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“OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS
SANSKRIT VEDIC LITERATURE.”
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FINAL DESTINATION OF ARYANS .4 KAMBOJAS OF THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AND SANSKRIT VEDIC LITERATURE.
Kamboja’s Affiliation with Budh Gaya and Sarnath.72 8. Kamboja’s Love for India. Cambodian (Cambodge/Kamboj) Kings. 6 1. ………………………8 2. …. (One of the wonders of the world).. Angkor Vat. …………………………………………………. Quest for Principal Era.. Origin of Kambojas and other Aryans. …………..……68 7. Notes.. Kamboja and Aryan Epoch.……. …………………………………………….5 CONTENTS Chapter Page Top Cover………………………….. Ancient Literature. My visit to Lahore……………………………………………105 9.50 6. ………………. …………………. ………………………………………………………113 ..………………36 5.15 4. …………………………………13 3..……….…………………………1 Contents………………………………………………………5 Editor’s Note. Punjab and the Sikh Panth. Kambojas Kingdoms and their Influence in the Far East.
Malaysia. Sorn Samnand. Etat du Cambodge. Since I immigrated to Canada in 1953 and did not have much knowledge of India with the exception of Punjab and New Delhi where I had lived for four years to undergo training in Aeronautics. I visited numerous places of interest all over the Indian Sub-Continent including the Central Archaeological Library of New Delhi.e.6 Editor’s Note This book is the by-product of “Our Indian SubContinent Heritage” which I wrote and which was released in Vancouver. Island of Philippine. Thailand. Madras Library. I was lucky to be rescued by Dr. alphabets of which derived from South India. or a proper . I decided to retire early to do my own thing i. During these travels I collected nearly five kilos of pamphlets and notes. Cambodia (Etat du Cambodge) was formerly a colony of France. While going through our ancient history the fact must be born in one’s mind not to expect any critical and detailed narrative of the political events. Dean of the Faculty of History. Calcutta Library.D. Nepal. Sri Lanka. the ruins of Meonjodaro in Sindh and Harappa near Lahore. University of Phnom Penh. After sifting and arranging them in sequence I felt the need to know more about Kambojas. travel and nothing but travel. I had no choice but go back to my pamphlets and notes. After a heart attack in 1995 (since my son told me that I could no longer help him in the family business).) are all preserved in French and/or in their own language. University and British Libraries of Trivandrum in Kerala. travel. To tackle the task of translating those works into English. Vietnam and Laos (Champa of the olden days). Borneo. the over 1000 year old former Kamboja city and Angkor Vat and many other temples which were built by Kamboja kings from Jaya Varman II to Jaya Varman VII (790-1202 A. Canada in early 2000. Java (Borobudur) and Bali in Indonesia. and 99% of the ancient records relating to Kamboja kings. Pali and Sanskrit. Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj). I went back to Cambodia in February of 1997.
to take up the work. 2002 . I shall consider my labours amply rewarded. Kirpal Singh Dard author of ‘Souvenir’. Dr. I have tried to support every statement by an authoritative text. 1993 and all the authors. of whom we catch but fleeting glimpses of the moving panorama of the history of thousands of years before our eyes in a haze of mist or gloom. Arlis Packer for computer scanning of photographs. and copious references are given in the endnotes from pages 81-86. Last but not least.7 estimate of the life and character of great historical personages. B. better equipped for the task. C. reading through the manuscript and for some valuable suggestions in this matter. Myint Thein who supplied me with the research materials and I acknowledge gratefully my debt to Mr. journals and publishers from whose books or publications I have drawn excerpts. I wish to express my special thanks to Ms. Sorn Samnang and Dr. If this humble production arouses a general interest in the Kamboja community towards this fascinating field of study. G. Edith and Dr. No one is more conscious than I of the possible shortcomings of the work. I hope that my indulgent readers will look kindly on this pioneer work. Thind Burnaby. My grateful thanks are due to respective librarians. September 9. and induces others.
as a result of perseverance and systematic research by the world renowned students of ancient history.1 ORIGIN OF KAMBOJAS AND OTHER ARYANS. Many times. also signified the object designated by this English word “beech. “The evidence of linguistic paleontology need not be considered in detail. but it is important that the region to which he assigned the IndoEuropean original home after his epoch-making researches is also South Russia. In spite of the enormous increase in . “bus” is left out of consideration.” for the beech does not grow to the east of this line. through those centuries and millenniums gone by. Vedic literature such as: Rich or Rig-Veda. The argument that has been most persistently levelled against Schrader is the so-called “beech-argument”: since the beech was known to the Indo-Europeans. Nevertheless. The ancient history of Vedic Aryans became a victim of such circumstances. for there is no trace of it in any eastern dialect if the late Kurdish word. But there is absolutely no certainty that the IndoEuropean word bhagos. since Schrader (E/N #1) did that with masterly thoroughness in his well-known works.” Moreover. It is human nature that migrating people will look back to the land of their origin for generations to come. from which the English word “beech” is very probably derived. the Yajush or Yajar-Veda.8 Chapter . their original home must have been “to the west of a line drawn from Konigsberg in Prussia to the Crimea and continued thence through Asia Minor. the Saman or Sama-Veda has made visible to us a clear trace of Vedic Aryans’ itinerary from their departure points and stopovers to their final destination. the word for “beech” seems to have been confined only to the western IndoEuropeans. they managed to pass on the name of the continent or country but some where along that distant past innocently missed pointing out the location of their last stop or even the origin. it is argued.
yazat (= yajata). can claim to be regarded as the cradle-land of the Aryans = Indo-Europeans. customs and traditions remained different from other Aryans. it would be best therefore to adhere to his conclusion that South Russia. extinguishing amidst shouts of revelry. but not nearly as vehemently as Zarathustra.”(E/N #2). closely resembled those of the Vedas. etc. Evidently. more than any other region. manthra (=mantra). and also the whole sacrificial cult. Zarathustra condemns in bitter terms the orgiastic festivities at which the Daivaworshippers. Iran became the second stopover for Kambojas and Aryans for a couple of hundred years. zaotar (=hota). In his Gathas (sermons). azuiti (= ahuti). After their departure from South Russia. their culture and religion continued to be essentially the same till the advent of Zarathustra (E/N #5) in Iran. Zarathustra’s position is more or less analogous to that of the Buddha in India and Orpheus in Greece. yashna (= yajna). A large number of common cult-words such as haoma (=soma). the life of the innocent bull (E/N #7). Probably Kambojas arrived in Iran a few hundred years before the Aryans and had become part and parcel of the Iranian society. inebriated with Soma (E/N #6). offer bloody sacrifices to their gods. “In spite of the Daiva-bias of the Indians and the Asurabias of the Iranians. the Zarathustra’s reform could not materially alter the essentially . against which Zarathustra directed his homilies. leave no doubt that the Vedic and Avestan rituals are of one and the same origin (E/N #8). It is clear that the ritual practices.9 knowledge since the days of Schrader. That is why even after arriving and settling at the tip of India their language. whereas Iranians were followers of Asura (E/N #4). They worshipped their respective gods and as we will see below there was intermingling of each other’s cultures and religious cults over a period of time.. atharvan (=atharvan). just stopping short of becoming assimilated. both of whom protested effectively against the ceremonial slaughter of animals in the name of religion. Arriving Aryans believed in Daiva (Deva) (E/N #3).
Mahavrishas. those of the Avesta also hold up the sky to prevent it from falling down.S.10 Vedic character of the Soma cult. Afghanistan.. a mountain complex laying mainly in Todzhikshaya (U.S.” According to modern research. Hindu Kush. while image worship is equally unknown in the Avesta and the Veda. as A. in spite of a long contact and the exchange of cultures and religious rituals. According to the map mentioned above in foot note…. for otherwise it would seem that those parts of the Rigveda. Both in the Veda and the Avesta. Kekayas and Kambojas. Gandharis. yet the influence of their culture and religious cults lingered on amongst the Asura and remaining Deva for Zarathustra to redress. among whom are the Uttarakurus. Hillebrandt (E/N #10) actually suggested. is practically the same in the Vedas as it is in the Avesta and in both the conventional number of gods is the same. This may have been the root cause of their reluctant move towards India. to some extent Asuras and Vedic Aryans did not get along very well with one another. The following tribes are said to have made the first move: “Finally we come to the Udichyas or Northerners. the picture of the gods is primarily that of a heroic Aryan warrior riding in a chariot drawn by powerful steeds. were composed already in Iran. however. Zarathustra was more successful. Jammu and Kashmir and north east of Punjab (now Pakistan). Bahlikas.” “The majority of Vedic Kambojas and Aryans had left Iran around 3500 B. Like the Vedic gods.R. As to their final destinations almost all of the main tribes of Vedic Aryans reached the north west and east tip of India situated in the Pamir region.we see a Kamboja settlement on the tip of mainland India whereas we see other Aryans settled deep in the Pamir region. in which possible or probable Iranian names occur. namely thirtythree. the Uttaramadras. Keshins. From this we conclude that Kambojas were the first ones to arrive and because of reasons given below settled on the fertile land and did not feel the .”(E/N #11). but also reaching into China. In the field of religion and mythology. In many hymns of Rigveda Asuras are referred to as enemies. as we have observed above.. Mujavants. The ceremony of Upanayana (E/N #9). therefore. the points of similarity are striking enough to prove previous identity.).C. at least partly intentional. But here too.” “The reticence maintained by the Vedic Aryans about immigration from Indo-Irania was. Himalayas. cherished in Iran from ages before his time.
ninth by Mrilika and tehth by Vasukra ---these ten are all of the Vasishtha (Vashisht) gotra. Zimmer (H.” Further research in Rigveda 9-97 shows: Vasistha (Vashisht) is that of the first tricha (triplet). M. Altindisches Leben. K. of the fifth Upamanyu. Banerji in a country near Sind (Sindh). and Motichandra has further supported the identification (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Smith along the mountains of Tibet or Hindu Kush. Lond. The sage Upamanyu. seventh by Sakti. M. Raychaudhuri in the Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts. are originally descended from seven Rishis. 12) as differing from other Aryans. and Grierson (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. P. and Eliot (Dr. after discussing the problems afresh identifies Kambojas with Badakhshan and the Pamir. Rhys Davids places them to the extreme northwest of India. Aiyangar and P. Sherring . 1879) infers that the Kambojas and the Madras were close neighbours in northwestern India. of the third Vrishagana.. as given by the Nirnai Sindhu. are as follows: .A. held by Hindus universally in profound veneration as semi-deities of great sanctity and wisdom. according to Hindu writings and traditions.11 need to move into proper India. of the second Indrapramati. D. These. but the fact that Kambojas were reputed for Vedic learning shows them to have been Vedic Aryans. A. mentioned in the Rigveda (9-97-5). N. There is some difference of opinion as to the location of the Kambojas. eighth by Karnasrut. S. 6 under Section 1 ‘Genealogy of the Brahmanical Tribes’: The Brahmans of all tribes. The speech of the Kambojas is referred to by Yaska (Nirukta VII. 2-3) in Tibet or its border. Assistant Director and Head of the Department of Sanskrit Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan in Vedic Age. 1951 says: “The earliest mention of Kambojas occurs in the Vamsa Brahmana of the Samaveda where a teacher Kamboja Aupamanyva is referred to. Law. Berlin. Zimmer. London) sees in this reference the Iranian affinities of the Kambojas. A. Later on Kambojas settled to the northwest of the Indus. From the fact that Kamboja Aupamanyava is stated to be a pupil of Madragara. and also by the Dharma Sindhu.. or sages. According to ‘Hindu Tribes And Castes’ by Rev. and were the ‘Kambujiyas’ of the Old Persian Inscriptions. Pusalker. The latest attempt at locating the Kambojas is by Jayachandra who. of the fourth Manyu. LL. so that Kamboja was an Aryan settlement. ‘Tribes’ pp. Dr. London). of the sixth hymn by Vyaghapad.B. is in all probability the father of this Kamboja teacher.
Pusalker says: “The Rigveda repeatedly refers to the attacks on the aborigines. with a great civilization unparalleled to any other they ever encountered during their stopovers en-route from South Russia to India. the best alternative for them was to settle in and around the Pamir region and advance further into aborigines territories in the east. Atri. west and south tactfully by correlations. Viswamitra.12 1. were the son of an aboriginal mother or an aboriginal himself. Vashisht 7. Upamanyu. Gotras descended from Vashisht Rishi: Vashisht. a merchant hailing from Kamboja renaming their country as ‘Cambodge/Kamboj’. there were aborigines such as Nagas and Dravidians in particular. 6. called a Dasa. intimidation by the waging of war on one pretext or another was the name of the game! Dr. Therefore. Their hatred towards the aborigines was so open that they called them Krishna-tvach (black skin) metaphorically. Kasyap. 4. 3. When they failed in all other means. 4. If Balbutha. 1. is also similarly used for denoting barbarians in the Rigveda. probably personifies the barbarian opponents. D. Mridhravach (speaking insultingly). 5. Bhrigu. diplomacy. Jatukaraniya. spreading Vedic belief and the employing of ‘divide and rule’ tactics of which they had become masters during hundreds of years of intermingling with different people. ***** . Further while discussing Cambodia (Cambodge) we will see descendents of Kaundinya. Agastih 2. It must be remembered that to the Aryans’ surprise. his reference as giving gifts to the singer indicates the establishment of friendly relations between the Aryans and Dasa. A. Kuyavach (evil speaking). Kaundinya 2. a demon slain by Indra. Parashara. 3. Angirah (Angiras).
probably at a location where the ruins of Moenjodaro now stand. of Sanskrit. stopped short of entering his kingdom and like earlier arrivals. England.2 KAMBOJAS AND THE ARYAN EPOCH. ruled along the Indus river. . possessed of wealth. During the same period. came along with his tribe to enter India. but on hearing of Bali’s military strength and determination of keeping aliens out of the mainland. a powerful young man among Aryans. settled on the bank of a nearby river.e. F.) Indra. manifesting (his greatness).R. has overspread the day with his radiance: attracted by prayer. After several years. there were numerous Daitya (aboriginal) kingdoms. an Aryan by the name of Vishnu (E/N #12). During the same struggle. a very powerful king often called an Emperor. Mighty Bali took pity on the courteous fellow and granted him permission to live in his kingdom with a fairly large piece of fertile land. Indra. (RV. king of gods. Boden Prof. While Kambojas who probably arrived at the tip of India well ahead of other Aryans settled there for good. Ox. A.. armed with weapons. Aryan tribes had to fight Bali first. etc.. Puranas (history books) mention that a couple of generations before Manu Vaivasvata. H. Vishnu attacked Bali’s kingdom. making new colonies and providing them with proper military training. he started an underground campaign of inviting new settlers. but not being strong enough militarily. by Prof. In order to enter India proper. such as merciless killings and pillages committed by the Indra.II-34). Aryans were habituated to founding colonies. who was also anointed as God of rain and thunder. Bengal side).S. and begged him for a piece of land and to accept his clan and himself as his subjects. Being used to migration from one country to another. protector of Aryans. joined Vishnu in conquering the aborigines’ lands and giving them to their Aryan kith and kin. defeated him and forced him to flee to the East (i. Colonization was usually followed by commerce. women and children. H.13 Chapter . One day Vishnu meekly went to Bali’s court along with a few men. Following are a few quotations from Rig-Vedas of the atrocious actions. the destroyer of cities. Wilson. leading to ownership of large tracts of land. he has delighted both Heaven and Earth. merciless to his enemies. out of which Bali. RIG VEDA QUOTATIONS (OF INDRA’S EXPLOITS) (Trans. others had no choice but to settle in the Pamir region. they had to be content in settling in the Pamir region. M. As soon as Vishnu obtained a footing in Bali’s kingdom. keeping the local owners as slaves and resulting in domination for good.
other Aryan clans. ………… .14 Thou hast subjugated PIPRU (E/N #13) and the mighty MRIGAYA (E/N #14) for the sake of RIJISWAN (E/N #15). III-9-20).V. as old age (destroys) life. the donor of oblation. probably because the Kambojas were well established way before the other clans arrived and were strong enough militarily to ward off intruders i. (RV III-V-3 and f/n for RV I. There is no mention of territorial conflict between Kambojas and other Aryans. who happened to be the first victim of Vishnu’s victory. suggest that Vishnu and Indra were responsible for the above-mentioned killings and destruction of places. Chapter 3 starts next page. Due to lack of space only few of Indra’s exploits have been given above. the son of VIDATHIN. (RV. Moenjodaro may have been the capital of the aboriginal king Bali.e. Indra has overturned a hundred stone-built cities for DIVODAS E/N #18). Harappa and Chitradurga along with their museums and hundreds of skeletons unearthed. Sukta 51-6C). (R. thou hast slain the fifty thousand KRISHNAS (E/N #16) and. Exhilarated (by Soma beverage) I have destroyed the ninety and nine cities of SAMBARA. as elaborated in the above Rigveda hymns and ruins of Moenjodaro (E/N #19).II-6-13). thou hast demolished the cities (of SAMBARA) (E?N #17). Historical events.
The discovery of the seals at Moenjodaro with pictorial writing has put an altogether new complexion on the whole subject. Prof. These accounts probably formed the basis of the original Puranas.3 QUEST FOR PRINCIPAL ERA ANCIENT LITERATURE NAMES OF CAMBODIAN (CAMBODGE/KAMBOJ) KINGS. Rishis (sages). we are proud of our ancestors that emphatically encouraged intellectual and literary works covering a wide field of human activities. from which the genealogical texts of the existing puranas were ultimately derived. if not almost certain. of course.C.D. It may be regarded as very probable. E. As to the question of the art of writing known to the Vedic Aryans. R. to pin-point an appropriate era. According to F. the importance of literature is explicitly laid down in the Yayu Purana (1-31-2). that the Sutas’ (venerable sages) special duty. that the old Indian alphabet was derived from the pictographic script current in the Sindh Valley. we cannot trace its development during a long period of more than 2000 years. (Anno Domini) or B. kingdoms and dynasties and literature of their times. but like ancient civilizations that flourished in the remote past. Unfortunately. most glorious kings and the traditions of great men. a skeleton of the history of ancient India has only been possible to reconstruct with the help of our ancient literature and archaeological evidences discovered recently. Then. as perceived. and derives the Brahmi alphabet from alphabetic signs found on prehistoric potteries dug out of the Hyderabad cairns. our minds are inclined to relocate to an early era such as A. In this respect. (Before Christ). even when their endeavours could not be reduced to writings. Pargiter (E/N #20). that the art of writing was known to the Indians as early as the time of Rigveda.15 Chapter . D. which elapsed before . we must locate an important occasion relating to some unprecedented happening and then work backward or forward with the help of long gone generations of kings. Whenever we think of the word History. was to preserve the genealogies of gods. Bhandarker (E/N #21) maintains on the grounds of internal evidence. by good men of old.
for fear of destruction by Muslim rulers possessed by irrational zeal. AlBiruni renamed that symbol as ‘sifr’ meaning ‘cipher’ of today. until at last they have mastered their subject and are able to become teachers in turn. Al-Biruni (997-1030). are from our Universities. To those who look upon this as incredible.. Looking back at our literature. are naturally forced to the conclusion that the whole Vedic literature was preserved by oral tradition only. meaning.” How then was the Veda learnt? Every Brahmana learned it during the twelve years of his student-ship (forty-eight years in the case of those who did not wish to marry).C. They spend year after year under the guidance of their teacher. learning a little day after day. repeating what they have learnt as part of their daily devotion. when manuscripts are neither scarce nor expensive. Arabs called it Hind-sah. the people of the SubContinent of India owe a lot to Western scholars who. the following lines of Max Muller (E/N #22) would serve as a reply: “It is of little avail in researches of this kind to say that such a thing is impossible. in order to enlighten us and the world of our past. the young Brahmana who learn the songs of the Veda and the Brahmanas and the Sutras. The scholars. which was a centre of learning in the Arab world. We can form no opinion of the powers of memory in a state of society so different from ours as the Indian Parishads (places of higher learning). invariably learn them from oral tradition. That ‘cipher’ .. which was meant to read ‘empty’. In one of the books he interpreted a symbol.16 we came across the first actual specimen of the Brhmi lipi (Brhmi script) in the third or fourth century B. who maintain that the art of writing was unknown to the Vedic period... and know them by heart. had to overcome many obstacles in learning the Vedic language (i.e. They encouraged the Brahmins to bring into open the literature they were hiding for 800 years. Muslim rulers like barbarous Babur not only replaced temples with mosques but destroyed Vedic literature as much as they could. classical Sanskrit). ‘from Hind’. a Persian scholar came to India and took a camel load of Vedic literature to Baghdad.Even at the present day.
