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. H. M.B. 26 THE ZETAFUNCTION OF RIEMANN . HABDY.S. E. No.A. P.G. M. CUNNINGHAM.A.
London New York Bombay.Cambridge University Press Fetter Lane. Ltd All rights reserved . Calcutta. Madras Toronto Macmillan Tokyo Maruzen Company.
THE ZETAFUNCTION OF RIEMANN BY E. University of Liverpool Fellow of Magdalen College. TTTnTTMAftSH.A. C. M. Oxford Professor of Pure Mathematics in the CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1930 .
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN .
H. and Miss M. Littlewood began to write tract on primenumber theory and the zetafunction Their work was never finished. C. which he has kindly placed at my disposal. Estermann and Prof. the manuscript. The fact that it is now somewhat outofdate is due in no small part to the subsequent researches of Bohr and Littlewood themselves. B. L. Ingham. No attempt is made to explain the connection between the two subjects.PREFACE a Cambridge SOME of Riemann. Hardy for reading the proofsheets. without regard to its applications in the theory of numbers. G. T. J. but they prepared a manu script of considerable size which still exists. years ago Prof. E. We give only a brief sketch of the betterknown properties of the function. which the reader will probably have learnt elsewhere. Gr. These applications will form the subject of a companion volume by Mr A. LIVERPOOL May. E. Littlewood' s I In several places I have made use of Prof. with but slight changes. Bohr and Prof. A large number of corrections and suggestions are due to them. E. Apart from this the work is complete in itself. The early part of Chapter IV is taken from the BohrLittlewood MS. 1930 ' . Jeffery for reading have also to thank Dr T. lecture notes. H. The present work deals/only with the theory of the zetafunction itself. Cartwright and Prof.
.
of f (s) . .. V VI Consequences of the Riemann hypothesis Lindelof s hypothesis . . Appendix A proof of Kronecker's theorem Bibliography .. .. CONTENTS PAGE 1 The asymptotic behaviour .Introduction CHAP... .. 29 43 63 76 IV The general distribution of the values of ($) . 6 II Mean The value theorems .. 99 .. . ... III distribution of the zeros .. . .. ... .. .. . I ... 93 98 . .
.
INTRODUCTION This tract is of the zetafunction and intended for readers who already have some knowledge its rdle in the analytical theory of numbers . elementary The function (1) is defined by the Dirichlet series (*)= = <r n= 2 *. n and inverting . (w) of the function A third representation For w. If we expand each factor in 8 powers of p~ and multiply formally. to and we obtain the result on summing with respect the order of summation and integration. the result follows from the fact that each integer n can be expressed as a product of prime powers p m in just one way. where p runs through all prime numbers. and otherwise A (n) = and Aj = A (n)/log n. if is a power of the prime is jt?. and the function analytic. its but for the sake of completeness we give a brief sketch of properties. l where for <r> s + it. The rigorous proof is easily constructed by taking first a finite number of factors. Jffe have also (2) W = n(ip 1 P ) (<r>i). 1.9 m 5 A(n)  logj>_ 2 ~mr~~ n=l ~ir~ /i m = j> ' ^ where N ) '(*)_ * p Y77\~~ 4 (n} W ^ l 1 A = log^?. From the convergence of the product (2) we deduce that (s) has no zeros for <r>I.8 T (5) = a? 1 e~ nx dx. and the series is convergent. We derive from (2) the formulae (2') p .
. except = 8 1..2..1 sin 1 57T. and an integral function of s. (2).. . (3). the integral can be evaluated by Since ~2 ^4 the theorem of residues. 1909.5) . 4eV.4. and taking account of the different value of the logarithm on the two parts. The numerator of the integrand logarithm is interpreted as being exp {(s~l)log( 2)}.2 INTRODUCTION We next replace the integral by the contour integral (4) where the contour C starts at infinity on the positive real axis. is used throughout as an abbreviation of E... where the is is real on the negative real <r axis.) and returns to its starting point. y ^ __ = 3 + ^ ___/. and we already know that (s) is regular at all these points this integral is uniformly convergent in Now so represents .2 V" cos J wT (s) C (*). Hence (s) is regular for all values of s except for a simple pole at s = 1.i. if s is an integer. ! 1 73 T) ** 2 we find the following values of (s) : J. . This holds (by continuation) for all values of s. .. position We next expand the contour C into a the poles of the integrand at at these points is found to be 2 If a Cn in which it includes 2eV. For the poles of T (1 s) are at 5=1..< except at s . Also.. __+. For alternative proofs see Handbuch.. .. Mordell (1).. with residue 1. The numbers in brackets refer to the * Handbuch bibliography at the end. 2. . < we can make n * the integral round Cn (1 tends to zero. from (3) in the case > 1 any finite region. and we obtain the functional equation* (6) X (s} = 2V 1 sin  l STT T (1 . This formula deduced by shrinking the contour G into the real axis described twice. This enables us to continue (s) over the whole plane. . . 281299. Landau's Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen.s)  s) or (6 ) f (1 . (2)=0. We deduce from this that C (5) has no zeros in the halfplane o. m=l GO . + 2mV. Hardy (2). The sum of the residues 2 (2^7r) 8 . encircles the origin once in the positive direction (but excludes the points 2^7r.
is A(8).s ) + (*#) = on taking JV= []. For each n. is an even function of z. From strip this we deduce that o (s) has an infinity of zeros other than the real ones already observed. By considering real positive values of s it is easily seen that the order is exactly 1. n. These zeros must be complex and lie in the We can now write ^ ^ 1. 1923. A n always denotes the same constant.ziH See G. 5. Valiron's Lectures on the General Theory of Integral Functions. so has an infinity of zeros. <() = *(!). Since also it follows from (7) that (s) is of order 1 at most. where y is The proof (12) * of (11) is rather complicated. f(t)0 {0 (t)} t>A. for A(d) denotes a constant depending on 5. always denotes an arbitrarily small positive number. In the first place we have s{<W. For by Hadamard's Here (0) (11) = (0) = J. the constant implied in t. then B (z) order* of o H (z\ By (6") it is sufficient to con sider the halfplane ^ . J See Yaliron's Integral Functions. ( 00 = (^.INTEODUCTION Writing (7) (*) 3 = M*i)^** r tt*). in. Now we > easily verify the formula and deduce that t. and 6 =i Euler's constant. and. It follows that U(fjz} is an integral function of order J.   1. not necessarily the same at each occurrence. f Throughout the tract A denotes a positive absolute constant. . however. If. (9) for o 8 (0 <3< > 1). f(t) = to{\f/(t)} means that /(t) \>A \f/ (t) \ \ means that \f(t)\ <A for some indefinitely or \ <f> (t) \ large values of or ^ depends on 5. where p runs through the complex zeros of factorization theorem J (5). 4. or (5)? the functional equation takes the simple form (6") Also S (2) = What is the if (J + iz). Oh. Ch.
We (13) (0) = Jlog2*r. We can now ' calculate (0) by differentiating (6) making obtain $*0. ( v cr> 1N l)' please. We can choose N so large that the s 1. if 1 is analytic. Backlund . As to the zeros of (s). (2).1 ' < 1 + r u^'du^l + i < ? . and is half the number of zeros in the rectangle *  1 < 2. and noting that (16) (l + c) = Src. and hence the fefthand side is not less than 1. We deduce from (2') that cos ( Since (15) 3 + 4 cos < + cos 2< = 2(1+ cos 2 <^>) ^ 0. (12) and the fact that r'(l) = y. it is known that there are none on the line <r = 1. Having fixed N. ~T<t<T. the lefthand side would tend to t(l + ^) as side tends to infinity. (3). Since f (s) * 0. and using (5). logarithmically. = Finally b. f (0)/ (0). The number* (T) of zeros of f (s) between t = and N t = T is given approximately by the formula This number is the same for (s) r as for (s). Handbuch. But the righthand Hence (s) cannot have a zero on 0= 1. every term in the exponent on the right of (14) is positive. 8+l uirr~^ . + it were a zero of f (s). the remaining terms tend to zero with This proves (12). Putting cr=l + e(6<l). and this independently of <r. and (11) follows from (13).4 For by (8) INTRODUCTION f u[u~\. w we obtain . 368372. last term is as small as we and at the same time so that the first term differs from y by as little as we please.
=2 2 Hence the interval variation of if am (s) from 2 to 2 + iT is less than TT. Hence in each part the variation of ain(s) does not exceed TT.  (s) not the ordinate of a zero. real for t if 5 T is am variation of and also for <r =  so that the variation round the whole four times the variation round a quarter of it (starting from rectangle = A am (s). Expressing (s) and using the asymptotic formula* for r ($). 136. R {($)} does not vanish on <r~ J. along straight lines. in. obtain (18) + iTj and thence to \ + iT. } where f < r < 2 proves (17). 1. (s) = (log T). we The real difficulty of the proof lies in proving that Aam In the first place. (ed. . Now (s) is is 2 to 2 again in terms of {(5). This An immediate consequence of (17) isj (19) N(T+ for/ (z). Modern Analysis f Valiron's Integral Functions. + iT and J + iT. since R(2 + '*)l71 2 w" >0. and so ^ ^ 71. is divided into q + R vanishes q times between 2 1 parts. 1927). where ^ the number of zeros off (z) in ^f By Jensen's theorem f log /(2 + r^) dO  27T log i/(2) I . . . and by (9) the righthand side is less than A log T. 4. Ch. $ Handbuch. . this or {($)} ^ 0. 1) . where A denotes the variation from .INTRODUCTION Hence. \ \ R throughout each of which R {($)} ~ f 5T)} Now I (z) is the number of zeros of f(z) = J {  0. knN(T) is equal to the round the perimeter of this rectangle. J  ^ ^ R (^) = 2  (s is + 7 f'7 ) + { (* for 2. and consequently A am (.N(T)  (log T ). Whittaker and Watson. 337.9 = 2).9) (q + f ) TT. Hence irN(T) 0. { (5)} Secondly. 7 This however follows directly from Jensen's theorem in the same way as the above result We have also shewn incidentally that (20) * am (s) = (log*) > (cr ).
.function ? We also encounter the problem : of the asymptotic behaviour of (s). ) .N}. which falls into naturally here.$) . how large and how small are its smallest values? are the largest values of (. for given values of o.a%. But we find it convenient to deal with the second question first first as far as possible.  00 = I I ^~ 8 1 . .a positive t and a positive number x^ #2 we can find a number r^t^rq and integers > N . THEOREM 1. We  Actually we always put the second question in the form. We use the following wellknown theorem on Diophantine approximation.. how large are the largest values of 1/ (s) ? More precisely. except Theorem 12. 1. and ask. l.ll. and we cannot entirely separate them. in the range &N such t that ( \ta n xn * \^llq = 1.. In the halfplane <r> 1 where convergent Dirichlet series. take a certain value (or range of values) of <r. 00 = a WOK and then consider the same problem for 1/f (s). Nreal numbers a T.GO. on the zeros.0. ' f (s) in the halfplane cr> 1. ff<r>l. while ()2(1 for some indefinitely large values of t.1. The limits of summation are always (1.= t (<0 difficulty lies in the second part. then COOIr for all values of t. The fundamental problem which emerges from the attempt to determine the distribution of the prime numbers is where are the zeros of the zeta. We have* So the whole 1.Sw. oo .6 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) CHAPTER I (*) THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF 1. unless otherwise stated. . Accordingly all the theorems in our chapter are place on inequalities. 2. we seek to determine 1 \ monotonic functions < () and ^ (t) such that 00 = {*(*)}.. If < (t) ^ (t). its (s) is represented by an absolutely main features are known. INTRODUCTION. l . Given integer q. as t *. the problem takes the form of determining the best possible values of the constants.12. THEOREM OF DIRICHLET. The two problems are closely connected.a N .
2. any fixed line = CTO > 1. for given N and jvr t (T ^ t ^ rqN \ and integers dogw/27r^<l/g Hence iV = 1. .. 1.. ua^ uu^ We now apply (s) this to (s). . T. and thus the cube into qN equal compartments.0. Divide each edge into q equal parts.a cos(* log w)is 2 n=JV+l n~*. 1 is A consequence of or Theorem that (5). where u . result follows if q and N are large enough. congruent (mod 1) to the points (ua iy ua 2) . Consider the ^"dimensional unit cube with a vertex at the origin and edges along the coordinate axes. there must be at least one region m m which contains at least two points.. + 1 points in there are regions. .. N At least two of these points must lie in the same comrq If these two points correspond to u = u lt (%<^2)> .ttl(* n + n=l first 2 nr* 9 and hence (the modulus of the sum being not than its real (1) (*) n=l 2 w. in the cube. cos (^ log ^) > cos (27r/g) for these values of w. This argument. ( > N such > that.2V). .14. For all values of N less 2 n*e.13. By Dirichlet's theorem i> there a number ^.. JN o i Hence (4) and the 1. partment.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) 7 The proof is based on an argument which was introduced and employed if extensively by Dirichlet. is not bounded in the open region though bounded on > > 1. Consider the qN +l points. or > 1. then t~u<iUi satisfies the requirements of the theorem. and so oo n=l w=l (1) JV+1 and hence by Now /"oo 2 w~ N+I <r I . . is that. in its simplest form.
p<#\ P/ log a?" 1. (4). The result log(s) is however a corollary of that for (s). THEOKEM 2. 1 would follow from < t < t .8 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF This follows at once from the fact that the upper bound (0) of (*) tends to infinity as <r^l. and we know Theorem 2 may be. This particular . by 1. 4 log log*. Titchmarsh 28 and 36. K( between S )2M2^}/(<rl) for a value of t 1 and 6^.?) was unbounded is bounded in any such region. which are not absolutely convergent on their line of convergence. > 1. (3) Take T= (2) 1 and g = 6 in Then. A For the nth differential for indefinitely large values of t in <r> coefficient of log (5) the result is that * some Bohr and Landau (1). We choose N to be the integer next above S 1 ^. with coefficients of fixed sign. any value less than There remains the question as to how large the constant A of It has been proved that Theorem 2 is true if A has e y where y is Euler's constant^.13 and (4).13. It remains only to observe that the value of t in question must be greater than any assigned (3) that that f (s) 1. But a little additional argument gives the following more precise and more interesting tQ result*. It is plain that the above argument may be applied to all Dirichlet series. constant arises from the formula t n(il). there are values of s in the (s)> 1.16. However large region <r > 1. Then <> for a value of t such that (4) N>Alogt. t Handbuch. .15. log (s) For example. f Littlewood (5). the series for and its differential coefficients are of this type. t > t0) fo9* which (1)  may be.1 is sufficiently small. if or. which gives at once I for log (s) >  log log log*1. Hardy (4). t . otherwise it or in the region (.1 *. The required inequality (1) follows from (3) and (4).
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF
for
some
indefinitely large values of
t
in o>l.
1.21.
We
now turn
3.
to the corresponding problem for l/(s).
1,
THEOREM
If
a
>
then
_!__
for all values of t, while
/br S0?w0 indefinitely large values of t. As before, the first part is almost immediate.

We
have
$
/ \
00
where
if
A*(l)
=
l,
/*
() = (!)*
p.
n
is
the product of k different primes, and otherwise
(n}
= 0. Hence
1.22.
are not
We
have now to prove the second
fails to
part.
In this problem
/x. (n) give any therefore leave Diophantine approximation for the moment, and adopt a different method* (which may also be used to prove Theorem 1). It depends on the fact that, if <f> () is positive and
Dirichlet's
theorem
result, since the coefficients
all
of one sign.
We
continuous for a
^ t~b
lim
,
then
1 {<t>(t)}
n^ooLiaya
("ji I
W
l'
n
n
dt]
J
We can
thus reduce the question of the
' a*tb <(#). maximum value of
= Max
a function
to that of the behaviour of integrals involving high powers of the function.
1.23.
series.
We also require the following mean We write
value theorem for Dirichlet
Iff(s)  2a nn~*
is absolutely
convergent for
a = <TO
,
then,
for
<r
=
<
*
Bohr and Landau
(7).
10
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF
= aa M 0r* aa*ir* + =a n
tt

We have

/(<TO
+
2
if)

2
I
2 ** **
the accent indicating that terms with
m = n are
omitted.
Hence
double series converges uniformly with respect to J since the absolute value of its general term is not greater than a m a n (mn)"*', and each term tends to zero as T* oo Hence the sum of the series
The
7
last
,

