivered to supplement the original aircraft. Aviation Hobby Shop
(Middle) Bolder, updated, colours were seen on United's '737 Friend Ships' from 1972. Jenny Gradidge
(Bottom) The flexibility of convertible 737s, such as G-AXNA, allowed Britannia Airways to increase utilization in the quieter winter months
when passenger charter work traditionally decreased. Via author
69
IMPROVING TilE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED
Sporting Aer lingus's later tail livery, EI-BDY wears Eastern Provincial Airlines' red cheatline, the legacy
of an off-season winter lease. Via author
The large cargo door of the convertible 737 allowed the easy loading of awkward and outsize loads, such as this
dismantled helicopter being transported from london/Gatwick to Greenland by Braathens. Ivar Hakonsen
Air Algerie was an early client for Aer lingus's leasing out of spare 737 capacity. EI-ASB is seen in Air Algerie's
Caravelle-era livery. Aviation Hobby Shop
70
West Africa. With weather in the orth
Sea too rough for oil exploration drilling
in the European winter, operations were
moved to the West African coast. As their
73 7 fleet increased, Braathens also posted
two or three aircraft in neighbouring Swe-
den on a year-round basis, flying IT to
Mediterranean re orts in the summer and
to the Canary Islands in the winter.
Seasonal Leases
Early on, Lufthansa had leased out at least
Lhree of their Series IOOs to its charter sub-
sidiary, Condor Flugdienst. The 73 7s oper-
ated alongside six Boeing 727-100s, also
leased from Lufthansa, on IT charter' from
a number of West German cities. The
Condor 737s replaced the airline' last
Vickers Viscount turbo-props and allowed
the carrier to claim to be one of the first
all-jet charter airlines in Europe.
As well as longer-term leases, like that
from Lufthansa to Condor, a number of
carriers managed to lease out their spare
73 7 capacity in their less busy seasons. Aer
Lingus, which had pioneered such under-
takings with their Br)eing 720, 707 and
RAC One-Eleven fleets in the past, was
one of the fi rst to exploi t the 73 7 in this
way. The very first winter of Aer Lingus
73 7 operations, 1969/70, saw El-ASB
leased to Air Algerie for three months,
supplementing the North African airline's
fleet of Caravelles.
Later winter contracts usually saw at
least some of Aer Lingus' 737s returning
regularly to the African continent and also
migrating to Canad,l, the Caribbean and
the US on short-term seasonal leases.
Those that remained in Eire continued
operating on the Irish airline's scheduled
services, although frequencies on some
routes were much redu cd in the winter
months. IT charter flying was almost non-
existent until the summer and these com-
bined factors allowed the releasing of oth-
erwise idle aircraft for lease work.
These highly profitable arrangements
usually took effect between the end of
December and early March, when the air-
craft would return to er Lingus and their
regular scheduled routes from Eire to
Europe. Often, the 737s that had been
leased out would he seen back on the Aer
Lingus services till wearing at least partial
liveries of the lease customer, there not
having been time to completely repaint
the aircraft.
71
737 Newcomers
ot all of Boeing's customers for the 737
were est<lbl ished operators. brand new
carrier started their operations with the air-
craft in June 1971. The road to the inaugu-
ration of Southwest Airlines intra-state ser-
vi es within Texas had been a long one, but
their suc essful struggle was to prove impor-
tant to Boeing over the following decades.
It had been as early as 1966 that the idea
of a low-fare, frequent-service airline serv-
ing Texas had first been mooted. At the
time Rollin King was considering closing
down a commuter service that he owned
and operated, also called outhwest Air-
lines, that was losing money on scheduled
services from an Antonio, Texas, to small
cities such as Laredo and Eagle Pass. The
tiny airline operated a collection of small
eight-passenger aircraft, mostly Beech and
Piper aircraft. Considering his next move,
King eventually hit on the idea of a [ igger
commercial operation, serving Texas's
biggest three commercial cities, Dallas,
Houston and San ntonio.
A year later King presented a feasibility
study to his lawyer, Herbert D. Kelleher.
Kelleher helped King incorporate the new
company, originally called Air Southwest,
and dispose of the loss-making commuter
carrier. Kelleher was not keen on the pro-
posal at first, but agreed to undertake the
legal work free of charge. Kelleher then
started checking out similar operation,
such as that of Pacific outhwest in Cali-
fornia, and started inve ting in the idea,
and, more importantly, persuading other
to do the same.
Most of the first 100,000 raised went on
the cost of preparing an appl ication and
producing a proper prospectus. n option
was also taken out with American Airlines
for three of their surplus Lockheed Electras,
with financing from Allstate Insurance.
The new company managed to attract
extra financing from several important
IMPROVING THE BREED
unanimously, on Z February 1968, to
back Air outhwest. However, the next
day the establ ished carriers, in the shape of
Braniff Airways, Trans Texas Airways and
Continental Airway obtained a re train-
ing order, prohibiting the commis ion
from delivering th certificate. The case
wa referred to the Austin tate District
Court that summer.
The major airlines argued that they
already provided adequate service between
the cities concerned and that there was no
room for any more competition. Air
Southwest actually lost the first trial and
had to resort to appea ling to the Texas
Supreme Court. AII the $543,000 raised
had been spent on the court cases and AII-
flights, the Air Southwest board was also
faced with having to refinance the airline
if it was to have any chance of starting
operations. Trained accountant ami ex-
president of a number of airlines, M. Lamar
Muse was hired in January 1971 and given
the task of getting the company airborne.
As well a hiring an experienced manage-
ment team, Muse used every skill and con-
tact he had acquired in his long career to
gather together the desperately needed
funds.
Gradually, the new finance package was
assembled by Muse and veteran airline exec-
utives were hired to organize the new airline.
The man who had come up with the whole
idea in the first place, Rollin King, became
its operating name from Air Southwe t to
outhwest Airlines, King's original compa-
ny now being defunct. Wearing titles to
that effect, the first of the order for four
737s was delivered to Dallas in June 1971.
The company adopted a bright eye-catch-
ing livery in orange, red and 'desert gold'.
Other innovations introduced included
pre-punched 1MB-card packets of tickets
for regular customers, monthly billing and
stewardess uniforms that included hot-
pant or red vinyl mini-skirts.
Underway but Still under Fire
Scheduled operations finally began on 18
June 1971. The liZ-passenger 737 'Love
Birds', christened to reflect Southwest's
choice of home base at Dallas's Love Field,
IMPROVING THE BREED
Repeated fares wars, especially with
Braniff, dogged the airline over the next
few years, as it struggled to e tablish itself as
a profit-making business. At one point,
Braniff had reduced their fare on the Dal-
las- Houston route to 13, half that of
outhwest. Although Braniff, with their
large domestic network and international
services would be able to absorb the loss, at
least in the short term, Southwest would
have bankrupted itself trying to match it.
Instead, Muse devised a programme where-
by passengers were still charged Z6, but
were offered a gift. Anyone declining the
gift was entitled to a refund of the fare dif-
ference. Initially, 76 per cent of the passen-
gers took the gift, and outhwest could
pocket the extra revenue. The percentage
later dropped considerably as the novelty
was a popular move. Southwest steadily
began to e tablish itself in the minds of the
Texas public as a practical, cheaper, alter-
native ro the big-name airlines in the area.
One of the four original 73 7s had to be
sold after a federal district court judge pro-
nounced that outhwest could not legally
fly harters outside Texas. This robbed the
airline of a potential source of income and
also left them with an idle aircraft at quiet
times in the schedule. Although a 500,000
profit was made on the sale of the aircraft,
to Frontier Airl ines, Southwest was left
with the problem of covering all the sched-
uled flights on the network.
A solution was found by introducing
the 10-minute turnround, which was to
become a legend in the industry. Such fast
turn rounds had been common in the days
Pacific Southwesfs successful California operation was to provide the model for a Texas-based imitator. MAP Southwest Airlines' brightly painted 737-200s finally started revenue services within Texas in June 1971.
Martyn East
Texas concern that bought rock in Air
outhwest, raising 543,00 .
Legal Wranglings
As with P A and Air California further
west, as long a Air outhwest confined
their operations to within the borders of
their home state, they would not require
federal approval from the Civil Aeronau-
tics Board. The company would only need
the go-ahead from the Texas Aeronautics
Commission, with whom the application
to begin commercial operations was filed
on Z7 November 1967. The TAC voted
state Insurance had withdrawn their
financing for the EI ctras. However, in
March 1970, the Texas upreme Court
overturned the decision of the lower court,
and in December that year, the
upreme Court refu ed to hear an appeal
by the rival airlines.
Certified - but Bro/<e'
Even now, the rival carriers were still trying
to sabotage Air outhwest, attempting to
dissuade underwriters from buying stock
and filing spurious complaints to the CAB.
Although it was now free to begin revenue
72
executive vice-president for operations.
Kelleher continued to participate on a part-
time basi as he was till working for his law
firm. Although the Allstate deal for the
three Electras had now lapsed, this turned
out to be a blessing in disguise. Boeing was
not only willing to look at an order from Air
outhwest for four Boeing 737-Z Os, Jut
they were prepared to finance 90 per cent of
the purchase cost. These were unheard-of
financial terms and it was to be the begin-
ning of an excellent relationship between
customer airline and aircraft manufacturer.
In March 1971, during the height of the
legal wrangl ing, the airline quietly changed
operated twelve round-trips daily between
Dallas and Houston and six a day from
Dalla to an Antonio. Fares were pitched
a 40 round-trip, undercutting Braniff
and Texas International, as Trans Texa
had become in the meanti me, by 14 and
16, respectively. The inaugural flight
had been able to take place despite yet
another eleventh hour attempt by Braniff
and Texas International to enforce a
restrain ing order that would have prevent-
ed services beginning. Only the afternoon
before, Kelleher managed to have the
order overthrown by the Texas Supreme
Court in Austin.
wore off, but the promotion lasted long
enough for outhwest to win that particu-
lar skirmish in the fare war.
Loads had taken a while to pick up, with
some early flights operating with only a
handful of passengers. ome rescheduling
and revamping of the fares structure fol-
lowed and passenger boarding figures start-
ed to how some improvement. One more
major change was to switch the Houston
terminal from the new Intercontinental
Airport, miles outside the city, to the old
Hobby A irporr, much closer to downtown.
This served the needs of Southwest's large-
ly commuting passengers much better and
73
of the 0 -3, or even some of the later
turbo-prop operations, but unheard of
with the larger jet aircraft. With turn-
round times sla hed, the remaining aircraft
were able to maintain the published
schedule minus the sold aircraft. The
speedy turnrounds continue to this day,
enabling the airline to schedule more trips
per day per aircraft, as well as aving on the
capital cost of extra aircraft that would be
required to maintain a more leisurely pro-
gramme. The success of the short turn-
round system spoke volumes for the per-
ceived reliability of the Boeing 737 in
high-pressure operations.
IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED
The Love Field Factor Southwest and Muse Air
Southwest Airlines resisted moves to make it transfer operations to the new
Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. Instead. it headquartered itself at the downtown love Field
near Dallas. TIm Kincaid COllection
One dispute that was guaranteed to keep Southwest's lawyers in steady employment
was the problem of Love Field versus Dallas-Fort Worth.
In 1968. all the airline operators then using Dallas original airport at Love Field. signed
an agreement. the 1968 Regional Airport Concurrent Bond Ordinance. to move to anew
airport being built near Grapevine. Texas. to jointly serve the cities of Dallas and Fort
Worth. Situated roughly halfway between the two cities. the costly new facility would
have to attract all the airlines to use it for it to have any hope of being profitable. The
airlines who signed up for the bond were not only obliged to move to the new airport.
but were also liable for any losses it incurred. However. Southwest Airlines was not in
existence when the bond was set up and was not about to sign up to it. with its expen-
sive conditions.
As Love Field was only ten minutes from downtown Dallas. Southwest also
recognized its convenience for its business commuters. which would give it a major
TranStar Airlines and with its fleet painted a striking 'Empyrean Blue' livery. the 'new'
airline became Southwest's longer-ranging associate. offering premium-grade services.
Soon. TranStar's route network stretched from Texas to California. Florida. Louisiana,
Nevada and Oklahoma as well as still offering flights linking the main Texan cities.
(continued overlean
The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 was Muse Air's choice for its regional Texan services.
TIm Kincaid Collection
Old Dog, New Tricks
The newarrangement worked quite well for the first year, Southwest and TranStar serv-
ing their different customer bases in their own way. Unfortunately, TranStar became
embroiled in avicious war of fares with Continental Airlines. In 1982, Texas Air Corpo-
ration, the owners of Texas International Airlines, had acquired Continental Airlines,
which could trace its operations as far back as 1937. Despite continuing unrest within
its employee ranks, much of the merged workforce objecting to asomewhat Draconian
new management style, Texas Air Corporation merged the two operators under the
older and larger airline's name.
After the bankruptcy of Braniff International the same year, the 'new' Continental. by
then operating under 'Chapter 11' bankruptcy protection and now headquartered in
Houston, was anxious to establish itself as the major operator both within Texas and
from the state to the rest of the US. Continental saw TranStar as athreat to their ambi-
tious plans, the smaller carrier having built up aconsiderable traffic share on compet-
ing routes from Houston. Continental introduced much reduced, non-refundable, 'Maxi-
Fares', countered by TranStar's 'StarFares' and 'MediFares' programmes. TranStar also
offered improved, two-class, service with a new Business Class upgraded to a First
Class in an attempt to improve revenue yields. However, losses mounted to unaccept-
able levels and Kelleher finally gave up the fight in 1987, closing down TranStar in
August that year in an effort to protect Southwest Airlines.
On 28 March 1978, M. Lamar Muse suddenly resigned as Southwest Airline's President
and CEO. In the interim. Herb Kelleher was appointed as atemporary replacement. until
Howard D. Putnam, the VP-Marketing Services at United Air Lines accepted the per-
manent post. three months later. Putnam was to remain until 1981 , when he left to take
the reigns of the, by then, ailing Braniff International. Herb Kelleher was finally per-
suaded to replace him on afull-time basis. Practically since Day One, Kelleher had been
an important influence on Southwest Airlines, but only as an outside advisor and legal
representative. Now he was to lead the airline he had been instrumental in founding.
Lamar Muse's departure from Southwest was followed by that of his son, Michael.
who had been vp-Finance under his father. Anon-competition clause was written into
the agreements reached over their leaving Southwest. but within days of this expiring
a new airline, Muse Air, came into existence in 1981. Under the control of father and
son, Muse Air immediately began rival services over Southwest's core Texan routes.
There were significant differences in the style of operation adopted by Muse. Aiming
for a more select clientele, Muse offered assigned seating, with three facing-seat
lounge areas in the cabin, extra cabin attendants and upgraded refreshment services.
Interestingly, Muse Air was the first US carrier to operate a full non-smoking policy on
its aircraft. The Muse Air fleet comprised brand-new, 159-passenger MD-80s, of vari-
ous marks, later joined by slightly smaller, 130-passenger DC-9-50s, bought from Swis-
sair. The all McDonnell Douglas-built fleet was painted in aunique livery with Muse's
signature across the fuselage.
Rather than try to compete by spending money on upgrading their own passenger
amenities, Southwest responded with its strengths, and increased frequencies on routes
where the two airlines were nowcompeting head-to-head. Although Muse Air managed
to make adent in Southwest's traffic and even experimented with expanding its route
system within Texas and to inter-State points, the Southwest philosophy of frequent.
low-cost travel with basic amenities won through. Muse Air never made a profit and
eventually, in 1986, Lamar Muse took up Herb Kelleher's offer to buyout the company.
Rather than just absorb Muse Air's operations. the airline was reorganized. Renamed
Initial services began on the new expand-
ed intra-Texas network that winter and
were increased in the spring of 1977, as
more 737s were delivered from Boeing to
operate them.
With its colourful presence now being
felt throughout its home state, Southwest
would have to start looking further afield
for any future development of the net-
work. Muse began studying the possibility
of setting up a new subsidiary of the com-
pany, to provide a Southwest Ail'l ines style
of service from Chicago's Midway Airport.
Once the main airport for Chicago, Mid-
way had been eclipsed by the opening of
the new facility at O'Hare and was, by the
1970s, very little used. However, moves
were being made in Washington that
would release Southwest from its intra-
state shackles and allow new routes to be
opened without the need for out-of-state
subsidiaries to be formed.
commercial advantage over its larger competitors. In 1972. the cities of Dallas and Fort
Worth brought the first of a series of lawsuits in an effort to make Southwest move.
Several years of litigation later. Southwest was told that it could operate from Love
Field as long as it was an airport. Southwest had actually been told this after the first
hearing. but appeals from the cities and larger airlines had kept the case in the courts
for years. When the other airlines moved out of Love Field. Southwest took over the
prestigious gate positions previously occupied by giant American Airlines. The little air-
line was growing up.
Aeronautics Commission. Unfortunately
for Texas International, they were suffer-
ing from industrial action at the time and
their flights were strike-bound. Therefore
they were unable to put up much of an
argument and the judge decided that any
service was better than none, and threw
their objections out of court.
As it was, the legal dispute had delayed
Southwest beginning service from Harlin-
gen until 1975. Their presence in the area
was immediately felt though. The year
before, 1974, had seen 123,000 passengers
flying from the Valley to Dallas, Houston
and San Antonio. Eleven months after
Southwest introduced their service, this
had risen to 325,000.
Encouraged by the success of the
Rio Grande Valley flights, Southwest
applied to introduce similar flights from
Corpus Christi, Austin, Midland-Odessa,
Lubock and EI Paso, in March 1976.
One 'advantage' of Southwest Airlines
finding itself in almost continuous legal
dispute with the larger airlines was that it
had to curb any temptation to expand too
quickly. This was a common trap that
many mher inexperienced carriers had
fallen into in the past. However, the fre-
quent court cases kept the Southwest
management's attention focused on main-
taining standards and maximizing rev-
enues on the existing network.
By 1973 though, Southwest's operations
were starting to show a profit and some
modest expansion was considered feasible.
First targeted was the Rio Grande Valley
area, served by the airport at Harlingen.
Texas International already served routes
from Harlingen and would, normally, have
been expected to put up a fight against
Southwest's application to the Texas
Slow Expansion
74 75
IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED
soon operating over much more of MSA's
Asian network.
In 1972 though, MSA was srlit up, the
six-year agreement between the two coun-
tries to operate their airline services as a
joint venture having expired. From Octo-
ber. MSA became Singapore Airlines,
o
1969. Their initial f1eet of Series 100s was
introduced on scheduled f1ights from
Singarore to Kuala Lumpur, Penang,
Bangkok, and Kota Kinabula, ousting the
long-serving Comet 4s. More 737 routes
were introduced as the later order for
Series 200s arrived and the aircraft were
. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ..__ _.....•...
Texas International's arguments against Southwest's expansion into the Rio Grande Valley fell flat. as
Texas International was grounded by a strike at the time. Via author
New Services Worldwide
The Boeing 737 was, by the 1970s,
becoming a common sight at airports in
every corner of the world. Malaysia-Sin-
gapore Airlines became the first Far East-
ern operator of the aircraft on 21 August
Singapore Airlines 'inherited' the MSA Boeing 737 fleet when the original carrier was split into two
airlines. Aviation Hobby Shop
Southwest and Muse Air continued
Southwest acquired control of its Muse Air rival in 1986. lim Kincaid Collection
Muse Air was reorganized as TranStar Airlines, replacing Muse Air's 'signature' livery with a new 'Empyrean Blue'
design. lim Kincaid Collection
76
/
77
IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED
Renamed Wien Air Alaska, the Alaskan pioneer airline made good use of its convertible 737-200Cs
throughout the northern state. Jenny Gradidge
More 'Rough Field' 737 Sales
continent in 1970/71. Indian Airlines had
operated a small fleet of Caravelle jets on
major route' for several year', with turho-
props such as the Viscount, F.27 and HS-
74 operating on local routc'. The 737,
with its improved runway performance
ovcr the older Caravel Ie, was able to intro-
duce jet flights to more cities.
As well as having established itself early
on in rough-field operations with the likes
of Wi en Consolidated, renamed Wien Air
laska Inc in May 1973, ordair and
Pacific Western, suitably modified 737s
were also soon demonstrating their unique
talents elsewhere in the world.
In the more remote part of the African,
Asian and Central/ outhern American
continents there was as much need for
high-capacity aircraft capable of operating
economically and safely from very basiG11-
Iy equipped airports, as there was in Alas-
ka or arctic Canada.
The enhanced performance adv<lntages
of the 'Advan ed' 73 7s lent themselves to
1969/70. Both carriers had previously
been operators of first- and second-gener-
ation European jet airliners. VA P
already flew a pair of BAC One-Elevens,
and continued to do '0 for many years
after the VA P 737 fleet had heen con-
siderably expanded. The contract for the
five VA P 737s had repla ed an order for
five much larger Boeing 727-200 , the
contract for which had been signed in
1968. Aerolineas Argentinas operated
several Caravelles and DH Comets on
domestic and regional flights - both types
were fated to be disposed of as the 737s
entered Aerolineas's service.
Avianca had actually withdrawn their
737-100s from service after only two year's
use, in late 1971, deciding instead to con-
centrate on the Boeing 727 for domestic
and regional jet Trvice. The 737s were
originally sold to the West German Air
Force, but were soon sold back to Boeing.
The two aircraft were eventually bought
by Aloha irlines in J973.
Back in sia, the statc-owned Indian
Airlines Corporation had introduced a
fleet of Boeing 737-200s on to its huge
domestic network throughout the sub-
based in ingapore, and the Malay'ian
Airline ystem, based at Kuala Lumpur.
ingapore irlines rook over most of the
jet equipment, Boeing 707s used on long-
haul flights, and the 73 7s. Malaysian rook
over most of the fleet of F.27 turho-props,
operated on local flights, eventually leas-
ing in Boeing 7 7s, and ordering nell'
737s, to open their own jet service
throughout the region.
mong an increasing number of new
operators, outh African Airways intro-
duced their fleet in 1969 as part of a gen-
eral modernization plan for their short-
and medium-haul routes. Boeing 707s had
operated on long-haul services ro Europe
for many years ami the 727 had also been
introdu ed on major domestic ,1Ild region-
al flights in 1965. The 737s were intended
to supplement the 72 7s and replacc a si:-
ablc flcct of Vickers Viscounts operating
on domestic routes.
Thc Brazilian domestic airlinc VASP
(Viacao Aerea ao Paulo) and Argen-
tinean national carrier, Aerolineas Argen-
tinas, had followed Avianca's example
and placed Series 200 Boeing 737s in ser-
vice on their South American routes in
(Below) Avianca's 737-100s were only to serve for two years before being sold
on. AViation Hobby shop
(Above) Malaysian Airline System acquired Boeing 737-200s to operate
regional schedules from its Kuala Lumpur base. Steve Bunting
78 79
The stretched Fokker F.28 2000 could carry a more economic load of passengers, but still sold in
comparatively small numbers against the 737's much more impressive sales figures. Via author
the more demanding operational environ-
ments. Rival type, such as the Fokker
F.28 Fellow hip, and the much modified
erie 47S ver ion of the BAC One-
Eleven, designed specifically as rough-
field aircraft, were soon eclipsed by the
73 7 ale figures as it encroached on their
targeted markets.
All the rival types were capable of S<1tis-
factory operation from difficult environ-
ments. They were also modern and com-
fortable enough to be utilized on more
important regional services, even where
the rough-field capability was not required.
This gave a degree of flexibility in styles of
operation that precluded the need for dif-
ferent types of aircraft on different parts of
the network.
Where the 73 7 scored over the equally
versatile, but smaller, types was its capacity
and range. The original Fokker F.2 carried
only sixty-five passenger, although this
wa increased in later ver ions, still capable
of rough-field operations, ro seventy nine.
The eries 47S One-Eleven could carry up
ro eighty-nine, in a high-density configura-
tion. A convertible 737 could carry these
sorts of loads in the rear cabin and still have
the forward passenger cabin in a generous
cargo configuration, in addition to the
standard below-floor cargo capacity. The
IMPROVING THE BREED
small fleet of F.2 s oper<1ted by Braathens
was soon eclipsed by the airline's 737s and
the Fokkers were sold in favour of more
Boeings.
By 197 , the 737 was aIso servi ng mixed
pre tige and 'second-level' service with the
likes of Air Algerie, Air Gabon, Air Mada-
gascar, Air auru, Air Tanzania, Air Zaire,
Cameroon Airlines, hina Airlines
(Taiwan), DETA (Mozambique), Far East-
ern Air Transport (Taiwan), Gulf Air
(Bahrein), Iran Air, Iraqi Airways, Kuwait
Airways, igeria Airways, Royal Air Maroc,
Royal Brunei Airlines, Saudia (Saudi Ara-
bia), SAHSA (Honduras), Sudan Airways,
TAAG Angola Airlines, Thai Airways,
TA Airlines (Honduras), Yemen Airways
and Zambia Airways. Although not all these
operarors rook advantage of the rough-field
modifications, they all used their versatile
737 on disparate service throughout their
regions.
Coping with Crisis
Despite the steady pread of the 737
throughout the worldwide airline system
during the late 1960s and early 1970s, Boe-
ing was going through a financial crisis.
The increasing costs of the 747 wide-body
80
programme, the cancellation of the
S T project and a general down-turn in
world financial markets was having a eri-
ou accumulative effect.
At one point, after 737 sales had plum-
meted, a task force set up by Boeing in 1973
seriou Iy considered the option of s lIing
the whole 737 programme to Japan. The
fact that most of the 737 production jigs
were portable led to the choice of the twin-
jet as an asset that might profitably be sold
off to save money. From a sales high of 114
in 1969, only twenty-two were ordered in
1972 and barely fourteen in 1973. However,
a turnround began with the development of
the 'advanced' version and order began to
slowly build up again.
Changes Afoot
Despite the ongoing production delays and
expensive difficulties in introducing their
new giant 747 'Jumbo', the early 1970s aw
Boeing with relatively healthy order books
for most of their available models. On the
horizon though, was a slow-down in air trav-
el generally, massive fuel price increase and
a worldwide wave of deregulation, that
would change the air transport industry's
goalposts for ever. Testing times were "head.
IMPROVING TilE BREED
Carriers as geographically separate as North Africa's Air Algerie and Air Nauru of the Pacific found use for
the 737 on their diverse networks. Via author/MAP
81
I ~ I I ) R O V I N G TilE BREED
Saudia, of Saudi Arabia (above) and aircraft of the
Indian Airlines Corporation (left) were flown into
both major cities and remoter points in their
respective countries. Both pictures via author
(Below) The Boeing 'family' of jet airliners, as
offered in the late 1960s. 737-200, PP-SMA, of VASP
of Brazil. 727-200, N1783B, eventually destined for
libyan Arab Airlines. PP-VJH, a 707-320C, later
delivered to another Brazilian carrier, VARIG, and
747-100, N731PA wearing Boeing titles over its Pan
American colour scheme before delivery. Boeing
The Ripples Spread
airframe designers were desperately trying to
trim as much weight and aerodynamic drag
as possible off the forthcoming aircraft.
The oil crisis also affected the airlines'
revenues in other ways. Industrial and finan-
cial institutions suffered decreased profits as
a result of their own, and their suppliers',
increased fuel costs. Some companies went
out of business, the survivors cutting costs
wherever possible, often causing some cut-
backs in corporate travel. Where the work-
force was hit by redundancies and c!o:,ures,
leisure travel suffered and the airlines were
losing passengers fmm all market groups.
The effect continued into 1974, with poor
advance bookings and more rounds of fuel
price rises. Europe was as badly hit as any-
where, with the UK suffering a miners'
strike as well. Petrol rationing was threat-
ened in the UK; in the end, it did not need
to be introduced, although the British
public did have to suffer extensive power
cuts from the electrical industry.
One important UK charter carrier, Court
Line Aviation, ceased operati(ins in the
middle of August 1974, at the height of the
summer travel season. The Luton-based
operator flew a large fleet of BAC One-
Elevens and a pair of Lockheed Tristar
wide-bodies throughout Europe's holiday
spots, as well as some longer-haul flights to
Canada and the Caribbean. Forced into a
corner by the increased fuel costs and a
vicious price-war among the tour compa-
nies, including Clark,ollS Holidays and
Hori:on Travel, both owned by the same
holding company as the airline, the entire
group was unable to avoid sudden liLjuida-
tion when the working capital ran out.
Court Line Aviation's Luton neigh-
bour, Britann ia Airways, managed to
weather the storm. By now, being a sub-
sidiary of the powerful and much more
diverse Thomson Group, the airline was
able to survive with only minimal cuts
and cost-saving measures. By 1976, their
types with high fuel consumption at a prof-
it. This changed overnight, and aircraft that
had previously been viable were found to be
an expensive liability. The Convair series of
medium-range, four-engined, jet airliners
suffered especially. TWA and Delta operat-
ed large fleets of the CV-880 in the USA,
and withdrew them from service as soon as
they could be replaced by more economic
aircraft. Suddenly, Boeing and all the other
airliner manufacturers around the world
were having to pay much more attention to
fuel consumption in their designs. Engine
manufacturers were under pressure to pro-
duce fuel-efficient power plants and the
Worldwide Influences
CHAPTER SIX
The Oil Crisis
ne worldwide crisis that not only con-
tributed to Boeing's woes but also affected
nearly every industrial undertaking in the
civilized world, struck in 1973. That year,
the rganization of Oil Producing and
Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided to
incre,lse the price of the oil they supplied.
Fuel prices rocketed in all sectors, trebling
within days and plunging the financial
world into chaos.
Up until then, airlines had enjoyed the
benefit of comparatively cheap fuel for their
aircraft and had still been able to operate
lufthansa soon acquired Series 200 737s to operate alongside their original Series
100s. The likes of D-ABHU, 'Konstaz', and its fleetmates, were already established as
one of the most popular regional jet airliners, when the oil crisis changed the
operational parameters of the airline industry forever. Lufthansa
82 83
WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES WORLDWIDE II FLUENCES
and G.P. Gurelman. Boasting a modern
image, in contrasr ro earlier charter spe-
cialisrs, the airline started operarions wirh
an ex-Easrern Airlines Boeing 720 jer.
Three early model Boeing 707s later
joined the single 720 on IT charter work
rhroughour Europe and also ro some
longer-haul desrinarions.
Two erics 200 737s arrived in 1976,
following rwo leased wide-bodied Airbus
A300Bs rhar had joined rhe 7 7/720 fleer.
Wirh anorher series 20 on order, Trans
European was to find rhe 737 an ideal air-
crafr for irs needs and was soon planning
on acquiring further aircrafr to service a
major expansion of irs operarions.
(Below) PH-TVH was one of the first of Transavia's 737-200s that eventually
ousted the Caravelles from the Dutch charter carrier's fleet. Steve Bunting
Belgian Pace-setter
Ir was a furrher rwo years before anorher
European charrer carrier adopred rhe 73 7 for
ir horr-haul needs. Trail' European Air-
ways, based in Brussels, Belgium's capital,
wa one of rhc ncwcr brccd of charrer air-
line, wirhour irs roots in rhc propeller era.
Trans European had nor bccn foundcd
unril Octobcr 1970, to opcrarc IT charters
for parcnr Bclgian travel companics TIFA
Of rhe seven, one was leased from Brirannia
Airways and rhree were on lease from nir-
cd Airlines.
(Above) Transavia's Caravelle 3, PH-TRP had previously served with SAS and Swissair.
During its time with Transavia it spent time leased out to Tunisair. Aviation Hobby Shop
fleer ar rhe end of 1969. More 707s were
leased in over rhe subsequenr years.
The fuel crisis hir rhe Caravelle's eco-
nomic viabiliry very hard and Transavia
began looking for a less rhirsry replacemenr.
Twelve of rhe French rwin-jcrs were in use by
1973, operaring over an increasing nerwork
of IT charrers, as well as being in demand for
ad hoc and shorr-rerm leasing contracr work
wirh other airlines hort of capaciry. This lar-
rer operation was to become a Transavia spe-
cialiry in rhe years ro come.
The Caravelle replacemenrs started to be
delivered in May 1974 and by rhe follow-
ing May rherc were seven Boeing 737-200s
in scrvicc wirh rhe Durch charter carrier.
MEY-AIR
rI"o DC-6s ami one DC-6B. The follow-
ing ycar rhe DC-6 flecr consi 'red of no lcss
rhan rcn aircrafr, afrer rhe arrival of rwo
convcrtible passenger/cargo D -6As and
fivc more DC-6Bs.
Transavia operared irs firsr jcr cquipmem
in rhe shape of a singlc Boeing 707-320C
rhar flew long-disrance charters berween
May and October 196 . Two Caravel Ie 3 ,
leased from rhe manufacrurer, enrered ser-
vicc on rhe IT roures from the erher-
lands in 1969. More Caravelles were
acquired second-hand, from wissair and
Unired, replacing rhe leased examples, as
wcll as rhe lasr DC-6Bs, which lefr rhe
Mey-Air Transport's attempt to expand into jet charter operations eventually failed.
LN-MTD later found a new home with Piedmont as N754N. Jenny Gradidge
ccasing and undergoing rhe
ignominy of having irs jcr flccr rcpossessed
by Boeing for non-paymem. Dcspirc Mey-
Air's disappointmcnt, Belgium's Trans
Europcan Airways and rhc crhcrlands'
Transavia had both finally opred for the
737-200 to rcplacc rheir oldcr jcr flccrs.
Transavia was rhe longer-csrabl ished of
rhe rwo airlinc" having been founded in
1965 as Transavia (Limburg) V. Re\'-
cnuc operarions, however, did nor begin
umil 17 I ovembcr 1966. On rhar dare,
supporting personnel ami artist' of rhe
Durch Dance Thearre wcre flown to
aples. Transavia's inirial fleer comprised
More European Charter 7375
Aftcr being onc of rhe 73 7s fcw supportcrs
for all-charter services in Europe, by rhe
mid-1970s Britannia was finally joined by
more inclusivc-tour operators. Gcrmany's
Condor, thar had leased 737s from
Lufrhansa for several years, had rerurned to
only operating 727· for rheir shorr-haul fleer.
However, orwegian carrier Mey-Air,
prcviously an opcraror of Convair propeller
aircrafr, rook delivery in 1971 of rwo 737-
200s. Operaring an exrensive IT and ad hoc
nerwork from candinavia, Mey Air was ro
become a vicrim of rhe posr-OPEC slump,
recovery saw rhcir flccr of
increase to rhirtccn, including rwo con-
vcrtiblc modcls. A pair of long-rangc
had been operared bricfly in 1971-73, on
flighrs to rhc USA, Canada, rhc Carib-
bcan and Far Easr. Howcvcr, rhcy had
bccn rcturncd to their lcssors aftcr
changcs in US law had madc ir uncco-
nomic for Britannia to operatc lhcir char-
rcr, rhcrc. Thc all-737 flcct was now opcr-
ating from a number of K rcgional
poims, as well as thc Luton hcad office.
(Above) Britannia Airways managed to survive the
turmoil of the fuel crisis, with the backing of its
powerful owners and careful management.
Jenny Gradidge
84 85
WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES
u
Deregulation in the USA
,-TEN.
AIR. ~ ~ ••••
..... ,
•• il. L!J' .-
• • • • • • u .
- .
Although a commercial failure for its maker, the few Dassault Mercures built enjoyed long and successful,
accident-free, careers with French domestic carrier, Air Inter. Dassault
Trans European opted for the 737 to replace larger, but ageing, Boeing 707s and 720s. Via author
Air Florida began its short-range, intra-Florida services with a highly unsuitable, long-range, Boeing 707.
Via author
Caribbean Lease
France's national carrier, Air France, had
joined the ranks of European cheduled 73 7
operators as early as October 1973. Howcv-
er, it was not the extcnsive Europcan-sched-
uled network of Air France that was to sec
the 737s, but the airline's regional services
between the French territories in the
Antilles Islands chain in the Caribbean. In
addition to providing an important feeder
service to Air France's trans-Atlantic flights
to and from Paris, the Caribbean network
provided regional links to other import<lnl
islands in the vicinity, as well as to Florida in
the southern USA. Air France had previ-
ously assigned Caravelles to the area to
operate the local network.
Two Boeing 737-200s were leased from
Western, the first, 4522W was chri tened
'Antilles' once it was painted in Air France
colours. The second, 4504W, was chris-
tened 'Guyane' and arrived in January 1974.
Being operated as dictated by Western'
practice' as agreed with their pilots' unions,
the aircraft leased to Air France were oblig-
ed to be flown with three flight-deck crew
members. The French airline was also in-
tcnding to use the period of the lease to
cvaluate the 737 as a possible replacement
for the remaining Caravelles on European
scheduled services. Air France had already
introduced Boeing 727-200s on busier ex-
Caravelle routes within Europe.
Once again, though, the three-crew
que'tion was raised by the Air France
pilots' unions and was to delay the compa-
ny's decision. Despite the other European
operators of the 737 all opti ng for a two-
pilot flight-deck crew, the French unions
concerned, S PL and OMAC, both
pressured for Air France to adopt the
three-crew option. The two organizations
disputed Lufthansa's assertion that the
two-crew operation was perfectly safe.
However, a new joint, 9-month, FAA/
NASA study from the U A, presented in
1978, reaffirmed that it 'found no evidence
to indicate that a two-man crew aircraft is
a detriment to safety'.
The study had reviewed the record of
five trunk carrier aircraft, namely the Boe-
ing727, 737, BACOne-Eleven, DC- and
DC-9. The furrher study of three versus
two crew members concluded that the
records studied:
prccludcd makll1g any ,ralCmCI1l hCYllnd rhar
rhcrc is nll S1gnl!lcant Lhffcrcncc 111 rhc Ic\'c1 llf
safcry hcrll'cen rhc IlI'll ,md rhrcc m,1I1 llpcra-
tion.
onetheless, the lack of an agreement on
the matter led to Air France cancelling a
lease package for th irreen 737-200s. 1twas
to be December 1981 before Air France
was able to announce an order for twelve
737-200s.
Air France's Alternatives
One serious alternative to the 737 for Air
France was a French-built option, the Das-
sault lercure. Dassault had developed the
Mercure as a 'mini-airbu 'seating 130-15
passengers, specifically on shorr-haul oper-
ations. The company had discerned that
the rival types then in use were basically
medium-haul airliners, believing their
basic design had been compromised by
stretching to provide more capacity over a
shorter range. Resembl ing a much en larged
737, the Mercure was designed from the
beginning as a high-capacity, shorr-rang
aircraft and the first prototype first flew on
28 May 1971.
Powered by imporred Pratt & Whitney
JT8D-15s, the Mercure was offered to
many European carriers and marketed as
a viable alternative to the merican
choices. However, the much hoped-for
Air France order failed to materiali:e.
Other than an order for ten from Air
bIter that placed the first into service on
its dome'tic French network in 1974,
there were no other rakers for the Mer-
cure. Plans for an enlarged version were
soon abandoned. Air Inter later acquired
one of the prototype Mercures a' well and
were very satisfied with their fleet, but
there were no more Mercures produced
after the initial production batch, a
financial disaster for D<lss<lult.
The Airline Deregulation Act was passed by the US Congress in 1978, With Wide sup-
port from most sides of the party political fences. In effect, the American scheduled and
charter air carriers had previously been stringently controlled by the CAB and FAA In
everything from route licences to fares they could offer Under deregulatIOn the airlines
were to be 'set free', at least domestically, flying where they thought they could make
aprofit and charging what they thought the market would allow. The carriers had only
to prove to the authorities that they were 'fit, willing and able' to conduct their opera-
tions safely and in the public Interest. On overseas services, for the time being, regu-
lation continued as most foreign routes were governed by International agreement
The main aim of the act was to reduce airline fares and offer more choice to the trav-
elling public. For many years the prime transcontinental routes were the sole province
of the major carriers. America, TWA and United ruled the non-stop coast-to-coast ser-
vices. With Braniff, Eastern, Delta and National operating the main north-south routes
on the east coast and to the south and southwest. Continental. Northwest and West-
ern linked the west coast with the midwest and southwest as well as flying some of
the 'thinner' transcontinental flights in the north and south of the country. In between,
the major carriers had their 'sphere of influence' in various regions, often in competition
With aregional or local service carner There were overlaps and Inconsistencies - for
instance, both Delta and National operated transcontinental routes across the south of
the USA, albeit usually with at least one en route stop. Nonetheless there was an
established status quo that was about to be seriously upset.
Once the act was law, there was an upsurge in new routes and even new airlines
trying to take advantage of the situation The established carriers were still strug,
gling with the effects of the oil crisis and financial down-turn in the national econ-
omy that had left them With half-empty aircraft being flown at aloss However well-
intentioned, some of the new operators found themselves floundering and regional
carriers that expanded their networks overnight were having trouble recouping the
cost of their actions.
Even the major established carriers were not immune. Competition from new low-
fare carriers was one of the factors blamed for the eventual demise of once-giant Bran-
iff Airways, Eastern Air Lines and Pan American World Airways In later years. Even
some of the survivors were badly mauled in the fight for revenue. Once-mighty Trans
World Airlines eventually found itself shrunk to a shadow of its former self, With the
international network especially hit by low-fare competition and worldwide recession.
86 87
WORLDWIDE I:-<FL ENCES WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES
Ex,SIA 737-100s heralded the arrival of the many -200s, both new and second,hand, with Air Florida. Aviation Hobby Shop
The Boeing 727,200 provided more capacity as routes expanded throughout the eastern USA. Via author
The People's Champion
\\''1;' about to land on the runway behind
them. The pressure this put on the crew to
clear the runway for the approaching East-
ern 727 was cited as a possible cause of the
crew missing signs that all was not well
with the engine thrust readings and per-
haps choosing not to give as much atten-
tion as they should have to the build-up of
snO\\' on the aircraft's wing;,.
Air Florida had always operated to a
slim profit margin in an effort to be able to
offer the cheap fares it had built its reputa-
tion on. The inevitable dip in passenger
boardings, following the accident at
Washington, hit the company hard, finan-
cially. Although some improvement was
eventually achieved as time went by, Air
Florida never managed to fully recover
from the adverse publicity and finally
closed down in the summer of 19 4.
While Air Florida had been an established
carrier that took advantage of deregula-
tion to change itself beyond recognitilln,
another feature of the post-deregulatt,m
era was the formation of brand new air-
lines, estahlished to make their mark
under the new rules.
Formed in 19 0, PeoplExpress Airlines
was the brainchild of Don Burr, a Harvard
MBA, who had been President of Texas
International Airlines. Burr had a vision of
a new low-fare airline, with a unique man-
agement style. Having pioneered discount
'peanut fares' at Texas International, Burr
Pettit, two of the flight attendants and sixty-
nine of the passengers, four persons unfllrtu-
nate enough to have been in vehicles on the
bridge also perished. All the survivors from
the aircraft, one flight attendant and four
passengers, had been in the rear section of
the cabin, which had broken away and
remained partly above the icc and water in
the river. The survivors were hoisted or
towed to safety by a US Park Police heli-
copter that had managed to reach the crash
site in twenty minute,'. When a female sur-
vivor lost her grip on a rescue rope, two
bystanders from the bridge, including a S
Congressional Budget Office clerk named
Lenny Skutnick, jumped into the freezing
river to help her. One passenger, who had
survived the initial impact, had been seen
to unselfishly assist others reach the heli-
copter's rescue line, before he 'lipped
beneath the water and drowned.
The Aftermath
In the subsequent inquiry, a number of
unfllrtunate factors were found to have
contributed to the crash. The initial de-
icing was criticized as having been under-
taken with an incorrect mix of glycol and
water. Even so, human error was deemed to
have been a major factor, with some seri-
ously flawed judgement on the part of the
operating crew being accredited with much
of the blame. The airline itself came in for
some criticism with regards to training pro-
cedures. However, the controller at Wash-
ington had asked the crew of N62AF for
'No delay on departure', as another aircraft
Airport had reopened at 15.00hrs, follow-
ing snow clearance that had closed it down
for an hour. Following de-icing, N62AF
was pushed back from the terminal and
awaited its turn for departure with several
other aircraft, mostly also debyed.
N62AF sat on the taxiway for nearly
another hour before finally being given
clearance for take-off. In that time, snow
had built up on the wing ;,urfaces and ice
had also built up in the compressor inlet;, of
the engine. Blockage of the inlet tube;,
would give false indications of thru;,t,
showing a higher amount than was actual-
ly being developed. On take-off, the ,mom-
alous readings from the blocked tubes led
the crew to hel ieve that they had reached
a safe take-off speed before they actuall y
had. In addition, the renewed snow and ice
on the wings and empennage that had built
up again as the aircraft waited on the taxi-
way, caused the aircraft to pitch up as soon
as it wa;, airborne and the aircraft was 'oon
in a dangerous stalling condition.
In a nose-high attitude, with the under-
carriage down and flap;, still partially
extended, N62AF barely reached 300ft
(90m) in altitude before starting to descend
again. In a slight left turn, the crew tried to
raise the nose and apply power, but their
efforts were in vain. The aircraft crashed
into the 14th treet Bridge, about a mile
from the end of the runway. liding over the
roadway on the bridge, packed with early
rush-hour traffic, 62AF plunged into the
iced-up Potomac River.
As well as killing the flight-deck crew,
Capt Larry Wheaton and First Officer Roger
As its tenth anniversary approached, Air
Florida was able to boast a fleet that had
increased from one 707, to three DC-lOs, six
727-200s, four 737-100s and nineteen 737-
200s, with fi\'e more 737-200;, on order.
There was also an order for three of Boeing';,
new high-capacity twin-jet model, the 757,
in the pipeline. Celebrations for the
anniversary took on a decidedly muted air
though, following tragic los;, of one of the
737-200s at Washington in January 1982.
Already running well behind schedule as
a result of exceptionally harsh winter weath-
er in the northeast, Air Florida's 737-200,
N62AF, was one of the ex- nited aircraft.
It was operating Flight 90 on 13 January,
a Washington-Fort Lauderdale ;,ef\'ice,
with ;,eventy-four passenger and five crew
members on board. Washington ,Hilmal
America also came on line as oon a' aircraft
could be found to open the routes. To aid the
growth of the network, Air Florida also
acquired half a dozen Boeing 727-200s from
a cancelled Braniff Airways order.
The modest aribbean and Bahamian
international network was soon eclipsed by
the opening of trans-Atlantic schedules to
Amsterdam, Brussels, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt,
London and Madrid. Long-range, wide-
body, DC-I 0- 30s were leased in to operate
the long-haul schedules.
Pride before the Fall
Take-over and Meteoric Expansion
More DC-9s joined the fleet and local com-
muter operator, Air Sunshine, also based
at Miami, was taken over in July 1978.
Although the Air Sunshine fleet of DC-3s
and Convair CV-440s was not retained,
Air Florida added several extra Florida
cities to the network via the huy-out. e\\'
international routes were also opened
from Miami to points in the Bahamas and
the Caribbean.
Air Florida joined the ranks of 73 7 oper-
ators in 1979, when the first of four ex-
Singapore Airlines cries 100s arrived at
Miami. Over the next two years the com-
pany undertook an explosive expansion
programme, taking full advantage of the
nell' freedoms avai lable under deregulation.
More 737s, all ~ cries 200s, were acquired,
with tweh'e 'Ad\'anced' aircraft on order.
In addition, second-hand aircraft were
acquired to speed up the expansion. As well
as nine ex-United aircraft, two of which
were leased from Transavia, another two
were contracted in from leasing companies.
The much enlarged fleet was soon open-
ing new scheduled services from Florida to
neighbouring southern states, the Midwest
and the Great Lake;,. Most importantly, des-
tinations in the affluent northeast, such as
Boston, e\\' York, Philadelphia and Wash-
ington were aIso served by the 737s. e\\'
destinations in the Caribbean and Central
Among the U carriers already in operation
that were swift to take advantage of the new
rules, Air Florida was, at least for a while,
one of the more successful. Originally
formed under the old regulations, it was an
intra-state carrier, based in Miami. Eager to
repeat the California and Texan success of
P A and Southwest Airlines, Air Florida
began 'cheduled sef\'ices from Miami to
Jacksonville and Tampa in eptember 1972.
Curiously, Air Florida's first aircraft was
none other than a Boeing 707-320. Even
in pre-fuel-crisis days, this was far from
suitable equipment for the brief flights
within Florida's borders. In short order, a
pair of much more economical Lockheed
Electra turbo-props replaced the 707, in
March 1973.
Although soon joined by a third Electra
in 1974, the small fleet was initially strug-
gling against the local might of Eastern
Air Lines and National Airlines. A leased
Boeing 727-100 jet was acquired in 1976
and operated alongside the Electras. Steady
route expansion brought Gainesville,
Orlando, Panama City, Pensacola, St
Petersburg and Tallahassee, all still with-
in Florida, into the network. After a
change of management in 1977, an injec-
tion of investment capital followed and
f i \ ' t ~ ex-Air Canada DC-9-15Fs replace the
72 7 and Electras.
Post-Deregulation Scramble
88 89
WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES
INTRODUCING
NEWSER VICE TO:
Chicago ('.1id...y) Columbus
Cincinnati Detroit
Cleyeland Indianapolis
St. Thomas &St. Croix Il .5. Virgin Islands)
was well aware that the paying public
would forgo expensive amenitie in return
for cheap, frequent, reliable air service. In
particular, he had a vision of maximum
responsibilities to the employees, for min-
imum supervision. This was unlikely to be
approved by his then boss, Frank Lorenzo,
the entrepreneur who owned Texas ir
Corporation that controlled Texas Inter-
national.
Burr, and two other Texas International
associates, Melrose Dawsey and Gerald
Gitner, resigned from the Texas carrier and
set about gathering finance for their new
venture. From several options, the base for
the new carrier was narrowed down to the
then much under-used Newark Interna-
tional, in New Jersey. Initial stock offerings
gained the company 25 million to finclnce
its start-up and several other talented exec-
utives defected from Texas International to
join PeoplExpress.
Lufthansa's Series 100s
Come Home
Lufthansa had been offering its early Series
100 Boeing 737s for sale, as more, larger,
'Advanced' Series 200s arrived from Seat-
tle. The offers Lufthansa received for the
aircraft varied from the sublime to the
ridiculous. One prospective purchaser
WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES
wanted one aircraft to ferry his casino's
cl ients free of charge, another wanted
'over-favourable' credit facilities for eight
aircraft over ten years. One presented a
contract full of holes and the next 'candi-
date' wanted an astronomical commission
paid to him personally 'under the counter'.
PeoplExpress were willing to pay 51.
million for a lease-purchase agreement for
fourteen of the aircraft. Well experienced
in selling off urplu members of their
fleet, Lufthansa knew a good deal when it
was presented and, after protracted nego-
tiations, involving dozens of contract
rewrites, an agrcement was reached. The
deal included modification of the 737s
into a high-density, I 18-passenger config-
uration, pre-delivery overhauls, cockpit
instrument conversions back to US stan-
dards and the repainting of the aircraft
into PeoplExpress's cream, burgundy and
brown livery. A further thre' aircraft were
added to the order at a later date, the last
five Lufthansa 737-I OOs being sold to Far
Eastern Air Transport of Taiwan later in
1981.
The first three 737-100s were delivered
to Newark ready for service inauguration in
early 19 I, with routes opened from
ewark to Buffalo, New York, Columbus,
Ohio and Norfolk, Virginia, with a typical
one-way fare of 35. More routes opened a.
the rest of the Lufthansa aircraft wcre
delivered over the next twelve months and
PeoplExpress began its meteoric rise. From
the start, the new airline targeted first-time
flyers as a major part of its market base.
Burr wanted to attract passengers off the
buses, trains and even out of their cars, and
make air transport accessible to all.
The unique administration style of the
airline saw substantial staff alary savings by
'cross utili:ing' aircraft crews on ground-
based jobs in addition to their flying duties.
Other ground-based functions were under-
taken in a similar manner and other
money-saving moves included the charging
of passengers for any baggage carried, at 3
a piece. All refreshments on board were
charged for as well, and most of the ticket-
ing activities were undertaken on board by
the cabin crews. ew staff were required to
buy a minimum of 100 share" of PeoplEx-
press stock. As long as the airline was mak-
ing money, the quarterly profit-sharing pay-
out went a long way towards bringing their
significantly lower salaries nearer to the
industry norm.
Explosive Expansion
Despite the rather basic nature of their ser-
vice, PeoplExpress's flights were soon
among thc most popular in the industry. In
July 19 3, an incrcdible load factor of 3.6
pcr ccnt was achicved. On 6 May 19 3, an
Air Florida's carefully built empire was to slowly crumble in the wake of the Washington tragedy. Via author
When lufthansa delivered the last of PeoplExpress's -100s, the German airline's engineers painted farewell
tears on the aircraft's tail logo. Via author
90
Ex-Braniff International Boeing 747, N602BN, was one of several operated on PeoplExpress's much
expanded transcontinental and trans-Atlantic low-fare network. Aviation Hobby Shop
97
WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES
The Boeing 727-200 became the most common type in the PeoplExpress fleet. outnumbering the 737-100s
and -200s. Malcolm L. Hill
Despite the best efforts of its staff and management. the sale of Frontier to
PeoplExpress failed to save the carrier from economic oblivion. Jenny Gradidge
PeoplExpress a welcome expansion into
Western markets. Nevertheless Burr intend-
ed to operate Frontier as a separate division
for at least five years before attempting full
integration. This was bec<luse Frontier's
more traditional approach, with a heavily
unionized workforce, contrasted starkly
with Burr's system of 'staff empowerment'.
Unfortunately, Frontier continued to lose
money at an alarming rate, reaching over
I million a day at one point. PeopIExpre's':
substantial investment in the carrier was
starting to look very risky. It wa becoming
clear, by the 'ummel' of 19 6, that Frontier
could not survive and it looked as though
it might take PeoplExpress down with it.
In a desperate bid to keep Lorenzo at
bay, an attempt was made to sell Frontier
on to United. However, the United
employees' unions objected to the plam
put forward for integrating the Frontier
staff and the deal ne\'er materi,ll i:ed. Once
the talks with United broke down, Fron-
tier was forced to stop flying and Frank
Loren:;o made his move. Texas Air Corpo-
ration purchased the assets of both Fron-
tier and PeoplExpress; hy now both were
on the brink of insolvency. The absorption
of the two heleaguered airlines inro Conti-
nental took effect on [ Fehruary [987.
Another Texas Air Corporation airline,
La Guardia Airport-hased e\\' York Air
was also absorbed into Continental at the
same time. Founded by Texas Internation-
al, initially as a rival to the long-estah-
Iished Eastern Air Lines 'Shuttle' between
La Guardia, Bosron and Washington, ew
York Air had started low-fare scheduled
services on 19 December 1980. The initial
fleet of three ex-Texas International DC-
9s had grown as the network expanded
into further New England points and a. far
south as Florida and Louisiana. Over thir-
ty aircraft were in usc by the time of the
consolidation into Continental, mostly
DC-9 and MD- Os, but a handful of 737s
were in service as well.
Texas Air Corporation also later
acquired Eastern itself, but prolonged dis-
putes with its employees prevented any
thoughts of integration into Continental.
Instead, Eastern's few profitable assets
were disposed of or transferred to Conti-
nental and the remainder was allowed to
slip into bankruptcy ami eventualliquida-
tion in January 1991.
Continental had only recently become
a 737 operator itself, shortly before the
multi-mergers. As well as suddenly taking
on the ex-Frontier, New York Air and
FRON"'ERQ
i:able presence at Denver. [n the mean-
time, Burr and PeoplExpress offered 24 per
share and, to the Frontier employees' relief,
finalized the deal in the autumn of 1985.
Frontier continued operations, now as a sub-
sidiary of PeoplExpress, for the time being.
Burr did intend to eventually operate as one
carrier, the Frontier route system giving
False Optimism
Frontier had continued to operate a mixed fleet of Convair CV-580s and Boeing
727-200s. both types taking on a brighter. modern. red and orange livery in later years.
Malcolm L. Hill
A one option, in early 19 5, the airline's
owner offered Frontier Airl ine's employees
the chance to buy the carrier for 21 [
million, at $17 a share. However, Lorenzo
stepped in and offered substantially more to
the shareholders, leaving the employees
hopelessly outbid. The employees, fearful of
Lorenzo's reputation, tried to block the
move by threatening court action, citing
the monopoly that would be created by
the enlargement of Continental's already
hostile to the extent that the Continental
employees had been treated to an unpleas-
ant example of Lorenzo's management
style when drastic reductions in pay and
benefits had been forced upon them,
despite vociferous union objections. [n an
attempt to further expand his airline
empire, Loren:o had made a bid for Den-
ver-based Frontier Airlines.
Frontier had continued to sen'e the
Rocky Mountain area of its origins, even-
tually 'erving twenty-six states, as well as
international flights to four cities in Cana-
da. The Convair 580s were slowly replaced
by more 737-200s, and, later, MD-80s,
until the last were retired on 1 June [982.
new holding company, Frontier Hold-
ings Inc, took over the airline as its prime
subsidiary. nfortunately, the economic
downturn in the A followed soon after-
wards and, in [9 3 the airline po ted its
fir t annual loss for a decade, of [3. mil-
lion. The results in 19 4 were even worse,
with projections for 19 5 not showing any
sign of improvement.
Burr's old bo s, Frank Loren:o, of Texas Air
Corporation, had recently merged Texas
[nternational with Continental Airlines
after a hostile takeover. The takeover was
Denver Ambitions
widespread, a lack of accountability to a
supervisory body causing incompetence to
go unchecked and even criminal abuse of
the in-flight ticketing, and other revenue-
gathering systems, becoming rife. While
most of the employees were intensely loyal
and trustworthy, the actions of a few oppor-
tunists within the organi:ation were drain-
ing badly needed funds from the airline.
Within four years PeoplExpress had certain-
ly grown beyond its founders' wilde t
dreams, and even proved the concept of air-
line scats as a commodity to be sold at the
cheapest rate the profit margin would bear.
onetheless, Burr and the [eop[Express
management were sailing the airline very
close to the wind, financially, and it would
take just one mistake to bring about disaster.
ex-Braniff [nternational Boeing 747, with
485 scats, was placed into service on a
Newark-London (Gatwick) trans-Atlantic
schedule, with similar low-fare features.
Five slightly larger 737-200s had been
acquired from CP Air in early 1982, as the
original seventeen -1 OOs were stretched to
their operational limits. The extra 737s
were soon eclipsed by the arrival of eigh-
teen [ 5-seat Boeing 727-2 Os.
Eventually, the 727 was to outnumber
the 737 in PeoplExpress service, with no
less than fifty-one being acquired, along
with an eventual total of nine 747s, as
routes were extended from coast to coast,
south to Florida and even a further trans-
Atlantic route, from ewark to Brussels
was opened. Unfortunately, the explosive
expan ion soon began to take a toll on
PeoplExpress service reputation. The air-
line's claim to 'Fly Smart', no longer alway
lived up to expectations.
Burr's revolutionary staff empowerment
philosophy also became unwieldy as the
carrier grew. Abuse of the system was
92 93
Northern Stars
While new 737 operators were using the aircraft in a leading role in exploring new
forms of commercial air transport, it also continued to make its mark in more rugged fields,
literally, with its Alaskan and Canadian operators
Wi en Air Alaska had continued to operate its socially vital scheduled network
throughout Alaska during the 1970s and early 80s. 8y 1982, the fleet consisted of thir-
teen 737-200s, ten of them convertible to 'combi' passenger/freight operations, five of
which were of the 'Advanced' model. The remaining three were early models leased in
from United. The airline also flew five 727-100s, one of them an all-cargo freighter. The
carrier had been the subject of speculation regarding apossible takeover by Western
Air Lines in the early 1980s, as its one-time neighbour Pacific Northern had once been.
On this occasion, however, the merger talks came to nothing. Unfortunately, Wi en Air
Alaska began to suffer from financial problems and, with no other viable purchaser on
the horizon, succumbed to the pressures in 1984 and ceased operations, bringing to an
end nearly sixty years of service to Alaska.
Alaska's other major carrier, Alaska Airlines had based their jet fleet on a variety of
options over the years. Initially, Convair 880 and 990As had replaced the piston-powered
OC-6 on main routes from Alaska to Seattle and Portland. Eventually, the Convair jets were
joined by Boeing 707s and 720s on the 'Golden Nugget Service' and Boeing 727-100s
joined Alaska Airlines in 1966. The 727 was much better suited to Alaska's operations, with
its ability to operate from more airfields on the airline's local network than the larger jets.
For the first time, jets could serve out-of-the-way cities like Nome, Kotzebue and Unalak-
leet. The airline introduced its first 737, aleased 'Advanced' convertible aircraft, in Jan-
uary 1981. Two more, new, convertible aircraft arrived from Seattle afew months later.
In Canada, the 737 was proving as useful atransportation tool as ever. On both inter-
city commuter, holiday flights to sunnier climes and Arctic services to remote commu-
nities, the aircraft was invaluable. Nevertheless, company politics began to intervene
and the aircraft's operators were to go through aseries of changes.
Pacific Western Airlines had already absorbed the fleet of fellow 737 operator, Tran-
sair, in 1979. in 1986, CP Air had reverted to its original operating name, Canadian Pacif-
ic Air Lines. Shortly after this, Pacific Western Airlines' parent company acquired con-
trol of the larger airline in 1986. This and later moves also brought 737 operators
Eastern Provincial, Nordair and Quebecair under the control of the same group and the
surviving operations of all the airlines were merged under anew name, Canadian Air-
lines International. Some of the less economic regional services were assigned to new
subsidiary airlines. However, the combined fleets still consisted of more than eighty air-
craft, of which sixty were Boeing 737-200s.
Alaska Airlines operated a mixed fleet of 727s and 737s. Via author
Transair had been absorbed by Pacific Western in 1979, their 737 fleets combining to create an impressive operation.
Jenny Gradidge/Aviation Hobby Shop
Another round of mergers, acquisitions and renaming brought Eastern Provincial into the new Canadian Airlines
International. Steve Bunting/Martyn East
WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES
Another ex-Western aircraft, 737-200, B2613 flew for Far Eastern Air Transport
of Taiwan from 1979 to 1996. Aviation Hobby Shop
G-BADP was named 'Sir Arthur Whitten-Brown' in Britannia Airways service. Steve Bunting
------=---
Delta ordered a fleet of 'Advanced' 737-200s to replace older DC-9s. N303DL
was one of the first. arriving in 1983. Via author
as appearing on some international Euro-
pean routes. Pan American's buy-out of
Miami-based National Airlines in 1980
had brought a number of short-haul florid-
ian routes into the network, where the 737s
also proved more economic. Five ex-Air
Florida 737s were acquired to increase the
Boeing twin-jet fleet and the aircraft served
in West Germany as well as Florida.
The reunification of Germany, in 1990,
saw Pan American eventually withdrawing
from Berlin. Pan American itself was now
in decline system-wide, struggling against
serious mismanagement, unable to cope
with low-fare competition from deregulated
carriers. The 737s returned to Miami where
they replaced more 727s. A total of sixteen
737s were to be operated by Pan American.
96
being rebranded as 'Midway Metrolink'.
These offered all business-class facilities,
while the Florida-based 73 7s flew all econo-
my-class flights, as 'Midway Express'. Even-
tually, the two operation were merged into
one. The airline continued its expansion,
replacing the 737s with more DC-9s, of var-
ious marks, until mounting losses caused the
company to cease all operations in 1991.
Another concern also took over a num-
ber of Air Florida's aircraft. Veteran long-
haul carrier Pan American World Airways,
had already introduced a handful of 737-
200s on their Internal German Network.
Leased-in from 1982 to replace less fuel-
efficient Boeing 727-100s, the 737s flew
from West Berlin to Frankfurt, Hamburg,
Munich, Nuremburg and Stuttgart, as well
Pan American acquired 737-200s to replace 727-100s on West German and US
domestic services. N388PA 'Clipper Reinickendorf' was leased in for the Berlin-
based operations in 1983-84. Via author
Air Florida Aftermath
PeoplExpress Boeing 737s (of three differ-
ent marks), Boeing 727s, 747s, McDonnell
Douglas DC-9s, of several models, MD-80s
and DC-lOs made up the highly diverse
fleet. In addition, ex-Eastern Airbus
A300Bs were shortly to make their own
maverick contribution. The varied net-
work serviced not only local domestic
routes, but also transcontinental, trans-
Atlantic and even trans-Pacific longer-
haul services. Few of the routes were mak-
ing much, if any, money and the now
highly unwieldy Continental Airlines
entered its second period of Chapter 11
bankruptcy protection within months of
the mergers taking effect.
Continental added the PeopIExpress/Frontier/New York Air 737s to its already over-diverse fleet, in 1987. Martyn East
With the demise of Air Florida, there was
a gap in the low-fare market in the 'Sun-
shine State'. Quick to step in to try to fill
the breach was Chicago-based Midway
Airlines, which took over some of the
assets, including the more profitable local
routes. Midway also took over some of the
ex-Air Florida Boeing 737 fleet, offering
employment to many of the defunct air-
line's staff.
Midway Airlines had begun operations
from Chicago's older airport in November
1979, operating a fleet of DC-9s on services
to Cleveland, Detroit and Kansas City.
Expansion followed with new routes open-
ing to Newark, New York and Washington,
with the Chicago operations eventually
(Above) Delivered to the Imperial Iranian regime in 1977, Boeing 737-200,
EP-AGA continued to operate VIP services for the post-revolutionary Islamic
Republic government. MAP
(Right) USAir's N247US began
life in 1982 as N793N, 'Suwanee
Pacemaker' with Piedmont
Airlines. The aircraft was
transferred to US Airways
Metrojet in 1998. Steve Bunting
(Below) F-GLXG was operated
by Trans European, Rotterdam
Airlines, TEA (UK) and GB
Airways before joining Europe
Aero Service in 1993. MAP
(Bottom) Air Malta's 737-2oos
fly an extensive IT charter
programme to the Mediterranean
island, as well as vital scheduled
services. Martyn East
United has flown 737-300, N330UA since its delivery
in 1988. Steve Bunting
(Below) Deutsche BA has based its post-reunification
success around the 737-300. Deutsche BA
(Top) A Maersk Air 737-300, on lease to British
Airways, shares the Bristol. UK, ramp with a GB
Airways 737-200 in 1989. Martyn East
(Above) Inter European's leased 737-300, G-MONP on
turn-round at Bristol with Paramount's -300, G-PATE in
1990. Martyn East
/
BRI71SHAIRWAYS
•••••••••••••••••••••••
Air Holland operated 737-300, PH-OZA on IT
charters from Amsterdam in the early 1990s.
Malcolm L. Hill
(Above) N307AC was retained by American
Airlines for just over three years after the
airline took over AirCal. American Airlines
C.R. Smith Museum
(Below) EC-EBY was delivered new
to Hispania in 1987. It later served with
Transwede, TEA (Switzerland), Air Europa,
TAESA, NordicEast and Western Pacific,
before becoming N334AW with America
West in 1999. Richard Howell
airho?and
(Above) 737-500, N507SW is one of several Southwest Airline's aircraft to wear
the special 'Shamu' livery, promoting Seaworld's famous killer whale attraction.
Steve Bunting
(Belowl France's Air Outre Mer operates a number of 737 versions on its
scheduled and charter services. 737-500, F-GINL was delivered on lease in
1998. MAP "
WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES
Following Pan American's withdrawal from Berlin, the 737s returned to the USA. N68AF, 'Clipper Rainbow',
an ex-Air Florida aircraft, carries the final 'Billboard' livery, on push-back from Tampa for a short flight
back to Miami. Malcolm L. Hill
flights. The Egyptair 737s joined others
already in service in the region with Gulf
Air, Iran Air, Iraqi Airways, Saudia and
Sudan Airways. Egyptair later leased air-
craft from their 737 fleet to associate air-
line, Air Sinai, that operates scheduled
flights domestically with Egypt and inter-
nationally on schedules to Israel, as well as
charters to Europe.
In Europe, among others, Greece's
national carrier, Olympic Airways placed
the 737-200 in service on their domestic
and European schedules. Belgium's Sabena
had replaced their last Caravelles and Boe-
ing 727-100s with 737-200s, beginning in
1974. Sabena also leased aircraft to their IT
charter subsidiary, Sobelair, in competition
with TEA's Boeing 737 operations. Abelag
Airways, a new Brussels-based carrier, oper-
ated 737-200s alongside 707s, before chang-
ing its name to Air Belgium. Neighbouring
Luxair replaced their own Caravelles with
737-200s, flying them on European sched-
ules, as well as a popular programme of ITs
from its Luxembourg base.
Air France's own, long-awaited, Boeing
737-200s finally arrived in Europe in
December 1982. They replaced the last of
the airline's surviving Caravelles, a type
that had been in service with Air France
since 1959!
More New Operators
commercial flight by an aircraft of the
original Pan American World Airways
was operated later that day by a Boeing
727-200 on a scheduled service from Bar-
bados to Miami. Ironically, the 727 was
named 'Clipper Goodwill'.
An interesting addition to the ranks of US
737 operators was scheduled Air Express
carrier, Federal Express. A small fleet of
convertible 737-200Cs were delivered to
Federal Express from 1979, and operated on
their extensive night-time cargo network.
The convertible version had been chosen
as, at the time, the carrier was considering
diversifying into passenger charter or low-
fare scheduled services, to occupy the air-
craft when not required for the freight
work. However, these plans were soon
abandoned and the 737s disposed of by
1981, in favour of larger all-cargo aircraft.
In the Middle East, Egyptair leased two
Air Lingus 737-200s in 1975, prior to tak-
ing delivery of their own fleet of eight new
aircraft on order from Boeing. The 737s
were to replace the airline's ageing fleet of
Comet 4Cs and Russian-built 11-18 and
AN-24 turbo-props on local and regional
Beginning by selling off its Pacific net-
work, Pan American continued to sell off
assets and close routes in an effort to save
money. New, smaller, Airbus types had been
imported from Europe to replace 747s on
domestic trunk routes, and were later seen
on some of the international flights. The
sale of the prime US-London/Heathrow
routes followed, also sold to United.
A deal was reached with Atlanta-based
Delta Air Lines, whereby Delta would
acquire the remaining trans-Atlantic net-
work and domestic 'Shuttle' operation
between Boston, New York and Washing-
ton, one of the few profitable parts of the
airline. Pan American would continue on
services to the Caribbean and Central and
South America, based at Miami. The 'tac-
tical retreat' to Miami was seen as the
chance for a new start, and the only
chance for the carrier to survive in any
substantial form.
However, at the last minute, Delta
withdrew vital funding. The 'Shuttle' and
the remaining trans-Atlantic routes had
already been transferred to Delta, but the
expected life-span of the rest of Pan
American could be counted in hours. The
tattered remnant of the historic carrier
was forced into an ignominious bankrupt-
cy on 4 December 1991. The very last ITop) British Midland's new image as british midland bmi was unveiled in 2001. 737-500, G-BVZH was one of the first to wear the revised livery. Aviation Hobby Shop
IMiddle) Lufthansa operates its 737-300aCs on night-time cargo and mail services around Europe. Lufthansa
(Bonom) Maersk Air operate 'Next Generation' 737s, including 737-700, OY-MRC, alongside earlier versions. Aviation Hobby Shop
97
low-Fare Hopefuls
WORLDWIDE INFL E CES
(Belowl The single aircraft fleet of Air Sinai, operating a limited domestic and regional
network, contrasted dramatically with Sabena's wide-ranging use of its numerous 737s, of
various versions, throughout Europe. Both pictures courtesy of Steve Buntmg
SAElENA I
(Abovel Federal Express only operated the 737 for a short time,
replacing them with larger 727-200 freighters when plans to operate
passenger services were dropped. MAP
Plans to replace the 737s with an all-BAe 146 fleet were speeded up as the company
continued to lose money and entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Eventually the
company was reorganized as aUnited Express carrier, operating on behalf of the larger
airline on routes from Dulles. Even this support failed to save Presidential and, after yet
another reorganization and renewal as Presidential Express, operating BAe Jetstream
commuter turbo-props, Presidential finally ceased operations for good in December 1989.
America West Airlines managed to survive, despite experiencing its own growing
pains. The Phoenix-based airline was forced into Chapter 11 itself anumber of times, for
the first time in 1991. In what was seen later as aclassic case of overexpansion, apair
of second-hand 80eing 747 wide-bodies had been placed in service on short-lived, loss-
making, schedules to Hawaii. For once, as with other less fortunate airlines, this did not
foretell the beginning of the end. America West used its periods of bankruptcy protection
as auseful breathing space in which to reorganize and, where necessary, reinvent itself.
(Belowl Originally Britannia airways G-AVRO, Presidential Airways N313XV is pictured at Luton before
its trans-Atlantic delivery flight. Steve Bunting
(Above) America West's initial growth at Phoenix was based around
the 737. Steve Bunting
PeoplExpress, and its initial success, soon found some disciples around America. One
to take up much of the PeoplExpress philosophy, including a version of the staff-
empowering concept, was America West Airlines, based at Phoenix, Arizona.
Founded as acompany in 1981 and beginning operations in 1983, America West initial-
ly operated atrio of Boeing 737-200s on routes from Phoenix to Colorado Springs, Kansas
City, Los Angeles and Wichita. By the end of the first year's operations, ten 737s were in
use servicing twelve cities from Phoenix. International operations, with routes opening to
Canada, followed shortly aftelWards, as did seasonal ski-flight schedules to Colorado.
Further east. Presidential AilWays began operations from Washington's Dulles Inter-
national Airport in October 1985. High frequency, low-fare, flights served Boston, Hart-
ford, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Orlando and West Palm Beach with afleet of twelve
737-200s. Asmall fleet of British-built BAe 146-200s began joining Presidential in mid-
1986, on lower-capacity flights.
98 99
WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES
CHAPTER SEVEN
seater, short/medium-range market. The first
public reference to the new type, now known
as the 737-300, wa made at the Farnbor-
ough ir Show in 1980. At the time, Boeing
was still negotiating with the two main can-
didates to supply the new engine designs,
CFM International, with their CFM56, and
Rolls Royce with the proposed RJ 500,
'FM International finally won through
and, when the 737-300 was formally
launched with the first production order in
March 19 I, the aircraft would be CFM56
powered. CFM International was jointly
owned by General Electric of the A and
ECMA of France. The CFM56 was first
developed a a possible replacement for
older types of engines on the Boeing 707.
Boeing had planned to offer new 707 air-
frames fitted with the engines, as well as
retrofitting existing aircraft. The civil pro-
gramme was later cancelled, although the
engine was used to re-engine many military
707s and KC 135s. An updated flight-deck
for the new 737 saw the use of more modern
instrumentation and new technology sys-
tems such as digital avionics, up to the stan-
dard on Boeing's new 757 and 767 models,
Go Ahead for the -300
Boeing finally made its decision to proceed
with an improved 737 in January 1979. The
established design would form the basis of
the company's offering for the 100-150
the -200 and the airline came close to
placing a production order. However, an
all-new design, originally designated the
7N7, was finally chosen for development
by Boeing. This eventually emerged as the
twin-engined 757. The last new 727 rolled
off the production line in September 1984.
Although the 727 had eventually been
completed replaced, Boeing opted to study
an upgraded 73 7, as an alternative to design-
ing a whole new type, The 73 7 studies cen-
tred on re-engining the design, preferably
with more fuel-efficient high-bypass turbo-
fans, then under development. As well as
offering the required fuel economie , the
new engines would be much quieter, Further
improvements looked at for the new 737
versions included a moderni:ed flight-deck,
revi ed systems and refined aerodynamics.
What Next?
The Baby Grows
Britannia airways updated their 737-200 fleet over the years, replacing older aircraft with more modern
versions. G-BJCV, 'Viscount Trenchard' was delivered in early 1982. Via author
With the 1980s approaching, the 737 sales
figures had maintained their recovery from
the early 1970s slump, With the 'Advanced'
version making its mark, Boeing was finally
able (() sLart looking to Lhe future of the 737
programme.
A major factor to be considered was that
of fuel economy. Since the original OPEC
crisis in 1974, the price of aviation fuel
had leapt up several time'. The compara-
tively thirsty JT Ds were becoming less
economical as the years went by. ew
noise pollution legi lation was on the hori-
:on as well that would eventually restrict
operations of both the early model 737,
and the larger 72 7s. There were at least
only two thir ty and noi 'y JT8Ds on the
73 7, compared to three on the 72 7.
Development of an even more tretched
727-300 series was finally ahandoned,
although it had found favour with several
airlines. United, in particular, had co-
operated with Boeing on the design stud-
ies for the proposed 727-300, that would
be a further 18ft 4in (5.6m) longer than
(Left) Sabena's charter subsidiary, Sobelair,
operated its 737s to resort areas around the
Mediterranean. Via author
(Below left) Air France finally placed their own
737s into service on European routes in 1982.
F-GBVP is pictured during a turnround at Geneva.
Malcolm L. Hill
Deregulation Aftermath
Although the debate will certainly rage for
year' as to the benefits or otherwise of the
deregulation of the US airline industry,
there is no doubt that it had a dramatic
effect of the travelling habits of America.
While some operators thrived under the
new conditions, some faltered and many
failed in short order. Similar reforms were
soon to be copied the world over in the fol-
lowing decades, with varying degrees of
success.
Throughout the upheaval, the Boeing
73 7 had played a part, both plying its tradi-
tional trade with the established carrier,
and bla:ing pioneering trails with the new
breed of low-cost airlines. As the regulato-
ry changes began to make their mark on the
airlines, Boeing was looking closely at the
basic 737, Was it to be seen as having served
its purpose and confined to history as a
1960s and 70s phenomenon? Or was there
life in an updated design'
(Below)luxair's busy fleet of 737-200s flew both
scheduled and IT charters within Europe. Luxair
100
101
THE BABY GROll'S
Better late Than Never
The 737-300 flight-deck incorporated many advances originally designed for the then new 757 and 767
models. Lufthansa
Although Britannia Airways' success with the 737 had not gone unnoticed with the Unit-
ed Kingdom's national carrier, it was to be over ten years before British Airways was to
put their own aircraft into service. BA's predecessor, British European Airways had lob-
bied for permission to order the 737 for many years. Operating as anationalized corpo-
ration at the time though, there was agreat deal of political interference in the airline's
operations. As aresult. locally produced aircraft such as the Hawker Siddeley Trident and
BAC One-Eleven had to be favoured, even though they were less economic to operate.
By the time the two national airlines were merged into one company, British Airways,
in 1974, the British aerospace industry was in serious decline, which occurred as a
result of politiCal interference. As such, its proposals for new aircraft for British Air-
ways European Division, as BEA had initially become, were for the most part uncom-
petitive. Yet further anlarged versions of the Trident and One-Eleven were proposed,
but soon rejected, as was the French-built Mercure.
Once freed from its government chains, BA was able to actively consider US aircraft for
its short-haul needs. In late 1977, under the pretext of acapacity shortage, British Air-
ways leased in both McDonnell Douglas DC-9-51 sand Boeing 737-200s, from Finnair and
Transavia respectively, to assess the performance of both types on their short-haul net-
work. The Finnair DC-9s only operated on the London-Helsinki service. The Transavia
737s, initially wearing BA stickers in addition to Transavia's colours, were used on flights
from London to Amsterdam, Brussels, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Istanbul. Stavanger and Stock-
holm, as well as also appearing on the Helsinki route. As the study continued, the
Transavia aircraft were eventually repainted in full BA livery. Also evaluated at the time
was the Boeing 7N7 project that BA later ordered as the Boeing 757.
As aresult of the assessments, British Airways placed an order for nineteen 737-200s
in July 1978. To be promoted as the 'Super 737s', by BA, the aircraft were an updated
version of the' Advanced' 737, with CAT 3A autoland certification, matching the autoland
capabilities of the Tridents that they were to replace. The flight-deck layout was upgrad-
ed and the avionics incorporated anew digital Automatic Flight Control System.
British Airways' own 737s entered service in February 1980, and the Transavia air-
craft were returned. Coincident with the arrival of the 737, amassive 70 per cent fuel
price rise was imposed, making their arrival even more welcome as it allowed the swift
retirement of more thirsty Tridents and One-Elevens. The fact that the new aircraft
could be operated with two flight-deck crew, as opposed to the Trident's three, also
added to cost savings that arrived with the 737s.
Nine more 'Super 737s' were ordered to re-equip BA's charter subsidiary, British Air-
tours. Originally flying ex-BEA Comet 4Bs, as BEA Airtours from 1968, the charter arm
had taken on anew identity with the emergence of BA after the merger. Afleet of ex-
BOAC Boeing 707s had already replaced the Comets, but these were becoming uneco-
nomic on the shorter European charters. Lockheed Tristars took over the longer-ranging
flights and the 737s were to finally replace the ageing 707s from 1980-81.
British Airways itself ordered afurther sixteen 737-200s that, along with the arrival
of Boeing 757s, would accelerate the retirement of the last Tridents and One-Elevens.
~ "I ....- ~ " .-
. ' ~ ' '
.... i .. _ ~ . --.....;;:;v",",,"
(Below) BA subsidiary, British Airtours, specialized in IT charters with its 737-2oos that
had replaced older 707s. Steve Bunting The CFM56 was a I'ery different engine
design from the jT8D. Much bigger, the
high bypass ratio engi nes cou Id not be
hung below th' 737 wings as with the ear-
lier versions o( the aircraft. Instead, they
had to be cantilevered out ahead of the
wing's leading edge. The original 737
design's inherent lack of centre of gral'ity
problems made this fairly major re-design
possible, Any other engine location would
have made use of the much larger CFM56
difficult, if not totally impossible. To solve
the problem of ground clearance with the
wider engine, the lower section of the
engine nacelle was slighrly flattened at the
bottom and el'en some parts of the engine
were reposi tioned.
The power added by the n,OOOlb thrust
of the CFM56 allowed Boeing to initiate
the first major stretch of the 73 7 since the
-200. Two fuselage plugs, one of 3ft 8in
(1.lm) forward of the wing, one of 5ft
(1.5m) at the rear, increased the ol'erall
length to 109ft 7in 03m). In a high-den-
sity configuration, this would allow the
seati ng of up to 149 passengers.
Bigger Yet
The initial stretch that produced the eries
300 was not to be the end of the story. Boe-
ing continued to tudy whole new designs
in the 150-,eat range through the mid-
1980s, evaluating aiI'I ine reaction to a '7-7'
702
de-ign, to be powered by IAE V2500
engines. Later this design was refined into
the '7j7' proposal that was expected to be
built in close co-operation with japan.
Despite, or possibly as a result of, heing
powered by propfan engines and incorpo-
rating f1y-by-wire, totally electronic con-
trols, the7]7 receil'ed a (airly cool reception
from the airlines.
onetheless, Boeing kept the 7j7 pro-
posal alive and offered a further stretch of
the 737 as a 'stop-gap' until the 7]7 tech-
nology was perfected into a more practical
airliner design. The airlines had been
pressuring Boeing to make a decision and
the eries 400 was finally announced in
late 1985. Further ·tretched by 6ft (1.8m)
(Above) British Airways own 737-200s were operated from February 1980 on both
domestic and international services from London/Heathrow. Malcolm L. Hill
.. i;....".""••• British airfours
............
----
.
-
to offer a cost-effective, reliable service
with increased aircraft utilization, thus
allowing lower rates to be offered to char-
terers. The older fleet operated by Dan-Air
was unable to offer the lower seat-mile costs
increasingly demanded by Intasun and
other tour operators.
A deposit was paid to Boeing for three
new 737-200 'Advanced' aircraft. The air-
craft's financing came via a Japanese
investment group and involved a 10-year
lease-purchase agreement. Then sti II a
novel idea, but now a standard industry
practice, the arrangement was a natural
evolution of earlier tyles of leasing prac-
tices. In addition to the initial three air-
craft, two more 737s were on order for
delivery in time for the 1980 season.
Late 197 to early 1979 was spent in a
flurry of organization, recruitment and
training. Determined to lay to rest the old
charter airline's reputations for old, unreli-
able aircraft and indifferent service, Air
Europe's management laid great emphasis
on employing a cadre of professional people
who took pride in their work. The new base
at London/Gatwick became operational
when the first aircraft, registered G-BMHG
(after Mike Harry Goodman), was delivered
on 10Apri11979. oonjoinedlyG-BMOR
(after Martin O'Regan) and G-BMEC (after
Errol Cossey), commercial operations began
Getting Air Europe Underway
Tile BABY GROwS
The strong financial backing meant that
Air Europe was able to go straight to Boe-
ing for a brand new fleet. The whole pretext
behind Casey and O'Regan's plan had been
to introduce modern aircraft with lower
operating cost and operational reliability.
As a result, they felt that they would be able
starting to look seriously at their options
for replacing their thirstier fleets.
The first of the 'new breed' of British
charter carriers to emerge was Air Europe,
which began operations in May 1979.
Established with the hacking of Intasun,
then one of the largest UK IT travel com-
panies, both organizations had entrepre-
neur Harry Goodman as their chairman.
The original founders of the airline, Errol
Cossey and Martin O'Regan had both been
with leading British independent, Dan-Air
ervice', as Commercial Director and
Group Finance Director respectively. They
decided to strike out on their own after the
Dan-Air management rejected their pro-
posals for modernizing the fleet to make it
more economic and attractive to potential
charterers. Goodman had been intere'ted
in their ideas and offered backing to estab-
lish Intasun's own 'in-house' airline.
Despite the post-fuel-crisis depression, the
seemingly inexorable rise of the inclusive
tour market in Europe was to lead to fur-
ther expansion of the 73 7's presence on
the continent in the early 1980s. Estab-
lished operators found themselves in the
position of having to lease in extra capac-
ity to cater for the demand as the holiday
indu try recovered. ome new carriers
quickly stepped in to exploit opportunities
in the growing market and were soon
showing their colours on airport ramps
around Europe. Cost-cutting was still a
high priority and charter operators of
older, less fuel-efficient aircraft were
More UK Charter 7375
As a result of the Mohawk acquisition,
Allegheny operated a number of the, basi-
cally similar, American-built DC-9-30s
and British-built SAC One-Eleven jets,
the latter inherited from Mohawk. The
jets were supplemented by a large fleet of
Convair CV-5 0 turbo-props. The first of
an initial order of seven 737-200s joined
the U Air fleet to begin the replacement
of the older One-Eleven and DC-9s, with
new 727-200s also joining the airline's
inventory for new Pittsburgh-California
longer-range services.
TilE BABY GROWS
forward and 4ft (1.2m) aft, the 737-400
fuselage was only Sin (l2.5cm) shorter
than the original 'Dash Eighty', the proto-
type Boeing 707/KC135.
The 7J7 was officially 'indefinitely post-
poned', while the supposedly 'stop-gap' 737-
4 0 was launched into production with the
first orders received in June 19 6. Over 17
passengers could now be accommodated in
the stretched 737-400.
(Above) Southwest's 737s steadily expanded their
sphere of influence under deregulation. Tim Kincaid
Collection
USAir took delivery of 737-200s as part of a modernization programme, beginning the
gradual process of replacing older DC-9s and SAC One-Elevens. Steve Bunting
The Series 200 into the 19805
Even as Boeing was refining the proposed
Series 300, the Series 200 continued to
attract customer. The Series 300 wa not
intended as an immediate replacement for
the Series 200. 1ndeed, the Series 200 and
300 were to be produced side by side for
some years.
Estahl ished U operators of the 73 7 con-
tinued to expand their fleets of cries 200s.
outhwe t Airlines had been swift to take
advantage of deregulation and expand out
of its Texan confines. Others had stumbled
into the post-deregulation era and over-
stretched themselves. Nonetheless, under
Herb Kelleher's direction, outhwest had
controlled their growth, while till su tain-
ing a healthy expansion. As well as extend-
ing the established network to the east and
west, eventually reaching Arizona, Califor-
nia, evac.Ia and Tennes ee, new Kansas
ity services were extended northwards to
St Louis and Chicago/Midway.
nlike other pioneer 73 7 operators,
California's Pacific Southwest Airlines
had eventually disposed of their fleet.
fter a financially disastrous attempt to
operate wic.Ie-bodied Lockheed L-lO II
Tristars on their high-pressure, inter-city
network, P A had standardized on the
Boeing 727-200. Over thirty were operat-
ed by the airline at the trijet's PSA zenith.
Later, even the 727s were replaced by more
economical MD- Is and several DC-9-30s
were acquired second-hand. A number of
UK-built BAe-146s were also introduced,
a frequency of service became a priority
over aircraft capacity.
Other long-term 73 7 operators, United,
We tern and Piedmont, were still steadily
increasing their fleets of eries 200s. ec-
onc.I-hand aircraft were often acquired, as
well as new examples off the production
line. Even Lufthansa wa still taking deliv-
ery of 737s, taking their 70th aircraft on
charge in March 1985. All these operators
were showing a healthy interest in the Series
300/40 development, as was outhwest
Airlines.
Air, the renamed Allegheny Air-
lines, whose takeover of Lake Central in
196 had led to the cancellation of the lat-
ter's own 73 7 order, finally took del ivery of
the type in 19 2. Another takeover in
1972 had seen the network and fleet of
ew York tate-based Mohawk Airlines
being integrated into Allegheny. The
much expanded carrier had changed its
name to Air in 1979 in order to give the
airline a less parochial image and reflect its
ambitions to expand nationwide.
air europe
............. ,

