Nelson

Series Author and Senior Consultant Marian Small Lead Author Chris Kirkpatrick Authors Barbara Alldred • Andrew Dmytriw • Shawn Godin Angelo Lillo • David Pilmer • Susanne Trew • Noel Walker

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Functions 11 Series Author and Senior Consultant Marian Small Lead Author Chris Kirkpatrick Authors Barbara Alldred, Andrew Dmytriw, Shawn Godin, Angelo Lillo, David Pilmer, Susanne Trew, Noel Walker Contributing Authors Kathleen Kacuiba, Ralph Montesanto Senior Consultant David Zimmer Math Consultant Kaye Appleby

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**Reviewers and Advisory Panel
**

Paul Alves Mathematics Department Head Stephen Lewis Secondary School Peel District School Board Mississauga, ON Terri Blackwell Mathematics Teacher Burlington Central High School Halton District School Board Burlington, ON Karen Bryan Program Resource Teacher, Numeracy & Literacy 7–12 Upper Canada District School Board Brockville, ON Angela Conetta Mathematics Teacher Chaminade College School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Justin De Weerdt Mathematics Department Head Huntsville High School Trillium Lakelands District School Board Huntsville, ON Robert Donato Secondary Mathematics Resource Teacher Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Richard Gallant Secondary Curriculum Consultant Simcoe Muskoka Catholic District School Board Barrie, ON Jacqueline Hill K–12 Mathematics Facilitator Durham District School Board Whitby, ON Punitha Kandasamy Classroom Teacher (Secondary— Mathematics) Mississauga Secondary School Peel District School Board Mississauga, ON Halyna Kopach Mathematics Department Head Mary Ward Catholic Secondary School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Richard Long Mathematics Department Head Centennial Secondary School Hastings and Prince Edward District School Board Belleville, ON Frank Maggio Department Head of Mathematics Holy Trinity High School Halton Catholic District School Board Oakville, ON Peter Matijosaitis Mathematics Department Head Loretto Abbey Catholic Secondary School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Cheryl McQueen Mathematics Learning Coordinator, 7–12 Thames Valley District School Board London, ON Ian McTavish Librarian/Mathematics Teacher Huntsville High School Trillium Lakelands District School Board Huntsville, ON Grace Mlodzianowski Mathematics Department Head Cardinal Newman High School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Elizabeth Pattison Head of Mathematics Westlane Secondary School District School Board of Niagara Niagara Falls, ON Kathy Pilon Mathematics Program Leader St. John Catholic High School Catholic District School Board of Eastern Ontario Perth, ON Joshua Plant Mathematics Teacher Huntsville High School Trillium Lakelands District School Board Huntsville, ON Margaret Russo Mathematics Teacher Madonna Catholic Secondary School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Patricia Steele Mathematics Resource Teacher Simcoe County District School Board Midhurst, ON Scott Taylor Head of Mathematics, Business, and Computer Science Bell High School Ottawa-Carleton District School Board Nepean, ON Salvatore Trabona Mathematics Department Head Madonna Catholic Secondary School Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto, ON Dave Wright Mathematics Teacher Woburn Collegiate Institute Toronto District School Board Toronto, ON Krista Zupan Resource Teacher for Student Success Durham Catholic District School Board Oshawa, ON

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Functions

Getting Started 1.1 Relations and Functions Curious Math 1.2 Function Notation 1.3 Exploring Properties of Parent Functions 1.4 Determining the Domain and Range of a Function Mid-Chapter Review 1.5 The Inverse Function and Its Properties 1.6 Exploring Transformations of Parent Functions 1.7 Investigating Horizontal Stretches, Compressions, and Reflections 1.8 Using Transformations to Graph Functions of the Form y af [k(x d )] c Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task

1

2 4 13 14 25 29 38 41 50 52 61 74 78 79

2.7 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task

124 131 134 135 136 138 140 148 155 163 169 171 172 179 187 194 200 204 205 206

**Chapter 3: Quadratic Functions
**

Getting Started 3.1 Properties of Quadratic Functions 3.2 Determining Maximum and Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function 3.3 The Inverse of a Quadratic Function 3.4 Operations with Radicals Mid-Chapter Review Curious Math 3.5 Quadratic Function Models: Solving Quadratic Equations 3.6 The Zeros of a Quadratic Function 3.7 Families of Quadratic Functions 3.8 Linear–Quadratic Systems Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task Chapters 1–3 Cumulative Review

**Chapter 2: Equivalent Algebraic Expressions
**

Getting Started 2.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 2.2 Multiplying Polynomials Curious Math 2.3 Factoring Polynomials Mid-Chapter Review 2.4 Simplifying Rational Functions 2.5 Exploring Graphs of Rational Functions 2.6 Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