\
.
tends to zero, and the result follows.
1.24.
We
can now prove the second part of Theorem
3.
We write
and then
raise each side to the
as the product of
N+
8
of every term a m m~ s being prime to the 'n' of any nonzero a n n~ in seen from this and the theorem of 1.23 that
thus express {(s)}~ 1 absolutely convergent Dirichlet series, the 'm* with nonzero coefficient in any one of them
power.
Mi
We
fc
any
other. It is easily
M{\t*(,)\}=
nl
n
Now
for every
p
since the integrand
is
periodic with period 27r/log^;
and
N
since the Dirichlet series for
*
i;
v '
IJ
*~~
(s)
begins with
1
+
....
Hence
M
Now
2&^
5&"
J^
Km
Hence
l
l^"
lim [M{\
fc.oo
2
^
~ 2k
l'
=
2k
Max
>
(s)
\
}]
n
W=l
(1
+^
ff
).
Since this
is
true for
all
values of
,
by
a
A;
its
limit as
N*~
QO
viz.
(cr)/
N, we can replace the righthand side Hence to any c corresponds (2cr).
such that
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s)
and therefore there are
indefinitely large values of
1
t
11
for
which
This proves the theorem.
1.25. THEOREM 4*.
region o>l,
The function l/(s)
is
not bounded in the open
** 1
t>tQ >0.
<r
This follows at once from Theorem 3 and the fact that as
There is another proof of this result, depending on Diophantine approximation. We have already noticed that Dirichlet's theorem is not available in this case; but there is another theorem rather like it
which we can
1.26.
dent,
use.
KRONECKER'S THEOREM!. If a lt a^ ...a are linearly indepenN and hi, &2 b are any real numbers, then, given q, we can find a N
,
number
t
and
integers
x^ #a
,
...
XN such
(w
that
\dnt~ b n
If all the
xn \<\lq
= l,
2,
...N).
numbers b n are zero, the result is included in Dirichlet's theorem. The general theorem requires that the numbers a n should be linearly independent, i.e. that there should be no relation of the form
... are integers. Also it assigns no upper bound for the such as the qN of Dirichlet's theorem. The consequence of this is that from Kronecker's theorem we can deduce only unboundness, and not a definite orderresult such as Theorem 2.
,
where r lt r2
t
number
1.27. To prove Theorem 4 we write
log
= Sjr +
p
*(*),
where
<
(s) is
bounded
(t
for
a
>
1.
Now
< S
COS
R
%>
= S COS
\0gpn)p n
 ff
Also the numbers log p n are linearly independent. For it follows from the theorem, that an integer can be expressed as a product of prime
factors in one
way
only, that there can be no relation of the form
.
and therefore no
*
relation of the form
. . .
+ rN logp N = 0.
Bohr and Landau
(7).
t Various proofs of Kronecker's theorem are known. See, e.g., F. Lettenmeyer, JProc. London Math. Soc. (2), 21 (1922), 306314; H.Bohr, ibid. 315316. We give Bohr's proof in an appendix.
so near to 1 that 2/?w a > H. takes arbitrarily large negative values. X N such that \tlogp n TT or %Trtcn \ <\TT (n= 1. it follows that R(2^~ p s ).28. 1..31. > 1. in the particular case where a n = logp n/2v a value of t can be found which is.12 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF ($) Hence also the numbers log jt?n/27r are linearly independent. THEOREM 6. there are values of s in the 1. t However large > t^for which tQ may be. Since S^"" is divergent.. We (0 + uniformly in any region (tog In particular * (l+f'0 Bohr and Landau (6). t . less than an upper bound not very different from q discovery enables us to prove a result analogous to Theorem 2. theorem. THEOREM region a 1.COS \ir  \ . we can choose Then B P Since 5 may be as large as we please. .. and hence R (3 /?)<P 1 N #r 71=1 2 + 7l 2 = Nhl ^ n '. We have already remarked that in the general case of Kronecker's theorem we can assign no upper bound to the number t but* Bohr and Landau * have proved the remarkable result that.. This proves the N roughly. JVso large that H is any assigned positive number. Having fixed cr. ..3. . It follows therefore from Kronecker's theorem that we can find a number t and integers x ly . if ~ choose a. This 5. and so log (s). we can. for these values of n. The function have (1 + if). (7). Hence. N). 2. COS (t logpn) = COS (# log p n ~TT 2iran ) oo < .
Suppose that a function f(s) A in the is regular and of 0(t } halfstrip cr^or^o2. the form LINDELOF'S THEOREM")". halfstrip. if ($) 13 n ^ t. . we know that + it) is bounded and we know from Theorem 6 that (s) = (t A ) in (2 the halfstrip 1^0^2.= 1. ^ >0. THEOREM 7*. Bohr and Landau t A proof of this is given by Hardy and Biesz. but our argument by itself We have does not tell us anything about the values on the line cr= 1.32. t^t (s) >0. with N= [t]. \f(s)\^M on the whole boundary of the halfstrip. due to Lindelof. (! + &) = Q (log. We should therefore conclude that 1 whereas we know from Theorem that was bounded in this it is not. Suppose now that the function (1 it) were bounded. which enables us to deal with questions of precisely this kind.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF In the region considered. concerning the asymptotic behaviour of (5) in <r> 1. 1. however. p. the halfstrip. already seen that (s) takes arbitrarily large values in the immediate neighbourhood of the line o. to obtain correspondingly more precise information concerning its behaviour on the line * cr = 1. by (8) of the Introduction. 15. Hence (1 + it) is We can however use the more precise information of Theorem 2. = = (log N) + (1/0 + (log 0+0(1) + 0(1). This result will be replaced later by a slightly better one (Theorem 11) which. requires a far more difficult proof. Then and \f(s) that  ^ M throughout . There is however a wellknown theorem. Hence.log*). The General Theory of Dirichlet's Series. (1).
41.(r2 as t~*<x>. For purpose we use the following lemmas*. The reader will see that there is the 0result of Theorem 6 and the firesult of a considerable gap between Theorem 7 and even . The above theorem zero. and so. By   Hence /GO = 1(1+ hjs} F(s) <2c > h.15 we can prove further that fi5<(i*^ . a statement about This is all large perhaps not surprising. f(s)*Q uniformly The deduction. By using the result mentioned in mil 1. CTj^ (7^(T2 tt Q . by the main theorem.=. is not completely trivial. i i log log t 1. The real truth may anywhere in the gap. But we shall see later that the little Oresult probably (i. if the Biemann hypothesis is true) the best and that it is the 0result which falls short of the truth. . for s Now we see from Theorem 2 that   \ does not tend to zero uniformly for 1 < o.14 In the first THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) place it follows from Lindelof s theorem that iff(s) is A regular and of the form 0(t ) in the halfstrip.9) !/(! + if) we have to prove that has no zeros in the immediate neighbourhood of the line <r = 1. The zeros of (s) and the function l/ (1 + if). also throughout the halfstrip. remark applies to all our 0. 1.e. an Oresult about some in definitely large values only. = = if f(s)*0 on both the lines (r al9 o. since an 0result is values of t. Before we can deal with this * Landau (9). and/(2 + it} * 0. function choosing h sufficiently large we can ensure that F(s) < on the boundary.and Oresults. then in the halfstrip. (. while easy. A similar possible. We consider the and . Theorem of course 11 does lie towards narrowing the gap. 1.&.< 2 as t * co . which gives the desired result.33.4. therefore shews that /(I + if) does not tend to and this proves Theorem 7. . We are always more successful is with Otheorems.
THEOREM There is a constant A% such that (s) is not zero for * See Landau's Darstellung und Begrundung einiger neuerer Ergebnisse der Funktionentheorie. then The previous lemma gives M and. for So I *'()!  = 2  . by Carathdodory's theorem. _ C . p ^ r. . and \f(' s .p) is regular for s  ^^r. = for every p. and has no zeros in the right half of the circle \ss ^r. and = A(* ) R{h(s}}<M. tff(s) in the circle \ 15 is regular.* and so. 24. then \ while iff(s) has a zero p between s r and s . both results follow at once.42. Hence the function where the logarithm is zero at 5 =s > . so that s 1  *P This inequality therefore holds inside the circle also. 1. and is regular for s  s \ ^ Jr. Hence. 1 The function g zero for \ss<>\ =/(s) H (s . and not i^Uop.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) LEMMA. fff(s) satisfies the condition of the previous lemma. 1916. On ss =^. 1 then *p p rws through the zeros (s) off(s) in\ss \^^r. where C' is the circle s = r LEMMA.$ 6 r. (*)' This gives the result. since R {l/(s p)} 8.
say. ft > f If there are no such zeros.m + 4 cos (my log/?) + cos (2wy log/?)} 0. for y>yi. as o ~* 1. We apply the last lemma to/(s) = (s) and the circles with centres o. . in  *. where a half. by (9) of the Introduction. This depends on an inequality of the same type as (14) of the IntroBy (2") of the Introduction Hence {3 p. is a constant to be determined later. taking r = J . ^logy<^ ^ 10 (y>y ). of course. Let CTO = l + a /log y. 1 and the which emerges from Hence (1) gives . we have Also. and the former has at least one zero in its left half. Hence. the expression in the bracket being never negative.r We take  as a convenient constant between (1). in the lemma. M= log y. Let ft + iy be a zero of (s) for which.s 1 i . follows at once. Now so that.16 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f ($) duction. if y is large enough. so that. CT O + 2^V and radius J Neither of these circles has any zeros in its right . 4<r.+ ^'y. the result.
 Now 1 p  ^ .41. and the lemma of s Q. LEMMA. ^R2 P AM by (3). for s  < \ r'. This proves 1.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF Solving for 1 17 . give (3) \*llp\<AMIr. + 1 i r ri r < 1 ~Ri r~r IP!  sp and so p ipi = B().41 with (1).2r'. f Gronwall Landau (12). The result * now follows from the (1). p so that. shall deduce it from the than Theorem We following lemmat.R (p) > 2/ ^ i 2 s   .ft.41. 1.43. < r' < \r. we obtain and the constant in brackets the theorem. Then \f(s)/f(s)\<AM/r (. Let f(s) satisfy the conditions of the first lemma of and let Suppose also that f (s) where (2) * Q for \s sQ \<r.5rO1. THEOREM 9*. . There is a region IAI in which we have uniformly In particular This corresponds to Theorem 6. lemma of 1. since it depends in the first place on the fact that 1/f (s) is regular in the region considered. Then take s We = 0. Naturally it is more difficult to prove 6. 1. is positive if a is small enough. cr > CTO . Landau (12).44.
(s) CT O  z A Jog t<>. where Then. t^2. Let5 =othe circle 5 1 eV . with r = . n(n) = 2 4. for lo S o ^  A 2 /S log t. for in which Also > 3. 1 the result follows at once from Again.18 1. THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (*) We can now prove tQ Theorem 9.> . < <e _ . 2. We know f that <r (s) is not zero ). in a region o^ lAz/logt. log Hence A ' logt . s 1 & \ belongs to l+ J. and for 1 + i4 2 /log t^a^2 (3). (2) Also (3) no A. 2 /(4log t > the region o. Hence while for TT"\ 1 = ' lo < 1 + ^At/log t S o S 2 the result follows at once from (1). . TTT^T = "" ] log log + u4. For t<>> has no zeros in the part of the circle where We can therefore apply the lemma. M= Max ~~ 4) log We deduce that 8 log t 4 log This is the desired result in the range stated .45. r = 34 2/8 log tQ .
THEOREM 10. We !/($) may. which gives its value for <r = 0. therefore confine our attention to (s).< obtained in the halfplane o. o. follows from (o) is finite for ^ oit is < 1. It is plain that we can obtain no result of the kind considered for < o.5. s) 19 4(1 + it) The deduction of this from Theorem 5 7 j^. It gives. 0). 1.fixed and t > 0. Further.< 1. functional equation obtained in the Introduction enables from those we have us to deduce the results for the halfplane o. we must have ^ (o) ^ would cease to be convex somewhere between \ and > < o. is the same as that of Theorem from Theorem 1. The (1) =* For example. ). 1. The most important property This is of /* (o) is that convex downwards. but its exact value we can obtain a slightly smaller upper bound is not known anywhere in the critical critical strip.= <TO (0 < <TO < 1).< 1 for the property of convexity shews Again.53. to (1.51. r < L. for J ^ o. (s) in the critical strip. and is discussed in It tells us a good deal about detail by Hardy and Riesz. a direct consequence of Lindelof s theorem. We now introduce . (or) in /x. shall see later that />t(o). . for o. For.> 1.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF 1.for \ (o) /u completely. . /u (V) = <r for o > 1. 1/f (s) in the critical strip for all we know. /* (o) ^ J cr for that /A (o) does not rise above the straight line joining the point (0. ^ = O (log log t). become infinite an infinity of times. we deduce from Theorem 6 that (it) = (tf* log tf). but does not enable us to determine In the first place. The above argument shews that () = (***+') in the We can however obtain a slightly more precise result. it Similarly < o. the lower bound of (*).< J. 2. 1. We for strip. on any line o.46. which gives the order of (o) is + *) as a function of t more (or numbers A such that (<r + i) = It follows from Theorem 1 that functional equation that ^ (o) =  (9) of the Introduction that /* precisely.52. which gives its value for <r = 1.< 1. a function /x (o) /u. or the function 1. and then from the it o for < 0. The remaining results may be left to the reader.
20
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF
11.
THEOREM
t(s)
o
=
(t*~
**
log
*)
uniformly in
0^
^
1.
In particular
We use the more general form* of Lindelof s theorem, which states that,
iff(s)
is
regular
and of the form /fr + fV) = (**>),
A
(t
\for
^
o
^
o 2
,
and
/(cr, + &)
<
(*),
then
tion
<r2
<r <r linear func2j k (o) fem0r {t } uniformly for of cr which assumes the values ki,fc2 for o = c^ o2 Now f(s) = (s)/logs satisfies the conditions (for t> 1) with = 0, = J, ^2 = 0. The result follows at once from this. = 1,
k((r)
,
.
f (s} =
^
^
,
^
/fci
1.6.
WeyFs method of approximation and Hardy and Littlewood^c.
have already remarked that
is it
it is
the theorems
of
1.61.
We
possible to improve on
the 0result of the foregoing work, of the method used. The analysis
and we
here.
shall
now
give an account
very complicated, and we have
only space to give a brief outline of
The
analysis
is
Weyl, who obtained
based on some very important inequalities, due to inequalities satisfied by sums of the form
tf'sVn r=0
where ^
If
is
we
and (r) is a polynomial in r with real coefficients. each term in 8 by its modulus, we obtain \8\ ^p*. But it replace easily seen that, in simple cases, more than this is true. Thus if
is large,
P
P (r) = ar,
and
so
then

S
=

(1
 ^)/(l  <F)
< Min(^,



cosec \a

,
$
,
cosec \o\).
2 IfP(r)=ar then
a
/g
= #/8= S *%
q=Q
r =0
/
e
i
(**~ r *)=
*%
2 eian(2r+n)^
/x,
n=ij,+l r
where n = q~r, and in the
integers.
last
sum
r runs through
 n consecutive

\
Hence
W
We
*
2
e*
ian
Min
(/A,

cosec
na ).
can continue this process, and obtain a similar inequality in the
Riesz,
loc. cit.
Hardy and
f
Weyl
(1),
Littlewood
(2),
Landau
(10).
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF
general case.
21
for the
Actually our object
is
to obtain
an inequality
sum
N'
which
is clearly connected with the zetafunction. into partial sums, each containing /x terms. first of these, for example, is
S up
f
To do this we divide The modulus of the
n=N
Now
+
(1
"AT ) tV/
~ ex P ^ ^
i
I
n= i
n
J\
~\7i r
)
= exP
i^S nl)
(
f
exp
u
I
2
}
n=k+l)
where
and
t
(r) is a polynomial of degree k, and with which we can easily deal. Hence
P
^ (#)
is
a function of
v, k,
JL\/
V= Q
r =0
Here the inner sum is, apart from the factor rv of the form S, and we can obtain an inequality for it from that for S by partial summation. This establishes the connection between S and S'. The actual result * is as follows. Let and N' be positive integers such that ^ N' < 22V; let > 3, and A" = 2* Then
,
N
N
(
1
.
k1
(1)
r'i
n=N
Nt
k +v
log
K
N} log*
t.
to suit
The inequality contains the arbitrary integer k, which may be chosen any particular case under consideration.
from (1) the following inequalities t
i
:
We deduce
(2)
<^
\<A
(A
(3)
(4)
These results are obtained from
^N
*
t2 ,
(1)
f ,
in which, as in (1),
110, (16).
N" ^
2 AT,
by dividing the sums into parts and using partial summation.
t
Landau (10), p. t See Landau 10,
of
state (3) and (4) with upper limit pp. 114115. this being all that is required in the method followed here.
We
instead
22
1.62.
THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s)
We
can now prove*
12.
THEOREM
(1)
We have
(s )
=
4 *1

I*
<r
W*
W

log */log log
t]
uniformly for 63/64
(2)
^
<
1
;
(l+<
Let r be the integral part of
Min
so that 6
[log{l/(l <r)}/log
for
o
2,
log log
*],
r
^ log
log
t
> A. Since
 2~ r >
1
>
1

1/J?,
we can apply
1.61 (4),
and obtain from Theorem
19,
with x
=
t,
Suppose
first
that
1
 <r
log log /log
t.
Then
it is
easily seen that, for
t>A,
t.
r^\ log log
Hence
2
n =
2
tf'n^t**
1