Pandavas and Kauravas. Arjuna contracted marital alliances with Chitrangada. ‘The Age of The Rik-Smahta. 24000 verses). and Subhadra. With that kind .’ by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. and ‘Early Hindu India. V. or Black Yajur Veda. Thereafter. Samaveda. people started to feel free at least in so far as religion. Arjuna.). Yajush Rich. As the last of Muslim rule came to an end and the dust settled. ‘The Vedic Age.). This scripture is an epic poem of ancient India (approx. for the wedding. Unlike Muslim rulers. the Pandava brothers Yudhisthira. Draupadi. the princess of Manipur.’ give us merely the following works: VEDAS AND ANCIENT LITERATURE Rigveda-10 books comprising 1017 hymns. 1500 B. 7 books (approximately 25000 verses). This thought -provoking scripture is also an epic poem of ancient India (1450 B. To help us in locating some of our literature. Arjuna successfully accomplished the feat and the daughter of king Drupada became the common wife of five. rather than suppressing our past. they heard of a stiff marksman’s test imposed by the local king to win his daughter.Atharvaveda-20 Books. Sahadeva and Nakula. narrating a widespread horrific destruction of human life through war brought upon the Indian people from the northern tip of India’s ‘Kamboja’ kingdom bordering Afghanistan and Iran down to Lanka (Sri Lanka). who was abducted by Ravana and held as prisoner in his palace in Lanka. a capital of the Panchala kingdom. White Yajur Veda. an aboriginal king of Lanka (Sri Lanka).C. They promoted their alliances with many kings and people of influence either by subjugating or accepting gifts. Mahabharta(approx. to free Rama’s wife Sita. It is interesting to note that as the Pandavas were passing through Kampila. Bhima. describing a horrendous war between Rama and Ravana. Ramayana. culture and traditions were concerned. 10 books each. by greed. booze and compulsive gambling between two cousins. the Yadava princess (sister of Krishna).C. the Europeans in general and British in particular wanted to know about our past as much as possible.17 ‘zero’ is the heart and soul of modern science.
Rig-Veda Pratisakhya Sutra. Mantrabrahmana. Atharvaveda Pratisakhya Sutra. Mundaka Upanishad. Yajurveda (Vajasaneyi Samhita). Narda.20 by various lawgivers such as Manu. Katha Upanishad. Atharvasiras etc (One of the latest Muktika Upanishad counts them all 108 if not more). Pushpa Pratisakhya Sutra. Mahanarayana Upnishad. Manava-Sradhakalpa (4 books one by each . Garbha. Taittirya Mantrakosha Part I and Part II. Grihya Sutra. Panchavidha Pratisakhya Sutra. Kaushitaki. UPANISHAD (Generally an elaboration upon the earlier Vedas. Apastambiya Grihaya Sutra.18 of encouragement. not even one stayed neutral! LAW Books . Vishnu Smriti. Vyasqa Siksha. Sarvanukramani. Brihdevata. Chhanddogya Mantrakosha. west and North. Vaishishika Sutra by Kanada. Further. Vyasa (Krishna). Upanishad of the Saktas such as: Jabala. Prana Upanishad. Apastambiya Dharam Sutra. Srautra Sutra. Maitrayaniya Upanishad. Subala. Mandukya Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya Sutra. Sushruta Sutrasthana. Paninya Sikhsha. south. etc. Isavasya Upanishad. In the North they antagonized mighty Kambojas whose king in turn joined Kauravas against Pandavas in Mahabharta. Brihadararan Yak Opanishad. Brihadarayaka Mantrakosha. Mahanaryana Mantrakosha. Rigvidhana. Kena Mantrakosha. Rajatarangni. Taittirya Samhita (Krsna Yajurveda). Vaitna Saruta Sutr. all five Pandava brothers led a campaign respectively towards the east. we will find the names of 75 countries consisting of India. Atri. Yajnavalkya. Sradhhakalpas. Paramahamsa. Mantrapatha. Gopatha Brahmana. Nirukta. Pitrimedhas. Gobhila Grihya Sutra. Sulva Sutra.) Aitareya. Svetasvatra Upanishad. SUTRAS (Collection of a precise meaningful statement of a truth or rules) Sutrasthana. Kalpa Sutra. Dharma Sutras (4 books by one each sage). Taittirya Pratisakhya Sutra. Neard and Surya Sidhanta. Kaussika Sutra. Nayaya Sutra by Gotma.
Skanda 81000. Aitareya Aranyaka. Vasishtha Dharam Sutra. Padma 55000. Adbhuta Brahmana. Sankhayana Srauta Sutra. ) Brahmandeya with 12000 Slokas (verses). Markandeya 9000 verses. Vajasayi Sanhita. Kaushitaki Upanishad. astronomy. Shadvimsa Brahmana (26 books). Brahma Vaivarta 18000 verses. Karikas. Kurma 17000. medicine etc. Vishu 23000. Ashtradhyayi. Taittirya Brahmana. Baudhayana Upanishad. Kaushitaki Brahmana. Unadi-Sutra. Sutrasthana. Baudhayana Dhramshastra. Gobhila-Sutra. AstrngaSamgraha. Garga Sanhita. Kapishthala Katha Samhita. Dharma Sindhu. Bamana 10000 verses. Literary works of Kalidasa. Vayu Purana.D. Khadira-Grihya-Sutra. Vayu 24000.etc. Katyayana Srauta-Sutra. Atareya Aranyaka. the Shakespeare of India in the first century A. Linga 11000. Nirnai Sindhu. Baudhayan Grihyasutra. Jain and Buddhist Puranas. Jaiminiya Brahmana. Naradiya 25000. Bhagavat 18000. Satapata Brahmann. Yaska’s Nirakta. It has been proven by the scholiast that a considerable amount of ancient literature was lost to natural calamities and destroyed by Muslim bigots who attacked India during the last thousand years. PURANAS (Books of prayers and other subjects such as education. NidanaSutra. Jyotisha-Vednga. Garuda 19000. Arsheya Brahmana. Secular and religious literary works by ordinary men and women of intellect. Grihyasamgraha-Parisishta. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Asvalayana Grihya Sutra. Samhitopnishad Brahmana. Brahma 10000. Apastambiya Srautasutra. Kasyapa-Samhita. . Varaha 24000. Panchavimsa Brahmana. Sankhayana Aranyaka. Bhavishya 14500 verses. Matsya 14000. Maitrayani Samhita. Prayyogas. Bhela-Samhita. Prayaschitta-Sutra. Massive literature left by sages and scientists of ancient India is unparalleled amongst any nation in the world. Cakrapani. Ashyaiyana Grhya Sutra. Karmapradipa. Samavidhana Brahmana. Tantras.19 sage). Caraka Samhita. is unique. Caraka-Samhita Vimanasthana. Paraskra Griha Sutra. Daivata Brahmna. Agni 15400. Aittareya Brahmann. Vamsa Brahmana. Baudhayana Srautasutra.
20 BHAGAVAD-GITA (A message of action on the philosophy of life. Besides numerous rowing tribes. From its archaic construction and internal references. Western Asia and even Greece and Rome. from this voluminous ancient literature bequeathed to us by our ancestors.” This literature is as bulky in volume as it is varied in its contents. The Sakanda Purana shows that before the Great War. there was a total population of approximately 300 million and folk tales . “The Bhagavad-Gita is later than the great movement represented by the early Upanishads and earlier than the period of the development of the philosophic systems and their formulation in Sutras (books). Unlike any country in the world. Radhakrishnan. and enables us to trace the various stages in the development of culture and civilization in ancient India.) According to ‘Indian Philosophy. The icons discovered at Moenjodaro are those of gods and goddesses who are still worshipped in India. Although it does not help us very much in reconstructing the political history of ancient India.’ by Dr. we may infer that it is definitely a work of the pre-Christian era. which is not possible in the case of ancient Egypt. we conclude that Mahabharta (great-war) was the unprecedented occasion. and Hindus from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin (also called ‘Kanya Kumari’) repeat even today the Vedic hymns which were uttered on the banks of the Indus nearly four thousand years ago. the first President of India. it throws a flood of light on it. S. Sakanda Purana gives a long list of about 75 kingdoms existing within the boundary of India.
21 reveal that after the war. those who did not die in the war died of famines and diseases such as cholera. Balhika Latadesha KachchhaKalahayanjaya Mulasthana . Every able-bodied person. List of kingdoms: Andhla Vaguri Atisindhu Balaka Bhayanaka Chata Ekabahu Ekapada Gajanaka Hariyala Jalandhara Kamarupa Kantipura Kashmira Kuru Laghu Lingodbhava Machipura Magadha Malva Nepala Nilapura Pakshabahu Pambipura Pandu Panduvishya Pangu Sahnapura Sapadalakha Saurashtra Sindhu Sivadesha Strirajya Bhadra Asvamukha Sayambhara Kosala Kamboja Sanjayu Suryamukha Gauda Drada Bambhanavahaka Dahala Lohapura Konkana Nivrit Konkana Oddiyana Pulastya Pingala Spadalaksha Kanyakubja Amala Karnata Sapadalaksha Rataraja Virata Jahahuti Lanka Mevada Sapadalaksha. the human population was reduced to one person per 12 miles. one way or another became entangled in that horrifying war.
Tomara Vardhamana Varedu Sapadalaksha Varendeka Vidrbha Yasana Romaka
Sapdalakha KirataAtilugala Devabhadra Yamakoti Sinhala
From the archaeological findings such as at Moenjodaro, Harappa and excavation work being carried out at present on many sites in Rajasthan, ancient literature, the names of the prince Bharat of Bharat-Varsha and later Manu Vaivasvata, well known in the Puranas to be the first full-fledged king of the Aryan race of the Ayodhya dynasty followed by revered personalities such as Raghu and Ram Chandra (Rama) of the Ramayana epic, the genealogies of kings take us to 1400 B.C. as the period of Mahabharat, the Great War of attrition. “Now working backwards from the earlier date, the age of Manu Vaivasvata who flourished, according to the genealogies prepared on the basis of traditional accounts, 95 generations before the Bharata War, can be put as (95X18+1400) = 3110 B.C., by taking one generation to an average 18 years (as we have dealt with very long genealogies over 90 generations, we would be erring on the side of caution if we assumed 18 years as the average reign). This date, viz. 3110 B.C., curiously enough, approaches 3102 B.C., which has been taken as the beginning of the hypothetical Kali age for astronomical calculations. There is no doubt that the date 3102 B.C. signifies one important and epochmaking event in the traditional history of India. If it denotes the period of the beginning of the rule by Manu Vaivasvata, then it stands for the date of the Great Flood recorded in the Satapatha Brahmana and other accounts, at which Manu was the savior of humanity. The devastating Flood undoubtedly was the most important landmark in the history of the ancient world, and common flood legends suggest that the same event has been described to Indian, Hebrew and Babylonian accounts. The Flood in Mesopotamia is generally held to have occurred about
3100 B.C. The Flood in India probably also occurred at the same time, and the date 3102 B.C., supposed to be the beginning of the Kali era may, therefore, commemorate this event. The year 3102 B.C. thus represents the age of Manu, the first traditional king in India. Yayati, who is fifth in descent from Manu and figures also in the Rigveda, thus flourished (18X5=) 90 years after Manu or in (3100-90=) 3010 B.C. Mandhatri, coming after twenty generations, has to be placed in (310020X18=) 2740 B.C. The period of Arjuna Kartavirya, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Prasurama, and Harishchandra can be put between (3100-31X18=)2542 B.C. and (3100-33X18=) 2506 B.C., or roughly between 2550 and 2500 B.C. Sagara of Ayodhya and Dushyanta and Bharata of Hastinnapura flourished between (3100-41X18=) 2362 B.C. and (3100-44X18=) 2308 B.C., or roughly between 2350 and 2300 B.C. Rama flourished 65 generations after Manu (i.e. in (3100-65X18=) 1930 B.C. or roughly in 1950 B.C.) and the famous Dasarajna war, which occurred about three or four generations after Rama, in c. 1900 B.C. These dates will, of course, have to be lowered by–400 years if the Bharata War is placed in c. 1000 B.C.” Since we have reached our desired objective of searching the year 3102 B.C. as the age of Manu Vaivasvat, the first traditional king of ancient from a reference point of 1400 B.C., described above as an unprecedented occasion, we, in order not to be bored, might as well stay away from going too deep into the unimaginably unique characteristics of thousands of our ancient revered women and men, princes and princesses, kings and queens, kingdoms and dynasties. Nevertheless, we have found in the preceding pages, and shall also discover further, that the lives of our worthy to be proud of or even disdainful ancestors were colourful. No doubt, aborigines (i.e. mainly Dravidians and Nagas), being descendants of Moenjodaro and Harappa civilizations, unprecedented in the world at the time of their splendor had had kingdoms and dynasties surpassing those of
Aryans, but ballads and/or Rishis (sages), being Aryan Brahmans composing and singing songs praising a certain king for material gains, did not care to mention the good qualities of the aborigine kings. Coming back to ancient history of Kambojas, after Mahabharta with the exception of larger kingdoms trying to absorb the smaller ones, nothing happened politically significant on a large scale. According to Buddhist literature in the seventh century B.C. traditional Tamil kingdoms were still in existence. The sixteen Aryan powers of northern India were: (1) Anga, (2) Magadha, (3) Kasi, (4) Kosala, (5) Vajji, (6) Malla, (7) Chedi, (8) Vatsa, (9) Kuru, (10) Panchala, (11) Matsya, (12) Surasena, (13) Asmaka, (14) Avanti, (15) Gandhara, (16) Kamboja. Since there was a continual tug of war between aboriginal Tamil kings and the above sixteen northern powers, the powerful
Archaemenian Emperors of Persia naturally cast their longing eyes towards this region. Cyrus (c. 558-530 B.C.) overcame some tribes living to the south of Hindu Kush. Gandhara and Kamboja at the tip of India resisted, till Darius (c. 521-486 B.C.) pushed further into India proper. At that Kamboja, being on the border was annexed to Persia. Two inscriptions of Darius dated between 518 and 515 B.C. mention Hi(n)du as a part of his domain. Kamboja royal families and their people rather than staying under Darius’s rule commenced a move in body towards the south with some settling on the way in and around Taxila. The Puranas tell us that only two years after Alexander’s (c. 327 B.C.) raid on India prince Chandragupta (grandfather of Ashoka, the Great) assembled an army of local Kambojas who had settled in and around Taxila after annexation of their Kamboja Desa to Persia by Darius, decimated Alexandra’s Macedonian authority,
Jallandar etc.. Bijaibhup. in popular estimation.” It is evident that from Ujjain in Madhya Paradesh some members of the Kamboja royal family went to Bengal in the east and the rest proceeded towards the south. Kasyap. These names are also borne by Pala emperors. Sherring in Vol. According to excerpts from the Panjab Census of 1881 in the ‘Panjab Castes. Hindu Kambojas of Ghaggar. Sirsa. at a very early period. He is consequently of the Grahilot tribe. the modern Oudh. in the year 514 of the Saka era. The most plausible view is that some high official of the Palas dynasty belonging to the Kamboja family took advantage of the weakness of the Pala rulers and set up an independent kingdom. and speaks of himself as belonging to the Sisodiya branch. his descendant. and of the Vasisht gotra (sub-caste). Kaundinya.’ 1916 by Denzil Ibbetson. attacked Afghanistan and conquered up to Kabul. most illustrious families in India. “Three kings of the family are known to us—Rajyapala and his two sons. claimed that they were the descendants of Kamboja Rai Chajju of Ujjain (Ujjayini in ancient times). one of the most ancient. Madhya Paradesh. whence. According to Sherring: “The Maharaja of Vizianagram is descended from the Ranas of Udaipur. corresponding to 592 A. We do not know the origin of the Kamboja family. Narajanapala and Nayapala. and. settled in Ajudhiya.D. one of its members. but it cannot be said that they were identical. According to the tradition of this famous house.” Further. I on p. accompanied by representatives of the Vasisht. The foundation of the Maurya Dynasty was poured. Madhavavarma. Dhanunjaya.25 declared India free.135 of his ‘Hindu Tribes and Castes’ gives genealogy of the . and Bharadwaj gotras (sub-caste) of his own tribes. D. The ‘Bangarh Pillar’ inscription and another preserved in the garden of Dinajpur Raj (now in Bangladesh) show us that Kambojas ruled Gaur Kingdom of West and North of Bengal in the tenth century A. emigrated to the Telingana country.
1872 by M. constitution and religion. he was to reign for sixty years and to establish the Khmer Empire firmly in the capital and territories. but it was probably about the year 790. we can authoritatively presume that the Royal Family of Vizianagram were Kambojas and their rule lasted up to the end of eighteenth century. Sherring. Then a young man of around twenty. According to vol. “If it be true that immediately after his accession he stayed for a while in Java paying homage to the King of the Mountain (Saliendra King).26 family of The Maharaja of Vizaianagram up to 1866. During his life the word ‘Kamboja’ began to be employed to describe the country . which it continued to enjoy for the next six centuries. Kaundinya and Vashisht belonged to the same Vashisht gotra as that of The Maharaja of Vizianagram who descended from the Ranas of Udaipur. page 128 of ‘Hindu Tribes and Castes’. Saliendra King brought young Jaya Varman to Java.) was a founder of the Kamboja Kingdom. Possibly the sagacious and humane statesman occupying its throne brought Jaya Varman to Java not only as a subordinate to perform an act of allegiance. 1.D. A. In the next few pages we will find a full list of kings of Cambodia (Cambodge or Kamboj). since Rishi Upamanyu. Kaundinya I (end of first century A.) whose mother due to disruption caused by the Saliendra king of Java in Kamboja took refuge in Bali (ruled by another Kaundinya) along with his royal household.D. a name given to the country previously known as Chenla.D. The above finding of Kaundinya by Sherring demonstrates a correlation with Cambodia or Kamboja. but also as a pupil to serve an apprenticeship in the supreme art of kingship. The date of Jaya Varman’s return to Chenla (name of the country before being named Kamboja) is uncertain.) also came from India and their successor Jaya Varman II (790-850 A. eighth king Kaundinya II (late fourth century A. for some of the ideas on government which he introduced later in his own country seem to have been borrowed from the Saliendra regime. his sojourn was profitably spent.