Air Europe's brand new fleet was one of the most modern available for IT work in the UK. MAP
704
705
THE BABY GROWS
TilE BABY GROWS
in the off-season. oon, Maersk was spe-
ciali:ing in longer-term leasing, huying air-
craft specifically to undertake leasing con-
tracts, using them only brieny on their own
charter services.
Dan-Air only operated one 737, G-
Bl V, through 19 1. Initially, it was main-
ly used on IT, for the Thomas Cook travel
organization, for whom the aircraft nell'
hoI iday passengers throughout Europe. It
was not until 19 2 that another aircraft,
also leased from Maersk, joined the first
73 7. However, further leased aircraft soon
followed from various sources.
(Above) Maersk began large-scale IT services with
Boeing 720Bs. eventually replacing them with 737s,
leasing contracts soon became a large part of the
airline's operations. 737 OY-APG was contracted
out to Tunisair in 1978. Jenny Gradidge
night service division of its parent company.
Fokker E27s had opened general charter
nights in 1979, later undertaking domestic
schedules ami ITs for a numher of local tour
companies, As the IT market expanded in
Denmark as swiftly as anywhere else, Maer-
sk replaced the Fnkkers on the holiday char-
ters with second-hand Boeing 71 Rs,
resplendent in their all-blue colour scheme.
Maersk began to replace the nOBs with
737-200s in 197 ,like other carriers before
it, Maersk started leasing out spare capacity
maintain. The tour companie were also
hecoming reluctant to accommodate their
cI ients on Dan-Air's older aircraft and were
threatening to take their business else-
where. As the last of the Comets wa final-
ly withdrawn from service, at the end of
19 ,Dan-Airtook deli\'ery of ire first 73 7,
The single Series 2 was operated on lease
from the Danish airline, laersk Air.
Maersk Air, a suhsidiary of the giant A.P.
Moller Group, owners of the Maersk hip-
ping organization, had hegun operations as a
G-BICV was the first 737 to wear the famous Dan-Air 'Compass Rose' logo, Via author
Dan-Air Services, based at Gatwick and
Monarch Airlines, Britannia Airways'
neighbour at Luton, both introduced 737-
200s into their neets in late 19 O.
Dan-Air had finally recogni:ed that
their neet needed moderni:ation. Its char-
ter operations were based mostly around
neets of second-hand Comets and B C
One-Elevens, with larger Boeing 71 7-I OOs
and -200s. Despite having been compara-
tively cheap to acquire, the Dan-air aircraft
were increasingly expensive to operate ,1Ild
I ga\"(o' up" Clllnmand on Vi,count, With R IA to
go fly 7)7, a, " Fir,t O(f,ccr (,omcthing I now
'lLk"c FlO, net'a to do- ,omctimc.' It " I'cry dif-
ficult to gct hack In thc Icft hand ,cat'). Apart
from 'lI1glc cnginc Jct; in thc Roy,,1 Air Forcc,
thi, w,,, Ihc fiN I ypc of Jct aircr"ft I h"d flown. I
w", "ma:cd "t hmv much furthcr ahcad of thc air-
craft 1had to think. For imtancc, having to plan
Top or I)c,ccnl points, dcpcndcnt on winds, air-
eralt weight, ATe altitude rc:-,triction.... , C::lC.,
m'htly up to 110 n"utic,,1 milc, rromlhc airport'
Thc .,ircfi,rt, '" "rc "II jct" hccamc a hlg glid-
cr wllh thc cngll1c, ,It Idlc powcr. Of cou"c, on
thc Vi,counts, propcllcr, could pnl\'ldc cnor-
moll'. <l1l101l11(', of drag to .... Iow down ,lnd
de ccnJ, hut could pnl\'IJe 1!l ... t,lnt<lIlCOU'I
n: pon.... c to Jc!J\'cr po\\'er. ThiS was not .... 0 on the
on which an clght 'ccond ,pool-up tlmc
lrom Idle to full powcr could hc cxpcctcd. Th"
could hc pOlcntl"lly d"a,rrou, "t low he,ght, 10\\
powcr conflguf,llion, ifilllll1edl,HC (ull po\\,er \\'(1...
reqUired, llence, hIgh drag agilllbt high power
.,ppro"d,C' wcrc much "tfer. The 7) 7lI'a, onc 01
thc fiN aircraft to Il1CIlfI'Ilf'IlC high !tIt del' ICC'
and ,f "II werc extended - shit" flal" and ,f, upon
landing, the ,peedhrake wa, extended, It looked
'" though there w", hardly anything on t he wing
th,lt \\'a", not extcndcd or mO"lng, you could
,ee nghl Ihmugh III
The Orion 717, were ,,,cd cxtcn,ivcly on hol-
iday IT wllfk. Bccause of the high densily con-
figuration of 110 p""enger scats ror flighls of up
to four \\'ith thi", l11eanl "'OI11C-
time., having ro include technictl, refucllll1g,
'tol" on flighr, to and from thc etl1ary Island"
e'peclally (rom airfield, further north tI1the UK.
Operal ing the aircraft to the maximum extent of
It ... range and field pcrformancc, \\'Ilh tcmpera-
ture, in Ihe holid.ly de,tinarHtI1' oftcn hCll1g
,'cry hOI In ... lImmcr, lip to 30-40°, mC,lnt th;11 \\'C
werc hecomlng \'cry adept at "'qucc:lng the la... t
kilo out or the weight and hal"nce c"lculat'o",.
More IT Interest in the 737
Airways, the only carrier with any signifi-
cant presence at East Midlands up until the
arrival of Orion irways. Although Chris's
introduction to the Boeing 737 was to he
some time after the type made it debut, his
experience of transition from propeller to
jet was to he typical of many over the years.
As well as Air Europe and Orion's usc of
the aircraft as the basis of their new oper-
ations, a number of other charter operators
around Europe started taking interest in
the type as a replacement for their older
fleets, In the UK, establ ished operators
Among the pilots recruited was Chris
Harrison, originally with British Midland
One Pilot's View
Operations were initially undertaken sole-
ly for Hori:on, eventually serving twenty-
five holiday destinations in nine countries.
When three more aircraft were delivered
in time for the 19 I season, operations
were also being undertaken from Birming-
ham, Luton and Manchester, with other
regional points eventually joining the IT
charter network.
Staff and crews were recruited and
trained throughout 1979, in preparation
for the 19 summer 'cason. nlike Air
Europe that based itself at London's
Gatwick irport, Orion irll'ays adopted
East Midlands Airport as its headquarters.
East Midlands Airport, ncar Castle Don-
ington, had heen opened in 1964 to serve
the metropolitan area encapsulated hy
Derhy, ottingham and Leicester. Up until
the opening of East Midlands Airport, the
area had heen dominated hy Birmingham's
Elmdon Airport, much further to the west
and inconvenient for the population of the
more eastern cities in the reginn.
Orion's first three Boeing 73 7-200s were
delivered in February and March 1980.
with a Gatwick-Palma IT charter on Friday
14 May, carrying 130 Intasun customers.
Another Holiday Flight
Newcomer
s ir Europe was getting itself geared up
for its first summer season, another K
tour operator was also setting up its own
737 airline. Horizon Travel had heen one
of the pioneers of the industry, nying its
first IT passengers from Britain to Corsica
in 1949. Expanding steadily over the years,
the inevitahle corporate 'ups and downs'
included the company heing a part of the
Orion Airways had the backing of Horizon. one of the most distinguished and longest
established IT holiday companies. Steve Bunting
giant Clarksons organization when it
entered bankruptcy in 1974. J Inll'ever,
Hori:on survived, being sold on to nell'
owners by the official receiver.
Ilori:on soon regained its place among
the busiest tour companies. Like lntasun,
Hori:on became dissatisfied with the ser-
vice offered by established charter airlines
and looked to provide a superior service
while being able to reduce costs by operat-
ing its own airline division. The new air-
line, Orion Airway, wa, formed in lare
1978, hut was not to hegin operations until
the 19 0 summer season.
...
106 107
THE BABY GROWS THE BABY GROWS
Monarch Airlines leased in 737-200s from Germany's Bavaria. MAP
An early production 737-300 was displayed at Farnborough in 1984, wearing basic USAir colours. Jenny Gradidge
however, as the aircraft were returned at the
end of the 1980 season following Aerotour's
financial collapse. The usually astute
Maersk Air also lost out occasionally. In
November 1980, a new German charter air-
line, Supair, had their aircraft repossessed
by Maersk within a month of delivery after
the airline failed to begin operations.
The Series 300 Debuts
The fi rst Series 300 Boeing 737 took to the
air for the first time on 24 February 1984.
Orders were already flooding in for the air-
craft, the customers being impressed with
the promised increased performance,
economy and reduced noise and emission
levels of the new engines. By the end of
the year, orders for the Series 300 had
reached no less then 252 from twenty-six
customers bringing the total for the 737
series as a whole to 1,418.
One of the first 737-300s flew in the
colours of USAir, the launch customer,
with Boeing titles, and was displayed as
such at the 1984 Farnborough Air Show
in the UK. By then end of the following
year the new version had been delivered to
AirCal (the rebranded Air California),
Leasing False-Starts
Although the increasing use of leasing
contracts instead of outright purchases by
airlines was a popular one, it did not
always work out. As a number of leasing
operators increased, GATX/Booth were
soon joined by the lines of International
Lease Finance Corporation (lLFC),
Bavaria, Ansett Worldwide, Guinness
Peat Aviation (GPA), American Finance
Group, Pacific Aviation Holding Co.,
Integrated Aircraft Corporation and oth-
ers, as well as airlines such as Maersk Air
acquiring aircraft specifically to lease out
at a profit. The more favourable economic
terms meant that the smaller airlines no
longer had to wait for the bigger carrier's
'cast-offs'. The establ ished airlines also saw
the advantages to themselves of leasing in
their fleets from financial and leasing com-
panies. They no longer needed to have
such large sections of their capital tied up
in owning their aircraft outright.
Not all the customer airlines were finan-
cially stable enough to support their 737s
though and soon fell by the wayside. In
1980, GPA leased 737-200s to French char-
ter operator Aerotour, that had previously
flown Caravelles. The lease was short-lived,
aircraft were fitted with 'stick-pusher' stall
warning devices that were not approved by
the American authorities.
This 'swap' was repeated the next two
years, until Air Florida ceased operations.
As Air Florida lurched into its final finan-
cial crisis, Air Europe insisted it be paid
every 48 hours for the continued use of
their 737s. When the end came for the US
carrier in 1984, its sudden demise into
bankruptcy left Air Europe with a serious
capacity shortage as the promised aircraft
were no longer forthcoming. The airline
was forced to lease in extra aircraft at short
notice, a rather expensive exercise, to
cover the shortfall.
Air Europe, under the wings of its par-
ent company, the Intasun Leisure Group,
later retitled the International Leisure
Group, or ILG, survived the loss of Air
Florida's loaned equipment and continued
its apparently unstoppable expansion.
Brand new Boeing 757s, among the first in
Europe, had joined the fleet in 1983.
Long-haul flights had been introduced,
with the 757s operating over the Atlantic
to Florida. Orion, still deriving much of its
income from Horizon, steadily expanded
its 737-200 charter operation, with sever-
al new bases opening around the UK.
and Eagle Air of Iceland, all in variations
of their combined liveries.
Air Europe, however, came to a firmer,
more regular, agreement with Air Florida,
whose slackest time, the summer, Florida's
low season, was Air Europe's busiest. This
worked both ways, with Air Europe having
spare capacity in the winter, when thou-
sands were trying to escape the potentially
harsh northern American winter and head
south to the 'Sunshine State'.
Two of Air Florida's Boeing 737-200s
spent the summer of 1981 operating
Europe-based inclusive-tour charters from
the UK alongside Air Europe's fleet of six
similar aircraft. When they returned in the
autumn, three Air Europe aircraft joined
them and spent the winter operating on the
Florida-based scheduled flights of Air Flori-
da. Although a convincingly 'tidy' arrange-
ment, the operation was not without its
problems, not least with America's Federal
Aviation Administration and Britain's
Civil Aviation Authority. Both official
bodies found objections to the 'foreign'
aircraft. For example, the UK-registered
at Luton that had already been flying from
the Bedfordshire airport for twelve years,
the new 73 7s began operation on
Monarch's inclusive-tour network soon
afterwards.
Seasonal Swaps
ir Europe pioneered a new leasing
arrangement with foreign carriers, in an
effort to boost utilization in the winter
months. As already mentioned, leasing
contracts were undertaken by a number of
airline operators. Aer Lingus, Britannia
and Transavia, among others, had all sent
aircraft off to temporary new homes in
their slack traffic periods. The lucrative
contracts were often repeated over several
years, but were usually a one-way street.
As well as enjoying a steady influx of
new aircraft of its own most years, Britan-
nia often leased in extra aircraft to cover
seasonal shortages. Among the sources for
Britannia's extra seasonal aircraft were
Pluna of Paraguay, Quebecair of Canada
Monarch Joins the Club
Monarch Airlines had intended their 737s
to replace their fleet of BAC One-Elevens
that operated alongside Boeing 720Bs on
European ITs from bases at Luton and
Manchester. Like Air Europe and Orion,
Monarch had been set up by a tour compa-
ny, Cosmos Holidays, in 1968. Originally
operating a fleet of Bristol Britannia turbo-
props, Boeing 720Bs and BAC One-Elevens
had eventually replaced the prop-liners.
The first pair of Monarch 737s were also
leased in, as was the increasingly popular
fashion, this time from Bavaria Flugge-
sellschaft. Although originally a charter
carrier, flying BAC One-Elevens from
Munich, Bavaria had sold its commercial
airline operation to another operator, Ger-
manair. However, Bavaria continued to
exist as a separate company and began spe-
cializing in leasing aircraft to other airlines.
The first of a pair of Bavaria 737-200s
arrived at Monarch Airline's Luton base in
late September 1980, followed by the sec-
ond a month later. Joining Britannia's 73 7s
708 709
Non-Airline 737s THE BABY GROWS
(Belowl Aviogenex's main IT charter market, to and from Yugoslav resorts on the Adriatic Riviera,
vanished overnight when war broke out between new rival states in the region. Richard Howell
(Above) JArs 737-300 operations were stalled following
the violent break-up of the former Yugoslavia. Steve Bunting
L
•••••••••••••••• • TNI-AU
.........."-'"'' ". ,-,
•••••••
Despite Boeing's traditional military connections, the 737
remained a largely civilian project. as had been intended
from the beginning. However, long-standing Boeing cus-
tomer, the US Air Force, did place an order for nineteen
specialized navigation trainers, to be based on the 737-
200 airframe. The aircraft was designated the T-43A by
the USAF. With most windows removed, the cabin
rearranged to accommodate up to twelve tramee naviga-
tion stations and four astrodomes fitted to the top of the
fuselage, the first T-43A was delivered in July 1973.
From 1992, at least five of the T-43As were transferred
to a Civilian operator, E.G. & G. Inc, who operate them
alongside ex-airline 737-200s on 'Special ProJects', per-
sonnel and equipment shuttles from Las Vegas, mcon-
nection with US government work at the remote Roswell
Air Force base.
Ten years later, the Indonesian government also ordered
specially modified 737s for military use. Designated
Boeing 737-2X9s, the three aircraft are equipped with The USAFT·43A navigation trainer was based around the 737-200 airframe. Jenny Gradidge
Indonesia's 737-2X9s feature radar housings built into the fuselage. Boeing
IBelowl N1288 was a737-200 supplied to Essex International as aprivate corporate jet in late 1969. Via author
Motorola side-looking, multi-mission radar installed in
distinctive housings above the rear fuselage. The aircraft
are used to patrol the Indonesian Islands to detect illegal
maritime activities.
The 737 was also adopted as aVIP or corporate trans-
port by a number of civilian operators, as well as pro-
viding luxury accommodation for military organizations
and government heads throughout the world.
Some companies also operated airline-style configured
aircraft on private 'scheduled' sel\lices carrying company
personnel between far-ranging plants and locations.
Range could be extended to 4,606 miles by the addition
of extra fuel cells in one of the lower cargo holds. The
more luxurious executive interiors, where required, could
be installed by Boeing, but in many cases the customers
preferred to use outside craftsmen. Civilian customers for
private 737-200s Included Dome Petroleum, Eldorado Oil,
Essex, Maritime, Noga and Petrolair. Military operators of
both new and second-hand 737s included the air forces
of Brazil. India, Mexico, Peru, Thailand and Venezuela.
110 777
TilE BABY GROWS TilE BABY GROWS
--
, , ~ ~ . . . ~ I.. >.
Airways International Cymru
:;.._---..I••'r--I-I-I-I-I_1_1_1-1-:::1 1 1 1 1 1 I ~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 •• ••
Airways International Cymru operated a large proportion of their flights from Bristol/lulsgate, across the
Severn Estuary from its main base at Cardiff. G-PROK, the second 737-300, is seen here, taxying away from
the old Bristol terminal. Martyn East
G-BAZI came to Airways International Cymru from Britannia Airways, via a leasing company. Richard Howell
One-Elevens was leased out to British Mid-
land Airways, but was replaced in 19 5 by
an cx-Britannia Airways 737-200, G-
BAZI, obtained via Havelet leasing.
Although attracting a number of con-
tract from important tour operators, such
as osmos, Air Cymru, as the company
name tended to be shortened to in every-
day use, had a chequered reputation. Pop-
ular with pas engers for it friendly ervice,
and with its staff as a pleasant company to
work for, the daily operation tended to
uffcr from an unusual number of technical
d lays and operational problems. The air-
line's situation was not greatly helped
when the unworld aircraft arrived in
19 6. The operational fleet then consisted
The 737 in Wales
One of the unworld International aircraft
found a temporary home at Cardiff, the
capital of the UK principality of Wale.
Airways International Cymru (Wales
International Airways) had begun opera-
tions in 19 4 with a pair of BAC One-
Eleven. Owned by a local travel company,
Red Dragon Travel, IT charters operated
from Cardiff and the nearby English city of
Bristol to European resorts. One of the
USA. The DC-9s only continued in service
for a short while before the airline ceased
operations due to financial problems.
In high-density, inclusive-tour, configu-
ration, the Series 30 carried 148 passen-
ger , eighteen more than the -200's maxi-
mum. This increased revenue potential,
linked to lower fuel costs, attracted the
cost-consciou charter carrier in particu-
lar. Monarch took delivery of their first
-300 in 19 6, supplementing their earlier
eries -200s and hastening the retirement
of the last of th ir ne-Elevens. New Boe-
ing 757s had replaced the last of Monarch's
high capacity 720Bs and were used on long-
haul flights as well as supplementing the
737s on European ITs.
curtailed and most of the fleet disposed of.
Limited charter services later restarted
with a single 727-200 once ome sem-
blance of peace returned to the region.
New York Air w a ~ to be merged into
Continental by the two airlines' owner, the
Texas Air Corporation, when PeoplExpress
was taken over. unworld International, a
low-fare schedul d and charter carrier
based at Las Vegas, operated three leased
73 7-300s only briefly, supplementing its
DC-9 services throughout the west of the
Monarch's 737-300 services encompassed most of the main holiday airports of southern Europe. G-MONH is
pictured at one of the busiest, Palma, Majorca. Martyn East
halted when Yugoslavia was broken up
into several states, following the fall of
Communism in Eastern Europe. ]AT's
once extensive network was closed down,
or severely curtailed, for long periods and
the fleet either stored or leased out.
Another Yugoslav 737 operator to uffer as
a result of the political unrest in the coun-
try was Aviogenex. Formed as the coun-
try's IT specialist, Aviogenex operated a
pair of 737-2 Os alongside a fleet of
Tupolev Tu-134As and Boeing 727-200s,
on IT charters from the Adriatic resorts to
Western Europe. When the Yugoslav
tourist industry collapsed with the violent
break-up of the country into independent
states, Aviogenex operations were greatly
America West, Cameroon Airlines, Con-
tinental, CP Air, Dan-Air, ]ugoslovenski
Aerotran port OAT), Maersk Air, ew
York Air, Orion, Pakistan International,
Piedmont, Southwe t, unworld Interna-
tional, United, U Air and We'tern.
Many of the e cu tomers were new 737
operators. In the case of] AT, ew York Air
and unworld International, their previous
main equipment had been DC-9s. ]AT's
effort, to replace it medium/short-haul
fleet with the 737 were to be temporarily
112 113
•••
New Mediterranean Operators
OPPOSITE PAGE
(Top) Air Algerie built up aconsiderable 737 fleet for
domestic, regional and trans-Mediterranean scheduled
services. Steve Bunting
(Bottom) The 737-200 joined Air Malta in 1981, with
leased aircraft replaced by their own fleet in 1983.
Richard Howell
(Middle) Arkia flew its first 737s only briefly on IT
charters and scheduled services in 1983/84. Other
versions were acquired by Arkia some years later.
MAP
As well as Europe's charter carriers suddenly finding the
Boeing 737 the answer to their re-equipment prayers,
even more scheduled carriers were seeing the light.
As already related. Air Algerie had been an early
lease contract customer for Aer Lingus's 737s since the
late 1960s. Air Algerie later went on to operate a not
inconsiderable fleet of their own, finally replacing their
ageing Caravelles. Tunis Air had introduced their first
737-200 in 1979, serving an extensive regional network
that extended to Europe. as well as neighbouring North
African states. With Tunisia boasting anumber of popu-
lar coastal resorts, Tunis Air's 737s were soon chartered
out to tour operators for IT flights, especially from north-
ern Europe.
Already popular with Arabian carriers, the type was
also adopted by the Israeli national airline, EI AI. Previ-
ously almost solely an operator of longer-range aircrah,
EI AI leased in two 737-200s from Trans European, of
Belgium, to evaluate the aircrah for use on regional
schedules from Tel Aviv. The pair of leased 737s joineg
EI AI in October 1980 and were operated on schedules to
Europe and around the Mediterranean. An order was
placed for two of their own 737-200s, delivered in Jan-
uary 1983, replacing the leased aircrah.
The independent Israeli airline. Arkia, also took deliv-
ery of Boeing 737-200s, its first, asecond-hand ex-Wien
Air Alaska aircrah arriving in 1981. When two new air-
craft were delivered to Arkia in 1983, the original aircrah
was sold. The aircrah were operated on scheduled
domestic and regional flights, as well as an extensive
programme of charters to Europe. Unfortunately, Arkia
suHered financial problems after much of their sched-
uled network was closed down for political reasons, and
the aircrah were sold or leased out in 1984.
Air Malta took delivery of their first 737 in 1981,
leased in from Transavia of the Netherlands. The first of
Air Malta's own order, for six 737-200s, was delivered in
1983. Operating on scheduled and IT charter services
throughout the Mediterranean region and to Europe, Air
Malta's 737s were acquired to replace the company's
first aircrah, a fleet of second-hand Boeing 720Bs.
In 1983, the Boeing 737-200 also joined the fleet of
the Portuguese national carrier, TAP-Air Portugal. The
new aircrah were replacing older Boeings, in the shape
of 727-1 ODs on TAP-Air Portugal's scheduled and holiday
charter network. The airline's charter subsidiary, Air
Atlantis, based at the southern resort of Faro, also oper-
ated 737s from 1985. Air Atlantis, too, flew ahandful of
727-200s and even long-range 707s on higher-capacity
and further-ranging flights.
" r. ":';'
,.. ;«- < •
in early 1987, it was joined by two othcr
ILFC 737-300s, one of them also an ex-
Sunworld Intcrnational aircraft. This at
least gave the fleet some semblance of
standardization. At the end of 1987, thc
737-300s were returned to ILFC and the
Scrics 200 was subleascd to a ncw US start-
up to be based in Miami.
Unfortunately, thc contract wcnt sour,
with the US airlinc failing to bcgin opcra-
tions and stranding the aircraft, along with
its scconded Air Cymru crcws, in Miami
amid the legal wrangles. An ill-advised,
(Below) The larger 737-300 provided Orion, and its other operators,
with increased revenue potential for similar costs, Steve Bunting
..