80

82 84 91 97 98 105 108 115 117

**Chapter 4: Exponential Functions
**

Getting Started 4.1 Exploring Growth and Decay 4.2 Working with Integer Exponents 4.3 Working with Rational Exponents

210

212 214 217 224

4.4 Simplifying Algebraic Expressions Involving Exponents 231

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Mid-Chapter Review 4.5 Exploring the Properties of Exponential Functions 4.6 Transformations of Exponential Functions 4.7 Applications Involving Exponential Functions Curious Math Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task

238 240 244 254 264 265 270 271

6.1 Periodic Functions and Their Properties 6.2 Investigating the Properties of Sinusoidal Functions 6.3 Interpreting Sinusoidal Functions Mid-Chapter Review 6.4 Exploring Transformations of Sinusoidal Functions

346 357 365 374 377

6.5 Using Transformations to Sketch the Graphs of Sinusoidal Functions 380 6.6 Investigating Models of Sinusoidal Functions 6.7 Solving Problems Using Sinusoidal Models Curious Math Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task Chapters 4–6 Cumulative Review 386 394 402 403 406 407 408

**Chapter 5: Trigonometric Ratios
**

Getting Started 5.1 Trigonometric Ratios of Acute Angles

272

274 276

5.2 Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios for Special Angles 283 Curious Math 5.3 Exploring Trigonometric Ratios for Angles Greater than 90° 5.4 Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios for Any Angle Between 0° and 360° Mid-Chapter Review 5.5 Trigonometric Identities 5.6 The Sine Law 5.7 The Cosine Law 5.8 Solving Three-Dimensional Problems by Using Trigonometry Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task 288 289 293 302 305 312 321 328 336 340 341

**Chapter 7: Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series
**

Getting Started 7.1 Arithmetic Sequences 7.2 Geometric Sequences 7.3 Creating Rules to Define Sequences 7.4 Exploring Recursive Sequences Curious Math Mid-Chapter Review 7.5 Arithmetic Series 7.6 Geometric Series 7.7 Pascal's Triangle and Binomial Expansions Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task

412

414 416 426 433 441 444 445 448 454 462 467 470 471

**Chapter 6: Sinusoidal Functions
**

Getting Started

342

344

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Table of Contents

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**Chapter 8: Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 472
**

Getting Started 8.1 Simple Interest 8.2 Compound Interest: Future Value 8.3 Compound Interest: Present Value Curious Math Mid-Chapter Review 8.4 Annuities: Future Value 8.5 Annuities: Present Value 8.6 Using Technology to Investigate Financial Problems 474 476 483 493 500 501 504 513 523

Chapter Review Chapter Self-Test Chapter Task Chapters 7–8 Cumulative Review Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills Glossary Answers Index Credits

532 536 537 538

540 576 610 617 687 690

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Help wanted:

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Chapter

1

Introduction to Functions

GOALS

You will be able to

• • • •

Identify a function as a special type of relation Recognize functions in various representations and use function notation Explore the properties of some basic functions and apply transformations to those functions Investigate the inverse of a linear function and its properties

? Anton needs a summer job. How

would you help him compare the two offers he has received?

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1

1

Study

Getting Started

SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need

1. Simplify each expression.

Aid

For help, see the Essential Skills Appendix. Question 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 Appendix A-8 A-7 A-5 A-15 A-12 A-14 A-9, A-10

a) b)

3(x 1 y) 2 5(x 2 y) (4x 2 y) (4x 1 y)

3 1 2 (x 1 1) 2 (x 2 2 1) 2 2 d) 4x(x 1 2) 2 2x(x 2 4)

c)

2. Evaluate each expression in question 1 when x 5 3 and y 5 25. 3. Solve each linear equation.

a)

5x 2 8 5 7

b) 22(x 2 3) 5 2(1 2 2x)

4. Graph each linear relation.

3 5 y 2 y 5 23 6 4 2x 1 1 x22 d) 5 4 3

c) b) 3x 1 4y 5 12 b) 3x2 1 3y2 5 12 c) y 5 23(x 1 4) 2 1 2 d) y 5 2x2 1 6x

a) a)

y 5 2x 2 3 x2 1 y2 5 9

5. Graph each circle. 6. Graph each parabola, labelling the vertex and the axis of symmetry.

a) y 5 x2 2 6 b) y 5 (x 2 2) 2 2 1

7. For each quadratic relation, list the transformations you need to apply to

**y 5 x2 to graph the relation. Then sketch the graph. 1 a) y 5 x2 2 2 c) y 5 (x 2 1) 2 2 4 2 b) y 5 24x2 1 3 d) y 5 22(x 1 3) 2 1 5
**

8. Solve each quadratic equation.

a)

x 2 2 5x 1 6 5 0

b) 3x 2 2 5 5 70

9. Compare the properties of linear relations, circles, and quadratic relations.

Begin by completing a table like the one shown. Then list similarities and differences among the three types of relations.