27 over which he ruled. Jaya Varman II not only changed the name of his country to ‘Kamboja’ but named the newly built capital ‘Kamboja’ also. the ruins (See photos) of that city are near a village called U dong. about 15 km. Besides sentimental reasons and nostalgia of once belonging to his great ancestors. there is no trace of them. . north of the present capital Phnom Penh. ** Names of Cambodian kings start from next page…….. Archaeologists have pinpointed the sites. Like any other country in the Far East temples. the ruins which we see today were buildings made of stone and baked bricks.” (E/N #23). Since living quarters and government buildings were of wooden construction.
480-514 514-550 550-802 The T Chenla epoch 1 Bhava-Varman 550-600 2 Mahendra-Varman 600-615 3 Isara-Varman 615-635 (The above Kings. Phan-Phan Phan-Siman(Sri Mara) Phan-Tchan Siun (Assachey) Chandan Kaundinya II Late Sri Indra-Varman Jaya-Varman Rudra-Varman Hoven-Phan-Houang 2 cen. Led many expeditions against Funan. A. Courtesy: Dr. founded the Chenla Empire.28 NAMES OF CAMBODIAN (CAMBODGE/KAMBOJ) KINGS FROM EARLY HISTORY TO PRESENT. Sorn Samnang Dean of the Faculty of History University of Phnom Penh CAMBODIA NAME REIGN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The Funan epoch ( = The Mountain Kingdom) Kaundinya I st nd End of 1 cen.D. originally from the Royal Family of Funan.) 15 Bhava-Varman II 639-6 (Name of Ruler/s unknown) 16. rd Early 3 century. th 4 Century th 4 Century th 4 Century.2. Lastly Isara Varman put an end to the Kingdom of Funan and annexed it into Chenla. Jaya-Varman I 655-682 682-769 .
30. 35. 26. 43. 34. 40. 36. 27. 22. 32. 25. 39. 41.) 18. 23. 31. 33. 38. Jaya-Varman III 850-877 19. 20. 21. 42. 29. Indra-Varman 877-900 Yaso-Varman 889-900 Harsha-Varman 900-922 Isana-Varman 922-928 Jaya-Varman IV 928-942 Harsha-Varman 942-944 Rajendra-Varman 944-968 Jaya-Varman Udayaditya-Varman 1001-1002 Jaya-Varman 1002-1012 Surya-Varman 1012-1050 Udayaditya-Varman II 1050-1080 Harsha-Varman III Nripatindra-Varman 1080-1113 Jaya-Varman VI 1080-1107 Dharanindra-Varman I 1107-1112 Surya-Varman II 1113-1150 (The Angkor Vat Temple was built during his reign. 24. Jaya-Varman II 790-850 (Most probably to enhance their nostalgic pride he renamed his country from Chenla Kamboja and built the capital of same name. 37. Ang Chey (Trasak Paem) 1336-1340 (The king stopped .) Dharnindra-Varman II 1150-1160 Yaso-Varman II 1160-1165 Tribhuvanaditya-Varman 1165-1177 Jaya-Varman VIII 1181-1201 (The Bayon Temple was built) Indra-Varman II 1201-1240 Jaya-Varman VIII 1243-1295 Indra-Varman III 1295-1308 Indra-Varman IV 1308-1327 44.) 17. 28.29 III – The Angkor epoch (about 630 years. Jaya-Varman IX 1327-1336 45.
Chey Chettha II 1618-1628 68. Ramathipdey Chan. Ponchea Yat 1432-1467 54. Ponchea Ton 1596-1597 65. Ang Non I 1640-1642 71. Barom Sokha 1417-1420 (Siam seized the Angkor Capital for the third time. Barom Reachea 1555-1567 61. Nippean Bat 1340-1346 47. Noreary Reachea 1467-1472 55. Ang Tong I 1634-1640 70. Barom Rama 1366-1373 51. Sithea Reachea 1346-1347 48. Chey Chettha I 1585-1593 63. Ponchea An 1597-1600 66. Soryovong II 1401-1417 52a.) IV – The Post – Angkor epoch – from 1431 onward. Lumpong Reachea 1347-1353 (Siam (Thailand) occupied the Angkor Capital ---1353-1357) 49. Satha I 1567-1585 62.30 using the word “Varman” = “protector”) Political as well as Religious Revolution from Brahmanism to Buddhism took place in this period. Ang Chna I 1515-1555 60. 1642-1658 72. Dam Khat Sokonthor 1494-1505 58. Dhammasoka 1373-1394 (Siam occupied the Angkor Capital again 1394-1401) 52. Srei Soryovong 1357-1366 50. Ponhea Thommo Reachea 1477-1494 57. Srey Soryovor 1600-1618 67. Srey Reachea 1472-1477 56. 53. Preach Reach Samphea 1628-1634 69. 46. Chey Chettha III 1672-1673 . Rama Chong Prey 1593-1596 64. Neay Kan 1505-1515 59. Botum Reachea 1658-1672 73.
Sisowath Kossamak 1960-1970 (Prince Sihanouk’s mother). ----. Thommo Reachea II Chey Chettha IV Thommo Reachea II 78.)1701-1702 His third reign. 1970. Sisowath Monovong 1927-1941 90. Ang Tong II 80.Military coup on March 18. Pol Pot’s Genocidal Regime started on April 17.) 91.1704-1706 His fourth reign. 1845-1859 1859-1804 (French Colonization began since 1863. which became part of Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj) at a later . Chey Chettha IV 75.Chettha IV’s nephew. Outey II 82. Chey Chettha V Ang Tong II 81. Ang Eng 84.)1696-1700 His second reign. The earliest Indian settlement in Funan. 1710-1722 His second reign.1736-1747 His third reign. Outey Chey Chettha IV 76. Ang Duong 87. Ang Chan II 85.31 74. Norodom Suramarit 1955-1960 Prince Sihanouk’s father 92. Satha II Ang Em. Sisowath 1904-1927 89. Ang May 86.) 88. Norodom Sihanouk Varman----1941-1955 (The Country attained Independence in 1954 after the Geneva Conference. Ang Em. Chettha nd IV’s son. 1695-96 (C.1722-1729 1729. Chey Chettha IV 77. 1747-1749 1749-1755 1756-1757 1757-1775 1775-1779 1779-1796 1806-1834 1834-1841 The Queen.1706-1710 His 2 reign. 1975 and he died in April 1998. Norodom 1674-1694 His first reign.1739-1736 His second reign. 1702-1704 C. 1700-01 (Chettha IV’s son-in-law. Ang Non II 83.? His third reign. Satha II Thommo Reachea II 79. Ang Em.
there was a man Ki Hoeun-Tien. The story goes: “Of old this country’s head or sovereign was a woman of the name of Lieou-ye. Persons of high degree dress in brocade.32 stage. Poor people wear pieces of cloth. From the above list we find the arrival of Kaundinya II who seems to have reorganized the state and society. the women wearing also a kind of turban. and silk.” The sly Brahmin ended up having a wife and kingdom. who dreamt that God gave him a bow and bade him embark on a junk and go out on the sea. They cut down trees to make dwellings and the king lives in a storied pavilion.D. came about in the first Century A. He introduced Indian laws and rules in the kingdom of Funan. Lieou-ye was frightened and submitted. But Hoeun-Tien raised his bow and shot an arrow which passing through the side of the boat struck somebody within. Then. It is pointed out that Hoeun-Tien is a transcription of Kaundinya whose name is revered and often appears in inscriptions as the founder of the Hindu royal families of India. The Indian kingdom of Funan is alluded to in the history of China (Southern Tai). He wrapped her in a piece of cloth as she had no clothes. which was compiled in the beginning of the fifth Century. In the morning Hoeun-Tien went to the temple of the God and found a bow. HoeunTien married her. Lieou-ye saw the junk and led her troops to resist him. silver. Then embarked on a junk and sailed towards Funan. They build palisades of wood . The Chinese writers have given the following information about the state of Funan under the Kaundinyas: “For merchandise they have gold.
an ancestor of the mother of the king was a learned Brahman from India. invited Hiranyadama. originally from the royal family of Funan founding the Chenla Empire and their successor Jaya-Varman II changing its name from Chenla to Kamboja. which has been considered as one of the wonders of the world. They all intermarried with local Khmer people and spread Hinduism. There were hermitages where saints lived and devoted all their time to study. near the Buri Ram Capital city holds a fair every year from April 3-7. Suriya-Varman I is stated to have overrun the whole of Siam (now Thailand) and invaded Lower Burma. Yaso-Varman I occupies a unique place in the history of Kamboja. a Kamboja king. Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions of his reign testify to the fact that Sanskrit literature was patronized in his court. the king has been compared with Panini (E/N #24) and he is stated to have written a commentary on the Mahabhashya of Patanjali (E/N #25). built in the eleventh Century by Surya-Varman II. we see Bhava-Varman. They make boats. He was responsible for the construction of the famous Angkor Vat. Under Rajendra-Varman andJaya-Varman V. Mahendra-Vraman and Isra-Varman. Jaya-Varman VII ruled from 1180 onward. a highly educated Brahman from India who brought a thousand bachelor Brahmans with him. This king is described as one of the greatest kings of Kamboja. Sivasoma. He conquered Champa and a large part of Lower Burma. When the king goes out he rides on an elephant and the women also ride elephants. One of the provinces of Thailand is called ‘Buri Ram’ (Buri=place:-Rama’s place). . the Hindu temple Phanom Rung. For amusement they make cocks and pigs fight…. Kamboja began to decline. Further. Besides having been known to bring Kamboja to its zenith. the kingdom of Champa (now Laos andVietnam) was invaded.” Games of ‘cock fights’ are still prevalent in Cambodia.33 and people live in houses raised from the ground. After that. He founded the new capital of Angkor Thom and built the Bayon temple nearby. He set up a strong centre of Brahmanical culture.
Adhyapura. Indian culture had spread far and wide in the Kamboja Empire and many of its towns had Indian names such as: Tamrapura. Even if a son of the king appears before them they would judge equitably and treat him as an ordinary complainant. and India was called Aryadesa (Aryans’ country). each of which form a splendid monument by itself. Dhruvapura. the Terrace of Honor. There were altogether 798 temples and 102 hospitals in the whole kingdom.625 persons and was maintained by the revenues of 3.5 miles long and 110 yards wide.” Jaya-Varman VII founded a new capital city. Ibn Rosteh (A. Buri Ram etc. Vikrampura. Ajudhya. Ratnakiri.34 By the time of Surya-Varman II. Bhagavad-Gita and other Vedic scriptures. etc.. i. He said: “There are eighty judges. 903) highly praised the judicial administration in Kamboja. travel lodges and hospitals the Kamboja . the builder of Angkor Vat. The temple employed 66. the temple of Ta Prohm and the institutions connected with it makes interesting reading and reveals the vast resources of the state. masterpiece of Kamboja architecture of Indian origin. To the north of Bayon is a great public square.400 villages. Several contemporary Arab writers describe the kingdom as vast and powerful and pay eloquent tribute to the people of Kamboja for their abstinence from wine. surrounded by famous structures such as the Baphuon. There were 439 teachers and 970 scholars who were provided with the daily necessities of life. Phimeanakas. It is surrounded by a ditch 8. In maintaining temples. the famous Angkor Thom..e. The extraordinarily liberal royal donations made to Rajavihara (King’s temple). having a stone wall with five gates which gave access to the Temple of Beyon. There were recitations from Ramayana and Mahabharata.D.
That wicked regime of Pol Pot termed as Khmer Rouge sold natural resources such as diamond mines. doctors. whose ancestors one time were called mighty ‘Kambojas of the North’ of India. They rid themselves of their own intelligentsia and then encouraged Chinese. civil servants. writers.35 kings were probably following the footsteps of Ashoka the Great of India (c. the genocidal regime of Pol Pot came into being on April 17. ***** . On my second visit to Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboja) Pol Pot was dead. was observed reigning by fax machine from his palace in Beijing. resulting in becoming a French protectorate in 1863.D. forests and landed properties to businesses from Thailand. As if a military regime was not bad enough for the impoverished nation. 1970 when a military coup took place. most probably on advice from the communist camp. lawyers. teachers.. The growing power of Siam (Thailand) steadily encroached upon its territory and sank it into a poor and petty state. politicians etc. 304-232 B. was the last king referred to in the Kamboja inscriptions. it killed and tortured to death over two million people. C. Cambodia (Kamboja) attained its independence in 1954 and lingered on with internal strife under five kings and a queen until March 18. Jaya-Varman IX (also called Jayavarman Paramesvara) who ruled from 13271336 A. 1975. now people from these three countries control the economy and politics of Cambodia. Vietnam and Laos next door. but that perilously weak-minded king Norodom Sihanouk Varman (Varman=Protector of subjects). business people. The death of Jaya-Varman VII was followed by a period of doom and gloom created by infighting of Royal families and the subsequent growing weakness of the kingdom. in order to buy arms and ammunition.). Khmer Rouge guerrillas were trying to join the mainstream. Those victims included mostly children. Vietnamese and Laotians to settle in their country.
Chapter - 4 ANGKOR VAT
IN CAMBODIA (CAMBODGE OR KAMBOJ)
(ONE OF THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD)
The temple of Angkor Vat (near Siem Reap about an hour’s flight from Phnom Penh), contrary to most other shrines or monuments which face east, spreads from west to east; that reversal from an age-old tradition or a distinctive feature can be attributed to the fact that it was a funeral temple. It is dedicated to the god Vishnu, with whom the soul of King Surya-Varman II, a self-acclaimed demy-god himself was to be merged. King Surya-Varman II was an ardent follower of Buddhism, but did not give up the official religion and constructed both Shiva and Vishnu temples. Even as today Buddhists are far from being fanatics, they pay respects to Hindu gods just the same as they do to the image of Buddha. The outside wall of the temple extends between the river and the present road and is surrounded by ditches 190 meters wide to serve as a canal, forming a vast rectangle of 1,300 X 1,500 meters; their sandstone borders, with steps and curb are more than 10 Kilometer long and 3 meters high. The border framework is broken in the west and east only; the broken border in the west is for entrance to the temple and is inlaid with thick stones well ground and polished on the top, while the east one is a dirt road, which seems to have been left as it was during digging for transporting the materials for the temple. The west road leading to the temple begins with a beautiful terrace decorated with lions, which unlike other monuments face inwards for some strange reason or ritual. A fine Naga decorates the road and terrace along the whole length. It has a serpentdesigned handrail with supporting posts. The road is 347 meters long and 9.40 meters wide. The road passes between two fine libraries and two square ponds. Further westwards there is a large royal terrace surrounded by columns, which made two
storied buildings; the central one being reserved for the king and his high-ranking public officials. From there they watched the processions in front of the monument. As we reach the temple the surrounding consists of fine reddish-brown decorative columns and encloses a space of 1.025 X 800 meters. The west entrances extend along a frontage of 255 meters with three passages. The above royal terrace gives direct access onto the gallery enclosure, which is the basis of the principal group i.e. the famous bas-relief gallery, which measures 215 X 187 meters. While making the round of the right gallery, the first section represents Mahabharat the Great-War of Kauravas and the Pandavas. From each side of the panel, the two armies advance in well calculatedly arranged ranks, with chiefs on chariots or elephants stationed at strategic positions. In the center, both sides meet in frantic struggle. As we move our eyes above we see a great figure pierced with arrows, filled with dying pain and surrounded by his bitter and avenging men, he happens to be Bhisham, the general commanding the Kauravas. Along with many other scenes from different Indian epics, we see a well documented story of two monkey-king brothers, Sugriv and Bali in which they are shown fighting and Bali is killed. Further, to the west section of the southern gallery we see the king Surya-Varman II, the builder of the famous Angkor Vat, under the name of Paramavichnouloka (Eternal), which is there inscribed and which he takes at his death, when his soul merges with the god Vishnu. He is giving marching orders to his army which is later to be seen under his command advancing towards the enemy with him mounted on an elephant, wearing the royal crown and is armed with an axe of a type which the Cambodians (Cambodge) still use. Fire carrying Brahmans are seen mixed among the procession. On the right side of the gallery there are several scenes from legends of Vishnu, Krishna and Rama. On the west bay is the ordeal of Sita, wife of Rama. Sita being torn by mental agony is shown passing through the flames and thus showing that Ravana, her abductor had been unable to win her, while in
another scene in the south bay she is a captive of Ravana and is visited by the monkey god Hanuman who comes to tell her about the attempts being made to free her. On the last panel of the north section of the west gallery, the sculptor ends the story by showing the struggle of the monkeys, allies of Rama against the vicious looking soldiers of Ravana. The monkeys fight naked against the armed giants and tear them to pieces. In the center is Rama on the shoulders of the god Hanuman, monkey. Further on, stands the ten-headed Ravana, on a chariot drawn by vicious looking Jamma, demons, taking him to Narak, hell. On my last visit in April of 1993, Indian archaeologists were seen busy in the restoration of Angkor Vat with the help of the Cambodian work force. In 1987, they had embarked on a sixyear program to clean and restore the principal monument but were nowhere near their final goal. There are ruins of other temples such as Phnom Bakheng built by King Yaso-Varman I. It is a mass of rough sandstone 65 meter high with a platform of about 200 X 100 meters. Jaya-Varman VII’s greatest undertaking was the recreation of his main capital, now famous as Angkor Thom. Its central temple is the Bayon, the most celebrated Kamboj monument after Angkor Vat. According to Malcolm MacDonald in his “Angker and the Khmer’, “Angkor Vat is the supreme masterpiece of Khmer art. Built in the first half of the twelfth century, it is an Asian contemporary of Notre Dame de Paris and Chartres Cathedral in France, and of Ely and Lincoln Cathedrals in England. But in spaciousness and splendor it is more ambitious than any of these.” About the Angkor Vat, Rawlinson observes: “Had the Khmers left but this single monument, it would have placed them among the great artists of the world, so perfect is its architecture and so rare its art.”
