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Fulfilling the role of system development, a no. of diff. situations arise, which must be understood to facilitate decisions on the approach, strategy, technology & development. The user in the business org has become more literate in terms of knowledge, use of IT & its application in the mgt of business. The problem of meeting the changing information needs is solved by keeping the DB, & the knowledge base at Back end. There are a variety of systems where system analysis would be required.
Data processing systems TPS Functional systems Integrated systems enterprise mgt
The role of system analyst is a, business analyst, technology expert & a consultant, giving a solution to the business needs of the 1 inform. Requirement.
Need for System Analysis;
System objective System boundaries System importance Nature of the system Role of the system as an interface Participation of user Understanding of resource needs Assessment feasibility
Study of end-user information requirements that is needed before the design of a new inform system can be completed.
SD describe what a system should do to meet the inform needs of users. The strategy specifies how the system will accomplish 2 the objectives
System Analysis of the Existing System;
Understanding the existing system Understanding the objectives achieved by the existing system Knowing whether the system is feasible in technically & operationally Evaluate the system for computerization & its placement in the total MIS design
System Analysis of a new requirements;
Definition of the system & its objectives Development of the system Installation of the system & testing Operations of the system Review & evaluation
Stages in System analysis STAGES INTERPERSONAL TECHNICAL 1. Design stage [To develop a detailed design of candidate system] 3. Analysis stage More [Working with the user to determine requirements & translate them into design] 2. Implementation stage [Coding & testing are carried out with user participation][Technical & Interpersonal skills converge] 4. except during unanticipated problems if develops] Low Low Low[in the beginning] High[in the end] More[in the beginning] Low [in the end] More than technical[in the beginning ] Less than technical[as it gradually proceeds] Less than interpersonal[in the beginning] More than interpersonal[as it 4 gradually proceeds] . Maintenance stage [Role of the analyst drops off.
outputs.Data Flow Diagram • A graphical system model that shows all of the main requirements for an information system: inputs. 5 . A data flow diagram is often the diagram of choice for modern entities. processes and data storage They are primarily used in the systems development process.
6 .Context Diagram A DFD that summarizes all processing activity within the system in single process symbol. Describes highest level view of a system All external agents and all data flows into and out of a system are shown in the diagram The whole system is represented as one process The data flows that pass between the external entities and the system.
Management. Time keeping. Human Resources. For Example A Context Data Flow Diagram for Payroll Processing shows a context diagram for a Payroll Processing that interacts with 5 agents: Employee. Government Agencies. 7 .Purpose To identify and examine the interface between the external entities and the system.
9 .Symbols used in Context Diagram A square represents an external data source or data destination. A line with an arrow indicates the direction of the flow of data. A Vowel indicates a internal entity or transformation process.
places). Look for entities that Give data to the system without explaining the process that creates that data Take data from the system without explaining what it does with that data Establish what flows are sent to and from the system from the external entities Draw the context diagram 10 .Guidelines for drawing a Context Diagram List potential external entities (people.
Order acceptance Customer Customer Process order Customer Order order acceptance Product data Customer data 11 .Structured systems Analysis & Design [SSAD] Symbols. Flow of data process of Transforming Data Storage of Data Entity Example.
SSADM Development process MODULE Feasibility study STAGES Feasibility analysis Requirement analysis Requirement specifications Logical system specifications Physical design •Investigations •Basic options •Definition of requirements •Technical options •Logical design 12 .
Water fall model • INTRODUCTION • The details of the waterfall model vary but two things remain constant there are boxes going from left downward to the right and there are arrow connecting each to its succesor. • 13 .
• Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of development.DEFINITION • The water fall model is a popular version of the system development lifecycle model for software engineering. • In order to design a good system. • It is often considered the classic approach to the system development life cycle. 14 . • This model describes a development method that is linear and sequential. traditionally. the development have used the waterfall model.
Water fall model Mission & Goal Information needs specifications Analysis System design Process design Testing Implementation 15 Maintenance .
16 . Each phase of department proceeds in strict order without any overlapping.ADVANTAGES It allows for departmentalization and managerial control.
• Something that was not well though out in the concept stage.DISADVANTAGES • It doesn‟t allow for much reflection or revision. it is very difficult to go back and change. 17 . • Once an application is in the testing stage.
The RAD approach encompasses the following phases. the RAD process enables a development team to create a “fully functional system within very short time period. Who process it . Business modeling The information flow among businesses function is molded in a way that answers the following questions: 1. If the requirement are well understood & project scope is constrained.The RAD Model Rapid application development is an incremental S/W development process model that emphasizes an extremely short development cycle. where does the information go? 18 5. What information drives the business processes/ 2. Who generates it? 4. What information is generated? 3. The RAD model is a “high-speed” adaptation of the linear sequential model in which rapid development is achieved by using component-based construction.
19 . The information flow defined as part of the business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the business. Rather than creating S/W using conventional 3rd generation programming languages the RAD process works to reuse existing program components or create reusable components. In all cases. or retrieving a data object.Data Modeling. The characterizes (called attributes) of the each object are identified & the relationships b/w these objects defined Process modeling. Application Generation. automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the S/W. RAD assumes the use of the 4th generation techniques. deleting. Processing description are created for adding. The data objects defined in the data modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. modifying.
Testing & Turnover. Since the RAD process emphasize reuse. many of the program components have been tested. Advantages of RAD model Time constraints imposed on a RAD project demand “scalable scope” Each major function to be completed in less than 3 months Each major function can be addressed by a separate RAD team & then integrated to form a whole Disadvantages of RAD model RAD requires sufficient human resources to create a right number of RAD team RAD require developers & customers for rapid-fire activates Not all type of applications are appropriate for RAD RAD is not appropriate when technical risks are high 20 . This re3dusede overall testing time. However. new components must be tested & all interfaces must be fully exercised.
