Electron Theory of Charge  Joseph J. Thomson(1897)  One of the first understanding about the structure of matter. . now called ELECTRONS are present in all matter.  In his experiment with cathode ray tubes. he concluded that negatively charged particles.

•Ernest Rutherford (1911)  He concluded that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in a small dense center of the atom he called Nucleus. .  The nucleus contains positively charged particles called Proton.

•James Chadwick (1932)  Discovered the neutron. • Neutron  Have no charge and are slightly more massive than protons .

Nucleus .

.Electrical Charge and Electrical Forces Two Kinds of Electric Charge:  Like Charges Produce a repulsive electrical force.

 Unlike Charges Produce an attractive electrical force. .

•Electrical Force  is a fundamental to subatomic particles as the force of gravitational attraction is between two masses. .   Positive Ion  positive charge Negative Ion  negative charge.

Electrostatic Charge / Static Electricity  It is an accumulated electric charge at rest. By Contact with another charged body 3. one that is not moving. By Friction 2. An object can become electrostatically charged: 1. that is. By induction .

 Semi-Conductors  Sometimes conduct and sometimes insulate depending on the condition and how pure they are.Electrical Conduction and Insulators  Electrical Conductors  they have electrons that are free to move throughout the metal.  Electrical Insulators  Do not have electrons that are free to move throughout the material. .

CONDUCTORS INSULATORS SEMICONDUCTORS Silver Copper Gold Aluminum Rubber Glass Plastics Wood Carbon Tungsten Iron Lead Nichrome .

Silve r Gold Aluminum Copper .

Wood Glass Rubber .

242×1018  is defined as the quantity of charge that has passed through the cross section of an electrical conductor carrying one ampere within one second. or indirectly measured with a ballistic galvanometer .•Coulomb  The SI unit of quantity of electric charge which is equivalent to 6.  The quantity of electric charge can be directly measured with an electrometer.

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