Property Equation(s) Shape of graph Number of quadrants graph enters Descriptive features of graph Types of problems modelled by the relation Linear Relations Circles Quadratic Relations

2

Chapter 1

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Getting Started

**APPLYING What You Know
**

Fencing a Cornfield

Rebecca has 600 m of fencing for her cornfield. The creek that goes through her farmland will form one side of the rectangular boundary. Rebecca considers different widths to maximize the area enclosed.

?

A. B.

YOU WILL NEED

• graph paper

How are the length and area of the field related to its width?

What are the minimum and maximum values of the width of the field? What equations describe each? i) the relationship between the length and width of the field ii) the relationship between the area and width of the field Copy and complete this table of values for widths that go from the least to the greatest possible values in intervals of 50 m.

Width (m) Length (m) Area (m2)

C.

D. E.

Graph the data you wrote in the first two columns. Use width as the independent variable. Describe the graph. What type of relationship is this? Now graph the data you wrote in the first and third columns. Use width as the independent variable again. Describe the graph. What type of relationship is this? How could you have used the table of values to determine the types of relationships you reported in parts D and E? How could you have used the equations from part B to determine the types of relationships you reported in parts D and E?

F. G.

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Introduction to Functions

3

i) 8 ii) 10 iii) 13 Use your plot to predict what shoe size corresponds to each height.5 12 10 11 Height (cm) 156 161 179 178 173 177 165 182 177 192 157 163 183 168 180 ? A. Describe the relationship shown in the scatter plot. B-11. C. i) 153 cm ii) 173 cm iii) 177 cm Draw a line of good fit on your plot.1 YOU WILL NEED Relations and Functions • graphing calculator or graph paper GOAL Recognize functions in various representations.5 8.5 12 11 10. INVESTIGATE the Math Ang recorded the heights and shoe sizes of students in his class.5 10 9 9 10 11 8 8 11 8 7. Write the equation of your line.5 8 12 13 13 7. see Technical Appendix. Shoe Size 10 11. How are your results different from those in part B? NEL Tech Support For help drawing a line of best fit on a graphing calculator. and use it to determine the heights corresponding to the shoe sizes in part B. D. 4 Chapter 1 . using shoe size as the independent variable.1.5 10 11 11 10 Height (cm) 158 175 173 164 167 170 172 160 174 175 166 153 171 181 171 170 Shoe Size 8 7. Use your plot to predict the height of a person with each shoe size.5 8. Can you predict a person’s height from his or her shoe size? Plot the data. B.

Tuesday). F. or second elements—to write the range. Stefanie. Amit} Range 5 {Tuesday. in a set. Saturday} NEL Introduction to Functions 5 .1. Describe the domain and range of the relationship between shoe size and height in Ang’s class. Explain why the relation plotted in part A is not a function. K. Tuesday). Is the relation drawn in part D a function? Explain. (student’s name. (Amit. state the domain and range and then determine whether or not the relations are functions. Which of the relations in parts A and D could be used to predict a single height for a given shoe size? Explain.1 E. or first elements. in each ordered pair. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing functions in different ways The ages and soccer practice days of four students are listed. 8. J. or elements. I listed the day for practice—the dependent variable. Thursday. Thursday). Saturday)} Domain 5 {Craig. G. For example. a) students and the day for soccer practice b) ages and the day for soccer practice Jenny’s Solution: Using Set Notation a) {(Craig. (Magda. For each of the given relations. H. I wrote the relation as a set of ordered pairs. domain the set of all values of the independent variable of a relation range the set of all values of the dependent variable of a relation relation a set of ordered pairs. the set of the first five even numbers is {2. 4. (Stefani. Magda. How did the numbers in the table of values show that the relation was not a function? How did the graph of the linear function you drew in part D differ from the graph of the relation you plotted in part A? Explain why it is easier to use the linear function than the scatter plot of the actual data to predict height. Student Craig Magda Stefani Amit Age 15 16 15 17 Soccer Practice Day Tuesday Tuesday Thursday Saturday Communication Tip Use braces to list the values. values of the independent variable are paired with values of the dependent variable function a relation where each value of the independent variable corresponds with only one value of the dependent variable Reflecting I. 6. I wrote the domain by listing the students’ names—the independent variable. day for practice). 10}.