which is of the required form. If, on the other hand,
1
 o > log log >
J3^.J
t/log
t,
then
for #
r
I
log
J log
^
_^
,
>
^4
;
and
which
is
of the form of the righthand side of (1).
This proves
(1),
and
(2) follows
by continuity.
* It is convenient at this point to anticipate the result of Theorem 19. It does not seem appropriate to set it out in full in the middle of a sketch of this kind, and in any case the results could be obtained without it. A similar remark applies a little later to the use of Theorem 22.
t Hardy and Littlewood
(1),
Weyl
(1).
_ TO g ( o + fy)l f < ^1^6 log 2logy + *y)J (loglogy) /logy U(<r { ((T + 1 2 * 2ty) j Also 1. we knew =1+a oo before) for o ^ ft 1  I/log t. for (2) Hence. for any other zeros certainly satisfy the required conditions. The proof now depends on the same ideas as the proof of Theorem but we use the additional fact that (1) holds for and not merely (as 8. (s) ($) =1= 23 THEOREM 13.42 (4) holds as before. the circle ^ r = (log log y) 2/log y s s  1 lies in if the region o y is sufficiently large. It is sufficient to consider those zeros + iy. y and we deduce from 1. y > A . for which ft > oo . ^1Now 2 (log log /log ^ ^ = ^>.\ 2 (log log y) /log y.Q + Viy. by the second lemma of 1. < (. and also for s = o. for 2 The previous theorem gives.A 6 log log #/log t.41.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF 1. .42 (log log y) /log (1) that 15 5i log logy 4 ool Solving for 1 . > 1oV y (1) (log log t /log t. A ool __ ~ A log y log logy' and it follows from this and (1) that.) = *W fexp J4 log F L I {exp = (A log log f) log t/log log t} = ^ (log #). if there are any. For SQOQ+ iy.63. Let log log y/log y (y > 3). Ofor > . This proves the theorem./3 we obtain which is positive if a is sufficiently small. <r There 1 is a constant A 5 suck that t>t<>. t>A.
1.^ 1 (s) 4= /log A new far cr analytical method. for s   s \ r y o  l ' <T O ____ = 1 log* log log # Also the part of the circle where .and that ./3 is small. 1. by 1. 9. t>t0) in which we have unifwmly L ro) In particular _n " MO* \ ' 00 ~  n u = t(l+it) Thefproof is \\oglogtj' (llit) . use the above argument with any values in the appropriate regions.64. Apart from the extension of 1. y.63 (1) to the wider range. THEOREM 1 There is a region A log log /log t^o^2. It seems clear that until we discover some for o. 15 4crc l We obtain 1_ + 5AJogM ~~r <r 4 ~P ' For the expression on the right to be positive. Let (log log t^* = where A 5 is the constant of Theorem 13. For suppose that we of rand o. we cannot hope to extend the result very at most not beyond the immediate neighbourhood of the line = l.24 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) analytical machinery of the proof 1. since log M is certainly large for large 1  1 must be small. Then. immediate neighbourhood of a= 14.65.!  (CTO 1) log Jf <!/*<!.63 (1). i.e. our result is but then the lower limit obtained for restricted to the . \loglogtJ similar to that of Theorem . <r and so. we must have 5 J. the is the same as in the proof that t.
66.not covered by Theorem 12. For fixed q > 2. We now see that j* ()<. of 1. THEOREM (1) 15. 118. (*)= ^ w<< +0(l). we extend our 0result to values of o. and in fact obtain (s) a more precise result for certain values of cr. =  A 5 log log to/log t09 now M=. Suppose first that Then. As a final application of the method. p. All the results follow exactly as in the proof of Theorem 9.67. for example.ft (<r) of 1. (1) . for  ^ cr si 1. Q = W~\ <r = 1  In particular (2) . by Theorem 19. and we have to appeal to some such result as Theorem 22. and that the graph touches the line y = at or = 1 The actual value of p (cr) in the critical strip remains unknown. o = 1  t/Q).52 must pass. Theorem 15 gives us a number of points below which the graph y . equation) for with a corresponding value (deduced from the functional ^ <r^ J.THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) belongs to the region where (s) 4= 0. for uniformly as <r~*. we obtain the result. n< J(t/2 and the result f ir ) where x = sums. follows on applying (3) to each of these 1. ^^ ^> 2. We deduce from our fundamental inequalities 1.61 (1) two further 1 inequalities*: 1( 1 (3) 3 f (4) _i / 2 ^/log*1 n'=0 (*<"+) (? > 2. but riot one which holds 1.Max (A 7 A^) log log tQ . * See Landau (10). . The case q 2 is more difficult.44 with the above values of s and r 25 We may therefore apply the lemma r. and . But we shall see later that there is some reason to suppose that /* (cr) = of the function .1. Theorem 22 gives. and dividing the sum into the parts (3) and (4).
is not the best that is known. not for which it is large. 29 (1928). It is easily seen that l . but we cannot prove that it takes values as great as a power of t. in general. Still further applications of van der Corput's method have also been 1.in unbounded applies equally But we can prove more than this. Zeitschrift. \ <. See Walfisz (1). Valiron (1).7. is o + i) + it) THEOREM 17}. But it tells us nothing about the distribution of the t may however another result which many more values of t. Landau (5) and (14). in place. for l<r<2. For (o < 1. which is somewhat complicated. t See a footnote on page 400 of Math. inequality 1.8.66 (2) for (J + it\ deep as it is. It has been shewn by Walfisz that van der Corput's method cation to the divisor problem gives the following result: THEOREM announced!. primarily for appli The A and similar problems in the theory of numbers.81.26 1.82. is 1. There is much weaker inequality. 16. ( + it) = 0(t 9Ts ). THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) Van der Corpufs method*. If His any number greater than unity then . 1 + it) = O {exp a~e }. but we shall refer to it again at the end of Chapter II. but states it for very small. be expressed roughly by saying that \(s)\ is. 1. Hoheisel(l). unbounded for every o. has been invented by van der Corput. ri^f t except possibly for a set of values of * of measure \jH. We shall not give the proof. J Titchmarsh (4). method similar in principle to that of Weyl. THEOREM 18. however small. ^results for (s) (<r in the critical strip. values of states a It sometimes The above theorem tells us that in the critical strip (s) is large. (log t) however (<r + it) takes values greater than any power of log large. . or < in fact the proof that f (1 well to the general case. where it is really more  Thus f  . but still more complicated.
41.83. follows 2 Hence (2) 2 log*y>4J5riogZ. Since there are T) terms in the sum. We have. Take s = f + iV. Hence = (1) It is easily seen 2 ITyl > S ITyKl log*y+0(lo g r).<5SP . and each such term is Finally.So ^ 4. ^ for 1 (2) 5 . M= A log . from a graph that the integral / I J T \og\ty\dt. LEMMA. often useful. but not in that of the and each such term is (1).THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF 1. The exceptional values of t are. . (log 7 ). for l^o^2. + b ^ $= 2 W iryi<i*p 0(logn since the number of terms included is lemma. and  ?$00 in =0(logO V ' . 0(1).84. tfp = V ' (1) + iy runs through 77T. r = 10 in the first lemma of and we obtain 1. 1. except in a set of measure 1/5". 1 in this sum. particular for fe  2 P * by (19) of the Introduction. those in the neighbourhood of ordinates of zeros of (s). which zeros of (s). of course. and the result follows from (1) and (2). or vice versa. (s) is 27 We first prove /3 the following lemma.1 ^ <r ^ 2. i considered as a function of y. T$t ^ T+ J. is a minimum when y = T\ and (log it is it then equal to that  log 2  1. the number of terms in one of the above sums but not in the other is (log ).* 0) ly<l*P = 0(logO ^ * ' Then uniformly for ~ 1 ~ o ^ 2.
. and consider the integral JL L~JWL & L (^^(i^) 2J a (l2r 2mj^7r (2) s 1 ^(the two forms are equivalent on account of the functional equation).$ J i JL / AJ A(^ S).A 9 y/\og y)  are included in the same bracket.QO . series this. Hence T  A by the theorem of residuesf. 9 y/log y) for every ordinate y of a zero of Then for t<t where It A IQ < %TT if A B is small enough. Hardy and Littlewood (2). 156159. . J / ro *(. average. not proved that the series on the right is convergent in the ordinary sense. now follows from the asymptotic formula for the Ffunction  that the 7 integral along the horizontal side of the contour tends to zero as T *. of course. not Theorem 18 itself.84 (1). pp.> exp through values s uch that y (. t In forming the series of residues we have supposed for simplicity that the poles are all simple. To obtain a suitable set of values through which we can make T * <x> it is most convenient to use. Application to a formula of Ramanujan*.4 9 y/log y) + exp (.. J.. * Of course the zeros are. and it is quite possible that the may converge without any bracketing. Let a and ft be real numbers such that a/3 = w.y < exp (. and t large enough. . But we are unable to prove even on the Riemann hypothesis.j The n first term on the left is equal to r 2^i~too s= _ 2/ w * =s n and. Suppose that t *o> through values &T. taken round the rectangle 1 such that \ty\ > exp ( (*). and multiplying through by x/a we obtain Ramaiiujan's result > . on the much farther apart than this. evaluating the second term in the same way. but 1. have merely proved that it is convergent if the terms are bracketed in such a way that two terms for which We We  y .28 THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF f (s) 1.85. have.Q y/log y) for every y.
THEOREM 19 1. since the last term in the sum (which might be affected by the s).MEAN VALUE THEOREMS 29 CHAPTEE II MEAN VALUE THEOREMS 2. But we an approximate formula for (s) in the critical strip. is given. by a "real . The problem of the order of (s) in the critical strip is. *JX and (4). The form which it takes is that of determining the behaviour of as T*. is much easier.23. Then a simple i application of the theorem rx+i<x> of residues shews that (*)i S n~*= S n=. as we have seen. The problem of the average order.> 0.12. **Jx iaQ (cot *)*&. Jl shall shew that this is also true for  r < 1.oo . t Hardy and Littlewood variable" method. We also consider mean values of other powers of those of Chapter (. from the general mean value theorem of 1. and also to problems in the theory of numbers*. restriction) is 0(x~*\ and so is the possible variation in x ~*l(l uniformly for We may l Suppose first that cr> 1. suppose without loss of generality that x is half an odd integer. \ (a + it} 2  dt = S n** = t (2o). Apart from this they have applications to the problem of the zeros.?) .11. or mean value. (1) We have l s 00 = 2 n. &l 8 (cot**+f)*<fe. \t\< 2?r#/c. The results give an interesting comparison with I.^ o. unsolved. that Km 2'*. and.* _. for any given value of  <r. 4lJxi<x> n<x n>x i z~ cot *z dz ~ 8 rx rx + i<x> (2) * =. For cr> 1 we deduce at once. (3) In (3) quite a different proof. r S Hardy and Littlewood (4). and indeed might be used to prove 0results if we could push them far enough. has been solved completely. first require.x n < x 8 l(ls) + 0(x\ a. We 2. in its simplest form. oo J. where c > 1.
We also require We Jwve the following lemma. for all since the last two integrals are uniformly convergent in any finite region.30 MEAN VALUE THEOREMS final s.< ^ or <r < 1. = 2 n**(Tri)+0{ = m<n<T + (T 22 m~ a n72 /logn/m} T 2 n* + (T 72 2 *) ^ log T) . Since 1. We can now prove THEOREM 20. so that 22 2 ^<A m<n<T m.14. 1. 2 2 In 2 2 we write mn (w r where 9 1 ^ r ^ ^. Theorem 19. we now suppose ^ 1. and the theorem 2.13. and r/ri) then = . (a + ^) > 2  *~ T (2cr) o (o > ).njTj (n/mY dt (T^ ff = Max (m. so that . 2> 2 the remainder. log n/m > A. LEMMA. 2 ^w=l r=l 2 r. with x= gives say.r). by the theory of analytic continuation.=lr=l .a w" T J?i 2<r w/r < J. We have already accounted for the case that i < o > 1. Hence T in 22 < J. 2. 2 2 tj. for  o. formula holds. As T + \ oo .log log n/m (1 > r/n. In the second integral we put z = x + ir. and uniformly for Let Si denote the sum of the terms for which m < ??.1 < J^ T72 ^ log T. A similar result holds for the other integral. so that values of cot irz The + i\ Hence the modulus of this term does not exceed Jo 2?r ~ I < t I IX follows. Now Jl Jl m<t ff n<t rT = 2 m<Tn<T n<T 2 m.a n<A(n<T n~ a } < A T ~^. In Si.
Then we T have. (f being dealt with as f = o" ^ 2. in any case. Now S w. log T= iZtor/(o. 1) log 9 ) T before. The particular case cr =J is * Littlewood (4). 31 = 1. . + o (log n which holds and the 2. Suppose first ^ ^ o . we can replace or.* log 2 and also. have a result of this type uniformly in the It is THEOREM 21* uniformly for  ^ o.15. /j Jl ""i 7 Similarly T .J) ^ J77(cr a This gives the result for If ^ f the term . as before. in the 0term. by f say.16. It will be useful later to strip. result follows.^ that J 2.2* 7 ^ Tlog T. Hence. we obtain whence the 2. Jl n< uniformly in o.MEAN VALUE THEOREMS .J). putting x = (2cr 2 . T. result. . /oo and also 2 w~ < n<T 2 1 + T . If oand obtain the same result. provided that cr < 1.2 '^ 2 ?i< 2' n 2(T <T / w^^logl u~ 2a du < 7 .
(1) by writing Proceeding as before. If Piracy =\t\.sini$7rr(ls) S v v = 1 1 8. (4) Hardy and Littlewood and (6). The first sum is precisely the beginning of the series for (s).e.s)  .32 MEAN VALUE THEOREMS We rem 19 is not sufficient of the same kind. known as 1 the approximate functional equation/ is as follows (5 ) : THEOREM 22... valid for < 0. but in which much smaller number of terms. for 2(n + l)Tr\t\/x>A. of The weakness term Theorem 19 lies. . then n<x . It is therefore cr suggested that we can obtain a more useful approximation to f (5) in the critical strip by taking a number of terms of the series valid for cr < 0. yac+'ioo / Now e*** (*> rioo rx I ^rte z s dz =l JO Jx Jo = (2)* 1 r (1 . (3). if n is large. We have rx / now to consider the other terms on the right of (1).S v = 1 JO (#* + e*****) z~* dz. not in the existence of the error 0(x~\ which is small enough for most purposes. We shall now obtain a formula. but in the fact that x is greater than a certain multiple of t. integrals in the finite sums contain a to the second of these integrals.. Thus the finite sum by which we represent (s) contains more than At terms. Now we can modify the argument applied. comparatively small values of x. 2. the last term in (1) leads to an error. and h and k are positive constants. which we deduce from the functional equation. which is more complicated than 2. y > k. and \ = x = 2'w*"" 1 sin 7rsr(l 5).12 (2). \t\jx) l2(+l)ir} and this is (2) (x~ a if i.g. and we require a deeper result The approximate functional equation*.1 . The restriction on x arises from the inequality which we obtain for the 2.k cr uniformly for * n<y g k. we obtain altogether (3) 2s ^.21. x > k. The result. can improve the 0result to an asymptotic equality.  .12 (1).term ix~ r e *Wwl*dr\ = o . e. as well as terms from the series valid for o> 1. JQ Dealing with the other integral in the same way. But Theofor this purpose.
In the first part we have z~ a = \z\~ e~* nt and these terms are and that #~2/. together with an integral I X** L Since (^ 1) Jo exp F ] t arc tan this is ( I T^ ^V^r ~ + v . The former gives a term (e~ Ai ) as before.tr/xj2)} . {r x\ x iJ2 * yo (r Ar%tlx dr \ J = (V* r *). and (3) to be + 1. [y~\ We (1). x) by integrals along (0.r \ dr . x~ L I Jo exp t arc tan I x^j^r H~ 7 + 7^. and condition (2) is satisfied. (2).1) w^/^ (n J v [ dr .1 arc tan X A \ i\J T .ia. . % ~\ (^0 = c = l y. and observing that arc tan $ z 7 % = "* ^4. so that We x~ . ix) and (. In the first n 2 terms of the sum in question we replace the integral along (0. J J TT ^ T/TT = J#/^?. x). suppose first that x is half an odd in We and 1. T ^ . We suppose also that t > 0.J (\t\l2ri). The terms v n 1.) =  + g)} (M)*".MEAN VALUE THEOREMS Notice that {l and that the last term in each sum terms.O {x" exp since arc tan = (.  33 x (. which occurs in take the number n Then y < n y + 1. v n require special consideration.xrj2 + r 2 )~* a exp (.)} ^ {(/(I = {x~* exp ((0 (!) + ^f^ ( 1). teger. >J%x ) J Writing ^ = rjx ^/2. is of the order of one of the error give the proof of the case where or has a fixed value between In view of our previous remarks it is only a question of dealing with the second sum in (3). X O {V \v=l 8 ( JO e^ Xn e^ r^ t In the second we have z=x refc l and \z = 1 O 2 . Also a # v = Y^^~ so that this integral is Jo The terms involving e~* veiri may be dealt with in the same way.
y= ^/log #.22. on = V = (*/2 7r)* o.= 1 also. t > * 2. Slight As an example of the superiority of Theorem 22 over Theorem 19. dividing by w<l/ xi.4s We take o = J. we obtain 1 {(*)= 2 ^.r xi A UK"*.34 For the term v MEAN VALUE THEOREMS = n. obtain (!*)= n2 n^+x. x^y. . Then Hence x 2 = x S whence the theorem follows for any x. with error to the original integral along (#. the theorem with notice that we can deduce at once from Theorem 22. and a? = #/(27r /v/log tf). we return. and We < a. take the result with change s into 1 s. Hardy and Littlewood (2) and (4). 8 and noting that w<. Firstly let (ii) x ^ = [x\ + 1. To remove the second restriction.+ x 2 which is n'^+OfoO + Ofc' !*!*'). THEOREM 23*. x + i<*> ). .= \ and observing that x (I + it) = (1). proof. ^ and y interchanged.tftirx'. 1 0(\\\ y~ } = and obtain ( t *~ a y a 0(atT' Since 2/&7T I e * n *r+t&Tct*nr/x fa} > I 2#7r = t\x> this is L' e trl*+t*tr/x dr j = Q / r e Atr*/x* fa \ = Q (%1a r This gives the desired result. n 2 w<y where Hence. y' . We have finally to remove the restrictions (i) x = \ (mod 1). under the restrictions stated. that 9 taking 2. This completes the modifications shew that the result holds for o.
/?> J.MEAN VALUE THEOREMS Then.r say. \Z\*dt= m.u 2 n~* +it dt. sufficient to prove that T T 2 \Z\ dt = ( Now JO ( JO m<x 2 m*. n<x membered that x In inverting the order of integration and summation. Ingham (1). 22 n). where T. 35 = 2 n<. T^m. as in the proof of Theorem ( Jo 19. . a+^>l.n<xjTi ^m^ n m n<X* t n<X The first term is Tlog X+ (T) = T log T+ o (Tlog T 7 ). it must be reis a function of t.if) dt ~ t. ri) =7 7 1 /{27r x/(log 1\)}. Hence. writing X= T/{27r x/(log I r 7 )}. The second term is o( and. T { Jo (m. the last lemma term is This proves the theorem.^ (a + /3) * T. The investigation of mean value formulae of this kind has been carried a good deal further by Littlewood and Ingham*. by the n<X of 2. It is known that if a and ft are fixed.13. fir* (log*0 = Z+ Since it is.23. The term in (m. 2. then F M (a + if) fW (/5 . n) occurs if x > Max = say. <*>.r  + + ( 2 n<# *) + o (r*) + o (logto (log**)* = 2 w<. since x (i + *0 = f ($) (1). Littlewood (2).