...
Airways
IntQrnatlonal
Cymru
__ . QR\QN
"
LJ
of thrce aircraft, onc Onc-Elevcn, one
737-200 and the 737-300, all with totally
diffcrent seating configurations (89, lJO
and 148, respectively),
Should any technical or opcrational
problems occur, none of the aircraft could
covcr thc othcr's flights, cvcn if available.
The first ex-Sunworld aircraft was returned
to its owncrs, 1LFC, at the cnd of thc 1986
scason, with thc -200, G-BAZI, going to
Acr Lingus on lease for four months in the
wintcr, Icaving thc Onc-Elcvcn alonc in
Air Cymru service. After G-BAZI returned
A cartoon 737 featured in Airways
International Cymru's promotional
material. Via author
174 115
THE BABY GROWS
A typical UK airport line-up in the 1980s. No less than four different UK 737 operators, Orion Airways, Air
Europe, British Airtours and Britannia Airways all share the Manchester ramp. Steve Bunting
been taken over by Atlanta-based Delta
Air Lines, and AirCal had been bought
out by American Airlines.
Western had struggled in the post-dereg-
ulation era. As a cost-cutting measure,
emphasis was diverted away from larger,
expensive bases, such as Los Angeles, where
cut-throat competition was wiping out what
small profits there were, The airline began
concentrati ng fl ights at less expensi ve 'hubs'
such as Salt Lake City, in Utah. Still a large,
important airline, operating DC-1O wide-
all-metal-based livery. The latter compa-
ny had acquired Piedmont, after purchas-
ing a majority shareholding. However,
with protracted legal wrangles and opera-
tional problems, it was to be another eigh-
teen months before the Piedmont identi-
ty was to be fully absorbed into USAir. In
the spring of 1988, USAir further expand-
ed its swiftly growing network by acquir-
ing Pacific Southwest Airlines, giving it a
badly needed foothold in America's west-
ern states,
CHAPTER EIGHT
A New Lease of Life
As the Series 300s began rolling off the
Renton production line, beside the still
popular -200s, Boeing was refining an
even larger 737. The 9ft 6in (2.9m) longer
-400 was fitted with extra over-wing
emergency exits, two each side instead of
one, and stronger wings and landing gear
were fitted to cope with the increased
gross weight of up to 142,0001b (64,4lOkg).
The first Series 400 flew on 29 April 1988,
The Next Big One
,
I found rhc workload much lowcr on rhc 300
due [() rhe assistancc of INS, auromared powcr
scnings and calculations in rhc climb. Evenru-
ally, when rhe 'glass cockpir' camc our, onc
could have a much bener 'situational awareness'.
established analogue technology. Once it
was more widely available though, the air-
lines and their pilots were soon enthusing
about the new systems and their advan-
tages over older versions.
Chris Harrison flew both the Series 200
and 300 with Orion and, from 1986
onwards, other operators:
the last of the Elew'as were finally dis-
posed of.
More interstate flights were added, with
service opening to Seattle and Phoenix.
Shortly before the introduction of the
MD-80s, in 1981, the company identity
was amended to AirCal, with a smart new
modern logo and colour scheme. The air-
line was purchased from Westgate Califor-
nia by a new company, AirCal Invest-
ments Inc, for $61.5 million.
Twelve Boeing 737-300s were ordered
in June 1984, with options taken out on a
further eleven, as part of a large fleet
In the hands of new majority shareholders,
the Westgate-California Corporation, since
1970, Air California had continued a steady
unofficial attempt to repossess the aircraft
caused even more legal expenses for Air
Cymru. Without suitable aircraft for the
forthcoming season, and the US legal bills
eating into its operating capital, the com-
pany was forced to cease operations in
early 1988.
Air California Progress
The arrival of the even further stretched Series 400 saw the 737 finally losing its 'Baby Boeing' tag, Boeing
expansion throughout the decade, carrying
its ten millionth passenger in 1976. As a
result of deregulation, Air California was
able to expand outside California's borders,
initially beginning interstate service to
Reno, Nevada, in December 1978.
By 1979, nine 737s were operated along-
side three ElectJ'as, the latter type reintro-
duced into the fleet in 1975 to operate ser-
vices to ultra noise-sensitive Lake Tahoe.
Also in 1979, an order was placed for five
162-passenger McDonnell Douglas MD-
80s, wi th options for up to eight more, Two
more Boeing 737-200s arrived in 1980, as
replacement programme. ine of the firm
orders came from AirCal itself - the
remaining three were for aircraft to be
leased from ILFC. The -300s were intend-
ed to eventually replace the then entire
fleet of fourteen 737-200s, two leased
- I OOs and seven MD-80s.
The New Boyan the Block
Although advanced electronic flight sys-
tems were to be introduced on the 73 7-
300, the earliest examples were built with
It gavc one rhc abiliry [() scc, almost as on a
map, your reference [0 waypoints, track,
airpolTs and, evcnrually wirh TCAS
(Tcrrain Collision Avoidancc Sysrcm), othcr
aircraft around you.
The forthcoming Series 400 promised even
more technical advances, linked to the
higher capacity offered by the yet-further
stretched fuselage, However, as well as being
a natural development of the 737 breed, the
Series 400 was developed in response to a
growing threat to the type's sales from
Europe. Would it rise to the challenge?
the first production delivery being made
to launch customer, Piedmont Airlines,
on 15 September the same year. Piedmont
placed the aircraft into service on 1 Octo-
ber 1988.
The Piedmont Airlines 737-400s were
delivered in a hybrid Piedmont/USAir,
Californian Merger Mania
The loss of Pacific Southwest Airlines was
the latest in a series of mergers and acqui-
sitions that saw the disappearance of no
less than three of California's 'home based'
carriers. In 1987 Western Air Lines had
bodies to Hawaii and Mexico, alongside
Boeing 727-200s and 737-200s, Western
had begun introducing the 737-300 along-
side the older versions. Delta Air Lines saw
the chance to extend its network westwards,
and took over the ailing 62-year-old airline
as of 1 April 1987,
116
117
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LI FE
Dallas operation and moved home to a
smaller hub already esrabli hed at Kansas
City, retaining Orlando as a southern base.
The 737-20 s were leased in from the
Polaris Aircraft Leasing Corporation in late
19 7, to supplement the 727 and One-
Elevens. A large order was placed for leased
Airbus A320 , intended as the new standard
aircraft for Braniff. nfortunatcly, shortly
after the first of the A320s entered service
from Kansas City, Braniff Inc ceased opera-
tions in eptember 1989.
Once again though, Braniff reappeared.
The operating authority of a small charter
carrier, Emerald Airlines, was purchased by
new owners and it was turned into the new
Braniff. Once more flying Boeing 727-200s,
ome of the ex-AirCal/American and
Western serie 200 73 7s found temporary
new homes with the re-e tablished Braniff
Inc. After a dramatic ces ation of opera-
tions by the original Braniff Airways in
19 2, the company remained dormant
until a new financial package was put
together under new ownership. Braniff
reopened service from Dallas with a
much reduced fleet of Boeing 727-200s in
March 19 4. Later, Orlando-based Florida
Express Airlines was taken over and their
fleet of BAC One-Elevens joined the 727s.
After a period of reorganization and re-
trenchement, Braniff closed down the
Braniff Revival, and Revival
Il
Eventually, the ex-AirCal 737- were grad-
ually disposed of or rerurned to Ie sors as
contracts came up for renewal. American
rook delivery offurther MD- Os, their pre-
ferred twin-engined jet, to replace them in
alifornian service as soon as it became
practicable to do so.
The ex-Piedmont aircraft suffered no
u h ignominy. The length of time it had
taken for the two airline to merge had
allowed them to co-ordinate their fleets
well before they became one. PSA's MD-
Os and DC-9s were fitted into the com-
bined fleet a well, although, in time, the
British BAe 146s were stored and then dis-
posed of, after SAir had decided to cut
back its West Coast presence after all.
(Be/owl Delta had ordered their own
'Advanced' 737-200s to replace older
jets. The ex-Western 737-300s, like
N303WA, soon appeared throughout
the Delta network in full colours.
Via author/Steve Bunting
Western's attempts to survive after
deregulation were doomed to failure.
Its second 737-200, N4502W, was still
in the fleet and taken over by Delta in
1987, nineteen years after it had been
delivered. Via author
Post-Merger Operations
Following the acquisition by their new own-
ers, both the fleet of Western and AirCal
started appearing in 'hybrid' schemes, usual-
ly comprising a new name painted over their
old liveries. Delta had actually been in the
process of introducing their own fleet of
'Advanced' 737-200s, to replace older DC-
9s, when the Western 737-200s and -300s
were added.
American Airlines, though, had not
previously been a Boeing 737 operator.
1984 - alandmark year - the airline carried 13 million passengers and exceeded $1 bil-
lion in revenues. thus offiCially becoming a'major' airline. In January 1985. Piedmont was
named 'Airline of the Year' by the influential magazine, Air Transport World.
May 1986 saw Piedmont acquiring New York State-based Empire Airlines that oper-
ated a fleet of Fokker F.28 jets from Syracuse. The addition of the Dutch jets brought
Piedmont's fleet up to 149 aircraft. This consisted of sixty-three Boeing 737-200s, thir-
teen 737-300s, thirty-four 727-200s (the 727-1 ODs had left Piedmont in 1983), twenty
Fokker F.28-1 OOOs and nineteen F.28-4000s. The 1.177 daily departures served eighty-
seven airports in twenty-seven states, the District of Columbia and two international
points in Canada.
International expansion plans were implemented, with newwide-bodied Boeing 767-
200s opening a Charlotte-London service in June 1987. The 767s also operated on
transcontinental service from the hubs in the eastern states. New international flights
also opened to Nassau, in the Bahamas in November. By then though, negotiations
were well undervvay for the USAir purchase of Piedmont and, on 5November, the air-
line became asubsidiary of USAir Group Inc.
Operations continued independently for awhile, as the full merger of the two sizable
airlines was engineered. However, finally, on 4 August 1989 the last Piedmont flight
ever left Dayton for South Bend, Indiana. The next day, Piedmont ceased to exist and
all operations were conducted under the USAir name. At the time of the final merger
Piedmont Airlines was flying sixty-two 737-200s, forty-two 737-300s, eight 737-400s,
six 767-200s. thirty-four 727-200s, twenty F.28-1000s and twenty-five F.28-4000s.
Rorh Amcrlcan and AII'Cal arc \\'lI1nc". Rorh
afC Ciln,do, quality orientated full
of ralcnrcd pcoplc who hclicl'c rhey can achicl'c
anyrhing rhcy scr our (() do.
the 3,700 AirCal employees, m'er 95 per
cent were offered jobs within the new
operation.
American's Chairman and President,
Robert J. Crandall was expansive in his
praise for the AirCal staff as he welcomed
them into American Airlines:
Since its introduction of the 737-200, in 1968, Piedmont Airlines had never looked back.
Asustained programme of growth and expansion had seen the once humble Local Ser-
vice Carrier that had struggled to link the Ohio River Valley to the Atlantic coast, become
one of the US's leading regional airlines. The remaining vintage Martin 404s had left
the fleet in 1970 to be replaced by the Japanese-built YS-llAs.ln 1972. the airline's
25th year of operation. Piedmont reported record earnings and aprofit of $3.323,317
In 1979, Piedmont had fought off ahostile takeover bid by the then expansive Air Flori-
da and in 1981 anew hub operation was opened at Charlotte. North Carolina. This was
followed ayear later with another newhub being inaugurated at Dayton. Ohio. The last
turbo-prop YS-11 As were sold off by 1982. and Piedmont became an all-jet airline,
operating the now long-established 737-200s, alongside amixed fleet of 727-1 ODs that
had re-entered Piedmont service in 1977, and 727-200s that had arrived in 1981.
Yet another newhub operation was opened at Baltimore in 1983. with twenty-nine daily
flights to fourteen destinations. Henson Airlines. asmall commuter airline based in Sal-
isbury. Maryland. was taken over in 1983. Henson was then operated as a 'Piedmont
Regional Airline', the beginning of anetwork of smaller, associated airlines that were to
feed traffic into Piedmont's mainline network as 'Piedmont Commuter' carriers. The fol-
lowing year. atranscontinental service was opened to Los Angeles and San Francisco. In
The 737-200 had proved itself the ideal aircraft for Piedmont's network, leading to
sustained growth for the airline. Jenny Gradidge
The Rise and Rise of the Pacemakers
American's intention to buy AirCal
was announced in November 19 6 and
the deal was closed in April the next year.
As with Delta and USAir, American fclt
the need to increase it' profile in the west-
ern half of the USA, hence its interest in
AirCal's succe sful network. The merger
became effective on 1July 19 7, with Air-
Cal's identity being replaced by American
Airline's image from that date. The order-
ly integration of AirCal employees and
aircraft into American was to make the
merger 'nearly invisible' to passengers. Of
778 779
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
720
Both AirCal's 737-200s and -300s were to acquire
American Airline's titles as soon as the merger took
effect. Both pictures courtesy of American Airlines C.R.
Smith Museum
the 'new' airline was contracted for a num-
ber of charter services by travel companies
around the USA. An attempt to return to
scheduled services, from Dallas to New
York and Los Angeles, was initiated in
1991, and the network was later expanded
to include Fort Lauderdale, Islip and
Newark. However, scheduled services were
closed down as uneconomic later that year
and, in July 1992, the third Braniff followed
its predecessors into bankruptcy.
Air Europe - and Family
Air Europe had followed Orion by intro-
ducing the Boeing 737-300. An Orion 737-
300 was leased-in for crew training before
the type entered charter service with Air
Europe in 1987. Orders were placed at the
(Top) American Airlines retained the
ex-AirCal 737s long enough to justify
repainting, but they were disposed of
as more MD-80s arrived to replace them.
American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum
(Above) Braniff's ex-Western 737-200,
N4509W is seen at Tampa on the afternoon
of 27 September 1989. Within a couple
of hours of this photograph being taken,
Braniff had ceased operations.
Malcolm L. Hill
Air Europa was Air Europe's first attempt
at establishing a 'family' of airlines. Its
737-300s operated their first Spanish-based
IT charters in November 1986.
Richard Howell
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
727
same time for five more 757s, as well as five
73 7-400s, for 1988/89 deli very.
Not all the Air Europe orders were
intended for UK-based operations though.
In June 1986, ILG had invested a 25 per
cent holding in a new Spanish [T operator,
initially entitled Air Espania. The operat-
ing name was changed to Air Europa
before operations began in ovember
1986, with their aircraft flying in an only
very slightly modified Air Europe livery.
The adoption of the new title and identi-
cal livery would enable swift transfer of the
aircraft between the two companies, with
only one letter of the title and the nation-
al flag needing to be changed.
The 'Airline Family'
Concept Spreads
Air Europe was far from the only charter
carrier to embrace the 'family' concept of
linked airlines. In 1988/89, Trans Euro-
pean Airways had established both a new
Turkish subsidiary, TUR, and a UK-based
operation, Trans European Airways (UK)
Ltd. New 'TEAs' were also set up in
Cyprus, France, Italy and Switzerland,
with various levels of shareholding by the
Brussels-based 'parent' airI inc.
Air Europa inherited Air Europe's 'mis-
sion' to establish more professional, mod-
ern, airline practices within the indepen-
dent Spanish airline community. Its 737s
were to join those operated by long-estab-
lished charter specialist, Spantax, and rela-
tive newcomer, Hispania that had begun IT
charter operations with a fleet of Caravelles
in 1983. Hispania initially leased in 737-
200s, and later -300s. The Spanrax aircraft
were part of a modernization programme
that was intended to see the replacement of
an ageing fleet of Convair CV-990As.
Unfortunately, Spantax's attempts at reor-
ganizing and its eventual sale to new own-
ers failed to revive its fortunes and the air-
line ceased operations in 1988. Hispania
survived long enough to introduce Boeing
757s alongside its 737-300s, but also ceased
trading, due to financial problems in 1989.
Other Spanish Hopefuls
Universair was a new IT operator formed
by the Spanish hotel group, Hola. With
backing from the UK's Orion Airways and
Belgium's Air Belgium, both 737 operators
in their own right, Universair opened its
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
Palma, Majorca base in 1987. The fleet
had grown to th ree 73 7-300s by J988. In
1990, Universair merged with two other
Spanish operators to form Meridiana SA,
a new scheduled carrier, and ceased to be a
737 operator.
VIVA (Vuelos Internacionales de Vaca-
ciones SA) was set up in 1988 and was
owned by Iberia and Lufthansa, with a
modern fleet of four 737-300s. The first
flight, a uremburg-Palma charter, took
place on 15 April. Initially concentrating
on the traditional IT charter markets,
VIVA began undertaking scheduled ser-
vices on behalf of Iberia, especially after
Iberia bought out Lufthansa's share in
1990. Eventually VIVA opened a sched-
uled network of its own, centred on Palma,
Majorca and Malaga on the mainland. At
its peak the VIVA 737 fleet stood at nine
Series 300s. The scheduled services oper-
ated from [991 to 1996, when Iberia took
over the routes and VIVA reverted to an
all-charter operation. In 1999, Iberia
decided to close down the airline and inte-
grated its aircraft and staff.
Shorter-lived was Nortjet, a new Span-
ish charter operator that began IT services
in 1990 with the first of three Boeing 737-
400s leased from GPA. However, Nortjet's
fleet was repossessed by GPA in February
1992, after the airline ceased operations.
Much more successful was Futura, estab-
lished in 1989 with backing from Aer Lin-
gus and Banco de Santander. Using a sin-
gle Boeing 737-400, operations began on
17 February 1990. Wi th its sol id fi nancia I
backing, Futura survived and was flying six
737-400s by 1993, from bases at Palma and
Tenerife. Throughout, Aer Lingus main-
tained a 85 per cent shareholding. In May
1997 a Palma-London/Gatwick schedule
opened under the name of Futura Direct.
Air Europe Acquisitions
Air Europe's 737-400s started to enter ser-
vice in the 1989 summer season. The high-
denSity configured, 170-passenger 73 7-400s
joined the airline's -300s and replaced the
last of the -200s, which were disposed of or
leased out. A single Boeing 747 had also
been leased in for a year and flew to US,
Caribbean and Far Eastern destinations.
The establishment of the Spanish sister
company was the beginning of lLG's 'Air-
lines of Europe' policy that envisaged a
European network of aiI'I ines. Other sub-
sidiaries were opened in Italy and Germany,
722
both operating Boeing 757s on charter ser-
vices. A orwegian charter carrier, Norway
Airlines, was purchased and its Boeing 737-
300s painted in Air Europe's full livery. Ini-
tially the Oslo-based airline was renamed
Air Norway, then Air Europe (Scandi-
navia). As well as continuing to operate IT
charters from Oslo, Air Europe (Scandi-
navia)'s aircraft were also used to open
scheduled services to London/Gatwick.
Change of Direction
Air Europe had started to add scheduled
services to its UK operations since the
early I980s. At first, leisure-orientated'
destinations were served, but from 1988
more business traffic-based services, from
London/Gatwick to Amsterdam, Brussels,
Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Geneva, Munich,
Paris and Zurich were opened. A small
Gatwick-based commuter carrier, Con-
nectair, was acquired in 1989 and rebrand-
ed as Air Europe Express, flying Shorts
330s and 360s. Guernsey AiI'I ines was later
bought out and merged into the new
'Express' operation that operated sched-
uled flights from points in the UK to the
Channel Islands and from Gatwick to
Antwerp, Dusseldorf and Rotterdam.
Still led by [-larry Goodman, ILG, the
airline's owners, were very keen for Air
Europe to establish itself as a major UK
scheduled operator. Goodman's ambitious
scheduled service plans eventually led to
Air Europe's original founders, Errol
Cossey and Martin O'Regan, leaving the
company. They grew increasingly wary of
Air Europe's owners' apparent determina-
tion to leave its original specialization, the
hoi iday charter, and concentrate on the
much riskier scheduled network.
A fleet of Fokker 100s was in the process
of being acquired for use on the less busy
scheduled flights from late 1989. For the
longer term, Air Europe had ordered no
less than eight wide-bodied MD-Ils from
McDonnell Douglas, as well as still further
737s and 757s. However, the end came
suddenly, on 8 March 1991. On that day, a
number of banks and other creditors took
steps to retrieve f, 160 mill ion owed to
them by the financially overstretched ILG
group. That morning, Air Europe's aircraft
were impounded and the whole organiza-
tion was placed under administration.
Various 'rescue' plans were put forward,
but ILG collapsed and Air Europe never
took to the skies again. The German and
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
Although Universair was luckier than some Spanish charter hopefuls in that it survived through merger, the
resulting carrier disposed of the 737-300s. Richard Howell
Air Europe utilized its 737s on new scheduled services as well as the original IT charter programme. Steve Bunting
723
The European Challenge A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
By the 1980s, Europe's first bid to rival the 737, the Dassault Mercure, had proved a
financial failure, attracting only one customer, and the quantity production of the ear-
lier European jet airliner types was drawing to a close. The larger-capacity,
medium/short-range jet market seemed to be firmly in the hands of America's Boeing
and McDonnell Douglas. The new -300 and -400 Boeing 737s and the new MD-80
series of enlarged DC-9s from McDonnell Douglas were attracting orders from airlines
and leasing agents worldwide. The Fokker F.28 and BAe 146 were selling in respectable
numbers, but were of aconsiderably lower capacity than the larger American aircraft
and aimed at amore specialized market.
Recognizing that the smaller aerospace companies of Europe had no hope of produc-
ing serious rivals to the giant American concerns, the European industry had already
taken steps to combine forces and offer competitive products. As early as 1970, an
Anglo-French study into medium-haul wide-bodied types had led to the formal estab-
lishment of Airbus Industrie, amultinational consortium of aerospace and aircraft man-
ufacturing companies. Eventually, Airbus comprised contributions from Aerospatiale of
France, British Aerospace loriginally Hawker Siddeley) of the UK, Deutsche Aerospace
of Germany, Fokker of the Netherlands and CASA of Spain.
The new consortium's first commercial project, the wide-bodied Airbus A300, first
flew in October 1972. Although initial sales were slow, the A300 eventually established
asubstantial customer base for the aircraft. Amajor breakthrough was achieved with
the sale of A300s to US-based Eastern Air Lines, with later US sales of developed ver-
sions to American Airlines and Pan American World Airways.
Airbus had always planned to offer aportfolio of airliner types and the first newvari-
ant. the slightly smaller Airbus A310, followed in 1982. Airbus's first narrow-bodied
type, the A320, was formally launched into development in 1984 and the first flight
occurred in February 1987. The A320 was adirect rival to the enlarged 737 models, with
similar capacity to the 737-400. The sale of the A320 to long-established 737 operator
United Airlines, as well as a large order placed by Minneapolis-based Northwest Air-
lines, an operator of asubstantial fleet of DC-9s of different variants, set alarm bells
ringing in the Boeing and McDonnell Douglas sales offices.
(Belowl Although initially selling only slowly, the Airbus A300B eventually established
itsell as a serious contender in the international airliner market. Malcolm L. Hill
(Bottoml The acquisition of large fleets of Airbus types IA320 illustrated) by major US
carriers, such as Northwest Airlines, made Boeing examine its own offerings very
closely. Northwest via author
Norwegian subsidiaries also ceased opera-
tions. Nonetheless, the Spanish and Ital-
ian operations found new owners and
eventually thrived as Air Europa and air
Europe (Italy). Air Europe Express even-
tually re-emerged as a new commuter car-
rier, Euroworld, later renamed CityFlyer
Express.
More UK Comings and Goings
Orion Airways had disappeared in 1989.
Its parent company, Horizon Travel, had
been taken over by the Thomson Travel
Group that year. Horizon's operations were
merged into Thomson Holidays and, not
surprisingly, Orion's services were merged
into Thomson's own established airline
subsidiary, Britannia Airways. At the time
of the merger, Orion was operating its 737-
300s and a pair of wide-bodied, Airbus
A300Bs. As Britannia was operating the
similar Boeing 767, the Airbus A300Bs
found themselves surplus to requirements
and were returned to their owners. Orion's
737-300s were retained for a while though
and were flown alongside the long-serving
737-200s.
In April 1988, a new airline had risen
from the ashes of Airways International
Cymru. The ex-AIC 737-200, G-BAZI re-
emerged as G-BOSA in the livery of
Amberair, the operating name of Cardiff-
based Amber Airways. A second 737-200,
G-BKMS, was ~ I s o leased in and the pair
operated IT charters from several UK
points. Amberair barely operated for one
season before it was taken over in October
1988, by Bristol-based ParamOLlnt Air-
ways. Paramount flew mostly MD-80s,
although a single 737-300 was also operat-
ed. The ex-Amberair 737-200s were even-.
tually returned to their owners. Paramount
itself ceased operations in 1990, following
a financial scandal involving its owner's
group of companies.
Inter European Airways had started
Cardiff-based 737-200 IT charter opera-
tions in May 1987. Utilizing a single leased,
ex-Maersk Air aircraft, Inter European had
been founded by a Cardiff travel company,
Aspro Holidays. Owned by the Asprou.
brothers, Aspro Holidays specialized in
tours to Greece and Cyprus, as well as serv-
ing traditional Spanish destinations. The
737 flew from Cardiff and Bristol for the
1987 season, being returned to its owners at
the end of that summer's flying programme.
lEA remained dormant for the winter, but
came back in style in 1988, leasing in two
brand-new 737-300s.
This time, operations continued through
the winter months and over the following
years more 737-300s were acquired, as was
a single 737-400. In addition to Cardiff and
Bristol, new bases were set up at Manehes-
tel' and London/Gatwick as Aspro Holidays
greatly expanded its successful tour pro-
gramme. Airbus A320s began to replace the
737-300s in 1993, joining Boeing 757s that
had entered service the previous year.
As with Orion tbough, lEA was to van-
ish as the result of tour company mergers.
Manchester-based Airtours took over Aspro
Holidays in 1993, rebranding the tour
company as its low-cost subsidiary. Inter
European's 757s and A320s were taken over
by Airtour's own airline operation, Airtours
International. The remaining lEA 737s
were returned to their owners once their last
Aspro contracts had been completed.
Air UK Goes 'Leisure'
While Air Europe was struggling to move
from charter to scheduled services, a
British scheduled airline, Air UK, was
moving in the opposite direction. Air UK
operated a network of scheduled com-
muter and trunk services throughout
Britain and to nearby points in continen-
tal Europe with a large fleet of F.27 turbo-
props and BAe 146 jets.
In June 1987, Air UK and Viking Inter-
national, a charter brokerage company,
became the major investors in a new IT
charter company, to be named Air UK
Leisure. Basing itself initially at Lon-
don/Stansted, Air UK Leisure took deliv-
ery of three second-hand Boeing 737-200s
in time to commence operations in May
1988. The first commercial services were
charters from Stansted to Faro, Gerona
and Rome, departing on 1 May. Services
also opened from Manchester and East
Midlands the next day, with flights to
Rhodes and Palma, respectively.
The 737-200s were'replaced in October
1989 by the first of an eventual fleet of seven
Series 400s. As well as operating on Air UK
Leisure's expanding network of ITs, season-
al leasings saw some of the aircraft take up
124
Orion's 737-300s took on Britannia's identity following the merger of the two airlines in 1989. Jenny Gradidge
125
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
Novair's Series 400s
Caledonian Airways, in 19 8, the two sim-
ilarly cottish themed carriers briefly oper-
ated alongside each other from London/
Gatwick. However, in May, Cal Air was
renamed Novair International Airways.
The next year, a pair of Boeing 737-400,
was delivered to avail' International ami
operated on IT flights from Gatlvick,
Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester and
ewcastle, upplementing the DC-I s.
Unfortunately, Rank was not impressed
with the profitability of the airline and put
ovair up for sale. After failing to find a
buyer, Rank decided to cut its losses and all
operations were closed down in May 1990.
at part of the BCal buy-out by British
Airways was British Caledonian's own
charter subsidiary, British aledonian
Charter. Originally formed in 19 3, in part-
nership with the Rank Organization, BCal
Charter operated ex-Laker Airways DC-lOs
on IT charter ervices originally contracted
by Rank to the defunct carrier before it
19 2 bankruptcy. In 19 4, Rank purchased
BCal's remaining shareholding and re-
branded the airline Cal Air International,
while retaining the BCal ' cottishness'.
When British Airways rebranded its
own charter operator, British Airtours, as
eventually delivered as Series 400s, the first
arriving in 1991. In the meantime, four
eries 3 Os were leased from Maersk Air.
As the newer versions arrived at
Heathrow, the earlier -2 s were transferred
to either Birmingham or Manchester, to
begin replacing the airline' urviving One-
Elevens. For a while, the aircraft wore either
'Birmingham' or 'Manchester' suffixes to
their titles, as the out tations were given
more autonomy under the British Airways
Regional Division banner. Later, the titles
were amended back to their original format,
although the Regional Division continued
to be responsible for the aircraft's operation.
Airways, taking over the Gatwick-based
independent in late 19 7, it inherited the
latter's order for the rival Airbus A32 .
Originally intended to replace BCal's fleet
of BAC One-Elevens, the A320s were
delivered to BA and initially entered ser-
vice on the Gatlvick network. However,
the A320 were soon moved to the
Heathrow base and replaced at Gatwick by
Boeing 737s.
In October 19 8, SA placed a large order
for up to twenty-four more 737s, with an
option to choose which variant would be
del ivered at a later date. !)art of a larger order
that included six wide-bodied Boeing 767s
and an extra 757, all twenty-four 737s were
British Airways had heen very satisfied with
their' uper 737-200s'. When B hecame
the su cessful suitor for British aledonian
BA 737 Expansion
BAF had turned to more conventional
cheduled and charters in the I970s, replac-
ing their special i:ed 'Carvair' aircraft with
turbo-prop Heralds and Viscounts, before
introducing One-Elevens as their first jets
in the 1990s. The 737-30 s displaced the
One-Elevens, which were finally with-
drawn in December 2000.
British World spread their small 737-300 fleet between bases throughout the UK.
G-OBWZ is seen at london/Gatwick. Aviation Hobby Shop
737-3 0 was acquired in 1999, soon find-
ing itself in demand with Titan's clientele.
A two-class layout was adopted for the
737, with eight business-class ami II
economy-class eats, all in leather.
March 2000 saw the 737-300 appear in
the colours of British World Airl ines. Three
aircraft entered ervice during the year on
IT and ad hoc flights from crew bases at
Stansted, Ganvick and Manchester. British
World had previously been known as
British Air Ferries, until the airline's name
was changed in 1993. BAF owed its unusu-
al title to long-running car ferry scheduled
services once operated by the company
across the English Channel from Southend.
More Stansted 737s
with EEA from March 1993 to pril 1994,
before the Greek company ceased opera-
tions. Virgin then took over the route itself,
with irbus equipment.
In 1992, Air K Leisure was joined hy a
ubsidiary company, Leisure International
Airways. LIA was e tahlished to operate
long-haul charters with a small fleet of
wide-hody Boeing 767-300s, ba,ed at Lon-
don/Gatwick. For a while, operations con-
tinued separately, hut in 1996, Air UK
Leisure was merged into LlA. LIA was
now part of the Unijet travel group, a
major IT holiday operator. The 737-400s
were eventually disposed of, in favour of
more long-haul aircraft, although Airhus
A320s and A321s were later acquired tef
operate European IT charter services. LIA
lost its identity when Unijet was hought
out by First Choice, another IT operator,
and LlA was merged with First Choice's
own in-house airline, Air 2000.
Titan Airways, based at Stan ·ted, special-
ized in contract, ad hoc and short-notice
charters, the latter often on behalf of other
airl ines. Beginning operations in 19
with a small fleet of Cessna twins, Titan
grew to fly horts 36 and ATR-42 turbo-
props, as well as BAe 146 jet·. A single
--------'";G-
to South East European Airways, of Athens.
EEA operated a small network of domestic
flights in Greece, with Fokker F.50 turho-
props, hut its main activity was providing
aircraft and crews for Virgin Atlantic Air-
way's Athens-London scheduled service.
Flying in full Virgin li\'ery, the 737-4 0 flew
Inter European Airways began operations with a single 737-200, G-BNGK, leased in
for the summer of 1987. Richard Howell
other airlines' li\'eries, e,pecially in the qui-
eter winter month,. Malaysian Airlines,
Indian cheduled carrier Modiluft and
anadian charter operators Odyssey Inter-
national and Vacationair all took out short
lease, on Air UK Leisure's eric, 400s. G-
KLB wa, leased out on a longer contract,
G-BNZT 'Flagship St Andrew' was one of the trio of 737-200s used to inaugurate Air UK leisure's IT
services in 1988. Via author
726 727
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
The 737-300 featured in the Dan-Air fleet from 1985.
G-BOWR was an ex-Orion/Britannia Airways
Aircraft. MAP
(Below) British Airtours' 737-200s were transferred
to 'new' charter subsidiary, Caledonian Airways,
reviving a respected airline name from the past.
Richard Howell
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE
Dan-Air's 737 fleet grew steadily over the years, operating on an expanding scheduled network in addition
to charters. Via author
Novair International operated its 737-400s for only a year before the Rank Organization closed down the
carrier when it failed to find a buyer. Aviation Hobby Shop
night-stopped at Madrid and returned the
next day as a BA operation.
The few retained aircraft and crews were
combined with BA's already established
Gatwick short-haul base. The amalgamated
operations were organized as a new sub-
sidiary, 'British Airways European Opera-
tions at Gatwick', later thankfully short-
ened to 'EuroGatwick'. The ex-Dan-Air
737-300s were only retained for a short
while, being returned to their owners at the
end of their lease contracts, in 1993 and
1994. More 737-400s were transferred from
Heathrow though, to replace them and
increase the BA profile at Gatwick as the
hub was developed. As well as new aircraft
ordered from Boeing, BA also acquired sec-
ond-hand Series 300s and -400s, as their use
of the type increased.
BAe 146s, four BAe 748 turbo-props and
no less than nineteen Boeing 737s of vari-
ous marks. Only three 737-300s and nine
737-400s were to be retained by BA. The
rest of the fleet, their crews and support
staff would be rendered redundant.
As their IT charter contracts ran out for
the 1992 summer season, the Boeing 727-
200s and most of the One-Elevens were
placed into storage. The 748s, 146s and
the remaining One-Elevens were disposed
of as their scheduled routes were either
closed down or taken over by BA. The end
finally came for Dan-Air on the evening of
8 November 1992. The very last Dan-Air
flight was operated by Boeing 737-400,
G-BN K, on flight DA689, a scheduled
service from London/Gatwick to Madrid.
Departing Gatwick at 20.20, the aircraft
boost, when it had been within days of
insolvency itself.
The Dan-Air management had finally
recognized the hopelessness of the situation
and began looking for prospective buyers
for their airline. Richard Branson's Virgin
group came close to buying the scheduled
operation, but, eventually, British Airways
bought Dan-Air for a token one pound.
Hardly the bargain it sounds, British Air-
ways also took on the obligations for Dan-
Air's not inconsiderable debts, as well as
responsibility for the welfare of its staff.
Only Dan-Air's Gatwick-based scheduled
network was of interest to BA and all char-
ter work would cease.
At the time of the takeover, Dan-Air
was operating a diverse fleet of twelve BAC
One-Elevens, seven Boeing 727-200s, four
BAe 146 jets on less-busy flights. Dan-Air
found it very hard-going competing with
the established national carriers, despite
gaining an enviable reputation for profes-
sional customer service. Dan-Air actually
gained a breathing space with the demise
of Air Europe, against which it had com-
peted on a number of important Gatwick-
based scheduled routes. The transfer of
Air Europe's displaced passengers to Dan-
Air gave the latter a welcome revenue
services that had been part of the compa-
ny's activities for many years on a much
smaller scale, proved expensive. Even
once Dan-Air had started to make much-
needed changes in its commercial opera-
tions, it soon became clear that it was a
classic, sad, case of 'too little, too late'.
Both the BAC One-Eleven and Boeing
737 fleets were used on new scheduled
routes from Gatwick to Brussels, Dublin,
Lisbon, Madrid, Nice and Paris, with new
BA's Dan-Air Buy-out
British Airways found itself the new oper-
ators of a whole new fleet of 73 7s from
October 1992, following its purchase of
ailing, Gatwick-based, Dan-Air Services.
A leading independent airline, first estab-
lished in 1952, Dan-Air had suffered
severe financial problems throughout the
1980s. An attempt to switch the compa-
ny's focus from charter to more scheduled
128
129
A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A ~ E I V LEASE OF LIFE
GB Airways' smart livery was to disappear after the airline signed up to become a 'franchise carrier' for
British Airways. Martyn East
(Above) Transavia was to base its prosperity on the 737 for many years, -300s
joining the original -200s at Amsterdam. Malcolm L. Hill
(Below) Lufthansa utilized the 737-300 on their European services. Lufthansa
BA's 'Associated' 737s
The Bri tish Airways takeover of Bri tish
Caledonian also led to drastic changes in
the operations of British Airtours. The
charter subsidiary was rebranded as 'Cale-
donian Airways', taking on the identity of
one of BCal's original constituent airline.
With cabin crews taking over BCal" cot-
tish tartan themed uniform and image,
British Airtours fleet of Lockheed L-I II
Trimm and Boeing 737-200s were re-
painted in their own version of the grey-
topped BA livery, complete with a
heraldic lion painted on the tail. The 737s
were eventually replaced by larger Boeing
757s and were disposed of.
For many years, BA's predecessor, BEA
had been associated with a small airline
based at Gibraltar, a British territory on the
southern tip of Spain. Gibraltar Airways, its
title shortened in daily usc to Gibair, had
been founded locally, in 1931, to operate
scheduled service to neighbouring Spain
and Morocco. Postwar, BEA took a 51 per
cent share in the airline and Gibair contin-
ued to provide vital local links for the
island, as well as feeding traffic from North
Africa to BE's services from Gibraltar to
London. Small twin-engined types had
steadily been replaced by single leased DC-
3 and turbo-prop Viscount' over the years.
Gibair later became GB Airways and, from
April 1979, services were operated from
Gibraltar to London/Gatwick. The new
service utili:ed 737-200 leased from Bri-
tannia Airways, replacing a previous pool-
ing arrangement using BEA/BA aircraft to
London/I-[eathrow.
The contract with Britannia was replaced
by GB Airways flying their own 737-200s,
initially with three leased in via British
Airway. From 19 9 the airline had moved
its headquarters and main base to Lon-
don/Gatwick, although Gibraltar was still
an important point on the network. More
leased 737-200s replaced the original air-
craft and GB Airways expanded quickly
with flights to Casablanca, Funchal, Mar-
rakech, Tangier and Tunis from Gatwick,
with some services also being scheduled
from Heathrow. A Manche'ter-Gibraltar
schedule was operated, as well as sched-
uled services from Gibraltar to asablan-
ca, Marrakech and Tangier. In the summer
of 1994, two of the airline's 737s were
gi ven 'GB Leisure' ti ties and operated IT
charters from Gatwick and Mandle'ter.
From 1995, GB Airways began operat-
ing as a BA 'franchise' carrier, adopting
BA's livery, uniforms and flight prefix. BA
had actually sold its last shareholdings in
GB Airways that year, but maintained an
influence under the franchise contract.
Two ex-BA erie' 40 737s were trans-
ferred to join GB's own five 737-200s and
new routes opened from Gatwick to Mur-
cia and Valencia, in Spain.
730
Elsewhere in Europe
The Trans European 'family' concept fared
as well as that of ir Europe. The group suf-
fered financial collapse in 1991. The Bel-
gian and UK operations had added Series
300 737s to their original fleets of Series
200s. T R, in Turkey, TEA Italy, TEA
wit:erland, TE Cyprus and TEA France
initially survived the group's coilaI' e,
although the Cypriot, French, Italian and
Turkish companies later suspended opera-
tions. fter TEA UK ceased operations its
operating authority was later used to estab-
lish a new company, Excalibur Airways,
which operated Airbus A320s. The origi-
nal Belgian company was quickly revived
a EuroBelgian Airline, again operating
737s.
In the etherlands, Transavia st 'adily
expanded their all-737 fleet, eventually
adding Series 300 737s and 757 . As well
as their own IT charter service, Transavia
continued to be active in the leasing mar-
ket, operating hoth eries 200s and 300s
for the Dutch national carrier, KLM. The
flag-carrier that had taken a financial
interest in Transavia was to eventually
take delivery of its own 737-400s, replac-
ing a long-standing fleet of DC-9s.
A very short-lived Dutch 737 operation
saw a single erie' 200 operated by Rotter-
dam Airlines. The aircraft wa' leased from
TEA and flown on scheduled Rotterdam-
London/Gatwick services several times a
day from ovemher 1983, as well as some
IT work. The aircraft was far too large for
the available market on the London route,
especially Juring the traditionally quiet
winter season, and all operations ceased in
March [9 4. Air Holland had been estah-
lished in 19 5, operating IT charters with
a pair of Boeing 727-200s. During a che-
quered career, Air Holland halted opera-
tions for reorganization several times, but
survived long enough to operate three
737-300s over its various incarnations.
In Germany, although an early customer
for the rival irbus ingle-aisle types,
Lufthansa continued to utili:e their large
737 fleet, throughout their European and
domestic network. Iso in Germany, hoth
737
new and established charter operators had
begun to introduce 737s into service. Con-
dor reintroduced the type, eventually with
hoth Series 200s and -300s being operated
at various times in the 19 Os and 90s.
Hapag Lloyd replaced their last Boeing
727s and BAC One-Elevens with 737s and
Germania, previously founded as AT with
Caravelles and 727s, introduced 737-300s.
A EW LEASE OF LII·E
L-10 11 Tristars were transferred to expand
the network. The original 737 was joined
by five more leased aircraft, before the type
was discarded in favour of a standardized
fleet of Airbus aircraft.
Long-established Thai Airways took
delivery of their first 737-200 in 1977, sup-
plementing a fleet of H -748 turbo-props.
Other 737s followed, as well as Airbus A310
wide-bodie , as Thai's original domestic net-
work was expanded to include regional
international points. However, Thai was
merged into the country's flag carrier airline,
.\n....... ft .\II... tralia.
The network and fleet later grew rapidly as
Asiana was encouraged by the Korean gov-
ernment to be the country's 'second desig-
nated carrier' after Korean Air Lines.
In Hong Kong, Dragonair was founded
in 19 5 and began flights to Kota Kina-
balu, with a ingle Boeing 737-200 leased
from Guinne s Peat. ew route licence
saw the airline opening services to eight
points in mainland China ami to Phuket,
in Thailand. athay Pacific, the major air-
line in Hong Kong, took a financial inter-
est in the bUlkling carrier and Lockheed
Elsewhere in the Asian and Pacific regions,
rapid financial growth had seen several new
operators emerging, with both them and
established airlines choosing the new ver-
sions of the 737 as their medium/short-haul
airliner.
In Korea, a brand new carrier, Asiana
Airlines began regional and domestic oper-
ation with a fleet of 737-400s. As well as
the 73 7s, a new international and long-haul
network was established with Boeing 767s.
p ,.
r. 1 l u u n ~ DRAGONAIR
A loW LEASE OF LIFE
Eastern Growth
Hong Kong's Dragonair began operations with a small fleet of 737-200s. MAP
Ansett chose the 737 to modernize its fleets in the 1980s. MAP
Antipodean 7375
Originally operating under registry, Air
Berlin greatly expanded their 737 IT char-
ter services from other German cities, fol-
lowing reunification. The reunification also
led to Germania taking over Berlin-based
Berlin European UK, that had operated ITs
with leased 737-300ssince April 1990.
The New Zealand National Airway' Corpo-
ration was merged with ew Zealand's long-
haul operator, Air New Zealand, in 197 .
Ten 737-200s made the transition, along
with a fleet of Fokker F27s, More 737s were
delivered in the following years, including-
several Series 300s. Although NZNAC had
heen an early operator of the Boeing 737,
ew Zealand's higger neighhour, Australia,
resisted the arrival of the aircraft for some
time.
Originally, the Australian airline indu. try
was heavily regulated, with the two major
domestic carriers, Ansen and Trans Aus-
tralia, being forced to compete under very
restrictive conditions. Flights had to leave at
identical departure times, using comparable
aircraft. Originally, TAA had favoured buy-
ing in Caravelles as their first jets, and larer
lohbied to buy BAC One-Elevens. Howev-
er, Ansen did not want the European
designs and, finally, both airlines ordered
fleets of Boeing 727s and Douglas DC-9-30s.
Eventually the regulations were relaxed
and the airlines were able to enjoy more
freedom in their equipment policy. Ansen
originally began importing 737-200s as
replacements for their DC-9s in 1981.
ewer version Series 300s followed and
Ansen also bought Airbus A320s to oper-
ate on their domestic network alongside
them. Ansen bought shares in a local
New Zealand-based carrier, ewmans
Air, renaming it Ansen New Zealand and
re-equipping the airline with 73 7 to bet-
ter compete against Air ew Zealand.
BAe146s eventually replaced the 737s,
and another change of ownership and
name change saw Ansen ew Zealand
become Qantas New Zealand in 2000.
Trans Australia changed their name to
Australian Airlines in 19 6, the same year
they introduced the first of a large fleet of
Boeing 737-300s to replace their own ear-
lier jet. However, in eptember 1992,
Australian Airl ines was bought out by
Qantas Airways and became the domestic
arm of what had previously been Aus-
tralia's international specialist.
base at Friedrichshafen in southern Germany. A co·
operation agreement had been signed with Lufthansa
covering the Delta Air network from Friedrichshafen
and Stuttgart. International schedules served Geneva,
Zurich and the Channel Islands.
The acquisition of Delta Air by BA and the banks her·
aided amajor change in the commuter carrier. Renamed
Deutsche BA, the 'new' airline began commercial ser·
vices from Berlin·Tegel to Stuttgart and Munich, in
June 1992. An Initial fleet of three leased 737-300s
was joined by four more later in the year and new
routes opened to Dusseldorf and Cologne.
The airline's head office was moved, In 1994, to
Munich, although alarge programme of scheduled and
charter flights still operated from the Berlin base.
Smaller Fokker 100s were leased in to supplement the
737s and SAABs that continued in operation. The orig·
inal turbo·prop network was sold off in January 1997.
Soon replacing BA completely, which closed down or
transferred its Berlin·based facilities as Deutsche BA
grew, the 737-300 fleet continued to expand IT charter
routes were opened for German travel companies In
1993 and international schedules opened from Berlin to
Nice, Oslo, St Petersburg and Stockholm, and from Dres-
den to Paris. New routes were opened in 1994 from
Munich and Frankfurt to Paris and from Munich to Dus-
seldorf and Madrid London/Gatwick was linked to
Deutsche BA's network in 1995 with flights from Bremen
and Munich. Berlin-Gatwick services began in 1996 and
the last Fokker 100 was returned to its owner in early
1998. Year 2000 saw Deutsche BA operating eighteen
Boeing 737-300s from bases at Berlin and Munich.
All Change at Berlin
Deutsche BA adopted 'Germanized' versions of British Airways new 'World Images' livery for their 737-300s.
Deutsche SA
The reunification of Germany led to fundamental changes
in the airline services offered from Berlin. At the end of
the Second World War Berlin had been divided up, with
its western half buried within the boundaries of East Ger·
many. Originally, Air France, American Overseas Airlines
and Britain's BEA had taken on the task of linking West
Berlin with the rest of the new Federal Republic. Later,
American Overseas was taken over by Pan American and
Air France operated its Berlin flights in association with
BEA,later British Airways, under apooling agreement. As
long as East Germany existed as aseparate country, West
German registered aircraft were forbidden In its airspace
and, thereby, denied access to Berlin.
Air France eventually returned to the Berlin market
though, with the founding of a new carrier, EuroBeriin
France, in partnership with Lufthansa. Services opened
in 1988 from Berlin·Tegel to Dusseldorf, Hamburg and
Stuttgart, eventually utilizing seven 737-300s. IT char·
ters also operated from Berlin to southern Europe at
weekends. Over 885,OilO passengers were carried In
1991, of which 850,000 were carried on the scheduled
services. EuroBeriin was closed down in 1994 after Ger·
man reunification had removed its main reason to exist.
Pan American's Berlin services had been disposed of
as part of its cost·cutting measures, but British Airways
had continued to operate a Berlin base. However, BA
eventually took steps to withdraw, but still maintained
acommercial presence under the new regime.
A consortium, comprising BA and three German
banks, acquired asmall West German commuter oper·
ator, Delta Air, founded in 1978 By 1992, Delta's fleet
of SAAB 340s was operating several routes from Its
132 133
A NEW LEASE OF LI FE
CHAPTER NINE
The Last of the Old Generation
There was still an identifiable market for
a lower-capacity aircraft, nearer the Series
200 size, especially with scheduled service
operators. So, in 1987, Boeing launched the
Series 500, basically a new version of the
Series 300, shortened by 94in (239cm) by
the removal of fuselage plugs forward and
(Belowllufthansa acquired 737-500s to complement the larger -300s and -400s
in its fleet, and replace the older -200s. Lufthansa
obvious success, the final Series 200 ver-
sion could no longer be updated, especial-
ly with the original engine. Environmen-
tal regulations were making it difficult to
economically operate the jT8D-powered
aircraft within the new restrictions that
were becoming prevalent worldwide.
A New Short-body 737
The Series 200 version of the Boeing 737
ended its 21-year production run in june
1988. Over 1,000 jT8D-powered 73 7s were
produced, including over 100 convertible
aircraft, fitted with cargo doors. Despite its
(Abovel The 737-500 launch customer was long-term client Southwest
Airlines. Steve Bunting
The Future?
As the 1990s ran their course, many of the
Boeing 73 7's operators were having to
rethink their operation. In particular, they
were having to address the worldwide obses-
sion with deregulation and cost-cutting,
linked with often difficult financial circum-
stances. To conquer these challenges, both
Boeing and the operators had to make fun-
damental, dramatic changes to both their
basic philosophies and daily operations.
Nothing was likely to be the same again.
japanese use of the 737 had waned slight-
ly after All Nippon Airways disposed of
their fleet in favour of larger types. Howev-
er, ANA subsidiary, NKK (Nihon Kinkyori
Airways), continued to operate a small fleet
of 73 7-200s on domestic services, alongside
YS-l IA turbo-props. KK was later
rebranded Air ippon. Southwest Airlines,
based at Naha on the island of Okinawa,
operated 737s on regional fl ights and to the
main japanese islands. Later renamed japan
TransOcean Air, japan Air Lines took a
major shareholding in the company.
Thai Airways International, in 1988. Thai
Airways International continued to expand
the 737 Fleet, taking delivery of its first
Series 400s in 1990.
Air Pacific, of Fiji, regularly upgraded
their small 737 Fleet, operated on regional
Flights, with new versions replacing older
aircraft as leases came up for renewal. Air
Vanuatu and Solomon Airlines also joined
established operators such ::1S Air Pacific
and Air Nauru in operating small fleets, or
even single 73 7s, of various marks, on their
Pacific region services.
QANTAS
• • I ~ t
THE SPIRIT Of AUSTRALIA
The -300 and -400 versions of the 737 became popular and reliable aircraft in daily service worldwide.
Steve Bunting/MAP
734 735
THE LAST OF TilE OLD GENERATION
THE LAST OF TilE OLD GENERATION
Braathens 737-500s operated a growing regional network, including international scheduled services from
Norway to Newcastle in the UK. MAP
Maersk Air (UK) operated their new 737-500s on British Airways-branded scheduled services from Birmingham. Via author
Maersk Air not only placed their Series 500s
into their Denmark-hased flights. Since
1993, Maersk had operatcd a UK suhsidiary,
Maersk Air (UK) Ltd. The airline was
Maersk s British Connection
hetween Stockholm, Gothcnhurg, Malmo
and mea. Every moming the passenger
scats are refitted into the cabins and the air-
craft operate IT charters to southem Europc,
as well as a scheduled domestic service from
Stockholm to Umea, in northcm wcden.
FAL.CONA'R
• •••••••••••••••••
By 19 the wedish Post Office had pur-
chased the company to ensure control over
its important postal network. A fourth
Electra joined Falcon and the operating
hase was moved to Malmo. In 1990 the air
taxi operation was sold and in 1991 the
Electras were replaced with three new Boe-
ing 737-300QCs.
Conversion of Falcon Air's 737s from pas-
senger to cargo configuration takes less than
an hour. Every evening the aircraft are re-
configured to rake up to sixteen containers
and the aircraft operate mail services
S£,DPA
•••••••• ••••••
BRITISH AIRWAYS
~ ~ : : < i i
fleet into its ranks, more of the aircraft were
Ica'ied out on contracts of \'arying lengths.
Sweden's Postal 'QCs'
In the 1960s, Falcon Air was founded at
Gothenhurg and flew as an air taxi compa-
ny with a fleet of Cessna, Piper and
Beechcraft light aircraft. The small compa-
ny's operations were transformed in 1986
when the first of a fleet of three Lockheed
Electra freighter turho-props entered ser-
vice on cargo and mail-carrying contracts.
The convertible 'ac' 737-300s of Falcon Air operate passenger flights by day and carry Sweden's mail at
night. AViation Hobby Shop
division was not part of the Braathens pur-
chase and eventually ceased operations.
A fleet of Boeing 737-2 was included
in the inventory of Time Air weden, which
also operated much larger Tri tar. and DC-
s. Time Air weden operated IT charters
from ~ weden and Finland hetween March
1991 and Fehruary 1993, when flights were
suspended following financial prohlems.
The candinavian region's hugest carri-
er, the multinational Scandinavian Air-
lines System, came to operate the 737
almost in passing. Long known for operat-
ing a large fleet of DC-9s on its European
regional services, SAS took over the oper-
ations of Swedish domestic carrier, Linje-
flyg, in 1993. Linjeflyg had flown a purely'
domestic scheduled service network in
Sweden since 1957 and utilized a large fleet
of Fokker F2 s. In late 1990-early 1991,
howe\u, the airline had taken delivery of
a numher of leased Bocing 737-500s.
As well as the domestic scheduled
flights, the 737-500s also operated charters
for Linjeflyg to Malaga, Rome and Zakyn-
thos. No less than ten were dclivered to
Linjdlyg and the last two direct to AS
after the takeO\'er. Prior to the merger, two
aircraft were suhleased to LOT, the Polish
airline. As A tried to assimilate the ncw
Scandinavian Expansion
Braarhens certainly appreciated the eries
500's capahilities as a cries 200 replace-
ment. The Norwegian carrier had already
placed five erics 400s into 'en'icc on IT
charters and husier scheduled services
hetween it. more important point. The
Braathens cries 500 fleet was to eventually
grow to twenty-one aircraft, ousting the last
of their Serics 200s. In neighhouring Den-
mark, Maersk used the Series 500 to expand
its scheduled network, especially from Dan-
ish regional points such as Billund, as wcll as
finding it a useful aircraft for its long-estah-
lished charter and leasing husiness.
Braathens had expanded out of the Nor-
wegian market in 1996 when the company
acquired a 50 per cent interest in Tran-
swede Airways of Stockholm. Transwcde
operated a network of scheduled services as
well as charters, with a fleet of Fokker
F 100s. Braathcns later mergcd the Tran-
swede schedules with another Swedish car-
rier that it had acquired, Malmo Aviation,
under the name Braathens Malmo. Tran-
swede also flew holiday charters under the
name of Transwede Leisure, with Boeing
737-200s, -300s aml-500s, Ica'ed in for the
IT contracts over the years. The Leisure
aft of the wing. The new version incorpo-
rated all the larger aircraft's improvements,
including the use of the CFM6 engine.
Before launching the cries 500, Boeing
had actually studied an even mailer ver-
sion of the 737, originally designated the
737-250. The 100-seater eries 250 failed
to attract orders and the proposal was can-
celled in 19 6, in favour of thc ~ eries 500.
Faithful 73 7 customer, outhwest Air-
lines, hecame the launch customer, even-
tually taking delivery of 25 Series 500s.
Braathens, Euralair and Maersk Air soon
placed orders of their own. A Series 500
was the 2,000th 737 to he delivered, fit-
tingly to the original programme's first cus-
tomer, Lufthansa, on 15 Fehruary 1991.
The aircraft was also the German airline's
100th 737.
The Series 500 soon found a niche for
itself in the 737 family of aircraft. As a
replaccment of the older cries 200, it
could he seen as ideal. ot everyone want-
cd the cxtra passenger capacity of the larg-
er eries 300 and 400. The CFM6's hetter
fuel consumption and cxtra power ovcr
the ]T8D could just as well he translated
into more rangc or hetter short-runway
performance, as into the extra load-carry-
ing of the higger versions.
736
737
G-OBME was in service with British Midland for only amatter of months before forty-
seven died on board it in the Kegworth crash. Via author
AIR2000
••• ••••••
formed when Birmingham based-Brymon
European Airways was 'de-merged' into its
original constituent parts, Brymon Airways
and Birmingham European Airways. The
two airlines had been joined in J989, Bry-
mon having operated scheduled services
with a fleet of De Havilland Canada DHC-
8 turbo-props from Plymouth and Bristol,
and Birmingham European operating a
scheduled network from Birmingham with a
fleet mostly comprised of BAC One-Eleven
jets. The merger had not been a success,
with both units still maintaining largely sep-
arate operations.
Instead, Maersk Air, already a minority
shareholder, bought out the Birmingham-
based half of Brymon European. The
southwest-based division, the original Bry-
mon Airways, reverted to its old name and
was bought out by British Airways. Jt went
on to operate its scheduled routes as a
wholly owned 'franchise' carrier in BA's
name. Maersk Air (UK)'s aircraft also took
up British Airways livery, as a contracted
'franchise' carrier, flying from Binning-
ham. The Danish parent company trans-
ferred several Series 500s to the UK ser-
vice to replace the old One-Elevens. As
well as operating the BA flights, M<'lersk
Air (UK)'s aircraft are also used for IT
charter work, in their own right.
British Midland's
Boeing Twins
UK independent airline, British Midland
Airways, was to become the main customer
for SAS's excess 737-500 capacity. After a
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
brief period in the early 1970s, when a trio
of new BAC One-Elevens were operated,
BMA had preferred to operate turbo-prop
aircraft on its largely domestic network.
The One-Elevens had been disposed of as
too expensive for BMA's then modest net-
work. For some years after, apart from a
number of second-hand 707s flown on
charter and leasing contracts, the airline
stuck to propeller aircraft. The Vickers Vis-
count, along with a handful of Dart Her-
alds, Fokker E27s or Shorts turbo-prop
types over the ensuing years, formed the
backbone of the airline's fleet.
A single leased DC-9 brought the jet
back to BMA's scheduled network in 1976.
Route expansion into more major domestic
services and the eventual opening of a larg-
er international presence from London to
Europe saw more second-hand DC-9s join-
ing the carrier. The first appearance of737s
with British Midland titles was in 1987,
with the delivery of the airline's first Series
300, for operation on the busier routes from
London-Heathrow. Leased Series 200s also
operated briefly and BMA's first Series 400
was placed into service in late 1988.
As the British Midland 737 fleet grew,
the type was seen increasingly on scheduled
services from other bases, as well as an
expanded IT charter programme. In addi-
tion to flying IT charters on behalf ofBMA,
spare 737 capacity was sub-chartered to
other carriers, in particular Air 2000, an IT
charter carrier that then operated Boeing
757s and Airbus A320s of its own.
Air 2000 had actually leased a single
Series 300, C-KKUH, from ILFC for the
summer season of 1989, and options were
taken out on two 737-400s. However,
before confirming the order, Air 2000
decided on the Airbus A320 as its smaller
jet to supplement the 757s. Coincidental-
ly, C-KKUH went on to be leaseu to both
Linjeflyg, as SE-DLA 'Vaermland II' dur-
ing 1990, and British Midland, as C-
OBML (with whom it often operated Air
2000 sub-charters), from 1991 to 1997.
The increased use of the 737s soon leu to
the gradual runuown and disposal of the
DC-9 fleet and the first of the ex-Lin/SAS
Series 500s was leased in by BMA in 1993.
Aer Lingus Fleet Update
The Series 500 was taken up by Aer Lin-
gus as replacement for their long-serving
Series 200. Having already replaceu the
leased Series 300s with larger 400 series
737s on thei I' busier routes, the Irish
national carrier neeu a lower capacity air-
craft on its European network. The ageing
Series 200s woulu soon fall foul of envi-
ronmental regulations, as woulu the air-
line's quartet of BAC One-Elevens that
had been in use even longer than the 737-
200s. In fact, the 737-200s had been
intended to replace the One-Elevens, but
the British jets hau continueu in use, finu-
ing a useful niche on Aer Li ngus's less busy
routes and as back-ups to the 737s.
The arrival of the 737-500s saw the
swift ueparture of the remaining 737-200s
and One-Elevens. It also saw the end of
all-cargo and 'combi' services, with the
departure of the last 'QC' 73 7-200s. From
then on, the airline's cargo was carried in
,
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
Tragic lessons at Kegworth
Soon after the first pair of Series 400s entered BMA service, the first aircraft, G-OBME. ground. Even more bad luck came their way as, instead of open countryside that might
crashed at Kegworth, while attempting an emergency landing at BMA's home base at have made the crash more survivable, directly in the stricken 737-400's path was the
East Midlands Airport. The aircraft was operating flight BD092, an evening scheduled M1 motorway.
flight from London/Heathrow to Belfast. While flying 20 nautical miles southeast of After it struck the ground and smashed through afence, the aircraft dropped 30ft (9m)
East Midlands, passengers and cabin crew noticed smoke entering the cabin through on to the main carriageway of the motorway and continued across it. By incredible good
the air conditioning, as well as sparks coming out of the left engine. The flight-deck fortune there were no vehicles directly in the aircraft's path as it carried on and crashed
crew, Capt Kevin Hunt and FlO David McClelland, also noticed the severe vibration and into the other side, finally coming to rest. its fuselage shattered, towards the top of an
smell of smoke. As he disengaged the auto-pilot and took control of the aircraft, the embankment. Forty-seven of the 118 passengers perished in the crash. That figure could
Captain asked which engine was causing the problem. By an appalling series of mis- have been much higher, but fortunately there was no post-crash fire despite agreat deal
understandings the wrong engine, the right-hand one, was switched off. of leaking fuel around the area. As adirect result of the accident. emergency training was
Declaring an emergency and turning towards East Midlands Airport, the pilots redesigned, with more emphasis on cockpit/cabin communication procedures in acrisis.
attempted to increase power on the left engine when the lowered landing gear caused
more drag. They were genuinely alarmed to find it gave no response and it was too late
to attempt to restart the right-hand, serviceable engine. With the runway agonizingly
in sight and lined up, the aircraft was unable to maintain height and glided towards the
Boeing 737s, including -300 G-OBMA, eventually replaced DC-9s with British Midland Airways. MAP
738
G-KKUH was intended to be the first of many 737-300s operated by Air 2000 on European ITs. However, the
airline elected to order Airbus A320s instead. Via author
739
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
Boeing 737-200QCs, operating passenger
charters and scheduled services on behalf
of Air France and Air Inter in the daytime,
reverting to cargo/mail operations every
night. After sl ightly reworking the airline's
name to Inter Ciel Service, to make it
more attractive to customers for passenger
work, the company name was changed to
L' Aeropostale as more nigh t-ti me postal
contracts were transferred from Air France
and Air Inter. The L'Aeropostale fleet
grew to accommodate the increased w o r ~
load, with no less than fifteen 73 7-300s, all
'QC' versions with large freight doors,
operating the extensive passenger and
cargo/postal network.
The owners of EAS had also participated
in the creation of Air Toulouse, which had
operated Caravclles briefly in 1990. The
new financing led to the appearance of Air
Toulouse [nternational in 1992, using two
ex-EAS Caravelles. A single Boeing 737-
200, also ex-EAS, eventually took over
from the Caravelles and a massive expan-
sion saw six in use by the summer of 1998.
The expansion proved to be too rapid, and
Air Toulouse International was declared
bankrupt in June 1999. Subsequently, a
name change followed refinancing and IT
charters began under the name of Aeris in
July 1999, with four 737-300s.
The French 'Combis'
remaining seventeen aircraft were quickly
put to use alongside the established Series
200s on the European and domestic net-
work. However, Air France had also ordered
a large fleet of the Boeing 73 7's rival, the
Airbus A320, instead of the larger 737 vari-
ants, and the European type was soon to find
favour with the airline. [n 1997, Air France
absorbed the large, Airbus-oriented, fleet of
Air Inter (that had already been renamed
Air France Europe), and the Boeings began
to be seriously outnumbered.
Before its demise, EAS had participated in
the establishment of a new specialist oper-
ator. Along with Air Inter and Transport
Aerien Transregional, EAS formed Inter
Cargo Service. Operating a pair of Van-
guard freighter turbo-props, Inter Cargo
had opened scheduled freight services in
1987, flying from Paris to Toulouse, for
TAT, and to Marseilles and other southern
French towns, for Air Inter and Air France.
The Vanguard operation came to a tragic
end though, when both aircraft were lost in
crashes within weeks of each other in 1989.
lCS was reorganized though and restart-
ed operations with a pair of ex-Lufthansa
l"'AEROPOSTAlE
independent, AOM French Airlines. Star
Europe leased two Boeing 737-400s in the
winter season of 1996/97, but they were
replaced by two new Airbus A320s in time
for the 1997 summer season. Corsair ini-
tially operated 737-200s to supplement
their original Caravclle fleet, later replac-
ing them with larger Series 300 and -400s.
Air France itself also took delivery of
a fleet of Series 500s, the first arriving in
1991. The original order for twenty Series
500s was later reduced by three, but the
F-GIXI had been converted to 'QC' configuration for L'Aeropostale after flying with Aer Lingus, Futura and
Viva. Steve Bunting
Acromaritime was the non-scheduled sub-
sidiary of UTA (Union de Transports
Aeriens), Air France's arch rival on long-
haul routes. Aeromaritime operated a large
fleet of both 737-300s and -400s on its Euro-
pean and orth African charter network.
UTA was purchased by Air France in 1991
and its fleet, and that of Aeromaritime, was
eventually absorbed by Air France and Air
Charter. In 1992 Europe Aero Service flew
six 737s, both Series 200s and -500s, four
Caravelles and four Boeing 727s, on IT
charters and a rapidly increasing scheduled
network. However, EAS later ceased opera-
tions, following financial problems.
Charter operators Corsair, Minerve and
Star Europe also flew the 73 7 on the
French registry. Minerve was later merged
with Air Outre Mer to form a new, large,
programmes, Euralair operated a number of
services on behalf of Air France's non-
scheduled subsidiary, Air Charter. Air
France also leased in Euralair's 737s for its
own scheduled services and as a result,
Euralair's aircraft often wore various combi-
nations of livery and joint titles.
A similar arrangement was contracted
by Air France with French independent
carriers, Acromaritime and Europe Aero
Service, for the use of their 73 7 fleets.
Aeromaritime Ul I
••••••••••
family, with A320s and A319s being ear-
marked to eventually replace the remain-
ing Boeing 737s.
More French Interest
Euralair, a French IT charter operator, had
operated the Series 200 before taking deliv-
ery of its first Series 500 in June 1990. [n
addition to its own charter and scheduled
\\''''
the holds of the passenger configured
fleets, or contracted-in freighter aircraft.
However, Aer Lingus's apparent faith-
fulness to Boeing came to an end with the
introduction of Airbus A321s in the late
1990s. Airbus A330 wide-bodied airliners
had already replaced long-serving Boeing
747s on the airline's trans-Atlantic routes
from 1994. The successful introduction of
Airbus A321s eventually led to orders for
more examples of the Airbus short-haul
Aer Lingus 737-500s displaced the last of the long-serving -200s on the Irish carrier's
European and domestic routes. Steve Bunting
~ u a sa
..................
Boeing 737-3005 served Aeromaritime on Paris-based charter flights until the fleet was absorbed by Air
France. Steve Bunting .
140 141
The Series 500 in the USA
Although outhwest Airline had been a
launch customer for the Series 500, there
was little other 'home market' interest in
the variant. One of the few major customers
of the 737-500 in the SA was 737 pio-
neering operator, nited Airlines. The fir t
of an eventual fleet of fifty-seven of the
smallerCFM56-powered 737 entered Unit-
ed service in late 1990. nited had already
taken delivery of the eries 300, of which
over 10 were eventually to be delivered.
The new 737s operated alongside a fleet
of Airbus A32 s, later joined by slightly
smaller A321s, and a dwindling number of
fuel-thirsty Boeing 727-200s, operating
THE LAST OF THE OLD GEl ERATION
times of the Peopl Express takeover and
regular lapses into bankruptcy protection
had done little to enhance the reputation
of the airline with the travelling public, let
alone the rest of the industry.
It was to take a change of ownership and
management to begin the turn round, but
new initiatives and policy changes finally
started to see Continental making a re-
markable comeback from the mid-1990s.
The much criticized entrepreneur Frank
Loren:o, who had masterminded the origi-
nal Continental(Texas Internationalmerg-
er, sold most ofhis direct and indirect hare-
holdings in Continental in 1990. The new
management team, led by new CEO Gor-
don Bethune, concentrated on restoring
the eastern half of the country, again aimed
at regaining lost traffic. either of the 'new'
carriers was a succe s and both were eventu-
ally reabsorbed into the mainstream airline.
The 737-500 order was part of a massive
re-equipment plan, designed to see the dis-
posal of the older, les reliable and uneco-
nomic types. Continental Airlines' short-
haul network was hampered by being
operated by a mixed bag of variants of sev-
eral different airliner types, and badly in
need of standardization. The ex-Lufthansa/
PeoplExpress 737-I 0 were among the tar-
geted fleet members, with the eries 500s
meant to replace them and older DC-9s as
soon as possible. Larger 737 models, as well
as Boeing 757s, were also on order with a
THE LAST 01' THE OLD GE:-<ERATIO
Southwest expanded its influence across the USA, especially in California, with three of its busy fleet
captured here at San Diego. Malcolm L. Hill
The 737 still featured heavily in America West's programme, despite increased use of Airbus types in the
Phoenix-based airline's fleet. Aviation Hobby Shop
short and medium-haul inter-city services
throughout United's domestic U network.
As well as providing invaluable local com-
munications, the short-haul fleet fed pas-
sengers into United's growing international
route system. Once replaced by the later
737 and Airbuses, the last of the original
,cries 200 were finally disposed of after
over thirty years of faithful service.
Continental Airl ines was the only other
major US customer for the Series 500. For
many years after its emergence from the
'merger-mania' of the 19 Os Continental
had truggled to survive. Long-running
labour-relation problems, the unsettled
Continental's long-suffering reputation as a
reliable carrier supplying a quality service to
its passengers. More emphasis was placed
on higher revenue business-class traffic,
with a IPW 'Business First' service initially
introduced on transoceanic flights.
Innovative promotions included the
attempt to form new divisions, separate
from the mainstream Continental Airlines
operation. 'Continental West' was orga-
nized to take over the western network
and regain traffic lost to an increasingly
omnipresent Southwe t Airlines, and other
new lost-cost carrier. Later, 'Continental
Lite' took over more leisure-related routes in
142
view to eventually replacing the remaining
Boeing 727s and McDonnell Douglas DC-
9s and MD-80s over the following years.
Southwest and America
West Go Nationwide
Much more popular in the U A was the
Series 300, with Southwest Airlines, in par-
ticular, using the type to service its massive
expansion through the late 19 Os and
1990s. In 1994, outhwet had acquired
Morris Air, which operated a fleet of 737-
300s. Morris Air, which began services in
1992, was based at Salt Lake City and flew
low-cost services throughout the western
U A. The purchase of their fleet and route
network gave Southwest a greatly increased
presence in the region. The airline's influ-
ence in California was boosted even more
by the opening of a hub at Los Angeles/Bur-
bank and Southwest Airline's success was
said to account for the progressive reduction
of service in the-area by Air and Delta.
The two national carriers had spent a
lot of money increasing their own ali-
fornian profile by buying out PSA and
Western respectively and their reduction
of Californian services was a major com-
mercial victory for outhwest. outhwest
irlines also expanded to the north and
east, developing new operational hubs at
hicago/Midway and Baltimore, far from
its Texan roots. ew high-frequency ser-
vices linking Florida point replaced a sim-
ilar network previously flown by Piedmont
but later neglected by SAir.
Southwest's 737-500s eventually re-
placed the oldest of the airline's 737-200s,
although over thirty 'Advanced' JT D-
powered Series 200s still remained in the
fleet. However, it was with the 737-30 that
Southwest based their prosperity, with near-
ly 200 of the variant in the all- 73 7 fleet of
over 300 operational aircraft by the year
2 00.
Fellow low-cost operator, America West
Airlines, also expanded well outside its
geographical origins. De pite operating a
fleet relying less on the 737, with 757s and
Airbus types tak ing on an increasi ng per-
centage of the workload, America We t
was still flying over sixty 737-200s and
-300s in 2000. Although still firmly rooted
in the west, with major hubs at Phoenix
and Las Vegas, America West also opened
a base at Columbus, Ohio. The new hub
was opened to serve routes further east, as
well a southwards to Florida, and also
linked up with the more western-based
services. A code-share agreement with
Continental Airlines also gave America
West acces' to more Texan markets, via
ontinental's Houston hub.
Western Pacific and
the'LogoJets'
ndoubtedly one of the most colourful
Southwest imitators first made its presence
well and truly known when it burst on to
the US airline scene in 1995. Western
Pacific Airlines was originally formed to
exploit the under-used Colorado prings
Airport. Denv r's new airport is sited near-
ly forty miles from the city centre, to the
north. Residents south of Denver found it
much more convenient to usc Colorado
Spring's closer facility. As Denver fares
were traditionally high, not helped by a
local surcharge imposed on every ticket to
143
help pay for the new airport, Colorado
Springs was a low-cost airline hub waiting
to happen.
We tern Pacific's founder, Edward R.
Beauvais, had a long history of association
with regional carriers in the western half of
the USA. Originally an employee of
Bonanza Airlines, one of the original Air
West components, Beauvais later went on
to run his own consultancy company and
became involved in a proposed Continen-
tal-Western merger. Beauvais was a lead-
ing member of the group that founded
America West Airlines as the Phoenix-
based airline's chairman until 1992.
One innovation that caught the travel-
ling publ ic's attention from the start was
Western Pacific's 'LogoJet' programm .
Although the idea of using an airliner for
advertising purposes was not a new one -
there had been several sport t e a m - ~ ased
and regional promotional liveries in the
preceding years - actually selling the air-
liner as a flying billboard was a new twist
on the theme. First customer to sign up for
the revenue-boosting measure was the
Broadmoor, a five-star Colorado prings
resort hotel owned by Edward L. Gaylord,
a major investor in Western Pacific Air-
lines. The Broadmoor was soon followed
by Colorado Tech, a technical college.
Even the city of Colorado prings itself
promoted itself using one of the airline's
aircraft. Most dramatic was the sale to Fox
TilE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATIO,
TilE LAST OF TilE OLD GENERATION
••••••••••
N303FL
design featuring the natural wildlife or
scenery of America's West.
Despite growing pains, Frontier Airlines
survived, carrying 2.56 million pa "senger" in
only its third year. The route network soon
encompassed both coasts, from San Diego to
Boston, all points served via the Denver
hub. It was Frontier that had considered
merging with troubled Western Pacific, but
wisely backed out of the deal. The owners of
another low-cost scheduled 737-200 opera-
tor, Vanguard Airlines, took out a minority
shareholding in Frontier. Vanguard operate
a similar network, albeil on a smaller scale,
Founded to take advantage of Continental
Airline's drastic downsizing of its once
substantial Denver pr sellCe, Frontier
operated an initial f1eet of Boeing 737-
200s, later joined by -300s. A" well as
reviving the name of the region' still well-
respected pioneer local carrier, Frontier
made a name for itself in its own right with
its eye-catching livery. Although the fuse-
lage remained plain white, with only the
airline's title and it' motto, 'The pirit of
the West', it was raised from the mundane
by the tail design. Each aircraft's tail sur-
face was painted with a different graphic
In July 1994, a new Frontier Airlines had
started scheduled operations from Denver.
A New Frontier
The attractive tail designs of Frontier's 737s are unique to each individual aircraft, depicting flora, fauna
and the geography of the American West. Steve Bunting
desperate move, Peiser moved the opera-
tion to Denver's new International Air-
port, which put it in direct competition
with several industry giants. Western Pacif-
ic did not stand a chance. After an abortive
merger attempt with another carrier, We"t-
ern Pacific Airlines was closed down on 4
February 1998.
II ...:.
(Above) Western Pacific adopted a more sober livery once the logojet
programme was cancelled. Aviation Hobby Shop
(Top) Fox Television rented space on Western Pacific's 737-300s. Aviation Hobby
Shop
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Television of the space on ex-USAir 737-
300, N949Wr. Fox had Western Pacific
paint the aircraft wilh its popular televi-
sion cartoon characters 'The Simpsons'.
From 2 April 1995, Western Pacific's
f1eet of 73 7-300s linked Colorado Springs
with Kansas City, Las Vegas, Los Angeles,
Oklahoma City and Phoenix. San Francis-
co joined the network in May, and Chica-
go/Midway, Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston,
Indianapolis, ew York/Newark, San Diego,
eartle, Tulsa, Washington-Dulles and
Wichita were all added by the end of the
year as more aircraft became available.
The Logo]et programme was expanded
with the swiftly growing, all 737-300
equipped f1eet. everal Colorado ski resorts,
Las Vegas casinos, car-hire companies and
insurance firms all willingly laid out large
fees for the privilege of having their name
on the side of a Western PaCific airliner.
There were a handful of aircraft operated in
a 'standard' Western Pacific livery, as well as
on mostly narural metal 737 thar pro-
claimed the airline's aim to help its cus-
tomers 'Beat the System'.
At its peak Western Pacific was operar-
ing no less rhan eighteen Boeing 737-300s.
As well as providing a much-needed
increase in passenger figures for Colorado
Springs in its own right, Western Pacific's
succe's attracted other airlines back to the
airport, anxious to claim their share of the
available traffic.
End of the Dream
However, although its high-profile and
unique style of service was attracting pas-
sengers, Western Pacific Airlines was far
from profitable. Eventually the main
investors grew impatient for profits and, at
the end of 1996, installed a new manage-
ment team. Beam'ais remained chairman,
but with little or no authority and no inf1u-
ence over the new managers. The new
team was headed by Robert Peiser, who
promptly scrapped the Logo]et programme,
in an attempt to attract a more business-
oriented, higher-revenue, customer to the
airline. Employee morale and service tan-
dards plummeted as debts built up. In a last
Alaska Airlines had spread its influence over routes far removed from its northern origins. A large fleet of
737-400s was acquired, with MD-80s, to service the expanded networks. Steve Bunting
744
745
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
The 737 and the Southwest 'Wannabes'
as well and its route network soon stretched as far north as New York. Despite attract-
ing a loyal following, the airline ceased operations in 1997, following heavy losses.
Pro-Air was established with ahead office in Seattle in 1995. However, it was to be
much further east that the new airline made aname for itself. when commercial oper-
ations finally began in July 1997. Pro-Air set up its main hub at Detroit's old downtown
airport, putting two new 737-400s into service on a low-fare network that eventually
included Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Indianapolis, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia
and Seattle. An extra 737-400 and two smaller 737-300s also joined the original air-
craft pair as service was expanded. However, in 2000, Pro Air had its certificate
removed by the federal authorities, citing operational and maintenance discrepancies,
and all operations were brought to ahalt
Even shorter-lived was Los Angeles/Long Beach-based Winair Airlines. Founded by
Richard I. Winwood, Winair was originally based at Salt Lake City as acharter service.
When 'scheduled' services began from Long Beach in 1998, they were still officially
designated as 'direct-sales charters'. The fleet of 737-200s, later joined by leased
Series 300s and 400s, operated from Long Beach to Las Vegas, Oakland, Sacramento
and Salt Lake City. However, after only eight months of 'scheduled' operation, the air-
line ceased operations in July 1999, citing lack of investment as the cause of its finan-
cial difficulties.
Air South's short-lived operation utilized 737-200s on a busy schedule up the US east
coast. Malcolm L. Hill
The spread of the low-cost carrier, worldwide as well as in the USA. has formed amajor
part of the story of the 737 in the last years of the twentieth century and beginning of
the next. The continued success of Southwest Airlines, America West, and others, did
not go unnoticed. There were many willing to sink their reputations and money into the
new style of air travel. However, as always in the tough commercial world, there were
as many, if not more, failures as successes.
Of the enthusiastic exploiters of deregulation, the previously mentioned Air Florida,
Midway Airlines, Presidential Airways, Sunworld International Airways and Western
Pacific were only some of the unlucky hopefuls that fell by the wayside. The likes of
AirCal, Morris Air, New York Air and PeoplExpress were at least taken over as going
concerns, with most of their employees having some sort of future to look forward to.
Other enthusiastic workforces were less fortunate.
Eastwind Airlines, based at Greensboro, North Carolina and Trenton, New Jersey
began operations in 1995. The second-hand Boeing 737-200s were later joined by
brand new later versions on a network that covered routes from Florida to New Eng-
land. Owned by UM Holdings, Eastwind initially enjoyed local success, especially at
Trenton, with many of its passengers switching from nearby, but overcrowded, Newark
and Philadelphia Airports. Unfortunately, the early traffic growth could not be main-
tained and, after UM Holdings supported the airline while an unsuccessful bid was
made to find abuyer, the airline operation was closed down in 1999.
Another 1995 start-up was Air South, that began operations with leased Boeing 737-
200s, operating alow-cost network from Columbia, South Carolina. Initially flying south-
wards to Florida cities via points in Georgia, Air South eventually turned its eyes north
M N U ~
II I I I II I I ••• I I. I I"
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
MarkAir failed in its attempt to rival the giant Alaska Airlines. Steve Bunting
from Kansas City, but any full merger plans
between the two were later abandoned.
Vanguard's own re-equipment plans took
the form of leasing in MD-80s to repla e
their much older Boeing 737-200 aircraft.
Although very atisfied with its ail-Boe-
ing 737 fleet, with seven -200s and seven-
teen -300s in service in 2001, Frontier Ai r-
lines chose not to order new versions to
replace them. Instead, in October 1999, it
announced an order for two Airbus type"
the ll4-passenger A31 and 132-passen-
ger A319. Forty-six orders and options
were taken out on the two types, with
planned del ivery for late 200 I.
More 49th State 7375
Alaska Airlines had operated a handful of
737-200s alongside its Boeing 727s for sev-
eral years. However, with the tri-jet becom-
ing more of an economic liability, the 737
began to feature more in the airline\, future
plans. The carrier had started to expand
well outside its traditional Seattle and
Alaska-oriented markets since acquiring
California-based Jet America Airlines in
19 7. The takeover of the Los Angcles-
based airline gave Alaska access to a much
more southern-based marker. This formed
the basis of a route expansion programme
that now saw the airline operating as far
south as Mexico, as well as routes from al-
ifornia to the mid-west. Jet America had
been in exi tence ince 19 1 and operated
eight MD- O. More of the McDonnell
Douglas twin-jets were acquired by Alaska
Airlines following the takeover. As well as
the MD- Os though, Alaska eventually
acquired no les than forty of the larger Boe-
ing 737-400s, to replace the last 727-200s.
Despite the bankruptcy of Wi en Air Alas-
ka, another operator stepped in to replace
them in the busier domestic Alaskan mar-
kets. MarkAir had originally been founded
as a specialist cargo operator, Interior Air-
ways. Later renamed Alaska International
Air, the airline became famou for its world-
wide ad hoc charter services wi th its fleet of
Lockheed Hercules freighters. Five convert-
ible 737-200s initially opened scheduled pas-
senger services from Anchorage to several
points in Alaska. The first 737s were later
joi ned by another Series 200C, two 737-300
and three 737-400s. The route network was
extended south to include Chicago, Las
Vegas, Los Angeles, e\\' York, Portland,
an Diego, an Francisco and cattle.
Unfortunately, the company was soon losing
money on the newservice and finally ceased
operations in 1992.
More Worldwide Presence
The CFM56-powered 73 7 versions were as
popular worldwide as their JT8-D predeces-
sors. In South America, the large 737-200
fleer- ofCruziero and VARIG were amalga-
mated when the two airlines were merged
under the VARIG name in 1993. Over thir-
ty 737-300s eventually joined the fleet,
operating over the vast regional and domes-
tic Brazilian network. VARIG subsidiary,
Rio ul took delivery of a fleet of 737-500s,
as well as a single Series 300. Rival Brazilian
carrier, VASP, also supplemented its Series
200 with 737-300s. ao Paulo-based inde-
pendent, Transbrasil began replacing their
Boeing 727-100s with 737-300s from 1986.
In Africa, Kenya Airways supplemented
its small fleet of 737-200s with four eries
300. eighbouring Air Malawi and Air
Tanzania both operated a ingle 737-300
and Air Afrique and Cameroon Airlines
both fly small fleets of Series 300 on their
scheduled services. Further north, Egyptair
replaced their eries 200s with cries 500s,
as well as introducing Airbus A320s and
A321s. orth African national carriers Air
Algerie, Royal Air Maroc and Tunis Air all
supplemented or replaced their earlier 737-
with CFM56-powered versions.
Pakistan International Airlines intro-
duced a fleet of Boeing 737-300s on domes-
tic and regional flights, filling a niche
between the wide-bodied international
fleet of Airbus and Boeing types, and the
turbo-prop Fokker E27s and Twin Otters
flown on local services. The Indian Airlines
Corporation had chosen to replace their
737-200s with Airbus A320s and passed
many of the surplus Boeings on to a new
subsidiary, Alliance Air, which operates the
aircraft on low-cost domestic services.
Malaysia Airlines had remained faithful
to the 737, introducing a large fleet ofSerie-
300s, along with several Series 400s and a
trio of smaller Series 500s. New Malaysian
independent airline, Transmile Air ervice
also operate several older 737-200s.
Although Singapore Airlines itself no
longer operated the Boeing 737, its sub-
sidiary Tradewinds operated five 737-300s
from 1990. Tradewinds' name was changed
to Silkair in 1992 and the Boeings were
746
747
Behind the 'Bamboo Curtain'
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
Brazil's major domestic operators, VASP and VARIG
were long-established operators of the 737 on their
regional services. Both pictures courtesy of Steve
Bunting
Although remaining firmly under Communist control. mainland China began a major
programme of regionalization of its airline operations in the mid-1980s. Until then, the
Civil Aviation Administration of China (CMC) had been solely responsible for the oper-
ation of China's vast domestic and international network. CMC had operated a large
fleet comprising a mixture of both Western-designed and Russian-produced airliners.
Many of its more important domestic schedules were flown by afleet of Hawker Sid-
deley Trident jet airliners, bought from the United Kingdom in the early 1970s.
CMC's first Boeings had comprised an order for ten Boeing 707s, for use on the inter-
national network, placed after the USA and the People's Republic of China signed trade
agreements for the first time since the Chinese Communists had come to power. Boe-
ing 737-200s had entered service in 1983, originally imported to begin the replacement
of some of the remaining Russian types such as the IL-18 turbo-prop and Tu-154 jet
CMC also acquired anumber of McDonnell Douglas MD-80s, including some actually
built under licence in China. McDonnell Douglas had originally hoped to establish apro-
duction line for the MD-80 series in China and provided parts for several aircraft after an
agreement was reached with local manufacturers. However, in the event, only ahandful
were completed before the project was abandoned. Boeing, though, signed contracts
with Chinese companies for the construction of aircraft components. Factories in Cheng-
du, Chongqing, Shanghai, Shenyang and Xian are now major subcontractors for Boeing.
The dissolution of CMC into smaller carriers was preceded by the creation of a
new independent carrier, Shanghai Airlines, originally founded by the local municipal
government. However, all the other 'new' Chinese domestic airlines were created from
the old regional divisions of CMC. A 'Big Three' group of Chinese airlines soon
emerged, with Air China, the old CMC international division based at Beijing, China
Eastern based at Shanghai and China Southern based at Guangzhou, easily becoming
the biggest and most important carriers. Nonetheless, the smaller divisions were soon
rapidly expanding under their new freedoms, promoting their own regional identities.
Under the new liberalized system, even more independents were founded to take
advantage of the increasing traffic.
The first new independent to appear was Xiamen airlines, soon followed by the likes
of Shenzen Airlines, Hainan Airlines, Wuhan Airlines, China Great Wall Corporation and
many others. As well as the reassigned CMC fleet. more aircraft were imported to
equip the new carriers, including 737s of varying models, many on leasing contracts as
well as outright purchase. American types did not enjoy amonopoly though, as sever-
al Chinese airlines opted for Airbus aircraft, and even a handful of the more modern
Russian types, such as the IL-86 and Yak-42, made an appearance.
As in any rapidly expanding, competitive, commercial situation, both winners and
losers would soon appear. By the turn of the century the differing fortunes of the new
airlines were becoming apparent. Both 'associate agreements' and mergers, of varying
degree, soon started appearing between the airlines in an effort to minimize duplica-
tion and maximize efficiency. Outright takeovers and even more mergers were soon
being mooted to bring the number of airlines down to amore manageable state.
.
-
Pakistan
••••••••••
(Below) Pakistan International introduced a fleet of 737-300s on to both its domestic and international routes from Karachi. PIA, via author
(Above) China Southern was one of the numerous airlines that appeared throughout China following the dissolution of
CAAC. Steve Bunting
(Topl CAAC's 737-200s initially passed to the new Air
China. MAP
148
149
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
The 737 also formed the initial fleet of Ukraine International Airlines when the new independent was
formed to rival the local ex-Aeroflot Directorate. Air Ukraine. Steve Bunting
Russian Revivals
Transaero, a new Moscow-based indepen-
dent, not associated with the old Aeroflot,
was founded in 1993. Initially operating
ex-British Airways Boeing 737-200' to Tel
Aviv, Transaero swiftly expanded to include
Russia itself, the Ukraine, and the Baltic
State of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Ukraine International Airlines began
operation with 737-200 leased in from
Guinness Peat, that had a shareholding in
the new airline, in 1992. In direct compe-
tition with the ex-Aeroflot directorate,
now orerating as Air Ukraine, UIA has
gone on to operate 737-300s alongside the
original -200s. Also in the Ukraine,
AeroSvit flies regional and international
services with a fleet of 737-200s.
All the Baltic tates spawned 737 opera-
tors. Estonia Air began operations as a new
flag carrier in 1992, eventually flying three
737-500s, alongside a fleet of Fokker 50
turbo-props. Riga Airlines of Latvia was also
founded in 1992, to operate three 737-200s
on international and regional flight. The
airline's name was changed to Riair in 1995,
but the carrier ceased orerations in 2000.
Lithuania's new carrier, Lithuanian Airlines
was organized out of the old Aeroflot region-
al directorate, taking on its new identity just
days before Lithuania regained indepen-
dence. Eventually, Series 200, -300 and -
500s all joined the Lithuanian fleet. In the former R, the airline scene was
changed out of all recognition. ewly
formed republics were swift to establish their
own national carriers and new independent
airlines also sprang up to provide comreti-
tion. For the most rart, the established local
directorate of the once giant Aeroflot sim-
ply broke away from the old regime and was
renamed, usually with the old Rus ian-built
fleet. Most outstanding excertions were
al airl ines of Bulg::lria, the Czech Republ ic,
Poland, Romania and the Slovak Repub-
lic. The cries 500, esrecially, seemed to
fill a niche on their thinner routes, with
the larger models also making an aprear-
ance on busier sectors. In the C:ech
Republic the economy thrived enough to
see the establishment of new charter air-
lines. Two of the new Czech airlines, Fis-
cher and Travel Service Airlines, selected
Boeing product, with the larger CFM56
737s their model of choice.
After breaking up into new republics
and federations, the former Yugoslav
nations also set about forming their own
carriers. J T began rebuilding itself as the
flag carrier ,for Serbia, bringing its 737-
300s back into service once international
anctions were lifted. Croatia and Mace-
donia also placed 737s into service,
although Croatia Airlines later replaced
their leased 737-200s with Airbus tyres.
Break-Up of Aeroflot
rerlaced by Airbus and Fokker narrow-bod-
ied tyres from 1998.
With the fall of the East European Com-
munist regimes in the early 1990s, a huge
market opened up for the Western aircraft
manufacturers. Ever since the end of the
Second World War, most of the airlines of
the 'Iron Curtain' countries had relied on
Ru ia to provide their aircraft needs. The
factories of Antonov, Ilyushin, Tupolev
and others, had produced everal cred-
itable aircraft over the years, at reasonable
cost to the Warsaw Pact nations.
Western aircraft had made some inroads
into the Warsaw Pact countrie , although
the'e were fel\' and rarely sustained. More
liberal Yugoslavia had operated a Western-
built fleet, starting with Convair pror-1in-
ers in the 1950s. Poland's national airline,
LOT had bought Vickers Viscount turbo-
rrors ::lnd Romania's TAROM orerated a
large fleet of BAC One-Eleven jets, as well
as Boeing 707 on long-range flights. Hun-
gary's MALEV was one of the first to
imrort the 737, when eries 200s were
leased in as early as 19 8, to begin the
rerlacement ofTupolev Tu-134s and other
Russian tyres. Series 300, -400 and -500
737s followed the initial leased fleet into
MALEV service.
The later, CFM56-powered, 737 also
found favour with the reorgani:ed nation-
East European Revolution
~ l . E V \-\ungar\an P\\\"\""\cs
•• •••• • ••• ••• •••
Hungarv's MALEV pioneered the introduction of the 737 in service with airlines of the former communist
nations of Eastern Europe. MAP
Croatia Airlines began operations with Boeing 737-200s from the former Yugoslav republic. Malcolm L. Hill
150
151
THE LAST OF THE OLD GENERATION
The 737-400 brought new standards of comfort to Aeroflot's passengers and crews
used to the more 'basic' amenities of Russian-built types. Aeroflot
Looking to Boeing's Laurels
Other Boeing airliner programmes provid-
ed the 737 team with a host of improve-
ments that could be incorporated into the
basic aircraft to create yet further devel-
oped 737s. 0 less than five different major
redesigns for a new aircraft were considered
by Boeing. Eventually, however, the deci-
sion was made to proceed with the simpler
proposal that comprised a 737 with a new,
more efficient wing. The high degree of
commonality with the current 737 models
also meant that Boeing was able to avoid
the expensive recertification costs of a type
that was entirely new. The new version was
initially designated the '737-X'.
An advisory airline group was set up,
with contributions from customer airlines.
One of the more surprising outcomes was
the rejection by the group of the adoption
of 'Fly-By-Wire' technology on the new
America West, United and US Airways
operated their Airbus fleets alongside
established Boeing 737s. All three airlines
had also placed orders for the slighdy
smaller A318.
The Airbus threat to Boeing had grown
from a mild annoyance, in the early days,
to a major worry. Over the years, Boeing
had suffered its share of industrial prob-
lems, development and production delays
that had also contributed to some loss of
customer confidence. Another serious
rival was the last thing Boeing needed.
Although the CFM56-powered 737
models had certainly gone some way to
offer some competition to Airbus, it was
recognized that there was still room for fur-
ther improvement to give Boeing back its
lead. [n particular, the 737 needed to fly
higher, faster and even more economically
if it was to continue to offer any competi-
tion to Airbus.
CHAPTER TEN
The Next Generation
US Airways, as the rebranded USAir had become. was still a major user of the Boeing 737 in America. However.
the airline had also introduced Airbus A318s. and A320s to replace the Boeings. Malcolm L. Hill
Higher, Faster - and Cheaper!
By the I990s, the increasing threat to
Boeing's market-base by the European
Airbus consortium was causing a great
deal of concern in Seattle. The A320
model in particular, Airbus's nearest rival
model to the 737, was selling in great
numbers to airlines that had traditionally
considered Boeing first. Not surprisingly,
the European carriers began to favour the
Airbuses. Air France, British Airways,
Lufthansa and Sabena were among the
once loyal 737 customers that chose to
replace their older models with Airbus
products.
Export sales, valuable as they were, were
one thing, but even in the USA itself large
fleets of Airbus A320s were bei ng flown on
domestic routes. America West Airlines,
Northwest Airlines, United Airlines and
US Airways operated the largest numbers.
The decision to offer the CFM56-powered
versions of the 73 7 had proved a great suc-
cess, as well as giving the whole programme
a much-needed new lease of life. Howev-
er, the competition, especially from Airbus
[ndustrie, was still increasingly eating into
Boeing's sales figures. Yet more improve-
ments were needed to get Boeing back on
top. It was time to move on again to the
next step, to the next generation.
further modified to Aeroflot-Russian Air-
lines in June 2000, to emphasize the air-
line's commitment to developing its
domestic and CIS services, as well as its
continued international presence.
Aeroflot became a 73 7 operator in
1998, leasing in the first of an initial fleet
of ten Bermudan-registered Boeing 737-
400s. The 737s were introduced onto the
European network, as well as the more
important domestic and regional services
throughout the CIS. Over 130 destina-
tions in seventy countries are served. [n
2001, as well as the ten 737-400s, Aeroflot
operates a modern fleet that includes two
Boeing 777s, four Boeing 767s, eleven Air-
bus A310s and a single DC-lO, as well as
over seventy Russian airliners.
To the Future
(Above) Aeroflot Russian Airlines heralded in a
new era with the Boeing 737-400. Aeroflot
were reorganized as Aeroflot-Russian [nter-
national Airlines, a new joint-stock com-
pany in 1992. The Russian government
still held 51.17 per cent of the stock, the
rest of the shareholding being held by
Aeroflot's employees. The old Moscow-
based Aeroflot international scheduled
operations were taken under the new carri-
er's remit, as were routes throughout Russ-
ian territory and to other former members
of the USSR, now the Commonwealth of
Independent States (ClS). The name was
Boeing 757s in its fleet. Unfortunately,
Transaero came close to becoming a vic-
tim of its own success, as route expansion
and other costs soon started outstripping
its revenue. Painful downsizing and reor-
ganization followed a ncar-bankruptcy;
however, by 2000, the revitalized carrier
had recovered enough to be serving more
than thirty domestic and international
points with a fleet of 737-200s.
The airline operations that remained
under the Aeroflot-Soviet Airlines name
152
153
To EFIS Or Not EFIS?
Another innovation Boeing wanted to
include in the 'Next Generation' 737s was
new avionics and night-deck displays, fir t
developed for other aircraft in the Boeing
airliner range. ot all the potential cus-
tomers wanted the new-style technology
though. Southwest, especially, wanted to
remain with EFIS (electronic night instru-
ment system), as fitted to all its new 737s
since all but the very fir t -300s onwards.
~ \ r c
scheduled and charter flights, with both the -100 and -200 versions being acquired over
the years. DC-8s played abrief part in the airline's operations following the merger of
Icelandair and Loftleider, a leading independent low-fare Icelandic airline. Eventually,
however, more modern 757s and 737s took over from the older tri-jets, including some
737 all-cargo operations.
Another leasing specialist was established in Iceland in 1986. Air Atlanta Icelandic's
large fleet eventually included several 737s that were operated on both leasing con-
tracts and IT charters in their own right In 1991, Islandsflug, operator of aflight school
and a handling and maintenance facility, opened scheduled services to sixteen desti-
nations around Iceland using a Dornier turbo-prop. In 1998, asingle 737 was used to
open IT flights from Keflavik to Eindhoven, Manchester and Rimini. By 2001, the -200
had been joined by two -300s and leasing services were also operated under the name
of Icebird Airlines.
Further south, the Azores archipelago had been served by the scheduled operations
of SATA Air Acores, its own airline since 1947. SATA concentrated on providing vital
links between the Portuguese island group with afleet eventually comprising BAe and
Dornier turbo-props. Anew wholly owned subsidiary, SATA International, was formed
when the assets of afailed local carrier, OceanAir, were taken over. In 1998, SATA Inter-
national was awarded scheduled routes to mainland Portugal. Using afleet of Boeing
737-300s and Airbus A31 Os, SATA International also undertook charter services from
both the Azores and Portuguese resort areas to the UK and Europe.
LAc;HAM.
{SLANDSF UG
••••••••
BAY 1
Mid-Atlantic 737s
MD-80/90 neet with ' ext Generation'
Boeing 73 7s. Boeing did not have it all their
own way with AS though, as orders were
also placed for Airbus A321s, the European
rival to the 757, and wide-body 330s and
A340s were also ordered to replace Boeing
767s on A 's long-haul nights.
The first -700 new on 9 February 1997.
By the time the first aircraft were entering
Southwest Airlines service in early 1998,
the order book for the 'Next Generation'
737s had reached a staggering 900 aircraft.
Two island nations whose once strategically advantageous position in the mid-Atlantic
had led to their becoming well-equipped for supporting air services were to become
home to resident fleets of 737s. Both Iceland and the Azores archipelago had original-
ly been developed as important refuelling stops for trans-Atlantic traffic linking the old
world with the new, but were later overflown as technology improved. Meanwhile,
their local populations had come to recognize the advantage of air travel. both locally
and as ameans to remain connected with the outside world.
In the north, Icelandair had been providing scheduled services to the island's scat-
tered communities, and linking it to both Europe and the North American continent for
several decades. However, the main scheduled carrier was not to be the first Icelandic
operator of the 737. Staff of afailed charter carrier, Air Viking, formed a new charter
airline, Eagle Air (Arnaflug). in 1976. Initially operating Air Viking's pair of second-hand
Boeing 720Bs, Eagle Air flew IT and ad hoc charters from Iceland, mainly to Spanish
resorts and to Germany. Eagle Air also became involved in leasing work with its 720Bs,
sending them off on short-term contracts to other carriers in their own slow season.
Icelandair bought amajority shareholding in Eagle Air in 1979. Under the national air-
line's control, scheduled services were opened from Keflavik to Amsterdam, Dusseldorf
and Zurich, using a737-200 that replaced the 720Bs in 1981. The 737 was also used
for the established charter network and leasing services. Unfortunately financial prob-
lems started to beset the small airline and it was closed down by Icelandair in 1990.
Icelandair itself, known locally as Flugfelag, preferred to utilize the Boeing 727 on its
Islandsflug operates its own IT programme from Iceland, as well as offering leasing services with its 737s. Aviation Hobby Shop
hort-body Series 500, rolled out in Decem-
ber 1997. Launch customer for the -600 was
candinavian Airlines ystem, which
seemed to have got over its apparent reluc-
tance to operate 73 7s after acquiring the ex-
Linjenyg -500 aircraft, most of which had
been promptly lea ed out. A ordered no
Ie s than thirty-eight Series 600s, in addi-
tion to placing orders for fifteen Serie OOs
and a pai I' of -700s. Options were held on no
less than sixty-eight other 737s. The airline
planned to eventually replace its D -9/
the launch order in late 1993. In very ba -ic
term the eries 700 was the Boeing 737-
300, which it replaced on the production
line, with the new features. The first -700
was rolled out in December 1996.
Six months later, the first Series 800,
which replaced the -4 ,followed in June
1997. The - 00 was first ordered by Ger-
man charter airline Hapag Lloyd. Unlike
the -700, the Series 800 does incorporate <I
further stretch over the Series 400. This
allows an IT charter configuration of 189
passengers. To permit the higher capacity,
the over-wing emergency exits were total-
ly redesigned to be upward hinging units
on all the new 737 versions, in place of the
original inward-opening type.
ext to be launched, albeit somewhat
out of numerical sequence, was the Series
600, a 'Next Generation' version of the
(Below) Hapag Lloyd ordered -800s for its extensive
programme of IT charters from Germany. Steve Bunting
Launch Orders
miles in the first' ext Generation' mod-
els. To compensate for the larger wing, the
dorsal fin and vertical stabilizer were
lengthened and the span of the horizontal
srabi Iizer was extended. These measures
were also required to allow the use of high-
er-powered CFMB56-7B engines. The
new version of the CFM56 engine was
designed with 15 per cent lower mainte-
nance costs and 8 per cent lower fuel burn.
CFM International went to great lengths,
offering to become a ri ok-sharing partner
in the project, in return for the exclu ive
right to provide engines for the new type.
The first of the' ext Generation' 73 7s
was to be the 73 7-700. Southwest pia ed
73 7. This had been a major new-technolo-
gy feature u ed by Airbus in selling the
A32 . FBW had been uccessfully de igned
into Boeing's new long-range, wide-body
type, the 777, and Boeing had seriously
considered installing it on the 737-X.
Instead, the advisory group members, in
particular outhwest Airlines, were more in
favour of retaining the 737's basic simplici-
ty as well as commonality with previous
models.
The major new feature, a larger, 'high-
speed', wing had a 25 per cent increase in
area, with a span increased to 112ft 7in
04.3m). The tip cord of the old wing was
extended and a whole new wingbox was
designed. More room for fuel was provided
by moving the rear spar aft. 0 Ie s than
3 per cent more fuel could now be car-
ried, allowing a range of 3,2 nautical
(Abovel The Boeing 737-700 was difficult to distinguish purely by sight from the 737-300. Southwest
painted the -700's flap hinge fairings bright orange to help ground crews tell the two apart. MAP
154
155
THE NEXT GENERATION THE NEXT GENERATION
The continued usc of the EFIS format
would provide commonality, and allow
Southwest greater flexibility in crew assign-
ments and simplify conversion training.
Nonetheless, the newer system, PFD/ND
(primary flight display/navigation display),
originally developed for the Boeing 777,
was wanted by other operators. Many of
these customers already operated similar
equipment on other aircraft in their fleets.
In response to the differing requirements,
Boeing solved the dilemma by developing
a new CDS (common display system). The
use of six Honeywell multifunction liquid
crystal displays allowed the primary flight
display and navigation data to be tailored
to the airline's needs, in either format, as
required.
The Douglas Factor
In 1997, the unthinkable happened in that
Boeing's greatest competitor, ever since
the days of the 247/DC-2 rivalry in the
1930s, vanished overnight. Even more
unthinkable was that the company, the
McDonnell Douglas Corporation, was
actually bought out by Boeing.
Douglas had soundly beaten Boeing in
the pre-war competition for the world's air-
liner market. Its main rival through the
1940s and 50s had been California neigh-
bour, Lockheed. They had matched each
other model for model through the Douglas
DC-4/6/7 and elegant Lockheed Constella-
tion series. As the jet age approached, Lock-
heed had placed all its airliner eggs in the
turbo-prop basket, and been disappointed
with the sales figures for its L-188 Electra.
As a result, Lockheed had actually bowed
out of the airliner market altogether, con-
centrating mostly on military projects until
it produced the L-lOll TristaI' wide-body.
Although the aircraft was an operational
success, with many examples built and
enjoying long careers with a number of car-
riers, the L-lOll was also a financial failure,
unable to follow up on its early promise.
Instead of Lockheed, Douglas had found
itself up against a rejuvenated Boeing and
an enterprising Convair in the competi-
tion for the US jetliner market. Convair
was eventually to admit defeat up against
the two giants and the Douglas DC-8 had
come a very poor second to the Boeing
707. The expense of its jet airliner pro-
grammes was a major factor in Douglas's
merger with McDonnell, to produce
MDe. The Long Beach, California-based
manufacturer had been increasingly strug-
gling to survive as Boeing and, eventually,
Airbus sales had encroached on its tradi-
tional markets and customers.
The wide-body DC-I0 airliner had
enjoyed an early success, but sales suffered
after a number of accidents blighted the
type's reputation. The long-esrabl ished
DC-9 short-haul jet had sold very well, but
later, stretched, MD-80 versions suffered by
comparison with the 737-300/400/500
series and new Airbus narrow-bodied types.
Re-engined and updated MD-80s were
being produced, as the MD-90 series, but
were struggling to reach viable sales targets.
As with Boeing, MDC was not only
involved in commercial airliner produc-
tion, although, also like Boeing, it was
probably its most public activity. Involve-
ment in aerospace projects in the fields of
missile technology, satellite, military and
space-flight programmes, amongst others,
also occupied the company, but none of
them were making it much money either.
As MDe's financial problems piled up, the
situation worsened dramatically and there
was a genuine possibility that the much
revered company would collapse com-
pletely. Eventually, Boeing stepped in with
the proverbial offer that could not be
refused, and absorbed MDe.
MD-95 to Boeing 717
At the time of the takeover, MDC was
producing the MD-ll, an enlarged and
longer-ranged version of the DC-I0, and
the stretched MD-90 series of twin-jets.
Although acknowledged as one of the
world's quietest jets in service, and into its
third year of production, the MD-90 was a
direct competitor to the 'Next Genera-
tion' 737s. So it came as no great surprise
when the eventual closure of the MD-90
production line was announced by Boeing.
However, curiously, in 1998, Boeing did
decide to continue development of one of
the newer MD-90 derivatives, the MD-95.
Much smaller than the MD-90s in ser-
vice, the MD-95 was closer to the size of
the older DC-9 series and intended to offer
the advantages of the new technologies on
less dense routes. Boeing redesignated the
design as the Boeing 717-200 and contin-
ued with its development work. Only one
operator, low-cost scheduled airline Valu-
jet, had placed a definite order. Even this
order was in the balance, as Valujet was
busy reinventing itself following its
grounding by federal authorities after the
fatal crash in Florida by one of its DC-9-
30s. Atlanta-based Valujet had recently
merged with anorher low-fare airline, Air-
Tran, that flew several Boeing 737-200s
from Orlando.
The resulting 'new' AirTran confirmed
the order for fifty of the new twin-jet,
intending to standardize on the type. Boe-
ing was eventually rewarded with more
orders and options from TWA and other
carriers worldwide.
717 and the 737-600
The decision to proceed with the MD-
95/717 was even more of a surprise as the
100-120-passenger ai rcraft was close to
the capacity and performance of the -600
version of the 'Next Generation' 737s.
The 717 was seen by Boeing as more of a
rival to the new 'regional jets' that had
been making their appearance on local
routes. Passenger capacities on the Bom-
bardier/Canadair from Canada, Embraer's
Brazilian-built local jets, developed from
o
Douglas and lockheed worked tirelessly to outdo each other and design the ultimate piston-engined airliner. The results
were the robust DC-7 (top) and aesthetic Super Constellation series (above). American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum/Aer Lingus
The Boeing 717 still bore a striking resemblance to the DC-9 line from which it was directly descended.
Dnly the much larger engines make identification easier. Aviation Hobby Shop
156
157
TilE NEXT GENERATION THE NEXT GENERATION
j
The 'Next Generation' and
the Major US Carriers
A major coup for Boeing was an order for no
less than 100 Series 800s from American
Airlines. ince disposing of the ex-AirCal
-200s and -300s in the late 19 Os, American
had relied on its large numbers of MD- 2s
and Fokker 100s to supplement Boeing 727-
200s in its narrow-bodied fleer. The 737-
800s entered service from American's Dallas
and Chicago hubs during 1999, as replace-
ments for the ageing 727s.
The American Airlines 737- OOs carry
twenty first-clas passengers, with 126 in
economy class. Both cabins feature nell'
seating units, designed to offer more lum-
bar support and legroom, and adjustable
headrests, as well as telephone and power
ports at every seat and overhead aisle
video monitors throughout the aircraft.
The delivery of the fiftieth Boeing 737-
00, N951AN, to American was marked
by the aircraft being painted in the airline's
1960s 'Astrojet' livery. A Boeing 757 had
started charter operations from tockholm
in 1997. Owned by wed ish tour operator
Apollo Resor, ovair initially flew a single
Lockheed Tristar and one Airbus A320 on
both long and medium IT charter flights.
Four new ' ext Generation' 737-800s
eventually took over the A320 services as
Novair' operations expanded.
• : rznl/Rir
•••••• 'i .' .
73 7s into service. Denmark's terling Euro-
pean Airways had been born from the a hes
of a long-established carrier, terling Air-
ways, thm had ceased operation in ep-
tember 1993. Originally founded in 1962
by Tjaerborg Reiser, a large Danish travel
company, Sterling had gained an enviable
reputation as a qual ity charter carrier and
was operating charter services from most
candinavian countries, as well as serving
its home marker. Its original DC-6Bs had
eventually been replaced by a large fleet of
Caravelles and in turn these were replaced
by Boeing 727-200s and 757s. Sterling's
fortunes began ro wane in the early 1990s
and a takeover bid by France's Europe
Aero Service failed in 1993, eventually
leading ro terling Airway' bankruptcy.
The 'new' terling European Airways
began commercial operations in May 1994,
with a fleet of six Boeing 727-200s.
Ithough on a much smaller scale, the oper-
mions were similar to the original airline's,
flying IT charters from Copenhagen to
Mediterranean re·orts. A Norwegian com-
pany, Fred Olsen, took a 95 per cent share in
terling European in 1995, immediately
implementing a modernization programme.
Two 737- 300s were acquired, followed in
1998 by the first of an order for five -800s.
The 727s were converted to freighter con-
figuration and operated on contract charter
for the T T organi:ation.
or connected in any way to the defunct
UK 737 operator of the same name, ovair
I'
- ' ..... -- .._- ... --
A. well a the multinational SA and or-
way';, Braathens, other candinavian air-
lines soon placed the 'Next Generation'
Denmark's IT Saga
Deutsche BA and fellow charter carrier
LT ,as well a' it own ·ervices. Dutch car-
riers KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and
Trans<wia, the latter now a subsidiary of the
former, took del ivery of 73 7-800s for use on
their European networks, supplementing
earlier versions. The 73 7-800 made its first
appearance in the Caribbean with the
delivery of the first of a sextet of aircraft to
BWIA West Indies to supplement and
eventually replace their fleet of DC-9 and
MD80 types.
panish leaders in the IT charter market,
Air Europa, as well as operating a regional
and long-haul scheduled network in its own
right, took delivery of - OOs to upplement
the smaller -300s and -400s in the fleet. A
new sub'idiary, Air Europa Canarias, wa
established in 1999 to operate two of the
parent company's 737-300s from Gran
Canaria. Moves were actually made to
merge Air Europa into Iberia, itself flying
three -400s in its huge, varied, fleet, but the
merger was finally called off in early 200l.
Futura International also took delivery of
the -800 for panish-based IT work. Five
were in use for the 2001 summer season,
operating with the earl ier -400 series.
The high capacity -800 found itself popular with many charter carriers. Novair operate them from Sweden
to sunnier climes in southern Europe. Aviation Hobby Shop
Airline in 2001, foI'entry inroservice that
summer on the Seattle-based airI ines' US
regional and Alaskan network.
The large order book for the 'Next Gen-
eration' versions of the 737 meant that the
new type were soon spreading their wings
on air routes all over the world. Both
scheduled and charter, establ ished and new
Boeing 737 operators were soon taking
delivery of the -700s and -800s. Pioneer
737 airline, Braathens was an early -700
operator, placing the first of an order for fif-
teen in service on its orwegian and Euro-
pean network in earl y 1998. German ia
replaced its -300s with -700' ext Genera-
tion' versions, operating on behalf of
••••••••
• EC-HBZ
• (Belowl Futura introduced a new livery with the arrival of their 'Next
Generation' 737-800s. MAP/Aviation Hobby Shop
The 'Next Generation' Goes
into Service
outhwest Airline's, and the world' , fir t
Boeing 73 7-700' ext Generation' com-
mercial flight took place on I January
199. N700GS operated Flight II from
Dallas/Love Field ro Houston/Hobby and
on to Harlingen, all within Southwest's
home state of Texas. The first Hapag Lloyd
737- entered service from Germany in
time for the 199 summer season of IT
charters. placed the -600 into sched-
uled ervice in the autumn of 199 , on
routes from Scandinavia ro Paris. The first
production -900 was delivered to Alaska
-_.. ,---
.
the turbo-prop Brasilia, Dornier's jets, also
developed from a turbo-prop design, were
all increasing. Pas enger loads of 70- 0
were now possible on the larger versions of
what had originally been perceived just as
stretched business jets, and it was this mar-
ket d,at the 717 was aimed ar.
The 717-200 first flew on 2 September
1998. Four aircraft were eventually used in
the test and development programme and
certifi ation was granted just under a year
later on I eptember 1999. A propo ed
717-I version, reduced in size ro carry
eight-five passenger in a mixed-clas lay-
out, was being considered to offer further
competition ro the 'regional jet' types.
(Above) BWIA of the Caribbean became a new 737 operator with the -800.
Aviation Hobby Shop.
158 159
ernization plan, Finally managing to throw
off its post-merger reputation for meJiocre
anJ disorganizeJ operations, Continental
was soon winning awarJ after awarJ for it
renewed style of service, The last remain-
ing ex-LufthansajPeoplExpre series 100s
anJ all the -200s, as well as many olJ model
(Be/ow) N951AN turned heads wherever it appeared on American's network
in its smart 1960s 'Astrojet' livery, American airlines C,R, Smith Museum
767
President-elect George W, Bush anJ his
entourage from Austin, Texas, to Washing-
ton DC, following the delayeJ announce-
ment of his election victory,
Continental Airlines placeJ large orJers
for the 'Next Generation' 737 moJels as
part of a massive re-equipment and moJ-
. Continental
•••••••••••••

