Benign vs Malignant

morphogenesis and differentiation" .Neoplasia: Definition A growth disorder characterized by genetic alterations that lead to loss of the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth.

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Benign or malignant ? •Biological behavior •Treatment .

How can be differentiated? •Loss of differentiation •Altered growth (Rate and pattern) •Local Invasion •Distant metastasis .

Anaplasia and growth •Pleomorphism •Celluler •Nuclear •N/C ratio •Hyperchromasia •Mitoses (Numerous & Abnormal) .

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Leiomyoma Adenocarcinoma uterus .

Leiomyoma Carcinoma pancreas .

Local Invasion •Benign encapsulated •Hallmark of cancers •Clinical implications •Diagnosis •Treatment .

Distant metastasis •Primary & secondaries •Definitive sign •The routes are •Blood •Lymphatic •Transcoelomic .

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 Grading   Basis Significance Basis Significance  Staging   .

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Key Points •Benign tumors resemble parent tissue •Local invasion and metastasis are the characteristics of cancers only •Carcinomas tend to spread by lymphatics while Sarcomas spread usually by blood .

 A 55-year-old female came to OPD with c/o painless lump in upper outer region of the left breast. nontender swelling of about 3 cm in diameters. Left axillary lymph nodes were palpable.  . irregular. Local Examination: A firm. It was not attached to the underlying tissues but tethered to the overlying skin forming a dimple. in the upper. out quadrant of left breast.

nontender swelling of about 3 cm in diameters. out quadrant of left breast.  . irregular. A 55-year-old female came to OPD with c/o painless lump in upper outer region of the left breast. It was not attached to the underlying tissues but tethered to the overlying skin forming a dimple. Local Examination: A firm. in the upper. Left axillary lymph nodes were palpable.

 . Three out of twenty lymph nodes showed infiltration. Histopathology of the tissue revealed a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Lumpectomy with axillary dissection was done. FNAC: Pleomorphic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei.

Three out of twenty lymph nodes showed infiltration. FNAC: Pleomorphic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei.  . Histopathology of the tissue revealed a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Lumpectomy with axillary dissection was done.

Local Examination: A freely mobile mass with circumscribed margins. A 22-year-old female presented in the OPD with palpable mass in the right breast. Axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. The overlying skin and nipple were unremarkable. about 2.5cm in diameter in UOQ of right breast.   Histopathology of the lump showed a circumscribed tumor composed of slit like glands in myxoid stroma .

Local Examination: A freely mobile mass with circumscribed margins.   Histopathology of the lump showed a circumscribed tumor composed of slit like glands in myxoid stroma . Axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. The overlying skin and nipple were unremarkable. A 22-year-old female presented in the OPD with palpable mass in the right breast. about 2.5cm in diameter in UOQ of right breast.

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