This is the first comprehensive list of the Kamboja kings ever published. The records in the Etat Du Cambodge are kept in French and/or Cambodian languages. Dean of the Faculty of History. The French ruled Cambodge from 1863 to 1953. Sorn Samnang. University of Phnom Penh. .39 Dr. Etat Du Cambodge was kind enough to devote two weeks of his valuable time in going through the National Library to help me in obtaining ancient records of Kamboja Kings. The Cambodian language derives from Sanskrit and Pali.
1994 and no flash was required to take the photo.40 Author sitting under the Naga Head. The rails are carved in the shape of a Naga (Hindu mythical God). The Temple was dedicated to the God Shiva. . The Naga Bridge of Phanom Rung Temple is s cross-shaped platform that joins a passageway lined on both sides with 65 sandstone posts to the second set of stairways. Phallus deities of Phanom Rung on April 3. serpent with five heads ornated with crowns. The sun was shining on the Linga. Motifs of the Naga’s crowns are identical with those seen at Angkor Vat.
holds ‘Phanom Rung Fair’ annually during these five days. Ram’s Place. D. which restored the Temple.41 PHANOM RUNG TEMPLE This impressive temple was built in Kamboja king Surya-Varman II’s period (1113-1150 A. . The Fine Arts Department of Thailand. It is located on a hilltop with splendid views near the capital city of Buri Ram in the District of Buri Ram.) when Siam (now Thailand) was under Kamboja suzerainty. the Hindu God. The architectural position of the temple is such that the sunrays adore the deities inside the temple only from April 3-7. Buri means ‘place’ and Ram stands for Rama.
42 CAMBODGE NOTE .
43 STUPA In the memory of millions tortured and killed by Khmer Rouge (Communist Regime) of Pol Pot. . As a reminder of cruelty to humans by humans the Stupa houses hundred of skulls and accessories used to torture and kill.
.44 Ruins of ancient ‘Kamboja’ capital city near village U Dong founded by Jaya Varman II. Ruins of ancient ‘Kamboja’ capital city at a later period with Buddhist influence.
45 ANGKOR VAT TEMPLE (built by Surya Varman II – 1113-1150) ANGKOR VAT – MAIN ENTRANCE .
. ANGKOR VAT GALLERIES With Engravings of Ramayana and Mahabharta.46 GENERAL VIEW ANGKOR VAT.
. These libraries show Kamboja’s interest in the literary field. Restoration of Angkor Vat by Indian archaeologists with the help of Cambodian labour. Labourers are seen going home after a day’s hard work.47 One of the two libraries under restoration.
.48 Arial view of Angkor Vat Manmade lake seen on left of the main entrance.
.49 Engravings in the Galleries of Angkor Vat Temple. Camboddge (Cmabodia) king at war. Lower portion of the engreaving shows his faith in Hinduism and Buddhism.
The spread of Buddhism across Asia may well be considered India’s greatest contribution to the civilization of mankind. Bali still retains Hindu culture and civilization. and Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj). In the Indian colonization of Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. 1944 Dr. religious fervour and the natural instinct of the colonists to import familiar place-names of their country or city in their land of adoption have all resulted in the introduction of quite a large number of well-known Indian geographical names into Burma. for it was not submerged beneath the flood of Islam. the social. Mithila etc.’1937 says: …. great prominence is given. Avanti. ancient Indian culture was prominent here for ten centuries until the advent of Islam in the fifteenth century.50 Chapter . Gandhara. but still more might have been made of India’s influence on Asia. Kelasa (Kailash). Varanasi. was the hub of Kambojas and we have discussed it above in detail. and artistic ideals of India maintained themselves for many centuries and evolved fresh developments of art in which to express themselves. Borneo. where possible.5 KAMBOJA KINGDOMS IN THE FAR EAST G. religious. C. Lower Burma (Myanmar). Kamboja. Majumdar gives some of the fairly early names such as: “Aparanta.” . China. T. Champa Nagar. R. Definite evidence exists of Kamboja influence and their kingdoms in Bali. to the influence of India on Europe. Garrat in his ‘The Legacy of India. and Japan. which of course. The dynastic pride. notably the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet. In his ‘Hindu Colonies in the Far East’.
the royal family took refuge in Bali for 10 years and as soon as the political atmosphere became tolerable. with his feet on a silver footstool. a young man of only 20 morally buoyed by powerful Kaundinyas of Bali thundered back into his country.” The above Chinese account leaves no doubt that Bali was a rich and civilized kingdom. It gives the following interesting account of the king of the country: “The king’s family name is Kaundinya and he never before had any intercourse with China. but said that the wife of Shuddhodana was a daughter of his country. an elephant draws his carriage. Prince Jaya-Varman II. on his head he wears a golden bonnet of more than a span high. when asked about his ancestors or about their age. renamed it from Chenla to Kamboja. and adorned with various precious stones. because of Shailendra Empire’s meddling in their affairs. On the top of it is a flat canopy of feathers. “The king uses a texture of flowered silk wrapped round his body. he could not state this. In 518 A. The name Kaundinya is interesting and shows the influence of that family in almost all of the colonies in the Far East. When a sudden and violent disturbance occurred in the Royal family of Chenla after 769 A. the king Kaundinya of Bali sent an envoy to China. .000 temples. which is made of different kinds of fragrant wood. some of them holding chowries of white feathers or fans of peacock feathers. established a capital of same name and declared his country independent. out of which the main one is Pura Besakih (see photo).D. People blowing conches and beating drums precede and follow him. at the root of the mountain Gunung Agung.) contains the earliest account of Bali. It has over 20.D. The history of the Liang dynasty (502-556 A. His female attendants are adorned with golden flowers and all kinds of jewels.D.D. resembling in shape of a Chinese helmet. He carries a sword inlaid with gold. and it has embroidered curtains on both sides. When the king goes out. At important ceremonies. and sits on a golden throne.51 BALI The Indian Kambojas had colonized the island of Bali and set up a kingdom there long before the sixth century A.
performed a sacrifice called Bahusuvarnaka (distributed a large quantity of gold as charity) and made gifts of 20. son of Asha-Varman and grandson of king Kaundinya. .000 cows to the Brahmans in the holy field of Vaprakeshvara.D. most of whom were Japanese Buddhists.D. I-tsing also mentions that Buddhism was dominant in the island of Bali. no wonder Islam failed to penetrate into this island.52 Buddhist and Hindu priests jointly conduct the rites and bless the devotees. to date. Balinese literature and language. religion. Bali Morning at Besakih Temple ***** BORNEO According to seven Sanskrit inscriptions engraved in about 400 A. I was elated to observe that the priests uttered Sanskrit hymns in front of the deities to bless us all. king Mula-Varman. worship and cremation services clearly reflect Indian influence at least from 500 A. and found at Muara Kaman on the Mahakam river.
and hill country tea plantations. and may have been a relative of Kaundinyas of Kamboja and Bali. when aboriginal king Ravana. Ganesha. sanctuaries for wildlife in tropical jungles. SRI LANKA Being India’s closest neighbor to the south was probably the first country to feel the impact of Indian immigration. The cave of Kombeng in the north of Muara Kaman was found to have Buddhist and Brahmanical images. While in Sri Lanka.D. The latter included those of Hindu gods Shiva. Indian immigration to Sri Lanka started as early as 1900 B. it is a landscape of brilliant green paddy fields. coconut and banana trees. the wife of king Rama. Rama in turn played a devious ‘divide and rule’ policy amongst the aboriginal kings of south India to butt them against the king of their own race. a bronze image of Buddha in Gupta period style has been found at Kota Bangun in the district of Koti.C. In addition to the above inscription. sun-bronzed beaches. What strikes most about Sri Lanka is its amazing diversity of scenery. The history of Sri Lanka stretches back over 2500 years. Its very beginnings are lost in myth and legend along with details . put a wedge between members of Ravana’s royal family and fought a grave battle in which Ravana is said to have been killed and Lanka completely destroyed. I was given to understand that the sites of Ravana’s palaces have been located and marked but not yet excavated due to lack of resources. when traveling it seems as if one is traveling through a well laid out garden. Brahma etc. the ruler of Lanka abducted Sita.53 King Kaundinya may have founded his kingdom at the end of second century A. Majority of Sri Lankans regard Ravana with just as great devotion as Hindus of India revere Rama as their god incarnate. Remains of ancient Indian culture have been found in other localities in east Borneo. near desert regions. ruined cities. small lively villages.
A. Nissanka became the 7th king in the Polonnaruva era. a civilization rich in Indo-Aryan culture took root. As per ancient Hindu traditions her brother Bahu Wiraraja Nissanka came along with her as an escort. Volume I by M. the base of power shifted to Polonnaruva. Suranga my guide. Royals’ Vishnu temple was located immediately next to the East Vishnu Dewale (gate). which was also known for serpent worship. All major religious schools of thoughts such as Vishnu. Sherring. In 11th Century since king Parakarma was infertile and according to traditions of the royal house a king could only marry within the royal family circle. Traders from all over the world flocked to buy and sell their merchandise. he married a Kamboja princess from his royal root in North India. Sri Lanka’s earliest recorded civilization dates back to 380 BC. according to Mr. D. when Anuradhapura (about 250 Km from Colombo) was established as the first Capital City. There were also places of serpent worship which lingered on from the days of Kamboja country. corresponding to 592 A. . On the death of king Parakarma. (According to ‘Hindu Tribes and castes’. 1872. a Lecturer with National Trust of Polonnaruva. In all probability the princess belonged to that Royal Family). Shiva and Buddhist flourished in his reign. However. Kaundinya a member of the Kamboja Royal Family and his retinue moved to South India in Telingana country in the year 514 of the Saka era. Following the advent of Buddhism in the 3rd Century BC. King Nissanka established a mile long bazaar for international trade within the boundaries of four gates and invited traders from the world over to do business with Lanka.54 about the arrival of Prince Vijaya an exile from North India with his entourage of seven hundred followers. Places of worship were mixed with international as well as local traders’ booths. Due to consistent invasions from neighbouring South India. At a later stage as Buddhism became stronger people rejected serpent worship.
(namely) ripe and unripe fruit of charity. on the west the whole of Nissanka’s ocean (i. on the east the boundary wall (of the city). a Lecturer with National Trust of Polonnaruva. and was pleased to bestow ripe and unripe fruit of charity on such beggars as received alms from it. which are within the rampart of the Nissanka Dana Winoda Mandapaaya the rest of the land he made to belong to the almshouse. and called it the royal garden of the almshouse.55 Mr. He erected an almshouse and gave it the name of Nissanka’s almshouse throughout the three kingdoms. He made a royal-garden within these four boundaries. on the North the stone wana together with the whole of the moat. with the exception of the trees etc. The boundary on the South. Suranga my guide. 9. With the exception of such beggars as receive alms from the almshouse.e. no . was the Kamboja gate. a Stone Pillar discovered near the east of the Vishnu Dewale (gate) reads thus: “His Illustrious Majesty Kalianga Lankeswara Parakrama Bahu Wiraraja Nissanka Malia Aprattimalla Chakarawarti was pleased to confer a boon on many beggars. Topawewa). Sri Lanka with me in front of East Vishnu Dewale (gate). English translation of the Inscription No..
34-1887. who shall take for himself or give to others even the smallest twig from it. look so like what is recorded further east. A. and after many adventures settled in Cambodia” etc. “This is perhaps the most interesting allusion in all the new inscriptions.” which appears to me to lend it especial importance: “In the country not far from Takkhasinla (Taxila) there reigned a great and wise king. S. p. that at present that seems the most probable date of the migration. Burros. and shall be classed with beggars who go about with earthen bowls in their hands (i. but the troubles which took place in Cashmere (Kashmir) in the reign of Tungina. R. The time is not indicated.) (Translation courtesy: Journal No. the vice-king having done wrong. as it was almost completely buried in earth. His son. but we gather from the context that it must have been about the fourth century.56 one else is to take (such produce). 34-1887 . Ceylon. It may at first sight look like catching at a nominal similarity. S. was banished. not mentioned in the proclamation.. and to ensure this. Ceylon). “unattached” beggars of the lowest grade). (Note by the author: This Inscription is in excellent preservation. Any stranger of any sort.” (Perhaps to emphasize the punishment of throwing the guilty ones to crows and dogs for stealing from the almshouse there is drawing of a crow and under it is drawing of a dog. I append the passage from Ferguson’s “History of Architecture. whether for his own consumption or for any pecuniary motive. by Dr. 65 of Journal No. A. It is to the east of the so-called Vishnu Dewale.. S. assuming it to have taken place.R. M. Many would be inclined to doubt the possibility of .) NOTE ASSOCIATED WITH ABOVE INSCRIPTION AND ANCIENT KAMBOJA COUNTRY. shall be likened to dogs and crows.e. he erected this stone inscription. and generally in Western India about the year 319.
there are four facts. but it must be borne in mind that the country around Taxila in ancient times was called Camboja (Kamboja). while there is a general consent that the Cambodians came from India. If this were so. he not only gave security (abhayadi) to all animals within seven GAW (over seven miles) of it. Now. but he also gave security to the birds in the manner: he presented Kambodyans (Kambojas) with gold. The fact is elicited from the inscription that one of the city gate of Polonnaruva was called “the Kamboja Gate. and to the fish in the twelve large tanks. from it’s being situated on the side from which the exiles entered.” possibly.57 any communication between the two countries. Anuradhapura. and there is no greater improbability of a migration from Indus to Cambodia than of one from Guzerat (Gujarat) to Java. it is by no means improbable that the communication may have taken place behind the Himalayas……. that when the king visited the famous shrine. it seems certain the Indians who introduced Buddhism and Buddhist architecture into Java certainly went from Guzerat (Gujarat) or the countries on the west coast.. it seems certain that it was not from the east coast that they migrated. Ceylon was always addicted to snake worship. This seems undoubted. have been. (1). or by which the emigrants left? (2) A curious fact is mentioned in Nissanka Malla’s inscription at the Ruwanweli Dagaba. On the other hand. clothes. surely.All this will require careful elaboration hereafter. and may have formed a halfway house. and ordered them not to kill birds!” ******* . and viz. that the architecture of Cashmere (Kashmir) bears every considerable resemblance to that of Cambodia. which appear to me to throw light on this problem and to make it more than probable that Ceylon was the “halfway house” which Ferguson suspects it may. and other acceptable gifts. that it was the headquarters of serpent worship. As pointed out above.
(continued from top of picture) formed settlements in the delta of the Irawadi and on the adjoining coast. 1960. Moone and Nyaungshwe areas (Shan States) were called as ‘Kamboja Tai (Division). Amara Hall. Myanmar. . Mon kingdom and Rakhaing kingdom. Myanmar kings divided their administrative areas into 8 divisions. They were rivaled to each other for the superior power amongst them.’ (Ref: Zebudiva Okksaung Kyan. Sarpaybeikman.58 MYANMAR (Burma) Myanmar. Yangon University Campus. Sittan (census). According to 1631 A. and directly accessible both by land and sea naturally attracted Indian traders. p-48). According to traditions current among the Burmese of the old. Yangon (Rangoon). In ancient Myanmar. Indian colonists from the lower courses of the river and Godavari had at a remote time crossed the sea and (continued below picture) Dr. there were three famous kingdoms: Myanmar kingdom. missionaries and restless military spirits from a very early period. being the nearest country to India. Myint Thein Deputy Director (Research) Universities Historical Research Centre. D. merchants. Out of them.
King Bayinnaung of Taungoo period (16th to 17th century) unified and controlled the whole area of Shan. In 1535 Tabinshwehti began a military campaign against the kingdom of Pagu in southern Myanmar and captured the city of Bassein. leaving to his brother-in-law Bayinnaung. King Minkyinyo probably a prince from Kamboja Pala Dynasty from nearby Bengal (now Bangladesh and East Bengal of India) ventured into Myanmar and founded Toungoo Dynasty in 1486. 1998. After carrying out many successful as well as failed campaigns in Arakan and Siam (Thailand) he gave himself to drinking. Inscription of Pagan. p-86. V “Champa” Shan and “Shan” in Yule’s Hobsen-Jobon. U. Tun Nyo. Yangon. Kamboja Vide S. The areas that the Shans lived were called as Kamboja by the Myanmar in the early times. It is situated in the northeastern Myanmar and adjoins China and Thailand. Vol. Press.) In Myanmar official writing the Shan States to the East of the Ayewaddy River are collectively called Kamboja.59 The stone inscription of 1777 describes that there were 16 divisions in Myanmar and Kamboja was one of these divisions. p-374). His son King Tabinshwehti unified Myanmar and ruled from 1531-50. p-16). after occupying the Mon capital in lower Myanmar. Govt. 1892. Khaing Yi Mon Press. The unification of Lower Myanmar by the Myanmar king was the reason of the increasing division from 8 to 16. Education Society’s Steam Press Yangon. In the connection it may be interesting to note that the appellation. King Bayinnaung reigned 1551-81 in Myanmar. some remarks on the Kalyani Inscriptions. Mahayazawin Thit (New Chronicle).Forchhammer. (Taw Sein Ko. unified his country and conquered the Shan States and Siam (Thailand) making Myanmar the most powerful kingdom in mainland . is a corrupted form of “Cham”. Pinya and Ava. Toungoo Dynasty. King Bayinnaung built the new palace of ‘Kamboja Thadi’. (Ref: . II. At present Shan state is the biggest state of the 14 States and Divisions in Myanmar. (Ref. applied by the Myanmars to the whole Tai race. “Shan”. 1894. the task of suppressing a southern revolt.
. The king used his palace for living as well as to attend to emergencies. When Pegu was burnt in a Mon revolt in 1564. making one of the richest cities in Southern Asia. and maintained extensive diplomatic relations with the Buddhist kingdom of Ceylon.60 Southern Asia. He had hung a bell in front of the palace so that any subject with a grievance could ring it and ask for justice. King Bayinnaung’s Palace. he rebuilt it on an even grander scale. he built pagodas. gave generous donations to monasteries. Bayinnaung was a patron of Buddhism. Author standing in front of the palace.
In front of the throne there is an ample place to accommodate about 50 persons. According to the legend not one emergency call went unanswered and heard judiciously. .61 Throne in the above palace is in front while King Bayinnaung’s bed is in the back of it.
King Bayinnaung’s throne is located in the central building adjoining two large halls on its sides to accommodate at least 2000 persons each. Close-up view of king Bayinnaung’s court showing ‘KAMBAWAZA THARDI GOLDEN PALACE’. . Author sitting under shadow of the board. Geometrical location and elevation of the complex is such that even a puff of breeze passing through the building gives an ‘air conditioning’ effect. ‘Kambawaza’ stands for Kamboja and ‘Thardi means gate.62 General view of King’s court.