TilE NEXT GENERATION
Continental placed its 737·800s on transcontinental service from its Houston and Newark hubs, as well as
shorter, high-density routes, Aviation Hobby Shop
been painteJ in late 1950s style in 1999, to
celebrate the fortieth anniversary of Amer-
ican's jet service, anJ haJ proveJ very pop-
ular. The 737 'A trojet' attracteJ similar
attention anJ, on 17 December 2000, only
two Jays after entering revenue service,
N951 AN was chartereJ to carry the new
(Opposite) American airlines introduced many upgraded passenger features
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The Delta Shuttle replaced its long-serving 727-200s with 737-800s on the high
frequency, no-reservations service between New York, Boston and Washington.
Aviation Hobby Shop
DC-9s and all the 727s in the fleet, were
eventually replaced by the 'Next Genera-
tion' 737s. In addition, over sixty 737-300s
remained, alongside the nearly seventy
737-500s, over thirty 737-700s and over
fifty 737-800s in service, with nearly forty
other 73 7s of various versions on order.
The improved performance of the 737-
700 prompted Continental to study plac-
ing the version on trans-Atlantic service,
on the New York/Newark-Shannon route.
However, increased traffic demands saw
larger 757s being utilized by Continental
instead. onetheless, loha Airlines
placed its 737-700s on new Hawaii-main-
land routes to Oakland and Las Vegas, an
unprecedented distance for the aircraft
originally envisaged as a short-range, pure-
ly inter-city airliner.
Delta placed the 737-800 in service
alongside its fleet of eighty 737-200s and
-300s. The larger -800s were ordered to
replace the airline's last 727-200s. As well
as mainline services, the 73 7-800s also
replaced the older Boeing tri-jets on the
no-reservations 'Del ta Shuttle' between
New York, Boston and Washington, which
Delta had originally purchased from Pan
American.
Midway Revival
Yet another 'revived' regional airline in
the USA was Midway, which restarted
THE NEXT GENERATION
operations from Chicago in 1993 with a
fleet of Fokker 100s. The Chicago net-
work failed to make money, not least of
all because Southwest had taken the
opportunity of the original Midway Air-
lines' absence to develop a highly effec-
tive new hub at Midway Airport. Instead,
the new Midway Airlines upped sticks in
1995 and moved its headquarters to
Raleigh/Durham International Airport,
in North Carolina. Raleigh/Durham had
been developed as a new East Coast hub
by American Airlines, but the large air-
line found its efforts from there to be
unsuccessful and withdrew most of its ser-
vices. Identifying an under-utilized niche
catchment area, Midway set about estab-
lishing a new network far from its Mid-
west roots.
Initial results were promising and the
Fokkers were joined by Airbus A320s on
busier routes. Unfortunately, once again
Midway was threatened with serious finan-
cial problems, after overstretching itself.
The Airbuses were returned and a new start
made with the Fokkers. In 2000, new Boe-
ing 73 7-700s arrived along with new Bom-
bardier/Canadair Regional Jets, destined to
replace the long-serving Fokkers. Nine 737s
and no less than twenty-four Canadairs were
in use in 200 I, along with six remaining
Fokkers. As well as locally originating traf-
fic, Raleigh/Durham acted as a hub for a net-
work stretching throughout the eastern half
of the USA.
162
The undoubted success of Southwest Airlines' low-fare
services did not go unnoticed in the hallowed board-
rooms of America's major airlines. They were losing traf-
fic to Southwest and its copiers on most fronts and badly
needed to regain the lost passenger revenue. One solu-
tion that was adopted by some was an 'If you can't beat
'em, join 'em' attitude.
In 1994, United transferred a number of its 737-300s
to a new low-fare subsidiary, Shuttle By United, which
took over a number of West Coast routes. Operating a
low-cost philosophy, with only basic on-board facilities,
Shuttle By United was later renamed United Shuttle and
expanded with more 737s being moved into the fleet as
alarge order for Airbus A318s and A320s was delivered
to the parent airline.
Delta set up Delta Express, again a wholly owned
subsidiary, in 1996, specifically to combat Southwest's
entry into the Florida vacation markets. This time 737-
200s were used to equip the new division.
USAir had become US Airways in 1998, in a major
rebranding exercise. The same year, it set up its own r
low-cost operation, MetroJet, based at Baltimore. Also
established to directly combat Southwest Airline's
expansion into its traditional markets, MetroJet was
equipped with 737-200s, again transferred from the par-
ent company.
During 2000, United made an offer to buyout US Air-
ways that had continued to make losses despite improv-
ing its service reputation after the name change.
Although at an advanced stage in negotiations, United
called off the merger in mid-200l.
In the UK, British Airways was facing the loss of
domestic and European traffic to new low-cost opera-
tors, Ryanair and easyJet. In response, a new Lon-
don/Stansted-based subsidiary was established with
leased 737-300s. Named Go Fly, the new carrier began
scheduled flights from Stansted to European and domes-
tic points in 1998. Sixteen destinations were served by
2001, and Go opened anew base at Bristol, in the west
of England, later that year. However, also in 2001, British
Airways decided that Go's operation was not compatible
with its own image as aquality service provider and put
the airline up for sale. After considering several offers,
British Airways sold Go to the low cost carrier's own
management.
KLM UK, previously Air UK and renamed after the
Dutch airline had bought a majority shareholding, was
suffering from the competition with its Stansted-based
scheduled services after Ryanair and Go Fly moved in. In
retaliation, in January 2000, KLM UK transferred eight
BAe 146s to a new low-fare subsidiary, named Buzz. A
total of fourteen routes from Stansted were in operation
by 2001 and the BAe 146s were joined by apair of Boe-
ing 737-300s on the busier services.
On the other side of the world, Freedom Air Interna-
tional began operations from Auckland in 1995. Wholly
owned by Air New Zealand, low-fare schedules operate
alongside charters, not only within New Zealand, but
also across the Tasman Sea to Australia. Despite serv-
ing arelatively sparsely populated region, Freedom Air's
pair of 737-300s found themselves in demand, not least
when Dailtas New Zealand suddenly ceased operations
in 2001. Freedom Air's aircraft, alongside Air New
Zealand's own 737s, operated extra services to substi-
tute for the defunct carrier.
The Big Boys Fight Back
(Topl us Airways transferred several 737-200s to its new low-cost Metrojet operation. MAP
(Middle) Although Go Fly's operation from Stansted was a success, British Airways decided to sell off the low-cost subsidiary. Aviation Hobby Shop
(Bottom) The bright yellow 737-300s of Buzz supplemented a larger fleet of BAe 146s. Aviation Hobby Shop
163
THE NEXT GENERATION
THE NEXT GE 'ERATION
Boeing 737-700s were acquired by Midway Airlines to increase capacity on their Raleigh/Durham-based
services. MAP
-70 s, with twelve on order. Another onri-
nenral/Copa alliance was formed with a new
Chilean airline, Avanr Airline. Originally
operating as Aero Chile, formed in 1996,
the company was later renamed Lineas
Aereas Chi1canas, and renamed again in
1997. Domestic scheduled services were
operated the length of ChiIe wi th a fleet of
737-200s until operations ceased in 2001.
in Chile in partnership with a Chilean
investment group. Aero Conrinenre Chile
operate eight 737-200 on it domestic and
regional service from Sanriago.
A 49 per cent shareholding in Copa Air-
lines, of Panama, also a long-standing 737
operator, was bought by Conrinenral in May
1999. Copa began the replacemenr of their
fleet of 737-200s with 'Next Generation'
services that eventually included an inter-
national network that stretched a far as
Miami, in addition to dome tic ervices.
Aero onrinente soon became Peru's major
airline operator and in 2001 wa flying five
737-200s, a single -100, three 727-100 and
even a wide-body 767, as well a twO Fokker
F.28s and a small fleet of turbo-props. In
1999, a new associate airline was established
Aviateca joined forces with three other Central American airlines under the Grupo TACA banner, while Aero
Continente of Peru also established a local subsidiary in Chile. Both pictures courtesy of Aviation Hobby Shop
I =_..~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ; ~ = = ' ······•···•·••·•·•····••··•. • I: ::::-:--_II,._N\27GU -- AVIATECA
Aerolineas Argentinas came up against a
new low-cost rival when a previously small
commuter airline, LAPA (Lineas Aereas
Privada Argenrinas), sold off its fleet of
turbo-props and placed it first second-hand
Boeing 737-200 into service in 1993. LAPA
experienced rapid growth, offering low-fare
services throughout Argenrina in direct
competition with Aerolineas. More 737-
200s were gathered from various sources,
later joined by new Boeing 73 7-700s.
In both Central and South America, a
number of carriers formed new all iances to
combat the growing influence of mainline
U carriers in the region. TACA lnrerna-
tional Airlines, the national carrier for EI
Salvador and Honduras, had operated
737s for many years. In the lare 1990s, the
neighbouring operations of Aviateca
(Guatemala), LAC A (Co ta Rica) and
ICA (Nicaragua) were brought under
the TACA influence, to co-ordinate their
operations in the region and on routes to
the U A. The combined fleets comprised
a mixture of both Boeing and Airbus types.
A new associate airline, TACA Peru, was
set up to operate two 737-200s from Lima.
Also in Peru, Aero Continente began
operations in 1992, initially focused on char-
ter work in suwort of oil exploration in the
northeast of the country. In July 1993, two
727-200s and a 727-100 opened scheduled
threat, CanJet, Royal Airlines and West-
Jet Airline were 737 operator among the
independent airlines all claiming their
'rightful hare' of new route authorities.
WestJet had been established in Calgary in
1995, and was flying twenry-two 737-200s
on low-fare scheduled services in the
region by 200 I. Five 'Next Generation'
Series 600s were on order, as were no less
than thirty-one 737-700s.
Royal Airlines originally began opera-
tions with two Boeing 727-200s, as a char-
ter airline in Montreal in 1992. Scheduled
services were opened, with six 737-200s
operating alongside the airline's Airbus
A310 wide-bodies and Boeing 757s. In
2 01 Royal was acquired by rival charter
and scheduled carrier Canada 3000, that
nursed ambitions to become the new 'sec-
ond force' once CAL disappears. CanJet
opened it scheduled network, from Toron-
to to Halifax, Ottawa and Wind or in ep-
tember 2000, with a pair of 73 7-200s. Seven
-200s were in use with CanJet by mid-200l.
Liberalization saw the growth of new opera-
tors in both Central and outh America,
as well as the consolidation of old ones.
Meanwhile, South of the
Border
All Change in Canada
In Canada, the long-established, major,
737 operator Canadian Airlines Inrerna-
tional, was to lose its identity in a takeover
battle that it lost with arch rival Air Cana-
da. Through 2000 the CAl fleet of 737-
200s was repainred in basic AirCanada liv-
ery, although still with Canadian titles and
logo on the fuselage. In 200 I, the merger
took even more effect as the first totally
repainted 737s started appearing, with the
CAL identity finally disappearing. Borh Air
Canada and CAl had begun the process of
replacing their older short/medium-haul
fleets with Airbus types, a process likely to
continue in the years following the merger
with the new enlarged carrier.
An exception to the merger process was
CAL's subsidiary, Canadian orth. Provid-
ing vital social services in the arctic regions
of Canada with two convertible 737-20 C,
Canadian North was old off in eptember
199 , before the merger, to orten-a Inc, a
holding company 1 per cenr owned by
native anadian communities.
The Air Canada/Canadian irlines
International merger was pounced on by
Canada's own growing band of low-fare
operators as a chance to expand their
influence. iting the size of the newly
enlarged Air Canada as a monopol istic
764
765
THE NEXT GENERATION
ao.-.....,fJll'OO
_---....
(Bottom) Airbus A320s displaced 737-300s and -400s with the rebranded 'british
midland bmi'. Aviation Hobby Shop
(Below) British Airways Boeing 737s are eventually to be replaced by new Airbus
types. Via author
The growth of the Airbus threat was pressed home to Boeing with the decision of However, one prodigal return to the 737 fold was Britannia Airways. Britannia had
British Airways not to order the 'Next Generation' 737s for its European routes. Instead. replaced their last 737·200 in 1994, with the much larger Boeing 757 taking over as the
a mixed order was placed for Airbus A318s. 319s and 32os. to eventually replace the airline's narrow·body aircraft. Although the 757s offered the flexibility of being capa·
earlier 737 models. British Airways' franchise associate, GB Airways, also placed its ble of operating both long and short-haul charters, like the wide-bodied Boeing 767s
first Airbus A320s and A321 sin service in 2001, planning to replace its seven 737s with
an identical number of Airbus aircraft.
Still expanding its European and UK domestic scheduled network, British Midland
Airways declined Boeing's offer of 'Next Generation' 737s, choosing instead the Airbus
A320 and A321. The British Midland Boeing 737·30os and ·4oos were to be disposed
of, although the 737·500s would remain in the fleet for the time being. The airline's
name was modified, and anew livery and image unveiled, as 'british midland bmi', in
preparation for trans·Atlantic Airbus services in 2001.
British 737 Disappointments and Revival scheduled operations from Bombay in
1992, with scheduled flights to Mangalore
and Cochin, later adding Goa, Jaipur and
Trivandrum. Lufthansa provided backing
for another of the first new Indian carriers,
Modiluft, which began scheduled domes-
tic operations with ex-Lufthansa 737-200s
in 1994. Unfortunately, East West and
Modiluft suffered numerous operational
difficulties and ceased flying in 1997.
Much more successful were the 737
operations of Jet Airways and Sahara Air-
lines. Both new carriers began scheduled
services in 1993, competing with Indian
Airlines on domestic services throughout
ModiLuft.
... .. -:. •
deregulation in the American style was
resisted, there was usually enough liberal-
ization to allow the limited entry of new
blood into the local airline industry. The
well-proven, widely and cheaply available
Boeing 737 was often the choice of equip-
ment for the new operators.
[n the Far East, initial growth in an eco-
nomic boom had been swiftly followed by
recession. [n the Philippines, a number of
new independent carriers had been estab-
lished and grew quickly. Of the numerous
new independents, Air Philippines and
Grand International Airways both built up
large fleets of 737s only to have their new
The Series 800 found a new home with
Mandarin Airlines of Taiwan. Mandarin
had originally been formed as a subsidiary
of China Airlines to take over schedules to
Australia and Canada. However, a change
in policy saw Mandarin switching its
attention to domestic and regional fl ights
after the operations of Formosa Airlines
were taken over in 1999. A 73 7-400 was
joined by five -800s on the busier flights,
with Fokker E100 jets and Fokker F.50 and
Dornier 228 turbo-props operating lower-
capacity services. Ch ina Airl ines itself also
Further East
- ~ "
Despite strong backing from lufthansa, which provided it with 737s, Modiluft failed to survive. Aviation
Hobby Shop
took del ivery of Series 800s, wi th thirteen
ordered for its shon and medium-range
services.
Korean Air introduced fifteen 737-
800s, to begin the replacement of older
Fokker and McDonnell Douglas types.
Otherwise, Korean Air operated an all-
wide-bodied fleet of Airbus A300s, Boeing
747 and 777s.
Low Cost Goes Global
When the rest of the world followed the
USA's deregulation lead, many new air-
lines sprang up to take advantage of the
new order. Even where wide-reaching
markets vanish overnight, Even the giant
Philippine ir Lines itself was forced to
cease operations temporarily. Eventually,
the economic climate improved in the
region, but often roo late for the once hope-
ful new carriers, many of which had been
forced to severely cut back their operations,
Mixed fortunes also met new indepen-
dent airlines on the Indian subcontinent.
Competition for the Indian Airlines Cor-
poration was actively encouraged by the
government in the early 1990s and a num-
ber of new operators rose to the challenge.
[AC had already transferred most of its
737-200s to a new subsidiary, Alliance Air,
based at ew Delhi. East West Airlines
began Boeing 737-200 and Fokker E27
India. By 2001 both were operating large
fleets of 737s, Jet Airways flying ten 737-
400s, seven 737-700s and nine 737-800s,
with nine more -800s on order. Sahara
operated an all-73 7 fleet of three -400s,
two -800s and single examples of the -200
and -700 versions,
New 737s in the Eastern
Mediterranean
Liberalization also allowed growth in char-
ter markets, as well as the scheduled service
sector. A boom in holiday resort develop-
ment saw Turkey, especially, spawn a num-
ber of new IT charter carriers, dedicated to
166
167
THE NEXT GENERATION
THE NEXT GENERATION
British 737 Disappointments and Revival continued
Sahara Airlines enjoyed greater success than some new Indian carriers, eventually operating several versions of the 737. MAP
........................ TURKISH·
•••••••••••••••••••
Both national carrier THY-Turkish airlines and leading independent Istanbul Airlines took delivery of 'Next
Generation' 737-800s. Both pictures courtesy of Steve Bunting
-- ....... -- .....
joined by two 727-200s. The airline had been established to take over IT charters pre-
viously contracted to Newcastle-based Ambassador Airways, which had ceased flying
that November. Ambassador had flown Boeing 757s, 737s and A320s, but the bank-
ruptcy of its travel company owners had led to its downfall. Sabre took over the 737s
and the Gatwick and Manchester-based contracts that Ambassador had flown for other
tour operators.
The 737-200s were leased out in 1997 to Peach Air, asubsidiary of Caledonian Air-
ways. Peach Air initially flew the Sabre 737-200s and a Lockheed L-l0l1 Tristar
leased from Air Atlanta Icelandic. The Peach Air operations came to an end in Novem-
ber 1998 and Sabre disposed of the -200s at the end of the lease contract. However,
Sabre had continued to expand its own charter operations and the 727-200s were
being replaced by new 737-800s, the first of which had entered service earlier in
1998. Two of the Boeing 737-800s were leased out to Miami Air, of Florida, during
the winter of 2000/2001. In 2001, following its acquisition by Libra Holidays, Sabre
was renamed Excel Airways, beginning operations under the new title in May, oper-
ating a fleet of six 737-800s.
(Belowl Sabre Airways was renamed Excel Airways in 2001, Aviation Hobby Shop
G OKON
•• , , 1 1 1 , • , • •
also in the Britannia Airways fleet, the airline soon found it required a lower-capacity
aircraft for less well-travelled routes and to help develop new markets not able to sup-
port the larger aircraft.
Three 1BO-passenger Airbus A320s were leased from Irish charter carrier TransAer to
serve on thinner IT routes, in the late 1990s. However, any hopes that Airbus might have
cherished that this would lead to adirect order from Britannia were soon to be dashed.
In 199B, Britannia's owner, Thomson International, took control of Swedish tour operator
Fritdsresor and its own charter airline Blue Scandinavia. The Swedish IT charter carrier
was rebranded as Britannia Airways AB and took on the British airline's full identity.
In 199B, asingle 737-800 was leased by the Swedish operation, from Danish IT car-
rier Sterling European, and operated alongside its three Boeing 757s. The same year,
Britannia in Luton announced a$270 million order for five more 737-800s, to be oper-
ated by both 'Britannias'. In 2001 three were in use with Britannia AB and the other two
entered service with the UK-based operation.
The 737-800 also found favour with another UK IT carrier, Sabre Airways. Originally
formed in December 1994, Sabre had opened operations with apair of 737-200s,later
(Above) The 737·800 made its first appearance in Britannia Airways' colours with the
Scandinavian subsidiary, Britannia AB, Aviation Hobby Shop
768
769
erving the new re ort areas. In addition,
new legi lation allowed the growth of
independent scheduled airlines to com-
pete against Turkish Airlines. Both the
long-established state carrier ami the new
arrivals made good use of available 737s,
both new and from the second-hand and
leasing markets.
THE NEXT GENERATION
lines, originally established by Aer Lingus,
and unExpress that is backed by Lufthansa
and Turkish Airlines. In addition, KTHY,
the Turkish Cypriot airline, began 73 7 oper-
ations in its own right in 200 I, after leasing
in Turki h Airlines' aircraft of various types
for many years. As well a flights from Turk-
ish-held northern ypru, a number of IT
199 . Those that chose the 73 7 as their
main equipment include Axon Airline
(two 737-700s), Cronos Airlines (four
737-300s and two 737-400s, Galaxy Air-
way (one 737-400 and one 737-500) ami
Macedonian Airlines (Greece) (one 737-
400). Olympic Airways continued to be a
loyal 737 operator, flying the original
CHAPTER ELEVEN
The BBJ and Beyond
New Cypriot independent, Helios, began flying IT charters with a single 737-400. Aviation Hobby Shop
Ex-airline 737s sometimes found new lives as executive aircraft. N147AW was originally Aloha Airlines
N729A 'King Kahekill'. Unusually, it later returned to airline work with America West. Jenny Gradidge
A leading light among the new inde-
pendents was Istanbul Airlines, which
commenced operations with Caravelles in
196.lnitiallyconcentratingonchartersto
Europe, Istanbul later established a sched-
uled domestic network, introducing the first
of a number of 737s in 19 8. By 200 the
fleet consisted of nine 737 , of the -300,
-400 and -800 erie and a single 727-200.
Unfortunately, the Turkish authorities with-
drew Istanbul's operating certificate on 2
Augu t 2000, following mounting financial
problems, and the airline ceased flying.
Other private Turkish airline followed
Istanbul's pioneering lead, many of them
utilizing 737s. Bosphorus Air, Holiday Air-
lines, ultan Air and VIP Air all introdu cd
737s before succumbing to financial diffi-
culties. More successful have been the Boe-
ing 737 operations of ir Rose, Pegasus Air-
charters operate from mainland Turkish
resorts to Western European points.
Independent southern Cyprus also even-
tually allowed an expansion of private
competition with the establi hed national
carrier, Cyprus Airways. As was becoming
usual, tour companies were the majority
shareholders in the new enterprises, using
the capacity to feed the expanding holiday
re orts on the i lanel. The dormant TEA
(Cyprus) was revived in 199 and renamed
Helios Airways. A ingle 737-40 opened
charter flight to Europe from Larnaca,
with 737-800 set to be delivered shortly
afterwards. A year later, the Louis Tourism
Organi ation established Capital L Air-
lines, flying leased 737-700s from both Lar-
naca and Paphos.
Greece experienced a positive explo-
sion in independent airlines in the late
170
cleven 737-200s as well as one 737-300
and twelve 737-400s. The national air-
line's subsidiary, Olympic Aviation,
became an early customer for the Boeing
717-200.
One More Step
The widespread acceptance and commer-
cial succes of the' ext Generation' 737s
had gone a long way to re-e tabl i h Boe-
ing and help it fight off the growing Euro-
pean competition. Long passing the mile-
stone of the most produced jet airliner of
all time, Boeing was still looking at ways
of improving the popular aircraft and
keeping it in its well-earned number one
position. Even more surprises were in
store.
The BBJ
The use of Boeing 737s as corporate trans-
ports, either as 'Flying Boardrooms' or for
more utilitarian private use, has been a
long-standing practice. The 737 wa far
from the only large transport aircraft to be
used this way. A number of ex-airl ine BAC
One-Elevens were converted in the early
197 s, as were Boeing 72 7 and even
longer-range 7 7/720 and DC- - at the
end of their airline careers. The majority of
the 'private' 737s had also once been air-
liners, although a handful were delivered
to private or corporate customers straight
off the production line.
In july 1996, Boeing took the decision
to market a designated executive version
of the' ext Generation' 737, the Boeing
Business jet, or BBj. Developed from the
700 series, the BBj was to combine the
737- 700 forward and rear fuselage wi th the
centre section, wing and landing gear of
the larger -800. p to nine extra fuel tanks
can be fitted into the cargo hold space,
rarely needed on executive missions,
bringing fuel capacity up to a maximum
,905 gallons. Interior arrangements
offered range from first-cia s sleeper seat
arrangements, to ultra-luxurious combina-
tion of lounges, conference area, bed-
rooms, shower rooms, and so on, to suit the
cu tomer's requirement. The BBj is devel-
oped and marketed by a separate division
within Boeing, in recognition of the very
different market as opposed to the estab-
lished airline customer.
As well as private and corporate-based
work, BBjs operated by Swiss carrier, Pri-
vatair, are also used on VIP quality tour
171
ami charter work in all-first-class configu-
ration. Occasional worldwide tours oper-
ate over several weeks, with accommoda-
tion being provided in top hotels with VIP
ervice standards on board the aircraft.
This is in addition to Privatair' estab-
lished business as an executive operator,
providing ad hoc and contracted corporate
transport with a Boeing 737-300, three
BBjs and a single 757.
The first BBj, N737BZ, was rolled out at
Rentoninjulyl99 andfirstflewon4 ep-
tember. The fir t orders were placed by Gen-
eral Electric, for two aircraft. By October
2000, over seventy BBjs had been ordered
by private individuals, corporations, gov-
ernment agencies and military authorities
around the world. The BBj2, based on the
Boeing 737-800 airframe, first flew in 200 I,
offering even more range and capacity.
THE BBJ AND I3EYO D
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
• • •
RYANAJR
• • • ••••••••••• ~ J
The BBJ soon found a ready market. N737MC is operated for General Electric by Atlas Air Inc. Jenny Gradidge
'Next Generation' in the
Military
A single 73 7-700C, the first convertible
version of the 'Next Generation' series, was
delivered to the U av)' in 2000. Desig-
nated the C-40A in av)' service, the air-
craft is expected to be just the first of many
to eventually replace the large fleet of
9Bs with the SN. The C-9Bs, a convert-
ible mil itary transport version of the DC-9,
have been in service since the 1970s. Con-
tinuing th' 737's long-established role as a
preferred VIP aircraft, one -800 is operated
in this role by the Taiwan Air Force.
Australia committed itself to an order
for seven 737 Airborne Early Warning and
Control (AEW & C) aircraft. Fitted with
a mod rn multi role radar array giving 36
degree coverage, the new military aircraft
would be based around the BBJ airframe. A
dispute between the S authorities and
Boeing over release of confidential and
ensitive technology has tailed the pro-
gramme, but interest has also been shown
in the new aircraft by the governments of
Turkey and outh Korea.
The Low-Fare Vision in
Western Europe
Aer Lingus found itself challenged in Irish
markets by one particular new 'upstart',
Ryanair. Beginning scheduled operations in
19 5, with a single, 1 -passenger, Embraer
Bandierante, over a route from Waterford
in western Eire to London/Luton, R)'anair
skilfully explOited the emerging low-fare
market and grew rapidly. Originally con-
centrating on services from regional Irish
points to Luton, Ryanair introduced larger
BAe 748 turbo-props and, later, One-
Eleven jets. A Dublin-Luton route was
opened in 1986 and Ryanair increasingly
turned its attention to new low-fare ser-
vices from Dublin to regional UK and
European points, often in competition
with Aer Lingus. Operating fourteen air-
craft of four different types, Ryanair man-
aged to lose £20 million in two years.
A new management team completely
overhauled the airline in 1990-91,
relaunching the airline as the first of a new
breed of European 'no frills' airlines, along
the Southwe t Airlines model. Just five of
the nineteen routes then in operation
were retained and all turbo-prop aircraft
were disposed of. With an all-jet fleet of six
One-Elevens, Ryanair managed to make
it fir t-ever profit.
The fir t 73 7s, second-hand eries 2 0 ,
were leased in by Ryanair from 1994 and
the fleet increased steadily, replacing the
last One-Elevens. Eventually, a econd base
was set up at London/Stansted and low-fare
routes were opened from there to both
domestic and European points. These most-
ly served under-used airports such as Prest-
wick for Glasgow, Charleroi for Brussels,
and Beauvais for Paris. By 200 I, thirty-six
737s, including fifteen 'New Generation'
737- OOs, were in u e by Ryanair. In 2001,
Charleroi was designated as Ryanair's next
regional ba e, with plans to base two aircraft
at the airport, south of Brussels.
Ryanair can also be credited with bring-
ing the concept of the LogoJet to Europe. A
Western Pacific Airlines, in the USA, had
done before it, Ryanair offered its aircraft on
the open market as 'Flying Billboards'.
British car manufacturer, Jaguar, was one of
the first customers, producing a very pleas-
ing resul t. Other early customers to take
advantage of the publicity opportunities
included The Sun and News of the World
newspapers, Kilkenny Beer and Hertz.
easyJet at Luton
The Luton-based easyJet airline was found-
ed by businessman telio Haji-Ioannou, in
1995. Two Boeing 737-200s were used to
open low-fare Luton-Glasgow and
Luton-Edinburgh schedules in November
that year. More route were opened, with
international services being introduced and
expanded as the initial -200 aircraft were
replaced by larger Series 300s. In 199 a 40
per cent shareholding was bought in TEA
Switzerland, the ex-Trans European sub-
sidiary. ince the demise of the Belgian par-
ent company, TEA Switzerland had con-
tinued to operate as an independent IT
Ryanair's 737-200s replaced the BAC One-Eleven, the Boeing fleet quickly expanding as new routes were
opened. Steve Bunting
Hertz Rent-a-Car was one of many companies willing to pay to use one of Ryanair's 737s as a flying
billboard. Aviation Hobby Shop
172
173
Virgin Express's various divisions met with mixed fortunes, with the French and Irish operations being
forced to retrench or close down altogether. Via author
THE BBJ AND BEYO, D
Initially, like the British-based aircraft, easyJet Switzerland's 737s wore the company's UK reservations
telephone number. As technology progressed and the internet became a major source of direct bookings,
the airline's web address was substituted, fleetwide. The first of easyJet's 'Next Generation' 737-700s were
delivered in early 2001. MAP/Aviation Hobby Shop
774
charter carrier from Basle with a fleet of
73 7-300s. When easyJet took control ofthe
company, the name was changed to easyJet
witzerland and operations moved to
Geneva. Scheduled low-fare flights opened
from Geneva to the K.
A new UK easyJet ba e was developed
at Liverpool, in the northwest of England,
opening up a continental network that
had not been available from the city in
many years. Between them, easyJet and
easyJet witzerland were operating over
twenty 737s in 2001, operating twenty-
eight route between eighteen destina-
tions. The first of a substantial order for
over thirty , ew Generation' 737-700s
had recently been delivered to begin the
gradual replacement of the -300s. In 2001,
another European easyJet operational base
was established at Amsterdam.
Enter Virgin
Trans European's replacement in the Bel-
gian charter market, EuroBelgian Airlines,
eventually entered the scheduled market,
serving leisure-orientated destinations. In
April 1986, the Virgin Group acquired a
controlling interest and the company
name was changed to Virgin Express.
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
Operating a European network comple-
mentary to Virgin Atlantic's London-
based long-haul service, Virgin Express
operates to eight scheduled destinations
from Brussels. Virgin Express was also con-
tracted to take over the operation of a
number of Brussels-UK schedules for
Sabena. Operating a fleet of seven 737-
300s and four 737-400s, charter services
also continue with ad hoc flights through-
out Europe and to Africa.
A French operator, Air Provence Char-
ter, wa taken over in 199 ami rebranded
as Virgin Express France. A handful of
s heduled European ervices were opened
but the French carrier soon reverted to an
all-IT charter operation. Even more unfor-
tunate was Virgin Express (Ireland), which
started scheduled Shannon-London ser-
vices, using Stansted, in December 199 .
The tansted route was later extended to
Berlin and Shannon-Brussels and han-
non-London/Gatwick flights also opened.
Virgin Express (Ireland) actually beat off
early competition on the London routes
from AB Airlines, a K operator eventu-
ally flying One-Elevens and 737-300s on a
low-fare network from Gatwick. However,
the Irish operation remained unprofitable
and was put up for sale. Five 737-300s and
two 737-400s were in service when the
775
airline was closed down in 2001 after fail-
ing to find a buyer.
AB irlines had started operations in
the early I990s, as Air Bristol, flying a cor-
porate huttle on behalf of British Aero-
space from its Filton facility, near Bristol,
to Toulouse in connection with Airbus
contracts. Air Bristol set up a Shannon-
based subsidiary, AB Shannon, with one
One-Eleven and, after losing the BAe
contract, concentrated on developing a
scheduled network from London/Gatwick,
Stansted and hannon under a new name,
AB Airlines. The limited scheduled net-
work wa to take in flights to Berlin, lis-
bon and ice, as well as the Shannon
flights to London and Birmingham, but
was not strong enough to sustain the carri-
er. Despite switching to more economic
Boeing 737-300s, to supplement the age-
ing One-Elevens, AB airlines ceased oper-
ations in eptember 1999.
Shortly before closing down, AB air-
lines signed an agreement with Luton-
based Debonair, for code-sharing on cer-
tain key routes. Debonair flew BAe 146s
on its network from Luton, but one of the
AB Airlines 737-300s took on Debonair
titles for the joint operations. Debonair
also ceased operations at about the same
time as AB Airlines.
CityBird's 737-400s arrived as the airline shifted its operational focus away from long-haul schedules to
European IT charters. MAP
TilE BBJ AND BEYOND
AS AIRLINES
I
The small route network of AB Airlines was unable to support the 737-300s. G-OABL previously served with
VASP. in Brazil, and Jet Airways, in India. Aviation Hobby Shop
Following the current fashion, Virgin Blue's aircraft display the reservations website address. MAP
776
Virgin Down-Under
Much further afield, Virgin turned its sights
on Australia, it elf indulging in an airline
deregulation and liberalization programme.
Earlier attempts at introducing low-fare
operators in Australia in the early 1990s
had swiftly failed. Compass Airline com-
menced scheduled low-fare services linking
the major cities on both the east and west
coast of Austral ia from the end of 1990.
Airbus A300s were leased from Monarch
Airline of the K, but heavy losses forced
the airline to cease operations a year later.
Compass was revived in September 1992,
with a mall fleetofMD-80s, but lasted only
until the following March, when the airline
was finally closed down for good.
o other candidates came forward to
exploit the Australian low-fare market for
several years, with Ansett and Qantas
remaining the main domestic scheduled
service providers. However, in June 2000,
a new operator, Virgin Blue Airlines, of
Brisbane, took delivery of the first of five
Boeing 737-400s. ine' ext Generation'
737-700s arc on order to replace the initial
aircraft. Establ ished by the K-based Vir-
gin Group, owners of Virgin Atlantic Air-
ways and the European Virgin Express air-
lines, Virgin Blue was unable to start
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
commercial operations until August, fol-
lowing delays in receiving its Air Opera-
tor's Certificate. Brisbane-Sydney services
opened first, on 31 August, followed by
Brisbane-Melbourne on 7 eptember.
Bri bane-Adelaide flights were opened on
7 December, some six weeks earlier than
originally planned.
CityBird
After the ale of EuroBelgian to the Virgin
Group, the Belgian airline's original
owner, Victor (-lassen of City Hotels, set
up a new carrier, CityBird. At first City-
Bird opened scheduled low-cost, long-
range services to the SA, Caribbean and
Africa with a fleet of wide-bodied MD-l!
and 767s. Many routes were later flown in
association with abena, often in the larg-
er airline's full colours.
However, a change in direction saw
most of the scheduled services being
dropped on economic grounds, although
long-range charters were still operated.
Instead, a fleet of 737-3 Os and -400s were
acquired and more emphasis was placed on
European IT charter to Mediterranean
and orth African resorts. Three - OOs
were on order for 2001 delivery.
777
The 900
ot content with the extra stretch of the
- 00 over the -400, Boeing elected to offer
an even larger 737, in the form of the
Serie 900. The large t 73 7 version to date,
the Series 900 received its FAA certifica-
tion on 17 April 2001. The 138ft 2in
(42m) long -900 is an impressive nearly
40ft (12.2m) longer than the -200 and has
more than a thousand miles (1,609km)
longer range. The formal certification had
been delayed by six weeks by refinement
to it flight controls and an improved flap
seal system. Unexpected vibration had
been discovered in the elevator, requiring
a redesign of the elevator hinge and
strengthening of the tab. Two aircraft took
part in the certification programme,
between them logging 649 flight hours in
296 flights and 156 hours of ground tests.
An even further stretched 73 7-900, the
-900X, was being studied and being offered
to the -900's current customers, Alaska
Airlines, Continental Airlines, KLM and
Korean Air. Curiously, the -900, although
longer, was not certi fied to carry more than
the pa senger capacity of the - 00. Loads
would be restricted until improved emer-
gency evacuation systems and procedures
could ensure the off-loading of the higher
737-900 customers, KlM and Alaska Airlines already operated large fleets of 'Next Generation' 737s,
KlM -800s, and Alaska -700s and -800s. Aviation Hobby Shop
capacity availahle in the same time as
smaller passenger loads.
The Losses
Considering the prol iferation of the 73 7
throughout the world, its sen'ice has heen
remarkahly trouble-free. Pure statistical
prohahility dictates that there would he
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
incidents, hut most were minor. Among
the best-known exceptions are the Air
Florida and British Midland accident
outlined earlier, one due to adverse
weather and a pressured crew and the
other possibly down to unfamiliarity with
new technology. Both were also possihly
attrihutable, at least in part, to shortcom-
ings in crew training procedures then in
use, since much improved as a result of
178
the tragedies. Of course, accidents did
happen. As with most aviation tragedies,
human factors and errors of judgement
played their part in a high proportion of
the incidents. Hijackings and sahotage
also featured in 737 hull losses and acci-
dents. Actual structural or control prob-
lems more directly concerned with the
aircraft itself are rarer, hut there have
heen incidents.
In 19 1, a Far East Air Transport 737 was
lost due to structural failure in flight, its
break-up blamed on corrosion in the lower
fuselage. All 110 occupants perished on a
dome tic scheduled flight from Taipei to
Kaohsiung. The aircraft had disintegrated at
22,OOOft (6, 700m) and the wreckage was
scattered over an area of 5mi (8km). In
19 , an Aloha Airlines 737 lost most of its
forward cabin roof in-flight, at 24,000ft
(7,315m). The high-time aircraft had spent
most of its career island hopping from Hon-
olulu with Aloha; the frequent and higher
than average number of cycles and the Paci-
fic atmosphere eventually weakened the
fuselage structure. Most of the forward cabin
walls and roof, from the floor level upwards,
peeled away following the failure of the
cracked structure. One cabin crew member
was lost, but everyone else on board sur-
vived, mostly thanks to prompt action and
superb airmanship by the pilots. The fact
that the rest of the aircraft held together,
under power and at altitude with most of the
forward cabin walls missing, still says some-
thing for the basic soundness of its structure.
Following the incident, Aloha withdrew its
other highest-time 73 7s from service.
One Morning at Manchester
The 737's JT D engines gave little cause
for concern over the years, with few cata-
strophic failures. The Pratt & Whitney
engine was also used on several other air-
craft types, very successfully. On one occa-
sion though, the failure of a combustion
chamber outer casing blotted the engine's
otherwise enviable record. Only three
other cases of combustion chamber rup-
ture had previously been recorded in over
300 million hours of operation.
On the fateful day, 22 August 1985,
British Airtours 737-200, C-BCJl, 'River
Orrin' was assigned to an IT holiday char-
ter from Manchester to Corfu. A full load
of 130 passengers, plus two infants, two
pilots and four cabin crew were on board as
'Jl began its take-off run shortly after 7am.
As the aircraft reached 140mph, the outer
casing of the compression chamber on the
number one engine split and 'petalled'
apart. The outer casing had ruptured along
a crack caused by thermal fatigue. A fuel
tank access panel on the left wing was
punctured by debris and escaping fuel was
ignited by the now burning engine.
On hearing the thump of the engine fail-
ure, the crew considered they were dealing
TilE BBJ AND BEYOND
with a tyre failure and abandoned the take-
off, turning onto a taxi-way. Unfortunate-
ly, as well as delaying the evacuation, the
turn off the runway also placed the air raft
fu elage downwind of the rapidly increas-
ing fire on the wing. Smoke was immedi-
ately blown into the packed cabin, con-
tributing to the passengers' panic. The fire
entered the rear cabin in twenty seconds,
the tail section burning off and falling to
the ground within a minute.
Despite one of the forward doors jam-
ming momentarily, the cabin crew in the
forward cabin did a magnificent job of
evacuating the frantic survivors, assisted
by the flight-deck crew. In the r ar section,
the cabin staff managed to open the doors,
but, courageously ignoring their own
chance to escape, remained on board to try
and begin an evacuation. Unfortunately
both were overcome by the smoke and
flames and perished along with fifty-three
of their passengers.
The tragic consequences of the Man-
chester accident brought a number of
problems to Iight. Earl ier cracks on the
same unit had been repaired and other
JT Ds on other British-registered aircraft
were found to have similar cracks, leading
to some aircraft being grounded until full
inspections and repairs could be initiated.
The composition of passenger cabin fur-
nishings was examined and regulations
tightened, poisonous fumes from burning
upholstery having contributed to many of
the deaths. eating was also rearranged to
give better access to emergency exi ts, and
floor-level lighting, to guide anyone
caught in a smoke-filled cabin, became
compulsory. A debate concerning supply-
ing smoke-hoods to passengers continue
to rage, although they are now fitted for
cabin-crew use to assist in evacuation.
Rudder Investigations
Two other accidents focused attention on
the 73 7's rudder control system. In 1991, a
nited 737-200 plunged into the ground
on a flight to Colorado Springs, killing
everyone on board. In 1994, a USAir 737-
300 on approach to Pittsburgh, rolled over
without warning and dove straight to the
ground, again instantly killing all the occu-
pants. In both incidents, the aircraft hit the
ground so hard that the wreckage was
buried everal feet into the earth. Both acci-
dents had investigators stumped for several
years. There wer as many differences as
179
similarities between the two. abotage the-
ories abounded, especially when an uncon-
firmed rumour spread that FBI agents and
an important trial witness were on board
the Air flight.
Although the accidents were still not
officially blamed on the aircraft, Boeing
issued several precautionary bulletins, rec-
ommending various modification to the
rudder control system, to prevent any pos i-
ble reoccurrence. In new aircraft the system
was redesigned. Interestingly, following the,
as yet, unexplained loss of an Egyptair 767
over the North Atlantic in similar circum-
stances, the Egyptian authorities asked that
the 767's pitch control ystem be examined
with the same 'level of examination and
analysis' that had been applied to the 737
rudder control system.
Into the Future on Winglets
ever let it be said that, at least in avia-
tion, there is any such thing as a new idea.
, High-flying birds know full well that if
they can turn up their wing-tip feathers,
they soar better. Mankind, of course,
insists on inventors, patents and the like,
so it was not unti I the closing years of the
twentieth century that the effect was final-
ly applied to mechanical flight.
The constantly rising price of oil was
the main prod for aeroe!ynamicists to final-
ly take advantage of the bird's long-known
'secret'. In the U A, in the 1970s, research
was started under the direction of A A's
Dr Richard Whitcomb, focusing on apply-
ing the principl to reduce fuel consump-
tion. In September Boeing's military divi-
ion at Wichita was awarded the contract
to design, produce and test a set of winglets
based on Dr Whitcomb's research.
A KC-l 5 was fitted with the winglet
in May 1979 and first flew with them in
July. Over fifty flights were completed by
the end of the programme that validated
the theory of a performance gain using the
aerodynamic extension. A 6.5 per cent
saving on fuel was hown u ing the
winglets, but the military authoritie still
failed to embrace the research and no fur-
ther action was taken.
However, the fuel avings could not be
ignored and winglets finally started to
appear on smaller aircraft, especially exec-
utive jet designs. The Boeing 747-400 was
the first large aircraft design to incorporate
significant winglets. The 6ft (1. m) tall
extensions added aerodynamic efficiency,
\
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
OK-FGS was the last -400 Series and last 'Classic' 737 built, delivered in early 2000. MAP
Also in 2001, Boeing announced that it
would be moving its corporate headquarters
out of Seattle. Although the factories in the
Seattle area would continue to provide most
of the company's aviation output, along
with the ex-MDC facilities in California,
Seattle would no longer be the head office.
This was decided in order to make the com-
pany's projects in other areas more accessi-
ble to th senior management teams. Even-
tually, after much debate, Chicago was
chosen over other candidates as diverse as St
Louis and even Wichita.
End of an Era - 3
averse to appearing in Southwest adver-
tisements in an Elvis Presley costume.
Even when the airline had left the bright
orange hot pants era behind it, in favour of
a more businesslike image, Kelleher man-
aged to introduce a certain amount of his
own outgoing personality into the airline.
Ever since, in fact, he had said to fellow
Southwest Airlines' founder, Rollin W.
King, 'Rollin, you're crazy. Let's do it!'.
design, the most dramatic change was the
main fuselage colour. 'Canyon Blue'
replaced the 'Desert Gold', over a slightly
modified red and gold lower fuselage. The
overall effect is meant to reflect a desert
sunrise or sunset. The aircraft interiors also
received a make-over, with orange and
blue leather seating installed. Repainting
and refitting of the entire 340 aircraft in
the fleet is expected to take ten years, but
three aircraft will remain in the tradition-
allivery to reflect the original three Texan
cities served, Dallas, Houston and San
Antonio. The first aircraft to wear the new
colours were two' ext Generation' 737-
700s, N793SA, 'Spirit One' and 794SA,
'Spirit Two'.
Possibly even more dramatic was the
announcement of the impending retire-
ment of Southwest Airline's long-serving
Chairman and mentor, Herbert D. Kelle-
her. Kelleher had been the guiding hand
behind Southwest - and its not insignifi-
cant input into the development of most
versions of the Boeing 737 since the 737-
200 'Advanced' series. One of the last
great airline 'Showmen', Kelleher was not
In 200 I, Southwest, as part of its 30th
anniversary celebration, unveiled its first
major livery change since operations had
begun. Other than a relatively minor
change in the positioning of the airline's
titles, undertaken quite early in the air-
line's history, the Southwest 737s had con-
tinued to carry their orange, red and
'Desert Gold' colours throughout the
years. The obvious exceptions to the rule
were a long line of special 'promotional'
schemes. Beginning with aircraft painted
to represent Seaworld's famous killer
whale 'Shamu', various other designs were
taken up by individual aircraft, usually
promoting the different US states served
by Southwest as its network grew. Ameri-
ca West also adopted similar schemes with
their aircraft promoting the airline's routes
and even local sports teams that chartered
the aircraft for tours.
However, Southwest's advertising agency,
GSD&M, of Austin, came up with a new
design for the whole fleet, in honour of the
anniversary. Still based on the original
End of an Era - 2
'Spirit One' displays Southwest's new livery, a radical departure from the established scheme.
Aviation Hobby Shop
End of an Era - 1
The very last of the 'Classic' 737s was
handed over to CSA Czech Airlines in
January 2000. OK-FGS was the last Series
400, of 486 of the variant. The last of 389
-500s built had been delivered to A K-
Air ipponinJulyl999andtheiastofthe
most popular of the second-generation
737s, the 1, 112th -300 was handed over to
Air ew Zealand in December that year.
From then on, all 737s produced would be
of the 'Next Generation' versions, the
-600/700/800/900 or 'BB]' designs.
.'" ... ~
on 29 May 1998. The fuel savings were
just as great on the 737 and many BBJ had
them fitted, some on the production line,
some retroactively. With the success of
the winglet-equipped BBJs, Boeing pro-
ceeded to offer the option on airline 737-
800s. The fi rst customer to take this up is
South African Airways, with their first
'Wingleted' aircraft due to fly at the time
of writing. American Transair, Hapag
Lloyd and Air Berlin have also ordered
the modified 737-800s and a 'retrofit'
programme is being offered to previous
customers.
'Winglets' began appearing on BBJs, later becoming an option on airline aircraft. Jenny Gradidge
effectively increasing the wing area
although only adding a minimum extra to
the actual wingspan. Airbus had adopted
small winglets for the A310 and
A320/321/318/319, but also fitted larger
versions to its later wide-body designs.
McDonnell Douglas fitted winglets to its
MD-Il and Globemaster transports and
even in Russia, the IL96-300 wide-body
took up the idea.
The BBJ version of the 'Next Genera-
tion' 737 was offered with the option of
new design 'blended' winglets and a 737-
800 made the first flight with them fitted
780
787
k t" automati ticket machin dispens thousands of tick ts very day
The worldwide proliferation of the Boe-
ing 737 means that there can be few air-
ports of any size that do not enjoy a regu-
lar visit by the type most days of the week.
Even the older models, many of which are
still in frequent use, belie their age with
their modern lines and comfortable
accommodation. Thirty years after they
introduced the type to the travelling pub-
Iic, the Iike of Braathens, Lufthansa and
nited still feature the aircraft in their
fleet, albeit the later versions.
early 400 different operators, from air-
lines, private and corporate owner, military
and government authorities, fly Boeing
737s. Even a brief outline of all the aircraft's
past and present operators would be impos-
sible without producing several volumes.
Those covered in this book can only give
a flavour of thc 737's versatility and its
effect on day-to-day air transport serviccs
throughout the world. Whether on pres-
tige international schedulcd ervice, or
bulk travel holiday charters and low-fare
intcr-city shuttles, from single aircraft sct-
ups to fleet numbers well into three figures,
thc 737 fulfil all their very different needs.
Any deci "ion as to whether the 'Next
Gencration' will be the 'Last Generation'
lies in the future. Whatever othcr modifi-
cations or developments are incorporated
in any new versions to come, the 737 will
certainly be here for a few more decades.
It will hc doing what it was designed to
do - working hard day after day, safely and
reliably earning its keep.
Thirty Years and Climbing
THE BBJ AND BEYOND
The 35th anniversary of the Boeing 737's
fir t flight is not far off. Boeing originally
envisaged a probable market for a few hun-
dred units. To date, over 5,000 have been
ordered and the 737 can confidently claim
its place as one of the world's most suc-
cessful commercial aircraft. It urvived
being a late-comcr on to the scene, it sur-
vived moves to sell it off to Japan when
sales figures dipped, it survived fuel crises
and industrial unrest, as well as commer-
cial and political manoeuvrings.
(Below) For over thirty years, countless airline
passengers around the world have enjoyed safe,
comfortable air transport on the Boeing 737. Lufthansa
(Opposite) Herb Kelleher was never averse to
helping out Southwest's advertising department.
Here, in one of his more subdued appearances, he
promotes Southwest's then revolutionary 'Quicket'
machines. Southwest via Tim Kincaid
(Bottom) In a dawn scene repeated at different
airports, with different airlines worldwide, United
Shuttle and Southwest 737s are prepared for
another day's work, in this case at San Diego,
California. Malcolm L. Hill
<Ii
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783
t Ex cutiv or PI asure class,

and spirits high!
OURQ IC "MAC I ES
EMORE RELIABLE THAN OUR
CHAIRMAN.
EARLY 737s - COMPARISONS WITH THEIR CO TEMPORARIES
APPENDIX I
BAC
ONE-ELEVEN 500
Early 737s - CODlparisons
with their ConteDlporaries
BOEING 737-100
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
107ft (32.6m)
93ft 6in (285m)
2 x RR Spey 512
1,420mi (2,285km)
99-119
Via author
AEROSPATIALE SE-210
CARAVELLE 12
185
Via author
114ft 3 ~ i n (348m)
100ft 3in (306m)
2 x P&W JT8D-1 5
575mi (925km)
120-155
MAP
Via author
133ft 2in (406m)
108ft 7in (331 m)
2 x P&W JT8D-1
1,380mi (2,220km)
90-130
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
DASSAULT MERCURE
BOEING 727-100
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
100ft 2in (305m)
93ft (283m) 1
2 x P&W JT8D-9A
2, 136mi (3,437km)
115-130
93ft 9in (286m)
87ft (265m)
2 x P&W JT8D-7
1, 150mi (1 ,850km)
99-107
Length 118ft 6in (361 m)
Wingspan 112ft 6in (343m)
Engines 2 x P&W JT8D-9
Typical range 1,580mi (2,542km)
Seating 104-139
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
Via author
BOEING 737-200
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
Jenny Gradidge
I
r ...
EARLY 737, - COMPARISONS WITH THEIR CO
FOKKER F.28-4000
Length 97ft 1Y.in (29.6m)
Wingspan 82ft 3in (25.1 m)

Engines 2 x RR Spey 555
Typical range 1,162ml (1,870km)
Seating 75-85
Via author
HS 121 TRIDENT 2
TUPOLEV Tu-l04B
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
EARLY 737; - COMPARISONS WITH THEIR CONTEMPORARIES
131ft 5in (40m)
113ft 41n (345m)
2 x AM-3M-500
1,305mi (2,1 OOkm)
70-104
Aviation Hobby Shop
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
Hawker Siddeley, via author
MDC DC-9-30
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
Via author
114ft 9in (35m)
98ft (29.9m)
2 x RR Spey 512
3, 155ml (5,075km)
70-100
119ft 3r.:ln (364m)
93ft 5in (285m)
2 x P&W JT8D-7
1,725ml (2,775km)
99-115
TUPOLEV Tu-124V
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
TUPOLEV Tu-134A
Length
Wingspan
Engines
Typical range
Seating
110ft 41n (336m)
83ft (255m)
2 x D-20P
760ml (1 ,225km)
56
Aviation Hobby Shop
122ft (372m)
95ft 21n (29m)
2 x D-30-2
1,243mi (2.000km)
70-80
Via author
INFIERlFauo
186 187
THE 737.100-900
Steve Bunting
Aviation Hobby Shop
737-600
Length 102ft 6in (31.2m)
Height 411t 31n (126m)
Wingspan 112ft 7in (34.3m)
Gross Weight 143,OOOIb (64,865kg)
Range 3,509mi (5,646km)
Seating 110-132
Malcolm L. Hill
737-500
Length 101lt 9in (31 m)
Height 36ft 6in (11.1 m)
Wingspan 94ft 9in (28.9m)
Gross Weight 125,200lb (56,790kg)
~
Range 1,800ml (2,896km)
Seating 110-132
737-400
Length 119ft 7in (364m)
Height 36ft 6in 111.1m)
I
Wingspan 94ft 91n 128.9m)
A
Gross Weight 150,500lb (68,270kg)
Range 2,487mi (4,002km)
Seating 146-170
2, 136ml (3,437km)
100ft 2in (30.5m)
37ft 1in (113m)
115-130
93ft (283m)
128,0001b (58,060kg)
36ft 61n (111m)
139,0001b (63,050kg)
1091t 71n (334m)
1,860mi (2,993km)
128-149
94ft 91n (28.9m)
Wingspan
Length
Range
Height
Gross Weight
737-200
Lufthansa
Height
Length
Seating
Jenny Gradidge
Range
Seating
Wmgspan
Gross Weight
737-300
Steve Bunting
APPENDIX II
The 737, 100-900
737-100
/ Length 93ft 91n (28.6m)
Height 37ft 11n (113m)
Wmgspan 87ft (265m)
Gross Weight 111,OOOIb (50,350kg)
Range 1, 150ml (1 ,850km)
Seatmg 99-107
788 789
"
C-9R 172
I"1C-I 10-11
DC-2 11,21, IS6
[lC-I II, 21, 2S 7,14,16,1'
41 ,49,57,612,656,71. ,8
IX:-4 156
IX:-6 16, IH, ll, 41 2,47,49,
»,57,62, M, 94. 112, 156, 159
IX:-7 16 ", 4H 9, 156
LX:-, 16-17, S7, 61, 86,116,
155,157,171
IX:-9 7,18,20,24 5, >1, 19,47,
50,51,55,61, 65, 75, 86, 88,
91,96,1015, Ill, 11819,
124,130,116,118,141,157,
159, 162, 172, 186
I"1C-IO 88,91,117,127. IS2, 157
I)ragoll,ur I"
D\,lll\lnd, LcwI ... W. 66
"'",chdd 1'-27 28, 14, lH, 4l'
FH-227 ';9,6,
Ftl1Ulll AIr 1>7
Far Ea... tl'rn AIr Tran... pnr! He.91.
178 -9
Fl'dt.·r.l1 An,lIlt.lIl Adml1lt ... tr,1I101l
(FA.-\) 24,29,11 1,57, ,6-7,
10', 177
Fedl'r,lll:.xprl·...... 97, 9l)
Fmn,ttr 1S, Il"
hr... l Chtlll:e 126
FI ...chn 111
Fltchl Englllt..·l·r... Intl·rn,Ill\\Il.1l
A...... (FEIAl .?3-4
FltlrllLI EXpR·...... AlrilIll'''' 119
Fluctcbc ISS
FI'o'lllg Ticer LlIll' 46
F,x:h··\X·lIlt Fw LL 't\llldm 21
Fokker Il\ 124
E2i 16, 1',42,49,61. 61, 79,
107, 112, I", 14i, 166
1'2'61,61",\11'.124,116,
16';,1'6
1'5,' 126,166
I'll' 122, 1l2, 1l6. IS9. 162,
166
hlrd Trtlllll{\)r 1('
F\lrInlh.1 Atrllnl'''' 166
Frce...t,un Atr Intl'rIl.lItnn,11 16.?
Frll'dklll, Kl'IHll"lh N,41
FrlIdrl' ...t.lr 167
Fr\1l111l'r Alrltnl·... (I) 6) :'-I, 92
t.J(,
FnllltlCr '\lrl1n\.· ... (2) 141 (,
ht.lllll\.·r Ilnl,llllg... 92
Futuril 122, 11K l)
Eagle Aor 108, 155
E,lgk AIrway... 41
E,N\.·rn Air LlIlc", II. 17.20,
2S, 85. H7, X9, 9',124
E<I Il'rtl Atr Tr,\Il"'p\lrt II
Ea rern Pronnual AlrllIll'''' ; I, t.J4
E.l"'l \X'e... t Alrllnl'''' 166
E.I... twlnd Alrllnc", 147
e,I'I)el 162,172,174 S
E.G & G. \10
Eglrl"or 97, 146, Ii9
EI.-\I 114
Eldorado Otl I 1('
Eml'r,lkl Alrllnc... t 19
Emplrc Alrllnc", lIS
E cx ImCrtl,HI\lllal Ill'
E lt.llll.l Atr lSI
Eur.ILur 136, 14('
Euran<l (Llltldolll 42
EuroRt:lct,1Il .A.lrllIle... I k\ 175, 177
EuroRt:rlln Fr.lIlle 1>2
Eurotl,lt\\"l(k 129
1401,159
ElIrln\tlrkl 12)
EXl:althur AtrW,ly'" I W
Excel AIr\\-av...
S\.·r\'l(l·... 44, 1('5. Il'7. 112.
12,9
J).1...... ,1ll1t Ml·n.:url· S6- i, 124,
I'';
D,m-"'l'\, 91
Dc I 1.1\ IILllld (·,m.III.1 {)11(:6 TWin
Oller 6'. 147
I'\: I-LI\t1I.111d 1)111,,-'6 C:pml'l
12 11, IS, lS, 44 ';, ;9,97. Il'7
P1111411cr,,,, 4S
1\:r...'Il'\lr 171
{)elt'l Air 1,2
J)l·It,1 Air LlllC'" S',Si,97, IIi IS.
141, 162
PETA 'l'
Dl'llhdll' :\cr\l... p'I\.l' 124
1""I"he IlA 112, IS,
nl'll",dll' Lilli I LIll.... l 21
I)l·llt ... (hl'r t\\.'rtl 1.I'ly,1 21
I\lllll'I\·tr,lll'll111 IlL'
l\\lI,t.:Lh Alrd,llr 7,1(\
17 ", I S6 7
C.lll1l·WOIl t\trlllll'''' so, 112
Call'ld.1 k 1 164
C'Ill'ld.lIr Four 42
Canadt,ln Alrllnl'''' Int"rn,ttltHlal
94-S, 112, 164
C.Ill,ldl.lll I onh 164
Can,IJI.1ll P"Ul1l Air LIIll'''' « 'I""
Aor) 50, S6 7.94
Can)el 164
Carll,ll L AlrilIll''' 170
Caner, Ron 59
CASA 124
Ccntral A IrilIlC'" 67
Cl'ntra] Brltl:o.h Columht,l t\lrwily'"
49
1111l'rn,IIIt.IIl'll 101,154
CFMS6 101 2, 116, 142, 146 7,
151 4
Ch;lllcngl'r Atrlllll·... 6) 6
Ch,lIlu' \'tlughl (:t)rp\)rallllll
Ch,lIlncl Alrw,I\,'" 44
Chlll,l Atrllll,·... 166
Chlll,l E"... rl·rn 14S
Chill;! Cirt."H \V.III Corf'\)r,Hhlll 14S
Chmil Snllthnn I4S
Clldlord 177
ClI' lI'lll·l ... 177
Cm-FIYcr Exprl·...... 12S
CI\"t! A\.'rtlll,HItl('" 1\1.lrd H. \9,
66--7,72, S7
('1\"11 A\"I,t1ltlil Allnllllt ... lr.lIltltlllf
Chma 14'
CI\"II A\"I.ltlPll r\lllh\lrlt\ I('S
Cl.lrk... \m Huh,I.IY'" \oi" 1('6
COl11p.l...... Alrw.I,,'" 177
Cnndllr F111gdll·n... r 71, Sol. 1,1
Ctlnllt.'u.ur 122
CUI1II1ll'nl.11 Atrhnl·... 17. i2, 7S, .st.
92 1,96,112,1421, 14S,
161 2, 16S, Iii
C\lll\'.llr ('\'·H0 16,21. 66
('\-440 20,"
C\'-';,Sl' 25 7,66-7,92 1
C\'-6l 67
C\'-640 49
C\'-"017,,1,94
CV-990 15, 17,94, 122
COPA A"lmc" 165
Cor.... m 141
Cll ll\o... lltlltd,lY" IL'H, 112
CO l'\', Errol 105--6,122
Ct.llJrt Lllll' A\"liliIOn IH
Cr,llld,llI, Rt.lhl·rt J. IIH
Crt.l<lll'l Atrlllll'''' 150 I
Crtlllt,h Atrlllll'''' 17('
(:rU:Il'rtl 146
CS.A C:l'(h Alrlllll· ... ISLI, IS?
(:ull,lrd E,I".:!c Am\,I\,'" 41 6
('·46 49
(\'rnl'" Alrw.IY'" 17('
Cal Air Intl'r1l.llhlll,d 127
(:.lkdt,ltll'Ul AIrway... 46,127,
129 10,16'
C:,t1l1\lrIll,1 (\'lltr,11 Alrlllll·... )l) 40
C,lht"rllla PlIhlt( UI dltll·...
(:t.lIl11n"' ... lIlil N,15
797
Index
49 5L', 7 I, ,5, 94. 107·H, 112,
114, 155, 171
727 16,2(\-1, 2l. 2';, n 28, 1I,
14 S, 19,41,5>, )9, 61, 65--<",
79, H2, M, H6, ", 91, 91-7, 99,
101. 1045, 107, 112, 114,
117-2L\ 129. 111-1, 142, 146,
1)9,162,164-,16',I7I,IH5
747 12. >5,8 ,,2,91 2,91,
97-" I 2 , 140, 166, Ii9
757 88,101 1,109,112,122,
12S, 127, 110, 11H, 142, 152,
161,164,167 -8,171
7671012,1157,152,155,165,
16i, 179
777 152, 154, 166
7j7 102 4
7N7 101
H-I H,ll
10-17 II
!l-29 22, 12
!lA7 n
H-52 14
H&W
C-40A 172
C-97/KC-97 12. 12
KC-115 14.12.101, 104,
179
2
,
,
T-4>-" 110
l\x'lIlg Bu.. tn\,.· ...... Jet Iii -2, IS0
1\l\.·1llJ.:. \Vtllt.llll E" s. II
Bomh.lrdll'r Rl'J.:I\lI1.11 jl'l 16.?
l\lIl,m:,} Atrlmc... 2::;, !S
I\l"'phnru :\Ir 170
Bril,lthl·n .?\, 41 -2.62- l, 6h- i I.
'l'. 116, IS, 9, "1
Fklllllt Alrw.1Y... 17. 2S, =;0. 6S,
72 1,75, ,7 ',91, 11921
Rrall...llll, Rtlh'.lrd 129
Rn... 11l1 17S Brll,lIlnl;l 12,42 "
4S 6, 4H, S7 10,
Brtl,lIllll,l Alrw,ly'" 41 7, 57 -H.
6'-9, Hl-S, IL'I, 107-S,
112 11,116,125,110,167-8
Brttt ... h Al'rmp,lll' BAc 146 9H, 104,
119,124,126,128-9,112,
162 1
jl'blrC,llll 9H
Brlll h AIr f-l'rrll'" 127
Brttl h Alrtllur... 116. 127.
129 ll\ 179
Rn,,-h AI"''')' 101, In 10, 112,
lSI, 151, 162-1, "5,
RrUl h C,tk·dtllll.1Il 127, 1,0
Bntl h t:,IIl' ....hllll,1Il (:hartl'r 127
Brtll h E,lj.!ll· Illll·rtlilllllll'll Alrlml· ...
44 S
Brlll ... h Ellru!""l'.lll Alrw.lY'" I)t 44 ),
Il'l, I >l\ 112,
Brtll ... h Alm.I\"... 106. 112.
11'-9, 167, I
Brtll ... h On,:r"'l'.I'"
Cllq'<Ir.1I101l II 12.15 17.
42, 44S, S7, 101
Rrtll h UllIlcd ..\m\.I\,'" 44
Brtlt h \,(Inrld Alrlllll·... 127
Hro\\ 11, \X'.l1ll·r II
Rnlll\lll Am\.IY'"
Hrym\ln Eur')I'I.".1ll ·\trw.I'-'" IlS
Burh·. E" P.IUI 67
Hurr, 1\)11
HlI:: 162 I
B\X'IA \'(fl, ... t 11l,lle... 15S--lJ
111\(' One-ElcH'n 7, 19. 245,
ll, 19,44. 46,50,61 2,65,71,
79 'l\ '6,101 5,107·-H,
112,119,121-9, III 2,11',
151, 1712, 17S, "5
HiI\",HI.I FluJ.:J.:l·.,e1I"'lh,llt
HEA :\trtour... 10,
IX·.IU\-.II .... b"lw,mJ R. 14'
EUr\ll"l·,lIl LI\: 1,2
lx-thull\.·, <"'\lr\.lnn 14.?
Htrllllllj.!h,ltll Euwpc,1ll Alrw.l\""
HI\:. AIr 17
Bhll· '-'L.llldlll,I\"I.1 167
1\t)('·11lL:.-\lrTr,m",plm s-9,11
1\'X.·lllg '\lrpl.lIl\.· C\ltllp.lll\ 7. S. 9 .
II
40A ,
sL"\. l)
2479 II. IS. IS6
lL'i II
1I4 II 12
17i 12. 16
7- 7 102
7L'i '.12 Il,lS Ii, 1920,29,
12,45 6. 49Sl\ 71, 79, ,2,
'4 5, ,7 ,,97, IL'l, 101 4,
114,11', 14S, 151, 1)7, Iii
717 157,
1(, IH,2L' I, 2" II 4,
AuCd 109,116-21,147,159
Atr<.:,lllm"l' ... llnl'nt ... 116
Atrllll\.· nercglll.mon All S7-.."'l
Alrlllll' Plio",' A......I"llt,ItHm (ALPA)
214
Alrtuur 12S
t\lrw'ly Illl\.·rnathltl.11
112 14,116,124
ALt,l.r Aorlme, 14,94 5, 146, 158,
177,
1\\;t... J...,t Iml'rIlilllPlul AIr 146
Alu,Iir,I 15,47
All N'rron AIf\\"a\' 50,64 ·5, 114
Allcgh<"l1\ Aorlme, 27, 104 5
AII"mce Aif 147, 166
AIII ...tHl 501 l'ngllll' 27,66
AII ... I'lIl· ]n... ur,lIKl· 71
AlohaAlflme, 6S, 79,162,171,179
Amh........ <idor 1\ IrWilY... 16H
Amh\.·r'llr 125
Aml'rll,l We... 1 AlrllllC'" lJS, 112.
142 1,147, ISl, 171,181
Amcrll.ltl Atrlllle... 6, II. 17, 19.2,.
72. 117 21, 124, IS6,
IS9...()1
Am\.·rI(,1Il AlrW,I\' ... 10- II
/\!ll\.·rI(,1ll hn.lllu· (jruup 109
Aml'rI(.1ll <.. )n'r"'l'''''' AlrllIll'''' 1
Aml'rI(.1ll Tr,m... Air ISO
ANI' '\or "!Irr"n I 14, IS0
An"'l'lI :\lrllIle... 1,2 ,. 1ii
An-eIlAN.-\ 61
An"'l'tt N\.·\\ Zl·,ll.111J 1,2
AIl ...l·U \'('orldwt....k 109
Anhlllt\\" -\l\:·24 t.)7
hl·lllh AlrlIIlC'" loll
:\pnllll Ih· ...nr lit.)
An:\ll1,1 Atrlllll·... 6)-6
:\rk\.1 114 IS
Arn,lllllJ.: IS::;
A ,.IIl.1 ;\.trlmc 1\2
A pro Ilo!,d"y 12)
AtI,I'" AIr 172
ATR 42 126
All"'lr,I1I,1ll Alrhnl·... Il2
A\'.IllIAlrl1m..... Ih=;
t\\"I,K\l 47
AnilClUHl (d
An,IIlGt 2), )4. 7H
An,lIl'L,t 164 5
A\'i;ltHm Trddl·r... ' (:arvillr 49, 127
Aviogellex III 12
Axoll Alrlllll· ... 170
AR A.r1lnl· ... 175 6
AB Sh,mlllll1 1i5
Ahcl.lj! AIr\\.IY... 97
A<r Ling,,' 21, 44, 49 S0, 62-1, 6"
70 I. 97, 122, 11" 140,
170, 172
Al'n.. 141
Acrltntl' Elrl',mn 49, 1:;6
Al'fO '- 165
Aero (\lIlIIllCl1ll' 164-5
Acm COIl1l11l..'11Il' Chdc 165
A<ronol 7,151-2,187
Al'mltnca.. ArgC11t1l1,I" 79, 164
Al'nltllOlrltlll1L' 140- I
Acnl"p,Kc Indu.. trtc.. A"'''l)(I,ltitm 24
Acm",prlll<1k 124
Al..'roS\'I1 151
ACflllOllr 109
Aor 2000 126, 118-9
AorAlg':T1e 70,80-1,114-15,146
Air Anglta IH6
Air AtI,II1I,l kl,LlIldl1.: 155, 16:"'
AlrAtltlllll ... 114
Air !X·lgllllll 97. 122
Air Rerlll) 1L!. ISO
Air Bn"lol 17::'
--\If Cilhfof11l,1 55 6,72, 109. 116
':'ur C,1n,IJ,I 164
:\ If Ch.\rrcr I'll
A.. r Chm.) 14:-'
o\lf bop.II'lI" 122
Air EUf\lr.1 121 2, 125. 159
\ IT Eurorl' 101--6. 101'\-9, 116.
120- S. I"
Air Europe Exl'n.. ·...... 1.?2" 5
-\Ir EUnlJ'1." .?2
..\Ir FI\md,1 10,,7 lk,96, 10t\--9, Hi,
Ii,
Air Fr,lllll' I" 15,49, S6, 9i, 100,
124,112,140-1, 1';1
:\.lrU.lI'<ln S0
!\or 1I"ll.md III
Air 111ll'r S6-7. 141, IS5
AIr
A,r Au II
A,r M.d,'\\"1 146
Air 1>LtIt" 114 IS
Aor N,uln, 80-I, 114
Aor Ne\\" Zc,dand 61,112,162,180
A Ir 122
AIr Outrl' 141
AIr Paulll: I H
Air PhlilpJ'llle... 166
Air PrO\"l·nll· Ch,lrter 175
AIr R\hl' 170
AIr Slll,ll 97.99
AIr Snlllhwe... t 71
Air Sp<llll
A tr SlIn... 11111\.' Hs
Air T,lll:,llll,1 SO. 146
Air Tpulllll"'e Iml'rIl,ItHm,11 141
AlrTr,lll lSi
Air Tr.Ul"'pnrt A......\x:I,uhm 01
Amerll,t 24
Air Tr.lll"'I,<lrt \'('orlJ liS
Aif UK 12S, 162
Air l'I\: Ll·t ... ure 125 6
Air Lkr.llnl· 151
Alr\'.Ulu.llu IH
Air \'tklllC 15)
AIf \\,._, 2" 41
Alr7,llre S0
-\Irhll'" Indll ... trtc 124
.-\1(\' 91,124-5,166,177
A1I0 124, Ill, 152, IS5, 164, 1"-'
All' 146,1)1,162.167. IH0
-\119 140,146, 167,
,\ 120 119, 124 7, 110, 112, I 1"
140-2,146-7,151-4,159,162,
167 ',1,0
AI21 126, 14l\ 142, 146, 167, "0
All0 ISS
1\140 ISS
112ft 71n (34.3m)
41ft 2in (12.5m)
162-189
174,200lb (79,020kg)
129ft 7in (395m)
3,383ml (5,443kml
Length
Range
737-700
Length 110ft 4in (33.6m)
Height 41ft 2in (125m)
Wmgspan 112ft 71n (34.3ml
Gross Weight 154,5001b (70,080kg)
Range 3.751 mi (6,035km)
Seating 126-149
Aviation Hobby Shop
Height
Gross Weight
737-800
Aviation Hobby Shop
Seatmg
Wingspan
THE 737.100-900
790
- --
Aviation Hobby Shop
737-900
Length 138ft 2in (42.1 m)
Height 41ft 2in (12.5ml
Wingspan 112ft 7m (34.3ml
Gross Weight 174,2001b (79,020kgl
Range 3, 158ml (5,081 km)
..
Seating 177-189
Galaxy Airway> 170, 190
Gare>. Mark T. Jnr 54
GATX/Booth Aircraft C()rronnion
55-6. 109
GB Airways 130. 167
GB Lel>ure 130
General Dynamics 17
General Ekctnc 101. 171-Z
German,a I 31-Z, 158, 190
Gdlf,llraf Airway... 130
Cllner, Gerald 91
GoFly 16Z-3
G,xxlman, lIarry 105, IZZ
Grand Imernarional Atfway:-. 166
Gr<ll"'Il. Joe 59
Gucrn:'lcy Airlines 122
Peat Aviation 109,122,
133. 151
Gulf Air 80,97
Gurdll1<lll, G.r. 85
Ham,111 AlrltnC:'l 148
H"JI-!o,mnoll, Stc!lo:-, 172
I L1l1111lO!1 Aero Manufacturing 8
Handley·Page IIPR·71 bald 45,
IZ7. 138
lIapag Lloyd 131, 154, 158. 180
Ilarnson, ChriS 106, 116
1lassen, Victor 177
Ilavc1ct Lca:-'lI1g 112
I IilWillI.nl Alrhru,;s 65
Ilawker S,ddcley IZ4
liS (BAc) 748 79, IZ9. 133. 172
Tndent 44-5, 103, 148, 186
Hdl\)s Airways 170
I kn...on Alrl1l1L'S 118
Hhpanlil 122
Ilphd'l)' Alrlll1CS 170
Ilolt)e, Gerh",d ZZ. 51
Ilon:on Travel 83,106,109. IZ5
Huhhard, Edw,lrd 32
Ilughc.... Iltm',lrJ 11
Ilukk. J. Kenneth 55
Ihma 15.47,63.122,159
kl'hmJ Alrl1tlL·... 155
Icdand,llf 155
Ilymhm 11·1897
11·86 148
11·96·300 180
Indl<ll1 A.rllIle.., Cmpor,ltlnn 79,
147. 166
Indo!1C'llan Air Fllrcc 110
Indn!1CSI,lI) GovernnH':l1l 110
LCI'IlIfC Clrnup 101), 109
Irllq.:r'lrl'd Alrcr"fl CorpOr<ltlDn 109
Inter Caq.':lJ Servlcl..' 141
InlerCid ServlCc 141
Inll..'r Europe,m Alrway'l 125 6
Il1Iertlug ZI. 187
Intenor Alrway'l 146
Intern,1I10n,11 Air Tr,ll1'1por!
A»oua"oo (lATA) 47,49
Intcrn,Hl\lnal Lea"l..' F1I1,lt)CC
Corl'"ra"on (ILFC) 109.114.
116,138
Intern.lIlim,11 LCNlre Grnup 109,
I ZZ
Ir,m All 80.97
Ir'lI..ll Am\',ly'" 80,97
I>land>tlug 155
1... lanhul Alrlll1l'''' 169 70
ji-lpan Air Line'! 134
j,lp,1l1 Tr,m...Ocl.."1l1 AIr 134
Jet Amvay' 166.176
jet America Alrlmc_, 146
Jugo'llm'I..'n... ki Aero Tr<ll1'1pnr! (JAT)
111-1 Z, 151
Junker, JU·5Z ZI
JU·88 ZI
Junker... Lufl\'l..'rkehr 21
Kelleher.llerhert D. 71-Z. 75.104.
181-Z
Kl..'ny'l 146
Kl..'wbon, Alan II. 54
Kmg, R"lltn 71-Z, 181
KLM Royal DUlch AlrllI1t" 130,
159,177,186,190
KLM UK 161
Korl..';-m Air 166, 17?-8
Korc<ln AIr 133
KTI-IY 170
Kuhl, El11d 51
Kuwair Alr\\'<lYs 80
LACSA 164
141
Lake Central Aillme, Z3, Z5-7, 37
Laker A,m'ay, 44, 57. IZ7
LApA 164
LCI'lurc Imcrnatlonal Allways 126
Llhra Holiday, 168
LlI"lca'l Acn_',-Hi Chilc<Jn<Js 165
LmJetlyg 136-8, 155
Lilhllanl<ln Airlme" 151
Lockhccd Alrcwfl Co, 156-7
Constellat,on 18, 2O-Z. 33-4. 39,
41-3,47.49, 5Z. 156
CI30 I bcule> 49. 146
L·188 Elecl,a IZ, 17, Z3-4, 33,
40-1,53,55,61,88,116,157
L·IOII Tmwr 83, 103-4, 130.
133, 136, 159. 168
L"ftlelder 155
Lorenzo, Frank 91-3, 142
LOT Polbh Alrlme> 136, 151
LOlli ... Organl'l,Hlon 170
LTU 63. 159
Luflag ZI
Luflhatba Z0-3, 30, 36, 51-Z, 58,
60,68.71,83,90-1,104, liZ,
131-Z, 135-6, 141-Z.153.161,
166,170, 183. 188
Luxall 97, 100
M,lCedonwl1 Alrlll1l'S (Grecce) 170
M,ler,k Air 107. 109, II Z. IZ5,
IZ7. 136
M,ler,k Air (UK) 137-8
M,llay<ll1 Alrw;-IY'l 36
Alrlllx'", 24. 36,
04,77, 184
Alrlme Sy... ICIll 78--9,
I Z6, 147
M,llay'lI,iI"l AIr\\'<lY'l 36
i\.rbl...·v Ilung'lrI.lI"l Alrlml..''1 150-1
i\.rl,dmo AVl,II10n 136
1\I,lIldann Alrll1"ll..'''' 166
M,lrllll1\l..' 110
tv!.lIkAIl 146
tv!."'111 ZOZ Z8. 39
404 Z8, 38, 59, 68, 118
McDtmncl1 DtlUgl,l'" Alrcr.lft Co,
156 7
MD·II 122.157.177,180
MD·80 75.9Z· I, 104. 116. 119,
IZ4, 14Z, 146, 148, 157
MD·90 157
Mdlherg, Dave 51-3
Mellherg, W,II1,lm E 5Z- 3
Ml..'ridlcln'l 122
MI..·lnlJl..'1 162->
MCXlC.ma 23-4
Me)' Air Tran... porl 84
MI<1I111 Air 168
Midway A,r1l11e> (I) 96,147
Midway AlIllI,"> (Z) 16Z-4
1\tmcrvc 141
MllW>try of AVI,Hltll"l 44
Moddufl I Z6, 166
Mohawk Aillme, 39, 104-5
Monarch Alrlme> (UK) 107-8, liZ
Monarch AlrllIll..'''' (US) 65-6
Mom, All 14Z 3. 147
Mu>e All 75-6
Mu c, Michael 75
Mu c, M. LlIn,lr 72-5
1\1yer'l, Wdh,lm 54
N,ltlOmd Aerol1'lunc... & Space
Admll1l ... tr<lllon (NASA) ,S,
86, 179
N,lIIonal Air Tr;lI1... pnr! 8, II
Nanonal Alrhnl..·... 23,87,96, 185
NcwY"rkAIr 93,96. liZ, 147
Nl..'W Ze<ll.lI1d N,1I10nal Alrw;!y'l
Corp"r,H,,,n (NZNAC) 50,
61-Z, 13Z
Nl'\,'man... Air 1,2
NICA 164
Nigerl,l Alr\\',ly'" 80
Nihon KmlHlrl Airway... (NKK) I H
INDEX
N,hnn (NAMC) YS·II 38,59,68,
118, 134
NOGA 110
Nord Z6Z Z5-7
Norda;r Z3, 33, 56-7, 61, 94
Nortcrr<J 164
Northern Consolidated
Z3-4.34
Northwest Alrlll"lcs 87,124, IS,
NorlJer IZZ
Norway 122
Novalr 159
OVilir InternatIonal Airways
127-8
Oce<lnalr 155
Odyssey lnrematlonal 126
Olyml'lC Alrw"y, 97, 170
Olympic AViation 170
O'Regan, Martrn 105-6,IZZ
Orgal"llzal ion of Oil Producmg and
Expornng Countric'l (OPEC)
83-4,101
Ort"n Airway, 106,108-9. liZ.
114, 116.IZZ, IZ5
Over'lc<ls Aviallon 42
O:ark Alrlme:'! 53
Pacific Aero ProduCb Company 8
PaCIfic All Lrne, Z3, Z7-8, 37.
40-1,55
Pacific Air Trampon 8-9, II
Pacific Aviation Holding C()mp<my
109
PacifIC Norrhl..'rn Alrlmcs 33--4,61,
94
Pacific Southwest Alrlll1e'l 23,28,
37.39-41.53-4.72.88.104.
117. 143
PacIfic Alrlme... 23,33,
48-9.56,61,94,119
P,lklst,l1"l Inlern,Hlonal Airway... 112,
147. 149
1\111 American \X/orld Alf\vay'l 11-
IZ. 15,34.87.96-7, IZ4, 13Z
P,lramOUI"l( Am\'ay... 125
Peach All 168
PCj.,:a... ll'I AIrl11"lC'I 170
Peiser, Roher! 144-5
PcopIExprc'l'" Alrlmcs 89-91, 98,
liZ. 14Z, 147, 161
PereIra, Wdhcun L. jnr 54
Pcrrolmr I 10
Pettlr. Roger 89
PhlllpplI"lc Air LlI"le... 166
Piedmont Alrlll"lcs 23, ,7-9, 53, 58-
9,68-9,104, liZ, 117-19.143
PlcJmnnt Commuter 118
pLUNA 108
Polan'l Alrcmft Le,hmg Corpnrillhll"l
119
Pran & Whllney 8
JT8D 19,31.59,64,86. 101-Z,
135-6,143,179
Wa>1' 10
Prcsidcnllal Airways 98, 147
Prl''lidl..'ntl,ll Exprl..'s", 98
Pnv,H,m 171
147
Putnam, Iloward D, 75
Qanla> 55, 13Z, 134, 177
Qanta... New Zl',lland 1,2, 162
Quehecall 94, 108
Rank Organl:allon 127-8
Red Drilgon Tril\'cl 112
Renick. Lud 54
Rldlr 151
Riga Alrlll1e'l 151
RI" Sui 146
R"I b Royce Spey 63
RJ500 101
Rotterdam Alrl1lll·... 130--1
R"yal Air Maroc 80. 146
Royal Airline... 164
Royal Brunei Alrlinl..'''' 80
Ryamltr 16Z, 171-3
SAAB 340 13Z
Sahena 15,49,97,99-100, 153,
175, 177
192
Sahrc 168
Sahara AIrltne> 166, 168
SAIISA 80
SAT 131
SATA All Acores 155
SATA Internauonal 155
Sauclta 80, 8Z. 97
ScanJm<lvlan System
(SAS) 15,41,85,136,138,
155, 158-9, 189
Shanghai AIrlll"lCS 148
Shcnzcn Airlll"les 148
Short Bros & Harland 63
330 IZZ
360 1ZZ, IZ6
Sandringham 12
Sdkalr 147
Srng"pore Allltne, 77,79,88, 147
SkutnlCk, Lenny 89
Skyway, 4Z
SNECMA 101
SNOMAC 86
SNpL 86
S"helalr 97, 100
SOCICta Aerc<l Medacrr'll"ll..'il (SAM)
47
Alrlll"le'l 134
South African 23,65,79,
180
South Ea... r European AIf\\'ays 126
Sourh\\,c...,1 Alrlml..''l (Japan) 134
Southwcst Airlll"lc'l (US) 7,71-7,
88.104. liZ, 135-6, 14Z-3, 147,
154-<i, 158, 16Z. 172, 181-3
Spantax 47, IZZ
Star Ellropl..' 141
SH:r1l11g Airways IS9, 184
Sterlmg European Am\'ay" 159,168
SWUI Alrlmcs 8
Avii-ltlnn 18
SE·ZIOCaravelk 7.13-6,18,41,
49,53,71,79,84-6,97,114.
131-Z, 141, 159, 170, 184
Sud,1n Airway... 80,97
Sultan Air 170
SunExprc... '1 170
SUI"l\\'{lrid InlernilllOnal Airline...
liZ, 114, 147
Sup<ur 109
15,84-5
TAAG Angob Alrlll"le'l 80
TACA Imernilllonal Alrbne:'! 164
TACA Peru 164
TAE 47
Tam'an Air FnrCl..' 172
TAN Alrltne> 80
TAP Air Ponugal 114
TAROM 151
Texa AernntlllllCS COllllnlS'IlllI"l 72
Texa AIr Cnrpnratllll"l 75,91-"
liZ
Tl..'xa... Inll..'rn,llIOn<l1 73-5,
77. 89, 91. 93, 14Z
Thd' Airway, 80, 131
Th,ll Alr\\'ay... Internarum,ll 1,,--4
Thoma... Cook Travel 107
Thom'!on Group 83, 125
Thnm...on IllrCrn<1rl(lI"lal 167
TIIY Turk"h Arrltne, 169 70
TIFA 85
lime Air Swcden 1,6
lIt,lI"l AII'\\'ay... 126-7
Tjaerhorg RClser 159
Tr<ldcwll1d... 147
Tram Au... lralia Atrlll1c'I 61, 132
Tnll"l'l Eurnpa 47
Tmns Ellrope;-lI"l Am",ly'" 84-6,97,
114. IZZ, 130, 172-3
CYl'n" I30, I 70
Francc 130
Italy 130
SWII:er1<tnd 130. 172
UK IZZ, 130
Trans Tex;l:-, 72· 3
Trans \'Vorld Airlines (TWA) 23.
66,83,87. 157
Tran'lAer 168
l I 51-2
Trmb..ur 61, 94
Tran.""·la 84-5,88. 103, 108, 114,
130 I. 159
Tramhrcbll 146
& \X/esrcrn Air
10-11
Tmnsmdc Air Sen'lcc 147
Transport Aenen Tmn:'lrcglOnal 141
Tr..mSl'H 75-6
Tnmswedc A I 36
Tran.':lwcde 136
Travel ServIce Airlines 151
Tunl>air 85. 114, 147
Tupokv Tu·104 7, 187
Tu·IZ4 7.187
Tu·l34 7, liZ, 151, 187
Tu·154 148
TUR IZZ, 130
Tllrho1l1eca 27
Ukramc Inrcrnauonal Alrllncs 151
UM Iloldll1g, 147
Unull"l Aeromanlllne de Tr(llbpOrr
Aenenne (UAT) 13
Unllll"l dc Tramporrs Acncm 141
Unlied Air Ltne, 9-11, 16-18. ZO,
ZZ-4, Z9, 33, 39, 41, 5Z-3, 64,
68-9,84-5,87-88,93,96-7,
101.104. liZ. 14Z, 153. 16Z,
179, 183, 188
Unlled Alrcmft &
Corporation (UATC) 8-11
United Expre'ls 98
Unllcd Air Force 14, 110
Unltl'd SI<lles Navy 16,172
Unl\'er:'!alr 122-3
Unl\'cr'lal Sky 42
US Arrway, 153, 16Z-3
USAIr 104-5,109, liZ, 117-18,
134,143.153, 16Z, 179, 189
Vacallnmur 126
Valulel 157
Vangu,lrd AlrllI"ll..''l 145-6,184
VARIG 146.149
Varney Alrllm.:s 8, II
VASp 79, 8Z, 146, 149, 176
Vicker... Arnbtrong Vanguard 12,
45. 141
VCIO 44, 5Z-53
Vlklllg 42
V"coun, IZ-13. 16, 18, ZO, 36,
45, 49-50,61-Z,65. 71, 79.
106. IZ7, I 38. I51
Vikll"lg Internallonal 125
VlpAIr 170
Virgin Group 129, 175
Atlantic Airway, IZ6. 175. 177
Blue 176. 177
EXI"e» 175, 177
Exprl..'s", (Frill1cd 175
EXl're» (Ireland) 175
Viva IZZ
W,tIltck, S.L. 'Lew' Jm Z8
\'Vnt CO,hl AIrlll"ll..'''' 28
We... r (JCrm<Hl Air Forcc 79
We>lern Air Ltne> Z3-4, 31. 33-4,
39,41,53-4,56.60,86-7,94,
104, liZ, 117-19, 143
Wc... ll'rn PaCIfic Airline... 143-5,
147, 172
WC"'lcn'dt, Cdr G, Conrad 8
WC'ltgarl..'-Cahfomla CorpoT<lnon 116
\X/c... tJel Alrlll1C... 164
Whc,lIon, Capt Larry 89
Whltcomh, Dr Richard 179
WI en Arr Ah"ka 79,94, 114. 146
Wlen Ala>ka Arrway> Z3-4, 34
Wien COlbnlld<lIl..'d 21, n,
53,55,58,60,79
Wdlialll>, j.E.D. 44-7
\'Vin,ur Alrlml..'''' 147
Wln\\,()od, RIChard 1. 147
Wolfe, Thoma... 55
Wnght 1810 10
\Xluhan Alrlmc'l 148
\Vygle. Bnen Z8-9
Yakalov YAK·4Z 148
Yemen Airway... 80