a (0 < < Let JR (si) be the residue 5 = 1. In particular 2y)r+0(rtlo g where y is n Euler's constant. assume that both F(x) and G(x) are analytic functions. may. justified by the absolute convergence of the associated double integral. and. .31*. Putting x ieS~^ (0 < 3 < ~ TT). with necessary modifications of the expression on the right. except (t } for Suppose now that /(a) = S a n n~* is regular and = 1. Then. we obtain < r T (a + ii)f(a + it) * l e~ Q"*) a+ *) eW dt  Titchmarsh (1). A cr > 0. /2+ioo = 2 oo n /2+ioo r*fM&= 1).term. yoo We ( In the cases which we actually use. and absolutely integrable over The inversion of the order of the integrations is then ). Now move at the contour to <r . The formal basis of this method is a wellknown formula in the theory of Fourier integrals. we G obtain formally (2) yoo I" \G(x)\*dx=r \F(x)\*dx. We may write Fourier's reciprocal formulae in the form ft \ r* (1) (x(x) /\ If we multiply the first of these equations respect to x by (x) and integrate with (inverting the order of the integrations on the right). and that the series is absolutely convergent possibly for a pole at s forer>l. 2. Then n=l say. this process is easily justified. oo 2 ae~*. ifR(a?)>0. oo oo regular . and bounded on the real axis. it is of some interest to have an independent proof of theorems of the type of Theorem 23. extended to all (even complex) values of a and ft. In view of the difficulty of proving the approximate functional equation.36 MEAN VALUE THEOREMS This formula has been proved with a comparatively small error.
v) ei8 } \(iir It is 1] [exp {(. . p. Then 1 'yo The ^integrand is bounded over (0. IT + ice ).32. In the remaining part we express the squared modulus as a product of conjugates.iir + v) e i8  ' } 1] asymptotic to ^.31 THEOREM 23 A*. to the properties of See Hardy and 152.iue)  I u} ) u2 ' (TT. The ofe [exp .31 (4). TT) uniformly in 8. dt = r Jo 2. tV) *' i~ AT J ao rirCa + fO/Ca + fOI ^^** Joo f Jo Since r (a + ^)~<r*i'i . from the other without further reference Littlewood (2). We now use 2.=1 exp (2mr sin 28)  ' 1 * The result is equivalent to Theorem 23 in the sense that either can be deduced *(*). a process which is easily justified. so that this part of the integral is bounded. in 2. tf* ^TT) tegral over (.MEAN VALUE THEOREMS 37 We may therefore put F(f) = ** and (2) gives (3) < (iet*\ G (0 = (2*)* r (a + 8 *)/(a 4 <**~ 8 > <*+">. and obtain w ( g) r Jv ** {exp(iw )l}{exp(fwe)l} w We turn the line of integration in the first two integrals to and use the theorem of residues first term becomes (4) 2l7T  ^ = i^ tS /"* + Jo The series is the important part.oo 0) is 2 i bounded j 2 *.1 as * as 8 .0. ^ oo. As 8 (1) + (4) to prove the following theorem. We take/(s) = (*). a  . __ I ] exp (. the part of the Jin and we obtain r Jo i /(a + if) ^ o.
The formulae oo. M. as usual. Wilson (1). (2). The fourth power of  (5)  yields formulae similar to those involving the square. and if V>TT the modulus of the exponential term is less than 1.41.1}" 2 ~= 2 0(w. (m r + 1). As T* we have d (n) once from the denoting. 1  n^l/5 w>l/6 (2ra7r sin 28) 1 exp (2urr 1 sin 28) 1 27rsin28 J2ir 2ir8iu 1 i 2s e v l ' 1 (f *> /0 1 8 log 8 We have We have still to consider the remaining integrals in (3) ITT and (4).exp (4W sin2 8) {exp (2mr sin 28) . then d (n) = (m l +1) . the number of divisors of n.. \ so that the middle term in (3) n/f dv is __ TT Uo e^l> oosl + sin 8) _ lWr is  ~U 1/ (Jw Sin5 ^ l)~ u V d ^\nf] g ' 8/ 1 1>4. . This completes the Also exp{(^7r<y)0~ } proof..38 MEAN VALUE THEOREMS the absolute value of the difference being less than 2?r n Also exp __ _ _ l I exp (2mr sin 28) 1 . 2 d2 (n) n~* = * U 2 p m=0 f (m + 2 1) ^'. Hardy and Littlewood (4). and higher powers will appear more also have applications in the theory of numbers. Ramanujan B. for this is plainly true when 8 = 0. It is easily seen from this that we have the identity The last series in prime factors is . The interest of dealing with this clearly in Chapter VI. So we find in the same way that the last term in (4) is (log 1/8).)+ 2 OOr 2W7rsin25 ) = (log 1/8) + 0(1/8) = 0(1/8). exp {( + v) e i8 }  1 1 = exp (v cos 8 4 ?r sin 8) . THEOREM (i) If cr> 1 24*. . If the expression of n m p^i p r r. 2.23 that we deduce at was summed by Ramanujant. and lemma of 1. but they are distinctly more difficult to prove. .1. and so by continuity for < v < TT and 8 small enough.
1 < a < o. since * (3). with residue C 2 C (w} at w . where a. w 2 obtained by inserting the series ^d(n)n~ for (V) and integrating = a. .dt 20. 60. Moving (w) R 2 = pass the pole of T (w 5) at w s. putting w = a + iv.MEAN VALUE THEOREMS Since 39 it follows that (2) S d2 (n) n.. as in the Theorem iz.  r (. we the contour to termbyterm. We start from the formula (1) 2 d (n) n. l Then. this is A 0(e~ ^\ and we obtain (2) ?(s}= S *& e ** Let us proof of call the first two terms on the right Z and Z^.p~**} (1 . * + o since t d (n) = e (w Also.pJ = (* (*)/ (2s). =o w ). e while r2T /OQ i I Uoo Carlson / + I J2T \\T(w8)?(w)\<fa=0(e~ ) AT ) for #<y. with a residue of the form (s).1.s e~ 8n = ~ f^"" T(ws) 2 O) &.1. t Handbuch. This gives the result stated when <r>l. and the pole of AT (I s)% 8 1 + A S* 1 {T (l 5) log 1/8 + r (15)} = 0(^1*1 8^). +iv) = 0(\v\ A ). 2. (a. due the proof of Theorem 20. take xy> and follow a method analogous to shall however give a different proof. If S> \t\~ A . The general case may be deduced from the approximate functional equation. Now it follows from the asymptotic formula for r(#) that the first is integral (1). We We to Carlson*.w dw.= n p (1 .42. which is independent of the approximate functional equation.
41 (l)is 0(T). by a general theorem on Dirichlet series. = ~2 Let c be the lower bound Then we have proved that (5) for all values of a in the of positive numbers cr for which (4) holds. <r J 7". it follows that c ^ J. .GO .51 (1). 2 c = J. As T 7 *. For such values of cr. The corresponding result = J is THEOREM 25. we see that ' A(lc)^4e2 + A(c) = 4cl. for cr 2. if . we obtain . we obtain c ^ 1 c/(4c 1). cr This proves the 0result corresponding to 2. replacing T by and adding.. taking a = I c in 1.43.  T we see that the righthand side of (2) > 1 . csl(l)/X() range (0.* this part of the if > .c) ^ 1. Since X (1 . whence * a = 1  c in (2cl) ^0. As function.(1 . In this case even the approximate functional equation merely gives 7 T ). Two proofs of the * Carlson (2). Hence 4 T (3) f \t (*) I *= 7*<*> ( T) 8 2<x 7 j^r Choosing S so that is (T} 7 .. the 0result holds for <*>!. and a further argument is required. Also. so does the asymptotic equality stated in the theorem. But.41 (1) for But.a)/X (a). putting (5). we argument has no special connection with the zetamust refer the reader to Carlson's paper for the proof. c).40 Hence MEAN VALUE THEOREMS ) J2T r J 2T wnere X (cr) is the lower bound of numbers such that the lefthand side of 2.
JT and the 0term * is 2<r negligible if 8 ~ 2 . may use an approximate functional equation for the square of which runs as follows t THEOREM 26.2e = T. (6).42 (2): (2) *(*)= S n=l 1 '.<r fin + (8"** ^ + ') fc ). fft(k + it) = 0* +e )> th ^ n (1) holds for <r>(4*X + l)/(4AX+2). For every positive integer &>2.y>A. as in r2T 2.32. We use the following obvious extension of 2. then 2. We may : use the method of or we (s). 2. Now. now pass to still higher powers of f (s). or by means of the approximate functional equation. and we can state a mean value formula in a certain restricted range of values of <r only.51. THEOREM 28. r\t(<r + ti)\dt~T2df(n)n*' for <r> 1  1/&. xy = (t/2rr^ . known*. . We leave the proof to the reader.31.MEAN VALUE THEOREMS result are 41 2.1 ^ o ^ f x>A. t Hardy and Littlewood Ingham (1). Titchmarsh (1). In the general case our knowledge is very incomplete.M dw + ( Taking a =  we obtain * (3) (*) = 24 (n) n. #" . The two following theorems include all that is We known on this point.42. This may be proved by a straightforward extension of Carlson's method. THEOREM (1) 27. dk (n) being the number of ways of expressing n as a product of k factors.
very difficult to prove anything about the integral over (0. in this case.ie*nu)R (ri)\*du + (1). and so. 2. we obtain Jo r U (i 7? (it) is (ri) exp (.31 (4). so that we may take X = ^.52.53. . and may (1. Theorem 16 would of course extend the range still further. we * may omit this part altogether. If we use Theorem 15. in which case we can put X. It is quite = (). Nor is any mean value formula for <r > J. for k> 2.0.51 (1) to o.> i for any value of k greater than 2. In the present state of knowledge we cannot extend the range of validity of 2. On the other hand it is. obtain a large lower bound for the mean value Jo for every value of k THEOREM 29 where CK depends on k Putting in only. But the integrand is positive.42 MEAN VALUE THEOREMS The 0term in (3) is then o (1) if 4/fcX + 1 The result follows as in previous cases. its very We existence depends on some sort of cancelling between the large parts of the series and of the residue term. known for k > 2. QO ) by expressing the integrand as a product of conjugates and the residue term. in the problem of the lower bound. 2 constant multiple of (1/8) log* (1/8). where parts which behave very differently. 2. 2. 1). we obtain a more extended range from Theorem 28 than from Theorem 27 if k > 6. and we can approximate to the integral over R find that this part is greater than a integrating termbyterm. The integral on the right falls into two For u > 1 the term (u) is trivial be omitted. and the possible that f ( + if) result holds for for every k. Titchmarsh (4). On the other hand we can.
Whittaker and Watson. and we may expect to obtain a still better result by making S. 4. The analysis which precedes his observations on the 3. not to ( + it) but to (<r + ii) with o>. 17.1 dx. Ch.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS It is 43 Theorem an argument of the same kind which enables us to prove 17. Using the functional equation* 2^ 0) + 1 = aT* (3) {2iA (1 AT) is + 1 }. (ed. It follows at once from Theorem 29 that for every k a function of directly. ex. and obtains. we see that the righthand side of (2) I r&(x)aP~*dx+ Jo ^(l/aO#N'8 equal to 9 ** ><far+4 ( (x^ Jo . from the PhragmdnLindelof theorem. (2) by term byterm integration. .1. 1927). Actually we apply the argument. and it is by no means certain that its riches are even now exhausted.ap*) dx Ji = S (~T) + r i Putting s=  + it. f Following Landau. and then deduce the case <r = f k . zeros is particularly interesting. we use SI where Kiemann uses . (1) He w8 " fl! writes n =1 5 =^(^). CHAPTER 3. and writing f H(0 = *00 = we obtain the formula (4) * H(0 = i(^ + vi. III THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS The Biemann hypothesis.11. Modern Analysis. the formula (a) r (is) 7T** = f "V (x) J o aF. The paper in which Riemann first considered the zetafunction has become famous for the number of ideas it contains which have since proved fruitful.
7 liegt. Riemann apparently never returned to the subject. the explicit formula for ?r (^)] entbehr This statement. 4t//(l) + which follows at once from (5) we obtain . But one would like to know what Riemann meant by saying that 'we find about as many real zeros as there are zeros altogether. is the famous 'Riemann hypothesis'. which remains unproved to this day. dessen = .e. ich habe indess die Aufsuchung desselben nach einigen fliichtigen vergeblichen Versuchen vorlaufig bei Seite gelassen.\i. and something too has been discovered about the real zeros. The memoir goes on 'Hiervon ware allerdings ein strenger Beweis zu wiinschen. ist [bis auf einen Bruchtheil von der Ordnung der Grdsse * ist gleich J gleich ( T log in der TJ i . dieses Integral aber der Anzahl der in diesem Gebiet liegenden Wurzeln von 3()=0. log (s) und von den Logarithmen der iibrigen Factoren von E (t) dasselbe bleibt. S (*) = 4 r ^ {#* f 0)}ar* cos Q* log a?) efo. Die Anzahl der Wurzeln von E (t) = 0. N . und deren reeller Theil zwischen und T ~.44 If THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS we integrate by parts and use the relation (3). deren imaginare Theil zwischen \i und . ist etwa von = T 27T Icier 10g T T . und lasst sich nach Potenzen von tt in eine sehr schnell convergirende Reihe entwickeln.' for the number of zeros of E (t) with real 7 and I has of course been proved since Riemann's time. dass all the zeros of E() are real. multiplicirt mit Man findet Wurzeln irinerhalb alle Wurzeln reelle dieser Grenzen. Riemann then observes.\i liegt. 'Diese Function ist fiir alle endlichen Werthe t endlich. and it was 34 years before the researches of an * It is usually supposed that this 1/T is a mistake for log T. 2iri. wenn der imaginare Theil von t zwischen ^i und . da er fiir den nachsten Zweck meiner Untersuchung [i. so kann die Function S (t) nur verschwinden. that lich schien. the remainder cannot tend to zero. since (T) has infinity of discontinuities at least equal to 1. deren reeller Theil zwischen und T liegt.' nun und That etwa so viel reelle es ist sehr wahrscheinlich.' There seems to be no The approximate formula part between clue to the exact significance of this remark. for. sind. Da fiir einen Werth von s.27T 27T' denn dass Integral / d log E() positive um den Inbegriff der Werthe von t erstreckt. gilt.S log (1 p~ 8} endlich reeller Bestandtheil grosser als 1 ist.
R  . n\ is an even function of u. 7... S (2rcW w . (2).. and They are all real.. Backlund Hutchinson .12.11 (5) is interesting because Riemann seems to have attached considerable importance to it. Jo then Bi() still is an integral function of 4> all is of whose zeros are real^. 3. and oo.3042. (3).. except to obtain his rapidly convergent series/ It ' is infinity of real zeros only recently that P<51ya* has used it to prove that E() has an a result which had been obtained some time before in another features. and that these are the only interval < < 200 and Hutchinson U has verified the reality of zeros with (f) so on. 1 1 . = 37*58.3).. . (2). It was shewn by Backhand that the < t < 200 contains 79 real zeros. (1). t P61ya (1).13.. One such condition that 00 J 00 for all real values of x and y. But the formula has some curious We can write in the form $(u) where This u*is cos Zutdu. a5 = 3293. and put 3! (u) cos t. positive for all real values of u. calculated with great They are = 1413. t P%a (3). all of whose zeros are realj. 3>(u) = 4.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS Hadamard began tures. It is also possible to deduce from the formula necessary and suf... E() have been 2102. though he made no definite use of it... 2 'rcosh4M . The smallest zeros of accuracy. a2 = a3 = 25'01. a6 . A closer approximation to ficient conditions for the reality of the roots of is B (). But no method has been suggested of shewing whether such criteria are satisfied or not.. IF See P61ya (1). 04 a4 .... way (see it 3. 45 to shew the correctness of some of Riemann's conjec 3. (u) given by * c 8h4u $2 (u) = (167T cosh 9^ 24?r cosh bu) e and this also leads to a function H2 (^). As $ (u) ~ 167T =2 2 cosh 9^0~ If we denote the function on the righthand /oo \ side by ^ (u). * P61ya (3). The formula 3.
. > and . .> J. 8'   < 1. A am ?r* = . and (a. Naturally the further we go the more the calculations become.^T log TT. calculations. R 8" < 1. (<r for n 2. * Whittaker and Watson. Hence Now (3) TtN(T) . f. we obtain 2) R where. Modern Analysis (ed. and finding its position the roots as far as very roughly. between = 10 and t = 18. from Binet's formula* arctanfw/^) .A {am 5 (s  1) ***? 2 (s) (5)}. J.18. It is easily seen A am s (s  1) = ?r. x 0. It follows from 2. and er ^ then . Also. J + /T7 8 . 4. \) where /\ ? 4 / \ vv ~ rt M % n sJ s . "We shall content ourselves with complicated shewing that the first zero. Hence putting t . 12. n<x r o. We consider the number N(T} of zeros ft + iy such that prove that there are no zeros on the lines <y T.= since zeros not on a. Also cos (18 log w) is positive + 180 > for o. ^(18)= 1.32. 1927).46 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS = 300. as is + 100 = from 1 + 2~ a cos (10 log TT <r + 8'. and then that Hence ^(10) = 0. There ^V(10)<landthatO<^(18)<2. easily seen cos (10 log 2) Similarly. We =10. if x is half an odd integer.= J occur in symmetrical pairs. 4.12 that.2. $ Putting = 10. where that A denotes the variation along 2. THEOREM 30. > R 1 (2) (replacing (<r + 100 > for by 3). + iT. 3. at any rate. is therefore just one zero between t . is real.10 and t= 18 and it must lie on o. we obtain ri) R where   (0 + 180 = + S n~* cos (18 log + 8".+ 180 * 0. We leave to the reader only some quite trivial numerical 3. # = f and taking the (<r real part. Also (<r + 100 * 0. t=18. The complex zero a /? + iy(y>0) of t (s) which is nearest to the real axis lies on = .
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS it 47 follows that (4) A am T (J*) = I log T (J + Jf 3P) . We on prove that Z(f) has an <r = ^ correspond infinity of real The idea of the proof is to contrast the behaviour of the integrals r2T I \ r2T I JT * Z(f)dt. easily follows from this. THEOREM 31 There are an infinity of zeros on <r= Let 2T (f) = e** H (#)/(^ + is J) tf. !T> 2. we obtain JL\j *N(T) > \T log aT^e + ^ . (1).31. I  Hardy (1). real for real arid the zeros of to the real zeros of Z(f). = i?r* "* tt e** r ( J + &) ($) C (J + i#). Since R(s) remains 2. A am r remains between TT. Landau (3). We have 2uT for w<l.4v + A am 7T jt ().3. \. 3. de la Valise Poussin (1) (2). Since 2wtt l>2irw. Hardy and Littlewood (2). 1) is less than r Jo Mr 2 (JT 1) ^L = __? 2ww 7 27r (IT l) Since also arc tan (6) 2T< JT. (4). ^(18) < In the problem of the lower bound we have to take into account the integral in (4). (5) *N(T) < ^log (iZ* + ^)* + TT A am (*). Fekete P61ya . Then Z(f) zeros. and ^(18) > 3. lie on o = J. positive on the contour for 7"= 10 or 18.arc tan i J + JtT   log we deduce that + 1 Since the second and fourth terms are negative. General theorems on the zeros which *. the integral over (0. and we can now easily verify that ^V (10)<l. 1 JT \Z(i)\dt.
ZTT^J r ( j. dt = /"2Hoo 2^. Hence say. and the second of the integrals is equal to the modulus of the first. we pass a pole at 5  with *J(ir/a). or.) (*)* &=22 1 *. We if We have. shall see that this assumption leads to a contradiction. it is ultimately of constant sign. and using the fact an even function of ^. we obtain ~8 11 cosh {g 3) } * Z (0 rf* = = Hence if 2 e~** 8in 8 + \i / (1) = \./o 4 (1) = (3*).oo.) t (s) ** 2 i< 2 ti=l sM * 7r * <r 1 < /2fioo j2i*> r < j. THE DISTBIBUT1ON OF THE ZEROS If Z(f) has only a finite number of zeros. something by this step though we doubtless lose . 1 Moving the residue line of integration to = . for T> t Q. Z(t) * for # > . r2 '22' JT Z(t) dt=\ Z(f)dt <e " cosh (3) < 2e 1 i (Jrf . then. 1 R (#)><).) ** 1 Z (*) dt On the other hand so that r J r * T I 2 There is no great difference between and i/. in terms of Z(t\ Putting ir 'T^ that #*** Z(0 (2) = i( J ir is \ where 8 is small and positive.48 as T*.