This was due to the zeal of a number of devoted Kamboja kings of Burmese. the Mahabodhi Temple fell to ruins. neglected and forgotten.6 KAMBOJA’S AFFILIATION WITH BUDH GAYA & SARNATH. Sri Lanka and Indian kings of Pala . Kamboja kings of Pala dynasty of Bengal. but there are records of those who were compelled to flee the onslaught of the Turks who put to death innumerable monks and destroyed images. According to ‘The Mahabodhi Temple’ by Suresh Bhatia and ‘In the Footsteps of the Buddha’ by Shanti Swaroop Buddh. As we observe from pages 54 onwards Kamboja king Parakarma of Sri Lanka and his subsequent successors.63 Chapter . There is no record of exactly how and when Budh Gaya was destroyed. kings ruling Moone Nyaungshwe areas (Shan States) of Myanmar (Burma) also known as ‘Kamboja Tai (Division)’ were ruling these areas from 952 onward. These marauding Muslim soldiers destroyed temples and defaced statues.” During the rule of Turks. as it did not conform to the edicts of Islam. The temple itself became just one of the many ruins. which they considered sacrilegious. Suresh Bhatia in his ‘The Mahabodhi Temple’ says that there is information available of the repairs done from 9th century onwards. trying to locate Budh Gaya would have been quite a task for the pilgrims coming from distant places. “The beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in chaos due to the invasion by the Turkish Empire. According to my guide after destroying the temple and images Turks overcome by religious zeal and Islamic fanaticism covered the remains with dirt to the extent that no trace of temple’s presence was left and evidence of pilgrims becoming less and less. As the names of many cities and towns had been changed from Indian to Islamic names after the Islamic invasion.
Sri Kassapa. 326) upon the Holy spot on which Bhagwan (Buddha) tasted milk and honey. Other records show that repairs were also done under the patronage of Kyanzittha.” calculating it with the Christian era calendar. The other Burmese inscription was on a black stone slab and was discovered on the wall of the Mahanta’s Palace. Sri Dhamma Raja Guru. (Jambudvipa).000 shrines erected by Sri Dharma Ashoka. Again. It describes a brief history of the Mahabodhi Temple. After a long interval.D. The inscriptions on the umbrella were mentioned in two languages – Burmese and below it the medieval Nagari characters.” In the lapse of time. this could very well be 1035 C.. “This is one of the 84. a Monk named Naik Mahanta rebuilt it.C. when Dhamma Raja Guru undertook restoration of the Mahabodhi Temple at Budh Gaya. of Pali Scholar from Sri Lanka. it was once again demolished by Muslims when Raja Sempyusakhen-tra-Mengi appointed his Sri Dharma Raja Guru.64 dynasty of Bengal (see e/n 26a) who sent teams of monks and workers to restore this holy site and what ever else were there in the vicinity of its prescient. having fallen into disrepair. it was restored by the Raja Sado Meng. the Indian inscription was nearly perfect and held the following message “Sam (year) 397. Ruler of the World. king of Pagan of Burma between 1084 .. we learn that two Burmese missions came to the Mahabodhi Temple in the 11th century A. having been ruined by Muslims. He proceeded to the spot with his disciple. to supervise the restoration. the first inscription was engraved on a copper-gilt umbrella which was found buried 8 feet under the ground level (as mentioned above Muslim fanatics had demolished the temple. From records available.E. Herewith is a word for-word translation of it done by Ratanapala. Although Burmese portion was damaged and unreadable. broken the statutes and buried them with dirt) to the west of the temple. but was unable to complete it although aided in every way by the Raja. at the end of the 218th year of the Buddha’s Mahaparinibana (B.
It was only during the reign of King Alaungsithu (between CE 1112 and 1167). Muslim fanaticism failed to obliterate Buddhism from India. This was a period where both Buddhists and Hindus alike were massacred for not conforming to the edicts of the Islamic Rulers and their blood thirsty soldiers. India weakened by caste system. in fulfillment of the desire of his benefactor to repair the sacred shrine of Budh Gaya. quarrelling petty maharajas and chiefs became their prime target. . Most of the Muslim lands of Middle East were barren and did not grow enough food. The beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in turmoil due to the invasion by the Muslims. Eventually this Great Temple was repaired by a British archeological team and completed in 1880 – thus restoring it at the dawn of an era when the flame of Buddha’s teachings would once again rekindle and its light would spread even further than ever before. This king made a serious attempt to repair the Mahabodhi Temple at Budh Gaya.” But the Burmese inscription found at Budh Gaya revealed that the mission was unsuccessful. his immediate successor that the ruler of Arakan King Letyamengnam (of Burma). who gained back his ancestral throne with assistance of Alaungsithu undertook. Temples were destroyed and images were defaced Presences of vast jungles if date-palm trees in the area suggest there was a huge concentration of Muslim invaders time to time and they made a point of discouraging and breaking backbone of Buddhism by demolishing their temples time and again. Dates were main diet in desert lands of Middle East where the invaders came from and dates were carried by them as ‘dryration’ used in long journeys.65 and 1112 CE. He “gathered together gems of diverse kinds and sent them in a ship to build the holy temple. Hungry Muslims encouraged by Mohammad’s 78 historic battles always looked forward to invade foreign lands.
Up to and including small minarets the temple was built by Ashoka the Great and two stories on top of the main temple were added at a later stage by different Indian. Original Temple was destroyed and covered by dirt to hide the existence of the temple by fanatic Muslims of Turkish Empire. Again in 1997 efforts were made to partially repair and chemically wash the walls of the Temple. As mentioned above. Sri Lankan and Pala dynasty Buddhist king.66 BUDH GAYA TEMPLE. Partial repairs and a face-lift were once again given to the Temple in 1956 to mark the 2500th anniversary of the birth of the Buddha. the beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in chaos due to the invasion by the Turkish Empire. Burmese. .
Japan.” The scriptures mention: “It was here that Vision arose. or the “Navel of the Earth. Despite the day time temperature hovering around 44 deg. MAIN TEMPLE The magnificent Buddha Image. Wisdom arose and Light arose” in the Buddha on the full moon night when he attained Enlightenment. ‘C’ apart from across India devotees from Thailand. most venerated by pilgrims from all over the world is at end of the barrel-vaulted room. This image has been placed exactly on the spot where the Buddha attained Enlightenment.67 INNER CHAMBER OF ABOVE TEMPLE. Room is so small that hardly this many people at a time can be accommodated. Knowledge arose. while the author is seen standing on the extreme right. . S. Buddhist monks and devotees from Myanmar (Burma) visiting the Temple. Burma. Korea were seen poring in. the place famously referred to as the “Victory Throne of all Buddha’s”(Sabbabuddhanam Jayapallankam).
it has pointed leaves of bright green colour. Author standing in front of the Bodhi-Tree. one could see tree standing in a large trench in the shape of basin. . west and north by a brick wall. Inside.68 BODHI (Enlightenment) TREE The tree stands inside a fort-like structure surrounded on the south.
THE ASOKAN LION CAPITAL India’s National Emblem A Noble tribute to the Buddha’s Noble Teachings.69 SARNATH Ashoka Capital was discovered in this condition. .
Nine years later in 1026. Mahmood had also attacked Sarnath (in 1017 A. inspired by the king. two brothers named Sthirapala and Vasantapala took up renovation of Dharmarajika and Dharmacakra monuments during Kamboja King Mahipala’s reign. Thus the place retained its import during the Kamboja Pala king’s regime.). it was Sarnath that the Lord delivered His first sermon to the Panchavaggiya Bhikkus (Group of five Monks).70 Dhammeka Stupa after restoration. D. There is no record available of the intervening centuries between King Harshavardhana’s rule and Mohmood Gaznavi’s invasions. Following His attainment of Buddhahood. During his plundering of Varanasi. ************** .
Like hundreds of thousands of other Hindus some Kamboja Hindus also embraced Islam during the Muslim rule. silk. is only hundred-year-old phenomenon imported from India by so-called high caste Indians especially emigrating from south of India. 521 – 486 B. . Kirpal Singh Dardi. and the tombs and mosques that they have left show that they must have enjoyed a considerable position. Vietnam & Laos (Champa of the old). which plagues Indian Diasporas of Malaysia as of now.71 Chapter .C. Caste system. which enabled them to withstand the horror of moving lock stock and barrel between c. precious stones. Borneo. in general and horses in particular as Vaishyas. a degrading appellation and a low paid category did exist.” According to Mr. Malaysia and Java where Kambojas ruled and/or had a great deal of authority and influence. medicinal herbs etc. from their Kamboja Desa (land of the Kambojas) to rest of India and Far East. the traders. Bali. However.7 KAMBOJA’S LOVE FOR INDIA. fluidity in switching from one profession to another with ease and pride was the quality. Besides being well versed in Vedas as Brahmins they were also well known fighters (Kshtriyas) in war like situations and ever eager for trading in gold. Kambojas had been in the forefront since settling at the tip of India way before other Aryan tribes who had no choice but to settle in the Pamir Region. Denzil Ibbetson in his ‘Punjab Races Castes and Tribes of the people of Punjab’. if Shudra. Musalman Kambojs held Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago.000 men and distinguished himself greatly in Bengal. PUNJAB AND THE SIKH PANTH. Probably they did not believe in caste system and its insulting by product ‘Shudra’ because we do not find a trace of such a derogatory appellation in Cambodia. 1916 says: “Under Akbar (1560-1605) a Kamboj General called Shahbaz Khan commanded 5. Thailand.
BHAI DIALA Again.72 author of ‘Souvenir’. a Sikh and confident of Guru Teg Bahadur scornfully and with a cool mind rejected Muslim offer of accepting Islam and chose to be martyred by being boiled alive in a cauldron. Lawyers. Professors. Bhai Diala was born to father Kalu and mother Daya Kaur of village Kakru in the district of Ambala. Hakims (doctors practicing medicine with ancient Indian and Persian herbs). records kept by Brahmins at Hardwar are a testimony to prove that Kambojas were in the forefront in the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 1845) was killed in the ‘Battle of Mudky’ and many other Kamboj warriors sacrificed their lives for the Sikh Raj. Guru Teg Bahadur’s martyrdom in turn shook the foundation of Muslim rule. As an example Mr. Jullundur’ where Muslim Kambojas earned name and fame in military. Dardi. Mr. Dardi has given a long list of such Muslim professionals along with their villages. writers. From psychological point of view in order to jolt Guru Teg Bahadur’s belief. towns and respective areas in the Punjab and rest of India. author of ‘Souvenir’ mentioned above elates our spirits by discovering for us that Bhai Diala. 1993 under the auspices of ‘Kamboj Virasat Chetna Manch. the Muslim Mullahs boiled Bhai Diala alive in his presence. for instance my great-grandfather Baba Phula Singh (1802-December 18. Likewise. . Chancellors etc. in civil many served as Chief Ministers. It awakened the conscientious Hindus. Kamboj Bhai Diala was the elder brother of Bhai Mani Singh who at the time was a companion of Guru Teg Bahadur’s son Gobind. will power and resolve to help the Brahmins of Kashmir. Governors. Judges.
At that juncture while Misals were grinding their teeth to get even with the Maharaja for subduing them Nihang Phula Singh helped him to capture the city. Akali Phula Singh’s father was killed in the holocaust of February 5. Maharaja Ranjit Singh established an army unit under Nihag Phula Singh’s command and named it ‘Akal Army’. As Maharaja Ranjit Singh entered the city all dozen or so families took up arms and started to fight. Most of his army comprised of young Kambojs who were barred by Sikh tribes from joining their Misals. Anyone who aspired to be the leader of the Khalsa and Maharaja of the Punjab had to take Amritsar to make good his title. As soon as Maharaja Ranjit Singh subdued Pathans of Kasur and the Rajputs of Kangra taking over of Amritsar became a priority because it had sanctity in the eyes of the Sikhs. His martial spirit and Panthic activities came to be known to influential Sikh heads of clans other than Misal chiefs.73 AKALI PHULA SINGH. Kamboj General Akali Phula Singh was born in 1761 in village Shinh in Bangar area (area around Karnal and Kaithal). On Nihang Nainna Singh’s death newly baptized Nihang Phula Singh started to enrol young Nihangs to form a mini army of his own. Amritsar was divided between nearly a dozen families owning parts of the city. At that they granted him a tract of fertile land to augment his income for the maintenance of his army. As Nihang Nainna Singh became old he came to Amritsar along with now teenager Phula Singh who had also become a full fledged Nihang. Each family had built a fortress of its own. 1762 also known as Vada Ghallughara (the great massacre) when he was only 15 months old. Akali Phula Singh was also known for his devil-may-care attitude and his freedom in speaking his mind even to Ranjit . When young Phula was only seven his mother also died and his father’s friend Nihag Nainna Singh brought him to Nandpur where he was taking care of the shrine. Maharaja Ranjit Singh owed many of his victories to the desperate valour of Nihangs (also described as Akalis) of Phula Singh. That newly established army also had a large number of Kambojs.
in particular the Kambojas as noncombatants. the Sikh Jats impressing upon the British to consider small communities of Punjab. by the Jat Sikhs was dished out not only to Kambojas. Having been barred from the British army Kambojas suffered hardships in finding jobs because for Punjabi Sikhs. of course. armed forces were the main employers. D was treated no better than her father. Akali Phula Singh was killed in the battle of Naushera in March 1823.74 Singh. Politically. One did not find a single Kamboj officer in the Indian army till the World War II heated up and British had no choice but to enrol them and later on. As soon as the British established their Raj in Bombay and planned . Even Atam’s daughter Upinderjit Kaur. That kind of discriminatory. when India became independent in 1947.e. Even in independent India’s Punjab politics of Akalis Balwants Singh (Thind) was installed as a minister of finance only because he was the only one who had the right qualifications. resulting in majority community i.e. a veteran Akali leader was given a third class minister-ships during his terms.e. Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s motto of ‘oneness of mankind’ in general and ‘Punjabiat’ in particular got trampled upon and same age old Missal characteristics i. Even Atama Singh. cronyism and nepotism reappeared. Kambojas have no choice but to associate themselves with Congress. On other hand Hindu and Muslim Kambojs were accepted in military as well as police at par with the Sikh Jats. gluttonous and inappropriate treatment by a majority i. Mahars of Bombay who happened to be the back bone of the British when they were on the hit list of political stalwarts like Tilak (1856-1920) were also treated with contempt by the opportunist Hindu majority. Unfortunately as the Sikh Raj fell and British took over the Sikh army. a Ph. Jat Sikh Misals got even with the Kambojs for helping the Maharaja to subdue them. The minute Akali Jat Sikhs found their own man Balwant was done to death. Kambojas will never be considered at par in SAD (Shiromani Akali Dal).
Remember. sukha. nepotism and corruption involving bureaucrats such as former Punjab Public Service Commission Chairman Ravinder Pal Singh Sidhu and 99% of politicians of the previous Akali government hailing from majority community which have come to light in Punjab during 2002. per capita. which had ruined many Jat families financially.ganja. As of now.they worked hard on small patches of land of their own as well as rented fertile lands from Jats. co-operation. in the invasion of Sindh. creed or religion. they invited the Hindus to join the army. In consideration of cronyism. Kambojas own more and better cultivating lands and their children are better educated than the majority community. Before l947 one could hardly find a Kamboja man using liquor. a foreign invader. in many cases resulting in buying the same land outright. . drinking of brewed dried opium poppies (dode). As their financial position improved they started to give higher education to their children. co-existence. white collar as well as blue collar professions. economising. There is no room for cronyism in private sector in the ‘Western World’ and I am sure it is also true in India. British obliged the majority and achieved what they were yearning for. resulting in selling their fertile and cultivating lands.75 to take over rest of India. hard work and production rather than caste. The Hindu majority agreed provided they (British) ban the Mahars from the army. in particular opium. dedication. for decades – a split in the Indian nation. marijuana and other related drugs.D. military commanders of king Dahir accepted bribes from the agents of Mahommed-BinKasim. my advice to Kamboj youth is that they should have the best of education. During peacetime British butted one community against the other and they did succeed in splitting the nation just as in 712 A. perseverance. How did the Kambojas survive? Hard work. and tranquility . businessman expects sincerity. explore rest of India and find jobs in private corporations because statistics show that four out of five jobs are created by the private sector.
Corruption = The act or result of corrupting.76 When it comes to taking part in politics I would like to draw Kambojas attention to Balwant Singh’s fate. which comprised of 99% of Jat Sikhs accepted him readily because he was the sole politician having highest qualifications for the job. deviously they accepted him as an employee (muneem-cumaccountant rather than a political partner. . Akali Party suffered from nepotism. Along with being ‘vulnerable’ to genetic diseases endogamy and nepotism further lead to cronyism and corruption. Balwant Singh (Thind) on the other hand lost his life for proving to be dedicated to the Akali Party and aspiring to become a Chief Minister of Punjab. President of India and one time Chief Minister of Punjab though belonged to Ramgarhia caste. a disease which will one day prove to be a danger to the very existence of it. On the other hand his ambition was to become a Chief Minister in the course of time not realizing that for a Jat majority he belonged to Kamboj caste. a very small community of Punjab. an adversary in farming. He attained the highest offices in Punjab in India only because he dedicated his life to The Indian National Congress. Indians suffer from two chronic deceases called nepotism and endogamy. The late Giani Zail Singh. which can be described thus? Cronyism = Favouritism shown to cronies. PUNJAB GOVERNMENT HEADED BY BJP/SAD IN GENERAL AND PARKASH SINGH BADAL. Unlike The Indian National Congress which was comprised of majority as well as all the minorities of India and criteria of which for attaining a higher position was dedication to the party. CHIEF MINISTER OF PUNJAB IN PARTICULAR ARE PRIME EXAMPLES OF NAPOTISM IN INDIA. The Akali Party. which can be diagnosed as under: Nepotism = Favouritism shown or patronage granted by persons in high office to relatives. Balwant Singh (Thind) started his political carrier with the Indian National Congress but slyly slithered over to Akalis for quick promotion to the position of Finance Minister. without regard for their qualifications.
Claimed to be the largest-ever genome-scale analysis of diverse Indian groups. Endogamy = Marriage within a particular group. tribe.a rampant Indian practice of marrying within small group of people. Tracing the genetic history and diversity of the Indian population. Harvard . The scientists describe this as “founder event”. there may be mutation in the gene that leads to various diseases. The rampant inbreeding has led to genetic mutations. October 1. 2009 The age-old practice of marrying within the same caste or community has made Indians more vulnerable to genetic diseases. Many modern groups of people in India have descended from a small number of people. Because of this. or class in accordance with set customs. a practice that dates back to several thousand years.” senior scientist with Hyderabad-based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and a lead author of the study Kumarasamy Thangaraj said. “This high endogamy within the country. the study came up with findings that have important medical implications. Findings. Harvard Medical School. A joint research by premier Indian and American institutions has found that the caste system existed thousands of years before the colonial rulers entered the country.77 Despite a whooping population of 1. makes these pockets genetically unique. published in the journal “Nature” as reproduced by The Tribune.2 billons as soon as corruption reduces to a manageable level India will be no less a land of milk and honey than any of the rich nations in the world. caste. India dated October 1. 2009 are given below: “Endogamy made Indians ‘vulnerable’ to genetic diseases. thus explaining why certain diseases are concentrated only in a particular pocket of population in the country. Hyderabad. the research was jointly conducted by scientists from the CCMB.