Boeing 737

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Boeing 737
Malcoltn L. Hill

I~~cl
The Crowood Press

erveJ. 4 5 6 51 ISBN I 61264046 65 83 101 7 8 9 10 117 THE LAST OF THE OLD GE ERATIO THE EXT GENERATION 135 153 171 184 188 191 11 Appendix Appendix Index I II THE BB] AND BEYOND Early 737s . PrinteJ anJ bounJ in Grear Britain by Bookcraft. MiJsomcr Orton. electronic or mechanical. Wiltshire. or any infnrll1fltio!l s(oragc (-lnd retrieval ~y~tcm. I Ii II 2002 All right.heJ In 2002 by The CrowooJ Press LtJ Ram. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data 23 37 A catalogue rccorJ for this book is available from the Brit. without permission in writing (rom the publi.h Library.bury. 0 part of thi. Marlborough. recording..hire 82HR Contents © Malcolm L. NEW APPLICATIONS I TO ERVICE IMPROVI G THE BREED WORLDWIDE 1 FLUE CE THE BABY GROWS A EW LEA E OF LIFE 7 photocopy..100-900 Typefaces useJ: GouJy (text). Typeset anJ JesigneJ by D& Publishing BayJon. Marlborough Wilt. A BOUNCING BABY FIRST STEPS NEW CUSTOMERS. Cheltenham (headings).FirM pubh.Comparisons with their Contemporaries The 737. publicalllll1 may be Acknowledgements 6 reproJuceJ or trammitteJ in any form or by any Illean~.her. . re. including 1 2 3 TO MESSRS BOEING.

To Messrs Boeing. Ivar Hakonsen. and also to Aeroflot Russian Airlines. Tim Kincaid Collection Union. Sibylle Dietrich. Mel Roberts. The very first twin-jet airliner design. This was only three days before the first flight of their arch rival. Richard Howell. Via author American Airlines ordered a large fleet of modern 737-800s to replace older.Ward. One-Eleven and DC-9 by adopting the increasingly popular rear engine. Phillip Eastwood. Of course. Brian Pickering. Boeing's official announcement launching their 737 project into production came on 22 February 1965. Mellberg. the BAC One-Eleven. Robert Walz and Tony Ward. The Tu-134 had followed the design philosophy of the Caravelle. France's Sud-Est Caravelle had been in worldwide service since April 1959. on offer to the world's airlines. Tim Kincaid. Whilst every effort has been made to identify the source of illustrations used in this publication. Deutsche BA. American Airlines C. whose co-operation. Jon Proctor. Steve Bunting.R. although intended more for medium/long-haul services than short-haul work had been on the scene since 1956. The Soviet Union had later developed the Tu-l04 into a smaller version.CHAPTER ONE AcknowledgelDents Grateful thanks are extended to all the following persons and organizations. Boeing Business Systems. However. Aviation Hobby Shop. The Tupolev Tu-l04 was designed for medium/long-range service. Thierry Gatouillat. Ron Carter. Joe Grant. Dennis Regan. the Boeing 737 went on to populate most of the world's busiest airports. Jeff Luysterborghs. All persons claiming accreditation should contact the author via the publisher. more suited to short-haul networks. time and invaluable funds of information and memories made this book possible: Thomas Becher. Chris Harrison. Smith Museum 6 7 . the launch of the 737 was no overnight whim thought up by the (Above) Soon casting off its 'late- (Below) The first twin-jet airliner actually hailed from the Soviet comer' image. Douglas Aircraft's DC-9. a Bouncing Baby Overseas Pioneers By the early 1960s it was certainly unusual for the Boeing Airplane Company not to be the trend-setter in producing a new commercial aircraft type. Smith Museum. narrow-body aircraft on their short. The resulting Tupolev Tu-l24 had been in service since 1962 with its much redesigned successor.R. Larry Pettit. the Tu-134 first flying in 1963. although it was also operated on shorter inter-city services on busier routes in the USSR and Eastern Europe. Becky and Buddy Scott. this has not been possible in all cases.Jenny Gradidge. Martyn East. William F. American Airlines C. By the time their new model 737 was made available to the world's commercial operators. Braathens. Frankie Scott.and medium-haul network. also Russia's first jet airliner. the Tupolev Tu-l04. and only six weeks before the British contender. Air France. less economic. the Washington State-based company was definitely a latecomer when it came to offering a new product on the short-haul twin-jet airliner marker. there were no fewer than six alternatives either already in service or in advanced stages of development. The first twin-jet designed specifically for short-haul routes. Ttail configuration. actually entered scheduled airline service. Lufthansa and Military Aircraft Photographs.

incorporated his aviation interests into the new Pacific Aero Products Company. Boeing 8 9 . Although the B-9 failed to attract an order thi new technology was channelled into a new civil airliner type. the company's first aircraft. Boeing Air Transport. The first two B&W aircraft were sold to the New Zealand government for postal work. Boeing (Abovel The Boeing Model 40B gave sterling service to the company's airline subsidiary. ABO NCING BABY TO IESSRS BOEING. designed to arry two pas engers as well as 1. the Boeing Model 0. even the Boeing 707 was just such a 'spin-off' from a design study to develop an in-flight refuelling tanker for high-speed jet fighters and bombers that had emerged as the KC135. the company had been working toward offering a 'family' of de igns. There were simply too many surplus aircraft around for the military to be interested in sponsoring expensive new projects. being manhandled at the original waterside factory. with pioneer carriers tout Airlines. twin-pontoon biplane from Lake Union. with a landplane ver ion. as the company changed its name to the Boeing Airplane Company. More civil projects were making an appearance too. had provided a great deal of useful data and solutions to problems that were arising with the design of larger aircraft. NC178E is seen wearing joint Boeing/Pacific Air Transport and United Air lines titles. A major improvement in comfort for passengers on Boeing's scheduled service from Chicago to California arrived with the introduction of a new airl iner design. The avy order was to be the first sizable contract to the US military. The 12 to I -pa senger biplanes were pOSitively spacious compared to the claustrophobic Model 40A and saw the introduction of a new crew member. The large combined airline network became so unwieldy that a new management company In the Beginning Boeing had actually not been a major supplier of civil airliners until the advent of the 707 in the 1950s. Boeing had been studying their short-haul jet airliner options for several years and were only prepared to offer a definitive design once they felt that they had got it right. in June 1916. Military orders had been the backbone of Boeing's production lines for many years. Pratt & Whitney. the first real all-Boeing project. but with enough of a degree of commonality in design so as to reduce production costs to the maker and significantly decrease operating costs to the customer. Boeing itself was purchased shortly afterwards and became part of the new United Aircraft and Transport Corporation that had its headquarters at Hartford. the B&W Modell. The Boeing B&W Modell. the improved model 2. rather than simply replace it from the original source. Conrad Westervelt of the US Navy. A second design. designed DH-4 'Lib 'tty Planes' that helped the ompany survive the I '<mcr tlmcs. which was to remain Boeing's primary customer for many years. As well as Boeing and its airline subsidiaries. By the mid-1920s. ince the entry into service of Boeing's first jet airliner design. The small number of non-military sales did little to dispel the gloom as the valuable military market had vanished overnight with the arrival of the armistice. The S Navy eventually pia ed an order for fifty Model 5s. in 1929. a successful Seattle businessman involved in the local timber industry. were also sold for use by airmail contractor. as a series of fighter and atta k aircraft were suppl ied to the U military. a flying boat design. the Boeing Airplane Company wa increasing it portfolio with a number of successful military designs. took to the air in 1917. The Arrival of the Modern Airliner The sleeker lines of Boeing' new highspeed military types were oon being applied to commercial designs.TO MESSRS BOEING. At one point th company was obliged to start building furniture in order to keep its skilled woodworking force together. William Boeing piloted the new aircraft. the medium/long-range Boeing 707 in 195 . the Boeing factory was once again busy with aircraft under construction. Each different member of the 'family' was to be able to serve the airline's needs in different operational markets. called United Air Line. and slightly larger Model OA. Postwar Slump Throughout the immediate post-First World War years Boeing enjoyed mixed fortunes. the Stewardess. A number of American carriers had already employed male stewards or 'Couriers' on larger aircraft and European airlines had used stewards to serve their passengers for many years. the aero engine manufacturer. by which time Boeing had was formed. While Boeing Air Transport and its United Air Lines partners were introducing modern styles of air travel to their passengers. and acquired another West Coast-based carrier. United soon also controlled the Chance Vought Corporation. Initially. Connecticut. National Air Transport and Varney Airlines all being taken into the UATC family. The airline side also expanded. with the few civilian designs produced usually being 'spin-offs' from US military contracts. near eattle. a single-engined. BOCIng was gaining produ tion ordcrs (or its own ncw designs again. and the Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Company that made propellers. The club's first aircraft. and a friend. Thus. Pacific Air Transport. New Direction Boeing had set u[1 its own airline. although each carrier retained its identity for the time being. Both had been fa cinated by the new flying craze and had founded the Aero Club of Seattle in 1915.200lbs (544kg) of mail beginning operations over the San Francisco-Chicago route in 1927. to coordinate their operation. howcvcr. Research and development of one military design. a Glenn L. was damaged in an accident and Boeing and Westervelt elected to build an improved ver ion of the aircraft. rather than producing furniture as a 'stop-gap'. Boeing. with the Boeing Model 40A. Contracts were also gained from the US military for conversion and modification of British- New Owners. to expand their operation. ABO NCING BABY company merely to keep up with airliner design fashion trend. Boeing's first international sales and a small number of BIs. the Boeing 247 (Top) By the late 1920s. to operate the route. Cdr G. but Boeing Air Transport was the first carri r in the world to employ female flight attendants. of which only two were supplied to the Army a primary trainers. The even more improved Model 3 soon appeared. Boeing the B-9. Martin Seaplane. Westervelt was posted to the East Coast and Boeing continued to develop the design with an increasing team of engineers and designers that he was able to attract. The Boeing Airplane Company had be n founded by William E. The suitability of the new type for redesign as a jet airliner was recognized very early in the design process and the company made the historical decision that changed it commercial direction. the Model 4.

a Senate Special Committee investigated both ocean steamship and airline mail contracts. the airlines were invited to tender for the contracts again. on domestic routes. The type first flew in 1932. Certain airlines and their managements were forbidden. tratol iner. the giant 314 flying boat that saw Boeing returning briefly to its marine roots. with the first delivery to UATC's airlines being made on 30 March 1933. wiping out all the 247' initial advantages overnight. Boemg Air Transport. National Air Transport and Varney AirLines. This led to the disclosure of some dubious practices and decisions in the way a number of airmail contracts had been awarded by the Postmaster General. in view of the new type's speed advantage.3s. The DC-3 went on to become one of the most successful airliner designs of all ti me. applied for Transcontmental & Western Air's old contracts. All airmail contracts were cancelled with eHect from 9February 1934. They were of the view that a larger aircraft would be unstable and difficult to control. Boeing's 307 Stratoliner pioneered the use of a pressurized cabin in passenger service. With its wing. the DC-I. A small number were aLo diverted. both flying more modern Ford Trimotors or Fokker models that outclassed the Boeing 80s. that they were wi II ing to overlook the lower capacity. to be delivered to its airline divisions. Anew company. Boeing's allegiance to their n ited Aircraft and Transport partners meant that it wa unable to consider the Wright I l 20 engine. but less powelful. Although innocent parties suHered as much as the guilty. TWA placed the new aircraft into scheduled service in August 1934 and both and foreign carriers were soon beating a path to Douglas' door to place orders for the type. by their past mvolvement in Irregular practices. swiftly reinstating the original name. The millionaire flyer. with a handful being operated by TWA. Douglas came up with the 12-passenger. the first transport to sport a lowwing monoplane and twin-engined configuration. American Airways became American Airlines. However. " . --- (Above) The Boeing 247 finally brought modern lines to airliner design in 1933. they were soon looking to their Boeing partner to provide a new type to push them ahead of their rivals. the Boeing 247 emerged with capacity for only ten pas engel's. Transcontinental & Western Air contacted the Douglas A ircraft Company. TWA Inc. Although United's airline partners were trying their best to compete. on both Pacific and Atlantic scheduled flights. Although they failed to sell to airlines in \'ery large numhers. Following a number of accidents and a general public outcry. and promptly 'took over' the old company assets once the contracts were awarded. was placed. following questions being raised on the subject of subsidy and the fairness of certain contract awards. Boeing looked to bigger.in 1936. The tratoliner saw only limited airline service. Howard Hughes also acquired a Stratoliner as his personal 'Flying Penthouse'. The giant 314 flying boat saw long-range passenger service with Pan Ameri an. Thi was enlarged to a 14passenger capacity in its production version. A serie. the United contract totally monopoli:ed the production capacity for nearly a year. mainly due to the intervention of the econd World War. of military aircraft had been more successful than the civil projects and provided the company with The nited Air Lines group had been struggling against competition from Tramcontinental & Western Air and American Airways. for sixty aircraft. A large order. albeit reluctantly. Similarly. mto one unit in May 1934. Pacific All' Transport. and Pan merican on services to the Caribbean and South America. engines and undercarriage taken from the B-17 bomber. Via author Bigger Boeings truggling to remain in the airliner business after the debacle of the 247 sale:. Wasp to hancl. Another consequence of the Act was to forbid the close tie-up of aircraft manufacturers and airlines. accusing the Roosevelt administration of unfairness. Rather than have to wait until the initial order for sixty was delivered. The first aircraft. United Aircraft was thrown into turmoil by the 1934 Air Mail Act. UATC had already combined its four major airlines subsidiaries. A BOU CING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. As well a having a much more spacious cal in. vitally needed work. From 1936. Boeing was obliged to go to Pratt & Whitney for an engine to power their aircraft. hefore their intenJed delivery to Pan American. The airmail service was initially handed over to the military. 70 77 . all-metal monoplane. the DC-2. The 247's Nemesis The decision to produce the smaller capacity aircraft was to turn out to be only one mistake made by nited ircraft and Transport in selecting its new·-airliner. the disappointed airlines approached other aircraft manufacturers to produce an alternative aircraft. Boeing became a separate company again. even more revolutionary designs. was a production model. now oHicially named United Air Lines. Once the war was over. Although United had wanted an aircraft as large as the 18-passenger Boeing 80s.TO MESSRS BOEING. Even United had to admit the Douglas aircraft's superiority. but they only had their welltried. that would have been suitable for a larger aircraft. Boeing continued to he preoccupied with military contracts. twin-engine design. wi th many examples flying on into the twenty-first century. airways. from applying. to serve Great Britain's BOAC on wartime transport services. the airlines soon emerged from the legislative gunsmoke relatively unscathed. and a flurry of name-changing and corporate manoeuvres followed. the 247 was a definite trendsetter. As a result. the airline began to replace the 247's on major routes with their own fleet of DC. Itwas na'ive in the extreme for UATC to think that the other airlines were going to take this lying down and the rival carrier soon a~ proached Boeing to place their own orders. the 307 and 314 models kept Boeing in the forefront of airliner design. above the worst weather. X-13301. but chaos ensued. At over 70mph faster than its nearest rival. fuelled hy the Korean conflict and ongoing 'Cold War' with Communist Europe. When the DC-2 was enlarged again into the21-passengerD -3. the DC-2 was actually faster than the 247. the DC-2. then under development. it promised unprecedented smooth flights for its passengers. Via author United decided. Eastern Air Transport became Eastern Air Lines. Another factor in deciding to develop the smaller design option was the rather voluble opinion of United's pilots. A BOUNCI 'G BABY All Change for the Air Mail Act As well as eHectively having shot itself in the foot by forcing the non-UATC airlines to look elsewhere for new equipment. The Douglas DC-1 was designed atthe instigation of TWA and soon overtook the Boeing 247 in its developed production version. and so on. the Model 3 7. Boeing among others. over sixty years after the type entered service. Another Boeing bomber project also provided the wing design for another ivil type. Walter Brown. Able to operate at high altitude. It was assumed that the exclusive use of the 247 by UAT 's airlines would give them an unprecedented advantage on America'. TWA introduced their fleet on transcontinental scheduled flights in July 1940. inviting tenders to produce a trimotor. Introduced to put an end to growing monopolies within the transport industries. was unique in its day for having a large pI' ssuri:ed fuselage. William Boeing actually resigned over the issue from the company he had founded. There was no designated prototype and this aircraft was later delivered to the Boeing division of United Air lines.anyhopes Boeing had for the continued production of the 247 van ished.

Soon. Although the first commercially operated jets were usually obI iged to make a number of refuelling stops. such as the Bristol Britannia. it was a horrendously expensive aircraft to operate and maintain on a commercial basis. Unfortunately their demise. the Caravel Ie. had been well beyond expectations. larger versions of the Viscount. or prop-jet. Via author (Below) Contemporary with the flawed early Comets. Air France and UAT. leaving the jets to concentrate on longer fl ights. Only rarely would there be any talk of ' First-Class Only' jet travel. it was to prove the underlying market for jet travel. as well as two French airlines. at least until the arrival of the ultra-expensive supersonic transports. propeller airliner schedules in half. in particular those involving any degree of 'mass travel'. they were assigned to long-distance flights. into revenue service.TO MESSRS BOEING. such as the Vickers Vanguard and Lockheed Electra. This is much more economical in terms of fuel consumption. the plan then being to leave the expensive pure-jets to first-class travellers willing to pay a premium fare. power. due to unforeseen metal fatigue. When jet-powered airliners first came on to the scene it was all about reducing flying times over long-ranging flights. although giving nearly the same speed advantages of pure-jet power. Tourist-Class travel was introduced on a handful of the busier routes in the earl1950s and its success surprised even the most optimistic supporters of 'mass travel'. The Turbo-Prop Era The future for shorter-ranging flights. were on the horizon and it was surmised that the turbo-prop would rule over the shorter ranges. Longrange. Although its luxurious. were also on the drawing board to operate economical services on far-flung flights. Comet 4 series and Boeing were looking at producing an airliner version of their KC-l35 jet tanker design. advertising for the British Overseas Airways Corporation 'boasted' of UK-Hong Kong journeys taking 'only five days'! This leisurely scheduled service was flown by Shorts Sandringham Flying Boat. was soon turned on its head. From the start. however. were designed with both firstand tourist-class travellers in mind. Jenny Gradidge Postwar Airliner Developments Until the arrival of the 707. Despite large numbers of C-97s and KC-ns being ordered by the U military. it soon had passengers voting with their feet. the E-210 Caravelle. eventually operating the type for over fifteen years. France's Sud-Aviation was putting the finishing touches to their short-haul jet airliner design. the De Havilland Comet 1. Although the turbo-props were still successfully making their mark around the world. was swift and only three airlines and the Royal Canadian Air Force took delivery from a once impressive order book. This itselfhad been a civil version of the C-97/KC-97 military transport and in-flight refueller. civilian versions had only enjoyed limited success with the airlines. As the Comet was being redesigned into the larger. with night-stops being made en route. the Comet turned out to suffer from chronic metal fatigue problems. A trio of mysterious crashes. A BOUNCING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. brought the problem to light. introduced turboprop travel to a very enthusiastic travelling public in the early 1950s. instead of directly powering the aircraft through the air. still managing to cut piston engine-powered. as well as much larger turbo-prop aircraft. The all-First-C1ass passenger load factors on the early Comets briefly operated for BOAC. rear-engined Caravelle started European service in 1959. If the Comet had achieved one thing. Only five years before putting the world's first jetliner. finally identified the metallurgical problem that had lain hidden until the accidents brought it to the industry's attention. A BOUNCING BABY Agigantic aircraft for its day. the pure-jet airliner was temporarily grounded. Aer Lingus was an early customer. contemporary with the omet 1. Short-Haul Jet Revolution When the elegantly designed. spacious cabin and legendary lower-deck cocktai I bar were immensely popular with passengers. all involving the loss of all passengers and crew on board the unfortunate aircraft. the Vickers Viscount was a much more successful venture. derived from the B29 bomber design. It did not matter to the paying public that the turbo-props were more economic over shorter distances or that the time-savings over close inter-city pairs 12 13 . Only an extensive investigation. more robust. The Vickers Viscount. Via author (Above) The De Havilland Comet 1 series blazed a trail for jet airline travel in the early 1950s. the Boeing 314 flying boat operated luxurious pre-war transoceanic air services over both the Atlantic and Pacific. on a scale not previously seen in civil aviation. In the turbo-prop the jet engine's thrust is diverted to driving a propeller. was perceived to lie in the direction of turbo-prop. This rather cosy plan of action. and the jetliners that followed it. Boeing's sole contribution to the postwar airliner market to reach the production stage was the model 377 Stratocruiser. large-capacity turbo-props. Sadly.

TO MESSRS BOEING. as seen here. If it had a propeller on it. Caught unawares. A BOUNCING BABY TO MESSRS BOEING. the 4B. Propellers were old-fashioned. Iberia. The passengers wanted jets and they wanted them now. operating them on long-haul services to South America and Asia. The airline later took delivery of the larger. more powerful -320 series. at least in its early years. the public did not want to know and soon sought out the airlines with jet-powered alternatives. the Comet 4 still achieved the distinction of becoming the first commercially operated jet over the Atlantic when Britain's BOAC placed it in service on the London.ew York route in October 1958. especially to the eastern Mediterranean. The BEA Comet 4Bs were initially assigned to the longer routes on their network. MAP were minimal or even non-existent. which had placed . Alitalia.tll its eggs firmly in the turbo-prop basket by ordering large fleets of economical Viscounts and Vanguards. However. Although much less suitable for the shorter runs. Via author (Below) The original purpose of the KC-135 design was as an in-flight refueller for high-speed bombers like the Boeing B-52. the British European Airways Corporation. Finnair. was confined to the De Havilland Comet 4. Boeing Pan American introduced the 707-100 into scheduled service in 1958. Its potential as a commercial jet transport was soon recognized and the design was modified to produce the 707 airliner. as well as busier European routes. but were soon also pressed into service on shorter trunk routes where rival European operators such as Air France. were forced to commission a 'stop-gap' short-haul version of the Comet. SAS and Swissair were flying their new Caravelles. This was only a matter of weeks before Pan American World Airways Swissair was one of the few customers for the Convair CV-990A. the Comets were required to win back passengers until BEA could place a more economically viable inter-city jet into service. Via author 14 15 . Boeing's Jetliner Success Europe's only long-range challenge to the 707. Even the 'new' Comet 4 was technically inferior to the 707. It soon outpaced the large turboprops originally seen as the answer to economic short-range service. Sabena. A BOUNCING BABY (Above) The Sud-Aviation Caravelle was designed from the outset for short-haul inter-city services.

Not surprisingly. Asmall fleet of Boeing Stratocruisers was also operated briefly on the Hawaiian network. DC-6. saw the creation of the largest airline in the Western world. the company announced that no no (Above) The Boeing Stratocruiser served briefly on United's new prestige Hawaiian (Below) The DC-8 had benefited from a great deal of input into the design from United. When the USA entered the Second World War the airline. the similar Douglas DC-8. United operated atrans-Pacific air service for the US Navy. wanted the security and power reserves of four engines and were pushing for a yet smaller version of the 720B. three DC-8Fs. the Boeing Novemher [959. Braniff Airways and Continental Airlines also ordered the and the later turbo-fanned engined version. along with most of the nation's commercial air carriers. had offered their new CV-880 United Air Lines and Eastern Air Lines. made most of its carrying capacity available for military use. Lighter. such as American Airlines. Boeing's engineers managed to persuade the Eastern and United managements that a three-engined. several foreign scheduled carriers also placed nos and nOBs in service on longer-ranging flights where passenger loads were lighter and did not justify the use of larger 707s. more powerful versions were offered that eliminated the need for refuelling stops on many fl ights. Booming worldwide sales of the 707 had soon pushed Boeing into the forefront of civil airliner design. When the 737 programme was announced in 1965. Ttail design was a workahle compromise. with a redesigned wing and flap layout that improved take-off and cruising perforfirst flew on Z3 mance. although respectable sales figures were later achieved and developed versions of the aircraft kept the type in production for many years.ited's acquisition of financially ailing Capital Airlines in 1961. twenty-eight Boeing 727-100s. with a major operations centre at Denver in the Rocky Mountains. and CV-990 jet airliner models specifically with these markets in mind. The rise of the short-haul jet was to restrict the Electra market considerably and Lockheed did not attempt to return to full-scale airliner production for many years. no. an intermediate-range version of the 707 was also soon on offer. United was operating thirty-eight Douglas DC-8s. Boeing had concentrated on improving the long-range and load-carrying capabilities of the 707. TO MESSRS BOEING. Also. encouraging early sales figures for the medium-range Convair jets alerted Boeing to a threat to their customer base. in some numbers. The airline remained a major force in US airliner design. United Air Lines enjoyed a period of unprecedented growth. United still operated twenty-three DC-7s. the high-lift devices would also allow the 727 operators to introduce jet service to important East-Coast US airports such a New York's La Guardia and Washington's National that had restricted runway lengths. On 5 Decemher 1960. Away from the home market. from the cabin floor upwards. that had hoth been seriously considering the Convair options. piston and propjet-engined fleet. A BOUNCING BABY introduced their first imported Boeing 707 jets. Via author United's Boeing 727s were among the first to roll off what was to become a long and successful production run. Most of the surviving propeller aircraft were planned to be phased out and replaced by the remaining 727s on order. Established USbased 707 customers. Un. overtaking Douglas and Lockheed in a few short years. as well as the new order for 737-200s. United satisfied itself with extending its coast-to-coast network to the Hawaiian Islands in 1947.United's Postwar Growth Once established as a strong. Instead. After the return of peace. Wing high-lift devices were incorporated into the design for an even more improved take-off performance. forty DC-6Bs. six DC-7Fs. From Four Engines to Three Boeing's first offering on the short-range jet airliner market came about as a result of direct discussions with airlines. However. MAP Boeing and the Short-Haul Market The operationally and commercially successful use of early model 707s and DC-8s on domestic routes within the USA had shown a market for jet services on busy inter-city sectors. Sales of the 707's main US rival. as well as the 737. producing aircraft under the Convair name in San Diego. and concentrated on developing its L-88 Electra turbo-prop for intercity airline work. MAP The type was to serve the airline for nearly thirty years. DC-7 series and Convair CV-340 pistonengined aircraft. although these were disposed of as uneconomic compared to the DC-6s and DC-7s that replaced them. United turned its attention to modernizing and expanding its domestic network. shorter and more powerful. they would he putting the Boeing 127 into production. independent airline in its own right. General Dynamics. the nOB. With the arrival of the jet era. As well as being useful in the thin mountain air of Denver. Douglas had been selling versions of the DC-8 tailored for domestic US service and another aircraft manufacturing company. schedules in the early 1950s. the fuselage cross-section was identical to 16 17 . In addition. thirty DC-6s. twenty-nine Boeing 720s. [nitially. Boeing took particular satisfaction in ohtaining early orders for the from Douglas DC-8 operators The improved take-off and landing performance of the Boeing nO/nOB also allowed jet service to a number of airports not previously able to accommodate the heavier 707s and DC-8s. seven DC-6As. being heavily involved in the development of the Douglas DC-4. with eighty-two more 727-100s and -200s on order and twenty Sud Caravelle 6Rs in its jet fleet. United. as well as flying numerous domestic contracts for the US war machine. seventeen Convair CV-340s and forty-five Viscount 700s in their propeller-driven. Larger. United greatly influenced the design of the DC-B and the Boeing 720 and 727. Lockheed had elected to ignore the long-haul jet airliner market. several members of which were already in preliminary negotiations with Convair. had suffered from being later into service than the 707. it did not use its wartime long-range experience to press for international service authority. Unlike many of its rivals. Eastern wanted a small twin-jet.

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T-Tail or Pylon?
Two groups of Boeing engineers looked independently at either the T-rail or underwing engine design option. The Ttail, with the engines placed on the rear fuselage, had been a popular design with the earlier type, especially from the point of view of reducing noise in the passenger cabin. A potentially dangerous 'deep-stall' rroblem, with Ttail configured aircraft, where the aircraft entered an unrecoverable

stall under certain aerodynamic conditions, had eventually been solved. Unfortunately this was not until after the tragic loss of the prototype One-Eleven and its test crew as a result of just such a stall. Eventually Boeing opted for the underwing location for its engines, two Pratt & Whitney JT -Os, with a conventional tail layout. Apart from the deep-stall considerations, the wider cross-section of the Boeing made the fitting of the engines on the rear fuselage an aerodynamic nightmare.

Wing-mounted engines al 0 meant that more of the fuselage was available for farepaying passengers, with less 'dead-areas' involved in mounting engines on the rear fuselage. The wing-mounted configurations also led to less problem' in achieving a satisfactory centre of gravity in most load distribution scenarios. The engines could nor be hung on pylons, as on the 707/720, due to the closer rroximity of the smaller aircraft's wing to the ground. Instead, the engine nacelles

The 1940s-50s vintage, piston-powered DC-6 series still featured heavily in United's fleet in the mid-1960s. AViation Hobby Shop

the Boeing 707 series and the idea offamily 'commonality' was finally ur and running. Both airline placed their first orders, for forty aircraft each, and the Boeing 72 7100 flew for the first time on 9 Fel ruary 1963. everal other carriers, including the first European customer for the 727, West nited Germany's Lufthansa, followed and Eastern's example. The worldwide sales figures for the tri-jet were soon rivalling those of the already successful 707 and 720 series.

Surviving Props
With the 727 making its development flights, Boeing's attention turned more to the market for smaller, more regionally focused jetliners, preferably with even better short-field performance. That such a market exi ted was being demonstrated by Douglas, ud and BAC, with the increasing sale' of their Ttail configured twin jets. That a major domestic customer for Boeing aircraft, American Airlines, had ordered no les. than thirty-one BAC One-Elevens from Great Britain, to surplement their much larger 72 7s on short-haul routes, gave the design team even more incentive to come up with a Boeing-built contender. The 1960s still aw a large number of routes served by ageing proreller fleets even in the largest airline networks. Although the Boeing 727, and other short/medium-

haul jets had begun to make inroads into the denser markets, I940s and 50s vintage, piston-engined, DC-6s, DC-7s and Constellation, . hunted from longer, prime routes by the early jets, still flew thousands of pas engers on busy inter-city services every day. nited Air Lines also flew a sizable fleet of Vickers Viscount turbo-rrops inherited when they took over Carital Airlines in 1961. With the Capital network, United had also taken on a number of multi-stop routes linking both large and small cities. It was these routes that saw the greatest concentration of orerations for United's remaining turbo-rrop and piston-engined aircraft fleets. Passenger loads were not enough to surport the Boeing 727 and many of the airports were unable to accept the smaller Caravel Ie, of which United did operate a small fleet on East Coast and Mid-West route'.

Design Decisions
The first generations of short-haul jets had already shown that they could operate as cheaply, if not more so, and also attract more rassengers with their modern jet-age image. Although initial acquisition costs were large, the jets were soon earning their keep, carrying more passengers on more daily sectors and beating any piston or turho-pror competition into the ground. If

Boeing could rroduce a more flexible jet, carable of carrying economic loads over shorter routes and into mailer airfields, as well as the larger cities, the company would have a valuable, profitalle, new addition to its jet 'family'. In ovember 1964, Boeing finally gave the go-ahead for their designers to investigate the options for the new jet airliner design. It was specifically aimed at recapturing markets being lost to the BA OneEleven and DC-9, where the Boeing 727 was regarded as too large. A reliable workhorse aircraft, capable of operating several sectors a day carrying economic loads at low cost, was required. The Boeing sales and marketing departments envisaged a sales potential of more than 600 units of the new design. With their 'family' concept in mind, the newly formed Boeing project team, under the leadership of John E. Steiner, elected to make the fuselage of the new type the same width as the 707/720 and 727. This gave a definite advantage in terms of passenger comfort. The BAC One-Eleven, Caravelle and DC-9 all had narrower cabins, with the economy-class passengers in all the aircraft being seated in a five-abreast, 2-3 configuration. The Boeing aircraft would be able to offer an exceptionally comfortable fi ve-abreast layout or, as turned out to be the case in most airlines' service, a more economical 3-3, six-abreast configuration.

IAbovel The BAC One-Eleven had to cure a 'deep-stall' problem with its T-tail design, which led to the loss of the original prototype on a test flight. The eventual solution benefited all such designs that

followed. Aviation Hobby Shop

(Belowl The Boeing 72Ts impressive flap system. seen to effect on this taxying American Airlines aircraft. was adapted for the 737. MAP

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Postwar lufthansa
The original company was formed in 1926, when two of Germany's pioneering air transport companies, Deutscher Aero Lloyd and Junkers Luftverkehr, merged on 24 January, resulting in Deutsche Luft Hansa. D.L.H. went on to develop into one of Europe's largest pre-war airlines, both in terms of fleet size and network mileage. The Second World War saw D.L.H., like most airlines operating within the protagonist nations, working increasingly for the military. A limited civil network was maintained throughout the war years though, and continued until the advance of the Allies made the operation impossible. At the end of hostilities, the once mighty airline was down to six serviceable aircraft, a Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, a DC-2, a DC-3, two JU52/3ms and a Junkers JU-88. In the immediate postwar period, with the old German nation divided into two separate countries, neither the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany, nor the People's Democratic Republic of Germany were initially permitted to operate their own airlines. An East German carrier, initially also called Lufthansa, later named Interflug, was established by the Communist authorities. However, airlines of the occupying allies continued to operate domestic flights in West Germany and international routes were flown solely by visiting airlines of foreign nations. Eventually, as the Federal Republic recovered economically, permission was granted for the formation of a new West German airline and a provisional stock company, Luftag, was established in January 1953. Reviving the old name of Lufthansa on 6 August 1954, the airline opened ascheduled domestic network on 1April 1955. Orders had been placed for four 44-passenger Convair CV-340s for regional services and Lockheed delivered an equal number of longrange L-1049G Super Constellations. International European flights opened in May 1955 and the Super Constellations inaugurated trans-Atlantic flights in June. Over the following years Lufthansa steadily expanded throughout Europe and opened more long-range flights to South America and the Far East. Viscount prop-jets joined the Convairs, the CV-340s being supplemented with improved CV-440s, in 1958 and the Super Constellations were also augmented by even longer-range L-1649A Starliners. The airline's success mirrored the financial recovery of the Federal Republic and Lufthansa's first jet, the first of a fleet of Boeing 707s, arrived in March 1960, barely five years after operations had started. Boeing 727s, dubbed 'Europa Jets' by Lufthansa, began appearing on European services in April 1964. The Boeing 737 order was placed with a view to replacing the remaining propeller airliners, then consisting of the Convairs, Viscounts and the surviving passenger Constellations. The standardization on the 727 and 737 on the short-haul network was designed to offer cost savings by reducing the number of types in use, as well as giving the airline the public relations accolade of an all-jet fleet.

were of a revised 'string-tube' type, and attached more directly to the wings. The wings themselves were designed from the outset with excellent airfield performance in mind, using lessons learnt from the 727. The increased dihedral outboard of the wings not only contributed to this performance, but also added to fuel capacity. Features such as the onboard auxiliary power unit and optional airstairs further added to the 737's attractiveness, as it would be able to operate from many smaller airports with limited facilities. By the time Boeing announced the definitive design, as the Boeing 737, in February 1965, the aircraft had already grown from a

First 737 Sales
Surprisingly, this order was not from one of the major US domestic carriers, despite United having been a major target and contributing a great deal of input into the design. At the time that the design studies on the Boeing 737 were being initiated, United and Eastern Air Lines had been the only major US carriers uncommitted in the second-generation, short-haul twinjet market. Although an enthusi::tstic operator of the 727, Eastern eventually opted for ordering a large neet of DC-9s, that could be delivered quicker than the 737 that

Lufthansa had been looking for a jet replacement for its remaining neets of piston-powered Convair 440 Metropolitans, as well as their turbo-prop Vickers Viscounts, then operated on West German domestic and busy short-haul European routes. Also earmarked for replacement were a handful of piston-powered Lockheed Super Constellations, long since deposed from the long-haul services, but sti II used on Lufthansa's h ighercapaci ty domestic and European schedules and some inclusive-tour charter services. Lufthansa was already operating Boeing 707s and 720Bs on long-range flights, as

(Above) Lufthansa inaugurated postwar scheduled services with Convair CV-340s in 1955. Jenny Gradidge The Vickers Viscount was to be operated by Lufthansa on European and domestic routes, Lufthansa (Below) Lufthansa introduced the first 727s to Europe, naming them 'Europa jets'. They were operated to North Africa and the Middle East as well as on busier shortrange flights. Via author

Eastern opted for the OC-9 as its short-haul jet, rather than wait for the 737, still in its early design stages.
Via author

60-seater to a 75-103-passenger airliner. The 'family' concept had survived, with 60 per cent commonality with the Boeing 727 design being retained. The 727's dual hydraulic-powered ailerons, elevator and rudder, the leading edge slats and Krueger flaps were adapted for the 737, as was the 707's dual electric motor-driven variableincidence tail plane trim system, with a manual backup. The company was also able to announce its first order for the 737 on the day the final design was revealed.

was still on the Seattle drawing boards. United, however, continued to co-operate with Boeing on their project. United was more interested in the slightly larger development of the Boeing design, later to emerge as the Series 200, 6ft 4in (lAm) longer than the Series 100. As a result, West Germany's Lufthansa had been the fi rst to place an order for twenty-two of the initial 737-100 series, thus becoming the first Boeing airliner to be launched by a non-US customer.

well as 727s on both short and mediumlength routes. Originally approached by both BAC and Douglas as a possible customer for their own short-haul jet options, Lufthansa had been less impressed with the smaller capacity and shorter range of the designs initially on offer. With the addition of the 737, after disposing of its last propeller-powered airliners, Lufthansa would be able to offer Boeing jet service standards to all its customers, throughout its network.

20

TO MESSRS BOEING. A BOUNCING BABY

Lufthansa's Influence
Lufthansa had actually been responsible for persuading Boeing to stretch the original 73 7 design. In particular, Lufthansa's Chief Executive, Technical Services, Gerhard Holtje, pressured Boeing into proceeding with the design to match the airline's needs more closel y. As fi rst offered by Boeing's designers, the 737 would have been a 55-60-passenger airliner. Holtje, however, insisted on an aircraft capable of carrying up to eighty-two passengers, the capacity of their Super Constellations, each with 20kg (44Ib) of baggage, as well as up to 450kg (990Ib) of cargo and mail over a 500mi (804km) sector with fuel reserves. [n the end, even the smaller 737-100 was to exceed these performance criteria, with the larger, higher-capacity Series 200, initially with less range, offering even more revenue-earning potential. Lufthansa signed their order for twenty-two Series [OOs on [9 February [965, three days before Boeing officially announced the launch of the 737 project

into production. United eventually placed thei r order, for forty Series 200s, on 15 April [965.

Pulling It All Together
At first, the final assembly of the 737 was centred on a new 218,000sq ft (20,252sq m) plant at Boeing Field, the company's main plant, at Seattle. The wings and main body of the aircraft were built at the existing Plant 2. The tail was constructed at the Boeing facility in Wichita, originally established for Boeing by the US government during the war to build the B-29 bomber. The B-47 jet bomber was also later produced at Wichita. Much of the 73 7's other com ponen ts, such as the building ofthe landing gear and much of the airliner's interior work, were contracted out to third parties. [n 1967, Wichita was given responsibility for the construction of fuselages for all 737s, which were then transported to the assembly line by train, a practice that continues to the present day. After the 271st

737 was completed, in 1970, following a major reorganization within the company due to financial problems, all final assembly for the aircraft was moved south to the nearby Boeing factory at Renton. Located 15 miles southeast of Seattle, the Renton faCility was already responsible for much of the company's commercial airliner production and the 737 production line initially ran alongside that of the 727. The move of the final assembly work to Renton was greatly facilitated by the 737's production jigs for the wings having been made portable from the beginning. Originally this had been to enable the entire assembly process to be moved to Wichita, if required, at a later date. With the placing of production orders by Lufthansa and United, and other sales in advanced states of negotiation, the 737 had finally been firmed up from an everchangeable 'paper' proposition to a definitive design. The serious task of transforming the paper design into a flying, commercially viable, working airliner was now underway.

CHAPTER TWO

First Steps
New Sales
Despite the difficulties, by the time the first aircraft was assembled and 'christened' in a much-publicized ceremony at Seattle, on 17 January 1967, no less than seventeen carriers had been wooed by Boeing's everefficient sales department into placing orders for the 73 7. As well as the launch orders from Lufthansa and United, the order book now included aircraft for Avianca (two), Braathens (three), Britannia Airways (three), Aer Lingus-Irish International (two), Lake Central Airlines (three), Mexicana (two), Nordair (three), Northern Consolidated Airlines (one), Pacific Air Lines (six), Pacific Southwest Airlines (six), Pacific Western Airlines (two), Piedmont Airlines (six), South African Airways (two), Western Air Lines (twenty) and Wien Alaska Airlines (one). Apart from the Avianca and Mexicana orders, all were for the larger series 200. The Lake Central, Nordair and orthern Consol idated orders were for versati Ie, convertible, passenger-cargo aircraft. It is interesting to note that, apart from major US carrier Western Air Lines, all the above orders were for comparatively small numbers. Many carriers were still unconvinced of the prospective economics of short-haul jet services. Two of the 'Big Four' US domestic airlines, Eastern and TWA had already ordered DC-9s over the 737, due to their earlier availability. American Airlines had long committed itself to operating a mixed fleet of One-Elevens and 727s on their medium and short-haul network. This left United as the only 'Big Four' carrier still interested in the 737. The mediumsized and specialist airlines, although eager to upgrade their services with jets, only had a requirement for small fleets to serve their networks.

The Third Pilot Issue
The 737 also had a political disadvantage in that pilots' unions and organizations in the United States were insisting that the aircraft be operated either with three pilots, or two pilots and a flight engineer. This arrangement, as well as being expensive for the airlines, was also rather impractical as the 737 flight deck had been designed from the start as a twopilot environment, with only a small 'jumpseat' available for any supernumerary personnel thar may need to be carried from time to time. The third pilot issue had originally been raised shortly before the Lockheed L-188 Electra turbo-prop entered service in the late 1950s. Although never intended to be operated by just two pilots, the Air Line Pilots' Association (ALPA), wanted the third crew member to be a pilot, not a flight engineer, as had been the case on most previous three-cockpit-crew aircraft. ALPA wanted all jet-powered equipment to carry the third pilot. As well as ALPA's stand on safety and workload issues, the demand for a pilot in place of a flight engineer was seen as a political move in an attempt to seriously weaken the rival Flight Engineer's [nternational Association (FE[A). Two of the Electra's earliest operators were targeted by the pilots' un ion as test cases during contract negotiations, with a view to persuading them to take ALPA's view and establish a precedent. Miamibased National Airlines managed to reach a compromise that deferred the issue until it was put to arbitration when the Electra's had been delivered. Western Air Lines' management were less flexible and a bitter strike followed a failure in negotiations. From 21 February to 10 June 1958, Western was grounded, with both sides refusing to budge. Finally, after the airline threatened to hire new pilots to replace

The finalized design for the Boeing 737-100 revealed a practical twin-jet airliner with great potential for growth and development. Lufthansa

Boeing 737s finallv started rolling down the production line in 1966/67. Lufthansa

22

23

which was very basic with no working (c. coukl en"oUfe that no carrier would han. at the same time. AViation Hobby Shop thc mock-up. thc airline was hampered by bei ng obi iged to serve numerous short inter-city routes in between these points. a new contract was signed and once again the third pilot issuc was deferred. leaving Lufthansa and Avianca as the only initial customers for the Series 100. Mexicana later cancelled their order. was to vanish before they could takc delivery of their 737s.hk degree .(ety 111 the puhlic l11tere. as Turner Airlines. in 1949. Two or Three on the 7377 ALPA and FAA representativcs wcrc shown a mock-up of the 737 flight deck design in the autumn of 1965. AlPA. In 1965. annual contract negotiations had opened with United and the question of crcwing on the 737 soon bccame a major issue. operatc on the Boeing 737 and the OneElevcn and DC-9. Howevcr.lturcs. ALPA took a strike vote at nited and 92 per cent of their pilots were shown to favour striking if the 737 was not operated by the three-pilot crew. Pictures courtesy of Aviation Hobby Shop Lost Custom In addition to the three-pilot issue dcterring some potential customers.3.. supporting the two-crew position. than the highest p"". would have been the first step in replacing a fleet of Convair 580 and ord 262 turbo-props. However. after hegin hought out by Allegheny Airl ines. This espccially aided Douglas in selling both their standard and stretched DC-9s to scveral smallcr American regional airlincs. thc union stated that if the Boeing 737 was to be legally required to operate with three crew. largely industriali:ed region.. The airline had placed a lot of faith in the small. Malaysia-Singapore Airline' did eventually order five Series 100s. Once again. where the onvair was too large and the remaining D -3s were in de perate need of a more modern replacement. not all the seventcen carriers representcd at thc christening ceremony were to take dclivery of their ordercd aircraft. ALPA would reopen the issue on the other two types as well. the FAA notified Boeing in writing that it tentatively acceptcd that the 737 could be operated with only two pilots. Although the FAA was unable to make any dctcrmination as to likely certification based on The negotiations had failed to solve the issue by April 1967 and a mcdiation board was appointed in an attcmpt to find a compromise betwecn ALPA and United. Some limited non-stop authority had been granted between larger citie' on the network. However. pilot or flight engineer. all A bitter dispute between the pilots' union.( ". ALPA later dropped the request for three-pilot crews on thc One-Elevcn and DC-9. as well as several other bodics.r. Rc-cquipment was a top priority and the 737s. thc United pilots' group concluded that a three-pilot crew would be required. Following instructions from its membership.. of which a dozen of each were operated. Replacement of Lake entral's long-serving DC. had hegun in 1960 with the arrival of several ex-United Convair 340. US operators of the DC-9 and BAC One-Eleven twin-jets were not directly affected by the AlPA campaign for a third pilot on the 737. Unitcd's pilots wcrc quick to make it known that they disapproved of the two-crew conccpt bascd on this mock-up. of Indianapolis. Twelve months later. O\'ember 1966 saw the meeting of ALPA's directors adopting a rcsolution requiring three pilots on Bocing 737s at all times. The disputc rumbled on. Thc sturdy.urlllle Jet transl'{)rt llpcratlUlb. 27 -passenger ord. an animatcd mock-up was uscd to tcst crcw workloads on thc aircraft. ALPA rcsponded by The Loss of the Lake Central Orders After struggling with equipment problems and a precarious financial position for many years. DC-3s had been in service 'ince the airline's founding. but it was not enough to turn red ink into black. barring any changcs or ncw information that may result from the flight tcst programme. A month earlier. but increasingly unfashionable. During the Summcr. point by point. orthern Consolidatcd and Wi en Alaska Airlincs combined their operations in February 1968 and the 73 7 were deli\'ered to the resulting new carrier. with Boeing. Wien Consolidated Airlines. followed later by a further order for Series 200s. the board was recessed on 25 July with no agreement reachcd. Until the dispute was settled. onetheless. as well as two 727laOs also on order. Although serving a prosperous. thc FAA and ALPA. Lake Central started converting their second-hand Convairs to propeller 24 25 . However. thc airlinc managemcnts. According to ALPA: The FAA. ALPA proposed to FAA's Westcrn Rcgion and the FAA Administrator that thrce-man crews rebutting the ATA-AIA arguments. to pronde '\cn'icc with les. in eptember 1967.. The Air Transport As ociation of America and the Aerospace Industries Association filed a report with the FAA. the possibility of having to operate the 737 undcr these conditions was to deter a number of possible U domestic cu'tomers. and Western Air lines' management centred around who should occupy the lockheed Electra's third flight-deck seat. In common with many other regional carricrs at the time. hy estahl"h111g a reqlllre111ent for a three-man cre\\' for .~ L'C0!101llIL II1Cl'l1tl\"L' making thcir vicws as well known and as volubly as possible. The Lakc Central network stretched from east to west from Chicago to Washington DC and north to south from Buffalo and Grand Rapids to Cincinnati in the south. the Nords arrived to bring jet-prop service to Lake entral's less busy routcs.FIRST STEPS FI RST STEPS the strikers. Lake Central A irl ines.

that had caused the turhine failures. Through later merger acquisitions and a vigorous pol icy of route expansion. At this time. had been sorted out. serious engine problems led to grounding of the Nord fleet in August 1966. The Nords did done Lake Central any favours and the tragic loss of the three crew and all thirtyseven passengers on one of the Convairs a month later. The Lake Central network dove-tailed into Allegheny's more easterly system The airline pioneered a number of highly original passenger handling methods. However. Via author not return to service until February 1967 when problems with water methanol and mineral CorroSiOl. and swiftly placed back into service. caused by a propeller shaft failure. an engine actually exploded in fl ight.FI RST STEPS FIRST STEPS turbine power. intended for ser\'ice hetween the larger cities on the network. where they had been awaiting sale. Th is was a Iso deri ved from Lake Central's earlier advertising claim to be 'Serving the Heart of the ation'. at the time of the Lake Central takeover. lake Central Airlines had relied on their faithful DC-3s (above) for many years before introducing larger Convair CV340s (left) that were later re-engined as CV-580s with turbo-prop power plants. the bad publicity had not great surprise when merger negotiations began between the two companies. negotiations began with Boeing to acquire a small 737 fleet. on no less than four occasions turbine wheels had failed in the French-built aircraft's Turbomeca Bastan engines. These culminated in a vote to merge by both airlines' stockholders on 14 March 1967. But it was too late to save the airline. keeping an engine running on tight turnarounds and employing travelling in-flight pursers to issue tickets. New route extensions saw the carrier reaching St Louis in the west and Louisville in the south. the new system was not further exploited by Southwest. A new management team took over and began promoting the carrier as the 'A irl inc with a Heart'. Pacific Air Lines was originally known as Southwest Airways. Although it worked.3s. The crew managed to regain control and land safely. More conventional handling methods 26 27 . Allegheny grew from a purely local service carrier into one of the largest airline operators in the USA. In one incident. N40408 previously served with TWA. established to take advantage of the increased interest in air transport. although the modified aircraft went on to serve Allegheny and its associates for many years after the merger. the Boeing 727 and 737 formed no part of the airline's plans and the orders were cancelled. MAP Pacific Air lines' choice of DC-3 replacement was a mixed fleet of Martin 202s and 404s. Ithough not leading to the loss of any of the aircraft. but passengers had been badly injured when parts from the disintegrating engine had punctured the cabin. on 7 July 1966. such as integral airstairs on their DC. Following another engine failure a month later. Many of the new management team had originally come from Allegheny Airlines and it came as no quite neatly and the merger was the first step in a substantial period of growth for the airline. with Convair 580 flights from Indianapolis. with Allison 501 prop-jets replacing their original piston engines. Pictures via author H4040S (Below) The French-built Nord 262 was a great disappointment to lake Central. Unfortunately. with Lake Central's absorption into Allegheny taking effect on I July. Pacific's Problems Yet another of the numerous post-Second World War local service carriers. painting large white hearts on a bright red ta i I. the Nords were grounded and the old DC-3s taken out of storage. saw more passengers avoiding travelling with the airline. But.

Effectively suffering competition from both mainline and low-fare sectors of industry. In the year. Airborne! After the January roll-oLit and christening ceremonies. Air West favoured the DC-9 as their preferred smaller. 'Lew' Wallick Jm. N73700. with a new network extending further into the Pacific northwest and east as far as Arizona and Utah. in the shape of Martin 202s and 404s. for the first time in a certification programme.15.L. Sacramento and its home base at San Francisco. Both IFR and VFR weather conditions. N73700 was to make its first landing at Paine Field. This was 30 per cent more than the 72 7 prototype had put in over the same period. designed to feed traffic from suburban Californian points into San Francisco and Los Angeles area airports. medium-range Douglas DC-8s and Boeing 720s in the area. the company's senior experimental test pilot. was prepared for its first flight and the ensuing flight test and certification programme. over ten years earl ieI'. In its first month. Boeing's assistant director of fl ight operations. took to the air for the first time. Two round-trips were made on each of six days that week. United were also utilizing their larger four-jet. they accomplished more than 1. Both Bonanza and West Coast had operating the type since 1966. Ironically. Pacific Air Lines was held back by unprofitable local service routes. onetheless. 37 minutes. Boeing On finally landing at Paine Field. Taxi tests took place on 8 April 1967. A giant leap from the 48-passenger Fairchilds. the FAA issued a statement in December 1967 regarding the two-crew issue. The next day. Pacific Southwest Airlines. local time. Never intended to fly. but were later disposed of in favour of more DC-9s. registered N 73700. a year after the order book for the aircraft reached the 100 mark. for preliminary assessment of the 737's handling characteristics and aircraft systems. Expansion had led to the company name being changed to Pacific Air Lines in March 1958. at 13.300 hours of flight testing that included. Despite operating a modern fleet of Boeing 727 jets and Fairchild F-27 jet-props that had replaced the Martin 202s and 404s. Primarily as a result of the Thanksgiving week flying. Although it departed from Boeing field. and over three times that of the Dash 80. the aircraft was subjected to vibration tests. jet. The first of United's Series 200s flew on 8 August 1967 and was one of the five early production aircraft that joined the test and certification programme as soon as they could be released from the production line. sales had increased to 141 aircraft. The far-reaching evaluation of the Bocing 737 The FAA Two-Crew Decision During the 1967 Thanksgiving holiday week. below minimum landing conditions and diversions to alternative airports. also in Washington State. The hope was that the combined operation. the other from Boeing. Aviation Hobby Shop 28 29 . Pacific was finding its situation increasingly untenable A fleet of 73 7-sized airliners was seen as being necessary to compete more economically. costing it large amounts of revenue. events overtook Pacific Air Lines' fleet planning and. in April 1968.FIRST STEPS FIRST STEPS were utilized when larger aircraft. the development Boeing aircraft. The Boeing 737 prototype. Everett. with the evaluation of the cockpit mock-up. using a two-pilot crew. the new jets were necessary to compete against the major operators in the region such as United and Western. A Ithough it operated between several important West Coast cities and boasted an extensive network that stretched from southern California to Oregon and across the evada border to Las Vegas. stretched and overloaded to destruction to prove the strength of the design. Most of these were left over from Southwest's original network. would form the basis of a commercially much stronger carrier. approaches under CAT II bad weather conditions. Wygle reported: 'I hate to quit. and show that Boeing's engineers had got their sums right. Continuous evaluations over the pa~l two year:. the company needed to get the test and certification work underway as soon as possible. with S. Pacific Air Lines was beginning to suffer from severe local competition from both low-cost and mainline carriers in its Californ ia-based network. Washington corridor. Pacific relied heavily on revenue from service between the larger cities such as Los Angeles. This airport had been designated as the base for the first ten flying hours. were examined. included regular Pacific's Boeing 727s were taken over in the Air West merger. simulated instrument failures and crew incapacitation were included. the airline was to merge with similarly disadvantaged West Coast Airlines and Bonanza Airlines to form Air West. Forty hours of flight time were amassed. N 73 700 took to air for the first time. Western also flew later model Boeing 720Bs throughout the region. Ship number 3 sacrificed most for the project. Pacific's attempts to compete by placing the 727s into service on non-stop flights between the few major cities on their network were hampered further by increasing competi tion from local low fare rival. prototype of the 707. 73 700 managed to achieve a total flying time of 47 hours. As well as already operating 727s of their own. Together with 73700. Boeing's first jet transport. the FAA undertook a series of fl ights wi th the 737 in the busy Bostonwas starred in Septcmber 1965. replaced the DC-3s. Legally obliged by its route licences to serve the uneconomic smaller communities that it would dearly have liked to have dropped from its network. in June 1979. It was commanded by Brien Wygle. as co-pilot. by the mid-1960s. In addition. The airplane is a deligh t to fly. and larger 727-200s were later operated before the company lost its identity in yet another merger. it was left to one of the larger major US carriers to refine Southwest's novel ticketing methods into the highly successful Eastern Air Lines 'Shuttle' between East Coast cities. from Boeing Field on 17 April 1967. and Pacific Air Lines' 737 orders were cancelled. including day and night flights. The 100-passenger Boeing 727-100s had entered Pacific service on 20 July 1966. The first flight lasted two and a half hours.' Clocking up the Hours With the programme already well behind schedule. Pacific's 727s continued in Air West service for a while. short-haul. One pilot was from the FAA.

The early production aircraft that had participated in the test programme were finally handed over to their new owners for the first airline crews to be trained and converted to the aircraft. wearing full United colours. Even once the issue had been settled as far as the federal regulators were concerned. The [echnical Findings cOl11ing oU[ of [hese evalua[ions are [hm [he aircraft can be safely flown with (l minimum of two pilots. participated in the new type's certification programme before being handed over to the airline for initial crew training. resulting in loss in speed of 30kt. were trained. originally designed to months later the resulting aerodynamic modifications were introduced onto production aircraft. Th. Most of the operated the aircraft with a two-pilot crew. and upgrade kits were made available for adding retroactively to aircraft already in service. switched its attention to developing modifications to allow the 73 7 to operate from unpaved runways. they were the only carriers to be so encumbered. more lift than predicted and the availability of more powerful. flat-rated ]T8D-9 engines. were made as a direct result of the data gathered. they returned to train their own colleagues and prepare for full-scale commercial operations. as originally designed from the beginning. Both United and replace conventional doors over the main landing gear.FIRST STEPS FIRST STEPS operations of [he aircraft in " high-density air traffic environment to determine workload . cOl11plexi[y.afe concept. were tested on the prototype and soon discarded. both the series 100 and 200 Boeing 737 received simultaneous certification for airline operations. Ten EA N73700 visited remote rough airfields to demonstrate its versatility and rugged nature. allowed an increase in operating weights. The value of the test programme was apparent by the number of changes that vcry accom- plished by [he FAA and Boeing personnel. D-ABEA. Via author (Top) The first of the slightly larger 737-200s joined the flight test programme on 8 August 1967. Boeing (Abovel Lufthansa's first 737-100. A more serious problem that was brought to light by the flight test programme was the increased drag. and other operational and maintenance personnel. However. Also. and safety of opermions in a fail:-. the prototype. Changes included new high-lift 30 31 . 73700. This permitted the basic mission guarantees to he met. As the first production aircraft were delivered. over the predicted amount. the 737 was originally fitted with 'clam-shell'-style thrust reversers. an intensive wind-tunnel testing programme was embarked upon to cure the problem. For the long term. Fortunately. It was retrofitted on early production aircraft and later became standard equipment. Once the first crews. drag was over 5 per cent more. as previously used on the 727. inflatable seals. In fact. other US operators and foreign carriers were under no obligation to consider adding the extra crew member.c~e nighl~ were part of extensive flight~tcs[ing programme (-l Certification Awarded In Decem ber 1967. In particular. particularly during the cruise. a number of American Pilots' organizations insisted on three flight-deck crew for the 73 7 as part of bargaining negotiations with the airline employers. Lufthansa Western found themselves obliged by their agreements with ALPA to operate the aircraft with three crew members on the flight deck. These proved to be ineffective on the 737 configuration and a new deflector was designed and tested on the 73 7 prototype.

A mall number of piston-powereJ Lockheed Constellations and early model. commercially important California-Pacific orthwest regional flights. the first Renton-assembled 737. forever afterwards known as the 'Dash 80'.119 Boeing B-29 heavy bombers rolled off four production of the 727 tri-jet began on the site in 1963.6 million sq ft site. as the Opened in April 1942. unpaved. Boeing ceased production at the end of hosIn October 1928. Western's Short-Haul Plans Although from one of Boeing's more archetypal 737 customers. dipped sharply in response to worldWide financial problems and overcapacity within the airlines. ProCity'. 73700 demonstrated its new rough-field capabilities to airline and government agency representatives. tilities and only utilized a small part of the once busy facility for storage. The only larger version of the DC-9 then available. Hubbard sold his mail flight operation in 1928. with KC-135A. in 1949 Boeinveopened the factory to build the C-97A World war was responsible for Renton's sudden transformation from backwater airStratofreighter. later that year. serving the city of Renton. FAA certification for gravel runway operations was forthcoming in February 1969. The flYing boat was operated by Edward Hubbard (who also flew part-time as a test-pilot for Boeingl. the plant had an immediate effect on the local economy. although overshadowed by the development of Seattle's Boeing Field as the northwest's The immediate postwar period saw little activity at Renton. it was intended venture project by Boeing to develop a tanker aircraft to refuel the B-47 and B-52 jet that Boeing would build large flying boat patrol bombers on the 1. resulting in massive lay-offs in 1969. operating an Alaskan network. ordair and Pacific Western. was then operating a network that. apart. Bryn Mawr remained in use as a Administration turned the deeds over to the City of Renton and it became Renton busy general aviation field. by the single Model ing the immediate erection of a new aircraft construction plant on the shores of Lake 367-80. examining the characteristics of the 737's then unique engine installation. However. However. Renton production lines instead. although the War Assets main aerial gateway for commercial airline operations. Western had seriously considered the 737's main rivals. field to major aircraft assembly plant July 1941 saw the US Navy and Boeing announcThe 875 Stratofreighters built at Renton were followed. we tern regional and multi-stop California. was also thought not to be big enough and the five-abreast passenger seating was seen as inferior to the 737's six-abreast layout. at Bryn Mawr. These carriers were already planning to fly their 737s into smaller. the precursor of the at a time of increasing hardship for the company. Particularly interested in these modifications were operator such as Wien ConsoliJated. In April and may. known locally as 'Jet KC135 and Boeing 707 models. following its purchase ofthe latter airline. as well as new deflectors fitteJ to protect the lower fuselage and engine intakes from scuffed-up stones and debris on rough runways. a Senes 200 for Indian Airlines.000 during the war years. A fleet of Boeing nOB jets already operated on longer non-stop routes. with the 747 wide-bodied airliner project barely underway and suffering its own teething and delayed production problems. isolated communities on their networks in Alaska and northern Canada. non-fan engined. as amail service to Victoria. as well Boeing's decIsion to move 737 fmal assembly to its Renton facility came (Above) The Boeing facility at (Below) The Boeing Model 367-BO. As part of its cost-cutting measures. it became the proud owner of a fleet of vintage ex-Pacific Northern Airlines piston-powered Lockheed Constellations.outhwcst-M inncsota-Canada routes. These routes were earmarked for jet service by Western's new 737s. Boeing 71 jets. that claimed to be the United States' oldest surviving carrier.000 to 16. The phenomenal success of the 707 led to a great deal of expansion at Renton and ing boats were finally built at Renton. the design was further adapted as the Boeing 707. first flew from Renton in sales had dipped severely. Boeing 1954. linking the more distant parts of Western's system. the SAC One-Eleven and the DC-9. The first 737-200 was also used for numerous test programmes. MAP as services to Mexico anJ to husier. Boeing decided to consolidate the 707n27 and 737 production lines at Renton. The company's association With the site dated back to ItS earliest days. Commercial aircraft Renton. Western. American's first jet airlinRenton's population rising from 4. landing stnp was built on the same site. bombers in flight.The 737's New Home FIRST STEPS devices and braking improvements and low-pressure tyres. Initial models of both aircraft had finally been dismisseJ as too small. Over the next few years. A large fleet of LockheeJ Elecrra turho-props and a handful of surviving piston-engincd DC-6Bs were operated on these US West Coast. in 1954. and not only as it was for a si:eable number of aircraft. served by only basic airport facilities and unpaved runways. A new. although covering much of the western half of the USA. were also to be inherited 32 33 . 1. cities served between the terminal points were usually only ahout an hour's flying time. Municipal Airport. However. on his becoming a vice-president of Boeing Air Transport. The Dash 80 was a totally private Washington. with aBoeing B-1 flying boat havmg been based at amakeshift seaplane facility on the shore of Lake Washington in 1922. particularly affected by late engine deliveries. or even less. The Boeing 73 7's ability to provide jet airliner service to remote areas with dispersed populations was set to become one of its major selling points. Boeing duction delays and the three-pilot controversy had slowed down sales of the 737 since the initial spurt of interest The 707 was nearing the end of its production life. over the Canadian border in British Columbia. the airfield was renamed Renton Airport. Although few flyer. Seen here on water ingestion tests. on a plot of land to the east of Renton Airport Originally. such as Los Angeles-Minneapolis. the military tanker/transport version of the StratocrUiser airliner. mostly comprised short inter-city service. As well as being ordered in large numbers by the US military. Via author Just as Western was poised to take delivery of the then ultra-modern 737. The 727 production figures that had experienced steady growth. the Western Air Lines' order had been an important boost for Boeing' corporate ego. the series 30. being flown in December 1970.