41. 3. 3. T l* J T We begin by proving that (2) \I\*dt<AHJT development of the Fourier formulae of 2.a Tr 8 Hence  2+2iT 2+2 n logn_l2+i /2T (4) y r is Since this contradicts (3) the theorem proved. We contrast the behaviour of the integrals /t+HZ(u)e~^ t T du. t F(x)(e *l)lix iH are related in the j same way as 2 G (x) f and F(x). Hence * (1) gives Hardy and Littlewood (3). J= j ft+II t T \Z(u)\e~* du as t *~ oo .31. ^ (T) > A T. ** ( we **^> see that Z(f) e&. We require a ft+H ft J It is easily seen that the functions G(x)dx.31 (1). based on the same ideas as the previous one. By an elaboration of the same idea we can prove much more than THEOREM 32 *. putting x = Tre 1 ^*^  in 3. a so that ft+H J /cooo !/ I G(x}dx dt= t J  Now.31 that N (T) with I Q + oo 7 . but we consider integrals of a more complicated kind. . The proof is this. II being constant. are related like V(H ^ + $ (Tr G (t) and F(). We have proved in N (T) the number of zeros on 0= with 3.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS But r\+2iT f 49 /2T T p L (J + t*)<fc=/ oo 1 7 ffir t(s)ds~ / 2+iT J 2f2iT = *. We now denote by ordinate less than T.42.
1). and this part is then simply a multiple of H. i r* the last form being obtained by using the relation We equivalent to 3.' In the term involving we omit the factor y~*. is 00 Q (m+n)7rsin8/' ^(mn)ir rc o8 S//2^r  = Q ^("+ )8ln8^2 i . In the other part we put and obtain ^ ' (3) Atf 2 r^ Ji / 1 ^ 2 2 ' ^+ r ^1 J Now As in 3. and its contribution to the The second term of the form in (4) contributes to the second integral in (3) terms fao I e (m*+ Jl+UH Turning the line of integration through + TT.41 (2) if 8 have therefore to prove that the righthand side of (2) is = 2/T.31 (2) the first integral (3) is therefore sum is 0{(y8)*}. and putting #=1 we see that this ( + 1/jET+fr.11 (3). Now it is less than Ji T (A J. in the range (0.50 (2) THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS i. The lefthand side of (2) is greater than that of 3.
T<t< 2T 7 . Now g (s) /oo is regular and J ( ). It is now sufficient to prove that 2T (3) uniformly for case O^w^ T 7 . by actually integrating each term. We have. /o ir+ side of (4) is greater than a constant multiple of that of (3). for or > 0. or.31 (4). from the particular so that by 2. This gives the The first integral may be desired result for the second integral in dealt with in the same way.31 (4). and this clearly follows u = 0. still (2).m5 n \  J } = 0(H* 2 m=2 \ w=2 / o> ^w^TrsinS m w1 1 \ ) 5 n =imnj for 8 (3). This proves 3. (s) 42 .THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS and / 51 therefore the whole series contributes QO m1 /?( +n)7r sin S\ 2 2 S 2 0(H* w=2n=:i . and hence say. < 8 = 8 (^T). if s =+ it.41 3. of a pole which brings in The lefthand * This step avoids the occurrence in the function g residue terms. more simply.43. (1) We next prove that J /2T where (2) JT / \*\* This corresponds to 3.
unless j\ consists entirely of points of S. Js f I Now r /2T fZT \l Js //*</ /*^{TJ T JT by 3. m(S)<ATH~*. Suppose the latter occurs (T.43 (1) \I\*dt\ ) <AH*T* by 3. 27 )where/hJ. for H sufficiently large. (3). the integrand is bounded for <8< \ since.41 /r (2). Hence.neiB ) (1/8). except the last j2 for v j\'s.52 with small THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS &= 0. ji> jz> into [T/2H] pairs of abutting intervals of length H. 3. Then . Then either /i orja contains a zero of Z(f). Now divide the interval 2T) . each. ft / (me~ is . and the second ^ r oo I _Q ^amsinSml log ) 2 U=3 m 2 w =2 _1  'k ^ j ft/ which is also (1/3). This proves 32. Proof of Theorem 7 Let B be the subset of the interval (T . . x and if 8= I IT. and. Then f Js 7 \I\dt ={ Jdt. log 2 ) Vlogft log a> /OO 7a / The first sum is m1 plainly {oo w=2log^logft(m~ft)J m=3 ^ ^ 0a(m+n)sin& g _ = 2 __ sin 8 w log2 ft log m log is . On the right of (4). putting w=exp (ixe**). /2T Jdt>Tt\ S (Aff+<i>)dt>ATlHm(S)TtJ J S T \*\dt where m (S) is the measure of S. and (2). 1 W_ log ft 1 * log 2 lwf / ( 1 _ w n+rj/J ^Vlogft log 1 ft \ + 1/ <r Also if 1 A +4 22 2  T 1 i ft \ r + 1/ .44. and eachja lying immediately to the right of the corresponding^. so that 1 w\>A.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS Hence there are.log <f> (s). cr = a. Suppose that <(s) is meromorphic in and upon the boundary of a rectangle bounded by the lines t = 0. 3. of poles in the part of the rectangle for which t= or t = counting onehalf only.= j3. (s) is regular in the neighbourhood of with any one value of the logarithm. In fact we can prove. the rectangle in the positive We may suppose <t> t = and t = T to be free from zeros and poles of (s) . that all but an infinitesimal proportion of . and regular and not zero on <r = /?. . The proportion of zeros which have been proved to lie on o. Let v (cr'.52. 53 27 ). Then T) denote the excess of the number of zeros over the number <r > or'. roughly. we put = J lim {F(<r + it + it) + F(<r + F(s) e>0 it . fV(cr + I yo + iT) d<r {F(P + it)~ F(a + it)} idt. fV(cr) <fo  Jo.= /3 (/3 > a). zeros or poles on T (1) JF(s) ds = ft MJ round v (<r. starting For other points s of the rectangle. begin by proving a general formula concerning the zeros of an analytic function in a rectangle*. tells us nothing about the general distribution of the zeros for the total number of zeros is greater than a multiple of Tlog T. We have (2) J />(*) ds Jo.51. 1 at least zeros. the zeros lie in the immediate neighbourhood of a = . Littlewood (4). provided that the path does not cross a zero or pole of < (s). we define F(s) . interesting as it is.= we can say very much more.f it.= ^ is therefore infinitesimal. On the other hand. we define F(s) to be the value We The function log < obtained from log <f> (ft + it} by continuous variation along t = constant from /? + it to o. the integral on the left being taken direction.it)}. . it is easily verified that our halving conventions then ensure the truth of the theorem in the general case. if we merely ask how many of the zeros lie in the immediate neighbourhood of o. 3. t ~ T. if it does. This proves the theorem. T) do. o. o. and here. in (T. Theorem 32.
J To prove the inequality. For any fixed or greater than We have. (s) for 3. fi large and positive.T) 'O'O do = f J<ro f()fcf f( J oo + iT)d<r. Littlewood (4). and </>($) = ($).Ziri r' v(<r. replace the integrals by finite sums of which they are the limits.T) N(<r. Thus (2) ~ r 1 8 2iri JV(j v (o./IS r  Jv+iT) <AO n Substituting this in (2) we obtain (1). THEOREM 34t.) is where a constant depending on o only. T) d<r = . Taking imaginary parts we have J<r f (7 (o.54.> 2. = (* (* # 00 ~ Ja and by the theorem of residues 7<r r f$ </>00 1 *. f Bohr and Landau (4).T)% (<r<l). =i f . (1) 27T f y<r ^(or. equal to .T) 1). and the fact that Aa = (e^ ff). for or > .52(1) we take a = o. 0<t< T and let 1^<TQ <1. id* /* it) +iT .54 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS last The term is . am C (s) ( 7 term on the right of (3) is (log I ). THEOREM 33*. Then (on account of the pole at s = 1) = (a > = v(<T.{ f(<r +it)idt+f f(/3 + ^0 it)idt. .f r + Uo . Using (20) of the Introduction in the range (<r 2). v(<r. In 3. T) denote the number of zeros of 7 <r XT'. 3. we see that the middle 5) = i + (<r )./2 Littlewood (4). the last term tends to zero.+ ^)* + 0(logT). and determine / (s) = log (s) as in the case of F(s\ starting from the real value at s = ft. Then . . and the result follows. Let N(<r'. T)dv= ^0 flog U(o. and the o first two integrals tend to integrals from to GO . JO Making */3 (8) * 20 . for a. and use the fact that the geometric mean does not exceed the arithmetic * mean.53.
(1) and in particular that (2) f J% N(<r. We can now put Theorem 34 into a form which holds uniformly with or. the required result. (s) lie in the strip 3. THEOREM 36*. If with t. if c^ = \ f \ (o  which is From this theorem. and the fact that N(T)~ AT log T. By using Theorem 21 instead of Theorem 20 we can obtain still more precise information about the zeros in the immediate neighbourhood of <r = In fact we find at once by the above method that . N /T< t< T> * Littlewood (4). uniformly for  r ^ 1. then all but an upper halfplane lie in the region ^<0(01gl g^/lg^ That is to say. ary part between It is clearly number of zeros outside the region and with imagin7 and Tis o (Tlog T ). 55 Hence. (T for OTO > . it follows that all but an infinitesimal proposition of the zeros of J 8<cr<^+ $.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS by Theorem 20. enough to prove that for large T the number of zeros in <r the region (1) S1 + </> (0 log log */log *. the t>A. For as above and the result follows. is positive and increases to infinity <t> (t) infinitesimal proportion of the zeros of (s} in the 3.56. by Theorem 33.55. Hence. . however small 8 may be. respect to THEOREM 35*. T}dv=0 (riog log T).
2 < 5 < n for < rcz 2 >0. the < (5) of 3. We now return to the problem of N(cr T) for fixed } a. cannot prove this without any hypothesis the additional factor neutralizes to a certain extent the peculiarities of o. where The curved boundary of (1) lies ^1 = (JT) log log 7/log to the right of T. even for values of <o^l.less than 1. Of course we but we can choose z so that THEOREM Since 37*. case result follows. but to the function . we can replace the 0(T)of Theorem 34 by (T 9 ).56 is o 7 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS (2 log T). not to *. > 1. . if o ^ 2.() = C() 2 n<z (s) itself. by the concluding remark of 3. <t> z (s) *. o greater than i rT1 1) and less than 1 y) = 0{2 ^ i+ '}. If a The the zeros of (s) are zeros of <*(V). </> 3 (s) has no zeros for o ^ 2. Similarly the integrals involving am z (s) are (log z)] for. Replacing Tby 27 7 and subtracting. (5). am i/^ (s) = (#) for ^ <r ^ 2.+ it) if) Bohr and Landau (5).am + ^T7) } The integrals involving am (s) are 0(log 7"). 27ri f v((r. J<r<> T)<fo= fV(<r)rfcr. On Riemann hypothesis this is also true for . and Jr <l.53. In this 1. and taking imaginary 7 parts. where q * is the number of zeros of R^(<r + =  {1^(0. 7 + am (o + 2^7^ .f F(<r + iT)dcrJ<r9 Jao 7 JO f* F(<r + it^idt. For any fixed N(<r. 2irP{v(<r. But by Theorem 34 log^ and the 3. Landau (7).52 is a (s). 27 )v(o. \h(8)\l. Hence. cr = o 1 . as in the proof of (17) of the Introduction. Carlson + ^z (<r~it)} (1).61.*().1 as 2 * GO .= *()*.(). where < We do this by applying the above methods. T ^<r )}^ /oo I 2T = I yr log  ^ (<TO + if) \ dt + {am \l/ z (0 + 7<r 2^ am i/^(cr \l/ (o + fT ) da.
 = I 2 r w. is (n*). J T (n/mf dt = 0(T of 2 w 2 ') + { S2 7 (i)'/(logw/)} *^) + by the {(zT 22 ) ^} we obtain lemma 2. r <^ = ft(r)=< rf(n) = 0(W). Hence rZT I rZT 2 ^bntr'^dt^T^bn or* + 22' bm bn (mn)" J  I j. while. r2T  T log *. viz. and 6 n like . 57 2 + it). is and integrating term by term we see that the integral in question l~ z 1 "*). for n> l 1.54. since In the second term we write z (s) is of this form.62.()!}&= ^o/ +/ ^2 j + 2'iT + iT J2 + /T <7 + 2iT The first and third terms are 0(T 1 ~ z l ~ ).! JT JT 2T l+^R {9 (1) SR JT 2?'T 1 /2T /27 {^. Hence the first term on the right of (1) is (T cr 3. Here we use Theorem 19 with x Tj and obtain <k()l= 2 = n~* n<T for n<z S fi(n)n. am fa (*) r (<r^) > in 2. Since fa (s) Finally o = (Z A \ it follows from Jensen's theorem for cr = (log z). We have now consideration of the second term in arrived at the kernel of the problem.13. the (1).()fc  = (I if loglfcGOI'rfiSiT'logji/ (.b n .8 l where (if z < t) bn n < z and for n>zT. /"2T Putting z = n>\*dt T*~\ J / T \S. taking any (J /2T < 1) and proceeding as 3. first ()!}* +i JT ^()1*.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS on ( J + that q it. cr (as is easily seen) <j> where a^ = 0. Also. aw . bounded. term by writing /2M2' /2 We deal with the + 2ir Ar iT {*.
T)d<r= Hence.1 >' +0 w+ ) = T 1 ~ ( 2cr ~ <> W+*). the amplitude being found by continuous variation along 2. been proved that S(T) is unbounded). It must have a discontinuity k where passes through the ordinate of a zero of (s) of order Jc (since the term T (l/T) is in fact continuous). . 2T 7 v (tr. it is still only (log T). so that. writing <T O for cr in the above result. ) f J<T9 7 . the term  (though it has not.58 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS terms are small compared with we now have this. . T}} d<r= (a fortiori) We can replace v in the integrand \T. so that the variation of S(T) must just neutralise that of the other terms./(To = 363.7. if we consider the integrated formula the term in 8 () certainly plays a nmch smaller part. Theorem we use the approximate functional equation we obtain a still better result. {v (cr. 2 + iJP. 7%^ remainder in that the formula for N (T).. l by N. and then. The behaviour of the function S(T) appears to be very complicated. * Presumably this is due to Titchmarsh (5). ( T l ~ ( 2(r . T) A^ ( . 38. Between the zeros N(T) is constant. replacing J<r f N (cr. since. We know where ir8(T)  am C(i + 7 ^'T ). in the formula as it stands. If 19. writing X = I/log 2] A r. On the other hand presumably overwhelmed by the variations of S(T) apparently. instead of THEOREM For any fixed <r greater than % We omit the proof*. J + iT. 3.71. We know also that is 8(T) = 0(log T). 3.. frequent variations in the sign of 8(t).and adding. It is easily seen that all the other so that. as we shall presently prove.
The first term is constant. J 2 result. (2). and we . THEOREM 40 1.= . as we clearly may.83 (1) from that t is not equal to the ordinate of any zero). and  h Hence the 3. we obtain 2 + logC(2 + )logC(*)= i 2 Y!<I {log(2 + i*p)log(p)}+0(iogO. this gives log ^ /o) are bounded.73. f log  (cr + iT) AT = f (e~ A } d<r=0 (1).72. THEOREM 39* We return part. Nevanlinna (1). . The term to 3.oo and this time take the real in v (<r. and E./o irS(0 *= 0. Integrating 1. & (0 = s to (log 0 & (supposing. since floga+l)sflog{(irj8) ^2 r 2 + (y)'}Ara2 /'log < ^t (s)  Hence and the result 1 log  AT = (log 0./* log  (<r + T) Jo 4. disappears. f Littlewood (4). 59 We write We shall begin by proving. $ F. is now follows from Theorem Another result in the same order of ideas that * Cramer (2). T\ obtain log (<r) I AT . /5 . and there are (log ) Since log C (2 + ^) and log (2 Hterms in the sum.53 (2) with o. being purely imaginary. (*)= l 2 log(*p)+00ogO Hence The terms of the last sum are bounded.THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS 3. 39.
. where we cannot use four concentric But the are in no difficulty way 4 ideas of the theorems of Carath^odory and Hadamard essentially bound up with sets of concentric circles. Hence threecircles theorem gives (t M*M?Mf. so that its centre 2 + ^corresponds to z= 0. But it serves to introduce the method in its simplest form. it is clear that circles. zeros of THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS THEOREM (s) 41*. 7 and so T+ 5 must contain zeros of f every strip T. 4/i=0 (1). We represent 4 conformally on the unit circle J94 in the plane. Suppose that (s) has no ^. A in the ) region considered. + iT. C2) ft respectively of the branch obtained in the usual line 2. 2 way by continuation along the straight .60 3. M M 2 . and in particular that C(l +fT) But actually it {exp (log* T 7 )} = 0(7*). 3. The gaps between the ordinates of successive tend to zero. and let L be the maximum of its real part on C4 Then by Carathdodory's theorem M <A 3 Now L < A log T. log T since f (s) = Then Hadamard's 7 . from 3. and our Let D can be surmounted by using suitable elongated curves instead. that We Since it follows if a sufficiently large constant. (s). begin by proving that the gaps are bounded. C^ C3 C4 .5 ^ t 7 In applying a similar argument to the strip 7 8 is arbitrarily small. zeros in C Then 4 . this really tells us nothing new. the sides being parallel to the axes.71 (1). with centre T 4 and 5 respectively. and the fact that S(f) = (log t).81. 3 every branch of log (s) is regular in this circle. MI. By this representation a set of concentric circles \z\r inside ' D * Littlewood (3). </?<!. be the rectangle with centre 2 + z'T'and a corner at 3 + i(T+ S). where Since a + /3=l. The above conclusion is therefore untrue. is H N(T+JET)N(T)>0 2 + *7 and radii Consider a system of four concentric circles Oi. . S^<7 +S. it follows that J/9 = 0(logPT). follows from the functional equation that for all values of T. and the extension is then easily made. Let denote the maximum modulus on d.
91. to discuss their application there. to obtain a more precise^result. tZq). but they connections with the subject of this chapter. and we apply the theorems of Carath^odory and Hadamard in the same way as before. S# p /(p). l+iT. * (rSl. less than the ordinate of any zero.9. 3 in the splane pass through the points % + iT. It 2 of. otherwise (2) Let q be a positive number. where occur in the theory of prime numbers. by a more detailed study of the functions involved in the conformal representation. (2). THEOREM (1) 42*. Now by the theorem of residues ' is easily verified (s). Actually it is possible.(8) x ds = 6 ra+iq I ra+iT r2+iT + I + I + 2iri is easily deduced where a < 0. We have if x is a power of the prime p . . while as r > 1 it tends to coinciLet ZV> V> A' be circles (independent of course of dence with 4 D . This the series (2") of the Introduction for ($)/ term. zeros of Series of the form (s). 2 + iT. 3. Then ' i n2 \\og%/n\ A (x) being zero if x is not an integer. by inserting and integrating term by r2+iT (4) J2+iq ' / \ s F7H^ {. Di will correspond to a set of convex curves inside such that as r> T) the curve shrinks upon 2 + IT. teresting scope of this work beyond the have in We begin zeros of (s) p by considering the sum 2# where pft\iy runs through such that < y < T. The proof now proceeds where We consider the function /(*) = log {*(*)}. 0<y<T ()/{() =0 flog M). Series of the form S^ p / (p). s (z) is the analytic function corresponding to the conformal s representation. and T is from the functional equation and known properties of the Tfunction that *' J a+iq J a+iT h+iq not the ordinate of a zero. p runs through the complex It is 3. and x > 1. D D D lt 2 .THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS 61 _Z)4 . Landau . We can prove that t (s) has a zero fi + iy such that \yt\ <16/logloglog for every > t . for which the corresponding curves as before. respectively.
364368. . ' I x N (u) xiu du + #*+*?. Hence the second we obtain > and (s \ f~ao+iq {xds= J2+iq 4(S.93.71 (1).W x8 ds~ (S) /i \ Joo+iT 700 and by 1. This may be deduced from the previous theorem by partial summation. Writing 3. . rt+iT <x> . 3.62 . .83 Writing Jl+iT Jl+iT Jl+i(T+V) y2+(3 we see that each term in the (log T) terms. + Joo+i Now / * 0<y<T /iHr '/y\ V. n J log ~x iu du (log Handbuch. n n1 v 2 #*= S #H*y?= 2 x 2 nl log yw = i Jaloga. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ZEROS integral on the right tends to zero as a *. M(T) n for the sum of the first three terms on the right of we have log x l" iu M(u) x du = [M (u) z + iu Tf yn). 3. The result now follows series on combining these equations. the vth p is + iyv and we have . was proved by Landau* that the 2  is uniformly convergent in any ^interval which does not include or end at a primepower. On the Riemann hypothesis. It so that the sum on the right is (1). which we anticipate for a moment. There are sum is (log T).92. These results also have interesting connections with the formulae' of Chapter V.