The diagram is called a mapping diagram. but another practiced on Thursday. so the relation between students and their soccer practice day is a function. (17. Amit} Range 5 {Tuesday. days. 17} Range 5 {Tuesday. maps to two different values of the dependent variable. Saturday} The value 15 of the independent variable. This is not a function. 16. This relation is not a function. Then I drew arrows to match the students with their practice days. Each element of the domain has only one corresponding element in the range. Domain 5 {Craig. age. Thursday. so this relation is not a function. Saturday)} Domain 5 {15. Thursday. Stefanie. since it maps the elements of the domain onto the elements of the range. The first elements appear only once in the list of ordered pairs. I noticed that one 15-year-old practiced on Tuesday. b) Age 15 16 17 Practice day Sat Thurs Tues Domain 5 {15. Saturday} The elements in the left oval are the values of the independent variable and make up the domain. so the relation is a function. 17} Range 5 {Tuesday. 6 Chapter 1 NEL . if I know the student’s name. I drew another mapping diagram for the age and practice day relation. Two arrows go from 15 to two different days.Each element of the domain corresponds with only one element in the range. Tuesday). I wrote the domain and range by listing what was in each oval. I can predict his or her practice day. In this case. Tuesday). so I can’t predict a practice day just by knowing the age. Thursday. Saturday} 15 in the domain corresponds with two different days in the range. The elements in the right oval are the values of the dependent variable and make up the range. (15. so the relation is a function. (16. I matched the ages to the practice days. Thursday). An element of the domain can’t map to two elements in the range. Each student has only one practice day. Olivier’s Solution: Using a Mapping Diagram a) Student Craig Magda Stefani Amit Practice day Sat Thurs Tues I drew a diagram of the relation between students and soccer practice days by listing the student names in an oval and the days in another oval. No name is repeated. b) {(15. Magda. The relation is a function because each student name has only one arrow leaving it. 16. This cannot be a function.

The ruler crossed the graph in two places everywhere except at the leftmost and rightmost ends of the circle. Any vertical line drawn on the graph intersects the graph at only one point. This is not the graph of a function. vertical-line test if any vertical line intersects the graph of a relation more than once. NEL Introduction to Functions 7 . This is the graph of a function. This showed that there are x-values in the domain of this relation that correspond to two y-values in the range. 5 At least one vertical line drawn on the graph intersects the graph at two points. then the relation is not a function x 5 0 5 An easy way to do this was to use a ruler to represent a vertical line and move it across the graph. b) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 x y I used the vertical-line test again. This showed that each x-value in the domain corresponds with only one y-value in the range. the vertical line intersected the graph in only one place.1.1 EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to recognize functions in graphs Determine which of the following graphs are functions. Wherever I placed my ruler. a) y b) y 5 4 x 5 0 5 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 x 5 Ken’s Solution a) 5 y I used the vertical-line test to see how many points on the graph there were for each value of x.

b) This equation defines the graph of a circle centred at (0. 0) with a radius of 3. I graphed the function and checked it with the vertical-line test. This is the graph of a function. with a positive slope. a) y 5 2x 2 5 b) x 2 1 y 2 5 9 c) y 5 2x 2 2 3x 1 1 Keith’s Solution: Using the Graph Defined by its Equation a) This equation defines the graph of a linear function I used my graphing calculator and entered y 5 2x 2 5. y 5 2x2 2 3x 1 1 is a function. This is not the graph of a function. Then I applied the vertical-line test to check. This graph fails the vertical-line test. I used my graphing calculator and entered the upper half of the circle in Y1 and the lower half in Y2. This is the graph of a function. y 5 2x 2 5 is a function. showing that for each x-value in the domain there is only one y-value in the range.EXAMPLE 3 Using reasoning to recognize a function from an equation Determine which equations represent functions. x 2 1 y 2 5 9 is not a function. showing that there are x-values in the domain of this relation that correspond to two y-values in the range. I used my graphing calculator to enter y 5 2x 2 2 3x 1 1 and applied the vertical-line test to check. 8 Chapter 1 NEL . This graph passes the vertical-line test. This graph passes the vertical-line test. Its graph is a straight line that increases from left to right. showing that for each x-value in the domain there is only one y-value in the range. c) This equation defines the graph of a parabola that opens upward.