He said there were similar diseases that could be understood genetically. representing 13 states. traditionally “upper” and “lower” castes. are seen among Indians who have descended from a small group of founder individuals. “The study gives us an understanding why the incidence of cardiac disease is different in the Indian sub-continent from the rest of the world. an associate professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School.” said the study’s co-author David Reich. it is a must to encourage inter-caste marriages. and tribal groups. which is linked to the cardiac condition. The researchers say there is a certain genetic mutation specific to the Indian sub-continent. all six language families. As part of the study. showed that India’s caste system is not a relic of colonialism but had existed for thousands of years.000 genetic markers across the genomes of 132 individuals from 25 diverse groups.78 School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. the single gene disorders that occur when person carries two abnormal or malfunctioning copies of a disease causing gene. USA. published in the journal “Nature”. “Further studies of these groups should lead to the rapid discovery of genes that cause devastating diseases. To contain this rising rate. and will help in the clinical care of individuals and their families who are at risk. . The findings. Punjabi Khatris in general but those of Pakistani origin in particular are more prone to have thalassaemic children as the percentage goes up to 7. Similar founder events seen in other groups. The recessive hereditary diseases. the research team analysed more than 500.” Thangaraj said. Thallasaemia is one such example wherein a couple carrying one abnormal and normal gene each passes on the abnormal ones to the child.5 per cent (compared to national percentage of 3. The new study predicts that the same will be true for many groups in India. such as Finns and Ashkenazi Jews are well known to increase the incidence of recessive genetic diseases.5) in Khatri-dominated districts.
tribuneindia. in fact Sant Kaur’s home was a MATA SANT KAUR THIND . While in the process of writing “Why I AM A Humanist! and trying to grasp some knowledge on the lives of Bhagat Singh. Fights staged by Babar Akalis and independent revolutionaries against the British Raj to gain independence for India would have not been successful in the absence of ‘underground’ help extended by Mata Sant Kaur and her women colleagues.com of June 27. 2003. his colleagues and other martyrs I came across a simple but emotional tribute paid to Mata Sant Kaur an ‘unsung hero’ of the days of Babar Akalis and other revolutionaries in www.79 UNSUNG HEROS.
Naveen S. Expressing his grief and sorrow. Not many people know that the freedom fighter.’ Underground work entailed collection of funds. Sultanpur Lodhi.tribuneindia. Grewal of Tribune News Service in his report in www. the president of the AISID. . toiling hard. delivery of food and laundered clothes etc.80 nucleus of that ‘underground ring. there was hardly anyone from her generation to throw a light on the sacrifices she had made for the country. When she died earlier this month at the age of 108. not only as a freedom fighter but also as the mother of Dr. Jagir Singh Rattanpal. Mr. a renowned economist and secretary-general of the AISID. and was involved in activities of the Babbar Akalis and other revolutionaries. Today. was actually an ordinary housewife. the All-India Shiromani Inqlabi Dal (AISID) mourned her death. He said his mother was so self-respecting that she continued to prepare tea for herself even towards the fag end of her life. said Dr. to Babar Akalis. Mata Sant Kaur was the wife of Gurmat scholar Sant Mayya Singh of Shahwala Andrissa. 2003 at Kapurthala where she lived with her younger son Tarlok Singh Thind. “She was of the philosophy that one should even sell ones clothes.com says: “When Mata Sant Kaur entered the freedom struggle. optimistic attitude towards life. said Mata Sant Kaur breathed her last at the age of 108 on June 12. Jaswant Singh Chamak (Thind). Chamak. She visualized the importance of education and emphasized on her sons to pursue higher studies. a simple rural lady who jumped into the freedom struggle to see that her countrymen enjoyed the life and liberty as envisaged by Sikh Gurus. ornaments and property for the sake of ones child’s education”. who led a simple life with simple food habits. freedom fighters could not have visualized that she would outlive most others. austerity and devotion to Gurbani.
Ms. boozing. president women wing. Kapurthala on June 29. Mr.presidents. Jagdishpal Singh Momi. 2003. Mr. dancing. one in Lahore and the other in Nankana Sahib. The Mahant had also built two luxury houses for them. Any donations offered by the devotees became personal income of the caretakers cum priests called ‘Mahants’. vice. That was the last straw. drinking. his assistant priests molested them. Mr. Narayan Dass had turned the shrine into a prostitution house to such an extent that when six Sikh ladies from Jarhanwala in the district of Lyalpur went for prayers. Kewal Singh Thind. MASSACRE AT NANKANA SAHIB.000 acres of land to that shrine for its maintenance and Narayan Dass. Mukhtar Singh Dhanju. Mr. Case of Nankana Sahib (place of Guru Nanak’s birth now in Pakistan) bothered the Sikhs most because Maharaja Ranjit Singh had allotted pretty near 10. Harbans Kaur. He had become the father of two sons and two daughters through that woman and they followed Islam rather than becoming Hindus or Sikhs. Mr. sexual activities had illegitimate relations with a Muslim woman. Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee an organization set up by the Sikhs at Amritsar had vowed to free shrines (Gurdwaras) from the clutches of the Mahants but British Government had backed them and encouraged them to stay put. frenzied singing. Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee urged the British to remove Mahant Narayan Dass . Inder Singh Josan. Harkirat Singh Dhot (Advocate).81 Those who mourned the death of Mata Sant Kaur included senior vice-presidents of the AISID. a caretaker-cum-priest (Mahant) apart from living a life of luxury. Principal Hardyal Singh. Mr. which broke camel’s back. Dr. Members of the AISID will pay their tributes to the freedom fighter at her “Bhog”. Almost all historic Sikh shrines in India were controlled by the hereditary caretakers who owed no accountability to government or any Sikh institution. Deep Singh Kamboj. Gulzar Singh Jammu and press secretary. which will be held at Gurdwara Devi Talab.
Kirpal Singh Dardi has given a complete list of Kamboj martyrs with their father’s and village names in his ‘Souvenir’. and Akali and helped many writers in starting magazines. Mr. Kamboj Master Sunder Singh was born on October 4. He was an instrument in having the Anand Marriage Act passed on October 22. his assistant priests and 400 strong goons had stored hundreds of gallons of kerosene oil and tons of dried wood in the premises of the shrine. As an answer to their request to remove the Mahant. Per capita Kambojas paid a heavy price and the credit for that strategy and valour unparalleled in Sikh history goes to no other than Kamboj Master Sunder Singh. priest server. . To achieve their goal of keeping Anandpur and other shrines as their private property and to keep their style of priesthood alive they started a newspaper called ‘Sant Sewak’.82 from the shrine but no avail. which resulted in a decision to oppose the Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee through media. Kamboj Master Sunder Singh Layalpuri started to enlist ‘do or die’ squads of young Sikhs from his village Bahoor. Master Tara Singh and Sardar Tehal Singh Kamboj got together their own warriors and assembled in Kamboj village Nizampur Dewa Singh. he with the knowledge British hired a private army of 400 strong goons and called a meeting of 60 Mahants from other shrines. Sikhs took over the shrine and freed it but at the cost of 86 martyrs out of which 31 were Kambojs. He started eight high schools in Punjab. 1875 to Sardar Lakhmir Singh and Sardarni Ram Kaur of village Bahoor in the district of Amritsar. legal and/or violent means. He graduated from Khalsa College Amritsar. He was a top progenitor of Akali Lehar (Party) and many Newspapers such as Hindustan Times. Sardar Kartar Singh Jhabar. On the other hand Mahant Narayan Dass. As the Sikhs raided the shrine they were sprayed with kerosene oil and with wood already burning caused havoc. 1909. 1993. Similarly Sardar Lashman Singh Dharowal. village Nizam Pur Deva Singh Wala and many other villages in the district of Layalpur and Shekhupura to free Anandpur from the clutches of Mahant Narayan Dass.
marking it the first victory of the Sikh Panth. Amritsar and paid the fine and at the same time Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya. declared an offender and fined a sum of RS. The British rebuilt the wall in question. At that the Martial Law was lifted on July 23 and those apprehended set free. Gandhi. Since Ripudaman Singh took interest in National affairs of India and Bhupendra Singh was in the good books of the British as a loyal subject. Tilak (see note 28) and Moti Lal Nehru (father of Jawaharlal Nehru. Maharaja of Patiala and Ripudaman Singh. Central Sikh League called a meeting in June of 1923 under Presidentship of Master Sunder Singh. His father mortgaged some land in village Bahoor. 1937). That incident toughened Master Sunder Singh’s attitude towards the British resulting in meeting with Hira Singh Dard and in turn meeting Madan Mohan Malviya. three Jhabal brothers and Sardul Singh Kveeshar.83 In 1911 when the British started to dismantle a wall of Gurdwara Rikabganj in Delhi to make room for Secretariat and Assembly Hall. Master Sunder Singh agitated and stopped the dismantlement and took the case to Chief Commissioner of Delhi with the help of Harchand Singh. President and General Secretary of Khalsa Young-man Association. Maharaja of Nabha. the British removed Ripudaman Singh from his state on advice of Bhupendra Singh. At that Sunder Singh and Hira Singh founded ‘Sikh League’ on December 27. At that news. he was apprehended.00. 1200. the first Prime Minister). Thecase lingered on for few years and by that time since the World War I came on the horizon. President All India Hindu Society had also raised his voice in the Imperial Council. There was a personal but bitter dispute between Bhupendra Singh (d. Teja Singh Samundri. In the . the British gave up because they needed the help of the Sikh in the army. Layalpur and since Master Sunder Singh was taking a vigorous part in a violent agitation against Rowlett Bills (see note 27) in Punjab. In 1919 some how fire broke out to a heap of wheat husk laying near the railway station. 1919 and joined hands with All India Congress in opposing Rowlett Bills.
Bhai Maan Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh. little Mani (Mania) was presented to Guru Teg Bahadur as a servant and companion to the Guru’s son and the future Guru.” Master Sunder Singh always spoke from the innermost of his heart and called a spade a spade with malice to none. when Guru Gobind Singh reached Alamgir on December 23. THE MARTYRDOM OF BHAI MANI SINGH. 1704 Bhai Nagahia Singh. and mother Daya Kaur of village Kakru. 1704 along with Bhai Daya Singh. Bhai Mani Singh Kamboj (1729-1791) was son of Kalu. Some months later Bhai Mani Singh along with the ladies. Bhai Mani Singh was charged with the care of the Guru’s wives. At the age of five. 1699. rejoined the Guru at Talwandi Sabo. One of the greatest examples of the new spirit. When armed forces of Aurangazeb compelled Guru Gobind Singh to evacuate Anandpur (fortress of Chamkaur) on December 17. presented him with a horse. brother of Bhai Mani Singh. which Guru Gobind Singh infused in the downtrodden peasantry of Northern India by creating the Khalsa Panth was Bhai Mani Singh. District Ambala. and renamed Mani Singh. Gobind Singh. Mata Sundri and Sahib Dewan. He was amongst the first to be baptized as a Khalsa in Baisakh. It was at Dam Dama that Guru Gobind Singh dictated to Bhai Mani Singh the final recension (critical revision) of Adi . After leaving fortress of Chamkaur. better known to the Sikhs as Dam Dama.84 meeting Master Sunder Singh did show sincere support to Ripudaman Singh against the British but admitted that “both maharajas had earned a bad name. whom he accompanied to Delhi.
1716). 2. Bhai Mani Singh also helped in the compilation of the writings of Guru Gobind Singh. ‘A Short History of the Sikhs’ by Teja Singh and Ganda Singh. dissensions broke out between the followers of Banda known as the Bandei Khalsa and the orthodox Sikhs.’ Vol. He was given the chance of saving his life by accepting Islam. Sikh history books describe Bhai Mani Singh as a prolific writer. In the year 1738. Bhai Mani Singh obtained permission from the Mughal Court with a promise to pay Rs. I. As a capital punishment for rejecting Islam the Mughal Court ordered him to be executed by having each limb severed from the other in public at the Nakhas-----the horse market. A. Bibliography: 1. See page 65 for painting by Kirpal Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was arrested and taken in chains to Lahore after Diwali because of his failure to the pay the amount agreed upon.85 Granth-----the Dam Dame wali Bir-----which is the authorized version of the Sikh scriptures today. 4. IV by Kahan Singh. the Dasam Granth. Macauliffe. Bhai Mani Singh settled the misunderstanding amicably between the factions and took over the charge of the Harimander (now Golden Temple). Painting by: Kirpal Singh. ‘Prachin Panth Prakash’ by Giani Gyan Singh. IV and V by M. which prevented the Sikhs from reaching the Harimander. 5000. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh (1708) and the meteoric rise and fall of Banda Singh Bahadur (d.00 to celebrate Diwali at Amritsar. Bhai Mani Singh spurned the offer.’ Vol. But the fanatic Muslim commander of the capital Lahore posted his constabulary on all roads leading to Amritsar. ‘Encyclopaedia of Sikhs Literature. ‘The Sikh Religion. Mata Sundri sent Bhai Mani Singh to Amritsar to resolve the dispute. 3. The Nakhas has ever since been known as Shahid Ganj----the place of martyrdom. . the Tat Khalsa. The Bhai expected to recover the money from the offerings of pilgrims. 5.
‘Stop’. .86 Bhai Mani Singh. The executioner set Bhai Sahib’s right hand on the wooden block and raised the chopper to cut off wrist first. mullah and the warders stood aghast. The executioner. ‘Start chopping the joints of my forefingers before you chop my wrist. The Mughal Court decreed that Bhai Mani Singh be cut joint-byjoint. said Bhai Sahib. the Martyr. so that you carry out your master’s order precisely.
India already sucked dry of wealth was drowned under a debt from England to fight strictly an English war. they formed a very substantial portion of the British Army. the number of Sikhs in the services rose from 35. (7). On pp. (8). S. According to ‘The Punjab and the War. forming about a fifth of the army of India. People looked forward to promised selfdetermination and self-rule after the war. and all the other princes of the Punjab made generous contributions in cash and equipment. (2). Humiliation of the British in the world forum during and after the Komagata Maru episode and a futile attempt by them to keep Canada ‘All White’ which resulted in the hanging of Bhai Mewa Singh (see e/n # 26). As the war started maharajas of Patiala. Turkey.’ p. 44 by M. Jind. (3).87 UDHAM SINGH ALIAS MOHMAND SINGH AZAD (1). Of the 22 military crosses awarded for glaring gallantry to Indians. Indians’ dreams of a free India intensified by exposure to people of the free nations in World War I. Trials of the ‘Ghadar (revolutionary) Party’ patriots of India most of whom happened to be Punjabis. “It is true that in practically every part of the province the Sikhs came forward in strength and established an all-round record which leaves little room for criticism. Doors to the political reforms and jobs for educated youth were nailed shut. Cruel persecution of all political leaders of India.” . and Kapurthala offered personal services. and Africa. Ever since the Mutiny of 1857 when Sikhs saved the British from total extermination. Sikh soldiers fought on all war fronts in Europe. 107-09 in his book mentioned above Leigh says. (6). A strict censorship of the press was enacted.000 at the beginning of 1915 to over 100. (5).000 by the end of the war. (4). the Sikhs won 14. Leigh.
Cost of living rose higher than ever before. Rather than using Indian railway service to transport goods around the country was strictly kept ‘in waiting’ to transport troops to quell mutiny like the one in 1857. lieutenant governor of the Punjab instituted the “Indent System” by which every village had been forced to provide a certain number of recruits. a balm to soothe their nerves—instead the government rubbed salt into their wounds. an epidemic of influenza raged across the entire country taking a heavy toll of life.88 In the last two years of the war the British experienced an acute shortage of manpower. sugar 68% higher than the prewar period. a committee under Sir Rowlett himself produced a report on revolutionary crime in India since 1907 and proposed a series of sly measures empowering the executive to override ordinary legal process in dealing with violent political agitation. ‘Disorders Inquiry Committee Report. urban population was further hit by the imposition of a special income tax. Other factors such as the failure of the summer monsoon added fuel to the smouldering fire. German submarine warfare restricted imports by sea. Now it was the time for the British to render assistance and reassurance. foreign cloth 175%. and Mari tribes of northwest frontier of India. lieutenant governor of the Punjab. An atmosphere of doom and gloom came to prevail in the province. To cap it all. In order to justify its repressive measures. wheat was 47% above normal price of 1914. Indian cloth 100%. Despite . According to the Hunter Committee Report. The British office in England sent Sir Sidney Rowlett a ruthless imperialist and trouble-shooter at large for India in general and the Punjab in particular. This strain was caused by collapse of Russia and rising of Muslim Mahsud. rejected the notion of self-government for India and introduced some bills called Rowlett Bills (see 3/n # 27) to combat revolutionary crime. On advice from Sir Rowlett. Sir Michael O’Dwyer. The increase in some cases ranged from 100200 percent. By the end of the year 1918. Sir Michael O’Dwyer. over 100. Mohmand.000 Punjabis had succumbed to the flu. p. and the pressure used to raise war funds. 152.
In a fit of rage and egotism. Satya Pal. Tilak and Bipan C. the most dreaded enemies of the foreign rule called for a general strike to be launched at Amritsar on April 6. but when it came to their honour. In view of the above pros and cons. na vkeel. ever humorous Punjabis nicknamed Sir Sidney Rowlett as: Jhagru Sahib (Mr. resulting in retaliation by the mob and . Characteristically undaunted 50. no appeal. Dr. freespirited Punjabis treated her no different and her dictatorship frittered away in January 1977. Satya Pal to be prevented from addressing public rallies on March 29 and 30. Dwyer’s demonic mind to work overtime to devise ways and means to teach the Punjabis a lesson. the Sikhs and the Muslims.’ All great leaders like Lockmanya Tilak (see e/n # 28) and Bipan Chandra Pal. na apeel—no argument. 1975. By the way. Immediately. and L. to achieve their goal of crushing the existing few civil liberties of slave India and ruling it with an iron fist. there came the ill-omened news that Drs. Panic-stricken O’ Dwyer ordered Dr. little did he try to look back into their not too distant past that they may let ‘carts roll over them’ without uttering a sigh of complaint.89 visualizing dark days ahead. 1919. As Ram Naomi (Lord Rama’s birthday) procession was in progress. and they summed up his drastic changes in one slogan: na dleel. Saifuddin Kitchlew. representing Hindus and Sikhs took up the challenge to lead the strike. Pal and Kitchlew were sent to jail in Himachal Pradesh. put Dr.000 strong Punjabis attended the strike on April 6. 1919. Police opened fire at the procession and killed 18 unarmed people. representing the Muslims and Dr. they would leave no stone unturned to rightfully punish the overbearing culprits. when Indira Gandhi declared the Emergency on June 26. procession turned to Deputy Commissioner Miles Irving’s office demanding release of their leaders. the ‘Rowlett Bills. which shook the administration like a feeble building by a strong earthquake.Kitchlew under house arrest. That kind of show of aggressively hostile determination and an unheard of united state between the Hindus. Pal were barred from the Punjab. triggered Punjab’s Lieutenant Governor Sir Michael O. Belligerent). no lawyer.