which it takes. then /00 \A(a. Suppose on the contrary that (s) takes the distinct values a and b only a finite number of times in the strip. * See Landau's Ergebnisse der Funktionentheorie. S r an infinity of times in 1 ^ 1 + 8. and the various values. . 24.1. 3. and the values of s for which takes any given value a. < 1. Let T>tQ and consider the function /($) = {(s)~a}/(ba) in the . In the previous chapter we have been concerned almost entirely with the modulus of (s). (s) takes every value. . One method of dealing with this problem is to connect it with the famous theorem of Picard on functions which do not take certain lemma. be connected with sums of the form i.e. or Valiron's Integral Functions. * values. 4. We use the Iff(s) is regular and following never Qorlin\ss Or. and /(s )  a.2. No more explicit relation between them than what is by the above formulae has been discovered.THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF VALUES OF Hence (1) fin (s) 63 S &=i y<r *Jx log a? iu #(w) x du + (log T ). closely connected with the It is clear that the numbers p are prime given numbers. 7 Jy 1 and our (2) result is equivalent to Now results such may as Theorem 55 suggest that irS(u). particularly zero.ff)for\88\ From this we deduce THEOREM 43. vi. with one possible exception. CHAPTER IV THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF VALUES OF 4. We now it consider the problem of (s) itself. am ( + !^)> _ 3 A! (ri) n<N we could insert we should obtain a If sin (^ log ri) *Jn this for irS(u) in (2) result of the and integrate termbyterm same type as (2). \r. Ch. and so never above t = t say.
On this line w=l the amplitudes . absolutely convergent for o. of course. We first cr = o . as t varies. and capable of being written in the We form where fn (x) 4. U values assumed by F(s) on the function cr = cr and the set V of values e assumed by $ K.32. Then and/(s) in 0".3. viz. If we assume the Riemann hypothesis. 0. of this method.> 1. and we consider. In what follows jF(s) denotes either of the two functions. a) for 1 <r ^ 1 + Hence 8. the function defined p We consider at the same time the function P observe that both the functions are represented by Dirichlet series. of an infinite fc. 4.64 circles (7. Hence. We devote the rest of the chapter to developments 4. where is consider the values which F(s) takes on the line an arbitrary number greater than 1. b. tine approximation. by Theorem 1. expect the exceptional value to be 0. and common centre s = 1 + 8 + IT.1 logp n are of course all related. by the lemma. But of we shall see that there is an intimate connection between the set and. (s) is never and 1 in C. o is a power series in x whose coefficients do not depend on s.31. We should. o > 1* . and so  (er = 0(l) in cr>l. We restrict ourselves in the first place to the halfplane (s) itself. THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF VALUES OF f (s) C' of radii ^8 and 8. This proves the . not for a. (4). we can use a similar method inside the critical strip but more detailed results independent of the Riemann hypothesis can be obtained by the method of Diophan. * 2 > Bohr .> 1 by the series but log (s). 9 ^O < number of independent real variables <i. ) = n S fn (P** = 1 (3). \ theorem. + IT) < A (a. TV * which is false.
in particular for pn = <f> n . or at points o^ + it arbitrarily near the in virtue of (1). find a number that and integers (ft. Further it is everywhere dense in easy to see that small 8 (e. we can find a u such that w . For. c^ is is identical with V.33. or for Now since the numbers log p n are linearly independent. We next consider the set IF of values which F(s) takes 'in the immediate neighbourhood' of the line o. for S < (cr .  Since the Dirichlet series from which we start for <r is = or .e. to every given set of values $ 1? )> an( &wry e. U W. the strip In the is a <T O <  8. <7# by Kronecker's theorem.. it is evident that U is contained in W. 4. it follows that contained in and is everywhere dense We now W  \ A (cr ) . Now each w case it is in TFis assumed by F(s) either on the line = a u. it is obvious that we can find N~N(oOJ =* absolutely convergent c) such that for any values of the pn and . the set of all values of w such that the equation J?(s) = w has.THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s) 65 We is which is obviously contained in V.< 1 .v < e. i. g^ such iir f] being an assigned positive number. <T O <  8). N (3) The result now follows from (1) and (3).= <T O i.e. V  F(oQ + it) .e. for each a continuous function of <. first place.  U F . that corresponding to every value v in < % 2 (i. we can suppose rj so small that n.g. there exists a t such that shall in fact shew that the set U y everywhere dense in F. t we . Since proceed to prove that in both and TF. Since/^ (prT* e* $) is. can. so that  ^ (<T O + it) ~ F(cr! + it) <  ^ (CTO ) cr a  or  ( o  ^o.o. in in which which case.1)).. a root in . for sufficiently for all values of s in the strip (1)  a o1 < 8. for every positive 8.u < line.
including the boundary.). Modern Analysis t Ibid. 2.34... from the mere fact that values taken by a bounded analytic function in the immediate neighbour W hood of a Thus er* is bounded and arbitrarily near to zero in every the real axis.. </> . all the coordinates are has* a limitpoint P. that. if W F We shall see presently that much more than this is true. It is therefore obvious is closed. i. We have to shew that v or   is a member ^ n=l of TF. See Whittaker and Watson.$!.. number <i> of dimensions defined . is very instructive. 2.e. (ed. together with F (s\ the function * We use the extension to an infinity of variables of a wellknown theorem. i. 3.<TO < S. To establish the identity of F and contained in W. Let v be a limitpoint of F.. in every strip .. It is now easy to so that v is prove that JP corresponds to v. further. .i.e...) v .e. But that this that W F is W W is the set of might perhaps be supposed. on the special nature of the function F(s). . Let v = <!> (o.) = vv < . (< 15 a .66 each of that THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f () Fand is W is everywhere dense in the other. since (by Weierstrass' Jftest) f is uniformly convergent with respect to all the <'s. .21.. v's tending to v.e.) u (v) in 1. a point such that bounded). however.oo . that F consists of all the points of an area.) be an arbitrary value contained in F. ^. &<*>.)= v. contained in F. .). is it uniformly convergent with respect to r. F(s) assumes the value v. the nth term tends tofn (Pn~* i> e^n) r*oo as r * QO . such that (n . as should be closed.. 1927)..1. but never actually assumes the value zero. w= ^ (CT O . viz. . 2 . 2 w=l f(p n~<*<i*** ^ (CT O .ao result. from (P v ) we can choose a sequence (P ) such that each coordinate since it . 4.. ^ . Now v/t <t> n l v r> of P v tends to the limit o> n as r >.). The following direct proof that F is closed. W . be a sequence of (v P (<t>i \ (v <f>* \ . Hence v '*) = limi^ Km r. .34.. We consider. (P v ) is a bounded set of points (i. It is obviously sufficient (and also necessary) for is closed does not follow. For the series for v Vf) viz. that a point of F.. and let v v (v . strip including is closed (which we shall not prove directly) depends The fact that line. which proves our it remains to prove that 4. To each v v corresponds a point the space of an infinite = 1. 2. by < </> < (<TO .
2 / (p n e* *n) is a con\ F(s) . . v2 any point of sum' of the sets of points V19 F2 . 3.Then it is the set of  V is the F a.THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF which is obviously regular for o. 307.l theory of functions. choose a small circle Ci. 67 = <r FI (s) . 2. . is (modulo 2ir) arbitrarily small for n = 1. the set taken by for x\ ^Pn"^. and. It is now easy to see.e. N. and consequently that tQ between the respective amplitudes at every pair of corresponding points of the two circles. 2. so that Si and let us choose = m. so that the difference between the amplitudes of pn at ~ and p n 8 e2in *n at s = oQ respectively.(x log j0 w )/(l . )v H( = F(s + it^F^sJ.x). Now where l) F& + = Sl ) 1 G(s Then H (s^ \<\G (sj on Ci.36. that. possibility . and are identical. values Vi + v 2 + where Vi is any point of and so on. . We such that along FI (s) or =1= v on the circumference. of values taken by fn (pn~ all ) ' for = CTO ./x#. The of the choice follows at once from Kronecker's theorem. .. 1918). that Kronecker's theorem enables us to choose t such that. . i. and not constant.FI ($j) is less is  The argument F w=l tinuous function of o. for each fixed N.) = 0.. with centre <r (s) . for every pair of corresponding points s in C and sl in Ci. it has at least l F (s l \ v=G (O + H fa). i. almost exactly the same as that used to shew that 7 is everywhere dense in V. The series for F(s) and l (s) are uniformly N ~ a iir convergent in the strip. At s takes the value v. by means of a wellknown result* in the . when the in the inequality F(s) (^) < is sufficiently small. .> 1. since G (o.e. Vn consists . ft ) )  Consequently F(s) takes the value v at some point This completes the proof that is contained in W. Then we have. FI. the difference than an arbitrarily given c.  F  For let m be the minimum value of \F l (s l )v\ on Ci. 4. and so. It is therefore sufficient to shew that we ~* can choose s = o 4 ito. what is the main point of the proof. * Goursat's Cours d' Analyse (ed.through a We shall first shew. Let G be this circle translated = 0. For the function log (s). t. . inside C. We now proceed to the study of the set V. . distance t . /u^. and hence G ($0 + ff(si) has the same number of zeros inside Ci as G (s^.35. s Let Vn be the set fn (x) . W O V 4. F(s) must assume the value v inside the circle C. for values of on Ci.. of the points of the curve described by circle \x\ prT"*] for f'00/(s) it log (1 ai) as x describes the consists of the points of the curve  described by .. therefore the proof that V and one such zero.
Summing up..^ J5 we are in The greater radius in each case the lesser radius in case (i) is r = 2p 1 JR = &* log 2/(l . In this case V explicitly. therefore easy to see it is when we are in cases is (i) and (ii) respectively. Now for such a sum of circles we .41. .a*s ft . If p 1 > /o2 + p3 + . as it is a decreasing sequence. CTO > Z> we are in case (i) and for 1 < o.. The complete result! is that there an absolute constant Z>=2'57 determined as the root of the equation O ^ 2D 2 1 1 w=2 1 1 ~Pn is tn ^ ? such that for case (ii). have the following theorem*: (i) S pn 0** is the sum of an infinite number of common centre. .42.68 THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s) find the set 4. The curve of values of n is a circle V its centre at and with radius Let c = 5cw = T (2<r )/ 1} 2 (2o ). .n=2 p. . If P! p2 + p3 + . For the details of the investigation see Bohr (4) and (6). then V consists of all points zfor which In the case before us we have an explicit expression for p n .B. then the set V consists of all points z of the annulus n=l (ii) a Sft. The circles V of the values with zero as easy to see. ... t Burrau (1). . Then C F is the set of all the values of + Spn**" for independent set .. we can with "We begin by considering the function '($)/ (s). we have the following * results for The main ideas involved in the proof of Ifchis may be acquired by constructing the various figures corresponding to the case of three circles. ' 4.. . . . .22*') . whose radii p l9 p2 form.
It. There is an absolute constant E. between 2 ' everywhere dense between 1 and E. In each case the boundary is included as part of the region. . the set We V V The difficulty in this case is that convex curve including the origin. ' ($)/ (o. infinity of that the set {or (0)} is and 3. values infinitely often in the strip 1 + S. THEOREM 46. (s)/(s) takes all 8.THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES. OF THEOREM f($) <r 69 a set The values which everywhere dense in a region R 44. have seen that n consists of all the points of the curve as x describes the circle \x\^p^ a^. But it is a closed Now the essential property of a * Accordingly the theory of summation of circles can be extended to apply to convex curves. ' We identical with those of (s).for an arbitrary positive The above results evidently enable us to study the set of points er {0o(#)K where assigned value this is = <r (a)>l a line on which '($)/($) takes the confine ourselves to giving the result for # = 0.). That is. R (o. ' Cn On is not a circle. <TO immediate In particular. c. since the zeros of f '($)/($) are a. or (ii) the region bounded by a single convex curve. We proceed now to in this case the set of points Cn of points described by log (1 x) is therefore the *sum' of the curves the study of log C (s). the most interesting case. since c ' a finite limit. in the following form : The series of points determinedly the sum of an 'absolutely convergent' convex curves is 'either (i) the region bounded by two convex of set curves. lim c/JR = lim and as set cr *l. if aD. lim c = lim R = lim r = 0.= cr of values which is identical with r < ($)/ (s) takes in the R (<r ). as aQ^D. member greater for <r> E. (boundary included) with centre c and radii (<TO ) is the circular area (boundary included) with centre c and radius R. as CTO . (Rr)/R = 0. ivhile (s) =*= zeros in every strip between <r=l and <r = E.R. The neighbourhood of a. than E. 1 is as  1. (5) takes on the line = <T form annulus If o > D. and R to infinity.51. summation' with circle which is bound up with the theorem on which we have been concerned is precisely the quality of convexity. such and has no (s) has an ' 4. * QO .) is the and r. lim 72= GO. limr = 0. R R r are continuous functions of<r defined by 2^ Further. limc = ' ' THEOREM tends to 45. of which one is entirely interior to the other.
70
THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s)
,
Further
area,
let the
'
and
let
pn
and
be arranged in order of decreasing curves Ci, C2 " p n be the maximum and minimum radii vectores
,
.
from
the origin to
to all the curves
00
Cn Cn
.
Finally
let
us suppose that the origin
00
is interior
Then we are in case
(i)
if
p/> 2
pn
',
and
in
n=2
case
(ii)
if p/
^ 2
n=2
p w ".
In any case
the origin is interior to the outer
is obvious),
boundary r of
the region,
and (what
if
R, R"
we have
are the
maximum and minimum
distances from the origin to r,
9
ff3p*
If f(z) is
jR"Sp".
\
an analytic function regular in \z r, a sufficient condition should describe a convex curve as z describes \z\ =r is that that/(z) the tangent to the path of f(z) should rotate steadily through 2?r as z describes the circle; i.e. it is sufficient that &m{zf'(z)} should increase steadily through 2?r. This condition is satisfied in the case f(z) = log (1 z) for zf (z) = z/(l z) describes a circle including the origin as z describes \z\=r < 1.
;
It is easy to see further that the convex curve described by log(l includes the origin, and increases in area as r increases. Now
z)
A\z\>\\og (iz')\>A\z\
and
therefore, for
(MM),
the curve
Cni
o
This shews at once that when
and that when
R
large we are in case (i), are in case (ii), the region (<7 ) containing an arbitrarily large circle with its centre at the origin. It is only in the case of circles that the criteria given in the theorem
is sufficiently
o
is sufficiently
near
1
we
enable us to determine in
or case
(ii);
all
circumstances whether we are in case
criteria deal only
settle
(i)
for arbitrarj^
convex curves the
with
the extreme cases.
They do
or
not, for example,
the question
this
whether there exists an absolute constant D> such that we are in cases
(i)
or
(ii)
according as
>D'
or 1
< CTO < D'. The discussion of
point demands a
closer investigation of the
curves with which
we
are dealing,
and
geometry of the special the question would appear to be
one of considerable intricacy.
4.52. The
relations
between
U V and
9
W give us the
($)
following
analogues for log(s) of the results for
'($)/
THEOREM 47. On each line o=oQ 1 the values oflog(s) are everywhere dense in a region (oo), which is either (i) the ringshaped area bounded two convex curves, or (ii) the area bounded by one convex curve. For by
>
R
THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF
sufficiently large values
{"(5)
71
o
of
<r
we are in
case
(i).
case
(ii),
and for
values of
sufficiently
near
48.
to 1
we are in
set
is
THEOREM
The
o
neighbourhood of
= OTO
of values which log identical with
<TO
(s)
takes in the immediate
R
(o ).
R
(o )
includes
any given finite area when
is sufficiently
In particular, since near 1, log(s)
tafes every value
an
infinity
of times in
result,
(s)
As a consequence of the last THEOREM 49. The function
often in the strip 1
r
r< 1 we have
1
:
+ 8.
takes every value except
infinitely
<
1
+
8.
This
is
a more precise form of Theorem 43.
4.61.
We
have seen above that log(s) takes any assigned value a
in <r>
is
1.
an
infinity of times
It
is
natural
to raise
the question
how
large
often the value
T
a of the number
M
taken, i.e. the question of the behaviour for < t < T. a ( T) of roots of log (s) = a in <r > 1,
This question is evidently closely related to the question as to how often, as t * GO the point (fyt, a^t, ... ##) of Kronecker's theorem, which, in
,
virtue of the theorem, comes (modulo 1) arbitrarily near every point in the ^"dimensional unit cube, comes within a given distance of an
2 assigned point (^ bx). The answer to this last question is given by the following theorem, which asserts that, roughly speaking, the point (ait, ... a^i) comes near every point of the unit cube equally often, i.e.
. . .
,
,
it
does not give a preference to any particular region of the unit cube.
Let
Ndimensional unit cube with
intervals between
t
!,
...
ay
be linearly independent,
and
Let
let
volume V.
Iy (T)
y be a region of be the sum of
...
the the
is
=
and
Then
t
=
T for
which the point Pfat,
ant)
(modulo 1) inside y.
lim
If
we
call
an
'
accessible' point, Kronecker's
a point with coordinates of the form fat, ... a$t\ modulo 1, theorem states that the accessible
points are everywhere dense in the unit cube C. If now yi, y2 are two cubes with sides parallel to the axes, and with centres at accessible points
P
1
and
P
2J
corresponding to t~^ and t 2 it is easily seen that lim /Yl (70//Y2 (2>1.
,
.
For
lies
(ait,
.
.
a$i) will
.
lie
inside y 2
when and only when
{a x (t
+
2
^),
. . .
}
inside yl Consider now a set of p nonoverlapping cubes c, inside (7, of side e, each of which has its centre at an accessible point, and q of
which lie inside y; secondly a set of overlapping similar cubes c' such of them and y in Q of them. Since the accessible that C4s included in