c) Every value of x gives only one value of y in the I substituted 0 for x in the equation and solved for y. which have the general forms y 5 mx 1 b or Ax 1 By 5 C and whose graphs are straight lines. For example. Linear relations. A graph represents a function if every vertical line intersects the graph in at most one point. are all functions. x • You can recognize whether a relation is a function from its equation. • The range of a relation or function is the set of all values of the dependent A relation that is a function variable.1 Mayda’s Solution: Substituting Values a) For any value of x. I get only one number for y that satisfies the equation. No matter what number I substituted for x. This equation represents a function. a mapping diagram. This is usually represented by the y-values on a coordinate grid. No matter what number I choose for x. a table of values. so the equation defines a relation. y x Need To Know • The domain of a relation or function is the set of all values of the independent variable. a graph. (0) 2 1 y 2 5 9 y 5 3 or 23 There are two values for y when x 5 0. Vertical lines are not functions but horizontal lines are. I got two values for y with x 0. equation y 5 2x 2 2 3x 1 1. y 5 2(1) 2 5 5 23 This equation defines a function. • Functions can be represented in various ways: in words. but not a function. In Summary Key Ideas • A function is a relation in which each value of the independent variable corresponds with only one value of the dependent variable. Quadratic relations. This shows that there is only one element in the range for each element of the domain. which have the general forms y 5 ax2 1 bx 1 c or y 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k and whose A relation that is not a function graphs are parabolas. This is usually represented by the x-values on a coordinate grid. NEL Introduction to Functions 9 . or an equation. If you can find even one value of x that gives more than one value of y when you substitute x into the equation. y • You can use the vertical-line test to check whether a graph represents a function. are also functions.1. I got only one answer for y when I doubled the number for x and then subtracted 5. I used 0 because it’s an easy value to calculate with. a set of ordered pairs. the relation is not a function. the equation y 5 2x 2 5 I substituted numbers for x in the equation. b) Substitute 0 for x in the equation x 2 1 y 2 5 9. produces only one value of y.

(1. 4). 10 Chapter 1 NEL . (5. 2)6 b) 1 3 1 1 3 0 5 2 c) 5 (0. State which relations are functions. 1)6 d) 4 1 2 2 6 5 2. Substitute 26 for x in each equation and solve for y. (23. (3. a) 5 (25. 22). 5). a) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 b) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 c) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y d) 4 x 2 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 y e) 4 x 2 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 y f) 4 x 2 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 3. 2). 1). (0.CHECK Your Understanding 1. (21. Explain. Use a ruler and the vertical-line test to determine which graphs are functions. 3). Use your results to explain why y 5 x 2 2 5x is a function but x 5 y 2 2 5y is not.

6. The grades and numbers of credits for students are listed. 10. Explain your reasoning. Repeat for x 5 22. Are these relations functions? Explain. Then use the vertical-line test to confirm your answers to part (c). 11. c) Which relations in part (a) are functions? Explain. 7. Then graph each function and use the vertical-line test to determine whether your prediction was correct. Describe the graphs of the relations y 5 3 and x 5 3.1 PRACTISING 4. Identify each type of relation and predict whether it is a function. Determine which of the following relations are functions. K Student Barbara Pierre Kateri Mandeep Elly Grade 10 12 11 11 10 Number of Credits 8 25 15 18 16 a) Write a list of ordered pairs and create a mapping diagram for the relation between • students and grades • grades and numbers of credits • students and numbers of credits b) State the domain and range of each relation in part (a).1. Determine which relations are functions. 5. a) Substitute x 5 0 into each equation and solve for y. 3 a) y 5 5 2 2x c) y 5 2 (x 1 3) 2 1 1 4 b) y 5 2x 2 2 3 d) x 2 1 y 2 5 25 8. Graph the relations in question 4. 9. A a) The relation between earnings and sales if Olwen earns $400 per week plus 5% commission on sales b) The relation between distance and time if Bran walks at 5 km/h c) The relation between students’ ages and the number of credits earned NEL Introduction to Functions 11 . Use numeric and graphical representations to investigate whether the relation a) y 5 !x 1 2 b) y 5 2 2 x i) 3x 1 4y 5 5 ii) x 2 1 y 2 5 4 iii) x 2 1 y 5 2 iv) x 1 y 2 5 0 b) Which relations in part (a) appear to be functions? c) How could you verify your answer to part (b)? c) 3x 2 2 4y 2 5 12 d) y 5 23(x 1 2) 2 2 4 x 2 y 2 5 2 is a function.