Even Bogota's own airport was at 8. Northern Consolidated Airlines had begun operations in 1945. eventually. The addition of the 737 to the Avianca fleet would allow the retirement of more of thc agcing piston aircraft and see the introduction of jet ervice to more regional cities. operating routes into airports locatcd among difficult tcrrain. Foreign Interest Any disappointment within Boeing over the initially slow dome ticsale of the 737 were offset by growing interest from export customers. several 737s took on N73700's Boeing livery. with similar generic test registrations. with all due ceremony. the aircraft will eventually join a Boeing 247. and even rockets. It would have required an expensive rebuild. As space-oriented work declined. with ome part. as well as ingle examples of the much larger DC-4 and a Lockheed L-749 Constellation on busier service. NASA had originally been formed to promote and organize the US space programme. The 'glass cockpit' flight display. Boeing 34 35 . Initially stored at Moses Lake. conversion for resale and certification for commercial operation of N73700 was out of the question. rcplace thc 72 Bs. as well as a redistribution of a number of local trunk routes previously operatcd by Alaska irlines and Pan American' Alaskan subsidiary. Both had benefited from a postwar boom in the A laskan economy. Washington and still with a modest 3. N515NA participated in the development of many advanced technologies. This cockpit could be equipped with experimental layouts and could be used to control the aircraft. This flexibility was important for the rugged. Avianca's choice of the higher pcrformance Series I 0 was dictated by conditions on routes into operationally difficult airports. NASA became more involved in research into fixed-wing aircraft operations and technology. tracing its origins back to pioneer 'bush' carriers in Alaska operating as early as 1924. For over twenty years. microwave landing systems. in response to Russian success in the 'Space Race'. -46s. having completed 978 hours of test flying. GPS performance evaluation. after considerable work was completed for NASA by Boeing. Thc type' promised high pel{ormance from smallcr airfields was especially attractive to Avianca. 727. ba ed on the Columbian capital. before being rescued by NASA. Both Wien and Northern Consolidated made good use of the DC-3 on their Alaskan services for many years. any modifications being able to be made during that particular aircraft's manufacture. retirement finally came on 19 September 1997. ew Boeing 72 7 jets also flew major regional and domestic fl ights. Northern Frontier Customers A Ithough the one-plane orders of Northern onsolidatcd and Wi en laska Airlines were destined to become a 'fleet' following the merger of the two carriers. Later production-model aircraft tended to undertake any development research. engineless. with the conventional cockpit still manned and capable of taking over at any time. when Wcstcrn took over Pacific Northern Airline in 1967. After four years in storage. However. The much publicized 'commonality' with other Boeing type also worked heavily in favour of Western ordcring the 73 7. to its new owners at the Museum of Flight. Wi en also flew a handful of larger aircraft. Apart from the rough-field operations research that continued into early 1969. The Avianca aircraft were intended for the busier dome tic and regional route network. mountainous approaches. the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program eventually selected the redundant N73700 as an ideal airborne test-bed. Routes were served by a variety of small typcs. the Caribbean and Europe using Boeing 720B. better able to compete with an increasingly strong Alaska irlines and the powerful new entrant into Alaska. development aircraft N73700. and others. Following its replacement at Langley by a Boeing 757. Via aUlhor N73700 was initially placed in storage at the end of its 737 development work. Douglas D -3s and D -4s operated on the domestic nctwork. alongside Lockheed Constellations. The most striking modification was the addition of a second cockpit in the forward cabin. the first 737. following the latter's take-over of Pacific Northern. at Renton. to assist takcoffs from hort runways at high elevations. Having been much modified during the test programme. A New life Re-registered N515NA. windshear sensor and wake-turbulence testing were only a few of over twenty aerial research projects assigned to the aircraft over the years. Bogota. the actual prototype was parked up. such as DC-3s. Their F-27Bs had large forward cargo doors and were convertible to a variety of passenger/cargo configurations. such as Cessna and Pilatus singleand twin-engined aircraft. from Anchorage. Much of this involved work on civilian projects and an aircraft was needed for anew project at NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia. By the mid-1960s Avianca was operating it longer-ranging services to the U A. A large fleet of piston-engined. Many of these were fitted with uprated engines. This crcated a much stronger carrier. with notoriously difficult. Western Air Lines. The merger of the two carriers was approved by the Civil Aeronautics Board in February 1968. was effectively redundant. Fairbanks-based Wi en wa the senior airline of the two. work assignments for the pioneering aircraft were rapidly declining. such as tyres. for the airlines concerned it was a major leap forward in equipment policy. Alaskan commercial air transport scene. the prototype 747 and a De Havilland Comet 4C in the museum's new airliner extension at Boeing Field. cver-changing. Both airlines had also been carly operators of the Fairchild F-27B turbo-prop. Larger Boeing 727-200s were al 0 ordered by Western to supplement the 737s and.FIRST STEPS Ship One Once the initial certification and test flights were completed.355ft (2. even assuming acustomer for a single Series 100 could be found. Established to investigate advanced technology for conventionally configured aircraft. were to provide new jct service to morc rcmotc arctic points. as well as linking the major laskan cities.000 hours flying time. well suitcd to the geographically challenging Alaskan terrain. being interchangeable with the Boeing 720B fleer. That evening it was flown back to its birthplace at Boeing Field. N73700 finally found a saviour in the shape of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As such. the aircraft was delivered to Langley on 17 May 1974. especially those fitted with cargo doors and convertible cabins. However.547m) above ea-Ievcl. many at high altitude with basic facilities and restrictcd runways. The Wien Consolidated Airlines' 737s. dcposed from international routes by the 720Bs. it was still a small order by Boeing standards. a Fairchild Packet.

Aviation Hobby Shop replaced by a new design before delivery. the type's first Far Eastem cu tomer. it was not always from operators interested in utilizing the aircraft in the purely shorthaul. the 73 7 was increasingly being seen as a candidate for charter service. Two other regional US carriers represented at the 'christening' that were to take delivery of their ordered aircraft. operated very different networks. two-pilot. The next change. New Applications New Markets When the orders from various pontificating carriers did start to come in for the 737. By then the leasing arrangement for the single Comet had been terminated when five second-hand omet 4s were purchased from BOAC. CHAPTER THREE New CustoDlers. other order (Above) Ex-BOAC De Havilland Comet 4s were the first jet equipment for the (Belowl The first 737-100s displayed lufthansa·s then current tail livery. US Regional Interest The neat. M A. which began operations as Malayan Airways in 1947. had less to do with operations into difficult airports. although the high take-off pelformance would certainly prove useful under some tropical conditions. Perth and Phnom Penh. both were anxious to take advantage of the 737's promised flexibility on their regional routes. Longer-ranging ambitions saw a pair of Boeing 707s being ordered for new routes to Europe. to Malaysia. Viscount 700s and a new fleet of Fokker F-27 Friendships. opened jet services in December 1962. A lthough a number of such customers were placing orders. a DCA. Boeing 36 37 . Kuala Lumpur. soon Singapore-based carrier. and the 737s were ordered to eventually replace the Comet on the regional jet flights. providing profitable jet service on local routes. Pacific outhwest Airlines and Piedmont Airlines. The omet flew regional trunk cheduled services from Singapore to Hong Kong. Taipei. The new fleet enabled jet services to be extended to Manila. scheduled airline climate for which it had originally been conceived.ingapore Airlines in 1967. flight-deck of the initial Boeing 737-100. occurred after Singapore had seceded from the Federation in 1965. Lufthansa Despite the Lake entral and Pacific Air Lines orders being cancelled after the carriers vanished in mergers.ingapore irlines. Jakarta and Bangkok. A change of name to Malaysian Airways followed the 1963 formation of the Federation of Malaysia. onetheless. the first having been delivered in late 1965. s('rving very different customer bases. inter-city. from S regional carriers were symptomatic of the interest in the rapidly expanding sector of the U airline industry. with a leased BOAC Comet 4.FI RST STEPS Eastern Market Entry The choice of the 737 by Malaysia. regional international routes and even some longer-range operations. This supplemented a fleet of DC-3s.

the aircraft collided with a Cessna 310 light twin aircraft that was approaching the same airport. when a Boeing 727-100 was leased from the manufacturer. CCA's Failure Although concerned at the loss of their traffic. Charleston. A single DC-3 was operated and Pacific Southwe t's early passengers were checked in through the lobby of the old flying school.99. Climbing out of Asheville/Hendersonville. was involved in a mid-air collision. using a set of bathroom scales to weigh baggage. everyone of the local service carriers. despite attracting high passenger loads on their low-fare services. Via author California Central's colourful fleet of Martin 202s failed to make money. instead of the regular 25 charged by nited and Western. Intervention by the CA B had led to the cancellation of a number of early orders for the British BAC One-Eleven from U carriers. However. but the larger 73 7 was also attracting ome interest. in addition to replacing the last of a fleet of Lockheed Electra turbo-props. Pacific Southwest Airlines had already be n a jet operator before ordering the 737. Aviation Hobby Shop (Be/owl The Japanese-designed NAMC YS-llA turbo-prop also served on Piedmont's regional and local services. their orders were for the Douglas twin-jet.ew York/La Guardia service. The 73 7s were on order as more economic supplements to the 727s on services with lower average loads. 60-passenger. the incumbent carriers fully expected PSA to be a passing phenomenon. A second leased 727 -10 arrived in April. who per isted in their wish to acquire a jet fleet for their local routes. A surprise order. the use of this aircraft wa to provide Piedmont with valuable jet experience before taking delivery of the 73 7s. with scheduled flights from an Francisco (Oakland) to Los Angeles (Burbank). alifornia Central hael made the mistake of expanding far Piedmont's Jet Debut Piedmont actually began jet operations on 15 March 1967. As the new carrier expanded during the 1950s. the DC-9. PSA was able to undercut the other carriers as its cheduled services were wholly conducted within the borders of the state of California. 404 which was re pon ible for allocating mail subsidy payments. s long as PSA satisfied the California Public Utilities Commission as to its fitness to survive. encroaching as it did on their traditional West Coast operations. as designated by the CAB. Larger DC-4s. their awarding of routes encroaching on the major trunk airlines left the CAB with little choice but to approve the upgrading of equipment in order for the smaller carriers to be able to compete with the 'majors' on their new routes. Piedmont moved into scheduled services in 1948. tragedy struck on 19 july when the original aircraft (Above) The piston-powered Martin 404 was introduced into Piedmont Airlines' service after the carrier had already acquired turbo-prop F-27s. Their Boeing 727 fleet had entered service in 1965 and a fleet of the larger 727-200 were also on order to replace their initial erie 100s. However. The seventy-nine occupants of the 72 7. had ordered jets. was also operating under California PUC authority at the time. Despite the primitive style of the early operations. such action was resisted by Mohawk Airlines. a vital lifeline for most of the local service carriers. 15. Within four years. Larger Fairchild FH-ZZ7s began replacing the earlier F-27s from early 1967. nother low-fare carrier. The airline had been a pioneer among the local service carriers in operating turbo-props. P A inaugurated a scheduled service from an Diego to San Francisco on 6 May 1949. it could set its own fares with no out ide influence other than market forces. As well as providing a competitive edge on new direct flight to New York and Washington. Fairchild F-27s. a large fleet of DC-3s was built up linking numerous southern towns with larger citie .000 passengers were carried on the route in the first year. California Central Airlines. However. in january 1949. from 14 November 1958. Mohawk eventually convinced the CAB that they would not require any extra subsidy to operate the jets. a version of the Dutch-designed Fokker E27 Friendship built under licence in the SA. during an Atlanta-Asheville/HendersonvilleRoanoke. California's Jet Commuter Like Piedmont A irl ines. all perished in the en uing crashes. earmarked for longer routes between larger cities on the network. with a number of non-stop route authorities being granted. Initially operating as a flying school at an Diego. led to the airline actively looking for jet equipment. o doubt this was mostly due to the low P A fare of 10. Martin 202s and a single Lockheed Constellation were acquired to cope with the demand for seats sold at 9.NEW CUSTOMERS. in southern California. roughly bordered between Washington. turbo-prop airliners was placed later that year. PSA was seen by the trunk carriers as a 'maverick' carrier and its continued survival was a major headache for United and Western ir Lines. Piedmont Airline's initial 737 order was for six series 200s. MAP 38 39 . For the most part. EW APPLICATIONS NEW C STOMERS. for ten japanese-produced ihon Y -II A. Piedmont was not to totally abandon piston-engined operations. However. NEW APPLICATIONS Southern Regional Pioneer Piedmont Airlines had followed a traditional evolution in US local air service. and therefore the federal CAB had no jurisdiction over the company. Formed in 1940 as a charter and general aviation company in orth Carolina. Atlanta and Louisville. CA also began operations with DC-3s. and the three in the essna. founded by Kenneth Friedkin in 1945. placi ng the fi rst of a large fleet of second-hand Martin 404s in service in 1962. one way. The acquisition of jets by regional carriers was initially resisted by the Civil Aeronautics Board. Turbo-Prop to Jet Expansion of Piedmont's network. However.

Braathens had begun operations as a long-haul scheduled operator. especially in Europe. Aviation Hobby Shop hit by the arrival of PSA jets on local routes from the area. Four DC-3s were in service with PSA by 1952 and new routes were only steadily introduced. MAp 40 41 . PS/~ Charter Airline's Choice A new market that was to become very important to Boeing in the following years was the rapidly growing number of charter airlines. it practically wiped out the long-standing operator on the route. until by the mid-1960s it started to rival scheduled services for the carriage of the majority of air travellers within Europe. California Central Airlines went into voluntary bankruptcy. The frequent.. notwithstanding the impressive total of 13 7. United and Western sat and waited for PSA to follow CCA's fate. the 98-passenger Elecn'as were acquired. let alone expensive re-equipment costs. purchased in ovember 1955. The postwar explosive growth of commercial charter flights. NEW APPLICATIONS establishments up and down the California coast. The 31-seat DC-3s were replaced by 70-seat DC-4s. while CAB-controlled Pacific was legally obliged to charge $24. In February 1954. Instead. u too quickly and was struggling to cover the costs of day-to-day operations. United and Western finally began to take PSA much more seriously and introduced lowfare jet services to compete. especially in the European inclusive-tour holiday market. Friedkin had actually announced his intention to order two French Sud Aviation Caravel Ie jets for PSA earlier that year. Braathens' Shipping Origins A subsidiary of a long-established shipping concern. but also operated an extensive programme of charter flights. However. When. by now PSA was firmly established as a popular alternative to the trunk carriers and managed to fight off the big guns. including a Los Angeles-San Francisco (Oakland) flight in 1955. the inclusive-tour industry had mushroomed. Braathens. Norway's involvement in the formation of SAS (Scandinavian Airlines System). However.000 passengers carried.000. had been an extraordinary phenomenon. Braathens survived as a scheduled domestic carrier within Norway and continued to (Above) The use of new lockheed l-188 Electras made PSA's major airline (Below) Pacific Air line's F-27 turbo-prop services from San Jose were badly rivals start to take the San Diego-based airline seriously. CCA recorded a deficit of over $1. in 1965.. overnight.. . The adverse economic effect of PSA on Pacific's operation was one of the main factors in Pacific Air Lines' eventual dire need to merge into Air West. Beginning with a handful of enterprising operators in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The agreement between the three Scandinavian countries meant that SAS was to be given the monopoly on such routes. PSA soon gained the nickname of 'Poor Sailor's Airline'. The independent Norwegian airline. the Electras continued to provide valuable. they were to be disappointed. The road had not been an easy one. meant that the orwegian authorities were unable to renew Braathen's authority for international scheduled services when it came up for renewal in 1954. They were especially popular with personnel on leave from the many US Navy The Douglas DC-6Bs served Braathens on worldwide charters as well as seeing service on the busier l routes on its Norwegian domestic network. flying services from Norway to the Far East and South America. entering service in December 1959 and quickly replacing the DC-4s. As a result. Pacific Air Lines. low-fare. with many early operators running foul of regulatory authorities. PSA's operations also had a major effect on local service carriers on whose routes it competed. PSA was able to charge $12. but the deal was never finalized. based at Luton in the United Kingdom. Via author • . A New Fleet PSA made a very bold move in 1957. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOMERS. Three additional Electras began arriving from 1961 as frequencies and loads built up throughout PSA's exclusively Californian network.NEW CUSTOMERS. with the announcement of an order for three new Lockheed Electra turbo-props. the joining together of the Danish Airline DOL. The bold placement of an order by all-charter operator Britannia Airways. had ordered the 737 for its scheduled domestic network.000 in 1953. only introducing nominal fare reductions and schedule changes to combat PSA's intrusion into their 'territory'. As well as the trunk carriers. economical service to PSA. it opened services from San Jose to Los Angeles. Even with the arrival of the first 72 7s in 1965. With the arrival of the Electras. the Swedish carrier ABA and orway's DNL. for brand new 737s sent a message to their commercial rivals to modernize as well or soon risk losing business. or succumbing to commercial pressures. services were popular with passengers from many different walks of Californian life.

finally joining Euravia at luton. The tour company wa determined never to be left in that position again and to take more direct control over the air transport section of the hoI idays they sold. UST had previously chartered from several different companies to carry their cl ients. one of the UK' leading inclusive-tour operators. With the financial security of T behind them. U T was just one of their customers left with client stranded all over Europe. Braathens' fleet of Fokker F. the airline enthusiastically entered the IT market as it grew in Europe. which was conveniently contracted to 'Braathens . EW APPLICATIONS fly internationally on charter services throughout the world.E. with the addition of the Skyways fleet and more secondhand Constellations. the industry finally began to gain a reputation for a much higher quality of product and attract even more of the mass travel market. orwegians enjoy a cheap halid::lY as much as any other Europeans and soon Braathens was flying clients for several Scandinavian tour operators. The eight onstellations in use in 1963 were oon averaging 1. Although the Constellations continued in use until late \965. Jenny Gradidge The sudden demise of once-busy Overseas Aviation left travel companies like UST with angry and inconvenienced clients throughout Europe. The arrival of second-hand Bristol Britannia turbo-props prompted Euravia to change its name to Britannia Airways. the trusty Lockheed were rapidly reaching the end of their useful life and Euravia began to look at their options for a replacement. After only one summer season. to Euravia Takes to the Skies Euravia (London) Ltd. comfortable. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOMERS. However. the Britannias entered service with a Luton-Tenerife charter in December 1964. quieter ride than the onstellation .cheduled operators' attention to the potential of the Boeing 737 as a charter aircraft. Configured for 117 passengers. switched over to more modern types. Via author and jet speeds of the 73 7s on order was to be welcomed by Braathens in both markets. On a daily basis. they did not take on the new name. Three second-hand Lockheed Constellations were acquired and the first UST clients were carried from Manchester to Palma in May \962. formed as a subsidiary of Universal ky Tours. A well as offering a more modern. The charter network rapidly expand d to reach as far as southern Europe and Africa. including several contracted to U T. As well as using the extra capacity to increase UST's operations. Jenny Gradidge 42 43 . As Britannia.A. Britain's Holiday Specialists It was the order from Britannia Airways that drew other non. then in storage at Cambridge Airport. Britannia Airways had started operations in \962. Euravia's management were able to offer a standard of professional selvice rarely seen in the independent sector before. the Britannia also enabled Britannia irways to offer one of the first hot-meal catering services by a British all-charter carrier. The extra capacity a number of abrupt bankruptcies among Britains' independent airlines. The most significant of the e was the ce sation of operations by Overseas Aviation. Euravia bought out another Constellation operator. Skyways Ltd and. Defiantly continuing to operate as Braathens outh American and Far East irtransport AI . which operated a large fleet of Canadair Four and Vicker Vikings from Gatwick. as carrying Oslo bu inessmen to appointments in cities near the Arctic Circle. the airline had a 160 per cent increase in passenger capacity on offer for 1963. However. and the other IT operators.27 turboprops and piston-engined DC-6Bs were just as likely to be carrying sunseekers to a M diterranean island resort.F. much of it was snapped up by other inclusive-tour companies and Euravia's reputation within the industry grew apace. in early \961. G-AHEN.300 hour of revenue flying a month. north of London. wearing California Hawaiian titles. as the new airline was initially named. Their reliability became legendary in a ector of the K's airline operations far too used to operating ageing airliners with dubious maintenance schedule. till a comparatively young airline. before being sold on to los Angeles Air Service and EI AI. had originally been delivered to BOAC. Britannia Airways. The Expanding IT Market Euravia eventually chose to re-equip with a fleet of ex-BOAC Bristol Britannia 102s. Their arrival also saw a change of company name.' in the aircraft livery. It had later been California Central's sole Constellation. the summer of \96\ saw hangerage at Luton A irport. established offices and Euravia's Constellation.NEW CUSTOMERS.

was swift to justify their choice of the foreign option: Rrirannia Airways has nbwined government Under rhe rerms "f rhe Import Dury Act of 1958. Britannia Airways went ahead with their 737 plans and finally announced their order for three Series 200s in June 1966. supplementing their use on scheduled services. The independent British airlines did not offer jet services on any appreciable scale until the introduction of British United Airway's BAC One-Eleven and VC-IO fleets in 1964/65. All the Cunard Eagle Caribbean and Atlantic netPast Loopholes work had been absorbed into BOAC by September. Cunard Eagle. However. J. was deemed too expensive operationally on charter services. the three-engined Hawker Siddeley Trident. Harold Bamburg. The original licence for the route had been granted on the basis of low. in the absence of any viable European. British European Airways had not been able to persuade the governmentto allow it to import aircraft from abroad. State-owned BOAC had managed to avoid paying inflated duties on their largely American-built fleets over the postwar years by consistently 'proving' that the UK-produced alternatives were 'inferior'. which were already major players in the IT market. and later across the Atlantic to the UK with London-based Britannias. at a loss. when still known as Eagle Airways.NEW CUSTOMERS. effectively. This waiver has not heen allowed on rhe grounds thar similar aircraft arc procurable in rhe UK. a Brirish airline requiring aircrafr of foreign manufacture in order to compete with foreign airlines on international routes may be allowed waiver of import duty. including spares is abour £4. a number 01 BOAC aircraft carried 'BOAC fare. expensive customs duties would become due on their importation. Britannia wanted to increase their passenger-carrying capacity. let alone British-built. Vanguards. BEA operated its services with a fleet of British. lor scheduled Bermuda and the Bahamas. Despite being powered by Britishrebranded as British Eagle International Airlines and expanded its UK-based networks. Cunard'titles. 'coach class' services being offered. Dart Heralds operations. reluctantly. would match it.(Below) Following the acquisition of Cunard Eagle's Atlantic network. the first Cunard Eagle 707 was re-assigned to the Bermudan company. Operating Viscount-scheduled services to mainland USA. Britannia Airways refutes this vicw and are asking for a rcvcrsal of this deci- sion. in our particular set of circumstances. the subsidiaries were. The invesrment. 44 . when the shipping line owners of Cunard Eagle sold the trans-Atlantic network. our traffic rights arc nor protecred. The Comet 4B fleet of the state-owned British European Airways operated a number of night-time IT charters and cheaper. just like BOAC's early 707s. the airline's then managing director. Cunard Eagle (Bermuda).E. in June 1962. Unlike the government owned airlines. BEA was repeatedly told to 'Buy British'. Britannia's Case Although still I iable for a 14 per cent import duty. to BOAC. the Cunard Eagle 707s were quickly reassigned to Caribbean routes. local airlines outside the control of UK authorities. Of course Brimnnia Airways would have preferred ro buy Brirish jers. built Rolls Royce Conway engines. Dan-Air Services took delivery of the first of what was to become a sizeable fleet of second-hand Comet jets. Aviation Hobby Shop presented (0 them months ago in an aidc~tllcmoire. had established subsidiaries based in the Bahamas and Bermuda in the late 1950s. still on the drawing board at the time. in particular the larger Series 200. such as with the Vickers VC-l 0versus the Boeing 707. had found itself with an alternative Eagle. If foreign airlines can offer bettcr rares than wc can there is nothing to stop them taking away our business. low-frequency. with a Bermudan registration and opened scheduled trans-Atlantic services from London to Cunard Eagle Airways registered its Boeing 707 with its subsidiary. To describe an aircrafr which can only he operated against strong competition from forcign airlines at a loss (similar' to onc which can suh- \ permission to import rhree Boeing 737-200 aircraft for delivery in spring 1968. along with the 707s. Perhaps in an attempt to placate the UK industry over BOAC's parent company that was not licensed for the scheduled services under its own name. Cunard Eagle was faced with an import tax bill. nightrate tourist flights when not flying their European schedules in the daylight hours. More One-Elevens were on order for operators such as Channel Airways and Laker Airways. BOAC also protested that the Bermudan subsidiary was little more were disposed of in 1962. A large proportion of the available seats were sold to travel companies for use on IT holidays. the whole argument suddenly became immaterial only a few weeks later apparent pro-US tendencies. follOlved closely be Aer Lingus. The new twin engined jer will he operared on package holidays wirh 117 scats in addirion to rhe exisring smntially assisr rhe development of rhe Brirish air transporr indusrry is clearly preposrerous. bought back by the airline's disgruntled founder. Comets. The early One-Eleven models lacked the Britannia's capacity and although the stretched Series 500. The Minisrry of Aviarion have never quesrioned our basic G-1SC British government permission to import such expensive items as airliners depended on there being no alternative item available on the home market. However. Thus. neer of eighr Britannia's wirh identical seating capaciry. Otherwise. Williams. This efforr too failed. was later option in the early 1960s. claiming that the UK-built alternatives were less suitable lor their built Tridents. Brimnnia Airways will he the firsr operator of rhe 200 Series in Europe. The only other home-produced passenger jet of suitable size. with the bulk of its operations now undertaken by the UK-based ated on scheduled and charter flights. improving utilization for their Comet 4Bs and other types.000. Cunard Eagle ordered a pair of Boeing 707s. Ar rhe requesr of rhe rhen Minisrer of Aviation we rried again last December wirh a leading British manufacturer to find some way out of our dilemma. Via author The Competition's Jet Services The use of jets on UK IT services was very limited in the early 1960s. Asmall fleet of American-built Sikorsky helicopters were operthan a 'paper' airline. Also state-owned. Both BUA and British Eagle sold much of their jet capacity to IT operators from the beginning of their One-Eleven operations. Originally intended for a London-New York service.BOAC imported a large fleet 01 Boeing 707s. The European network of Cunard One independent carrier. the major obstacle of import duty had to be resolved before Britannia Airways could take delivery of any aircraft. The imminent arrival of BEA's fleet ofTrident jets would see the Corporation making even more use of spare capacity for IT charters and tourist-class flights. scheduled. Eager to remain competitive. Eager to replace its fleet of Bristol Britannia turbo-props with jets. The last foreign-built BEA fixed-wing aircraft in The upgrade to jets was seen as a serious threat by the independent to BOAC's own service had been DC-3s that had been with the airline since its formation in 1946 and that established services. our srudies led inexorahly to the conclusion thar Brirish jers offered ro us could only he operated.D. Via author and Herons. Britannia Airways also looked at the BAC One- Eleven. but soon dismissed it as a viable Britannia replacement. BOAC would demand some sort of subsidy to cover alleged extra costs of operating the British type. nor is rhe chaner rare we charge conrrolled in any way. in May 1962 BOAC was unlikely to let Cunard Eagle's actions go trans-Atlantic services. However. Aviation Hobby Shop unchallenged and a legal appeal was expected. Cunard Eagle Airways. NEW APPLICATIONS One Rule for One? BEA used much of their fleet's spare capacity on 'night tourist' schedules. with ex-BOAC Comet 4s entering IT charter service from Gatwick in 1966. Reacting to sensational newspaper headlines of the 'Britannia Orders American I' variety.250. alternatives. The airline's preference soon settled on the twin-engined Boeing 737. accepted a UK-built fleet. Even where BOAC had. the licence for which was revoked following BOAC's protests before operations could begin. Viscounts. British Eagle International Airlines followed with their One-Elevens in 1966.

We gave I3ritish A ircraft Corporation from July 1965 until February I. Britannia A irways advised the government six months ago that under no circumstances could their operation be viable with a British manufactured jet and supported this assertion with technical and economic data. MAP 46 47 . The procurement of a l30eing 737-200 fleet would en8hlc us to offer che8per than ever tr8nsport between the UK and the Mediterranean. carriers such as Britannia and its charter colleagues from several other European nations were starting to look over their shoulders at their southern rivals. Flying Tiger Line. but found the customs issue getting in the way again. If our assertions are not accepted we should be told why. when it attempted to order some 707s to replace its Britannias on trans-Atlantic charter services. When the inclusive-tour industry first took off. Instead. and the other independent UK charter carriers. SAM was so heavily involved with the UK originating IT market that a busy seasonal base was eventually established at Gatwick. and Trans Europa were just CALEDONIAN G-AWWX (Top) Delivery of Caledonian Airways' first Boeing 707 was delayed by the question of import duty. a fleet of British-built BAC One-Eleven Series 500s was ordered and placed into service in 1969. soon started to provide a commercial threat to UK charter carriers. Iberia leased or chartered out surplus members of its mainline fleets to supplement Aviaco's own charter operations. The airline still had to pay a sizable import duty. Caledonian came close to signing the 737 contract. l3efore commencing negotimions with Boeing. The 'sub-charter' arrangement allowed Iberia to undertake IT work at lower charter rates than it would have been allowed to under its own name by stringent lATA rules. The Boeing 'commonality' with Caledonian's 707s was a major factor in the airline's choice. Via author (Above) Eventually. like Alitalia's associate. giving the opportunity of a holiday Spain's Iberia was particularly busy in this market. Caledonian was forced to abandon plans to acquire Boeing 737s to complement its 707s. They did not make the slightest dent in the inexorable logic of the case. We stated that. we placed our studies and our conclusions before the leading British aircraft manufacturers and begged them to knock holes in our arguments. If we hought a British jet we could be sW8mped loy any of several foreign airlines if they bought Boeing 737-200s or DC-9-30s. 1'0 come up with a proposal that could m8ke sense. Via author The expanding operations of 'non-lATA' subsidiaries. Caledonian was very keen on ordering the 737-200 for use in its European IT services. Very detailed studies of the capabilities of jet aircraft currently offered by British and American manufacturers. 3. Face with another long debate with the authorities. the airline was also warned that it may be expected to pay increased duty on its already delivered 707s if the 737 order went ahead. Refusal to waive duty in sueh circumstances would weaken the British air transport industry without prorecting the manufacturing industry to the slightest degree. If our assertions are accepted there is no question of protecting the home industry and no case for the refusal of waiver. othing has been requested since our original aide-memoire. Faced with a crippling tax bill imposed for importing the Boeings. Iberia's Super Constellations were kept especially busy operating Aviaco charters once they had been displaced from scheduled services by jets. The better financed. as was the high performance promised and its increased capacity available over rival types. a few years later. Spain's Spantax. and therefore be able to undercut them in contract negotiations with tour operators. we could not buy British.NEW CUSTOMERS. Under increasing pressure from tour companies to replace its remaining Britannias with jets as soon as possible. NEW APPLICATIO S Caledonian's Dilemma London/Gatwick-based Caledonian Airways faced a similar duty problem to Cunard Eagle. 1966. both nationally and independently owned carriers of the resort countries soon latched on to the lucrative financial possibilities of the growing IT industry. in Ollr particular circum~ in the sun to an even larger sector of the population. We offered them access to most confidential data regarding our business so that they could check for themselves. operating DC-6s of various marks. led us to these conclusions:I. As well as the threat to their livelihood from these subsidiaries. were more than mere 'make-weights' in their argument against import duty. TAE. via its subsidiary. Caledonian was forced to lease out its first 707 to an American charter carrier. Societa Aerea Mediterranea Spa (SAM). deposed from front-line scheduled services by Jets. SAM. Alitalia had also set up its own 'nonlATA' subsidiary. Britannia. the carriers used were almost exclusively from the passengers' originating countries. were not able to do so. Aviaco. They The Foreign Threat Britannia's worries about foreign carriers being able to obtain 737s on more favourable terms. Instead. but still vulnerable. We have repeatedly offered to give the government any information they may desire. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOM ERS. 2. stances. three 'stretched' BAC One-Eleven Series 500s were placed in service on European IT charters. A commercially acceptable return on investment could not be obtained in our particular business on any British jet. However. Caledonian was forced to withdraw from negotiations with Boeing. regardless of the government's decision. serving several Italian resort areas. for ayear before the dispute was finally settled 'amicably' with the UK Customs authorities. were facing competition from an increasing number of foreign independents.

A giant Lockheed Hercules turbo-prop cargo aircraft was also on order to operate international and domestic all-cargo flights. Pacific Western Airlines. Pacific Western Another airline represented at the 'christening'. had introduced Boeing 720s on the Dublinhannon. had been operating jets ince late 1960. Aer Lingus Second Choice The Irish national carrier. would use their 737s for a mixture of charter and scheduled flying. Lower operating cost were often the key to their gaining contracts frolll northern European tour companie . Aer Lingus operated a fleet of OC-3s. Aer Lingus recogni:ed that the 74-seater One- Pacific Western's varied operations included scheduled local flights by DC-3s. By 1965 the company was ranked as Canada's third large t airline. Aer Lingus. Otters and even two Grumman Goose amphibians. NEW APPLICATIO S as likely to be carrying British holidaymakers. Even before they entered service. A small fleet of Aviation Traders' Carvairs. converted DC-4s. Nonetheless. supplemented by Convairs. in 1945. MAP Atlantic division. Aer Lingus 48 49 . replacing leased Lockheed Super Con tellations. The propeller-driven fleet had initially encountered only limited jet competition on some European routes with rival carrier such as Air France and Belgium's Sabena-operated aravelles. Initially operating as Central British Columbia Airway. The larger Douglases also operated a substantial international charter programme. through their scheduled parents. the Caribbean and Mexico. Eventually. on 14 December that year. such as the Bristol Britannia. however. operated car ferry and cargo services. DC-4s and DC-3s. The 'non-lATA' subsidiaries already had access to jet fleets. Via author later versions of the Vickers Viscount continued to form the backbone of Aer lingus's European services through the 1950s and 60s. askatchewan and the orthwest T< rritories. including trans-Atlantic services. everal of the Mediterranean-ba ed independent charter carriers had already expre sed an interest in acquiring some of the handful of fir t-generation jet that were starting to come on to the second-hand market. It trans- UK charter carriers accelerated their jet acquisition plans once continental charter operators such as Air Spain began modernizing with modern turbo-props. Aerlinte Eireann.ew York route.NEW CUSTOMERS. Aer Lingus was anxious to update their image and modernize the fleet by operating jets on the short/medium-haul network. the name Pacific Western Airlines was adopted in 1953 as the network expanded. Turbo-prop CV-640s entered scheduled service in February 1967. A pair of DC-7 operated international charters. mostly by the merging or purcha ing of smaller operators. Initial plans to order their own Caravelles were thwarted by the Iri h government's refusal to finance the purchase. On short-haul routes to the K and Europe. Viscounts and Fokker Ens. operating forty-seven aircraft on a scheduled network throughout Briti h Columbia. Alberta. while the schedule were operated by a fleet as diver e a DC-6s and DC-6B . DC-6s and DC-7s on busier routes. C-46s and several smaller types such as Beech I s. DHC Beavers. The Pacific Western 737s were intended for both regional scheduled and longer-ranging charter flights. NEW APPLICATIONS NEW CUSTOMERS. the airline was able to refute the government' obje tion to a short-haul jet fleet and a quartet of BAC One-Eleven were introduced into service in June 1966. they were becoming increasingly vital for commercial survival. The new jets were more than a fashionable whim. especially to the southern SA.

Unfortunately. The 115-passenger 720s had the capacity for the busy roUte. Gerhard Holtje (centre). Luhhansa 50 57 . A little over an hour later.25 departure from Frankfurt to Munich. very damp Hamburg on 4 February 1968. However. among others. Behind him is Capt Emil Kuhl. before closing its engines down for the last time that day. Greeted by a large crowd of Lufthansa employees. many of the potential customers had lost interest and/or patience and had ordered rival Douglas DC-9s or Boeing 737s instead. extra orders were eventually placed for more 73 7s and it became clear that Aer Lingus had plans to operate their new jet on more far-reaching routes around Europe. Lufthansa was able to take del ivery of their first production Series 100 on 27 December 1967. Canadian Pacific Airlines and New Zealand ational Airways. It had been announced that the 737s were intended for use principally on the Dublin-London route where traffic had continued to increase.Technical Services. was negotiating not only with Boeing to place an order. buying four Series 200s. the first Lufthansa 737 made the trans-Atlantic ferry flight from Seattle to the airline's maintenance base at Hamburg. Boeing's sales team had found themselves talking to a very disparate cross-section of the airline industry. but operating a four-engined jet airliner on such a short sector was an uneconomic proposal. media and well-wishers. Previously. lufthansa's Chief Pilot . to US carrier Braniff International. Work then began on fitting out the passenger cabin in preparation for scheduled service. the airline's Boeing 72 7s had been christened as '72 7 Europa jets'. This was less than two weeks after the 737 had received its FAA type certification and only a little over eight months since the prototype's first flight in May of that year. BAC procrastinated over their decision and by the time the larger Series 500 One-Eleven was finally launched. On 9 March. Aer Lingus's even larger Boeing 707s supplemented the One-Elevens on the London Service. to build a larger version of their twin-jet. Via author D-ABED arrived at a very cold.45. D-ABED was soon whisked away. On 10 February D-ABED took on its first load of fare-paying passengers. From there. it became LHO 16 to Hamburg. When the last two 720s were leased out by Aer Lingus. Bigger is Better? Aer Lingus was very keen for the OneEleven's manufacturer. back Aer Lingus had been an early customer for the BAC One-Eleven.737 Fleet. II ippon Airways. DABED joined Lufthansa's operating fleet as the first '737 City jet' as the carrier had chosen to promote the aircraft. the aircraft immediately began to be used to convert the first of Lufthansa's crews to operate the type. Aer Lingus' own patience had run out in 1966. but also with their own government for permission to import the aircraft for their extensive domestic network.NEW CUSTOMERS. had placed new orders and some earl ier customers had ordered further 737s. The distinction between 'Europa' and 'City' was prompted by Lufthansa's initial plan for operating the larger 72 7s on medium-haul flights around Europe and to the Middle East. D-ABED was to receive the individual name of 'Flensburg'. of japan. the mediumrange Boeings were transferred to some of the higher-density European and UK services. After receiving its West German registration D-ABED.700 tons of cargo were flown between the tIVO capitals. Even before carrying a single fare-paying passenger. The airline soon realized that the aircraft was too small and argued for a larger version to be produced. Luhhansa Elevens were too small for the projected markets. the first of two return runs between Frankfurt and Cologne. In 1965 over 285. the 737 was promising a lot to the operators. arriving on 4 February 1968. arriving at 12. Remaining in Seattle for a little over a month. Orders were soon added from a number of other operators scattered around the world. it departed for Cologne as LH731. after due ceremony and much speechmaking. When Boeing 707s replaced the 720s on trans-Atlantic routes. then returned to Frankfurt as LI-l709. was on the delivery flight. Within the week. with some carriers even making a stand against their governments for the right to operate the aircraft. a 6 million order was placed for two I 17-passenger Boeing 737200s. Several others among BAC's early One-Eleven customers were just as interested and Britain's BEA had actually refused to place an order for a long-awaited 'Viscount Replacement' until a bigger ver- sion was available. the 07. after further busy days of training and route-proving flights. It was clear that the 73 7 was poised to make an impact on more than one market.000 passengers and 4. Poised for Launch Far from restricting their customer base to the short-haul scheduled carriers originally envisaged. in Northern Germany. while the 737s were intended for the ultra-short hauls within West Germany and to neighbouring states. especially the Dublin-London route. for flight LH147. the British Aircraft Corporation. Holtje had been a major influence on the 737's final design. Would they prove to be promises it could live up to? lufthansa's Chief Executive . NEW APPLICATIONS CHAPTER FOUR Into Service Lufthansa Leads the Way In keeping with their pioneering order for the 737.

the followed DA BED over the Atlantic. William F. The first United 737 was delivered to the airline on 21 December 1967.urc wc wcrc on board' Taking off at 7. The arrival of the two new jets would see the final stage of the phasing out of the airline's remaining propeller-driven aircraft. to their patient customers. (Flight 648 was thc fir" schcdulcd jctliner rn bnd thcrc. The remaining Super Constellations had already been retired in October 1967.) As the delayed 737s were finally delivered. Michigan.39am. Chicago's O'Hare A irport. Lufthansa W<lS anxious to introduce the aircraft throughout their intended network. As further 73 7s rolled off the Seattle production line. or were released from development or training work. at 19.INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE at Frankfurt. Washington and the new aircraft would be needed to operate the fl ights. back in the USA. wc madc . as well as speeding up the replacement of the airline's remaining 727-100s and Electl-as. in anticipation of the 73 7's arrival on the busy inter-city domestic routes. However. Mellberg (left) and his cousin Dave Mellberg enjoy United's legendary 'Friendly Skies' cabin service on the short inaugural 737-200 flight from Chicago to Grand Rapids. William F. as were the airline's less economic Caravelle twinjets. the 737 finally started to make an impression on the world's commercial airways. the Series 200. it was worth $69 million to Boeing. the Douglas jets were replaced by the 737s as the latter's numbers built up. PSA and Wien Consolidated were among the US domestic carriers that followed United into the US 737 family over the following months. Lufthansa at Grand Rapids. One of the DC-9s was sold on to Ozark irlines in 1969 and the other aircraft was used on PSA's extensive training 52 53 . February 1968 had seen PSA placing a record repeat order for no less than nine Boeing 727-200s and six more Boeing 737200s. Typical of what was to become the daily utilization of a Lufthansa 737. Mellberg was a passenger on the first flight. the 737-200 entered commercial service on regional flights out of United's busiest base. William F. only two weeks after Lufthansa's first Series 100 was handed over. in preparation for their own introduction.25. N9003U. but were soon to follow their piston-engined colleagues out of Lufthansa's fleet. Oregon and Seattle. as even more 727s and 737s arrived from Boeing and were placed into service for United. The stretched 727-200s soon followed the 737s and the increasing short and medium-haul jet fleets were rapidly dislodging the remaining DC-6s and DC-6Bs from even the quieter routes to which they had already been consigned. Piedmont. Mellberg Chicago Debut Promoted by the airline's public relations department as 'The Biggest Thing in Little Jets'. Mellberg William F. a larger version of the Boeing 72 7. United was also busy. s well as the 737s. on 29 April 1968. The Convairs began to be withdrawn as the 73 7s became established in service and the airline was soon close to its ambition to become an all-jet carrier. On arrival. That morning I hoardcd Unitcd Flight 648 at Chicago-O'liarc with my cousin. However. The largest single aircraft order by PSA. The Boeing 737-100s quickly became busy members of the lufthansa European fleet. joining the original Series 100s that had been in use since 1964. \Y)c wcrc 16-year-old high school studcnts who shared (l keen inrerC~l in airliners. The 737s were beaten into service as PSA's first twin-jets by a pair of DC-9-30s. The Trickle Becomes a Flood As production aircraft began to be delivered. our brand ncw 737. So. albeit a month or two late. the only propeller-powered passenger aircraft in regular service in United's fleet were the jetprop Viscounts. Both types were already earmarked for disposal within the next two years. D""c Mcllbcrg.ls rollcd out for us lufthansa's passengers soon began to appreciate the 'big jet' feel of the 737's cabin. (Above) N9003U was allocated to United's first 737-200 revenue service on 28 April 1968 from Chicago O'Hare. D-ABED's first day on the line marked the beginning of a long and very successful association between the airline and aircraft.". the British-built Viscount's days were numbered. United swiftly distributed the new aircraft to other bases on their system. By the beginning of 1969. touchcd down 30 minutcs latcr.cn·icc in thc Unitcd Statcs with a flight hctwccn Chicago and Grand Rapi. the first of which had been delivered in 1967. was due to enter service. There were inaugural celehrations onhoard the flight and a rcd carpct W. 'Cit\' of Gnllld Rapids'. converting crews to the larger Series 200. Lufthansa Into the Friendly Skies While Lufthansa was busy introducing its new '737 City Jets' to the European travelling public. Western. PSA was hoping to expand their previously all-California services to Portland. following the production and delivery delays. A handful of the turbo-prop Viscounts were to remain in use for another couple of years. when we heard thar United \Va~ inaugurating a 737 . they were quickly assigned to more and more of Lufthansa's domestic and regional flights.

The 737s performance was regarded as high Iy compatible with the noise-sensitive operating requirements at Orange County Airport. includingJ. Alan H. Turbo-prop to Jet Services began on 16 January 1967. Aviation Hobby Shop 'WESTER. supplementing the Electras. the major tourist attraction of Disneyland was nearby and could be relied on to attract traffic to the new services. The number of passengers carried in Air California's first year .604 . by now formally named Air California. At the end of the Wien contract. Pereira Jr and Lud Renick met to discuss forming a new airline to operate a scheduled service from the under-used Orange County A irport. whilst waiting for their own delayed aircraft deliveries. William Myers. Services opened to San Jose and Oakland on 23 September and the badly-needed additions to the fleet. On the side of the truck was a banner reading. The I [S-passenger 737s premiered.. They had commissioned surveys that indicated a huge traffic potential from the area. As well as saving the Orange County residents the trials of a drive across Los A ngeles. GATX/Boothe had taken over a number of cancelled 737 delivery positions. Kenneth Hull. Incorporated flat-bed truck. Aiming its sales drives firmly at the residents of Orange County. black and red livery. Jenny Gradidge June 1968.. With a population of well over a milIion. could be a tiring one. in Orange County. near Santa na. The introduction of jets had been achieved only after a number of objections.Vice President of Sales for Western Airlines. on the Orange CountySan Francisco route and also opened new 54 55 . Early results were very encouraging and the first of a pair of short-body DC-9-14 jets entered service on the original route on I April. the aircraft were intended for leasing out on both short and long-term contracts to airlines. Orange County was one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the USA at the time. buying the four Electras and two DC-9s and replacing them with the 737-200s on lease contracts. even by highway. especially in the Los ngeles rush hour. Specializing in leasing out aircraft. Built as Series 200s. formerly president of Lockheed Aircraft International. However. William L. emphasizing the time-saving of using their local airport. 'If you came here from Orange County . They became President and Chairman respectively.000. operating on less busy flights on the intra-California services. Kenison. Air California was granted its first route certificate by the California Public Utilities Commission.INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE International or Burbank Airports. Wi en Consolidated had taken advantage of their aircraft's early availability by leasing in GATX/Boothe 737s to inaugurate their jet services in Alaska. and Thomas Wolfe. the still comparatively new airline's resources were insufficient to finance Western's Boeing 737-200s were used to link smaller cities on a network stretching from southern California to the Great Lakes and midwestern Canada. had been overcome.encouraged expansion and investment to the point that a new maintenance base was opened at San Francisco International Airport in early [968. Jenny Gradidge and conversion programmes that it had operated for a number of airlines and corporate customers. The certificate covered a minimum of five daily flights from Orange County to San Francisco. to Los Angeles Airport. one gimmick involved driving a Growing Pains Air California's rapidly increasing passenger boardings showed no sign of slowing down. [n December 1965. complete with Air California stewardesses. Orange County-San Francisco flights now operated seven times a day. two more Electras joined the busy fleet. including the Pacific Air Lines places. Air California found a solution to the twin problems of the need for larger aircraft and financial aid in the form of the GATX/Boothe Aircraft Corporation.293. ex. of the new carrier. in October 1968. This journey. a group of five Californian businessmen met in Corona del Mar. southeast of Los Angeles. In mid-1968 Air California announced a $ [ million loss on an earned revenue of $6. The young businessmen were joined in January 1966 by a number of seasoned airline executives. A trip by scheduled airline from the Orange County area would have required a long car journey to Los Angeles The OC-9 was Air California's first choice of pure-jet equipment. in May/ The Boeing 737-200 proved an ideal stablemate for PSA's larger 727s. GATX/Boothe negotiated a new deal with Air California. The improved rate of climb greatly assisted noise abatement procedures.650.N (11 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • on 12 April. California Competition Others started to look to emulate PSA's success in providing low-cost intra-state air service in California. You could have been in San Francisco by now". and the San Francisco Bay area. GatesJr. Mark T. on the grounds of noise nuisance. with two ex-Qantas Lockheed Electra turboprops painted up in an eye-catching yellow. Finally.

The first Britannia irways 737. according to the term of a new renegotiated contract with Boeing that took account of the production delays. However. on an Arctic route. Britannia Airway's initial ordcr for thrcc aircraft had already been increased w five. Long-range expan ion saw the company eventually orerating intercontinental ervices to A ia. The 737s orerated thcir first trans-Continental dome "tic revcnuc flight forCPAiron 1 April 1969. by DC-8 jets. early in 1969. Already suffering a slight capacity shortage following the tragic loss of one of their Bristol Britannia turbo-props in a fatal crash at Ljubljana. The initial pa senger capacity of 117 on Britannia Airway's 73 7s exactly matched that of their Britannia 102s. mostly within anada. (Above) The Boeing 737-200s introduced Canadian Pacific's bright new image as CP Air. Via author 56 57 . When the final two 73 7s of the initial order were delivered in March 1969. Canadian Pacific had grown steadily since its formation in 1942. The next six crews. but the production delays meant that they would not take delivery until late 196 /early 1969. Dougl<'ls DC-6Bs. was planned for later introduction and the new seats and their layout had already received FAA arproval. in a bright orange.INTO SERVI E 11 TO SERVICE services from Hollywood/Burbank and Ontario to the Bay Area. the aircraft's anadian customers were poised to join the club as well. taking over from the DC-6Bs on flight' to Whitehorse. ndeterrcd. from a collection of merged local carriers into a major dome tic operator within Canada. An increase in the 737-200's passenger caracity. the second 737. This left CP Air an all-jet airline. Yet further expansion included Palm prings-Bay Area flights and 1969 also saw Air alifornia offering first-clas 'Fiesta Service' on its 737s. Eurore and outh America from its Vancouver h<'lse. one from BKS ir Transport. were to be checkcd out by Seattle-trained instructors. later. Britannia relied on the scheduled arrival of the new aircraft to fulfil its 1968 contracts. Like those in their own fleet. Jenny Gradidge (Below) GATX/Boothe supplied 737-200s to Air California in a leasing deal as part of a major re-equipment programme. as well as the galley fittings and equirment. these were exBOAC aircraft. The 200 Series Finally Reaches Europe Britannia Airways were eagerly awaiting their 737s and had hoped to have them in service in time for the peak of the 196 summer touri t sea on. on 20 November 1968.000 pas engers during 196 and. and Europe's first Serie 2 0. the troublesome production delay at Boeing had ruled this out. Ithough the delays had disrupted plans for thc 196 season's jet operations. After delivery. A great deal of British equipment was incorrorated on to the Britannia 737s. Further 737 services were soon opened. The aircraft was the first to be delivered displaying the airline's new image as CP Air. The 737 entered scheduled service with CP Air with a Vancouver BC-Whitehorse. Australia. deliveries for the next year wcre expccted to bc on time. took delivery of their first Series 200 in October 1968. celebrated carrying it millionth passenger on 27 February. Yugoslavia. This was actually a fell' days early. with passenger washrooms concentrated at the rear. The airline carried a total of 650. Thc training was comrlcted back in the K by four Boeing pilots on loan to Britannia. Iike many of those of many new 737 operators. ordair had been the next Canadian airline to rlace the 737 in -crvice. operated on local and charter flights. the year before. up to 124 on high-density charter services. Aviation Hobby Shop G-AVRL was to be the first Boeing 737-200 to be operated in Europe. the galley facilities were accommodated in the forward section of the cabin. were being used to rerlace outdated equipment on regional and 10 al service. the first regional carrier to 0rerate a two-class service. Canadian Pacific Airlines. which assisted in smoothing the transition from turbo-prop to jet operation. were still flying on regional services within western Canada after being disrlaced from international and transContinental services several years before. One came from Laker A irways. in their case. originally operated on the long-haul routes. that had ordered their first five 73 7s in 1966. rcquircd when the sccond aircraft entered scn'icc. The CP Air 737s. Into Charter Service The first five Britannia crews to he assigned to the 73 7 received their conversion training with Boeing in Seattle. a Cossor transponder. Canadian Debut Further north. To facilitate cabin service on busy charter flights. Terrace and Prince Rupert. including Marconi ADF. initially by Bristol Britannia turbo-rrops <'lnd. srent much of its time at han non on training duties. red and silver livery. Yukon Flight. a pair of additional Britannias had to be leased in from rival carriers for most of the 1968 season. and the first 737 to be flown by an allcharter carrier. G-AVRL finally arrived at the airline's Luton Airport base on July 196 . with a Montreal-Frobisher Bay service on 3 Deccmher 196 . the last of the DC-6Bs were sold off. Early orders had been placed by ordair and Pacific We tern. as Western's 73 7s made early appearances on their cross-border routes into Canada. G-AVRM. excert for a "ingle DC-3. Instead.

two days after delivery. The original engines of the 737 had rather non-efficient thrust reversers. Our climate is very hOI and humid in the summer. There had been no in-flight engine shutdowns and no fire warnings. alongside the 73 7s. it was more likely to cause a delay than any other problem that may be fixed before departure time. no central reservations office!. As already mentioned. The first Piedmont 737s were also fitted with the 3-2 seating configuration. Later the seating was changed to 3-3. a small station serving the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia that one customer described to him as reminding her 'of Africa'. Jenny Gradidge PIEDmonT --5 i5 N737N @ @ ••• •• Britannia Airways had five 737-200s in service in 1969. plus they were expensive to fix if broken and they also got in the way of 'new' modern day catering equipment. Originally intended for United. The rear airstair arrangement was an option not taken up by many 73 7 customers. mounted in the downward opening door. however. these gave little trouble. and retained. forward steps that folded into a small compartment under the passenger door. with more on order. Piedmont could not have picked a better aircraft than the 737 to enter the jet age. The smaller. It allowed swift turnarounds at airports not equipped with jetties for embarking passengers and saved having to have expensive mobile step units hand.INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE G-AVRL received its UK Certificate of Airworthiness on 10 July. a Ithough used by some earl I' operators. teletype. even false ones. were the most complicated design of the two. forward airstairs. The burner can modification solved this problem . they were usually removed in later years and a conventional door fitted. On 19 July a proving flight was operated by G-AVRL from Luton to Palma. reservations (all done locally in those days. The increase in ITs originating at regional points continued to grow to the point that a number of the more important cities gained year-round holiday charter service for the first time in the winter of 1968/69. Majorca. At this time. It was the simpler. although the older type was to continue to contribute to Britannia Airways' charter operations. air freight. two caused by reports of vibration and one by high oil consumption. Lufth:lIlsa W<lS very impressed with the comparatively troublefree introduction into service of the 737. they still had the larger airline's comfortable 3-2. the 727s proved a success with Piedmont and boded well for the smaller. with Boeing installing anew type of thrust reverser and issuing numerous service bulletins to correct the hydraulic line failure. However. Even with their previous experience in operating bigger Boeing jets. These were replaced by huge 'clam-shell' reversers that worked 'almost 100 good' compared to the old ones. Lufthansa continued to deploy their Series 100s on more and more routes on their domestic and European network. that caused some del<lys. When the 727s were leased in we had Martin 404s. Piedmont had leased a pair of 727s to cover the late delivery of the 737s. We also had to analyse the engine oil and change it at frequent intervals. N734N. not only from Luton. The auxiliary power unit (APU) gave some trouble at first. I boarded Piedmont's first 737. by most customers. Several years later they were removed because they were heavy 10 fly around. Britannia were still well impressed with their new aircraft. In 1968 Joe Grant visited Renton. especially Lufthansa. mechanics and flight attendants.but started two others! One was off-idle stall of the engine and the other was that the fumes were more toxic than when the engine smoked. 737 on their network. At the very beginning of 737 operations there had been a starter valve problem when sand from treated runways was ingested. that trying to stop with them on a wet runway was as slippery as putting your feet in a pie! The aircraft always wanted to hydroplane in those conditions. Although the rear steps. All five of the initial 737 orders were in use in time for the J 969 season and plans were in hand to acquire more of the Boeing jets. Jenny Gradidge 58 59 . As stowage of the forward a irsta irs was one of the last systems operated prior to departure. as a weight-saving measure. These were soon corrected. Unscheduled engine removals in the first nine months of operation amounted to only three examples. Thus the blame on the airstairs for most delays was made to look worse than it was in delay statistics. air express. It had a plywood floor and the cockpit was protected from dust by being enclosed in a huge plastic bag! Piedmont was one of the few airlines to have the rear boarding airstairs installed. A certain amount of nosewheel corrosion was noted and put down to problems with the alloy used and there were some problems with the ram air inlet system that was solved by re-rigging. Captains said. Ron Carter was a mechanic with Piedmont when both the 727s and 737s went into service: The arrival of the 727s required a lot of training for the pilots. For instance. but we had good technical support and eventually solved some of the problems. weight and balance of aircraft. A part of the Britannia turboprops were taken out of service at the end of 1969. Boeing held additional classes in aircraft electrical for us and it paid great dividends later. It felt like first class. serving London. hired in 1966. as suggested by Boeing. Joe's first base was the airport for Staunton/Harrisonburg. The improvement in the electrical circuit reduced the problem. Joe Grant was originally a Utility Agent with Piedmont. Piedmont's introduction of the 737 had benefited from the airline's earlier use of leased 727s. much more economic. YS-11 sand Fairchild FH227s. after his honourable discharge from the USAF. five-abreast configuration. referring to the old style reversers. Vortex generators were installed to correct the buffeting. Birmingham and Newcastle. At this time Piedmont had a very well trained mechanic group but we were not used to such complex aircraft and lacked training in the electrical systems. It was calculated that. The P&W JTBD engine had initial problems but these were soon corrected. The auxiliary power unit was aconstant source of troubles. Thermostat difficulties had led to crews having trouble getting some systems on line without the APU shutting down. Despite losing the first aircraft in the Asheville mid-air collision. some maintenance and even some air traffic control. so the transition was easy. The 737 was less complex than the 727. Early Jet Days at Piedmont Being an early customer. There had been no major engine problems. Like I said. Piedmont Airlines also played its part in ironing out the wrinkles as the 737 proved itself in daily service. The 73 7s operated on most of the growing IT network. the ticket counter and customer service. but the cooling system handled it with ease. as well as abuffeting problem. or a better company to guide us than Boeing. G-AVRM carried its first revenue load of holidaymakers on 16 August with a Luton-Venice IT charter. Wien Consol idated and Piedmont. especially the 'combi' aircraft that carried freight in the forward cabin and passengers in the rear section and could only load their passengers through the rear doors. but needed a few years to correct alot of problems. a lot to learn. The self-contained airstairs gave Lufthansa the most trouble. Boeing was very helpful in setting up our training needs. each of the airline's 737s was as productive as 212 Bristol Britannias. New acceleration control thermostats were designed and did much better. Initial in-service problems with the 737 were thrust reversers and hydraulic line failure. even with the original 117-seat layout. ramp service. and the valuable operational support of Boeing. A few aircraft retained their original configuration. Although too late to make much of an impact on the 1968 summer season. The aircraft was very reliable. were a useful option taken up. with whom he had been a mechanic in Japan and Vietnam. but also from regional points such as Manchester. A filter screen had simply not been up to its job and the problem was fixed using a new screen with a finer mesh. all coach class. A small station is tough to work as you must know everything about running it. Eventually retiring as a District Sales and Marketing Manager for US Airvvays. while it was still being built. the engine smoked and it was desirable to have this eliminated. until the end of 1970. After about a year this was changed so the oil was never changed except at overhaul. weather. and on the 22nd it entered commercial service with an IT charter from Luton to the Yugoslav resort ofDubrovnik. Both these problems were corrected in about two years. Early Days with Lufthansa While Britannia was introducing their Series 200s to the hoi idaymakers of Britain. Glasgow. loading and unloading.

NZ AC was the nationally owned domestic airline of ell' Zealand. of Fairhanks. The One-Eleven fared little better in Australia. it had been felt that inaprropriate financial and political pressure had been appl ied to sway ell' Zealand toward· ordering the One-Eleven and. Lufthansa In all-cargo configuration. or even Mexico. became the operator of three 737-200s on 14 October 196 . loaded through the large forward cargo door. the 737 ould carry up to seven standard rallets or containers. comprised ZNAC's network within and between the orth and South Islands of the country. Nordair and Transair operated their 737s into more remote regions. With only six pallets. escaping from the northern winters to the sun of Florida. allowing a rassageway to the left. to the right. One of BAC' development aircraft had visited ew Zealand during a world sales tour in 1966. Wellington.000 miles of routes. on 1 September and the introduction of the jet fleet within a month was a laudable achievement for the carrier. by Wi en on olidated in ovember 196 A laska and operating on busier local and regional route taken over in the merger with Pa ific orthern Airlines. However. Twenty-five destinations. The smaller Canadian operators' 73 7s. up to eighty-one passengers could be accommodated in the rcar section. the British aircraft was rejected as a candidate for NZN 's Viscount replacement. international services to Australia and trans-Pacific flights being the preserve of Air ew Zealand with their fleet of long-haul DC-8s and Electra turbo-props. Via author/AViation Hobby Shop (Abovel The Boeing 737·200QC was able to operate both passenger and cargo schedules on lufthansa's European network. The swi tch from passenger to cargo configuration was designed to take less than half an hour. eleven passengers could be carried. the aribbean. with only a pair of aircraft sold to Australia's air force for VIP wmsport work. the convertible aircraft being intended for passenger use in the daytime and for conversion to freight services at night. Lufthansa Interior configuration on the 'QC' 737 could be swiftly modified by seat units on tracks. via its membership of the Commonwealth. The first of the trio had been delivered to Wellington. these aircraft were also just as likely to spend their weekends flying tourists from major Canadian cities. Ortions had also been taken out on two more. the 737s would join a fleet of Fokker E27 that had begun to replace DC-3 on local flights from 196 . had led to high hope in the K of a rossible order from Z AC for the BAC One-Eleven jet. as well as busy inter-city services and vacation flights to sunnier climes. As well as low-pressure tyres. both chose the Boeing 72 7 and Douglas DC-9 for their short-haul jet operations. served by 4. operating demonstration flights for Z A between Dunedin. Western's 737s were also soon reaching 60 67 . The airline's first long-fuselage 737 were equipred with large cargo doors in the upper forward fuselage and strengthened cabin floors. after a long island-hopring trek from Seattle.INTO SERVICE INTO SERVICE The 'Quick Change' Artists Lufthansa took delivery on 17 December 196 of the first order for six 737-200Q 'Quick hange' aircraft. Auckland and Whenupai before continuing the tour onwards to Australia. The units were loaded slightly offcentre. Vortex generators were also attached to the front of the engine nacelles. Ordered to replace Viscounts on trunkcheduled services within ew Zealand. the 73 7's joint passenger and cargo-carrying capabilities were put to good use on contract work for the TransAlaska Pipeline System. imilar rugged work was to be shortly undertaken by convertible 73 7 placed into service by Nordair. to blow debris away from the intakes and protect them from gravel damage. Australia's largest domestic airlines. all serving remote towns and outposts in northern anada. as a result. Lufthansa was already orerating a fleet of convertible 727s on similar ervice. and with only two pallets installed. the privately owned Ansett-A A and government-sponsored Trans Australia Airlines. Pacific Western Airlines and Transair. nfortunateIy for BAC. The convertible 'combi-version' of the 73 7 was first placed into service in A laska. and those of Wien Consolidated. were also fitted for gravel runway operations. alongside their all-passenger 727100 and -200s. ew Zealand's link to Britain. Further South The New Zealand National Airways Corporation ( Z AC). deflectors were attached to the undercarriage to shield the fuselage from stones being kicked up on landing. As well as serving the more populated point among the 170 scattered communitie served by the airline in Alaska and the Canadian Yukon. from Anchorage.

Fokker. The F.28 'Fellowship' enjoyed a moderate success as an economic jet alternative to earlier turbo-props.-n U 1I (J US/ R/ S H / NT ERN . Malcolm L. making it a worthy successor to the En turbo-prop that it was intended to replace. The trio began revenue services later that month. producing the outer wings and undercarriages and Germany's MBB and VFW manufacturing the centre and rear fuselage sections. Fokker also declared from the beginning that it preferred steady sales over along-term period. The Dutch Twin-Jet Option The long-established aircrah manufacturer. 'St Jarlath' arrived at Dublin on 2 April 1969. only the 737 could match the DC-6Bs' load-carrying on the unique service. The 'QC' aircraft were not only utilized on night-time cargo services. asmall start-up charter operator in West Germany. with new engines and updated flight-deck systems and equipment. with the extra freight sales capacity supplementing lower passenger loads at certain times of the day. as well as its 'outback' perfor- . Spain's national carrier. New Zealand National Airways' 737s brought jet comfort to their domestic routes. based in the Netherlands. LTU. The F.28s. Both passengers and cargo were carried on the flight. transporting pilgrims to the Catholic shrine at Lourdes.27 Friendship. A tarmac strip was later laid in the mid1970s. Jenny Gradidge Irish Deliveries Aer Lingus. had a very different concept for its offering in the short-haul twin-jet market.II\~IlP~~i. Aer Lingus had operated substantial numbers of both charter and scheduled flights to Tarbes.~ Braathens' Boeing 737-200s operated as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far south as Mediterranean resorts. Braathens had also taken delivery of their first Fokker F. but the special weather conditions and unique operational restrictions sti II meant that an aircraft of the 737's outstanding capabilities was required.28 were offered later and the type became popular as an economic mainline and feeder airliner. including two convertible 'QCs' were delivered by the end of 1969. This was the beginning of a whole new source of income for the ai rI ine. Within a matter of weeks. landings were at first made on the sea ice. The production of the aircrah was an early example of inter-European collaboration.28 series was later totally redesigned and updated as the Fokker 70 and 100 types. The arrival of yet three more in early 1970 saw Aer Lingus able to offer all-jet flights on their European routes. the Argentine government and Aviaction. was close on the heels of Braathens in inaugurating its 73 7 services. . and the withdrawal of their last Vickers Viscount turbo-props. ~ AfT~1O~N~A~ll·~·~nDIIJ[iJ. when it did finally emerge.ber 1968 and January 1969. Orders followed from operators in Australia. Spain and the Netherlands.28 also possessed exceptional shortand rough-field capabilities. A large programme of IT services from Dublin and other Irish cities kept the 737 and One-Eleven fleets busy around the clock over summer weekends. in southern France. especially from short or rough runways. flying racehorses from the Irish studs to race meetings and sales around the UK and Continental Europe. Deliberately aiming at a small capacity replacement for its F. from operators as diverse as Iberia.. the F. some three years aher the project was officially announced by the company.r \. Argentina. All-cargo services also included a number of bloodstock charters. about half that of the Boeing 737. Although the DC-6Bs shared the service with F.~~~~ 7 The Aer lingus 737s were originally ordered specifically for the busy Dublin-london route and were to be seen at london/Heathrow for many years.. The airline's first aircraft. Steve Bunting . rather than a greater number of orders over a shorter production life. the Irish Republic. Braathens took delivery of their first two 73 7s in Decen.ns and. tail units and engine nacelles. the national carrier of Eire. Three more 737s. the Fokker jet design. in the Arctic. The first Braathens DC-6B had entered service in 1961 and the classic pistonengined airliner was to remain a feature of the Norwegian airline's scheduled and charter operations for over ten years. A 737 simulator was added to Boeing 720 and BAC One-Eleven examples already in service at the airline's Dublin head office. One service on which the DC-6B had heavily featured was a regular charter from Tromso to Spitzbergen. when there was less demand on the business trafficbased scheduled routes. EI-ASA. Columbia. The 737s operated alongside rhe esrabl ished short- haul jet fleet of four BAC One-Elevens and were also supplemented by larger 707s when loads demanded it. then a gravel strip. closely followed by two others. The Dublin-Bristol-Cardiff-Dublin route was one such schedule. daily utilization of up to 18 hours a day was getting to be the norm. All had avariety of uses for the versatile Fokker jet's high performance. The first order was placed by the West German charter airline. some of them with comparatively small fleets. flying to London and Paris. Via author mance. Aer Lingus was increasingly leasing out unused training hours on its simulator. Powered by two Rolls Royce Spey engines.. 'Combi' passenger/cargo fl ights operated on some scheduled services to regional points in the UK.. -s\\ BRA-lITH~NS j6:A Fit ~ _. of Belfast. The new types remained in production until Fokker succumbed to economic pressures and was forced to cease all manufacturing operations in the late 1990s.28 twin jet. Larger and more powerful versions of the F. Supporting a joint orwegian/Russian coalmining operation by Store orske Spitzbergen Kullkompani. With more and more 737 operators starting to come on line. However. The Fokker F. intended for use on routes where the 73 7 was considered too large. The arrival of the 737 did not see the immediate demise of the seven Braathens DC-6Bs that it was intended to replace. later. for many years and the 73 7s were soon regularly assigned to these services. on the European side of the Arctic Circle. on 28 March 1969. especially when.INTO SERViCE INTO SERVICE New Northern Highlights The 737 seemed to be getting a reputation as a cold weather native. During the busier months. the F.. with the 737s freight-carrying capacity being put to especially good use. Braathens was the first carrier to place the aircrah into revenue selVice.28 received its first production order in November 1965. Hill 62 63 . with Short Bros and Harland. with th ird-party maintenance and even short-term crew and aircraft leasing gaining in importance over the next few years. was originally configured for up to sixty-five passengers.

ingapore Airlines in 1969. the eries 200 was the sole offering from the 73 7 stable. sealing the gap between spoilers and flaps and smoothing the leading edge that was exposed behind the flaps when deployed. linking smaller airports to major cities around the USA. A Ithough thc One. were acquired to counteract these with the Denver. The first of three small airlines whose merger resultcd in thc formation of Fronticr. or to supplement larger 72 7 on shorter or les travelled routes into smaller airports.370 mile. restrictions. and the option of the later. the japane e domestic carrier. Instead. the original 737 models werc continuing to spread their wings over an increasingly wide range. including a thickening of the enginc strut and a minor repositioning of the slats. The 737s were intended either as replacement for earlier jets. Arizona Airways began its DC-3 schedules at the same time. It just goes and goes l ' IDlproving the Breed Worldwide Distribution While Bocing was developing the 'Advanced' version. the exten ion of the Kreuger flaps inboard. Many of thc new the Aloha One-Elcvens had been popular with passengers and crews alike. the operators shunned the extra expense and continued to operate the unmodified aircraft under their original performance criteria. Introduced to compete against D 9s of their arch rival Hawaiian Airlines. operated its first cheduled ervices to Denver via several small cities in outhern Wyoming. Rocky Mountain Boeings Frontier Airlines actually ordered their first 737s as replacements for their fleet of Boeing 727-100s. five of which had been in use with a single DC-3 on 27 ovember 1946. Seen in a later livery. However. One pilot commented that it was: 'A great aeroplane. All ippon Airways. As well a the aerodynamic improvements already made to reduce drag. The extra changes included more aerodynamic refinements. with their better runway performance. the airlines and their pilots were pleased with the aircraft. operating a staggering variety of operational scenarios. with usable traffic loads making the One-Eleven services less e onomic. Improvements in short-field takc-off and landing characteristics had been brought about by refining the flaps system and the installation of an automatic braking systcm. based at alt Lake ity. its antecedents having begun operations shortly after the econd World War. Significant as the improvements were.Elevens were disposed of as soon as the 737s entered service. as was the case with SAA and ANA. 737-200 lS-SIJ displays its Afrikaans titling on its starboard side. There was an increase in the droop of two slat sections. with fleets of ex-military DC-3s. All three airlines struggled. such as loha's One-Elevens. Aviation Hobby Shop SAL South African Airways was to become a long-term 737 customer. Colorado-based airline since 1966. although kits were made available to customers for converting their earlier aircraft to the new 'Advanced' standard. 64 65 . although they also managed some limited expansion to their slTlall route networks. none were sold. For the most part. By 1949. espe ially concentrated on the wing design. The 73 7s. another DC-3-equipped airline. Frontier had a classic U regional carrier history. ordering new 'Advanced' aircraft in any repeat or new orders. versions of the jT8D engine. there was only the one basic 737 to hane\. Aloha Airlines. The next spring. Frontier Airlin s and All ippon Airways. weight limitations had meant that Aloha had been forced to operate under severe restrictions from some of the smaller airports. from the 280th aircraft much more substantial improvement were introduced to the production standard Series 200 aircraft. CHAPTER FIVE A Day-to-Day Success The 737 in 196 and 1969 established itself in service with several airline around the world. placed the first 'Advanced' 737-20 inserviceinjune 1971. Aviallon Hobby Shop (Belowl United's 737-200s were soon scheduled on busy inter-city routes throughout the airline's network. Monarch Airlines. Aloha continued to operate a small fleet of Vickers Vi counts on local and supplementary fl igh ts. flying from Phoenix to citie in the Grand Canyon area. more powelful. inaugurated schedulcd services over thc Denver-Durango route Malaysia-Singapore Airlines was one of the few customers for the smaller 737-100. MAP 73 7 customer had operated jets on their short-haul networks before.INTO SERVICE The Series 200 Carries On Onc the outstanding orders for the erie 100 had been delivered to Avianca and lalaysia. Challenger Airlines. ewoperators wcrc as scattered as South African Airlines. Although various combinations of passenger/cargo configurations and roughfield-equipped versions were available. Aloha had been operating a fleet of three BA One-Elevens on their interisland Hawaiian network since April 1966. One result of the refinements incorporated in the 'Advanced' 737 was an increase in range to 2.

Dymond. The 44-passenger Convairs brought great improvements in passenger comfort over the DC. Montana and Arizona new as far south as EI Paso. four more citie were added in Montana. Colorado and orth and outh Dakota. The following ycar Lcwis W. such as non-stop California. resulting in a 26 per cent growth in passenger boardings for the last six months of [962. However. Memphis hccamc thc I 16th city and Tennessee the [6th statc to he served hy Frontier. natural gas. Howcvcr. They were pressurized. In terms of the numhcr of citics served. to standardize the turho-prop neet on one type. citing their use of 727s which allowed Frontier to operate non-stop he tween most of the cities concerned. New Equipment The expanded network called for more modern aircraft and the first of what was to grow into a large neet of second-hand Convair 340s entered service on busier routes in the summer of 1959. Operations began under the new name on I June 1950. Approval for the merger was granted by the Civil Aeronautics Board in 1950 and the new company was named Frontier Airlines. using a nCel o( small Beech Bonanzas on routes from Fort Worth to Dallas and points in Oklahoma Statc. This prompted Dymond to place an order for the five Boeing 727-100s. Within a couple of ycars. on 13June 1967. Growing use of the airline was made by businessmen. A new management team took over Frontier in 1962. New Management. especially important on the Rocky Mountain services. Ccntral had been founded in [944. thc CV600s were replaced by morc CV-580s. As such. DC3s had entered scrvicc in latc 1950.cw York nights. The first two of the 99-passenger jet were introduced on bu ier routes from Denver and alt Lake City in [966. Frontier's hard work was rewarded with the award of routes to no less than twenty-four new cities in Nebraska. many of which were at rarefied altitudes that had restricted the piston-engined aircraft's operations. as well as no less than scventeen surviving DC-3s that were still in use with both carriers at the time of the merger. Thus. including services to Seattle. The increased speed and smoother ride of the redesignated CV-580s was much appreciated by their passengers. uranium.I IPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED The Convair CV-340s in Frontier's fleet were converted to turbo-prop power to improve performance. Dymond also signed contracts for the conversion of the CV-340 neet to turboprop power. at a cost of 55 million. By the time the 72 7s were in service. Frontier was noll' the second largest air carrier in the U A.3s. The extra power provided by the A II isons W. The next year. Changes at the Top ineteen sixty-eight saw the arrival of the larger Boeing 727-2 Os and the award o( nell' routes into Memphis (rom Little Rock. plus reclamation dam projects and tourism to ational Park in the area provided a de perate need for transportation where little other public transport existed and road conditions could be difficult. when Fronticr mergcd with Central. which allowed the aircraft to operate at altitudes above most of the rough weather. Paul Burkc as Prcsident and Board Chairman. The re-engined Convairs.lS greatly appreciated at the small airports served by Frontier. the first of the regional airlines to do so. AViation Hobby Shop (Below) The 727-100s were to be ousted by the 737s from 1969. headed by Lewis W. construction finns. their 'nell" Com'airs were designated CV-600s and markcted on Central Airlines sen'ices as 'Dart 600s'. 1n late 195 . Crews appreciated the extra available power at high-altitude Rocky Mountain airports with short runways. the military and vacationers. The airline hegan to apply for several more route extensions. growth in exploration for oil. Houston. Ccntral had also optcd for turbo-prop convcrsion of their Con vail's. AViation Hobby Shop FRONTIER Challenger had reached Billings. two different versions of Convair turhoprop wcre in use on the network. twenty-two CV-5 Os and c1cven CV-600s. Although stretching over a large territory. Other new routes awarded to Frontier at the time were non-stop Denver-Las VeW1s services and the extension of routes from Wichita and Topeka to Chicago. Frontier also claimed that the addition of the extra services to its network would allow the airline to forego its nccd for its 7 million annual suhsidy. were placed into service on I June 1964. with CV-240s following in thc carly [960s when Ccntral rook ovcr a numher of local routes from American Airlincs and Eastern A irl ines. 1963 and 1964 boardings had continued to increase and new non-stop authority was granted between several of the larger cities on Frontier's network. nell' 'standby' and generous family fare were introduced. Improved schedules. The 'new' CV-5 Os could operate 100mph faster than the CV-340s. eighteen Convairs had been converted to 5 0 standard. New York and Washington. With Monarch's network neatly sandwiched in the middle it soon became clear to all three that a merger would create a more viable carrier. Dymond resigned from Fronticr and was replaced hy E. the airline still served a region where populations could he sparse.when fitted with the Allison 5 1 prop-jets. redesignated CV-5 0. with the CV-5 s nying new Denver-Kansa City-St Louis services. Via author Frontier's first equipment comprised a fleet of tried and trusted DC-3s inherited from the three local carriers that merged to form the new airline. Thus. Their increased cargo and passenger capacity was useful and attracted further revenue where the DC-3s had struggled to accommodate available traffic. Texas-based Central Airlines. claiming that 'routc :trcngthening does havc its limits'! The Central Airlines Merger On 1 Octohcr [967 Frontier took ovcr Fort Worth.[OOs. although they chosc to fit British Rolls Royce Dart-. Wyoming. Onc of the new management's first decisions was to replace the original Bocing 66 67 . with few big citie. Frontier utilizing a neet of trusty DC-3s throughout the network. The resulting neet consistcd offivc Bocing 727. but did not begin scheduled scrvice until Septemhcr 1949. the CA B refused most of the more amhitious reque -ts. Trans World irlines took a very dim view of Frontier's entry into its traditional markets at St Louis and Kansas City and trebled its own competing jet services to Denver. serving routes that stretched from Montana to Mexico via seven states in the Rocky Mountain and Southwest regions. Missouri. A period of teady growth followed. The DC-3s were soon to be disposed of as more jets allowcd the transfcr of Con vail's to their routes. on-stop nights were inaugurated between Denver and t Louis by the 727s.