Business modeling Data modeling Process modeling Application generation Testing & Turnover 60 – 90 days 21 .
PROTO TYPE • • • • It typically involves user and developer The developer interviews the user and develops an initial system using a DBMS The user works with the proto type and suggest changes Process will repeats until the user or developer is satisfied 22 .
Steps in system development by proto type: System development initiated Investigate and analyze problem sufficiently to develop workable solution Develop prototype Put proto type into operation Refine and modify proto type Complete component of system 23 .
PROCESS OF PROTO TYPE MIS designer user Initial interview Build initial proto type Use proto type New version Request changes Modify proto type Eg: Proto type of an auto-mobile-----subsequent developments made 24 .
PROCESS REPEATS UNTILL: User is satisfied Formal system is built by proto type Need for application is removed Process never ends ADVANTAGES: Accessible than SDLC Users wills and wishes are satisfied Designed to be modified from the starting Using case tools and DBMS error free code can be generated Helps heavily in user interaction DIS-ADVANTAGES : Several users involves When the project will be finished? Un capability of analyst No predefined targets 25 .
the incremental release might be paper model or prototype 5. Planning 3. of framework activities. Customer communication 2.SPIRAL MODEL Spiral model proposed by Boehm 1. It provides the potential for rapid development of incremental versions of the software 4. also called task Regions. It is evolutionary S/W process model 2. Spiral model guiding the risk levels in the projects Spiral model that contains six task regions. Spiral have couple of iterative in nature of prototyping with the controlled & systematic aspects of the linear sequential model 3. Customer evaluation . In later iterations increasingly complete versions of the engineered system are produced Spiral model dividing into no. 1. Construction & release 26 6. Risk analysis 4. Engineering 5. During early iteration.
Input Design Output Design Processing Design Data Specifications Procedure Design 27 .Computer Systems Design.
DB & file approach MIS may call for an open system design Systematic approach in development helps in achieving the objectives of the MIS 28 .MIS & Systems Analysis • • • • • • • • • Systems analysis plays a central role in the development of the MIS MIS lies in the information needs of the various personnel in the org across all levels of the mgt The MIS development process largely relies on the SAD as a source of the scientific development The modern MIS largely depends on how these technologies are blended with the main systems The SA begins with the O/P design The SA with its structural analysis ensures an appropriate coverage of the sub-systems MIS methodology may be the conventional design of data.
Business Process. quality. & speed.BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING [BPR] BPR is a methodology for introducing a fundamental change in specific business process & usually supported by an IS. Restructuring & transforming a business process by a fundamental rethinking & redesign to achieve dramatic improvements in the cost. so that a company can Become a much stronger & more successful competitor in the marketplace.create an O/P of value to the customers BPR combines a strategy of promoting business innovation with a strategy of making major improvements to business processes. Order Mgt Proposal Commitment Configuration Credit checking Collections delivery Billing 29 . A business process is a collection of activities that --.takes one or more kinds of I/P --. Example.
Duties & Responsibilities of DBA • Design of the conceptual & physical schemas • Security & Authorization • Data availability • Recovery the data from failure • Database tuning 30 .
the designers are on the staff of the DBA • DB designers typically interact with each potential group of users 31 . With all prospective DB users • In many cases.Ditties & Responsibilities of DB Designer • Identifying the data to be stored in the DB & for choosing appropriate structures to represent & store this data • DB designer to comm.
32 .Definition of System Analyst A system analyst is the person who selects and configures computer systems for an organization or business. as well as what each individual user's job requires. The analyst must understand the general objectives of the business.
ROLES OF SYSTEM ANALYST Change Agent Investigator and Monitor Architect Psychologist Salesperson Motivator Politician 33 .
Investigator and Monitor In defining a problem a analyst pieces together the information gathered to determine why the present system does not work well and what changes we correct the problem. 34 .Change Agent The analyst may be viewed as an agent of change.
Psychologist The analyst plays the role of a psychologist in the way he/she reaches people. assesses their behavior and draws conclusions from these interactions.Architect The architect „s primary function as liaison between the client‟s abstract design requirements and contractor detailed building plan may be compare to analyst‟s role as liaison between the users logical design requirements in details and physical system design. interprets their thoughts. 35 .
The analyst‟s roles as a motivator becomes obvious during the first few weeks after implementation. Politician Related to the role of motivator is that of 36 politician.Salesperson The analyst is also playing a role as a sales persons. Motivator A candidate system must be well designed and acceptable to the user. .
Obtains rough estimates of the cost of operating and maintaining 37 a proposed new or changed system. Assists and guides prospective users of a proposed new or changed system in: a) quantifying the benefits of having the system. Analyzes users‟ business requirements in detail. and b) assessing the impact of the system on their organization and on the operation of their business. or b) by changing an existing application system. . Investigates such problems and opportunities to determine the feasibility of a system solution.RESPONSIBILTIES OF A SYSTEM ANALYST Assists current or potential application users in identifying and describing problems or opportunities that might be addressed either: a) by implementing a new (automated or manual) system.
Assists the project manager in identifying the resources needed to implement a new system: a) the cost of developing or changing the system. and 38 . b) the duration of a project to do so. proposed It analyze the costs. benefits. return-on-investment of the new system. risks.
the acceptance test plan for any new or changed system. 39 . in consultation with users. implementers and operations representatives.Deciding whether to proceed with the implementation. Prepares. Assists the users in preparing for the installation and start-up of any new system being implemented.
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