50/kg for any order of at least 100 kg. 12 Chapter 1 NEL . The cost of renting a car depends on the daily rental charge and the number of kilometres driven. 13. a) Why must this relation be a function? b) What is the domain of this function? What is its range? c) Graph the function. a) Sketch a graph of a function that has the set of integers as its domain and T all integers less than 5 as its range. A freight delivery company charges $4/kg for any order less than 100 kg and $3. c) Is the relation a function? Explain. Definition: Function Characteristics: 14. d) What suggestions can you offer to the company for a better pricing structure? Support your answer. y Cost versus Distance Driven 120 100 Cost ($) 80 60 40 20 0 x 100 200 300 Distance (km) 400 500 a) What are the domain and range of this relation? b) Explain why the domain and range have a lower limit. Use a chart like the following to summarize what you have learned about C Examples: Non-examples: Extending 15.12. b) Sketch a graph of a relation that is not a function and that has the set of real numbers less than or equal to 10 as its domain and all real numbers greater than 25 as its range. functions. A graph of cost versus the distance driven over a one-day period is shown.

If the original position of the rabbit represents the origin and the rabbit’s path is along the positive y-axis. 3. is the fox’s path the graph of a function? Explain. The resulting curve is called a curve of pursuit.1 Curious Math Curves of Pursuit A fox sees a rabbit sitting in the middle of a field and begins to run toward the rabbit. The fox then changes direction to run along line EA. regardless of where the rabbit is relative to its burrow? Explain. Burrow Rabbit’s Path F E B A Rabbit Fox If the fox and rabbit are running at the same speed. the rabbit is at B. a) Draw a curve of pursuit in which i) the rabbit runs faster than the fox ii) the fox runs faster than the rabbit b) Are these relations also functions? How do they differ from the one in question 1? NEL Introduction to Functions 13 . When the fox reaches point F. The rabbit sees the fox and runs in a straight line to its burrow.1. The fox continuously adjusts its direction so that it is always running directly toward the rabbit. example ii) the burrow is closer to the rabbit than it is in the first example b) Where does the fox finish in each case? How does the location of the burrow relative to the rabbit affect the fox’s path? c) Will the path of the fox always be a function. a) Investigate what happens by drawing a curve of pursuit if i) the burrow is farther away from the rabbit than it is in the first 2. so the fox begins to run along FB. 1. the fox reaches point E when the rabbit reaches point A. and so on.

T 5 11 1 0. T(d ) 5 11 1 0. such as v(t) for velocity as a function of time. so y is equal to f(x). reaches 3585 m into Earth’s crust. and write it in function notation. such as f(x).015 ° C>m. Temperature is a function of depth.015d. I used the fact that T starts at 11 °C and increases at a steady rate of 0. b) Use your function to determine the temperature at the bottom of East Rand and Western Deep mines. I wrote the equation again. I wrote a linear equation for the problem. In function notation. Suppose the temperature at the top of the mine shaft is 11 °C and that it increases at a rate of 0. Since this equation represents a linear relationship between temperature and depth.015d. but other letters are also used. used to represent the value of the dependent variable—the output—for a given value of the independent variable. g(x). The notation f(x) is read “f at x” or “f of x. it is a function. The equation represents a function. Explain why function notation notation. and h(x) are often used to name the outputs of functions.015 °C>m as you descend.1. ? What is the temperature at the bottom of each mine? EXAMPLE 1 Representing a situation with a function and using it to solve a problem a) Represent the temperature in a mine shaft with a function.2 YOU WILL NEED Function Notation • graphing calculator GOAL Use function notation to represent linear and quadratic functions. T(d) makes it clearer that T is a function of d. 14 Chapter 1 NEL . LEARN ABOUT the Math The deepest mine in the world. Lucy’s Solution: Using an Equation a) An equation for temperature is Communication Tip The notations y and f(x) are interchangeable in the equation or graph of a function. where T represents the temperature in degrees Celsius at a depth of d metres. Another South African mine.” The symbols f(x). Western Deep. is being deepened to 4100 m. x—the input your representation is a function. East Rand mine in South Africa.

775 5 64. b) d (m) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 T(d)(8C) T(0) 5 11 1 0.015(3585) I found the temperature at the bottom of East Rand mine by calculating the temperature at a depth of 3585 m. I substituted 3585 for d in the equation. NEL Introduction to Functions 15 .015(4100) 5 11 1 61.5 5 72.775 T(4100) 5 11 1 0.1.2 b) T(3585) 5 11 1 0.015d I wrote an equation to show how the temperature changes as you go down the mine. Stuart’s Solution: Using a Graph a) T(d ) 5 11 1 0. I used d for depth and called the function T(d) for temperature. I substituted the d-values into the function equation to get the T(d)-values. I knew that the relationship was linear because the temperature increases at a steady rate.015(0) 5 11 26 41 56 71 I made a table of values for the function. For the new mine. respectively. 5 11 1 53. so I calculated T(4100).5 The temperatures at the bottom of East Rand mine and Western Deep mine are about 65 °C and 73 °C. I wanted the temperature when d 5 4100. This is a function because it is a linear relationship.