Jenny Gradidge by FH-227B and Y -II A turbo-props. Britannia 737s were also used to carry the British Show Jumping Team from Luton to Kiev. passenger flights. the Britannia Airways 737s began to operate much longer-ranging Pltumunl • ( Financial Problems Generally. allowed Britannia Airways to increase utilization in the quieter winter months when passenger charter work traditionally decreased. more flexible. regional and trunk line was a major factor in Frontier's being able to survive a difficult time in the indu try. Colombo. a small fleet of 19-passenger de Havilland Canada Twin Otters was introduced on local flights in northern Montana and North Dakota. Britannia introduced its first convertible aircraft. colours were seen on United's '737 Friend Ships' from 1972. The revenue loads increased again in 1973 and the CAB statistics showed that Frontier Airlines received fewer passenger complaints than any other regional carrier. Other internal changes were made and the service standards were overhauled in an effort to reverse the carrier's decl ine. such as Kansas City-Dallas and Salt Lake City-Denver-Dallas. Denver and Phoenix. Jenny Gradidge (Bottom) The flexibility of convertible 737s. the CV580s. By 1972 Piedmont was able to report record earnings and a net profit of 3. or even 'combi'. Dubai and Karachi.323. Chicago. albeit with necessary refuelling stops. Frontier's 737s filled a vital niche between the larger 727-200s and the turbo-prop fleet of CV-580s. operating to their network of seventy-eight ci tics wi th a fleet of 73 7 jets. As their last turho-prop Rrisrol Rrirannias were withdrawn. Via author 68 69 \ . Piedmont retired the last of their piston-engined Martin 404s in 1970. the 737s and the 727-200s provided a wide range of capacity and performance well suited to the airline's varied network. Its ability to operate both local. travel companies were able to develop new resorts and offer their customers increased choice to points only served by basic airport f:Kiliries. Braathens also exploited the convertible 73 7s. in particular. brought about by inflation and excessive competition. The four main elements of the Frontier fleet. 'Advanced' 73 7-200 models. Aer Lingus and Braathens fleets increasing on a yearly basis as the airlines came to rely on the 73 7 on more of their services. u·ually at Zagreb. Frontier fared slightly better than some carriers. following another management change.234. Hong Kong and Kuala Lumpur lI'ere all served on affinity group charters from the K.IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED 727-100s with more economic Boeing 737200s. the versatile Boeing 737 fleet had become Frontier's front-line jet equipment. The 737 was also more econom ic on some of the non-stop flights bet\\'een huger cities and proved useful on new routes all'arded in 1969. although fuelling ·tops had to be made en route. with jet service inaugurated between Omaha. with a sharp slow-down in traffic growth. The steadily increasing fleet of Boeing 737s was useful on the new routes. such as G-AXNA. As well as being able to offer non-stop services to further ranging points. A regular operation was the airlift of oil-drilling equipment ::Ind personnel. The measures were highly successful and Frontier Airlines carried 13 per cent more pas·engers in 1972. ell' route awards lI'ere still finding their way to the airline. increasing financial problems led to the disposal of the 727-200s to Braniff Airways. supplemen ted Cargo operations also featured more heavily in the charter carrier's 737 service·. ten 737s lI'ere in use. the Twin Otters. Damascus. Bangkok.999 passengers in 1969. configuration alloll'ed increased utili:ation during traditionally slack time when the aircraft might otherwise be idle. from orway to (Top) Piedmont based a considerable expansion programme around the 737-200 as more were delivered to supplement the original aircraft. However. The ability to convert the 737 to all-cargo. taking del ivery of cargo-doorequipped 'Advanced' examples in 1971. Aviation Hobby Shop (Middle) Bolder. Eire and France. outh Carolina. 737 lI'a· able to operate from smaller airport than the 72 7-lOs had and introduced jet service to more cities on the Frontier Airlines network. updated. Britannia. during 1971/72. although it was unable to produce a profit that year. appreciated the increased range and improved short runway performance offered by the later. With the departure of the 727s. 1970 had been a bad year for the airlines. However. The smaller. amongst others. Piedmont. When not operating passenger flights on the orwegian airline's scheduled and charter network. Repeat Business Repeat orders sail' original 737 customer such as nited. G-AX A. including services from Luton to both orth America and the Far East. Britannia and Braathens. being better able to operate profitably with the lower loads encountered whilst traffic was built up. in 1970. The first aircraft was del ivered to Frontier that summer and by the end of 1969. Services had been introduced into Chicago that year and more nell' services lI'ere opened to Charleston. In total contrast. the Braathens convertible 73 7s flew cargoes throughout the world. into service in early 197 and the aircraft was kept especially I usy with bloodstock charters between the K. Lufthansa.317 in its 25th year of operation. operating alongside the Boeing 727-200s when loads might not justify the use of the bigger aircraft. They carried 2.

that was losing money on scheduled services from an A ntonio. operations were moved to the West African coast. As well as longer-term leases. EI-BDY wears Eastern Provincial Airlines' red cheatline. a number of carriers managed to lease out their spare 73 7 capacity in their less busy seasons. when the aircraft would return to er Lingus and their regular scheduled routes from Eire to Europe. there not having been time to completely repaint the aircraft. Those that remained in Eire continued operating on the Irish airline's scheduled services. These highly profitable arrangements usually took effect between the end of December and early March. although frequencies on some routes were much redu cd in the winter months. but their suc essful struggle was to prove important to Boeing over the following decades. Herbert D. mostly Beech and Piper aircraft. Seasonal Leases Early on. the Caribbean and the US on short-term seasonal leases. flying IT to Mediterranean re orts in the summer and to the Canary Islands in the winter. Dallas. Via author The large cargo door of the convertible 737 allowed the easy loading of awkward and outsize loads. also leased from Lufthansa. on IT charter' from a number of West German cities. IT charter flying was almost nonexistent until the summer and these combined factors allowed the releasing of otherwise idle aircraft for lease work. The very first winter of Aer Lingus 73 7 operations. Later winter contracts usually saw at least some of Aer Lingus' 737s returning regularly to the African continent and also migrating to Canad. like that from Lufthansa to Condor. Aviation Hobby Shop one of the fi rst to exploi t the 73 7 in th is way. which had pioneered such undertakings with their Br)eing 720.IMPROVING TilE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED Sporting Aer lingus's later tail livery. the 737s that had been leased out would he seen back on the Aer Lingus services till wearing at least partial liveries of the lease customer. Braathens also posted two or three aircraft in neighbouring Sweden on a year-round basis. King eventually hit on the idea of a [ igger commercial operation. originally called Air Southwest. such as this dismantled helicopter being transported from london/Gatwick to Greenland by Braathens. Often. 1969/70. At the time Rollin King was considering closing down a commuter service that he owned and operated. Considering his next move. The Condor 737s replaced the airline' last Vickers Viscount turbo-props and allowed the carrier to claim to be one of the first all-jet charter airlines in Europe. to small cities such as Laredo and Eagle Pass. It had been as early as 1966 that the idea of a low-fare. Houston and San ntonio. Kelleher. Texas. saw El-ASB leased to Air Algerie for three months. Kelleher helped King incorporate the new company. With weather in the orth Sea too rough for oil exploration drilling in the European winter. Condor Flugdienst. 70 71 . The tiny airline operated a collection of small eight-passenger aircraft. A year later King presented a feasibility study to his lawyer. 737 Newcomers ot all of Boeing's customers for the 737 were est<lbl ished operators. 707 and RAC One-Eleven fleets in the past. EI-ASB is seen in Air Algerie's Caravelle-era livery. was Air Algerie was an early client for Aer ling us's leasing out of spare 737 capacity. Aer Lingus. The road to the inauguration of Southwest Airlines intra-state servi es within Texas had been a long one. supplementing the North African airline's fleet of Caravelles.l. The 73 7s operated alongside six Boeing 727-100s. frequent-service airline serving Texas had first been mooted. also called outhwest Airlines. brand new carrier started their operations with the aircraft in June 1971. Lufthansa had leased out at least Lhree of their Series IOOs to its charter subsidiary. Ivar Hakonsen West Africa. serving Texas's biggest three commercial cities. the legacy of an off-season winter lease. As their 73 7 fleet increased.

n option was also taken out with American Airlines for three of their surplus Lockheed Electras. Jut they were prepared to finance 90 per cent of the purchase cost. A II the $543. The man who had come up with the whole idea in the first place. as it struggled to e tablish itself as a profit-making business. to Frontier Airl ines. Initially. but the promotion lasted long enough for outhwest to win that particular skirmish in the fare war. Wearing titles to that effect. The liZ-passenger 737 'Love Birds'. Trained accountant ami expresident of a number of airlines. At one point. the first of the order for four 737s was delivered to Dallas in June 1971. Lamar Muse was hired in January 1971 and given the task of getting the company airborne. and started inve ting in the idea. Boeing was not only willing to look at an order from Air outhwest for four Boeing 737-Z Os. Such fast turn rounds had been common in the days Pacific Southwesfs successful California operation was to provide the model for a Texas-based imitator. However. As well a hiring an experienced management team. and outhwest could pocket the extra revenue. alternative ro the big-name airlines in the area. A solution was found by introducing the 10-minute turnround. Trans Texas Airways and Continental Airway obtained a re training order. King's original company now being defunct. red and 'desert gold'. and in December that year. the airline quietly changed operated twelve round-trips daily between Dallas and Houston and six a day from Dalla to an Antonio. in March 1970. by 14 and 16. Fares were pitched a 40 round-trip. but agreed to undertake the legal work free of charge. Kelleher managed to have the order overthrown by the Texas Supreme Court in Austin. Kelleher then started checking out similar operation. The success of the short turnround system spoke volumes for the perceived reliability of the Boeing 737 in high-pressure operations. The major airlines argued that they already provided adequate service between the cities concerned and that there was no room for any more competition. Legal Wranglings As with P A and Air California further west. monthly billing and stewardess uniforms that included hotpant or red vinyl mini-skirts. in the shape of Braniff Airways. Martyn East Texas concern that bought rock in Air outhwest. The case wa referred to the Austin tate District Court that summer. One more major change was to switch the Houston terminal from the new Intercontinental Airport. The percentage later dropped considerably as the novelty was a popular move. cheaper. the Air Southwest board was also faced with having to refinance the airline if it was to have any chance of starting operations. undercutting Braniff and Texas International. with their large domestic network and international services would be able to absorb the loss. they would not require federal approval from the Civil Aeronautics Board. One of the four original 73 7s had to be sold after a federal district court judge pronounced that outhwest could not legally fly harters outside Texas. This served the needs of Southwest's largely commuting passengers much better and of the 0 -3. and. The inaugural flight had been able to take place despite yet another eleventh hour attempt by Braniff and Texas International to enforce a restrain ing order that would have prevented services beginning. such as that of Pacific outhwest in California. the next day the establ ished carriers. half that of outhwest. persuading other to do the same.000 profit was made on the sale of the aircraft. Other innovations introduced included pre-punched 1MB-card packets of tickets for regular customers. Kelleher was not keen on the proposal at first. to the old Hobby A irporr. as well as aving on the capital cost of extra aircraft that would be required to maintain a more leisurely programme. The company adopted a bright eye-catching livery in orange. the new finance package was assembled by Muse and veteran airline executives were hired to organize the new airline.IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED and dispose of the loss-making commuter carrier. Braniff had reduced their fare on the Dallas. especially with Braniff. These were unheard-of financial terms and it was to be the beginning of an excellent relationship between customer airline and aircraft manufacturer. but unheard of with the larger jet aircraft. the upreme Court refu ed to hear an appeal by the rival airlines. Anyone declining the gift was entitled to a refund of the fare difference. but were offered a gift. on Z February 1968. as Trans Texa had become in the meanti me. respectively. M. Although a 500. Although Braniff. much closer to downtown. Muse devised a programme whereby passengers were still charged Z6. Southwest steadily began to e tablish itself in the minds of the Texas public as a practical. Instead. Gradually. Only the afternoon before. prohibiting the commis ion from delivering th certificate. attempting to dissuade underwriters from buying stock and filing spurious complaints to the CAB. Southwest was left with the problem of covering all the scheduled flights on the network. Rollin King.but Bro/<e' Even now. MAP Southwest Airlines' brightly painted 737-200s finally started revenue services within Texas in June 1971. during the height of the legal wrangl ing. dogged the airline over the next few years. Kelleher continued to participate on a parttime basi as he was till working for his law firm. wore off. more importantly. Underway but Still under Fire Scheduled operations finally began on 18 June 1971.00 . became its operating name from Air Southwe t to outhwest A irlines. 72 73 . enabling the airline to schedule more trips per day per aircraft. as long a Air outhwest confined their operations to within the borders of their home state. Certified . to back Air outhwest. Muse used every skill and contact he had acquired in his long career to gather together the desperately needed funds. Although it was now free to begin revenue executive vice-president for operations. Southwest would have bankrupted itself trying to match it.000 raised had been spent on the court cases and AII- flights. at least in the short term. raising 543. with whom the application to begin commercial operations was filed on Z7 November 1967. This robbed the airline of a potential source of income and also left them with an idle aircraft at quiet times in the schedule. In March 1971.000 raised went on the cost of preparing an appl ication and producing a proper prospectus. with financing from Allstate Insurance. christened to reflect Southwest's choice of home base at Dallas's Love Field. Loads had taken a while to pick up. With turnround times sla hed. or even some of the later turbo-prop operations. which was to become a legend in the industry. The speedy turnrounds continue to this day. However.Houston route to 13. The company would only need the go-ahead from the Texas Aeronautics Commission. the Texas upreme Court overturned the decision of the lower court. 76 per cent of the passengers took the gift. Air Southwest actually lost the first trial and had to resort to appea ling to the Texas Supreme Court. this turned out to be a blessing in disguise. Most of the first 100. ome rescheduling and revamping of the fares structure followed and passenger boarding figures started to how some improvement. Repeated fares wars. with some early flights operating with only a handful of passengers. the rival carriers were still trying to sabotage Air outhwest. The TAC voted state Insurance had withdrawn their financing for the EI ctras. miles outside the city. the remaining aircraft were able to maintain the published schedule minus the sold aircraft. Although the Allstate deal for the three Electras had now lapsed. The new company managed to attract extra financing from several important unanimously.

Lamar Muse took up Herb Kelleher's offer to buyout the company. Interestingly. Putnam was to remain until 1981 . However. three months later. have been expected to put up a fight against Southwest's application to the Texas Aeronautics Commission. Initial services began on the new expanded intra-Texas network that winter and were increased in the spring of 1977. Southwest had actually been told this after the first hearing. but within days of this expiring a new airline. Louisiana. Several years of litigation later. Southwest applied to introduce similar flights from Corpus Christi. the Southwest philosophy of frequent. Putnam. Continental introduced much reduced. Instead. closing down TranStar in August that year in an effort to protect Southwest Airlines. but were also liable for any losses it incurred. Midland-Odessa. the legal dispute had delayed Southwest beginning service from Harlingen until 1975. the 'new' Continental. Practically since Day One. When the other airlines moved out of Love Field. it headquartered itself at the downtown love Field near Dallas. There were significant differences in the style of operation adopted by Muse. had acquired Continental Airlines. In 1968. signed an agreement. As Love Field was only ten minutes from downtown Dallas. Texas International already served routes from Harlingen and would. Muse began studying the possibility of setting up a new subsidiary of the company. Texas. the frequent court cases kept the Southwest management's attention focused on maintaining standards and maximizing revenues on the existing network. Muse Air never made a profit and eventually. Eleven months after Southwest introduced their service. Southwest's operations were starting to show a profit and some modest expansion was considered feasible. Encouraged by the success of the Rio Grande Valley flights. offering premium-grade services. In the interim. This was a common trap that many mher inexperienced carriers had fallen into in the past. Rather than just absorb Muse Air's operations. Muse Air immediately began rival services over Southwest's core Texan routes. However. Soon. Muse Air was the first US carrier to operate a full non-smoking policy on its aircraft. The all McDonnell Douglas-built fleet was painted in a unique livery with Muse's signature across the fuselage. By 1973 though. who had been vp-Finance under his father. in March 1976. After the bankruptcy of Braniff International the same year. Rather than try to compete by spending money on upgrading their own passenger amenities. with three facing-seat lounge areas in the cabin. Lubock and EI Paso. With its colourful presence now being felt throughout its home state. Southwest and Muse Air On 28 March 1978. came into existence in 1981. The McDonnell Douglas MD-80 was Muse Air's choice for its regional Texan services. Houston and San Antonio. which would give it a major commercial advantage over its larger competitors. which could trace its operations as far back as 1937. Kelleher had been an important influence on Southwest Airlines. the smaller carrier having built up a considerable traffic share on competing routes from Houston. but only as an outside advisor and legal representative. (continued overlean 74 75 . Southwest and TranStar serving their different customer bases in their own way. Unfortunately. Midway had been eclipsed by the opening of the new facility at O'Hare and was. by the 1970s. by then operating under 'Chapter 11' bankruptcy protection and now headquartered in Houston. Once the main airport for Chicago. TranStar's route network stretched from Texas to California. was anxious to establish itself as the major operator both within Texas and from the state to the rest of the US. TranStar also offered improved. later joined by slightly smaller. Their presence in the area was immediately felt though. Southwest responded with its strengths. service with a new Business Class upgraded to a First Class in an attempt to improve revenue yields. Unfortunately for Texas International. until Howard D. and increased frequencies on routes where the two airlines were now competing head-to-head. TranStar became embroiled in a vicious war of fares with Continental Airlines.IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED The Love Field Factor One dispute that was guaranteed to keep Southwest's lawyers in steady employment was the problem of Love Field versus Dallas-Fort Worth. to provide a Southwest A il'l ines style of service from Chicago's Midway Airport. TIm Kincaid COllection Old Dog. However. Southwest Airlines was not in existence when the bond was set up and was not about to sign up to it. bought from Swissair. In 1972.000. this had risen to 325. to move to a new airport being built near Grapevine. Austin. when he left to take the reigns of the. moves were being made in Washington that would release Southwest from its intrastate shackles and allow new routes to be opened without the need for out-of-state subsidiaries to be formed. Southwest would have to start looking further afield for any future development of the network. countered by TranStar's 'StarFares' and 'MediFares' programmes. as more 737s were delivered from Boeing to operate them. Although Muse Air managed to make a dent in Southwest's traffic and even experimented with expanding its route system within Texas and to inter-State points. M. 130-passenger DC-9-50s. Texas Air Corporation merged the two operators under the older and larger airline's name. the airline was reorganized. Lamar Muse's departure from Southwest was followed by that of his son. Texas Air Corporation. Southwest also recognized its convenience for its business commuters.000 passengers flying from the Valley to Dallas. Aiming for a more select clientele. losses mounted to unacceptable levels and Kelleher finally gave up the fight in 1987. the VP-Marketing Services at United Air Lines accepted the permanent post. in 1986. normally. Muse offered assigned seating. by then. of various marks. Muse Air. Nevada and Oklahoma as well as still offering flights linking the main Texan cities. First targeted was the Rio Grande Valley area. Florida. Southwest Airlines resisted moves to make it transfer operations to the new Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. the owners of Texas International Airlines. The little airline was growing up. and threw their objections out of court. Despite continuing unrest within its employee ranks. with its expensive conditions. Therefore they were unable to put up much of an argument and the judge decided that any service was better than none. Under the control of father and son. Michael. the 1968 Regional Airport Concurrent Bond Ordinance. New Tricks The new arrangement worked quite well for the first year. Herb Kelleher was appointed as atemporary replacement. As it was. 1974. much of the merged workforce objecting to a somewhat Draconian new management style. Now he was to lead the airline he had been instrumental in founding. Lamar Muse suddenly resigned as Southwest Airline's President and CEO. two-class. low-cost travel with basic amenities won through. had seen 123. 159-passenger MD-80s. In 1982. Southwest took over the prestigious gate positions previously occupied by giant American Airlines. Renamed TranStar Airlines and with its fleet painted a striking 'Empyrean Blue' livery. TIm Kincaid Collection Slow Expansion One 'advantage' of Southwest Airlines finding itself in almost continuous legal dispute with the larger airlines was that it had to curb any temptation to expand too quickly. served by the airport at Harlingen. the costly new facility would have to attract all the airlines to use it for it to have any hope of being profitable. they were suffering from industrial action at the time and their flights were strike-bound. non-refundable. but appeals from the cities and larger airlines had kept the case in the courts for years. extra cabin attendants and upgraded refreshment services. The Muse Air fleet comprised brand-new. Herb Kelleher was finally persuaded to replace him on a full-time basis. to jointly serve the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth. Southwest was told that it could operate from Love Field as long as it was an airport. A non-competition clause was written into the agreements reached over their leaving Southwest. 'MaxiFares'. the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth brought the first of a series of lawsuits in an effort to make Southwest move. However. Situated roughly halfway between the two cities. Continental saw TranStar as a threat to their ambitious plans. very little used. The airlines who signed up for the bond were not only obliged to move to the new airport. the 'new' airline became Southwest's longer-ranging associate. The year before. all the airline operators then using Dallas original airport at Love Field. ailing Braniff International.

From October.~~~~~~~~ . o Muse Air was reorganized as TranStar Airlines. More 737 routes were introduced as the later order for Series 200s arrived and the aircraft were soon operating over much more of MSA's Asian network. ousting the long-serving Comet 4s. the six-year agreement between the two countries to operate their airline services as a joint venture having expired..•... Southwest acquired control of its Muse Air rival in 1986. Bangkok..IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED Southwest and Muse Air continued Texas International's arguments against Southwest's expansion into the Rio Grande Valley fell flat. lim Kincaid Collection Singapore Airlines 'inherited' the MSA Boeing 737 fleet when the original carrier was split into two airlines. Via author New Services Worldwide The Boeing 737 was. replacing Muse Air's 'signature' livery with a new 'Empyrean Blue' design. Their initial f1eet of Series 100s was introduced on scheduled f1ights from Singarore to Kuala Lumpur. __ _... by the 1970s. MSA was srlit up. Penang. and Kota Kinabula. becoming a common sight at airports in every corner of the world. Aviation Hobby Shop 76 / 77 . Malaysia-Singapore Airlines became the first Far Eastern operator of the aircraft on 21 August 1969. In 1972 though. MSA became Singapore Airlines. lim Kincaid Collection .. as Texas International was grounded by a strike at the time.

and ordering nell' 737s. and continued to do '0 for many years after the VA P 737 fleet had heen considerably expanded. Both carriers had previously been operators of first. Thc Brazilian domestic airlinc VASP (Viacao Aerea ao Paulo) and Argentinean national carrier. Aerolineas Argentinas. and the Malay'ian Airline ystem. The 737s were intended 1969/70. Malaysian rook over most of the fleet of F. the contract for which had been signed in 1968. Aerolineas Argentinas operated several Caravelles and DH Comets on domestic and regional flights . The 737. in late 1971.IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING THE BREED based in ingapore. with turhoprops such as the Viscount. VA P already flew a pair of BAC One-Elevens. The two aircraft were eventually bought by Aloha irlines in J 973. deciding instead to concentrate on the Boeing 727 for domestic continent in 1970/71. The enhanced performance adv<lntages of the 'Ad van ed' 73 7s lent themselves to 78 79 . the statc-owned Indian Airlines Corporation had introduced a fleet of Boeing 737-200s on to its huge domestic network throughout the sub- In the more remote part of the African. ingapore irlines rook over most of the jet equipment. Indian Airlines had operated a small fleet of Caravelle jets on major route' for several year'. renamed Wien Air laska Inc in May 1973. The 737s were originally sold to the West German Air Force. to open their own jet service throughout the region. was able to introduce jet flights to more cities. Boeing 707s used on longhaul flights. More 'Rough Field' 737 Sales As well as having established itself early on in rough-field operations with the likes of Wi en Consolidated. F. mong an increasing number of new operators. suitably modified 737s were also soon demonstrating their unique talents elsewhere in the world. but were soon sold back to Boeing. ordair and Pacific Western. The contract for the five VA P 737s had repla ed an order for five much larger Boeing 727-200 . eventually leasing in Boeing 7 7s.both types were fated to be disposed of as the 737s entered Aerolineas's service. AViation Hobby shop Renamed Wien Air Alaska. Avianca had actually withdrawn their 737-100s from service after only two year's use. Boeing 707s had operated on long-haul services ro Europe for many years ami the 727 had also been introdu ed on major domestic . with its improved runway performance ovcr the older Caravel Ie. had followed Avianca's example and placed Series 200 Boeing 737s in service on their South American routes in and regional jet Trvice. (Above) Malaysian Airline System acquired Boeing 737-200s to operate regional schedules from its Kuala Lumpur base. based at Kuala Lumpur.27 and HS74 operating on local routc'. Steve Bunting (Below) Avianca's 737-100s were only to serve for two years before being sold on. Jenny Gradidge to supplement the 72 7s and replacc a si:ablc flcct of Vickers Viscounts operating on domestic routes. Asian and Central/ outhern American continents there was as much need for high-capacity aircraft capable of operating economically and safely from very basiG11Iy equipped airports.and second-generation European jet airliners. operated on local flights. as there was in Alaska or arctic Canada. and the 73 7s. the Alaskan pioneer airline made good use of its convertible 737-200Cs throughout the northern state. Back in sia. outh African Airways introduced their fleet in 1969 as part of a general modernization plan for their shortand medium-haul routes.1Ild regional flights in 1965.27 turho-props.

Air auru. Coping with Crisis Despite the steady pread of the 737 throughout the worldwide airline system during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Far Eastern Air Transport (Taiwan). Yemen Airways and Zambia Airways. All the rival types were capable of S<1tisfactory operation from difficult environments. Royal Air Maroc. Although not all these operarors rook advantage of the rough-field modifications.2 carried only sixty-five passenger. The increasing costs of the 747 wide-body Carriers as geographically separate as North Africa's Air Algerie and Air Nauru of the Pacific found use for the 737 on their diverse networks. but smaller. The fact that most of the 73 7 production jigs were portable led to the choice of the twinjet as an asset that might profitably be sold off to save money. and the much modified erie 47S ver ion of the BAC OneEleven. Kuwait Airways. Testing times were "head. that would change the air transport industry's goalposts for ever. The original Fokker F. the cancellation of the S T project and a general down-turn in world financial markets was having a eriou accumulative effect. TA Airlines (Honduras). but still sold in comparatively small numbers against the 737's much more impressive sales figures.28 Fellow hip. By 197 . Air Zaire. Rival type. only twenty-two were ordered in The stretched Fokker F. Sudan Airways. However. igeria Airways. Thai Airways. Air Madagascar. Via author the rough-field capability was not required. was a slow-down in air travel generally. after 737 sales had plummeted. the 73 7 was a Iso servi ng mixed pre tige and 'second-level' service with the likes of Air Algerie. they all used their versatile 73 7 on disparate service throughout their regions. 1972 and barely fourteen in 1973. such as the Fokker F. SAHSA (Honduras). Air Tanzania. The Royal Brunei Airlines. programme. Changes Afoot Despite the ongoing production delays and expensive difficulties in introducing their new giant 747 'Jumbo'. in addition to the standard below-floor cargo capacity. On the horizon though. Air Gabon. Via author/MAP 80 81 . Iran Air. Cameroon Airlines. The eries 47S One-Eleven could carry up ro eighty-nine. types was its capacity and range. TAAG Angola Airlines. A convertible 737 could carry these sorts of loads in the rear cabin and still have the forward passenger cabin in a generous cargo configuration. Gulf Air (Bahrein). Where the 73 7 scored over the equally versatile.IMPROVING THE BREED IMPROVING TilE BREED the more demanding operational environments. ro seventy nine. a task force set up by Boeing in 1973 seriou Iy considered the option of s lIing the whole 737 programme to Japan. a turnround began with the development of the 'advanced' version and order began to slowly build up again. designed specifically as roughfield aircraft. Boeing was going through a financial crisis. From a sales high of 114 in 1969. although this wa increased in later ver ions. This gave a degree of flexibility in styles of operation that precluded the need for different types of aircraft on different parts of the network.28 2000 could carry a more economic load of passengers. even where small fleet of F. were soon eclipsed by the 73 7 ale figures as it encroached on their targeted markets.2 s oper<1ted by Braathens was soon eclipsed by the airline's 737s and the Fokkers were sold in favour of more Boeings. They were also modern and comfortable enough to be utilized on more important regional services. still capable of rough-field operations. Saudia (Saudi Arabia). the early 1970s aw Boeing with relatively healthy order books for most of their available models. massive fuel price increase and a worldwide wave of deregulation. At one point. Iraqi Airways. DETA (Mozambique). hina Airlines (Taiwan). in a high-density configuration.

The oil crisis also affected the airlines' revenues in other ways. The Convair series of medium-range. Europe was as badly hit as anywhere. eventually destined for libyan Arab Airlines. Forced into a corner by the increased fuel costs and a vicious price-war among the tour companies. and their suppliers'. managed to weather the storm. the survivors cutting costs wherever possible. Suddenly. 737-200. and aircraft that had previously been viable were found to be an expensive liability. Boeing and all the other airliner manufacturers around the world were having to pay much more attention to fuel consumption in their designs. were already established as one of the most popular regional jet airliners. of VASP of Brazil. Fuel prices rocketed in all sectors. Britann ia A irways. jet airliners suffered especially. Lufthansa 82 83 . often causing some cutbacks in corporate travel. This changed overnight. TWA and Delta operated large fleets of the CV-880 in the USA. VARIG. Both pictures via author types with high fuel consumption at a profit. airlines had enjoyed the benefit of comparatively cheap fuel for their aircraft and had still been able to operate Saudia. struck in 1973. a 707-320C. N731PA wearing Boeing titles over its Pan American colour scheme before delivery. as offered in the late 1960s. although the British public did have to suffer extensive power cuts from the electrical industry. Court Line Aviation. PP-SMA. the airline was able to survive with only minimal cuts and cost-saving measures. leisure travel suffered and the airlines were losing passengers fmm all market groups.ures. increased fuel costs. Some companies went out of business. the rganization of Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided to incre. being a subsidiary of the powerful and much more diverse Thomson Group. trebling within days and plunging the financial world into chaos. their (Below) The Boeing 'family' of jet airliners. and 747-100. with poor advance bookings and more rounds of fuel price rises.lse the price of the oil they supplied. four-engined. By 1976. later delivered to another Brazilian carrier. and its fleetmates. Industrial and financial institutions suffered decreased profits as a result of their own. N1783B. One important UK charter carrier. the entire group was unable to avoid sudden liLjuidation when the working capital ran out. By now. That year. 727-200. with the UK suffering a miners' strike as well. when the oil crisis changed the operational parameters of the airline industry forever. The likes of D-ABHU. PP-VJH.ollS Holidays and Hori:on Travel. as well as some longer-haul flights to Canada and the Caribbean. ceased operati(ins in the middle of August 1974. Where the workforce was hit by redundancies and c!o:. Up until then. at the height of the summer travel season. The Ripples Spread The effect continued into 1974. including Clark. Boeing lufthansa soon acquired Series 200 737s to operate alongside their original Series 100s. it did not need to be introduced. The Luton-based operator flew a large fleet of BAC OneElevens and a pair of Lockheed Tristar wide-bodies throughout Europe's holiday spots. in the end. Court Line Aviation's Luton neighbour. both owned by the same holding company as the airline. 'Konstaz'. and withdrew them from service as soon as they could be replaced by more economic aircraft.I~II)ROVING TilE BREED CHAPTER SIX Worldwide Influences The Oil Crisis ne worldwide crisis that not only contributed to Boeing's woes but also affected nearly every industrial undertaking in the civilized world. Engine manufacturers were under pressure to produce fuel-efficient power plants and the airframe designers were desperately trying to trim as much weight and aerodynamic drag as possible off the forthcoming aircraft. Petrol rationing was threatened in the UK. of Saudi Arabia (above) and aircraft of the Indian Airlines Corporation (left) were flown into both major cities and remoter points in their respective countries.

enrered servicc on rhe IT roures from the erherlands in 1969. Transavia was rhe longer-csrabl ished of rhe rwo airlinc" having been founded in 1965 as Transavia (Limburg) V. Wirh anorher series 20 on order. in contrasr ro earlier charter specialisrs. Transavia's inirial fleer comprised rI"o DC-6s ami one DC-6B. prcviously an opcraror of Convair propeller aircrafr. Aviation Hobby Shop (Below) PH-TVH was one of the first of Transavia's 737-200s that eventually ousted the Caravelles from the Dutch charter carrier's fleet. Belgium's capital. Transavia operared irs firsr jcr cquipmem in rhe shape of a singlc Boeing 707-320C rhar flew long-disrance charters berween May and October 196 . Steve Bunting Mey-Air Transport's attempt to expand into jet charter operations eventually failed. however. Jenny Gradidge More European Charter 7375 Aftcr being onc of rhe 73 7s fcw supportcrs for all-charter services in Europe. Trans European had nor bccn foundcd unril Octobcr 1970. Gcrmany's Condor. ccasing operarion~ and undergoing rhe ignominy of having irs jcr flccr rcpossessed by Boeing for non-paymem. which lefr rhe 84 85 . Belgium's Trans Europcan Airways and rhc crhcrlands' Transavia had both finally opred for the 737 -200 to rcplacc rheir oldcr jcr flccrs. The fuel crisis hir rhe Caravelle's economic viabiliry very hard and Transavia began looking for a less rhirsry replacemenr. rook delivery in 1971 of rwo 737200s. operaring over an increasing nerwork of IT charrers.P. (Above) Britannia Airways managed to survive the turmoil of the fuel crisis. as wcll as rhe lasr DC-6Bs. one was leased from Brirannia Airways and rhree were on lease from nircd Airlines. LN-MTD later found a new home with Piedmont as N754N. Three early model Boeing 707s later joined the single 720 on IT charter work rhroughour Europe and also ro some longer-haul desrinarions. afrer rhe arrival of rwo convcrtible passenger/cargo D -6As and fivc more DC-6Bs. Thc all-737 flcct was now opcrating from a number of K rcgional poims. based in Brussels. On rhar dare. During its time with Transavia it spent time leased out to Tunisair. from wissair and Unired. as well as being in demand for ad hoc and shorr-rerm leasing contracr work wirh other airlines hort of capaciry. with the backing of its powerful owners and careful management.WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES WORLDWIDE II FLUENCES fleer ar rhe end of 1969. Belgian Pace-setter Ir was a furrher rwo years before anorher European charrer carrier adopred rhe 73 7 for ir horr-haul needs. rhcrc. Operaring an exrensive IT and ad hoc nerwork from candinavia. on flighrs to rhc USA. Trans European was to find rhe 737 an ideal aircrafr for irs needs and was soon planning on acquiring further aircrafr to service a major expansion of irs operarions. rhc Caribbcan and Far Easr. wirhour irs roots in rhc propeller era. as well as thc Luton hcad office. the airline started operarions wirh an ex-Easrern Airlines Boeing 720 jer. However. Jenny Gradidge recovery saw rhcir flccr of 737-200~ increase to rhirtccn. by rhe mid-1970s Britannia was finally joined by more inclusivc-tour operators. Of rhe seven. PH-TRP had previously served with SAS and Swissair. thar had leased 737s from Lufrhansa for several years. The following ycar rhe DC-6 flecr consi 'red of no lcss rhan rcn aircrafr. orwegian carrier Mey-A ir. Dcspirc MeyAir's disappointmcnt. Trail' European A irways. did nor begin umil 17 I ovembcr 1966. Howcvcr. This larrer operation was to become a Transavia specialiry in rhe years ro come. following rwo leased wide-bodied Airbus A 300Bs rhar had joined rhe 7 7/720 fleer. wa one of rhc ncwcr brccd of charrer airline. Boasting a modern image. More 707s were leased in over rhe subsequenr years. supporting personnel ami artist' of rhe Durch Dance Thearre wcre flown to aples. A pair of long-rangc 707~ had been operared bricfly in 1971-73. leased from rhe manufacrurer. The Caravelle replacemenrs started to be delivered in May 1974 and by rhe following May rherc were seven Boeing 737-200s in scrvicc wirh rhe Durch charter carrier. rhcy had bccn rcturncd to their lcssors aftcr changcs in US law had madc ir uncconomic for Britannia to operatc lhcir charrcr. Twelve of rhe French rwin-jcrs were in use by 1973. Canada. to opcrarc IT charters for parcnr Bclgian travel companics TIFA and G. Re\'cnuc operarions. replacing rhe leased examples. MEY-AIR (Above) Transavia's Caravelle 3. Gurelman. had rerurned to only operating 72 7· for rheir shorr-haul fleer. Two erics 200 737s arrived in 1976. More Caravelles were acquired second-hand. Two Caravel Ie 3 . including rwo convcrtiblc modcls. Mey Air was ro become a vicrim of rhe posr-OPEC slump.

.• • • • • • •• u L!J' . Northwest and Western linked the west coast with the midwest and southwest as well as flying some of the 'thinner' transcontinental flights in the north and south of the country. A ir France. In addition to providing an important feeder service to Air France's trans-Atlantic flights to and from Paris. onetheless. but ageing. the French unions concerned. The study had reviewed the record of five trunk carrier aircraft. Resembl ing a much en larged 737. S PL and OMAC. il. BACOne-Eleven. was christened 'Guyane' and arrived in January 1974. Despite the other European operators of the 737 all opti ng for a twopilot flight-deck crew. the aircraft leased to Air France were obliged to be flown with three flight-deck crew members. the Caribbean network provided regional links to other import<lnl islands in the vicinity. careers with French domestic carrier.WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES - . but there were no more Mercures produced after the initial production batch. . the Dassault lercure. DC. Eastern Air Lines and Pan American World Airways In later years. had joined the ranks of European cheduled 73 7 operators as early as October 1973. the American scheduled and charter air carriers had previously been stringently controlled by the CAB and FAA In everything from route licences to fares they could offer Under deregulatIOn the airlines were to be 'set free'. the few Dassault Mercures built enjoyed long and successful. A ir France had previously assigned Caravelles to the area to operate the local network. it was not the extcnsive Europcan-scheduled network of Air France that was to sec the 737s. The two organizations disputed Lufthansa's assertion that the two-crew operation was perfectly safe. The French airline was also intcnding to use the period of the lease to cvaluate the 737 as a possible replacement for the remaining Caravelles on European scheduled services. Two Boeing 737-200s were leased from Western. With Wide support from most sides of the party political fences. Air Florida began its short-range. 4504W. Competition from new lowfare carriers was one of the factors blamed for the eventual demise of once-giant Braniff Airways. but the airline's regional services between the French territories in the Antilles Islands chain in the Caribbean. specifically on shorr-haul operations. In effect. The furrher study of three versus two crew members concluded that the records studied: prccludcd makll1g any .md rhrcc m. Air France had already introduced Boeing 727-200s on busier exCaravelle routes within Europe. albeit usually with at least one en route stop. With Braniff. Eastern.and DC-9. . Air Inter later acquired one of the prototype Mercures a' well and were very satisfied with their fleet. Via author 86 87 . Plans for an enlarged version were soon abandoned. both pressured for Air France to adopt the three-crew option. a financial disaster for D<lss<lult. TWA and United ruled the non-stop coast-to-coast services. Being operated as dictated by Western' practice' as agreed with their pilots' unions. regulation continued as most foreign routes were governed by International agreement The main aim of the act was to reduce airline fares and offer more choice to the travelling public. The second. However. Even some of the survivors were badly mauled in the fight for revenue. Caribbean Lease France's national carrier. at least domestically. accident-free. Air Inter. namely the Boeing727. as well as to Florida in the southern USA.-TEN. Once again. For many years the prime transcontinental routes were the sole province of the major carriers. both Delta and National operated transcontinental routes across the south of the USA. Nonetheless there was an established status quo that was about to be seriously upset. Other than an order for ten from Air bIter that placed the first into service on its dome'tic French network in 1974. Boeing 707. the first. AIR . tion. some of the new operators found themselves floundering and regional carriers that expanded their networks overnight were having trouble recouping the cost of their actions. the Mercure was designed from the beginning as a high-capacity. Continental. there was an upsurge in new routes and even new airlines trying to take advantage of the situation The established carriers were still strug. The carriers had only to prove to the authorities that they were 'fit. .. The company had discerned that the rival types then in use were basically medium-haul airliners. flying where they thought they could make a profit and charging what they thought the market would allow. the much hoped-for Air France order failed to materiali:e.. willing and able' to conduct their operations safely and in the public Interest. Delta and National operating the main north-south routes on the east coast and to the south and southwest. America. FAA/ NASA study from the U A. the lack of an agreement on the matter led to Air France cancelling a lease package for th irreen 737 -200s. Howcver. In between. 1twas to be December 1981 before Air France was able to announce an order for twelve 737-200s. often in competition With a regional or local service carner There were overlaps and Inconsistencies . reaffirmed that it 'found no evidence to indicate that a two-man crew aircraft is a detriment to safety'. for the time being. On overseas services.ralCmCI1l hCYllnd rhar rhcrc is nll S1gnl!lcant Lhffcrcncc 111 rhc Ic\'c1 llf safcry hcrll'cen rhc IlI'll . there were no other rakers for the Mercure. gling with the effects of the oil crisis and financial down-turn in the national economy that had left them With half-empty aircraft being flown at a loss However wellintentioned. Boeing 707s and 720s. presented in 1978. intra-Florida services with a highly unsuitable. 9-month. Once the act was law.. believing their basic design had been compromised by stretching to provide more capacity over a shorter range. However. Via author The Airline Deregulation Act was passed by the US Congress in 1978. long-range. a new joint. 737.1I1 llpcra- Air France's Alternatives One serious alternative to the 737 for Air France was a French-built option.~~ •••• . Even the major established carriers were not immune. shorr-rang aircraft and the first prototype first flew on 28 May 1971. the major carriers had their 'sphere of influence' in various regions. the three-crew que'tion was raised by the Air France pilots' unions and was to delay the company's decision. Once-mighty Trans World Airlines eventually found itself shrunk to a shadow of its former self. though.for instance. u Although a commercial failure for its maker. the Mercure was offered to many European carriers and marketed as merican a viable alternative to the choices. Powered by imporred Pratt & Whitney JT8D-15s. 4522W was chri tened 'Antilles' once it was painted in Air France colours. Dassault had developed the Mercure as a 'mini-airbu 'seating 130-15 passengers. Dassault Deregulation in the USA Trans European opted for the 737 to replace larger. With the international network especially hit by low-fare competition and worldwide recession.

to three DC-lOs. Via author Ex.. caused the aircraft to pitch up as soon as it wa. Philadelphia and Washington were aIso served by the 737s. London and Madrid. Although some improvement was eventually achieved as time went by. mostly also debyed. One passenger. the small fleet was initially struggling against the local might of Eastern Air Lines and National Airlines. e\\' international routes were also opened from Miami to points in the Bahamas and the Caribbean. a Washington-Fort Lauderdale . the Midwest and the Great Lake. Air Florida never managed to fully recover from the adverse publicity and finally closed down in the summer of 19 4. Most importantly. a number of unfllrtunate factors were found to have contributed to the crash. all ~ cries 200s. More 737s. Curiously. Dusseldorf. the crew tried to raise the nose and apply power.00hrs. with . airborne and the aircraft was 'oon in a dangerous stalling condition. human error was deemed to have been a major factor.' about to land on the runway behind them. was taken over in July 1978. snow had built up on the wing . However. a Harvard MBA. Frankfurt. Blockage of the inlet tube. Burr 88 89 . it was an intra-state carrier. In short order. Over the next two years the company undertook an explosive expansion programme. In that time. The aircraft crashed into the 14th treet Bridge. two of the flight attendants and sixtynine of the passengers. Air Florida was. Even so. before he 'lipped beneath the water and drowned. destinations in the affluent northeast. hit the company hard. another feature of the post-deregulatt.30s were leased in to operate the long-haul schedules. but their efforts were in vain. following the accident at Washington. including a S Congressional Budget Office clerk named Lenny Skutnick. Originally formed under the old regulations. were acquired. six 727-200s.WORLDWIDE I:-<FL ENCES WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES Post-Deregulation Scramble Among the U carriers already in operation that were swift to take advantage of the new rules. The survivors were hoisted or towed to safety by a US Park Police helicopter that had managed to reach the crash site in twenty minute. in the pipeline. Capt Larry Wheaton and First Officer Roger Pettit. Aviation Hobby Shop Airport had reopened at 15. Air Sunshine.. the renewed snow and ice on the wings and empennage that had built up again as the aircraft waited on the taxiway. Air Florida's 737-200. with the undercarriage down and flap. the controller at Washington had asked the crew of N62AF for 'No delay on departure'. As well as nine ex-United aircraft.Hilmal The Boeing 727. four persons unfllrtunate enough to have been in vehicles on the bridge also perished. Air Florida was able to boast a fleet that had increased from one 707.. still partially extended. Pensacola. The initial deicing was criticized as having been undertaken with an incorrect mix of glycol and water. The inevitable dip in passenger boardings.. another two were contracted in from leasing companies. The Aftermath In the subsequent inquiry. based in Miami. about a mile from the end of the runway. two bystanders from the bridge. such as Boston. this was far from suitable equipment for the brief flights within Florida's borders. Burr had a vision of a new low-fare airline.200 provided more capacity as routes expanded throughout the eastern USA. Air Florida had always operated to a slim profit margin in an effort to be able to offer the cheap fares it had built its reputation on. Although the Air Sunshine fleet of DC-3s and Convair CV-440s was not retained. N62AF. had been seen to unselfishly assist others reach the helicopter's rescue line. of one of the 737-200s at Washington in January 1982. four 737-100s and nineteen 737200s. N62AF was pushed back from the terminal and awaited its turn for departure with several other aircraft. St Petersburg and Tallahassee. would give false indications of thru. following snow clearance that had closed it down for an hour.. Take-over and Meteoric Expansion More DC-9s joined the fleet and local commuter operator. e\\' destinations in the Caribbean and Central America also came on line as oon a' aircraft could be found to open the routes.m era was the formation of brand new airlines. Air Florida added several extra Florida cities to the network via the huy-out. who had been President of Texas International Airlines. had been in the rear section of the cabin... at least for a while. both new and second. As well as killing the flight-deck crew. two of which were leased from Transavia. N62AF sat on the taxiway for nearly another hour before finally being given clearance for take-off. jumped into the freezing river to help her.SIA 737-100s heralded the arrival of the many -200s.'. A leased Boeing 727-100 jet was acquired in 1976 and operated alongside the Electras. Although soon joined by a third Electra in 1974. On take-off.. DC-I 0.urfaces and ice had also built up in the compressor inlet. Washington . financially. with tweh'e 'Ad\'anced' aircraft on order. Steady route expansion brought Gainesville. when the first of four exSingapore Airlines cries 100s arrived at Miami. All the survivors from the aircraft. Even in pre-fuel-crisis days. Already running well behind schedule as a result of exceptionally harsh winter weather in the northeast. Panama City.momalous readings from the blocked tubes led the crew to hel ieve that they had reached a safe take-off speed before they actuall y had. of the engine. a pair of much more economical Lockheed Electra turbo-props replaced the 707. the 757. Air Florida's first aircraft was none other than a Boeing 707-320.nited aircraft. Having pioneered discount 'peanut fares' at Texas International. Air Florida also acquired half a dozen Boeing 727-200s from a cancelled Braniff Airways order. with Air Florida. all still within Florida. one of the more successful. Following de-icing. Celebrations for the anniversary took on a decidedly muted air though. PeoplExpress Airlines was the brainchild of Don Burr. which had broken away and remained partly above the icc and water in the river. Orlando. one flight attendant and four passengers. \\''1. showing a higher amount than was actually being developed. N62AF barely reached 300ft (90m) in altitude before starting to descend again..eventy-four passenger and five crew members on board.. an injection of investment capital followed and fi\'t~ ex-Air Canada DC-9-15Fs replace the 72 7 and Electras. liding over the roadway on the bridge. Pride before the Fall As its tenth anniversary approached. who had survived the initial impact. Air Florida began 'cheduled sef\'ices from Miami to Jacksonville and Tampa in eptember 1972. Eager to repeat the California and Texan success of P A and Southwest Airlines. In a slight left turn. There was also an order for three of Boeing'. on order. To aid the growth of the network. with fi\'e more 737-200...hand.. widebody.. new high-capacity twin-jet model. Long-range. Air Florida joined the ranks of 73 7 operators in 1979. In addition. When a female survivor lost her grip on a rescue rope. with a unique management style. the . 62A F plunged into the iced-up Potomac River. After a change of management in 1977.ef\'ice. In a nose-high attitude. e\\' York. packed with early rush-hour traffic. in March 1973. The modest aribbean and Bahamian international network was soon eclipsed by the opening of trans-Atlantic schedules to Amsterdam. The much enlarged fleet was soon opening new scheduled services from Florida to neighbouring southern states.t. with some seriously flawed judgement on the part of the operating crew being accredited with much of the blame.. It was operating Flight 90 on 13 January. Formed in 19 0. The pressure this put on the crew to clear the runway for the approaching Eastern 727 was cited as a possible cause of the crew missing signs that all was not well with the engine thrust readings and perhaps choosing not to give as much attention as they should have to the build-up of snO\\' on the aircraft's wing. following tragic los. second-hand aircraft were acquired to speed up the expansion. taking full advantage of the nell' freedoms avai lable under deregulation. was one of the ex. Brussels. The airline itself came in for some criticism with regards to training procedures. In addition. also based at Miami. as another aircraft The People's Champion While Air Florida had been an established carrier that took advantage of deregulation to change itself beyond recognitilln. into the network. estahlished to make their mark under the new rules.

1id. New York. an Air Florida's carefully built empire was to slowly crumble in the wake of the Washington tragedy. Virginia. Croix Il . trains and even out of their cars. resigned from the Texas carrier and set about gathering finance for their new venture. Via author Ex-Braniff International Boeing 747. Initial stock offerings gained the company 25 million to finclnce its start-up and several other talented executives defected from Texas International to join PeoplExpress. One prospective purchaser Chicago ('. Aviation Hobby Shop 90 97 . Lufthansa knew a good deal when it was presented and. the rest of the Lufthansa aircraft wcre delivered over the next twelve months and PeoplExpress began its meteoric rise. As long as the airline was making money.WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES was well aware that the paying public would forgo expensive amenitie in return for cheap. the German airline's engineers painted farewell tears on the aircraft's tail logo. N602BN. In July 19 3. pre-delivery overhauls. and two other Texas International associates. Melrose Dawsey and Gerald Gitner. as more. larger. the base for the new carrier was narrowed down to the then much under-used Newark International. PeoplExpress's flights were soon among thc most popular in the industry. One presented a contract full of holes and the next 'candidate' wanted an astronomical commission paid to him personally 'under the counter'. This was unlikely to be approved by his then boss. All refreshments on board were charged for as well. From the start.. INTRODUCING NEW SER VICE TO: Lufthansa's Series 100s Come Home Lufthansa had been offering its early Series 100 Boeing 737s for sale. involving dozens of contract rewrites. reliable air service. PeoplExpress were willing to pay 51. The deal included modification of the 737s into a high-density. for minimum supervision. frequent. was one of several operated on PeoplExpress's much expanded transcontinental and trans-Atlantic low-fare network. at 3 a piece. with routes opened from ewark to Buffalo. A further thre' aircraft were added to the order at a later date.y) Columbus Cincinnati Detroit Cleyeland Indianapolis St. an agrcement was reached. Columbus. Frank Lorenzo.6 pcr ccnt was achicved. and make air transport accessible to all. The offers Lufthansa received for the aircraft varied from the sublime to the ridiculous. More routes opened a. Virgin Islands) wanted one aircraft to ferry his casino's cl ients free of charge. On 6 May 19 3. million for a lease-purchase agreement for fourteen of the aircraft. burgundy and brown livery. the last five Lufthansa 737 -I OOs being sold to Far Eastern Air Transport of Taiwan later in 1981. Well experienced in selling off urplu members of their fleet. he had a vision of maximum responsibilities to the employees. with a typical one-way fare of 35. The first three 737-100s were delivered to Newark ready for service inauguration in early 19 I. Thomas & St. Burr wanted to attract passengers off the buses. Explosive Expansion Despite the rather basic nature of their service. the quarterly profit-sharing payout went a long way towards bringing their significantly lower salaries nearer to the industry norm. In particular. in New Jersey. another wanted 'over-favourable' credit facilities for eight aircraft over ten years. From several options. after protracted negotiations. Via author When lufthansa delivered the last of PeoplExpress's -100s. Other ground-based functions were undertaken in a similar manner and other money-saving moves included the charging of passengers for any baggage carried.5. the new airline targeted first-time flyers as a major part of its market base. 'Advanced' Series 200s arrived from Seattle. Ohio and Norfolk. and most of the ticketing activities were undertaken on board by the cabin crews. the entrepreneur who owned Texas ir Corporation that controlled Texas International. The unique administration style of the airline saw substantial staff alary savings by 'cross utili:ing' aircraft crews on groundbased jobs in addition to their flying duties. I 18-passenger configuration.. ew staff were required to buy a minimum of 100 share" of PeoplExpress stock. Burr. cockpit instrument conversions back to US standards and the repainting of the aircraft into PeoplExpress's cream. an incrcdible load factor of 3.

The airline's claim to 'Fly Smart'. As well as suddenly taking on the ex-Frontier. Five slightly larger 737-200s had been acquired from CP Air in early 1982. far south as Florida and Louisiana. Denver Ambitions Burr's old bo s. in [9 3 the airline po ted its fir t annual loss for a decade. outnumbering the 737-100s and -200s. While most of the employees were intensely loyal and trustworthy. Unfortunately. until the last were retired on 1 June [982. with similar low-fare features. Malcolm L. citing the monopoly that would be created by the enlargement of Continental's already i:able presence at Denver. PeopIExpre's': substantial investment in the carrier was starting to look very risky. finalized the deal in the autumn of 1985. However. nfortunately. Within four years PeoplExpress had certainly grown beyond its founders' wilde t dreams. The Convair 580s were slowly replaced by more 737-200s. that Frontier could not survive and it looked as though it might take PeoplExpress down with it. ew York A ir had started low-fare scheduled services on 19 December 1980. in early 19 5. becoming rife. Hill FRON"'ERQ Despite the best efforts of its staff and management. of Texas Air Corporation. Lorenzo stepped in and offered substantially more to the shareholders. Frontier Holdings Inc. Burr did intend to eventually operate as one carrier. leaving the employees hopelessly outbid.Os. and other revenuegathering systems. with a heavily unionized workforce. the 727 was to outnumber the 737 in PeoplExpress service. The extra 737s were soon eclipsed by the arrival of eighteen [ 5-seat Boeing 727-2 Os. Frontier was forced to stop flying and Frank Loren:. the sale of Frontier to PeoplExpress failed to save the carrier from economic oblivion. but a handful of 737s were in service as well. as the original seventeen -1 OOs were stretched to their operational limits. and even proved the concept of airline scats as a commodity to be sold at the cheapest rate the profit margin would bear. Once the talks with United broke down.WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES WORLDWIDE INFL ENCES A one option. from ewark to Brussels was opened. This was bec<luse Frontier's more traditional approach. onetheless. took over the airline as its prime subsidiary. Jenny Gradidge PeoplExpress a welcome expansion into Western markets. the actions of a few opportunists within the organi:ation were draining badly needed funds from the airline. along with an eventual total of nine 747s. the explosive expan ion soon began to take a toll on PeoplExpress service reputation. The takeover was hostile to the extent that the Continental employees had been treated to an unpleasant example of Lorenzo's management style when drastic reductions in pay and benefits had been forced upon them. The absorption of the two heleaguered airlines inro Continental took effect on [ Fehruary [987. both types taking on a brighter. Unfortunately. Burr and the [eop[Express management were sailing the airline very close to the wind. modern. Over thirty aircraft were in usc by the time of the consolidation into Continental. The employees. However. hy now both were on the brink of insolvency. Texas Air Corporation also later acquired Eastern itself. with projections for 19 5 not showing any sign of improvement. the economic downturn in the A followed soon afterwards and. Continental had only recently become a 737 operator itself. Eastern's few profitable assets were disposed of or transferred to Continental and the remainder was allowed to slip into bankruptcy ami eventualliquidation in January 1991. of [3. the airline's owner offered Frontier A irl ine's employees the chance to buy the carrier for 21 [ million. tried to block the move by threatening court action. Frontier had continued to operate a mixed fleet of Convair CV-580s and Boeing 727-200s. [n the meantime. Burr and PeoplExpress offered 24 per share and. Texas Air Corporation purchased the assets of both Frontier and PeoplExpress. the Frontier route system giving The Boeing 727-200 became the most common type in the PeoplExpress fleet. to the Frontier employees' relief.ll i:ed. A buse of the system was widespread. had recently merged Texas [nternational with Continental Airlines after a hostile takeover. initially as a rival to the long-estahIished Eastern A ir Lines 'Shuttle' between La Guardia. MD-80s. New York Air and 92 93 . Frontier had continued to sen'e the Rocky Mountain area of its origins. Burr's revolutionary staff empowerment philosophy also became unwieldy as the carrier grew. the United employees' unions objected to the plam put forward for integrating the Frontier staff and the deal ne\'er materi. mostly DC-9 and MD. Instead. was placed into service on a Newark-London (Gatwick) trans-Atlantic schedule. despite vociferous union objections. It wa becoming clear. Malcolm L. and it would take just one mistake to bring about disaster.o made his move. and. new holding company. for the time being. but prolonged disputes with its employees prevented any thoughts of integration into Continental. a lack of accountability to a supervisory body causing incompetence to go unchecked and even criminal abuse of the in-flight ticketing. south to Florida and even a further transAtlantic route. Another Texas Air Corporation airline. red and orange livery in later years. La Guardia Airport-hased e\\' York Air was also absorbed into Continental at the same time. Nevertheless Burr intended to operate Frontier as a separate division for at least five years before attempting full integration. an attempt was made to sell Frontier on to United. with 485 scats. Founded by Texas International. by the 'ummel' of 19 6. as routes were extended from coast to coast. [n an attempt to further expand his airline empire. Frank Loren:o. eventually 'erving twenty-six states. In a desperate bid to keep Lorenzo at bay. no longer alway lived up to expectations. Loren:o had made a bid for Denver-based Frontier Airlines. Bosron and Washington. False Optimism Frontier continued operations. contrasted starkly with Burr's system of 'staff empowerment'. Hill ex-Braniff [nternational Boeing 747. later. Frontier continued to lose money at an alarming rate. reaching over I million a day at one point. Eventually. as well as international flights to four cities in Canada. fearful of Lorenzo's reputation. The initial fleet of three ex-Texas International DC9s had grown as the network expanded into further New England points and a. The results in 19 4 were even worse. million. shortly before the multi-mergers. with no less than fifty-one being acquired. financially. at $17 a share. now as a subsidiary of PeoplExpress.

the 737 was proving as useful a transportation tool as ever. The airline introduced its first 737. the merger talks came to nothing. the fleet consisted of thirteen 737-200s. it also continued to make its mark in more rugged fields. in January 1981. of which sixty were Boeing 737-200s. Pacific Western Airlines had already absorbed the fleet of fellow 737 operator. In Canada. Steve Bunting/Martyn East . Unfortunately. in 1986. holiday flights to sunnier climes and Arctic services to remote communities. literally. Initially. succumbed to the pressures in 1984 and ceased operations. the aircraft was invaluable. however. On this occasion. a leased 'Advanced' convertible aircraft. Nevertheless. Some of the less economic regional services were assigned to new subsidiary airlines. new. bringing to an end nearly sixty years of service to Alaska. The remaining three were early models leased in from United. For the first time. the Convair jets were joined by Boeing 707s and 720s on the 'Golden Nugget Service' and Boeing 727-100s joined Alaska Airlines in 1966. Transair. in 1979. one of them an all-cargo freighter. However. Convair 880 and 990As had replaced the piston-powered OC-6 on main routes from Alaska to Seattle and Portland. Two more. The carrier had been the subject of speculation regarding a possible takeover by Western Air Lines in the early 1980s. company politics began to intervene and the aircraft's operators were to go through a series of changes. Eventually. the combined fleets still consisted of more than eighty aircraft. ten of them convertible to 'combi' passenger/freight operations. Via author Transair had been absorbed by Pacific Western in 1979. The airline also flew five 727-100s. This and later moves also brought 737 operators Eastern Provincial. with its Alaskan and Canadian operators Wi en Air Alaska had continued to operate its socially vital scheduled network throughout Alaska during the 1970s and early 80s. convertible aircraft arrived from Seattle a few months later. Canadian Airlines International. Shortly after this. Wi en Air Alaska began to suffer from financial problems and. CP Air had reverted to its original operating name. with no other viable purchaser on the horizon. as its one-time neighbour Pacific Northern had once been. jets could serve out-of-the-way cities like Nome. Alaska Airlines operated a mixed fleet of 727s and 737s. acquisitions and renaming brought Eastern Provincial into the new Canadian Airlines International. with its ability to operate from more airfields on the airline's local network than the larger jets.Northern Stars While new 737 operators were using the aircraft in a leading role in exploring new forms of commercial air transport. Canadian Pacific Air Lines. their 737 fleets combining to create an impressive operation. Kotzebue and Unalakleet. Alaska Airlines had based their jet fleet on a variety of options over the years. Jenny Gradidge/Aviation Hobby Shop Another round of mergers. Nordair and Quebecair under the control of the same group and the surviving operations of all the airlines were merged under a new name. five of which were of the 'Advanced' model. The 727 was much better suited to Alaska's operations. On both intercity commuter. Alaska's other major carrier. 8y 1982. Pacific Western Airlines' parent company acquired control of the larger airline in 1986.

Midway also took over some of the ex-Air Florida Boeing 737 fleet. Boeing 727s. Another concern also took over a number of Air Florida's aircraft. of several models. Martyn East PeoplExpress Boeing 737s (of three different marks). as 'Midway Express'. B2613 flew for Far Eastern Air Transport of Taiwan from 1979 to 1996. Via author 96 . Pan American's buy-out of Miami-based National Airlines in 1980 had brought a number of short-haul floridian routes into the network. N388PA 'Clipper Reinickendorf' was leased in for the Berlinbased operations in 1983-84. ex-Eastern Airbus A300Bs were shortly to make their own maverick contribution. Munich. including the more profitable local routes. had already introduced a handful of 737200s on their Internal German Network. 747s. the two operation were merged into one. Hamburg. The reunification of Germany. while the Florida-based 73 7s flew all economy-class flights. Steve Bunting Air Florida Aftermath With the demise of Air Florida. MD-80s and DC-lOs made up the highly diverse fleet. with the Chicago operations eventually Pan American acquired 737-200s to replace 727-100s on West German and US domestic services. Detroit and Kansas City. Aviation Hobby Shop G-BADP was named 'Sir Arthur Whitten-Brown' in Britannia Airways service. Veteran longhaul carrier Pan American World Airways. These offered all business-class facilities. operating a fleet of DC-9s on services to Cleveland. Quick to step in to try to fill the breach was Chicago-based Midway Airlines. transAtlantic and even trans-Pacific longerhaul services. The airline continued its expansion. A total of sixteen 737s were to be operated by Pan American. there was a gap in the low-fare market in the 'Sunshine State'. if any. being rebranded as 'Midway Metrolink'. offering employment to many of the defunct airline's staff. the 737s flew from West Berlin to Frankfurt. of various marks. replacing the 737s with more DC-9s. The 737s returned to Miami where they replaced more 727s. Leased-in from 1982 to replace less fuelefficient Boeing 727-100s. in 1990. Eventually. Via author Another ex-Western aircraft. Nuremburg and Stuttgart. in 1987. where the 737s also proved more economic. The varied network serviced not only local domestic routes. as well as appearing on some international European routes. 737-200. arriving in 1983. saw Pan American eventually withdrawing from Berlin. ------=--Delta ordered a fleet of 'Advanced' 737-200s to replace older DC-9s. Expansion followed with new routes opening to Newark.WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES Continental added the PeopIExpress/Frontier/New York Air 737s to its already over-diverse fleet. struggling against serious mismanagement. Five ex-Air Florida 737s were acquired to increase the Boeing twin-jet fleet and the aircraft served in West Germany as well as Florida. Few of the routes were making much. McDonnell Douglas DC-9s. until mounting losses caused the company to cease all operations in 1991. New York and Washington. Midway Airlines had begun operations from Chicago's older airport in November 1979. Pan American itself was now in decline system-wide. unable to cope with low-fare competition from deregulated carriers. which took over some of the assets. money and the now highly unwieldy Continental Airlines entered its second period of Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection within months of the mergers taking effect. In addition. but also transcontinental. N303DL was one of the first.

MAP . Martyn East (Above) Delivered to the Imperial Iranian regime in 1977.(Right) USAir's N247US began life in 1982 as N793N. MAP (Bottom) Air Malta's 737-2oos fly an extensive IT charter programme to the Mediterranean island. as well as vital scheduled services. EP-AGA continued to operate VIP services for the post-revolutionary Islamic Republic government. The aircraft was transferred to US Airways Metrojet in 1998. TEA (UK) and GB Airways before joining Europe Aero Service in 1993. 'Suwanee Pacemaker' with Piedmont Airlines. Steve Bunting (Below) F-GLXG was operated by Trans European. Boeing 737-200. Rotterdam Airlines.

R. PH-OZA on IT charters from Amsterdam in the early 1990s. United has flown 737-300. N330UA since its delivery in 1988./ BRI71SHAIRWAYS ••••••••••••••••••••••• (Top) A Maersk Air 737-300. American Airlines C. G-MONP on turn-round at Bristol with Paramount's -300. Martyn East (Above) N307AC was retained by American Airlines for just over three years after the airline took over AirCal. ramp with a GB Airways 737-200 in 1989. NordicEast and Western Pacific. before becoming N334AW with America West in 1999. It later served with Transwede. TEA (Switzerland). Richard Howell . shares the Bristol. Martyn East Air Holland operated 737-300. UK. Deutsche BA airho?and Malcolm L. Air Europa. on lease to British Airways. Steve Bunting (Below) Deutsche BA has based its post-reunification success around the 737-300. Hill (Below) EC-EBY was delivered new to Hispania in 1987. Smith Museum (Above) Inter European's leased 737-300. TAESA. G-PATE in 1990.

F-GINL was delivered on lease in 1998.(Above) 737-500. N507SW is one of several Southwest Airline's aircraft to wear the special 'Shamu' livery. MAP " . Steve Bunting (Belowl France's Air Outre Mer operates a number of 737 versions on its scheduled and charter services. 737-500. promoting Seaworld's famous killer whale attraction.

in competition with TEA's Boeing 737 operations. a new Brussels-based carrier. Belgium's Sabena had replaced their last Caravelles and Boeing 727-100s with 737-200s. smaller. The convertible version had been chosen as. alongside earlier versions. G-BVZH was one of the first to wear the revised livery. Federal Express. Boeing 737-200s finally arrived in Europe in December 1982. long-awaited. in favour of larger all-cargo aircraft. to occupy the aircraft when not required for the freight work. the 737s returned to the USA. Malcolm L. Lufthansa (Bonom) Maersk Air operate 'Next Generation' 737s. IMiddle) Lufthansa operates its 737-300aCs on night-time cargo and mail services around Europe. including 737-700. Pan American continued to sell off assets and close routes in an effort to save money. Egyptair leased two Air Lingus 737-200s in 1975. the carrier was considering diversifying into passenger charter or lowfare scheduled services. They replaced the last of the airline's surviving Caravelles. The very last commercial flight by an aircraft of the original Pan American World Airways was operated later that day by a Boeing 727-200 on a scheduled service from Barbados to Miami. New. as well as charters to Europe. Airbus types had been imported from Europe to replace 747s on domestic trunk routes. the 727 was named 'Clipper Goodwill'. A small fleet of convertible 737-200Cs were delivered to Federal Express from 1979. operated 737 -200s alongside 707s. Olympic Airways placed the 737-200 in service on their domestic and European schedules. However. In the Middle East. 737-500. New York and Washington. Delta withdrew vital funding. Saudia and Sudan Airways. whereby Delta would acquire the remaining trans-Atlantic network and domestic 'Shuttle' operation between Boston. Sabena also leased aircraft to their IT charter subsidiary. Hill I Top) British Midland's new image as british midland bmi was unveiled in 2001. The 737s were to replace the airline's ageing fleet of Comet 4Cs and Russian-built 11-18 and AN-24 turbo-props on local and regional flights. beginning in 1974. Ironically. based at Miami. these plans were soon abandoned and the 737s disposed of by 1981. and the only chance for the carrier to survive in any substantial form. Sobelair. flying them on European schedules. a type that had been in service with Air France since 1959! 97 . Iran Air. Egyptair later leased aircraft from their 737 fleet to associate airline. The tattered remnant of the historic carrier was forced into an ignominious bankruptcy on 4 December 1991. on push-back from Tampa for a short flight back to Miami. and operated on their extensive night-time cargo network. In Europe. N68AF. Neighbouring Luxair replaced their own Caravelles with 737-200s. at the last minute. but the expected life-span of the rest of Pan American could be counted in hours. among others. Pan American would continue on services to the Caribbean and Central and South America. The Egyptair 737s joined others already in service in the region with Gulf Air. Iraqi Airways. Aviation Hobby Shop Aviation Hobby Shop Beginning by selling off its Pacific network. Air France's own. However. A deal was reached with Atlanta-based Delta Air Lines. and were later seen on some of the international flights. that operates scheduled flights domestically with Egypt and internationally on schedules to Israel. as well as a popular programme of ITs from its Luxembourg base. Air Sinai.WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES Following Pan American's withdrawal from Berlin. Greece's national carrier. The 'Shuttle' and the remaining trans-Atlantic routes had already been transferred to Delta. The 'tactical retreat' to Miami was seen as the chance for a new start. one of the few profitable parts of the airline. also sold to United. an ex-Air Florida aircraft. OY-MRC. Abelag Airways. carries the final 'Billboard' livery. More New Operators An interesting addition to the ranks of US 737 operators was scheduled Air Express carrier. 'Clipper Rainbow'. before changing its name to Air Belgium. The sale of the prime US-London/Heathrow routes followed. prior to taking delivery of their own fleet of eight new aircraft on order from Boeing. at the time.

(Belowl The single aircraft fleet of Air Sinai. International operations. Presidential finally ceased operations for good in December 1989. America West initially operated a trio of Boeing 737-200s on routes from Phoenix to Colorado Springs. operating a limited domestic and regional replacing them with larger 727-200 freighters when plans to operate passenger services were dropped. A small fleet of British-built BAe 146-200s began joining Presidential in mid1986. Further east. contrasted dramatically with Sabena's wide-ranging use of its numerous 737s. despite experiencing its own growing pains. Steve Bunting (Belowl Originally Britannia airways G-AVRO. with routes opening to Canada. Eventually the company was reorganized as a United Express carrier. ten 737s were in use servicing twelve cities from Phoenix. Cleveland. reinvent itself. a pair of second-hand 80eing 747 wide-bodies had been placed in service on short-lived. throughout Europe. Both pictures courtesy of Steve Buntmg (Above) America West's initial growth at Phoenix was based around the 737. this did not foretell the beginning of the end. Steve Bunting SAElENA I 98 99 . after yet another reorganization and renewal as Presidential Express. where necessary. flights served Boston. soon found some disciples around America. and its initial success. was America West Airlines. lossmaking. as did seasonal ski-flight schedules to Colorado. Arizona. Founded as acompany in 1981 and beginning operations in 1983. on lower-capacity flights. By the end of the first year's operations. schedules to Hawaii. including a version of the staffempowering concept. Plans to replace the 737s with an all-BAe 146 fleet were speeded up as the company continued to lose money and entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.low-Fare Hopefuls PeoplExpress. Presidential AilWays began operations from Washington's Dulles International Airport in October 1985. One to take up much of the PeoplExpress philosophy. as with other less fortunate airlines. based at Phoenix. Even this support failed to save Presidential and. low-fare. Los Angeles and Wichita. Cincinnati. operating on behalf of the larger airline on routes from Dulles. of various versions. for the first time in 1991. For once. High frequency. America West Airlines managed to survive. Kansas City. Hartford. WORLDWIDE INFL E CES (Abovel Federal Express only operated the 737 for a short time. operating BAe Jetstream commuter turbo-props. In what was seen later as a classic case of overexpansion. Presidential Airways N313XV is pictured at Luton before its trans-Atlantic delivery flight. Miami. The Phoenix-based airline was forced into Chapter 11 itself a number of times. America West used its periods of bankruptcy protection as a useful breathing space in which to reorganize and. Orlando and West Palm Beach with a fleet of twelve 737-200s. followed shortly aftelWards. MAP network.

'FM International finally won through and. there is no doubt that it had a dramatic effect of the travelling habits of America. both plying its traditional trade with the established carrier. Sobelair. The CFM56 was first developed a a possible replacement for older types of engines on the Boeing 707. the aircraft would be CFM56 powered. Hill CHAPTER SEVEN The Baby Grows Deregulation Aftermath Although the debate will certainly rage for year' as to the benefits or otherwise of the deregulation of the US airline industry. although the engine was used to re-engine many military 707s and KC 135s. However. Boeing was still negotiating with the two main candidates to supply the new engine designs. Malcolm L. This eventually emerged as the twin-engined 757. With the 'Advanced' version making its mark. replacing older aircraft with more modern versions. had cooperated with Boeing on the design studies for the proposed 727-300. G-BJCV. compared to three on the 72 7. 100 101 . and Rolls Royce with the proposed RJ 500. and bla:ing pioneering trails with the new breed of low-cost airlines. was finally chosen for development by Boeing. up to the standard on Boeing's new 757 and 767 models. Luxair the -200 and the airline came close to placing a production order. Although the 727 had eventually been completed replaced. then under development. revi ed systems and refined aerodynamics.6m) longer than (Below)luxair's busy fleet of 737-200s flew both scheduled and IT charters within Europe. as an alternative to designing a whole new type. As well as offering the required fuel economie . The last new 727 rolled off the production line in September 1984. CFM International was jointly owned by General Electric of the A and ECMA of France. The civil programme was later cancelled. Boeing opted to study an upgraded 73 7. with varying degrees of success. originally designated the 7N7. when the 737-300 was formally launched with the first production order in March 19 I. with their CFM56. and the larger 72 7s. the price of aviation fuel had leapt up several time'. 'Viscount Trenchard' was delivered in early 1982.WORLDWIDE INFLUENCES (Left) Sabena's charter subsidiary. Similar reforms were soon to be copied the world over in the following decades. An updated flight-deck for the new 737 saw the use of more modern instrumentation and new technology systems such as digital avionics. The established design would form the basis of the company's offering for the 100-150 seater. A major factor to be considered was that of fuel economy. Throughout the upheaval. Further improvements looked at for the new 737 versions included a moderni:ed flight-deck. the new engines would be much quieter. Via author What Next? With the 1980s approaching. ew noise pollution legi lation was on the hori:on as well that would eventually restrict operations of both the early model 737. as well as retrofitting existing aircraft. Boeing was looking closely at the basic 737. some faltered and many failed in short order. The comparatively thirsty JT Ds were becoming less economical as the years went by. F-GBVP is pictured during a turnround at Geneva. preferably with more fuel-efficient high-bypass turbofans. Boeing was finally able (() sLart looking to Lhe future of the 73 7 programme. As the regulatory changes began to make their mark on the airlines. the Boeing 73 7 had played a part. now known as the 737-300. The first public reference to the new type. CFM International. At the time. although it had found favour with several airlines. operated its 737s to resort areas around the Mediterranean. that would be a further 18ft 4in (5. There were at least only two thir ty and noi 'y JT8Ds on the 73 7. Was it to be seen as having served its purpose and confined to history as a 1960s and 70s phenomenon? Or was there life in an updated design' Britannia airways updated their 737-200 fleet over the years. While some operators thrived under the new conditions. Since the original OPEC crisis in 1974. United. in particular. Boeing had planned to offer new 707 airframes fitted with the engines. short/medium-range market. Via author (Below left) Air France finally placed their own 737s into service on European routes in 1982. Go Ahead for the -300 Boeing finally made its decision to proceed with an improved 73 7 in January 1979. The 73 7 studies centred on re-engining the design. wa made at the Farnborough ir Show in 1980. the 73 7 sales figures had maintained their recovery from the early 1970s slump. an all-new design. Development of an even more tretched 727-300 series was finally ahandoned.