P
points are everywhere dense,
it is
possible to choose the cubes such that
72
THE GENERAL DISTBIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s)
arbitrarily near to V.
q/P and Q/p are
Now
denoting by
^I (T)
C
the
lie
sum
in
y,
of ^intervals in (0,
T)
corresponding to the cubes c
which
and
so on,
c
J
y
y
Making T
7
* oo
we obtain
Is ESi^US pjSl y P
and the
4.62.
result follows.
'
We
a
can now prove
:
THEOREM
number
M (T) of
50.
There are positive constants A (a) and
zeros of log
(s)
A
'
(a) such that the
a in
cr
>
1 satisfies the inequalities
A(a)T<Ma (T)<A'(a)T.
We deduce the lower bound from the more general result that if =
oor
is
a
line
on which log f (s) comes arbitrarily near
o
to the
given number
a,
then in every strip
Sr<o"
+
8 the value
a
is
taken more than
A (a,
< t < T. large T, in to consider our former argument of 4.36, used to establish the existence of a root of log (s) = a in the strip, and
cr
,
8)
T times, for
this
To prove
we have
use Kronecker's theorem in its generalized form. saw that a sufficient condition that log(s) = a may have a root inside a circle with centre o + it and radius 28 is that, for a certain ^Vand corresponding numbers
<x ,
...
We
<#, and a certain
17
=
77
(<r
,
8,
<
x
,
...
<#),
From the
intervals, between
generalized Kronecker's theorem it follows that the sum of the 7 and T in which t satisfies this condition, is asymp,
totically equal to (y/27r)
for large T.
N
T, and
it is
'
N  (y/2Tr) T/8 numbers two of which differ by less than 48. If now we describe to circles with the points <TO + itQ as centres and radius 28, these circles will not overlap, and each of them will contain a zero of log ($)# This
therefore greater than ^ (rj/Qn^T
Hence we can
select
more than
in them, no
f
gives the desired result. As to the upper bound for
result that if b is
M
a
(T),
it
follows from the
more general
any given
constant, the
number of
zeros
of(s)
b in
<r>
+
8,
0<t<TisO(T)as T+x>.
The proof of this is substantially the same as that of Theorem 34, the function (s)b playing the same part that C (s) did there. Finally the number of zeros of log C (s)  a is not greater than the number of zeros
of
000*, and so
is
0(T).
rj < 1. having given YJ < 1. Bohr and Courant (1).CTO + Ari+S /"+ ^ i/^ for I Mo. in the critical strip. .THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF 4. (8). more than (1  ^/e) 8. are everywhere dense in the Let This function is &(*) = *(*) n(ljv). and so. Q N^N T^T I \bi(<r + it)l\*dt<*T (<r 1 uniformly for I cr 8 /Vif5 < o ^ o^ + 8 1 >l). Then the values which log (s) takes on<r = t > 0. But.rf) T. = M l very similar to the $ z (s) of Theorem 37. from the proof of Theorem 37 that. more difficult question of the behaviour The difficulty of course is that (s is no longer represented by an absolutely convergent Dirichlet series. Let S be a positive number less than J (o.+ it)<ro5 1 1 2 <^<&< v. of (s) (s) 73 We now turn to the in the critical strip *. For o^i. results analogous to those already obtained in the region of absolute convergence. but it happens to be more convenient here. Cauchy's integral gives s/r for 0<r<8. and for Let * Bohr (7).. since the circle of integration is included in one of the previous rectangles of integration. ^(0100 + 28) v. THEOREM whole plane. Hence. rT J 1 J 005 &r (<r + it)  2 1 dcrdt < (^ . T values of 7 For such values of and <v + oTo^o^oj. we can choose 8 and c so that (1) &(<r + *0~~l<i7 (oo^o^orj) (1 /or a set of values of t of measure greater than . we are able to obtain. log (5) is defined. Then it is easily seen = T (N). multiplying by r and integrating. Hence 28) cT 7 . for Q (<T O> c). by a device like that used in the proof of Theorem 37.J). on each line t = constant which does not pass through a singularity. 51. by continuation along this line from or>l. Let CTO be a fixed number in cr .7. the < range % < o 1.
Then N (s) = exp {Ex (s)}. In particular.^ QO Also. for sufficiently large values of N.e. (ii) Since Sp" if is theorem N divergent.V) T .. We I FN (o" can then. V includes any finite region of the complex plane. This is true for cr = al9 if ^ is * as o. 2TO n=M+l m=l W? N oo oo 2 rn* 2 m~*<A 2 rn \ . it is easily = log (1 + rn ). set Fof values of &N is The maximum and minimum Pn determined by the theorem on convex radii vectores from to Cn are pn = . variables The curves. <#) = #. make N nM+l f N oo r m W> n=M+lm=l Then.. We < $*. i.^o.1? so that I EN (s) must remain between JTT for all values &  \ . An additional argument is therefore required. expressing the squared modulus of this as the product of conjugates. # (5) > sufficiently large. I . and integrating termbyterm. by Kronecker's theorem.r).74 THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s) where Log denotes the principal value.owant to shew that UN (s) = Log (s). in a set of values of t greater We now consider the function n=l where r^p^r** and in conjunction with it the function of n independent '. since \N (s) for o. But this in itself is not sufficient to prove the theorem. and that. we can find a number N such that <# (<i. since this value of t does not necessarily j?#(s) small. for a.^ o. find a number t such that + *'0 ~~ a is arbitrarily small. \ R of a in this interval. is seen that we are in case of the large enough. by (1). We have ^V for or = <TO 7 than (1 . that ljR N (s) and the values of t for which (i) holds.log ( 1 . we obtain N oo A.  N ("o> *?> */)> T &TQ (jV). there/ore This gives the desired result. if and values of the <'s a is any given number.
Let I(T) be the sum of the intervals between and Tfor which the point modulo inside one of the ^Vdimensional cubes.. Let L a> a) ^(T)be A (a. A' (a. a. for all N. in such a way that . that then follows from considerations of continuity that. volume greater than determined by the above construction. 1. a..dimensional cube with d > throughout which 3f') and side . M Hence for M^ M Q (c). <^ 1 . But for such a value of t and the 4. and for which at the same time  RN (s) \< ^e.2v < $ e in certain total volume greater than J.THE GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VALUES OF f (s) 75 which can be made arbitrarily small. 0) T (T> To). (iii) Af)dimensional cubes of Having fixed Jfand^.81. a. having given c. of total is. result follows. the inequality \HN(S)\< greater than (1 (iv) holds in a set of values of of measure  cF) T. < . so large that. Then by the 7 extended Kronecker's theorem. a . 0<t<T.N < t We now (i) choose our value of as follows / : Choose M so large. we can divide up the (N)dimensional unit cube into the subcubes q v each of volume A. and any \ \ N>M> we can find cubes of total volume *. greater than  in which $M.2 Iog(lrn e M 27rt nl *)a <e. /(T ) > ^ d MT if T is large enough. /?). and give ' . (ii) We may also suppose that M has been chosen (N for any value of N. /?) such that THEOREM 52. we choose e N so large that. for t T> T (N). It therefore follows from the theory of Riemann integration of a continuous function that. we can find an M. are therefore ^d M .t(T}< A' (a. by choice of M. Let \ < a < the ft < number. . 0) T< La . <I>jn. . and let a be any complete number of zeros of log (s)a (defined as before) in the rectangle a<(7</?. 1. having given centre (</. There values of t for which the point lies in one of these cubes. . a. Then there are positive constants A (a. . <f> M It M such values.
An immediate corollary of Theorem 52 is that if bt a < < T7 where number of points in the strip <ft.82. Theorems 50 and 51 the reader has already acquired the main the extension of Theorem 50 which. On the Biemann hypothesis the proof is much shorter. 4= 0). * . and shews no signs of breaking down. If the Riemann hypothesis is true. Actually the theory. in conjunction with Theorem 37. in view of Theorem 51. (s). as far as coherent. /?) Tfor T> T. is perfectly at a contradiction. it will presumably be proved some day. That f () takes every value except zero infinitely often in the critical strip was proved by Bohr and Landau (3). But in the expect. These theorems will then take their place as an essential part of the theory. In all cases we obtain much more precise results with the hypothesis than without it. But from it we can deduce interesting consequences both about the vertical' distribution of the zeros. There are two reasons for investigations of this kind. CHAPTER V CONSEQUENCES OF THE EJEMANN HYPOTHESIS is on an entirely different footing from the assume throughout the truth of the unproved Riemann hypothesis. This chapter ones. 5. and about our 'order' problems. The finer shades in the behaviour of (s) would * still not be completely determined.11. we may perhaps hope in this way sooner it or later to arrive goes. it should proofs of ideas on which depends. p (T) is . The Riemann hypothesis.76 This is CONSEQUENCES OF THE EIEMANN HYPOTHESIS now we The proof is too long to be given here*. zeros being infinitely rarer than ^values for any value of b other than zero. that all the complex zeros of (s) lie on the line (T = J. leaves nothing more to be said about the 'horizontal' distribution of the zeros.. the (b 4. a. previous We If it is false. then M ar M . =b ($) bt 0i ^(T)>A (b. of course. shews that the value occurs at all in cr > J. is at any rate quite exceptional. if it of This. on the assumption that the Riemann hypothesis is true. But even a proof of the Riemann hypothesis would not by any means complete the theory. So all the theorems in this chapter may be untrue.
is less if c is 5.. Then is M be bounded on the smallest its maximum modulus Now if oj = oj (8.CONSEQUENCES OF THE BIEMANN HYPOTHESIS 5. e) is sufficiently large. I + &) = 0(1). where circle. Let on the middle circle.12. Hence on the smaller circle Max and the  log (.8. (2) * Littlewood (1). circles now apply Hadamard's threecircles theorem to the centre ^ + it (o^ > 1) and radii rx = (T! .' We first prove that (2) log 0) = (log*) uniformly for <r> J + 8(8>0). We have (*) log = 2 {(log cr 2* + <} uniformly far \ < CTO ^ 1. . (1) 77 THEOREM 53*.13. The function log (s) and satisfies (2) on the largest. r 2 = oj .e.) < 2(  y g) {0(Iog*) + 0(1)}.8. Since the index of log t in the above result small enough.it and radii f . rs = crj . the result follows. result follows. Hence Since both 8 and may be arbitrarily small. and in most of the chapter. we have both (1).8 and f 8. we use the Riemann hypothesis in = the form *log(s) is regular for <r> (except at s 1). Here.1 . On the larger circle R{log ()} = log Also log (2 U() <4 log*. We apply Carathdodory's theorem to the function log (s) and the circles with centre 2 4. it follows that than unity i. We with + 8 TO ^ cr.cr.
J integrals along the straight lines joining 2iT.l +'dv\ ^  (^ r 1+ ). oo .13 (2) we I I see that the integral along T (1 a =i+ 8 is ^+ 8 f J + 1 T 1 \ l *}dt\ J = (x^ 7)> while the remaining integrals are Off' 8 Taking 3T= # we obtain UHS a" T. .> Thus on the Riemann hypothesis it is for a.). jfor all values greater than Let (I) M(x) = 2 ft*g.iT). 5. The of a series ^(n)n" J.78 for or CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS > and In particular. Since the integrand is regular for a. Consider the integral ^_ residues gives 1 (*+*> T a* __ s a? 1 (*) ZmJziT 2 . If n < #.21. . Using 5. . $ 2 + iT. A similar result holds for the other integral.  ^ ( 0) ^) VIV .r /i(n). 8 is convergent. . and its sum 1/f (. We may suppose that is half an odd integer. or simply (2) * Littlewood (1).> \.^ Uf (ft) =i 1 . completely determined for all values of <r. and there is no residue term.iT. 2^J [*+ (x\*ds ( 5 2 ir \n/ . co 4 If n > x. ^ . we may replace the integral by + SiT. we take the integrals along (2 + iT. so also.= by convexity. Lindelof 's function ^ (o) is zero for o. . the theorem of Now since log a/n > A jx. Hence r^r iT) and (2 . is THEOBEM 54*.
continuation. such as log log log #. // Mertens' hypothesis For if or > i.CONSEQUENCES OF THE EIEMANN HYPOTHESIS It 79 8 partial summation that the series %p(n)n~ is and since it represents l/(s) uniformly convergent for o^o<o^ 1 also. The hypothesis that (2) is 3/O) = 0(X) attributed to Mertens. though there is nothing in the general theory to suggest it. This is in contrast to the ' corresponding results in the theory of primes. however. Problems involving !/(. .$) appear to be exceptionally difficult. requires the much more difficult analysis sketched in No more in this direction is known. of S/A (n) n~ for a. if k + iy is a _i_=ii is There '( no great Landau difficulty in t. and also. This.22.<?) occurs here. / 1  l \ fc and if (^T) j =s r A (2) is true it follows that Hence every zero. Sterneck (1). The convergence 8 and 5. $ Cramer and Landau f v. Titchmarsh (3). all the zeros of (s) are simple J. v } (4) zero on 0 = ^ must be simple. It is supported by a certain amount of numerical evidence!. which would not affect it appreciably as far as the calculations go. is true. (1). in which ($)/($) occurs in the same way that !/(. Indeed the analogy between M(x) and the remainder in the formula for ir(x) suggests that M(x) may really contain a slowly increasing factor. by the theory of analytic for <r> l.>  is therefore a necessary sufficient condition for the truth of the Riemann hypothesis. it represents it for now follows by >. The result 5.71.21 (2) can be replaced by the more precise one* / "\ I//Y "\ n //*** (A ^& M 5. and in which it is only a power of log x that is in doubt. deducing from this an inequality for + it) for all values of * (8).
so uni Hence * also v(o). The function* v (cr). for any fixed #. as the order of bound of numbers such that log (s) = (log* *) It follows from the absolute convergence of the Dirichlet series for log(s) that v(cr)^0 for or>l.= <r2 . i.= o1 . that (6) to say This is as in true without any hypothesis. the result is true. j i would be false if t were the ordinate of a double is zero. This proved by the method /A (o). we deduce from du (3) that. in order to prove that all the zeros are simple. and the result follows from this. g(s) is bounded for o. as<r^J. and = o2 and . . of v(o) is (s) = is A (t )9 that v (or) < oo a convex function of or. and the fact that for er > J (actually that v (o) ^ 1). Phragm6n and Lindelof. 5. So if the it follows Riemann hypothesis is false. Further. 5. for <r> (<*+') in logtj that is to say as the lower We now J. We have therefore only to consider the case in which the Riemann hypothesis is true. as in the case of the function f We = o^ consider where k (s) is the linear function of s which is equal to v (c^) for a to v(o2) for o. In any case no more than (2) can be true.3. W and this U Jf00) = G(a*). it is of some interest to notice that. if M(x) =o (V#).52. if (6) is untrue.31. log define a function v(o). as a *.e. it would be sufficient to know that (5) M(x)=o(a*\Qgx)\ we deduce from i for then (3) that. shews Bohr and Landau (3). This is false if t is the ordinate of a zero. For if the result is false 5. It then follows (as in 5. Littlewood t See 1. oformly in the strip. But then.21 that the Riemann hypothesis is true.80 CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS In view of the suspicion under which (2) rests. for fixed t.12) from Carathdodory's theorem. and nondecreasing (s) in any range where Now the Dirichlet series for log (5). so that (6) is proved. like p(<r\ is continuous it is finite.
The exact value of than 1. this time both valid for o. 5 . This. 353 (9).>  ) for Hence v (<r) = for o. All we know is v(o) is not known for any value of <r less THEOREM 55. The approximate functional equation for (s)/ (s). depends essentially upon the Riemann hypothesis*.i(n)n~**. for 5. s 4= p.> 1. In the case of ($)/ (s) we have also two formulae. where 2"^= 2 cannot be negative (and in particular cannot be <T . We have already 2. Approximations of the as effective in former type are applications. rather than the ordinary partial sum S an n<N . and ^ v (or) ^ 1. so that we obtain an approximate functional equation for (s)/(s). is not the formula we actually use. For J < o < 1. and the lower bound follows at once from Theorem 17. valid for o.> J. though this proof.CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS 00 81 A. and v (<r) is convex. and are just Bohr and Landau (3).> 1 In l ' : ^' (i) f$>s4^_ 6+ 8 * ir 2 l r(l+Js) __ p\sp We \ can combine these in the formula t ) M The . 2.2#. l<r< v(<r)2(lcr). Littlewood (5). The same lower bound can however be obtained in another and in some respects simpler way. however. Before we come to the proof. unlike the former.42. 2. t Handbuch. as an approximation to San } .41. * much easier to prove.32. s 4= . *** A  #*~t ar*r ^ H ^& which holds x> 1. we require some new formulae involving f (s). <x> a.< respectively. on the Riemann hypothesis.51) had some experience of the advantage of using series (in of the form ^an e~ 5n where S is small. . The upper bound is Theorem 53. > Incidentally this gives a new proof of Theorem 53. last three terms in this formula can.21 we obtained the approximate functional equation for ($) ~ 8 by combining the formulae 3n~ and \^ n8 which represent the function for cr > 1 and o.'(*)_ "/"< for ^. then a slight n=3 adaptation of the argument which proves convexity shews that v (<r) v(cr) that = for OXTJ. 5 4= 1. however. T 6 . ' be replaced by comparatively small error terms.
no particular by using Theorem at ws. ^8 A v Now. THEOREM 57*. we apply Cauchy's theorem ^iT.82 CONSEQUENCES OF THE BIEMANN HYPOTHESIS 5. As t + <*>. We haw uniformly for ^<oQ * <r<<rl < (5). Littlewood . and make T^QO through certain Since the Pfunction difficulty in justifying is values which avoid the poles of the integrand. to the rectangle We move the contour to R (w) = that is. r (p s) S*~p (we count multiple order of multiplicity).43. P (w . w with residue Ai ) P . (s) n uniformly for J^o^f.s) 8*.g. there this process.5) = The result ' (e~ now follows. tends exponentially to zero. The integrand has poles at the points w = p. by the lemma of and and the Eiemann hypothesis.= (I 1 (e~ = (84 log f). 2. THEOEEM 56*.42. It remains only to verify that _ /i+oc i <(8 r( w )* 1.83 /" ( ( w\ rf. since /  5. 42) We have (as in (2) 2^<r* . and at 18. with residues zeros in the sum with their proper 1. The above formula enables us to put Theorem 53 into a more precise form. e. with residue '($)/(#).=0(^log*). 2iT.