East Rand mine is 3585 m deep. Then I joined them with a straight line. b) I used function notation to write the equation. I graphed the function by entering Y1 5 11 1 0. B-2 and B-3. (2000. T(d ) 5 11 1 0. Tech Support For help using a graphing calculator to graph and evaluate functions. The temperature at the bottom of Western Deep mine is about 73 °C. see Technical Appendix.Temperature of a Mine y 90 80 Temperature. 72.015X into the equation editor. (m) 4100 x The other mine is 4100 m deep. Xscl 200. 26). so it is a function of depth. 50 30 T(d 11 + 0. Eli’s Solution: Using a Graphing Calculator a) Let T(d ) represent the temperature in degrees Celsius at a depth of d metres. Yscl 10. and 0 # Y # 100.5 I plotted the points (0. 64. The temperature at the bottom is T(3585). I used WINDOW settings of 0 # X # 5000. 11). (3000. 56). It was approximately 65. and (4000. (1000.0 3585 0 1000 3000 5000 Depth.5 Approx.015d Temperature increases at a steady rate. d. T(d). (°C) 70 60 40 20 10 )= 15d Approx. 41). The temperature at the bottom of East Rand mine is about 65 °C. 71). I interpolated to read T(3585) from the graph. 16 Chapter 1 NEL . I found that T(4100) was about 73. By extrapolating.

The temperature at the bottom of Western Deep mine is about 73 °C. This told me that T(3585) 5 64.1. and Eli know that the relationship between temperature and depth is a function? How did Lucy use the function equation to determine the two temperatures? What does T(3585) mean? How did Stuart use the graph to determine the value of T(3585)? NEL Introduction to Functions 17 .2 I used the value operation to find the temperature at the bottom of East Rand mine. B. The temperature at the bottom of the East Rand mine is about 65 °C.775. Stuart. I called up the function on my calculator home screen. How did Lucy. Then I used the value operation again to find the temperature at the bottom of the other mine. C. using VARS and function notation to display both answers.5. As a check. I found that T(4100) 5 72. Reflecting A.

they each multiplied the resulting difference by the number they first thought of. The person with the highest final number won the pizza slice. double it. Rhea 22 b) The original numbers chosen by the family members are shown. Who won the pizza slice? Sara 7 c) What would be the best number to choose? Why? Andy 10 Barbara’s Solution a) x input Double the number 2x Subtract from 12 (12 2x) I used a flow chart to show what happens to the original number in the game.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Representing a situation with a function model A family played a game to decide who got to eat the last piece of pizza. Multiply by the original number x(12 2x) output f (x) 5 x(12 2 2x) 5 12x 2 2x 2 The expression for the final answer is quadratic. 18 Chapter 1 NEL . and subtract the result from 12. I chose x to be the original number. so the final result must be a function of the original number. or output. or input. a) Use function notation to express the final answer in terms of Tim 5 the original number. Finally. Each person had to think of a number. I chose f(x) as the name for the final answer.

1. This meant that this quadratic function had a maximum value at its vertex. NEL Introduction to Functions 19 . I checked my answer by graphing. I recognized that the equation was quadratic and that its graph would be a parabola that opened down. 5 60 2 2(25) 5 60 2 50 5 10 Rhea: f (22) 5 12(22) 2 2(22) 2 5 224 2 2(4) 5 224 2 8 5 232 Sara: f (7) 5 12(7) 2 2(7) 2 5 84 2 2(49) 5 84 2 98 5 214 Andy: f (10) 5 12(10) 2 2(10) 2 5 120 2 2(100) 5 120 2 200 5 280 Tim won the pizza slice. Vertex: x 5 (0 1 6) 4 2 x53 The best number to choose is 3. f(22). f(7). and f(10) to see who had the highest answer. Andy’s answer was 280. Tim’s answer was 10. f (x) 5 22x(x 2 6) The x-intercepts are x 5 0 and x 5 6. I put the equation back in factored form by dividing out the common factor. Tim’s answer was the highest. 22x. c) f (x) 5 12x 2 2x 2 Sara’s answer was 214. I remembered that the x-coordinate of the vertex is halfway between the two x-intercepts.2 b) Tim: f (5) 5 12(5) 2 2(5) 2 I found the values of f(5). since the coefficient of x2 was negative. Rhea’s answer was 232.