.. as was the French-built Mercure. by BA. --. would accelerate the retirement of the last Tridents and One-Elevens. British European Airways had lobbied for permission to order the 737 for many years.. also added to cost savings that arrived with the 737s. the charter arm had taken on a new identity with the emergence of BA after the merger... to be powered by IAE V2500 engines. initially wearing BA stickers in addition to Transavia's colours. it was to be over ten years before British Airways was to put their own aircraft into service.v". one of 3ft 8in (1. or possibly as a result of. The power added by the n... Much bigger. and the Transavia aircraft were returned. Lufthansa (Above) British Airways own 737-200s were operated from February 1980 on both (Below) BA subsidiary. The airlines had been pressuring Boeing to make a decision and the eries 400 was finally announced in late 1985.. this would allow the seati ng of up to 149 passengers. By the time the two national airlines were merged into one company. with CAT 3A autoland certification.'~' i ' ..8m) domestic and international services from London/Heathrow. the high bypass ratio engi nes cou Id not be hung below th' 737 wings as with the earlier versions o( the aircraft. the Transavia aircraft were eventually repainted in full BA livery. Frankfurt. Two fuselage plugs.. Istanbul. the lower section of the engine nacelle was slighrly flattened at the bottom and el'en some parts of the engine were reposi tioned.eat range through the mid1980s. British Airways.. along with the arrival of Boeing 757s.. Malcolm L.5m) at the rear." . Stavanger and Stockholm.. British Airtours. even though they were less economic to operate.lm) forward of the wing. they had to be cantilevered out ahead of the wing's leading edge. increased the ol'erall length to 109ft 7in 03m). 702 . onetheless. As the study continued. The original 737 design's inherent lack of centre of gral'ity problems made this fairly major re-design possible. making their arrival even more welcome as it allowed the swift retirement of more thirsty Tridents and One-Elevens. but soon rejected. As such. were used on flights from London to Amsterdam. Originally flying ex-BEA Comet 4Bs. a massive 70 per cent fuel price rise was imposed. As a result of the assessments. as BEA Airtours from 1968. specialized in IT charters with its 737-2oos that The CFM56 was a I'ery different engine design from the jT8D.". Steve Bunting ~ "I .- ~" . Bigger Yet The initial stretch that produced the eries 300 was not to be the end of the story. The Transavia 737s... Any other engine location would have made use of the much larger CFM56 difficult.- . The fact that the new aircraft could be operated with two flight-deck crew. In a high-density configuration... one of 5ft (1..OOOlb thrust of the CFM56 allowed Boeing to initiate the first major stretch of the 73 7 since the -200. if not totally impossible. To solve the problem of ground clearance with the wider engine. which occurred as a result of politiCal interference. matching the autoland capabilities of the Tridents that they were to replace. the aircraft were an updated version of the'Advanced' 737.. To be promoted as the 'Super 737s'. to assess the performance of both types on their short-haul network.. BA's predecessor. Also evaluated at the time was the Boeing 7N7 project that BA later ordered as the Boeing 757.. under the pretext of a capacity shortage. the British aerospace industry was in serious decline.. locally produced aircraft such as the Hawker Siddeley Trident and BAC One-Eleven had to be favoured. .. Once freed from its government chains.. British Airways' own 737s entered service in February 1980... As a result. The flight-deck layout was upgraded and the avionics incorporated a new digital Automatic Flight Control System. Boeing continued to tudy whole new designs in the 150-. The 737-300 flight-deck incorporated many advances originally designed for the then new 757 and 767 models. totally electronic controls. British Airways leased in both McDonnell Douglas DC-9-51 sand Boeing 737-200s. as opposed to the Trident's three. there was a great deal of political interference in the airline's operations."" ••• ---- . British Airways placed an order for nineteen 737-200s in July 1978. as well as also appearing on the Helsinki route. evaluating aiI'I ine reaction to a '7 -7' de-ign. BA was able to actively consider US aircraft for its short-haul needs. Despite. Boeing kept the 7j7 proposal alive and offered a further stretch of the 737 as a 'stop-gap' until the 7]7 technology was perfected into a more practical airliner design. Hill had replaced older 707s. in 1974. Further ·tretched by 6ft (1. British Airtours. from Finnair and Transavia respectively. as BEA had initially become.. In late 1977. Nine more 'Super 737s' were ordered to re-equip BA's charter subsidiary. A fleet of exBOAC Boeing 707s had already replaced the Comets.. Brussels. Lockheed Tristars took over the longer-ranging flights and the 737s were to finally replace the ageing 707s from 1980-81.i. but these were becoming uneconomic on the shorter European charters.THE BABY GROll'S Better late Than Never Although Britannia Airways' success with the 737 had not gone unnoticed with the United Kingdom's national carrier. British Airways itself ordered a further sixteen 737-200s that. Hamburg. Coincident with the arrival of the 737. Operating as a nationalized corporation at the time though. were for the most part uncompetitive..".. _ ~. Yet further anlarged versions of the Trident and One-Eleven were proposed. The Finnair DC-9s only operated on the London-Helsinki service. heing powered by propfan engines and incorporating f1y-by-wire. the 7]7 receil'ed a (airly cool reception from the airlines. Later this design was refined into the '7j7' proposal that was expected to be built in close co-operation with japan. its proposals for new aircraft for British Airways European Division. British airfours -. Instead.:.

ome new carriers quickly stepped in to exploit opportunities in the growing market and were soon showing their colours on airport ramps around Europe.. Errol Cossey and Martin O'Regan had both been with leading British independent. The new base at London/Gatwick became operational when the first aircraft.. the arrangement was a natural evolution of earlier tyles of leasing practices. taking their 70th aircraft on charge in March 1985. as was outhwest Airlines. oonjoinedlyG-BMOR (after Martin O'Regan) and G-BMEC (after Errol Cossey). Allegheny operated a number of the. as well as new examples off the production line..Is and several DC-9-30s were acquired second-hand. Estahl ished U operators of the 73 7 continued to expand their fleets of cries 200s. beginning the gradual process of replacing older DC-9s and SAC One-Elevens. then one of the largest UK IT travel companies. the prototype Boeing 707/KC135. Cost-cutting was still a high priority and charter operators of older. less fuel-efficient aircraft were starting to look seriously at their options for replacing their thirstier fleets. with new 727-200s also joining the airline's inventory for new Pittsburgh-California longer-range services. unreliable aircraft and indifferent service. the Series 200 and 300 were to be produced side by side for some years. They decided to strike out on their own after the Dan-Air management rejected their proposals for modernizing the fleet to make it more economic and attractive to potential charterers. Later. Despite the post-fuel-crisis depression.. Other long-term 73 7 operators. new Kansas ity services were extended northwards to St Louis and Chicago/Midway. A number of UK-built BAe-146s were also introduced.TilE BABY GROWS Tile BABY GROwS As a result of the Mohawk acquisition. econc. The jets were supplemented by a large fleet of Convair CV-5 0 turbo-props. . Over thirty were operated by the airline at the trijet's PSA zenith. even the 727s were replaced by more economical MD. We tern and Piedmont. the latter inherited from Mohawk. as Commercial Director and Group Finance Director respectively. outhwest had controlled their growth. More UK Charter 7375 (Above) Southwest's 737s steadily expanded their sphere of influence under deregulation.. fter a financially disastrous attempt to operate wic. . USAir took delivery of 737-200s as part of a modernization programme.2m) aft.I-hand aircraft were often acquired. The much expanded carrier had changed its name to A ir in 1979 in order to give the airline a less parochial image and reflect its ambitions to expand nationwide. P A had standardized on the Boeing 727-200. The older fleet operated by Dan-Air was unable to offer the lower seat-mile costs increasingly demanded by Intasun and other tour operators. Goodman had been intere'ted in their ideas and offered backing to establish Intasun's own 'in-house' airline. thus allowing lower rates to be offered to charterers. Then sti II a novel idea. As well as extending the established network to the east and west. Getting Air Europe Underway The strong financial backing meant that Air Europe was able to go straight to Boeing for a brand new fleet. the renamed Allegheny Airlines. finally took del ivery of the type in 19 2. Over 17 passengers could now be accommodated in the stretched 737-400. In addition to the initial three aircraft. basically similar. registered G-BMHG (after Mike Harry Goodman). The Series 300 wa not intended as an immediate replacement for the Series 200. The 7J7 was officially 'indefinitely postponed'. United. American-built DC-9-30s and British-built SAC One-Eleven jets. eventually reaching Arizona. Nonetheless.. was delivered on 10Apri11979. a frequency of service became a priority over aircraft capacity. under Herb Kelleher's direction. 1ndeed. whose takeover of Lake Central in 196 had led to the cancellation of the latter's own 73 7 order. outhwe t Airlines had been swift to take advantage of deregulation and expand out of its Texan confines. Established operators found themselves in the position of having to lease in extra capacity to cater for the demand as the holiday indu try recovered. evac. Established with the hacking of Intasun. both organizations had entrepreneur Harry Goodman as their chairman.Ie-bodied Lockheed L-lO II Tristars on their high-pressure. The original founders of the airline.. nlike other California's Pacific Southwest Airlines had eventually disposed of their fleet. MAP 704 705 . A deposit was paid to Boeing for three new 737-200 'Advanced' aircraft.. All these operators were showing a healthy interest in the Series 300/40 development. The first of the 'new breed' of British charter carriers to emerge was Air Europe. Late 197 to early 1979 was spent in a flurry of organization. The first of an initial order of seven 737-200s joined the U Air fleet to begin the replacement of the older One-Eleven and DC-9s. while the supposedly 'stop-gap' 7374 0 was launched into production with the first orders received in June 19 6. commercial operations began The Series 200 into the 19805 Even as Boeing was refining the proposed Series 300. which began operations in May 1979... recruitment and training. Air. As a result. reliable service with increased aircraft utilization. while till su taining a healthy expansion. were still steadily increasing their fleets of eries 200s. the Series 200 continued to attract customer. Air Europe's management laid great emphasis on employing a cadre of professional people who took pride in their work. inter-city network. Tim Kincaid Collection forward and 4ft (1. The whole pretext behind Casey and O'Regan's plan had been to introduce modern aircraft with lower operating cost and operational reliability.5cm) shorter than the original 'Dash Eighty'. Determined to lay to rest the old charter airline's reputations for old. California.Ia and Tennes ee. air europe • Air Europe's brand new fleet was one of the most modern available for IT work in the UK.. the seemingly inexorable rise of the inclusive tour market in Europe was to lead to further expansion of the 73 7's presence on the continent in the early 1980s. Others had stumbled into the post-deregulation era and overstretched themselves. Another takeover in 1972 had seen the network and fleet of ew York tate-based Mohawk Airlines being integrated into Allegheny. Even Lufthansa wa still taking delivery of 737s.. they felt that they would be able to offer a cost-effective. the 737-400 fuselage was only Sin (l2. two more 737s were on order for delivery in time for the 1980 season. Dan-Air ervice'. but now a standard industry practice. The aircraft's financing came via a Japanese investment group and involved a 10-year lease-purchase agreement. Steve Bunting pioneer 73 7 operators.

on thc Vi... .. had hegun operations as a night service division of its parent company.rrou. I w". 737 OY-APG was contracted out to Tunisair in 1978. huying aircraft specifically to undertake leasing contracts.omcthing I now 'lLk"c FlO... reqUired.. the area had heen dominated hy Birmingham's Elmdon Airport. .peedhrake wa. propcllcr. Ihc fiN I ypc of Jct aircr"ft I h"d flown. it was mainly used on IT. Orion's first three Boeing 73 7-200s were delivered in February and March 1980. refucllll1g.pool-up tlmc lrom Idle to full powcr could hc cxpcctcd.lImmcr.1 milc. Jenny Gradidge range and field pcrformancc. ncar Castle Donington. . with larger Boeing 71 7-I OOs and -200s. a number of other charter operators around Europe started taking interest in the type as a replacement for their older fleets. For imtancc.cat'). resplendent in their all-blue colour scheme. Fokker E27s had opened general charter nights in 1979. The new airline. 10\\ powcr conflguf. Maersk replaced the Fnkkers on the holiday charters with second-hand Boeing 71 Rs.. J Inll'ever.counts. using them only brieny on their own charter services.. eventually replacing them with 737s. Orion irll'ays adopted East Midlands Airport as its headquarters.. much further to the west and inconvenient for the population of the more eastern cities in the reginn.' It " I'cry dif- ficult to gct hack In thc Icft hand . the only carrier with any significant presence at East Midlands up until the arrival of Orion irways. C::lC. the .ivcly on holiday IT wllfk. ThiS was not . Dan-Air Services. with other regional points eventually joining the IT charter network. Like lntasun. As the IT market expanded in Denmark as swiftly as anywhere else. Dan-Air had finally recogni:ed that their neet needed moderni:ation.1Ild maintain.f. GBl V. nying its first IT passengers from Britain to Corsica in 1949.cd cxtcn. operations were also being undertaken from Birmingham. I ga\"(o' up" Clllnmand on Vi.. Operal ing the aircraft to the maximum extent of It . Hori:on survived. hut was not to hegin operations until the 19 0 summer season. nlike Air Europe that based itself at London's Gatwick irport. hardly anything on t he wing th. extended. "ma:cd "t hmv much furthcr ahcad of thc aircraft 1 had to think. the inevitahle corporate 'ups and downs' included the company heing a part of the Staff and crews were recruited and trained throughout 1979. hIgh drag agilllbt high power . <l1l101l11('. owners of the Maersk hipping organization. Dan-Air only operated one 737. upon landing. However. through 19 1. oon. to and from thc etl1ary Island" e'peclally (rom airfield.ppro"d. onc 01 thc fiN aircraft to Il1CIlfI'Ilf'IlC high !tIt del' ICC' and . When three more aircraft were delivered in time for the 19 I season. Maersk started leasing out spare capacity m'htly up to 110 n"utic. .. "t low he. \\'ith n. w. Expanding steadily over the years. t. \\'Ilh tcmpera- giant Clarksons organization when it entered bankruptcy in 1974. aireralt weight. The tour companie were also hecoming reluctant to accommodate their cI ients on Dan-Air's older aircraft and were threatening to take their business elsewhere. having ro include technictl.rt. With R IA to go fly 7)7. carrying 130 Intasun customers.f "II werc extended . East Midlands A irport. Maersk began to replace the nOBs with 737-200s in 197 . thi. It looked '" though there w". Apart from 'lI1glc cnginc Jct. rromlhc airport' Thc .er \\'(1 . with a Gatwick-Palma IT charter on Friday 14 May. having to plan Top or I)c.. not extcndcd or mO"lng..THE BABY GROWS TilE BABY GROWS . also leased from Maersk.P... for whom the aircraft nell' hoI iday passengers throughout Europe.. eventually serving twentyfive holiday destinations in nine countries.ccr (. at the end of 19 . Moller Group. further north tI1the UK. a suhsidiary of the giant A.t O(f. l11eanl "'OI11C- Orion Airways had the backing of Horizon.HC (ull po\\.omctimc. The single Series 2 was operated on lease from the Danish airline.lnt th. Up until the opening of East Midlands Airport. based at Gatwick and Monarch Airlines. t kilo out or the weight and hal"nce c"lculat'o". net'a to do. joined the first 73 7. . one of the most distinguished and longest established IT holiday companies. Iow down . 'tol" on flighr. were . establ ished operators One Pilot's View Among the pilots recruited was Chris Harrison. .llion. ottingham and Leicester. dcpcndcnt on winds. a..Dan-Airtook deli\'ery of ire first 73 7. The 7) 7 lI'a.ccnl points. mC. Orion Airway. in Ihe holid.lnt<lIlCOU'I de ccnJ. leasing contracts soon became a large part of the airline's operations. thi". in thc Roy. Th" could hc pOlcntl"lly d"a. ATe altitude rc:-.. both introduced 737200s into their neets in late 19 O. of drag to . Maersk Air. wa. As the last of the Comets wa finally withdrawn from service. Operations were initially undertaken solely for Hori:on. for the Thomas Cook travel organization.)~ you could .. Via author in the off-season.ly de.lt \\'a".ght. the Dan-air aircraft were increasingly expensive to operate . More IT Interest in the 737 As well as Air Europe and Orion's usc of the aircraft as the basis of their new operations. In the UK. Luton and Manchester.11 \\'C werc hecomlng \'cry adept at "'qucc:lng the la. later undertaking domestic schedules ami ITs for a numher of local tour companies. formed in lare 1978.lnd pnl\'IJe 1!l. lip to 30-40°.. Another Holiday Flight Newcomer s ir Europe was getting itself geared up for its first summer season.count. another K tour operator was also setting up its own 737 airline. It was not until 19 2 that another aircraft. had heen opened in 1964 to serve the metropolitan area encapsulated hy Derhy. " Fir.ee nghl Ihmugh III The Orion 717.C' wcrc much "tfer. laersk Air.. 0 on the JT~I)" on which an clght 'ccond .tinarHtI1' oftcn hCll1g . originally with British Midland G-BICV was the first 737 to wear the famous Dan-Air 'Compass Rose' logo.It Idlc powcr. c to Jc!J\'cr po\\'er. Although Chris's introduction to the Boeing 73 7 was to he some time after the type made it debut. could pnl\'ldc cnor- moll'. Maersk was speciali:ing in longer-term leasing. ture. . Horizon Travel had heen one of the pioneers of the industry.triction . hut could ~llso n: pon. '" "rc "II jct" hccamc a hlg glidcr wllh thc cngll1c. Initially.shit" flal" and . llence. his experience of transition from propeller to jet was to he typical of many over the years. Ilori:on soon regained its place among the busiest tour companies. Its charter operations were based mostly around neets of second-hand Comets and B C One-Elevens.'cry hOI In . Bccause of the high densily configuration of 110 p""enger scats ror flighls of up to four hOllr~. Steve Bunting time. Hori:on became dissatisfied with the service offered by established charter airlines and looked to provide a superior service while being able to reduce costs by operating its own airline division. further leased aircraft soon followed from various sources. ifilllll1edl. Of cou"c. in preparation for the 19 summer 'cason. Despite having been comparatively cheap to acquire..1 Air Forcc.~~er\'c~.. Britannia Airways' neighbour at Luton. Airways.like other carriers before it.. (Above) Maersk began large-scale IT services with Boeing 720Bs.ircfi. 106 107 . being sold on to nell' owners by the official receiver.

Monarch Airlines leased in 737-200s from Germany's Bavaria. not least with America's Federal Aviation Administration and Britain's Civil Aviation Authority. The usually astute Maersk Air also lost out occasionally. until Air Florida ceased operations. but were usually a one-way street. the launch customer. wearing basic USAir colours. in 1968. For example. it did not always work out. Germanair. its sudden demise into bankruptcy left Air Europe with a serious capacity shortage as the promised aircraft were no longer forthcoming. or ILG. Air Europe insisted it be paid every 48 hours for the continued use of their 737s. Orders were already flooding in for the aircraft. survived the loss of Air Florida's loaned equipment and continued its apparently unstoppable expansion. had joined the fleet in 1983. orders for the Series 300 had reached no less then 252 from twenty-six customers bringing the total for the 737 series as a whole to 1.THE BABY GROWS THE BABY GROWS Monarch Joins the Club Monarch Airlines had intended their 737s to replace their fleet of BAC One-Elevens that operated alongside Boeing 720Bs on European ITs from bases at Luton and Manchester. Two of Air Florida's Boeing 737-200s spent the summer of 1981 operating Europe-based inclusive-tour charters from aircraft were fitted with 'stick-pusher' stall warning devices that were not approved by the American authorities. When the end came for the US carrier in 1984. whose slackest time. The lucrative contracts were often repeated over several years. Although originally a charter carrier. Both official bodies found objections to the 'foreign' aircraft. Originally operating a fleet of Bristol Britannia turboprops. Orion. under the wings of its parent company. the summer. Integrated Aircraft Corporation and others. Britannia and Transavia. GPA leased 737 -200s to French charter operator Aerotour. this time from Bavaria Fluggesellschaft. When they returned in the autumn. Aer Lingus. In November 1980. among the first in Europe. flying BAC One-Elevens from Munich. This worked both ways. Seasonal Swaps ir Europe pioneered a new leasing arrangement with foreign carriers. The more favourable economic terms meant that the smaller airlines no longer had to wait for the bigger carrier's 'cast-offs'. By the end of the year. Bavaria. As Air Florida lurched into its final financial crisis. This 'swap' was repeated the next two years. followed by the second a month later. the operation was not without its problems. MAP fashion. Florida's low season. Quebecair of Canada the UK alongside Air Europe's fleet of six similar aircraft. later retitled the International Leisure Group. Among the sources for Britannia's extra seasonal aircraft were Pluna of Paraguay. steadily expanded its 737-200 charter operation. the new 73 7s began operation on Monarch's inclusive-tour network soon afterwards. as was the increasingly popular at Luton that had already been flying from the Bedfordshire airport for twelve years. Monarch had been set up by a tour company. in an effort to boost utilization in the winter months. Air Europe. One of the first 737-300s flew in the colours of USAir. A ir Europe. all in variations of their combined liveries.. Like Air Europe and Orion. As well as enjoying a steady influx of new aircraft of its own most years. a new German charter airline. Joining Britannia's 73 7s airline operators. Ansett Worldwide. In 1980.418. still deriving much of its income from Horizon. Jenny Gradidge 708 709 . Not all the customer airlines were financially stable enough to support their 737s though and soon fell by the wayside. to cover the shortfall. however. as well as airlines such as Maersk Air acquiring aircraft specifically to lease out at a profit. leasing contracts were undertaken by a number of and Eagle Air of Iceland. Boeing 720Bs and BAC One-Elevens had eventually replaced the prop-liners. Supair. The lease was short-lived. the customers being impressed with the prom ised increased performance. As already mentioned. As a number of leasing operators increased. when thousands were trying to escape the potentially harsh northern American winter and head south to the 'Sunshine State'. a rather expensive exercise. came to a firmer. with several new bases opening around the UK. the Intasun Leisure Group. economy and reduced noise and emission levels of the new engines. GATX/Booth were soon joined by the lines of International Lease Finance Corporation (lLFC). Cosmos Holidays. Guinness Peat Aviation (GPA). The airline was forced to lease in extra aircraft at short notice. was Air Europe's busiest. Although a convincingly 'tidy' arrangement. Britannia often leased in extra aircraft to cover seasonal shortages. among others. Pacific Aviation Holding Co. The establ ished airlines also saw the advantages to themselves of leasing in their fleets from financial and leasing companies. the UK-registered An early production 737-300 was displayed at Farnborough in 1984. and was displayed as such at the 1984 Farnborough Air Show in the UK. However. The first of a pair of Bavaria 737-200s arrived at Monarch Airline's Luton base in late September 1980. By then end of the following year the new version had been delivered to AirCal (the rebranded Air California). Leasing False-Starts Although the increasing use of leasing contracts instead of outright purchases by airlines was a popular one. Brand new Boeing 757s. Long-haul flights had been introduced. Bavaria continued to exist as a separate company and began specializing in leasing aircraft to other airlines. more regular. with Boeing titles. with Air Europe having spare capacity in the winter. American Finance Group. three Air Europe aircraft joined them and spent the winter operating on the Florida-based scheduled flights of Air Florida. They no longer needed to have such large sections of their capital tied up in owning their aircraft outright. had all sent aircraft off to temporary new homes in their slack traffic periods. however. as the aircraft were returned at the end of the 1980 season following Aerotour's financial collapse. had their aircraft repossessed by Maersk within a month of delivery after the airline failed to begin operations. agreement with Air Florida. that had previously flown Caravelles. with the 757s operating over the Atlantic to Florida. Bavaria had sold its commercial airline operation to another operator. The first pair of Monarch 737s were also leased in. The Series 300 Debuts The fi rst Series 300 Boeing 737 took to the air for the first time on 24 February 1984.

. E. With most windows removed.G. m connection with US government work at the remote Roswell Air Force base.. to be based on the 737200 airframe. Military operators of both new and second-hand 737s included the air forces of Brazil. Via author Motorola side-looking. Some companies also operated airline-style configured aircraft on private 'scheduled' sel\lices carrying company personnel between far-ranging plants and locations. Mexico... Boeing IBelowl N1288 was a737-200 supplied to Essex International as a private corporate jet in late 1969. the 737 remained a largely civilian project.. Jenny Gradidge •••••••••••••••• • . The 737 was also adopted as a VIP or corporate transport by a number of civilian operators. to and from Yugoslav resorts on the Adriatic Riviera. as well as providing luxury accommodation for military organizations and government heads throughout the world. who operate them alongside ex-airline 737-200s on 'Special ProJects'.. where required. & G. the three aircraft are equipped with THE BABY GROWS The USAFT·43A navigation trainer was based around the 737-200 airframe. From 1992.. Richard Howell Indonesia's 737-2X9s feature radar housings built into the fuselage. Essex. Steve Bunting vanished overnight when war broke out between new rival states in the region. Ten years later. 110 777 . the cabin rearranged to accommodate up to twelve tramee navigation stations and four astrodomes fitted to the top of the fuselage. Thailand and Venezuela. as had been intended from the beginning. the Indonesian government also ordered specially modified 737s for military use.606 miles by the addition of extra fuel cells in one of the lower cargo holds. but in many cases the customers preferred to use outside craftsmen. The aircraft was designated the T-43A by the USAF. L " -'"'' ". India.-. Eldorado Oil.. long-standing Boeing customer. the US Air Force. Designated Boeing 737-2X9s.. Inc. Range could be extended to 4. could be installed by Boeing.Non-Airline 737s Despite Boeing's traditional military connections. the violent break-up of the former Yugoslavia. Civilian customers for private 737-200s Included Dome Petroleum.. Peru. multi-mission radar installed in distinctive housings above the rear fuselage. did place an order for nineteen specialized navigation trainers. However. the first T-43A was delivered in July 1973. The more luxurious executive interiors. The aircraft are used to patrol the Indonesian Islands to detect illegal maritime activities. TNI-AU ••••••• (Above) JArs 737-300 operations were stalled following (Belowl Aviogenex's main IT charter market. personnel and equipment shuttles from Las Vegas. Noga and Petrolair. at least five of the T-43As were transferred to a Civilian operator. Maritime.

attracted the cost-consciou charter carrier in particular. configuration. inclusive-tour. United. Orion. The DC-9s only continued in service for a short while before the airline ceased operations due to financial problems. Maersk Air. IT charters operated from Cardiff and the nearby English city of Bristol to European resorts. In high-density. Aviogenex operations were greatly USA. Palma. New Boeing 757s had replaced the last of Monarch's high capacity 720Bs and were used on longhaul flights as well as supplementing the 737s on European ITs. This increased revenue potential. Red Dragon Travel. Continental. the Series 30 carried 148 passenger . When the Yugoslav tourist industry collapsed with the violent break-up of the country into independent states. following the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. the daily operation tended to uffcr from an unusual number of technical d lays and operational problems. but was replaced in 19 5 by an cx-Britannia Airways 737-200.TilE BABY GROWS TilE BABY GROWS America West.. had a chequered reputation. Monarch took delivery of their first -300 in 19 6. or severely curtailed. The airline's situation was not greatly helped when the unworld aircraft arrived in 19 6. CP Air. New York Air wa~ to be merged into Continental by the two airlines' owner. Piedmont. Formed as the country's IT specialist. G-MONH is pictured at one of the busiest.~ I. operated three leased 73 7-300s only briefly.~~. Many of the e cu tomers were new 737 operators. _ . Richard Howell Monarch's 737-300 services encompassed most of the main holiday airports of southern Europe.. supplementing their earlier eries -200s and hastening the retirement of the last of th ir ne-Elevens. Martyn East -. Pakistan International. The operational fleet then consisted Airways International Cymru : . In the case of] AT. unworld International. supplementing its DC-9 services throughout the west of the The 737 in Wales One of the unworld International aircraft found a temporary home at Cardiff. across the Severn Estuary from its main base at Cardiff. ]AT's effort. Air Cymru. is seen here. on IT charters from the Adriatic resorts to Western Europe..I• •'r--I-I-I-I-I_1_1_1-1-:::1 1 1 1 1 1 I~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 •• •• Airways International Cymru operated a large proportion of their flights from Bristol/lulsgate. Dan-Air. the capital of the UK principality of Wale. U Air and We'tern. their previous main equipment had been DC-9s. ew York Air. Airways International Cymru (Wales International Airways) had begun operations in 19 4 with a pair of BAC OneEleven. Martyn East 112 113 . to replace it medium/short-haul fleet with the 737 were to be temporarily curtailed and most of the fleet disposed of. ]AT's once extensive network was closed down. . a low-fare schedul d and charter carrier based at Las Vegas. >. ew York Air and unworld International. Limited charter services later restarted with a single 727-200 once ome semblance of peace returned to the region. Aviogenex operated a pair of 737-2 Os alongside a fleet of Tupolev Tu-134As and Boeing 727-200s.. halted when Yugoslavia was broken up into several states. as the company name tended to be shortened to in everyday use. for long periods and the fleet either stored or leased out. G-PROK. . Owned by a local travel company. Although attracting a number of contract from important tour operators. Cameroon Airlines. via a leasing company. South we t. Popular with pas engers for it friendly ervice. One-Elevens was leased out to British Midland Airways. the second 737-300. . unworld International.. the Texas Air Corporation. such as osmos. linked to lower fuel costs. Majorca.-. One of the G-BAZI came to Airways International Cymru from Britannia Airways. GBAZI. eighteen more than the -200's maximum. obtained via Havelet leasing. Another Yugoslav 737 operator to uffer as a result of the political unrest in the country was Aviogenex. taxying away from the old Bristol terminal. when PeoplExpress was taken over. ]ugoslovenski Aerotran port OAT). and with its staff as a pleasant company to work for.

An ill-advised. at the cnd of thc 1986 scason..~:i: ~" r. its first. especially from northern Europe. the Boeing 737-200 also joined the fleet of the Portuguese national carrier.. EI AI. one of them also an exSunworld Intcrnational aircraft. The aircrah were operated on scheduled domestic and regional flights. Unfortunately. the type was also adopted by the Israeli national airline. ":'.' ~. At the end of 1987... Air Algerie had been an early lease contract customer for Aer Lingus's 737s since the late 1960s. This at least gave the fleet some semblance of standardization. lJO and 148. Already popular with Arabian carriers. even more scheduled carriers were seeing the light. . of Belgium. IntQrnatlonal Cymru A cartoon 737 featured in Airways International Cymru's promotional material. EI AI leased in two 737-200s from Trans European. Via author (Below) The larger 737-300 provided Orion. and its other operators.. a second-hand ex-Wien Air Alaska aircrah arriving in 1981. Arkia. based at the southern resort of Faro. 1LFC. The first ex-Sunworld aircraft was returned to its owncrs. After G-BAZI returned in early 1987. none of the aircraft could covcr thc othcr's flights. going to Acr Lingus on lease for four months in the wintcr. Arkia suHered financial problems after much of their scheduled network was closed down for political reasons. G-BAZI. Other versions were acquired by Arkia some years later. An order was placed for two of their own 737-200s. Airways with increased revenue potential for similar costs. Steve Bunting __ .«. ••• . The new aircrah were replacing older Boeings. thc contract wcnt sour. The independent Israeli airline. Tunis Air's 737s were soon chartered out to tour operators for IT flights. Air Malta's 737s were acquired to replace the company's first aircrah. thc 737-300s were returned to ILFC and the Scrics 200 was subleascd to a ncw US startup to be based in Miami. too. with the US airlinc failing to bcgin opcrations and stranding the aircraft. finally replacing their ageing Caravelles. Air Atlantis. the original aircrah was sold. and the aircrah were sold or leased out in 1984. with leased aircraft replaced by their own fleet in 1983. flew a handful of 727-200s and even long-range 707s on higher-capacity and further-ranging flights. replacing the leased aircrah. respectively). TAP-Air Portugal. serving an extensive regional network that extended to Europe. Previously almost solely an operator of longer-range aircrah. " .. of thrce aircraft. Tunis Air had introduced their first 737-200 in 1979. onc Onc-Elevcn. As already related. along with its scconded Air Cymru crcws.~1ii _~_e~ ~ ~~\~.< • " . Air Atlantis. also operated 737s from 1985. in the shape of 727-1 ODs on TAP-Air Portugal's scheduled and holiday charter network. was delivered in 1983.New Mediterranean Operators As well as Europe's charter carriers suddenly finding the Boeing 737 the answer to their re-equipment prayers. also took delivery of Boeing 737-200s. The airline's charter subsidiary. one 737-200 and the 737-300. QR\QN --~". cvcn if available. for six 737-200s. Icaving thc Onc-Elcvcn alonc in Air Cymru service. The pair of leased 737s joineg EI AI in October 1980 and were operated on schedules to Europe and around the Mediterranean. a fleet of second-hand Boeing 720Bs. Operating on scheduled and IT charter services throughout the Mediterranean region and to Europe. The first of Air Malta's own order... Richard Howell 174 115 . Steve Bunting Arkia flew its first 737s only briefly on IT charters and scheduled services in 1983/84. all with totally diffcrent seating configurations (89. With Tunisia boasting a number of popular coastal resorts. OPPOSITE PAGE (Top) Air Algerie built up a considerable 737 fleet for domestic. leased in from Transavia of the Netherlands..-. as well as neighbouring North African states. in Miami amid the legal wrangles... it was joined by two othcr ILFC 737-300s. to evaluate the aircrah for use on regional schedules from Tel Aviv. with thc -200. Unfortunately. MAP (Middle) (Bottom) The 737-200 joined Air Malta in 1981. Should any technical or opcrational problems occur. When two new aircraft were delivered to Arkia in 1983. Air Algerie later went on to operate a not inconsiderable fleet of their own. as well as an extensive programme of charters to Europe. delivered in January 1983. In 1983. regional and trans-Mediterranean scheduled services. LJ . Air Malta took delivery of their first 737 in 1981.

Nevada. The Piedmont Airlines 737-400s were delivered in a hybrid Piedmont/USAir.the remaining three were for aircraft to be leased from ILFC. The -300s were intended to eventually replace the then entire fleet of fourteen 737-200s. Still a large. with options taken out on a further eleven. with a smart new modern logo and colour scheme. alongside Boeing 727-200s and 737-200s. AirCal Investments Inc. since 1970. from 1986 onwards. track. where cut-throat competition was wiping out what small profits there were. In 1987 Western A ir Lines had bodies to Hawaii and Mexico. British Airtours and Britannia Airways all share the Manchester ramp.4lOkg). as well as being a natural development of the 737 breed.0001b (64. However. Evenrually. such as Los Angeles. and the US legal bills eating into its operating capital. Air Europe. with protracted legal wrangles and operational problems. onc could have a much bener 'situational awareness'. the Series 400 was developed in response to a growing threat to the type's sales from Europe. The airline was purchased from Westgate California by a new company. However. emphasis was diverted away from larger. for $61. CHAPTER EIGHT A New Lease of Life The Next Big One As the Series 300s began rolling off the Renton production line. Once it was more widely available though. and took over the ailing 62-year-old airline as of 1 April 1987. other operators: I found rhc workload much lowcr on rhc 300 due [() rhe assistancc of INS. Air California Progress In the hands of new majority shareholders. it was to be another eighteen months before the Piedmont identity was to be fully absorbed into USAir. in December 1978. Western had begun introducing the 737-300 alongside the older versions. nine 737s were operated alongside three ElectJ'as. auromared powcr scnings and calculations in rhc climb. Western had struggled in the post-deregulation era. The latter company had acquired Piedmont. Chris Harrison flew both the Series 200 and 300 with Orion and. the company identity was amended to A irCal. two each side instead of one. thLln~ The arrival of the even further stretched Series 400 saw the 737 finally losing its 'Baby Boeing' tag. Piedmont placed the aircraft into service on 1 October 1988. No less than four different UK 737 operators. As a cost-cutting measure. all-metal-based livery. As a result of deregulation. Air California had continued a steady the last of the Elew'as were finally disposed of. with service opening to Seattle and Phoenix. as part of a large fleet established analogue technology. Two more Boeing 737-200s arrived in 1980. The airline began concentrati ng fl ights at less expensi ve 'hubs' such as Salt Lake City. the Westgate-California Corporation. Boeing was refining an even larger 737. Orion Airways. carrying its ten millionth passenger in 1976. More interstate flights were added. Twelve Boeing 737-300s were ordered in June 1984. Shortly before the introduction of the MD-80s. Air California was able to expand outside California's borders. your reference der~torms. in Utah. Steve Bunting expansion throughout the decade. giving it a badly needed foothold in America's western states. Also in 1979. 116 117 . been taken over by Atlanta-based Delta Air Lines.I OOs and seven MD-80s. Delta Air Lines saw the chance to extend its network westwards. Would it rise to the challenge? the first production delivery being made to launch customer. the company was forced to cease operations in early 1988. and AirCal had been bought out by American Airlines. Without suitable aircraft for the forthcoming season. an order was placed for five 162-passenger McDonnell Douglas M D80s. the earliest examples were built with The forthcoming Series 400 promised even more technical advances. Piedmont Airlines. airpolTs [0 waypoints . initially beginning interstate service to Reno. Boeing and. wi th options for up to eight more. two leased . The 9ft 6in (2. othcr aircraft around you. the airlines and their pilots were soon enthusing about the new systems and their advantages over older versions. A typical UK airport line-up in the 1980s.9m) longer -400 was fitted with extra over-wing emergency exits. after purchasing a majority shareholding. USAir further expanded its swiftly growing network by acquiring Pacific Southwest Airlines. The New Boyan the Block Although advanced electronic flight systems were to be introduced on the 73 7300. important airline. By 1979. on 15 September the same year. linked to the higher capacity offered by the yet-further stretched fuselage. when rhe 'glass cockpir' camc our. in 1981. as replacement programme.5 million. Californian Merger Mania The loss of Pacific Southwest Airlines was the latest in a series of mergers and acquisitions that saw the disappearance of no less than three of California's 'home based' carriers. In the spring of 1988. The first Series 400 flew on 29 April 1988. operating DC-1O wide- . beside the still popular -200s. expensive bases. ine of the firm orders came from AirCal itself . almost as on a map. the latter type reintroduced into the fleet in 1975 to operate services to ultra noise-sensitive Lake Tahoe. It gavc one rhc abiliry [() scc.THE BABY GROWS unofficial attempt to repossess the aircraft caused even more legal expenses for Air Cymru. and stronger wings and landing gear were fitted to cope with the increased gross weight of up to 142. evcnrually wirh TCAS (Tcrrain Collision Avoidancc Sysrcm).

though. and 727-200s that had arrived in 1981. Once more flying Boeing 727-200s. This consisted of sixty-three Boeing 737-200s. Crandall was expansive in his praise for the AirCal staff as he welcomed them into American Airlines: Rorh Amcrlcan and AII'Cal arc \\'lI1nc". New international flights also opened to Nassau. the ex-AirCal 737.323. North Carolina. Braniff reappeared.28-1 OOOs and nineteen F.were gradually disposed of or rerurned to Ie sors as contracts came up for renewal. In January 1985.do. hence its interest in AirCal's succe sful network. American's Chairman and President. The length of time it had taken for the two airline to merge had allowed them to co-ordinate their fleets well before they became one. The merger became effective on 1July 19 7. nineteen years after it had been delivered. when the Western 737-200s and -300s were added.317 In 1979. Rorh afC Ciln. six 767-200s. m'er 95 per cent were offered jobs within the new operation. full Post-Merger Operations Following the acquisition by their new owners. to supplement the 727 and OneElevens. Henson was then operated as a 'Piedmont Regional Airline'. in time. thirty-four 727-200s. on 5 November.a landmark year . Henson Airlines.Os. with new wide-bodied Boeing 767200s opening a Charlotte-London service in June 1987. A sustained programme of growth and expansion had seen the once humble Local Service Carrier that had struggled to link the Ohio River Valley to the Atlantic coast. both the fleet of Western and AirCal started appearing in 'hybrid' schemes. retaining Orlando as a southern base.28-4000s. American fclt the need to increase it' profile in the western half of the USA. the airline's 25th year of operation. Via author/Steve Bunting Il The 737-200 had proved itself the ideal aircraft for Piedmont's network. was purchased by new owners and it was turned into the new Braniff. Braniff Inc ceased operations in eptember 1989. The ex-Western 737-300s. alongside amixed fleet of 727-1 ODs that had re-entered Piedmont service in 1977. as the full merger of the two sizable airlines was engineered. American rook delivery offurther MD. Braniff closed down the Dallas operation and moved home to a smaller hub already esrabli hed at Kansas City. operating the now long-established 737-200s. to replace them in alifornian service as soon as it became practicable to do so. The ex-Piedmont aircraft suffered no u h ignominy. forty-two 737-300s.the airline carried 13 million passengers and exceeded $1 billion in revenues. the airline became a subsidiary of USAir Group Inc. the British BAe 146s were stored and then disposed of. eight 737-400s. in the Bahamas in November. Braniff Revival. The remaining vintage Martin 404s had left the fleet in 1970 to be replaced by the Japanese-built YS-llAs. Maryland. and Piedmont became an all-jet airline. The following year. a transcontinental service was opened to Los Angeles and San Francisco. the company remained dormant until a new financial package was put together under new ownership. As with Delta and USAir. PSA's MDOs and DC-9s were fitted into the combined fleet a well. Piedmont had fought off ahostile takeover bid by the then expansive Air Florida and in 1981 a new hub operation was opened at Charlotte. usually comprising a new name painted over their old liveries. Jenny Gradidge American's intention to buy AirCal was announced in November 19 6 and the deal was closed in April the next year. Indiana.28 jets from Syracuse. nfortunatcly. associated airlines that were to feed traffic into Piedmont's mainline network as 'Piedmont Commuter' carriers. Piedmont Airlines had never looked back. The next day. intended as the new standard aircraft for Braniff. Emerald Airlines. a small commuter airline based in Salisbury. their preferred twin-engined jet. After a period of reorganization and retrenchement. quality orientated organl:atJ()n~.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LI FE The Rise and Rise of the Pacemakers Since its introduction of the 737-200. with twenty-nine daily flights to fourteen destinations. of ralcnrcd pcoplc who hclicl'c rhey can achicl'c anyrhing rhcy scr our (() do. May 1986 saw Piedmont acquiring New York State-based Empire Airlines that operated a fleet of Fokker F. was still in the fleet and taken over by Delta in 1987. although. Later. Piedmont reported record earnings and a profit of $3. The orderly integration of AirCal employees and aircraft into American was to make the merger 'nearly invisible' to passengers. By then though. twenty F. However. Operations continued independently for a while. had not previously been a Boeing 737 operator.177 daily departures served eightyseven airports in twenty-seven states. The 767s also operated on transcontinental service from the hubs in the eastern states. Delta had actually been in the process of introducing their own fleet of 'Advanced' 737-200s. shortly after the first of the A320s entered service from Kansas City. Western's attempts to survive after deregulation were doomed to failure. in 1968. Once again though.ln 1972. The addition of the Dutch jets brought Piedmont's fleet up to 149 aircraft. The operating authority of a small charter carrier.28-1000s and twenty-five F. finally. American Airlines. leading to sustained growth for the airline. Robert J. thirty-four 727-200s (the 727-1 ODs had left Piedmont in 1983). after SAir had decided to cut back its West Coast presence after all. A large order was placed for leased Airbus A320 . like N303WA. Air Transport World. thirteen 737-300s. become one of the US's leading regional airlines. The last turbo-prop YS-11 As were sold off by 1982. Piedmont ceased to exist and all operations were conducted under the USAir name. After a dramatic ces ation of operations by the original Braniff Airways in 19 2. the beginning of a network of smaller. In 1984 .700 AirCal employees. was taken over in 1983. on 4 August 1989 the last Piedmont flight ever left Dayton for South Bend. Via author (Be/owl Delta had ordered their own 'Advanced' 737-200s to replace older jets. Braniff reopened service from Dallas with a much reduced fleet of Boeing 727-200s in March 19 4. Of the 3. Its second 737-200. The 737-20 s were leased in from the Polaris Aircraft Leasing Corporation in late 19 7. and Revival ome of the ex-AirCal/American and Western serie 200 73 7s found temporary new homes with the re-e tablished Braniff Inc. At the time of the final merger Piedmont Airlines was flying sixty-two 737-200s. soon appeared throughout the Delta network in full colours. This was followed ayear later with another new hub being inaugurated at Dayton. thus offiCially becoming a 'major' airline. negotiations were well undervvay for the USAir purchase of Piedmont and. with AirCal's identity being replaced by American Airline's image from that date. Yet another new hub operation was opened at Baltimore in 1983. Piedmont was named 'Airline of the Year' by the influential magazine. 778 779 . International expansion plans were implemented. Eventually. Orlando-based Florida Express Airlines was taken over and their fleet of BAC One-Elevens joined the 727s.28-4000s. Ohio. N4502W. twenty Fokker F. the District of Columbia and two international points in Canada. to replace older DC9s. The 1.

Smith Museum (Above) Braniff's ex-Western 737-200. Within a couple of hours of this photograph being taken. N4509W is seen at Tampa on the afternoon of 27 September 1989. Smith Museum the 'new' airline was contracted for a number of charter services by travel companies around the USA. scheduled services were closed down as uneconomic later that year and. from Dallas to New York and Los Angeles. Hill Air Europe . Richard Howell 720 727 . An attempt to return to scheduled services. (Top) American Airlines retained the ex-AirCal 737s long enough to justify repainting. and the network was later expanded to include Fort Lauderdale. in July 1992. Its 737-300s operated their first Spanish-based IT charters in November 1986.R.R.and Family Air Europe had followed Orion by introducing the Boeing 737-300. Islip and Newark. the third Braniff followed its predecessors into bankruptcy. Orders were placed at the Air Europa was Air Europe's first attempt at establishing a 'family' of airlines. was initiated in 1991. Malcolm L. Braniff had ceased operations. but they were disposed of as more MD-80s arrived to replace them. American Airlines C. An Orion 737300 was leased-in for crew training before the type entered charter service with Air Europe in 1987.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LIFE Both AirCal's 737-200s and -300s were to acquire American Airline's titles as soon as the merger took effect. Both pictures courtesy of American Airlines C. However.

Spantax. operations began on 17 February 1990. Other subsidiaries were opened in Italy and Germany. but ILG collapsed and Air Europe never took to the skies again. and a UK-based operation. took place on 15 April. centred on Palma. Various 'rescue' plans were put forward. modern. However. Air Europe's aircraft were impounded and the whole organization was placed under administration. 170-passenger 73 7-400s joined the airline's -300s and replaced the last of the -200s. Initially the Oslo-based airline was renamed Air Norway. Nortjet's fleet was repossessed by GPA in February 1992. and ceased to be a 737 operator. Norway Airlines. Aer Lingus maintained a 85 per cent shareholding. were very keen for Air Europe to establish itself as a major UK scheduled operator. A fleet of Fokker 100s was in the process of being acquired for use on the less busy scheduled flights from late 1989. Futura survived and was flying six 737-400s by 1993. Dusseldorf and Rotterdam. The operating name was changed to Air Europa before operations began in ovember 1986. the resulting carrier disposed of the 737-300s. The Spanrax aircraft were part of a modernization programme that was intended to see the replacement of an ageing fleet of Convair CV-990As. with a modern fleet of four 737-300s. Air Europe (Scandinavia)'s aircraft were also used to open scheduled services to London/Gatwick. Iberia decided to close down the airline and integrated its aircraft and staff. VIVA began undertaking scheduled services on behalf of Iberia. Trans European Airways (UK) Ltd. That morning. a new scheduled carrier. Spantax's attempts at reorganizing and its eventual sale to new owners failed to revive its fortunes and the airline ceased operations in 1988. The German and Although Universair was luckier than some Spanish charter hopefuls in that it survived through merger. For the longer term. TUR. with various levels of shareholding by the Brussels-based 'parent' a irI inc. Throughout. but also ceased trading. Wi th its sol id fi nancia I backing. Hispania initially leased in 737200s. They grew increasingly wary of Air Europe's owners' apparent determination to leave its original specialization. leisure-orientated' destinations were served. Still led by [-larry Goodman. Much more successful was Futura. Steve Bunting 722 723 . ILG had invested a 25 per cent holding in a new Spanish [T operator. when Iberia took over the routes and VIVA reverted to an all-charter operation. then Air Europe (Scandinavia). The establishment of the Spanish sister company was the beginning of lLG's 'Airlines of Europe' policy that envisaged a European network of aiI'I ines. Majorca and Malaga on the mainland. the hoi iday charter. with only one letter of the title and the national flag needing to be changed. on 8 March 1991. VIVA (Vuelos Internacionales de Vacaciones SA) was set up in 1988 and was owned by Iberia and Lufthansa. In 1990. Connectair. but from 1988 more business traffic-based services. The scheduled services operated from [991 to 1996. The first flight. was purchased and its Boeing 737300s painted in Air Europe's full livery. and concentrate on the much riskier scheduled network. both 737 operators in their own right. with their aircraft flying in an only very slightly modified Air Europe livery. Unfortunately. Not all the Air Europe orders were intended for UK-based operations though. Italy and Switzerland. Other Spanish Hopefuls Universair was a new IT operator formed by the Spanish hotel group. Hola. The highdenSity configured. Richard Howell Air Europe Acquisitions Air Europe's 737-400s started to enter service in the 1989 summer season. both operating Boeing 757s on charter services. Using a single Boeing 737-400. ILG. Palma. In 1999. a number of banks and other creditors took steps to retrieve f. from bases at Palma and Tenerife. for 1988/89 deli very. which were disposed of or leased out. due to financial problems in 1989. from London/Gatwick to Amsterdam. On that day. Copenhagen. Air Europa inherited Air Europe's 'mission' to establish more professional. At first. With backing from the UK's Orion Airways and Belgium's Air Belgium. Guernsey AiI'I ines was later bought out and merged into the new 'Express' operation that operated scheduled flights from points in the UK to the Channel Islands and from Gatwick to Antwerp. Majorca base in 1987. Goodman's ambitious scheduled service plans eventually led to Air Europe's original founders. Initially concentrating on the traditional IT charter markets. A orwegian charter carrier. In June 1986. a uremburg-Palma charter. At its peak the VIVA 737 fleet stood at nine Series 300s. The adoption of the new title and identical livery would enable swift transfer of the aircraft between the two companies. as well as five 73 7-400s. established in 1989 with backing from Aer Lingus and Banco de Santander. Eventually VIVA opened a scheduled network of its own. Frankfurt. a new Spanish charter operator that began IT services in 1990 with the first of three Boeing 737400s leased from GPA. Its 737s were to join those operated by long-established charter specialist. Trans European Airways had established both a new Turkish subsidiary. the end came suddenly. and later -300s. Geneva. Universair opened its Air Europe utilized its 737s on new scheduled services as well as the original IT charter programme. Hispania survived long enough to introduce Boeing 757s alongside its 737 -300s. France. after the airline ceased operations. A single Boeing 747 had also been leased in for a year and flew to US. In 1988/89. However. The fleet had grown to th ree 73 7-300s by J 988. Change of Direction Air Europe had started to add scheduled services to its UK operations since the early I980s. as well as still further 737s and 757s. New 'TEAs' were also set up in Cyprus. Hispania that had begun IT charter operations with a fleet of Caravelles in 1983. Air Europe had ordered no less than eight wide-bodied MD-Ils from McDonnell Douglas. Errol Cossey and Martin O'Regan. A small Gatwick-based commuter carrier. Caribbean and Far Eastern destinations. As well as continuing to operate IT charters from Oslo. and relative newcomer. leaving the company. The 'Airline Family' Concept Spreads Air Europe was far from the only charter carrier to embrace the 'family' concept of linked airlines. In May 1997 a Palma-London/Gatwick schedule opened under the name of Futura Direct.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LIFE same time for five more 757s. initially entitled Air Espania. 160 m ill ion owed to them by the financially overstretched ILG group. the airline's owners. flying Shorts 330s and 360s. Shorter-lived was Nortjet. Universair merged with two other Spanish operators to form Meridiana SA. was acquired in 1989 and rebranded as Air Europe Express. airline practices within the independent Spanish airline community. Brussels. especially after Iberia bought out Lufthansa's share in 1990. Paris and Zurich were opened. Munich.

the Airbus A300B eventually established itsell as a serious contender in the international airliner market. had proved a financial failure. The larger-capacity. followed in 1982. with flights to Rhodes and Palma. an operator of a substantial fleet of DC-9s of different variants. Eventually. Recognizing that the smaller aerospace companies of Europe had no hope of producing serious rivals to the giant American concerns. but came back in style in 1988. Orion was operating its 73 7300s and a pair of wide-bodied. Airbus A320s began to replace the 737-300s in 1993. Malcolm L. lEA was to vanish as the result of tour company mergers. brothers. Its parent company. later renamed CityFlyer Express. Airbus comprised contributions from Aerospatiale of France. As early as 1970. a British scheduled airline. the A320. As Britannia was operating the similar Boeing 767. Nonetheless. Air UK Goes 'Leisure' While Air Europe was struggling to move from charter to scheduled services. (Belowl Although initially selling only slowly. Gerona and Rome. A NEW LEASE OF LIFE Norwegian subsidiaries also ceased operations. Horizon Travel. a new airline had risen from the ashes of Airways International Cymru. British Aerospace loriginally Hawker Siddeley) of the UK. respectively. The new -300 and -400 Boeing 737s and the new MD-80 series of enlarged DC-9s from McDonnell Douglas were attracting orders from airlines and leasing agents worldwide. had been taken over by the Thomson Travel Group that year. with similar capacity to the 737-400. the European industry had already taken steps to combine forces and offer competitive products. Jenny Gradidge 124 125 . first flew in October 1972. This time. Euroworld. leasing in two brand-new 737-300s. not surprisingly. was ~Iso leased in and the pair operated IT charters from several UK points. A second 737-200. Utilizing a single leased. Air UK and Viking International. set alarm bells ringing in the Boeing and McDonnell Douglas sales offices. Air Europe Express eventually re-emerged as a new commuter carrier. amultinational consortium of aerospace and aircraft manufacturing companies. was moving in the opposite direction. The new consortium's first commercial project. The Fokker F. Inter European Airways had started Cardiff-based 737-200 IT charter operations in May 1987. Manchester-based Airtours took over Aspro Holidays in 1993. The ex-AIC 737-200. Air UK. made Boeing examine its own offerings very closely. Airbus's first narrow-bodied type. G-BAZI reemerged as G-BOSA in the livery of Amberair. to be named Air UK Leisure. Services also opened from Manchester and East Midlands the next day. the operating name of Card iffbased Amber Airways. In April 1988. Airtours International. Air UK operated a network of scheduled commuter and trunk services throughout Britain and to nearby points in continental Europe with a large fleet of F. The 737 flew from Cardiff and Bristol for the 1987 season. the slightly smaller Airbus A310. rebranding the tour company as its low-cost subsidiary. A major breakthrough was achieved with the sale of A300s to US-based Eastern Air Lines. the Airbus A300Bs found themselves surplus to requirements and were returned to their owners. seasonal leasings saw some of the aircraft take up Orion's 737-300s took on Britannia's identity following the merger of the two airlines in 1989. Airbus A300Bs. Hill (Bottoml The acquisition of large fleets of Airbus types IA320 illustrated) by major US More UK Comings and Goings Orion Airways had disappeared in 1989. G-BKMS. Fokker of the Netherlands and CASA of Spain. Airbus had always planned to offer a portfolio of airliner types and the first new variant. Orion's 737-300s were retained for a while though and were flown alongside the long-serving 737 -200s. As well as operating on Air UK Leisure's expanding network of ITs. In addition to Cardiff and Bristol. joining Boeing 757s that had entered service the previous year. At the time of the merger. but were of a considerably lower capacity than the larger American aircraft and aimed at a more specialized market. ex-Maersk Air aircraft. The 737-200s were'replaced in October 1989 by the first of an eventual fleet of seven Series 400s. Britannia Airways. being returned to its owners at the end of that summer's flying programme. Paramount flew mostly M D-80s.27 turboprops and BAe 146 jets. Air UK Leisure took delivery of three second-hand Boeing 737-200s in time to commence operations in May 1988. and the quantity production of the earlier European jet airliner types was drawing to a close.28 and BAe 146 were selling in respectable numbers. The A320 was adirect rival to the enlarged 737 models. medium/short-range jet market seemed to be firmly in the hands of America's Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. Amberair barely operated for one carriers. Basing itself initially at London/Stansted. Horizon's operations were merged into Thomson Holidays and. The ex-Amberair 737-200s were even-. Orion's services were merged into Thomson's own established airline subsidiary. an Anglo-French study into medium-haul wide-bodied types had led to the formal establishment of Airbus Industrie. by Bristol-based ParamOLlnt Airways. became the major investors in a new IT charter company. tually returned to their owners. new bases were set up at Manehestel' and London/Gatwick as Aspro Holidays greatly expanded its successful tour programme. Aspro Holidays. a charter brokerage company. with later US sales of developed versions to American Airlines and Pan American World Airways. Owned by the Asprou. such as Northwest Airlines.The European Challenge By the 1980s. As with Orion tbough. Inter European had been founded by a Cardiff travel company. The first commercial services were charters from Stansted to Faro. the Dassault Mercure. the A300 eventually established a substantial customer base for the aircraft. Inter European's 757s and A320s were taken over by Airtour's own airline operation. Deutsche Aerospace of Germany. as well as a large order placed by Minneapolis-based Northwest Airlines. In June 1987. Paramount itself ceased operations in 1990. as well as serving traditional Spanish destinations. Aspro Holidays specialized in tours to Greece and Cyprus. Europe's first bid to rival the 737. was formally launched into development in 1984 and the first flight occurred in February 1987. operations continued through the winter months and over the following years more 737-300s were acquired. lEA remained dormant for the winter. the wide-bodied Airbus A300. Although initial sales were slow. as was a single 737 -400. Northwest via author season before it was taken over in October 1988. attracting only one customer. following a financial scandal involving its owner's group of companies. The remaining lEA 737s were returned to their owners once their last Aspro contracts had been completed. the Spanish and Italian operations found new owners and eventually thrived as Air Europa and air Europe (Italy). although a single 737-300 was also operated. departing on 1 May. The sale of the A320 to long-established 737 operator United Airlines.

For a while. LIA lost its identity when Unijet was hought out by First Choice. G-BNGK. a pair of Boeing 737-400. !)art of a larger order that included six wide-bodied Boeing 767s and an extra 757. Three aircraft entered ervice during the year on IT and ad hoc flights from crew bases at Stansted. the 737-4 0 flew Titan Airways. as well as BAe 146 jet·. However. on Air UK Leisure's eric. replacing their special i:ed 'Carvair' aircraft with turbo-prop Heralds and Viscounts. Beginning operations in 19 with a small fleet of Cessna twins. Originally formed in 19 3. the A320 were soon moved to the Heathrow base and replaced at Gatwick by Boeing 737s. with an option to choose which variant would be del ivered at a later date.pecially in the quieter winter month. leased in for the summer of 1987. G-OBWZ is seen at london/Gatwick. For a while. SA placed a large order for up to twenty-four more 737s. to South East European Airways. until the airline's name was changed in 1993. in favour of more long-haul aircraft. leased out on a longer contract.G- BAF had turned to more conventional cheduled and charters in the I970s. another IT operator. soon finding itself in demand with Titan's clientele. with Fokker F. Ganvick and Manchester. taking over the Gatwick-based independent in late 19 7. Manchester and ewcastle. Air UK Leisure was merged into LlA. was delivered to avail' International ami operated on IT flights from Gatlvick. four eries 3 Os were leased from Maersk Air. BAF owed its unusual title to long-running car ferry scheduled services once operated by the company across the English Channel from Southend. the two similarly cottish themed carriers briefly operated alongside each other from London/ Gatwick. Glasgow. Leisure International Airways. 400s. BA 737 Expansion G-BNZT 'Flagship St Andrew' was one of the trio of 737-200s used to inaugurate Air UK leisure's IT services in 1988. Titan grew to fly horts 36 and ATR-42 turboprops. In 19 4. Rank decided to cut its losses and all operations were closed down in May 1990. the latter often on behalf of other airl ines. Air K Leisure was joined hy a ubsidiary company. GKLB wa. However. the aircraft wore either 'Birmingham' or 'Manchester' suffixes to their titles. A single British World spread their small 737-300 fleet between bases throughout the UK.. before introducing One-Elevens as their first jets in the 1990s. upplementing the DC-I s. as More Stansted 737s other airlines' li\'eries. Cal Air was renamed Novair International Airways. The next year. Richard Howell with EEA from March 1993 to pril 1994. British aledonian Charter. of Athens. Indian cheduled carrier Modiluft and anadian charter operators Odyssey International and Vacationair all took out short lease. with eight business-class ami II economy-class eats. and LlA was merged with First Choice's own in-house airline. although the Regional Division continued to be responsible for the aircraft's operation. 737-3 0 was acquired in 1999. in May. Rank was not impressed with the profitability of the airline and put ovair up for sale. hut its main activity was providing aircraft and crews for Virgin Atlantic Airway's Athens-London scheduled service. all in leather. the A320s were delivered to BA and initially entered service on the Gatlvick network. which were finally withdrawn in December 2000. ad hoc and short-notice charters. e. EEA operated a small network of domestic flights in Greece. with irbus equipment. As the newer versions arrived at Heathrow. to begin replacing the airline' urviving OneElevens. based at Stan ·ted. BCal Charter operated ex-Laker Airways DC-lOs on IT charter ervices originally contracted by Rank to the defunct carrier before it 19 2 bankruptcy. all twenty-four 737s were Novair's Series 400s at part of the BCal buy-out by British Airways was British Caledonian's own charter subsidiary. Via author British A irways had heen very satisfied with their' uper 737-200s'. the earlier -2 s were transferred to either Birmingham or Manchester. Flying in full Virgin li\'ery. ba. In the meantime. After failing to find a buyer. in 19 8. LIA was e tahlished to operate long-haul charters with a small fleet of wide-hody Boeing 767-300s. The 737-400s were eventually disposed of. March 2000 saw the 737-300 appear in the colours of British World Airl ines. British World had previously been known as British Air Ferries. Birmingham. while retaining the BCal ' cottishness'. A irways. the titles were amended back to their original format. LIA was now part of the Unijet travel group. Virgin then took over the route itself. operations continued separately. before the Greek company ceased operations.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LIFE Inter European Airways began operations with a single 737-200.50 turhoprops. Unfortunately. as the out tations were given more autonomy under the British Airways Regional Division banner. the first arriving in 1991. In 1992. 726 727 . British A irtours. The 737-30 s displaced the One-Elevens. Originally intended to replace BCal's fleet of BAC One-Elevens. Malaysian Airlines. Air 2000. specialized in contract. Rank purchased BCal's remaining shareholding and rebranded the airline Cal Air International.ed at London/Gatwick. Aviation Hobby Shop --------'". a major IT holiday operator. When British Airways rebranded its own charter operator. in partnership with the Rank Organization. A two-class layout was adopted for the 737. although Airhus A320s and A321s were later acquired tef operate European IT charter services. When B hecame the su cessful suitor for British aledonian eventually delivered as Series 400s. Caledonian Airways. hut in 1996. In October 19 8. it inherited the latter's order for the rival Airbus A32 . Later.

20. Richard Branson's Virgin group came close to buying the scheduled operation. The end finally came for Dan-Air on the evening of 8 November 1992. Richard Howell Novair International operated its 737-400s for only a year before the Rank Organization closed down the carrier when it failed to find a buyer. A leading independent airline. Even once Dan-Air had started to make muchneeded changes in its commercial operations. sad. 'British Airways European Operations at Gatwick'. when it had been within days of insolvency itself. the Boeing 727200s and most of the One-Elevens were placed into storage. At the time of the takeover. despite gaining an enviable reputation for professional customer service. Gatwick-based. Dan-Air actually gained a breathing space with the demise of Air Europe. The 748s. first established in 1952. An attempt to switch the company's focus from charter to more scheduled services that had been part of the company's activities for many years on a much smaller scale. G-BOWR was an ex-Orion/Britannia Airways Aircraft. following its purchase of ailing. their crews and support staff would be rendered redundant. Both the BAC One-Eleven and Boeing 737 fleets were used on new scheduled routes from Gatwick to Brussels. Hardly the bargain it sounds. in 1993 and 1994. The very last Dan-Air flight was operated by Boeing 737-400. four BAe 146s. Nice and Paris. Departing Gatwick at 20. with new BAe 146 jets on less-busy flights. against which it had competed on a number of important Gatwickbased scheduled routes. As their IT charter contracts ran out for the 1992 summer season.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A NEW LEASE OF LIFE The 737-300 featured in the Dan-Air fleet from 1985. Madrid. As well as new aircraft ordered from Boeing. British A irways also took on the obligations for DanAir's not inconsiderable debts. MAP (Below) British Airtours' 737-200s were transferred to 'new' charter subsidiary. The ex-Dan-Air 737-300s were only retained for a short while. reviving a respected airline name from the past. as their use of the type increased. Dan-Air had suffered severe financial problems throughout the 1980s. British Airways bought Dan-Air for a token one pound. Dan-Air found it very hard-going competing with the established national carriers. a scheduled service from London/Gatwick to Madrid. 128 129 . on flight DA689. Dan-Air was operating a diverse fleet of twelve BAC One-Elevens. as well as responsibility for the welfare of its staff. four BAe 748 turbo-props and no less than nineteen Boeing 737s of various marks. Aviation Hobby Shop BA's Dan-Air Buy-out British Airways found itself the new operators of a whole new fleet of 73 7s from October 1992. operating on an expanding scheduled network in addition to charters. Via author boost. The rest of the fleet. The Dan-Air management had finally recognized the hopelessness of the situation and began looking for prospective buyers for their airline. Caledonian Airways. More 737 -400s were transferred from Heathrow though. proved expensive. later thankfully shortened to 'EuroGatwick'. case of 'too little. Dan-Air Services. G-BN K. The amalgamated operations were organized as a new subsidiary. Only Dan-Air's Gatwick-based scheduled network was of interest to BA and all charter work would cease. but. eventually. 146s and the remaining One-Elevens were disposed of as their scheduled routes were either closed down or taken over by BA. to replace them and increase the BA profile at Gatwick as the hub was developed. Dublin. the aircraft night-stopped at Madrid and returned the next day as a BA operation. Lisbon. too late'. it soon became clear that it was a classic. BA also acquired second-hand Series 300s and -400s. The transfer of Air Europe's displaced passengers to DanAir gave the latter a welcome revenue Dan-Air's 737 fleet grew steadily over the years. The few retained aircraft and crews were combined with BA's already established Gatwick short-haul base. being returned to their owners at the end of their lease contracts. seven Boeing 727-200s. Only three 737-300s and nine 737 -400s were to be retained by BA.

From 19 9 the airline had moved its headquarters and main base to London/Gatwick. uniforms and flight prefix. From 1995. Hapag Lloyd replaced their last Boeing 72 7s and BAC One-Elevens with 737s and Germania. eventually adding Series 300 737s and 757 . with some services also being scheduled from Heathrow. BEA had been associated with a small airline based at Gibraltar. services were operated from Gibraltar to London/Gatwick. T R. although Gibraltar was still an important point on the network. as well as scheduled services from Gibraltar to asablanca. but survived long enough to operate three 737 -300s over its various incarnations. from April 1979. adopting BA's livery. and all operations ceased in March [9 4. Lufthansa BA's 'Associated' 737s The Bri tish Airways takeover of Bri tish Caledonian also led to drastic changes in the operations of British A irtours. TE Cyprus and TEA France initially survived the group's coilaI' e. its title shortened in daily usc to Gibair. KLM. The original Belgian company was quickly revived a EuroBelgian Airline. In the summer of 1994. operating hoth eries 200s and 300s for the Dutch national carrier. As well as their own IT charter service. Transavia st 'adily expanded their all-737 fleet. fter TEA UK ceased operations its operating authority was later used to establish a new company. taking on the identity of one of BCal's original constituent airline. Gibair later became GB Airways and. BA's predecessor. A Manche'ter-Gibraltar schedule was operated. Excalibur Airways. operating IT charters with a pair of Boeing 727-200s. as well as some IT work. French. The aircraft was far too large for the available market on the London route. Transavia continued to be active in the leasing market. TEA wit:erland. previously founded as AT with Caravelles and 727s. a British territory on the southern tip of Spain. complete with a heraldic lion painted on the tail. Postwar. Iso in Germany. The contract with Britannia was replaced by GB Airways flying their own 737-200s. Hill (Below) Lufthansa utilized the 737-300 on their European services. two of the airline's 737s were gi ven 'G B Leisure' ti ties and operated IT charters from Gatwick and Mandle'ter. A ir Holland had been estahlished in 19 5. The flag-carrier that had taken a financial interest in Transavia was to eventually take delivery of its own 737-400s. Gibraltar A irways. Small twin-engined types had steadily been replaced by single leased DC3 and turbo-prop Viscount' over the years. TEA Italy. initially with three leased in via British Airway. The group suffered financial collapse in 1991. Marrakech and Tangier. British Airtours fleet of Lockheed L-I II Trimm and Boeing 737-200s were repainted in their own version of the greytopped BA livery. The Belgian and UK operations had added Series 300 737s to their original fleets of Series 200s. in 1931.A NEW LEASE OF LIFE A ~EIV LEASE OF LIFE GB Airways' smart livery was to disappear after the airline signed up to become a 'franchise carrier' for British Airways. Air Holland halted operations for reorganization several times. had been founded locally. introduced 737-300s. hoth new and established charter operators had begun to introduce 737s into service. Two ex-BA erie' 40 737s were transferred to join GB's own five 737-200s and new routes opened from Gatwick to Murcia and Valencia. The aircraft wa' leased from TEA and flown on scheduled Rotterdam- London/Gatwick services several times a day from ovemher 1983. Malcolm L. to operate scheduled service to neighbouring Spain and Morocco. More leased 737 -200s replaced the original aircraft and GB Airways expanded quickly with flights to Casablanca. BEA took a 51 per cent share in the airline and Gibair continued to provide vital local links for the island. Tangier and Tunis from Gatwick. although an early customer for the rival irbus ingle-aisle types. A very short-lived Dutch 737 operation saw a single erie' 200 operated by Rotterdam Airlines. which operated Airbus A320s. The new service utili:ed 737-200 leased from Britannia Airways. During a che- quered career. in Turkey. although the Cypriot. replacing a previous pooling arrangement using BEA/BA aircraft to London/I-[eathrow. Marrakech. Elsewhere in Europe The Trans European 'family' concept fared as well as that of ir Europe. replacing a long-standing fleet of DC-9s. -300s joining the original -200s at Amsterdam. In the etherlands. but maintained an influence under the franchise contract. as well as feeding traffic from North Africa to BE's services from Gibraltar to London. Lufthansa continued to utili:e their large 737 fleet. especially Juring the traditionally quiet winter season. The charter subsidiary was rebranded as 'Caledonian Airways'. 730 737 . Funchal. in Spain. throughout their European and domestic network. GB Airways began operating as a BA 'franchise' carrier. Martyn East (Above) Transavia was to base its prosperity on the 737 for many years. BA had actually sold its last shareholdings in GB Airways that year. In Germany. again operating 737s. eventually with hoth Series 200s and -300s being operated at various times in the 19 Os and 90s. The 737s were eventually replaced by larger Boeing 757s and were disposed of. For many years. With cabin crews taking over BCal" cottish tartan themed uniform and image. Condor reintroduced the type. Italian and Turkish companies later suspended operations.

the same year they introduced the first of a large fleet of Boeing 737-300s to replace their own earlier jet. includingseveral Series 300s. acquired a small West German commuter oper· ator. with the two major domestic carriers. ewer version Series 300s followed and Ansen also bought Airbus A320s to operate on their domestic network alongside them. Australian A irl ines was bought out by Qantas Airways and became the domestic arm of what had previously been Australia's international specialist. Australia. Flights had to leave at identical departure times. finally. the 'new' airline began commercial ser· vices from Berlin·Tegel to Stuttgart and Munich.000 were carried on the scheduled services. St Petersburg and Stockholm. being forced to compete under very restrictive conditions. In 1994. using comparable aircraft. in partnership with Lufthansa. eventually utilizing seven 737-300s. but still maintained a commercial presence under the new regime. More 737s were delivered in the following years. Dragonair was founded in 19 5 and began flights to Kota Kinabalu. in Thailand. Deutsche SA The network and fleet later grew rapidly as Asiana was encouraged by the Korean government to be the country's 'second designated carrier' after Korean Air Lines. in 197 .. MAP Eastern Growth Elsewhere in the Asian and Pacific regions. thereby. Asiana Airlines began regional and domestic operation with a fleet of 737 -400s. BA eventually took steps to withdraw. following reunification. Ansen did not want the European designs and. Originally operating under registry. took a financial interest in the bUlkling carrier and Lockheed L-10 11 Tristars were transferred to expand the network. supplementing a fleet of H -748 turbo-props. with the founding of a new carrier. Ansett chose the 737 to modernize its fleets in the 1980s. of which 850. The orig· inal turbo·prop network was sold off in January 1997. Year 2000 saw Deutsche BA operating eighteen Boeing 737-300s from bases at Berlin and Munich. denied access to Berlin. Air France. IT char· ters also operated from Berlin to southern Europe at weekends. 132 133 . Smaller Fokker 100s were leased in to supplement the 737s and SAABs that continued in operation.. which closed down or transferred its Berlin·based facilities as Deutsche BA grew. Eventually the regulations were relaxed and the airlines were able to enjoy more freedom in their equipment policy.. Other 737s followed. in eptember 1992. Long-established Thai Airways took delivery of their first 737-200 in 1977. Thai was merged into the country's flag carrier airline. Although NZNAC had heen an early operator of the Boeing 737. Oslo. However. that had operated ITs with leased 737-300ssince April 1990. However. West German registered aircraft were forbidden In its airspace and.later British Airways. as Thai's original domestic network was expanded to include regional international points. with both them and established airlines choosing the new versions of the 73 7 as their medium/short-haul airliner. the 737-300 fleet continued to expand IT charter routes were opened for German travel companies In 1993 and international schedules opened from Berlin to Nice. EuroBeriin France.. 1 luun~ DRAGONAIR Hong Kong's Dragonair began operations with a small fleet of 737-200s. although a large programme of scheduled and charter flights still operated from the Berlin base. Ansen and Trans Australia. At the end of the Second World War Berlin had been divided up. Air New Zealand. with its western half buried within the boundaries of East Ger· many. As well as the 73 7s. The acquisition of Delta Air by BA and the banks her· aided amajor change in the commuter carrier. In Hong Kong. a new international and long-haul network was established with Boeing 767s. Hamburg and Stuttgart..\n . to Munich. The airline's head office was moved. and from Dresden to Paris. the Australian airline indu. founded in 1978 By 1992. International schedules served Geneva. ft . Ten 737-200s made the transition. the major airline in Hong Kong. before the type was discarded in favour of a standardized fleet of Airbus aircraft. Over 885. ew route licence saw the airline opening services to eight points in mainland China ami to Phuket. Originally. in June 1992. Pan American's Berlin services had been disposed of as part of its cost·cutting measures. Delta Air. TAA had favoured buying in Caravelles as their first jets. Services opened in 1988 from Berlin·Tegel to Dusseldorf. ewmans Air. with a ingle Boeing 737-200 leased from Guinne s Peat.OilO passengers were carried In 1991. An Initial fleet of three leased 737-300s was joined by four more later in the year and new routes opened to Dusseldorf and Cologne. Zurich and the Channel Islands. The reunification also led to Germania taking over Berlin-based Berlin European UK. However. and another change