” When the Hunter Commission asked Dyer on whether the Martial Law was actually proclaimed. by his own admission. he arrested 11 persons who were charged with murder and waging war against the crown. Dyer had “directed it upon places where the crowd was the thickest because I had made up my mind to punish them for violating Martial Law. 1919. about 20. (Baisakhi is an auspicious day for the Punjabis when Guru Gobind Singh created Khalsa). Dyer was quoted as declaring proudly that it took him not more than 30 seconds to decide as to what my duty was. Over and above all the inhuman treatment. Dyer stationed 90 Gurkha 30 soldiers in a half-moon shape shooting position to cover every nook and corner of the crowd with British soldiers standing behind and pointing their guns at the Gurkhas to make sure they did not back down in shooting the Punjabis. On April 13. women and children gathered at Jallianwala Bagh 29 after having paid their respects to the Golden Temple to hear from their leaders of what transpired in the last few days. Amritsar was handed over to the Army and Brigadier General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer started a door-to-door hunt of the reactionaries. To give a finishing touch to the drama.000 rural folks and local men.m. 1919. Although Martial Law and orders of shoot on sight were in full force. After what I had seen and observed I did not think it was wise to . Dyer cut electricity and water supply to the city on the eve of Baisakhi. His reply was. at about 5:00 p. who was the Civil Authority responsible for the law and order of the city before taking such a grave step.. “ There was no Deputy Commissioner around to consult at the given time. Further. because they had learned otherwise from some witnesses as to why he did not consider it proper to consult the Deputy Commissioner Miles Irving. According to the Hunter Commission which was set up by the British in England. On April 11. arresting men and humiliating women and children.90 in the evening all six Britons working for the Allowance Bank in the Hall Bazaar (shopping centre) were hacked to death.
The injured could have gone to the hospital if they liked. “ No. Shots were also directed into the thick of the meeting. four or five in all. I merely felt that my orders had not been obeyed and it was my duty to fire immediately by rifle.91 ask anybody further. There was not even a single corner where people did not die or get wounded by the dozen.” A local leader. Lala Girdhari Lal. “There were small outlets. who witnessed the foolish firing from the roof of his house says. Within minutes the Bagh wore the look of a slaughterhouse. Many got trampled under the feet of the rushing crowd and others fell into the well on the eastern side of the meeting place.” When the English journalists asked Dyer about the act of barbarism by marching off from his “duty” leaving behind the dead and the wounded. Priests of the Golden Temple. He summoned the manager of the Golden Temple (who felt no shame in lowering the prestige of the mighty Sikhs who once toppled the ruthless Mughal empire) and Sir Sunder Singh Majithia 31 and asked them to use their influence with the Sikhs in favour of the Raj. he tried to win over the Sikhs. the pompous General’s reply was “It was not my job to render aid. The fusillade went on for ten consecutive minutes. but also to level headed Englishmen. When General Dyer realized the gravity of the situation. On advice from lackeys like High Priests and Sir Majithia. And I was going to fire until they dispersed. he sent vicious looking troops to villages to show to them that Raj was still strong and ever-ready to beat the hell out of them.” That added fuel to the fire.” When questioned on asking the crowd to disperse before firing on the defenseless mob. and bullets actually were rained on people trying to get out. his curt reply was. Dyer did not give a damn. those days turned out to be hay days for vultures and jackals. The curfew and shoot at sight orders immediately after the carnage left hundreds wounded in agony and dead lay scattered on the ground for two days. not only to the minds of the bewildered Indians. Even those who lay flat on the ground were shot at. at the time I did not. the issuers of Hukamnamas (Edicts) of .
a sum of 26. (text continued from top of picture) Avinash Singh in his article “They died that India must live.92 excommunications to intellectuals who question their integrity and logic on trivial matters to keep them under their thumps in the name of religion. a gift of honour.” (continued below picture) Bhag Mal and wife Attar Kaur.317 pounds poured in and was paid to him as an honour for “Job well done. The above treacherous act on the part of Sir Majithia and High Priests brought self-respecting Sikhs in the forefront. came into existence.” in The Hindustan Times. it was no more than rebuking of a Shudra by Aryans of the old or by American whites to their slaves for mistreating one of their animals. 1994 gives an account . the Central Sikh League. The outcome of Hunter Commission’s inquiry was a simple military style reprimand to Dyer. consisting of nationalists who were opposed to the Chief Khalsa Diwan’s toadying to the British. invited the General to the sacred shrine and presented him with a Saropa. the British die-hards garlanded and presented him with a golden sword as “Defender of the Empire. Under the guidance and inspiration of such people a new organization. On the civilian front. April 10.” The Morning Post started a campaign to raise funds to reward Dyer.
The bloody water in the well wherein an innumerable number had jumped. and the air bubbles of those who were in the process of drowning proved too much for her and she lost consciousness. No stopping to think.” “Attar Kaur who had gone to pray at Harimandir Sahib (the Golden Temple) early in the morning for a long life of her husband was stupefied to see the dead and the dying that included all sections of society. the six month pregnant woman of 25 rushed towards the Bagh where hundreds lay writhing in pain and crying for water and help. She had seen two men. a firewood dealer. This . the culprit responsible for mercilessly killing 379 and injuring and maiming 1600 of innocent men. Santa Mishra had joined her. When she regained it she found her clothes bathed in blood. she held out a loud cry in a state of extreme mental agony. “At 74 Sohan Lal Bharti is a proud man. Singh says. Bhagmal’s body was finally located near a wall with a hole in the heart and 36 other gunshot wounds. Mr. Sohan Lal was in his mother’s womb when Attar Kaur after hearing the gunfire in the Jallianwala Bagh had to fish out husband Bhagmal Bhatia.” “As she felt his body and found it still little warm. from the sea of humanity that lay dead and wounded here on that fateful Baisakhi of 1919. bleeding profusely. And he has reasons to be one for being an offspring of parents who were a living example of communal harmony and brotherhood and personified ultimate in human compassion. It was already well past nine in the night and the help of her husband’s stall. rushing out of one of the lanes. Not withstanding the grisly surroundings she moved ahead walking over a heap of dead to continue her search for her husband.93 of Udham Singh’s ‘Vow’ and what made him to take an unprecedented step to deliver an overdue death sentence to Lieutenant Governor Sir Michael O’Dwyer. Bhagmal Bhatia. had taken leave of her earlier in the day to be present at the rally organized to express solidarity behind the national leader’s protesting against the ‘Rowlatt’s Bills’ and demand release of their local heroes. women and children besides men of her grandfather’s age. women and children by his BrigadierGeneral Reginald Edward Harry Dyer.
’ Like his mother who was once honored with title of ‘Jyoti of Jallianwala Bagh’ (Light of the Jallianwala garden). is of course. plots (lots) and other benefits. That the sprightly youth kept his word given to a sister by killing the perpetrator of the crime many years later in the United Kingdom. If Attar Kaur had refused to bargain for her husband’s sacrifice by declining an offer of cash and kind her son too has followed her principle all his life. but Sohan Lal still cherishes her words ‘Remembrance of a dead one is more sacred than all that money could buy.” “Sohan Lal Bharti who was born to Attar Kaur a few months after the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy grew up to follow the footsteps of his mother. he too has stayed away from the lure of cash rewards. who after having savoured the spectacle of worst ever crime against humanity was busy separating the critically injured from the dead and providing whatever little help possible. Attar Kaur died in 1964. District Sangrur who was studying at the Khalsa Orphanage in the city. first aid and medicine from nearby houses for the next three hours forgetting her dead husband. The youth was none other than Udham Singh son of Tehal Singh and Naraini from village Sunam.94 attracted the attention of a young man of 18. Sohan Lal is not at all sore that miscreants who after the outbreak of 1984 riots burned his electrical goods shop. Seeing the plight of a mother-to-be the youngster went down his knees held the hand of the lady to pledge in choking voice. Rajendra Prasad. “The slaughter of so many would not be forgiven. a historical fact to day. first aid and medicine from nearby houses for the next three hours fetching water. I shall take revenge. Her son .” So moved the lady was by Udham’s gesture that she along with Santa Mishra took to assisting the young man in rendering help to those wounded by fetching water. He seems content with the name ‘Abhimanyu’ 32 given to him by the late Dr.” The above riots took place when two misguided Sikhs assassinated Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for an avoidable assault on the Golden Temple Amritsar to flush out the terrorist of her own making to create a rift between Hindus and Sikhs of the Punjab for the good of her own Congress Party.
dumfounded by the terror unleashed. a third rate pilot turned politician and Prime Minister immediately after her assassination let his goons loose on the Sikhs all over India. Tagore wrote: “The disproportionate severity of punishment inflicted upon the unfortunate people and method of carrying it out is without parallel in the history of Civilized Government.” If it was at Plassey 33 that the foundation of British domination were laid. wish to stand shorn of all special distinctions. in keeping with the age old ties and traditions of Punjab culture”. “I am filled with remorse for my race after visiting this place.” Great-souled Thakur’s mind was disturbed at “the agony of indignation” to such an extent that he told the British rulers point-blank: “The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the incongruous context of humiliation. Singh says. I read the remarks by none less than an English man Donald Cunningham. Unfortunately some wicked Sikhs retaliated and burned Hindus shops. R. all members of the Congress Party killed over three thousand Sikhs all over India. It gave me a hearty consolation when in a visitors’ book of 1938. and I for my part. it gave me a sense of pride in being born in a great country like India whose revered leaders like Rabindranath Tagore and Thakur threw their Knight-hoods and badges of honor bestowed upon them by the British in trash cans. recent or remote. barring some conspicuous exceptions. Further. it was at Amritsar that they were shaken. I feel that every Indian in the .95 Rajiv Gandhi. While attending seventy fifth anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. seeds of Swaraj (Self-rule) were sown in the land soaked with martyrs’ blood. He wrote. While returning the Knight-hood to the Viceroy of India. Mr. “Sohan Lal is still raising one of his two sons as a Sikh though he himself is a Hindu. Rajiv’s goons. The least I can do for my country is to take all consequences upon myself in giving voice to the protest of the millions of my countrymen.
none of the Congress or any Hindu Member of the Parliament has to date uttered a word of remorse in the calculated and widespread murder of the Sikhs in 1984. UDHAM SINGH ALIAS MOHMAND SINGH AZAD . I should bear the name of uncivilized with more pride as I bear the name of civilized.96 street looks at me as a member of a community of murderers.” Another Englishman writes in one of the books. “I am ashamed to be an Englishman when I hear of mass murders committed in the name of civilization.” In consideration of the above.
Sir Louis Dane. Lord Lemington and Louis Dane.’ “The slaughter of so many would not be forgiven. Neville Chamberlain.97 It is mind boggling and hard to comprehend that Udham Singh kept the ‘Vow. in the Commons Mr. well known pillars of the British Raj under the President ship of Lord Zetland. 1940.” given to Attar Kaur simmering for 21 years in an anticipation to find ‘the right place at the right time’ to carry out an overdue death sentence to Sir Michael O’Dwyer.” Sure enough. shot and killed O’Dwyer. Udham Singh found was the afternoon of March 12. Udham Singh now a professional Engineer calculatedly positioned himself against a wall of the Tudor Room. As soon as all of the invited dignitaries finished praising the good deeds of the Raj. a double faced hypocrite. Gandhi. I shall take revenge. condemned Udham Singh in his The Harijan and the British lackeys rejoiced. unlike Tagore and Thakur who threw their Knight hoods in the garbage bin to protest Jallianwala Bagh massacre. On March 13. Just as Sir Dwyer’s Brigadier-General Dyer had chosen the savage Gurkhas and posted them with precision at Jallianwala Bagh. 1940 in Tudor Room at Caxton Hall. the criminal at large. The right time and place. Sir Michael O’Dwyer etc. East India Association and Royal Central Asian Association had invited Brigadier-General Sir Parcy Sykes. . Lord Lamington. London. Udham with the swiftness and ferocity of a hungry lion rushed forward. the Prime Minister of England gave an account of the assassination of Sir O’Dwyer and wounding of the other three and assured the house that all Englishmen condemned the act. the number ‘One’ enemy of Udham’s country died instantly and others were injured. a leaping distance from his country’s enemy Sir Michael O’Dwyer who was sitting at the end in the front row. “Raj Murdabad” (Down with Imperialism) and poured the remaining bullets on Lord Zetland. their own exploits and Lord Zetland thanked them. O’Dwyer. also that “India and Indians will surely condemn such act. Udham was taken into custody. shouted “Inklab Zindabad” (Long-live Revolution).
98 On June 4. Why shouldn’t Indians use the same weapons to free themselves? When hundreds of my countrymen were killed by one of your General in Amritsar. “Is it justice? I know that not a word of my statement will be published.” The visitors were dumbfounded. you did not call him a murderer. 1940. Refusing to take an oath on the Bible and pointing out to the above orders by the court Udham thundered. Captain Briggs but I failed.” “You have suppressed our struggle of freedom with the force of arms. Common Indians and Udham’s best friend Bob Connelley. Self-acclaimed so-called ‘just society’ of England lost its balance of mind.” “I am an eye witness to the Amritsar massacre. Udham was brought from Pantonville jail to the Central Criminal Court. fattening yourself with the blood of Indians like me. signed by him as “M. an Irishman stood out side with gloomy faces. Udham Singh raised his voice.. One of my friends fell prey to your bullets there. I tried my best to locate his companion. adamantly refused to recognize Udham’s Statement given as ‘Exhibit 22’ at Red Caunan Row Police Station. Court was full with Government Officers. Press and English pensioners from Indian services etc. “ I wanted to avenge myself upon General Dyer. Far from condemning their crimes. but he died before I could reach him. S. Why have this show at all? You are all Englishmen here. You gave him thousands of pounds as a reward. who has avenged the innocent by killing the murderer. You can keep . I find your sense of justice ridiculous. Now you charge me with being a murderer. O’Dwyer supported and upheld the misdeeds of this General. I have seen their blood flowing into gutters. no Indians other than recognized lackeys were permitted to enter. He gave him a pat. you honored these people for enslaving us. English justice system known to be critical of justice systems of other nations. Azad” under his assumed name: ‘Mohmand (a Muslim name) Singh (common to Hindus and Sikhs) Azad 34 ’ upon his arrest was ordered inadmissible and Press was ordered not to publish his statement. ‘A’ Division. If a murderer of hundreds can be called a hero then who can deny the honours of a patriot.
he pointed out. but our duty to rise against injustice. “The only difference between you and us is that you use weapons to .99 down a country with guns.” Like a lion after cutting into the jugular veins of its victim and waiting for blood to drain out of its brain. “You must remember what Herbert Spensor has said. I would like to remind you of another of your thinkers. they sat still with eyes and mouths wide open. it becomes my duty to fight you with any weapons I can get. How dare you use the sacred word of justice. A life without self-respect is not worth living. to render it immobile. “It is not only our right. who said. every body is free to do what he likes as long as he does not interfere with other people’s freedom. when you don’t allow my countrymen to speak. he emphasized. Sizing up the mood of the Englishmen. Only cowards put up with injustice. So my countrymen too must use the weapons which you respect. Only weapons can fight weapons.” The above quotation mesmerized the present Englishmen in general and the Press in particular. Men and women of the Press were stunned at Udham’s command of English and general knowledge. Political murders are not a crime. when people cannot get justice they do resort to individual revenge. while you crush them under your heels?” “If you try to keep my country in thralldom with the force of arms. You have faith only in weapons. Udham paused and after observing Justice Atkinson listening to him rather impatiently.” Upping himself on his toes. why shouldn’t we use guns to free ourselves?” “You make yourselves ridiculous when you express sympathy for people enslaved by other powers. they had thought that he spoke pidgin English while others were at a loss to understand why unlike a two-bit murderers. seemed as if they were pondering over the plight of India and visualizing the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh. he said. “If you followed the advice of your great philosopher there would be peace in the world. Udham was incriminating himself.
while we have been compelled to shed blood to regain our freedom.100 enslave others. Udham Continued. We will all join the grand dance of freedom-----.” .” “And how did you treat the Irish? What about Dublin Massacre?” Here. Thousands of my countrymen are in jails. One of them was a friend of mine. Will you call them heroes or murderers? If those young men be honoured as patriots. I don’t want to say anything in self-defence. In fact this question was asked in 1909 by one of our countrymen. but some of your young men still go on fighting. Sucha Singh and Bahadur Singh wait for me along with thousands more who have gone before me. Ashraf and others. “I want to put all of you a question. But you cannot see your adversary’s point of view. Udham defiant as ever continued.” Holding the collar of shirt he said. I put the same question again. Ashraf is rejoicing at the prospect of my meeting him.” He looked around. Whenever we ask for our human rights. you answer with bullets. I have fired only six bullets. They are suffering only because they want to be free. But I must repeat that I have acted with a great sense of responsibility. You are incapable of seeing the sun of truth. Your ears refuse to hear the voice of justice and I feel I am wasting my time in pleading with you. The Judge restored the order and asked Udham Singh again to stick to his defence. I am eager to join the company of my comrades Madan Lal Dhingra. They were my countrymen. Hundreds have been hanged. I have acted alone and independently. loosened his tie and pointing to the men and women in the courtroom said. the Judge told him to confine himself to his own defence. “Please go ahead and be guided by your conscience. Kartar Singh Sarabha. “you killed Khaksars 35 in Lahore. You know his name was Madan Lal Dhingra. I did not seek anyone’s advice. Bhagat Singh. “Supposing you are defeated in war. My friend Madan Lal is calling me and Bhagat Singh is beating the war-drum. What would you do if your country is occupied by the Germans?” There came voices of protest. sure of his capabilities of representing a great nation. then I too have done my patriotic duty.
101 The Judge requested the jury for their verdict. I hope to be hanged on the twenty third.” The Judge immediately ordered the Press not to publish his statement.” “Farewell. On hearing that. kindly send me a Gutka (Extracts of hymns by different Gurus and Saints from Sikh Holy Adi Granth) a prayer book and oblige. The money. which has been collected already can be better spent on the education of some young Indians.C and Krishna Menon filed an appeal and hearing started on July 9.” “If you know the people who are raising funds for me. John Hutchinson K. I want to be united with him.” “I am a Royal guest here. My friend Bhagat Singh left me ten years ago. which proved to be a futile attempt in the long run. Justice Humphery. He must be waiting for me. K. he swiftly took out a packet of papers and declared. Udham became upset and wrote to his friend Johal “I must insist that I have nothing to do with these people. Mr. please don’t worry about me. At the foot of the gallows he raised the slogans: “Hindostan Zindabad” (Long Live Hindostan). Indian freedom fighters. “Raj Murdabad” (Down with Imperialism. 1940. Bob Connolley and his Irish compatriots raised some money and hired John Hutchinson. in order to make sure that his accusations against the Raj did not evaporate with his death. So. Udham was not finished yet. K. please ask them to stop. It took the jury no more than one hour and thirty-five minutes to declare Udham Singh guilty.) . Justice Hilbury and Justice Groom Johnson upheld the earlier verdict and set the date of Udham Singh’s execution for July 31. 1940.” Contrary to Udham’s wishes. a well respected Indian politician and decided to appeal. to all. I am eager to pay the price of my deed. “Inklab Zindabad” (Long Live Revolution). He was hanged on the 23rd. “This is my recorded statement. Krishna Menon. Menon also happened to be an eminent lawyer.C. I don’t want money to be wasted to defend me. on recommendation from V.