e.Alt v l Hence p y and. the result (with o2 for oj) follows. log (t n=l =A 3 S A n=l S logO + rc + 2)<T^ M <^llog(2f 2) S e~ An + A S n<t = 0(logt). Theorem but this Littlewood . 5. Also. w = 1. )~ o we obtain the b first result. ^ a = {(log *)*i*} + = If (TX {(log ty**i+'} + is 2 " 2<r {(log /log log #}. The proof begins same way * as that of (5).2 ). For the purpose of Theorem 55 we require an approximate formula for log($).9 e~* n + in the a {fr~ (log )" + 0(1). o ^ cr2 so cr2 r1 and < 2X^! o. since there are less than this is less than A nl< *y<n + n + 2) terms in the inner sum. this and may be as near to 1 as we of the required form . 56. for <r (8' ) + (8^* log + (8i log 0. and since please. log (s) = SAi (n} n. by the asymp uniformly for a in the above range.CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS 83 By Theorem 56 Now (2) i /2 Mo the integral being dominated by the pole at totic formula for T (z). n>t log (2ra + 2) <r^ M Hence &= o 2 1 few and taking 8 = (log Again.44. for e~* (1) For fixed a and a such that ^<ar^l (a)+e } j and ^8^1. THEOREM 58*.
. For this 1 2 A (^)^.. We have. (1) R log = SA n a (*) sw (n) n~* cos (t log w) <r + 6n {* (log < ^ (a)+e } + (1) <^ 2 +0( n>N for all values of JV. t satisfies the con Theorem flr 58.log ( + ft) 1 . f).5w > 2 A (w)w*{l+ 0(l/q)}e~ 8n 1 = 2 n<2V A^ra^^ * Littlewood (5).42. X N such that.2A X (w) w. inte . 2* t N and integers 1/9 x^ theorem (with r= 2?r) there is . r () or. simply Hence r a + z5 Jaiao w ^ ?(ws}\^&.2A. Hence } /^ = 2 ^^ 6n 4 (s) 8n + {8 (log 0" (a)+e + ^> (I) This result holds uniformly in the range grate over this interval.45. Now by 2rrq . Dirichlet's a number t. Theorem 58 enables us to extend 'the method of Diophantine approximation. by Theorem 58. 2. to values of or between J and 1. for given . 'N and q. () l= 5. Let us assume dition of for the moment < that this number t. that er" 8. and so we may aH '} ~o(l) (1). .84 CONSEQUENCES OF THE BIEMANN HYPOTHESIS time we move the contour as far as does not occur. the last integral is {(log )" (a)+e }.  #log/2ir^n ^  (w=l. since v (o) is continuous. and the sum in p w = a + iv. A 7 )... as in [V r <r^l"*l {log ( v I 5.cos(dog^)6. JV0w ^ro^/ #A^* v(o) ^ 1.o. . already used for <r > 1. If R (w) = a only.dw (w\ (W) = and.8 <T 8ri  {$* (log )"( . We obtain log (s) (cr.
f u\ for q ^ (2) Taking o = 1 + log 8/log N. (1). and. as in 1. we obtain (3) R log y 00 > (log t) c ~^ + + {(lOg j)<r+v(a) . the 5. The line <j= On the Riemann hypothesis the order of on <r = 1 is known. c and term on the right of (<r) than the second. Then the second and log * + ^ log q < ^ l 8 log (1/8).5.CONSEQUENCES OF THE BIEMANN HYPOTHESIS The last 85 term is 1 (q' N i 1 *). Now. since N= 4 1. f /i\ (1) T* RC(cr^O 6. and # > 27r. from (1). R R (o But and since (2) + it) * oo . 8 < e^ (for some arbitrarily small values of 8). first when a^o.'} j where y and a I.46. V^/ S)~8n\ \^K' ) ^ ** / N log N T. and 1 ? 2 Aj (n) n~ a e~* n = y Sn ^ 2 A (n) n~* e~ ^ ^ \ i 2 A (n) n~* e~ 5n T JL + by 5.> 1. 5. and the only remaining problems are those of the exact values of the constants. (2)] a Let us now take q = [S~ ]. where a > third terms on the right are (1). on the contrary.43 (2). Since the second alternative reduces to the result follows.13. We have still to shew that the t of the above argument satisfies e~^ 8. . This completes the proof. by 6.p f} V/ ( 1 \ o 5 I Ij / We therefore obtain. it follows that contradicts Theorem 1. follows at once that v ^ 1 Otherwise 3 a cr f v (a) 1 cr. If the first it are functions of and a which tend to zero with (3) is of larger order <r. (~\ (**$. for o. Suppose that.
' where y that <2 > is Euler's constant. Comparing 5. Littlewood . It is however possible by an elaboration of the analysis to obtain interesting results about the constants.log log 1/8 1/8 + (1). and t so that  2A log (1 4 X (w) w  1 e~ 8n .  We have + it)  log { (1 log log log t + A. that v ' log log t . (1) 1. so that (1) and (2) differ by a ft as is quite possible. the result is final. (1) CONSEQUENCES OF THE BIEMANN HYPOTHESIS THEOREM 59*. as far as the order of the functions is concerned. o flog logo. Now S/r ^ ^ 8 S A ww <r +0 S Here the second sum is (1). ft foUows from Theorem 55 that factor 2 at most. 58. without any hypothesis. v (<r) = 1 <r. If. is determined exactly. 28.86 5.51. t Handbuch. We know already. On the Riemann hypothesis we can prove where lim 0(1)= (T^lO It iv(r)/(l<r). 1 Taking <r=  a= (1 .51 (2) with Theorems 7 and 10. then (1) = i> and * the constant (5)..52. we see that. In particular (2) (i + *o = 1. + &) < log log + (8* log + (1). Theorem X i/(i + ^) = 0(iogiogO. 5. in it) 1 we have (8* log n log + < 2A  (w) ir <rsn + 1 1 + (1). Taking 8= (logO" the result follows.
THEOREM 60 1. The function 8 (t). Let (2) (*)= <j> 1<U<* Max i(w) (*>1). N R * Littlewood (6). where b = 60 Y 7r~2 and $ . .61. This problem about which all we know is that \ proximation.6. We write (1) so that R(t)=S (t) + but it is (1/0. We have uniformly for <r>%. and the number of them less than TbN(T). 5. Now Substituting for (u) from (1). we have where the numbers yn are all real. we can only say that Actually . I (z) Writing s =  + ^. We begin by proving a formula connecting logf (s) with the remainderterm in the formula for N(f). t Titchmarsh (3). < # < j. 8 log log t 5. we obtain a number of integrals which can be evaluated by standard methods. sometimes more convenient to consider the former. and an integral involving (u). rather more complicated*.= 1. 87 as usual. for so that (t) is positive and nondecreasing t>l. would therefore be solved if we could prove that (1)= and 3. where < 0. is a number arising in the Diophantine ap# < 2.CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS The corresponding problem for l/ (1 + it) Here we can prove only that is.Thus J2 (0 and #(*) are not very different.
62.n ^ L i^t /+* JB (M) . v [*+* (0 are easily obtained by integrating the parts.\iz log 2?r0 + log z + (1) On log the other hand.s J) Thej. Hence Now / (using Si (u) = du (u) for u > 2) ~T~2 / _ i \2) Also ' r J . THEOREM 61*. 5. Littlewood (5). tx) may be dealt with in the same way.. We have Landau (1). J {*  1) T (is) 7r* s } fe log s . +. Hence the result. Hence log < <>  But u u and the results R L "T*.88 CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS result is The log H (z) = %iz log z \irz . . integrals over (y a . . by the asymptotic formula for (s P (s). _RW8(u) tf du j {* + a (.\TTZ  \iz log 2ire + log + (1).
Cramer (1). we obtain rt+lngt (for fixed &>) & (j. if cr > . shall indicate * t Landau Landau (1). Bohr and Landau (3). . matter true when is replaced by 5. Uog log The full proof of this is too long to be given here but we the main ideas on which it depends. Titchmarsh (3). which is the Again. S(0<(log*)*v (cr).\ and the second If result is proved in the we define a as the lower same way. is S (0 = what the above argument a really shews that ^ lim v <r*i (cr). I (S J) Suppose that fixed cr S(t}^0 (log* 0> that R(t} = (log* 0 Taen > for > J.63. Max { and from this it I log (5). This result is suggested by what we know about functions For the two (s) . that the inequalities* (*)> (log #)*.71. Jtlogt U+ ie. viz. both have solutions for arbitrarily large values of t. this contradicts for cr sufficiently near to . on integrating by parts. Littlewood (4). . A<J. am cr (s) < (log t. O v(<r) "e both have solutions for arbitrarily large values of of shewing that this is still It is only a . (6).. Hence X ^ J. It is also possible to prove 'onesided' results of the above type. Then. the inequalities (s) am > (log 0" (<r) ~e . since <j>(t) = (log 0. 0} both have the same vfunction as log follows that. THEOREM 62t.CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS Take # = log t 89 in Theorem 60. { If ^ v(cr)>lcr first result. of the order of 8 (t) is therefore closely connected with the problem of the value of v (a). bound of numbers X such that (log**). The problem 5.
4 ^ terms are of the same order. THEOREM 63*. The effect of this argument is to divide the righthand side by a power of log which increases with cr. lefthand side of (4) may therefore be replaced by S(f). if (t) is defined by 5. we obtain 4> multiples of t. in the same way that we improved 5. by Theorem 62.12 (1). it N(T) is follows in an elementary way from the fact that monotonic and 0(log T) that. We choose # so that the first two and obtain 0* (log log log { still (*) = [(log T)t {< (40}*]. It follows that the 5.12 (2) to 5. . <KO * Littlewood (4). We much next apply Hadamard's threecircles theorem to improve (2). Since.72.61 (2). i+1/loglogT The J + I/log log T) is of this order. Now by Theorem respect to log log o. and 39 $i(0 depends on the integral of logf (s)l w^n this integration applied to (3) gives us an extra factor T in the denominator. o [(log o* (log log 0* {0 (*)}*]. If there7 fore we ignore the difference between t and 7 and between the various . we obtain. .90 In the CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS first place. roughly. We also find that the integral over (.= a region not touched by methods such as that used in Theorem 57.61 (3) depends on >/<> log for cr  first being the important term on the right of 1 and in fact we obtain (40}] + {tf< (s) = [x log log T V{log t # <#> (40} +0(1) l/log log T. Titchmarsh (3). (3) T log t (*) = [(log T)**<" (log log T)* {< (40}*]. The result for S(i) 1 then follows 5. (2) > ^ T. Here < occurs to a power less than the first. In fact log li () Ar =  [(log T) Oog log T)* {<#> (40}*]. (0 = which gives the result from (1). < (1) ^(0 = 0[V{log**(20}l < the occurrence of to a power less than the first feature of this formula. for 8 (t). Theorem 62 also enables us to prove inequalities for (s) in the immediate neighbourhood of o.
THEOREM 64*. It then follows from Theorem 57 in the general case by the Phragm^nLindelof method. < cr log log jf/' Of these. Using #= 1 /log log t. I/log log t 2 [log $/{# (log log er tf) }] + (1).73. and taking Again am * Titchmarsh (3).o < Ax log * + and taking x = 5. Hence . . the result follows. A result in this direction is given by Cramer (3). (since N () ' is nondecreasing) since M (t) = < AV\Q (log t). and making * J. (1) is an extension of Theorem 57 Theorem 62.CONSEQUENCES OF THE EIEMANN HYPOTHESIS Theorem 56 gives 91 Now. writing N(T) = M (T) + R (T). Theorem 60 gives to a wider range. the result follows for o= + l/loglog.
92 and from CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS (2) follows on taking #=1. represented sub by the integral / log  (or + it) do. The mean square of this over (0.  If we calculate the integral from 5. On the other The best known upper bound Theorem 62. and similar results hold for integrals of 8 (t) of making things easier. necessary and sufficient (2). The function irS^t) stantially as we know from 3. Littlewood Titchmarsh . and (log log t .44 (1). We have noticed one such condition in 5.9. Finally the upper bound (3) follows 5. and ignore anything in the nature of an errorterm. The result of this somewhat freehanded procedure is (i) This result is true . which gives the lower bound on taking x 5. I/log log t. we obtain 2 A2 where 5n (n) n~* cos (t log n) e~ . Another (5). the convergence of ^^(n)n~ * 8 for cr>. which is divergent. viz. The case of 8 (t) itself is much more difficult.23. The series corresponding to that on the right of (1) is 2 {&i(n)}*/n. T) to be of a higher order than T. 5. hand we can prove that (3). for (2) is obtained from (3) and Necessary and sufficient conditions for the truth of the Riemann hypothesis.8. but the exact behaviour of this integral remains a mystery. so that we should expect the mean square of S (t) over (0. and is ATlogT. T) can be calculated after the manner of 1.72. Mean value ttworemsfor is.21. S (t) and Si (t)*. Actually we can prove that (2) higher* order. A 2 (n) = Ax (n) log n. each integration j*\8(t)\*dt>ATloglogT.72.
since it may if the Riemann hypothesis is false. . i. The converse of Theorem 65 is true. and in any case might turn out to be much easier to prove. Hardy and Littlewood . that (cr + it) = (t e) for every a. equivalent to > saying that /* (o) = for or J. by the theory of the function ju (o).12 (1) holds for every k and cr>^ then Lindelb'f's hypothesis It is sufficient to assume simply that is true. 6. $ Hardy and Littlewood Titchmarsh (5). has been given by Franelt. in which we It is possible to obtain a similar result for may now take non integral values of k. We have also seen that Lindelofs '. hypothesis is true if the Riemann hypothesis is true. i: * Biesz (1).  (2). A condition it would take too long CHAPTER VI LINDELOFS HYPOTHESIS = (F) or.e. what 6.> For either statement is. 6.12. rs df (n) 2' /6>r ^i?ery positive integer k and o This follows at once from Theorem 28. f Franel (1). (i) THEOREM 65 J. (11). if 6.11. The converse deduction however cannot be made. Landau (6). but this requires a further argument. On Lindelofs hypothesis ^ i { (o + 2* it)  *~ > %. The hypothesis is suggested by various theorems in Chapters I and II.LINDELOF'S HYPOTHESIS condition* is 93 that as # * <x> . It is therefore of some interest to be true even investigate the consequences of the less drastic hypothesis. THEOREM 6611. which to explain here. of quite a different type. Hardy and Littlewood (5).13. Lindelofs hypothesis is that (% + it) comes to the same thing.
If (o. Royal Soc. not for all k but simply for a particular value of Jc. ^ (cr Hence + #)< if \t tv t~ \ . we could deduce that condition for the C (i + <0 = necessary truth ofLindelof's hypothesis is that 6.o = For example. (A) 113 (1927). tv +t~ F ) is included if vis large. . for t^ 1. The necessity is method of 6. holds also for k = 4.94 LINDELOF'S HYPOTHESIS for every k and <r > ." Proc. * G. It follows from a general theorem on mean values of analytic functions* We can obtain a similar result that if for any value of k then f(o + .y if which is contrary to hypothesis large enough. 6.15. and v is sufficiently large. E and F being positive absolute constants. if Hence the result. A. and the sufficiency may be proved by the H. Hardy.14. and a sequence of numbers sv = <r + itv such that with v and l(OI>ax (#>o). 13. we are given a mean value formula. t Hardy and Littlewood . Hence Take in (7. (5). E. 2I ) 7 so that the interval (tv t~ F . obvious. ' of analytic functions. Theorems concerning mean values 542569 (Theorem 2). k= 2. On the other hand we know that. r=f^. P61ya. Then rt v / + ~ tv =2 ^ is t*. Ingham and G. THEOREM 67f A (*+) and sufficient for every k. if we could prove that which is true for k = 1.+ V) is not (*)> then there is a positive < number A.
T+l)N(*. But does give a new result concerning the number of zeros which can occur in a rectt < T+ 1. THEOREM 68 *. and let denote a summation over zeros of (s) in Ci. 95 We and the effect distribution of the zeros. no it on our result concerning the order of N(<r.LINDELOF'S HYPOTHESIS 6. o. 7 The necessity of the condition is easily proved. . with cr = J + 8. This follows from 1. On Lindelof 's hypothesis the righthand side is less than o (log ). T). Let C2 be the ^ concentric circle of radius f .J8. A Lindelof s hypothesis (1) is necessary and sufficient condition for the truth of that for every <r >  N(v. if there are zeros in the concentric circle with radius f . since for each term which is in one of the sums 2 but not in the other. for s in (7a . and. the left N hand side is greater than Hence the number of zeros in the circle of radius f J8 is o (log t) and the result stated.83 (1).28. clearly follows by superposing a number of such circles. apparently.22. Then.8 (8 > 0). t Littlewood (4). r) = o(log7 ).^o^l (OQ > ). Let G! be the circle with centre 2 + IT and radius f . The converse deduction is more difficult. and in fact is equivalent to a angle T certain hypothesis about this number. 6. of such terms is Backlund (4). *H]_ _L_ Sp 8. . s/o x _JL *4 ty\<lS~p and the number  .21. The following proof is due : to Littlewoodt. next consider the relation between Lindelof s hypothesis The hypothesis has. We apply Jensen's formula to the circle with centre 2 + it and radius f J8. f(s) being f (s).
/2 /2 cr log ((T! + ft) do! = 2i / log cr (<T! 4 ft . with our previous notation.96 Let 3 LINDELOF'S HYPOTHESIS be the concentric \l/ circle of radius f .Si {log (2 + ft. Also ift = T the lefthand side is o (log T). ( We Hence have. (s) 6. (1). /? depending on 8 only. </?<!. it has o (log T) terms. 6. f Littlewood (4).22. = o (log T) for s in 0.p) log (i 7 1 38 + ft ~p)} since Si has o (log ) terms.31. Thus in 0^. since each term is Then (s) and by hypothesis the number of terms is o (log T).32. THEOREM 69*.p) dcrj + (log T). that Lindelof 's hypothesis is true. putting t = 7 T and taking real parts.38. Hence. that (without any hypothesis) S(t) = (log ). On Lindelof's hypothesis. . ^(s)= the o depending on Now s /2+35 ^ ( ) <&r  log C (2 + it)  log C (i + 38 + ft) 4 . for s in C3 . 6. a and 8. Hence Hadamard's threecircles theorem gives. Littlewood (4). C the concentric circle of radius J. where a+ /8 = 1.e. it follows that i.73 each term in the sum Cramer (1). follows that and as in 3.p) + (log T) + 38 ^ <r ^ 2). except that we now use = (f) where we previously used (s) = (t A ). On Lindelof's hypothesis. The proof is the same as Backlund's proof. 7 Since is 2X (1). Since  + 38 + i7 p<^l in 6^. (1) Si(*) = *0og*). given in the Introduction. THEOREM 70t. as in (<r log + ft) = Sj log (a + ft .
. integrating the real part of 3. Combining (2) and (3) with Theorem 39. log I (s) do = /* 2 I /i y*^li. Hence (3) f log 1C (s) \d<? = = S^ {8 (3 log 1/8) + (3 log *) log (1/8) log*}. we have = and the result follows./i Now Jj Ji and ^ ^ i ^* ^ oi4 .73 (1) from J to J + /*+38 I 38. 33 = 38(log^l). {8 log (1/3) log t] + o (log f) + (1).LINDELOF'S HYPOTHESIS In particular r2 97 J$+38 Again.
. .. . this being the value of  1). . <fov)}*. each lying in the interval (0. by an obvious extension of the lemma of 1. the two of {F(t)} fall k together. . mean values Jo Jo Jo are equal. t is N+ 1. ..APPENDIX A proof of Kronecker's theorem. For. . It depends on ideas somewhat similar to those used in proving It is clearly sufficient to Theorem 3. prove that we can find a number t such that each of the numbers differs from 1 by less than c . (2) 21 (1922). (IN being linearly independent.23. **) = ! + S ****. Soc. if n=l that the upper bound of \F(t)\ for real values of denote this upper bound by L. < &. Hence. 02. Also the moduli of corresponding terms are equal. L Hence L^N+1.. an arbitrary positive integer and we observe that each of these expansions contains the same number of terms.. Proc. . of \G\ is ZV+1. <J>N are independent real variables. London Math. ^= We consider the polynomial expansions of {F(f)}* and G (<h { .22 can clearly be extended to an ^Vfold integral. no two terms in the expansion where k is . Let us Let 0(*i.. 315316. The following proof of Kronecker's theorem (1. ll * k k ^L which proves the theorem. < .26) is due to Bohr. n=l where the numbers . . their common value being the sum of the squares of the moduli of the terms in the polynomial expansions. we have lim Hence also lim But plainly for all values of F F k k ll * = N+l. <i. the numbers Oj. . or. \ G Then the upper bound = when ^ = 2 = 0. Since the formula of 1. 2 .
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