He wrote . He obtained his Ph. toured extensively in America and lectured on spiritual aspects of Indian thought throughout his life. Bhagat Singh Thind Dr. Thind hailed from the district of Amritsar and came to America to study after World War I. D in Philosophy.102 Dr.
When he came to California. In 1923 before applying for naturalization status as a test case Dr. the word (white person) by common usage has acquired a popular meaning not clearly defined to be sure. Nor were its efforts to go unrewarded. Though.in this country. to the United States Supreme Court. during the last half century especially. but the admission of persons from India as immigrants to the United States. Thind applied for citizenship but The Immigration and Naturalization Service did not give up.are words of common speech and not of scientific origin.” the Service was desperately anxious to have the Indians declared ineligible. for in 1917 Congress had made ineligibility to citizenship a basis for immigration exclusion. for in an extraordinary decision delivered by Justice George Sutherland. The word “Caucasian” not only was not employed in the law.” Dr. some educated Indians circumvented the Immigration and Naturalization Service and managed to get citizenship awards through various States but the Jat Sikh farm labourers who happened to be illiterate had no choice but to go back to India or stay illegal and single and ready to be kicked out at moment’s notice. but was probably wholly unfamiliar to he original framers of the statute in 1790……. Bhagat Singh Thind. Thind had it proved to the immigration department that East Indians were of the same racial classification as Europeans-namely “Caucasians. the Court announced that not all “Caucasians” were “white persons. The issue now was not merely the granting of citizenship to persons already in the United States. Devoted to the principle of excluding all “orientals. For this reason it appealed Judge Wolverton’s decision granting citizenship to Dr.103 over two dozens books and had a large following from priests to professors and politicians. as distinguished from its scientific application. he found out to his surprise that Sikhs working on the farms were not treated as human beings.” “White persons”……. is of appreciably narrower scope………The words of the statute are . but sufficiently so to enable us to say that the popular..
While serving as secretary of Khalsa Diwan Society I was honoured to meet Dr. Spurred by the feeling that an injustice had been done to the East Indians whose citizenships had been cancelled. he stood out against injustice. (U. Undeterred Dr. introduced a joint resolution into the Congress asking for the “ratification and confirmation” of the naturalization of those persons “of the Hindu Race” (Indians) who had lost. Thind kept on soliciting help from politicians through intellectuals because the only open opposition to this action came from the American Federation of Labour and the California Joint Commission and not any literate person or literary society. PAKISTAN in March of 2004 It was an honour to meet Muhammad Tahir Chaudhry who was kind enough to receive me at Wagah border post (entry point from India) and who in turn introduced me to at least 50 (text continued on next page) .8 MY VISIT TO LAHORE. or were being threatened with the loss of their citizenship as a consequence of Justice George Sutherland’s decision. Thind in the Gurdwara of Yuba City. Senator David Reed of Pennsylvania. S. He rendered selfless service to East-Indian community of America. in 1926. v Bhagat Singh Thind). ***** Chapter . He was a saintly person but when it came to rights of his fellow men.104 to be interpreted in accordance with the understanding of the common man from whose vocabulary they were taken. California.
Chaudhry there are over 300 Kamboja lawyers in Pakistan out of whom there are 60 in Lahore alone and they play a great role in the juridical system of Pakistan. . (continued from previous page) Kamboja businessmen and lawyers of Lahore. T. According to Mr. M. In fact one bazaar of Lahore is dominated by Kamboja businesses.105 Muhammad Tahir Chaudhry Advocate High Courts & Supreme Court. Chaudhry Bashir Ahmed (Josan) Advocate Supreme Court Pakistan. whether they are grocery stores or small scale manufacturing firms.
Advocate Arif Chaudhry (Rattanpal) . Lahore and being the President of Pakistan Chapter of Indo-Pakistan Friendship Association he headed three delegations to India to address at least ten gatherings of Kamboj Brotherhood International. He is a former ViceChairman of the Punjab Bar Association.106 Young and charismatic Arif Chaudhry a Member of American Bar Association and presently an Advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and Member of Punjab Bar Council holds offices in Lahore and Islamabad.
in Zoology from University of Punjab in 1969. from University of Wales.K. and worked as Demonstrator and Lecturer in the University of Wales. U. . Lahore.107 Dr. Yunas Ali (Rattanpal) obtained M. D. During his travels to Western countries such as Europe and America from 1975-1980 he attained his Ph. Sc. Yunas Ali (Rattanpal) Principal. Government College. Dr.
and sold in Zanzibar. II (Introduction page xli) under ‘Brahmanical Tribes and Their . whereas I have never seen a Kamboja with such features. Dr. Yunis Ali worked as a lecturer in Zoology in Government College. D. During those years of pursuit of academic excellence he published 23 papers on insect Physiology in the journals of international repute. Chaudhry. Vice Principal and Principal Government College of Education. From the point of view of distortion of facts relating to racial characteristics of humans from different parts of the world. According to ‘Hindu Tribes and Castes’ vol. those black Bedouins were slaves to the white Arabs and mixing of races was and still is just as frowned upon as mixing of Shudras and high caste Hindus and Sikhs in India. Lahore and Principal of Government College Chakwal. Government College Murree. Yunis Ali says his grandfather maintained that he migrated to Sialkot from Balkh and Bukhara along with other men of his Rattanpal tribe in the seventeenth century due to crushing defeat by white men. Lahore. fat lips and flat noses. his grandfather claimed that Zaid (Zayd) prophet Mohammad’s adopted son was from Kambo tribe in Saudi Bedouins.108 Before joining Government Islamia College. flat nose and kinky hair. Lahore as a Principal Dr. it is of concern to note that Zaid being a slave was from black stock with kinky hair. Those black Bedouins were kidnapped in Africa by Arab slave traders. many papers on general science in the Pakistan journals and also many papers on education in the Pakistan Times. according to Dr. Until fifty years ago. Picture above shows a black African couple with fat lips. Further. Yunis Ali’s ‘Articles Published in Newspapers and Honourary Letters’. Quoting his father Mian A. Saudi-Arabia and Egypt.
especially the Indians. was a “Dar-ul-Harab.109 Localities’ by M. the Bangladeshis. They sought partition of India to create the Islamic Nation of Pakistan. Under the force of faith they began to pretend that India. the creators of ‘the land of Peace’ (Dar-us-Salaam). They turned out to be traitors to their motherland and therefore became enemies of their own heritage. the most fanatic Muslim ruler of India fled Jammu. soon split into Bangladesh . Since converts to Christianity are from amongst low castes of Hinduism and they feel no shame in once being Shudras I was flabbergasted to observe that every Pakistani Muslim of means tried to correlate his ancestry to Saudi Arabia. The Muslims began invading India in a big way from 1000 A. “Here the non-Arab Muslims. the land of their ancestors.’ By feigning so they have lost all sense of national honour and sing the songs of greatness of Arabic world day in and day out whereas that same Arabic world does not even recognize them as brethren. onward. Probably most of them who resisted ‘forced conversion to Islam’ by Aurangzeb. a spiritual and cultural satellite of Arabia through civil and military actions. For lack of space let me take up the example of India.” a kind of battlefield until they turned it into Land of Peace (Dar-us-Salaam).D. the Sri Lankans and for that matter any country construing ‘Umma’ as ‘You’ pretend that the word ‘Umma’ in this verse means ‘the international community of Muslims. Dr. as the influence of Islam increased with the Turkish conquests. A. Yunis Ali’s surname ‘Rattanpal’ belonged to Brahmins of Jammu before moving to Punjab. A child born to foreign national parent in Saudi Arabia will never be considered a bona fide citizen. a Land of Peace (Dar-us-Salaam) of their own! Those traitors to their Indian heritage. They thought of Arabia as their home and sang songs of the Meccan superiority. Following extract from ‘Why I Am A Humanist!’ – ISBN 09688162-3-1 explains dilemma of Pakistani Muslims to a great extant. That love of Arabia became so intense that they hated everything that was Indian. the Muslim converts of India reneged on their Indian nationality. the Pakistanis. Sherring. Eventually.
For Wahabis such venomous injections will do wonders when oil stops gushing but Hajjis will keep on pouring in to fill their pockets at the cost of welfare of their own children and also that of majority of tax payers of India who happen to be Hindus. By destroying the national spirit of the non-Arab Muslims. as shown on the map. Having been born in India in 1923 and now a resident of Canada since 1953 it shocked me to observe that the same Muslim women who like any Hindu or Sikh women folks lived a free life in Punjab of India were now clad in Burkas in the Punjab of Pakistan. upset me to experience that when I visited my friends in Karachi not even one of them introduced me to their families whereas they had . Last but not least I met Chaudhry Abdul Razzaq. It is little wonder that due to this psyche. It further surprised me. Anatolia (present day Turkey). agitate for separation from their motherlands. Mesopotamia (present day Iraq).110 and Pakistan and have been ruled directly/indirectly by military dictatorships ever since. Qadeer Ahmed (Thind) who is a professor in Government Islamia College. Islam is the self-perpetuating Arab Imperialism. rather. Professor Thind was kind enough to show me places of interest around Lahore. Muslim majority areas in countries like Philippines. the Wahabis of Saudi Arabia make sure to inject everyone of them with venoms of “Umma” and “Dar-ul-Harab” against it and what it stands for. Syria. Thus. Advocate High Court. Iran. no guns: its hypnotic appeal. no doubt Kamboja tribe as well as other Aryan tribes of India came from Central Asia and moved to the tip of India via Balkh and Bukhara etc. Lahore. mentally and emotionally reduces man to the level of monkey. Lahore and Dr. Barbary States of North Africa (from Libya to Morocco).” However. it now needs no swords. Islam has totally demolished the ancient civilizations and cultures of such countries as Egypt. It is ludicrous to observe that while a gutless secular India subsidizes its Hajjis. Yugoslavia. Russian Caucasia. Chinese Turkistan and Thailand etc.
except to their husbands or their fathers. or their women. All of a sudden they became Saudis who treat their women folks as nothing but slaves and baby producing machines in accordance with: SURA XXIV: 31 (LIGHT) “The Koran’ ISBN 0-8041-1125-1. It infuriated me to observe that when I visited them in Pakistan they never felt a ting of shame for treating me Personanon-grata as if introducing me to their families was below their dignities whereas they considered themselves to be worthy of staying in my home in Canada. or their slaves. or their husbands’ sons. my wife even prepared some Indian sweets and packed full dinner for them to eat on the evening of Sunday at Seattle. or their brothers.” . And be ye all turned to God. except those which are external. and display not their ornaments. or to children who note not women’s nakedness. and observe continence. and that they display not their ornaments. My wife and children (two sons and a daughter) had gone out of their ways to make all four of them (supposed to be my friends) feel at home. so as to discover their hidden ornaments. or their husbands’ fathers. or male domestics who have no natural force. or their sisters’ sons. or their sons. O ye Believers! That it may be well with you.111 stayed in my home for two days while going through training in Aeronautics in Boeing at Seattle with me and paying visit to Vancouver. and that they throw their veil over their bosoms. And let them not strike their feet together.” “And speak to the believing women that they refrain their eyes. or their brothers’ sons.
4. Trans. Christense. 1901 (ii) Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte. Strassburg. H. Strassburg. explains Soma thus: “These Somas are libations of the juice of the Soma plant. Jena. ‘Kultarges-chichte de alten Orient. The principal deity and God of war and empire. ). Schrader. B. Wilson. Zarathustra ( in Persian ) or Zoroaster (in Greek) a Persian with a homeland from north western Persia originated Zoroastrianism. of a mild nature and sub-acid taste---Roxburgh ii.Any of various gods or divinities in Vedic belief. Jevons under the title ‘Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People. I. By F.) . Bond Professor of Sanskrit. by O. R. and has become a strong spirituous beverage”. Asura ( Asur ) . which created two opposing forces. ‘Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte. Deiva (Deva) . 6. ‘Upanayana’ means initiation. unified his empire using the principle of one God. which in turn rewarded or condemned humans after death according to their actions on Earth. it is not used in sacrifices until it has gone through the process of fermentation. ( Eng. Dr.Assyrian mythology before Zarathustra ( 628-551 B. 5. ‘The Vedic Age’ by Bharattiya Vidya Bhavan. London. Ormazd. Stevenson. H. 2. (English trans. in the University of Oxford in his translation of Rig-Veda. (Lit.NOTES 1.C. 1906-7. According to Rev. 1911. which yields to expresser (squeezing ) a copious milky juice. 7. B. the acid asclepias or Sarcostema viminalis. S. A. Since Soma juice is the main offering to the gods in the Rig-Veda. Roxburgh and Rev. X. by F. Chapt. 8. Schrader from the following works: (I).. This historical information was collected by O. 32. ‘Ritual-Litteratur’. Soma ( Persian Haoma) or Hom of Parsees.). Reallexikon der indogermannischen Altertumskunde. Vol. 3. Hillebrandt. H.112 KAMBOJA . Truth and Untruth. footnote of page 6. p. Jevons under the title “Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People”. Jena. giving references of Mr. 9.. by the name of Darius (522-486 B. 220--By A.C. Achaemenid rulers embraced this religion and one of the rulers of this line.1906-7. it needs to be explained as to from which plant it was made and what rituals were performed to offer it to the deities.’ London. page 21617. 1850. Leipzig. The drawing near or leading forth of a student for study under a teacher. M. Mr. Mr. Stevenson. (iii) Die Indogermanen.. F. a religion named after him. 1897 by A.
. Even in Ramayana. Oxford by Prof. I. ‘Ancient India Historical Tradition. III.e. 21. He paid many visits to king Norodom Shinanouk Varman during his stay in the Far East. Bombay. 322 by A. p. by A. their Commander-in-chief. was called Hanuman.’ by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. For safety reasons no house is open to the main highway i. 19. 372-8. aborigines. ‘two-way street’. Bannars.113 10. ( a ) Research by A. 15. 262-64. 1929 by Dr. 23. W. R. See map on page 2. the Aryans called them. Tscherbatsky of Leningrad as “one of the greatest production of human mind. 225-26. D. 11.C. monkeys. To express hate towards aborigines. by F. murderous. Aryans.’1917. MacDonald was Commissioner-General for South-East Asia. but on reaching the site. p. Phandakar. ‘Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Polity’. 17. by Malcolm MacDonald. Panini wrote his great grammar of the Sanskrit language. robbers.’ Lond. monkey nation etc. 1922. V. p. 24. 22. (a). Archaeologists’ name for it is ‘First Street’. According to ‘Early Hindu India. p.e. Jackson. 13. 20. Aborigine. it turns into an indescribable sensation of visiting a sprawling city. monkey. (b). Vol. ‘Sacred Book of East’. Panini’s book is something more than a mere grammar.’ Vol.99. 1. It has been described by the Soviet professor Th. Aborigine. 44. Hillebrandt in Vesische. 1891-1902. Bannars. In Sindhi language the word “Moenjodaro” means “mound of the dead”. ‘Mythology’ Breslav.” Panini is still the standard authority on Sanskrit grammar. the aborigines who laid down their lives in thousands to free Rama’s wife Sita from the clutches of Lanka’s (Sri Lanka) mighty aborigine king Ravana. KRISHNAS means black-skinned aborigines (ASURAS). with two-way streets for bullock-cart traffic and back alleys to enter the houses through the backyards. 12. As early as seventh century B. E. . Asuras i. (b) Map showing approximate locations of settlements of first arrivals according to scriptures. Aryans often used hateful terms such as slaves. Aborigine 14. p. Max Muller. Pargiter. 16. ‘Cambridge History of India. Vol. ‘Angkor and the Khamer’. p. Kumar Mazundar. flat-nosed or nose-less Krishnas. 18. a dare-devil. this tradition is preserved in the ‘Mahabharta’ and the ‘Puranas’. ‘The Vedic age. an epic of ancient India.
The ‘Bangarh Pillar’ inscription and another preserved in the garden of Dinajpur Raj (now in Bangladesh) show us that Kambojas ruled Gaur Kingdom of West and North of Bengal in the tenth century A. The above professor of Leningrad also praises Patanjali’s work as: “the ideal scientific work for India is the Mahabhashya of Patanjli. 26. They were introduced in February. The Yoga (union) system of Patanjali (second century B. 29. was a descendant of the Majithias in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Sir Sunder Singh (1872-1941) of village Majitha near Amritsar. Patanjali not only crystallized that old system but also wrote a famous commentary on Panini’s Sanskrit grammar. 27.Kamboja kings were ruling Burma. .C. He was a wealthy landlord and sugar magnate. He was Secretary of Chief Khalsa Diwan from its inception (1902-1921) and President of the Khalsa College Committee from 1920 till his death. It is interesting to note that Panini mentions the Greek script. 31.) is essentially a method for the discipline of the body and the mind leading up to psychic and spiritual training.” Use of Panini and Patanjli’s works shows that Cambodians (Cambodge/Kambojas) had great regard for literature. 26a. called the Mahabhashya. Tilak was the first Indian patriot to start a Sawaraj. 1919 and passed and became law in March 1919. 28. This indicates that there were contacts of some kind between India and the Greeks long before Alexander came to the East. Thakur. Narajanapala and Nayapala. ‘Martyrdom of Mewa Singh’ and Komagata Maru. massacre at Jalliamwala Bagh was of no significance to Sir Sunder Singh and the High Priests. Whenever Hindus. D. “Three kings of the family are known to us—Rajyapala and his two sons. an aide to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. These were the Indian Criminal Law Amendment Bill and the Criminal Law (Emergency Powers) Bill. Muslims and Sikhs stuck together (which unfortunately did not happen too often) on national issues against the British. 30. and many other conscientious leaders of India.114 though subsequent grammarians have added to it and interpreted it. is as much of a classic as Panini’s work. ‘A brief history of Canadian Sikh Immigration to Canada’. which was later on copied by Gandhi. self-rule and boycott British made goods movement. they used Gurkhas to suppress them. This vacant lot near the Golden Temple once belonged to Sardar Himmat Singh of village Jallian. Unlike Sir Tagore. Bengal and Sri Lanka. That commentary. L. Refer to the beginning of this right up . 25.
33. the Nawab (Muslim Ruler) of Bengal and established British Rule in India.). mostly Muslims.115 32. Abhimanyu was the favourite son of Arjuna. 35. Plassey is a historic town in West Bengal State of India where Robert Clive of East India Company defeated forces of Siraj-ud-Daula.C. Khaksar was a movement of poor. It stood for independence of India. This ‘Alias’ of Udham Singh being a combination of ‘Hindu. 34. Muslim and Sikh’ names was liable to fire up the sentiments of all three major communities of India against the British and start a revolt against the British Raj in India at a time when Germans apart from advancing on all fronts had dropped bombs on Kent. the hero of epic Mahabharta (about 1400 B. ***** .