y 5 0. When x 5 3. g(3) 5 2. in function notation. The range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. The graph exists only for x $ 21 and y $ 0. I saw that y 5 0 when x 5 21. g(3) 5 2 b) When x 5 21. 0) or below that point. The y-value was 2. The x-value is 0 at this point. The domain is all real numbers greater than or equal to 21. determine each value.EXAMPLE 3 Connecting function notation to a graph y 2 1 1 0 1 2 1 y = g(x) x 2 3 4 For the function shown in the graph. so 21 is the x-intercept and g(21) 5 0. g(21) 5 0 c) g(x) 5 1 when x 5 0 d) The graph begins at the point (21. y 5 2. a) g(3) b) g(21) c) x if g(x) 5 1 d) the domain and range of g(x) Ernesto’s Solution a) 2 1 1 0 1 2 1 y = g(x) x 2 3 4 y I looked at the graph to find the y-coordinate when x 5 3. So the only possible x-values are x $ 21. 0) and continues upward. 20 Chapter 1 NEL . I drew a line up to the graph from the x-axis at x 5 3 and then a line across from that point of intersection to the y-axis. I saw that there was no graph to the left of the point (21. and the only possible y-values are y $ 0. I saw that the graph crosses the y-axis at y 5 1. so.

g (2).2 EXAMPLE 4 Using algebraic expressions in functions Consider the functions f (x) 5 x 2 2 3x and g(x) 5 1 2 2x. c) Determine f (c 1 2) 2 g(c 1 2). b) Determine g(3b). so f (2) . and explain what that means about their graphs. f (2) 5 (2) 2 3(2) 5426 5 22 g(x) 5 1 2 2x g(2) 5 1 2 2(2) 5124 5 23 2 22 . NEL Introduction to Functions 21 . I simplified the equation. I substituted c 1 2 for x in both functions. I used square brackets to keep the functions separate until I had simplified each one. g(2) c) f (c 1 2) 2 g(c 1 2) 5 3 (c 1 2) 2 2 3(c 1 2) 4 2 31 2 2(c 1 2)4 b) g(3b) 5 1 2 2(3b) That means that the point on the graph of f (x) is above the point on the graph of g(x) when x 5 2. Jamilla’s Solution a) f (x) 5 x 2 2 3x I substituted 2 for x in both functions. a) Show that f (2) . 5 1 2 6b 5 3c 2 1 c 2 24 2 323 2 2c4 5 c 2 1 c 2 2 1 3 1 2c 5 c 2 1 3c 1 1 5 3 (c 2 1 4c 1 4 2 3c 2 6)4 2 31 2 2c 2 44 I substituted 3b for x. 23.1.

For example. if f(x) takes the value 3 at x 5 2. input a=2 in out f(x) f(a) = f(2) output CHECK Your Understanding 1. evaluate a) f (1) c) f (4) 2 g(22) b) g(22) d) x when f (x) 5 23 22 Chapter 1 NEL . Need to Know • f(x) is read “f at x” or “f of x. Evaluate. For this reason. 1 d) f a b 2 c) f (24) e) f (a) f ) f (3b) y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 y = g(x) y = f (x) Using the graphs. To evaluate f(a). • f(a) is the y-coordinate of the point on the graph of f with x-coordinate a. 3) lies on the graph of f.In Summary Key Idea • Symbols such as f(x) are called function notation. which is used to represent the value of the dependent variable y for a given value of the independent variable x. then f(2) 5 3 and the point (2. The graphs of y 5 f (x) and y 5 g(x) are shown. where f (x) 5 2 2 3x. y and f(x) are interchangeable in the equation of a function. substitute a for x in the equation for f(x). a) f (2) b) f (0) 2. The output depends on the equation of the function.” • f(a) represents the value or output of the function when the input is x 5 a. so y 5 f(x).

5) for a) f (x) 5 (x 2 2) 2 2 1 b) f (x) 5 2 1 3x 2 4x 2 5. f (3). The graph of y 5 f (x) is shown at the right.m. what do you notice about the answers to parts (v) and (vi)? y 8 y = 2(x–3)2–1 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 Explain why this happens. K 2 a) b) c) d) Evaluate f (22). i) f (0) iv) f (3) ii) f (1) v) 3 f (2) 2 f (1)4 2 3 f (1) 2 f (0)4 iii) f (2) vi) 3 f (3) 2 f (2)4 2 3 f (2) 2 f (1) 4 c) In part (b). For f (x) 5 1 .? c) At what time will 450 mL of milk be left in the carton? PRACTISING 4. i) f (3) iii) f (5 2 3) ii) f (5) iv) f (5) 2 f (3) 7. a) Create a table of values for the function.2 3. Consider the function g(t) 5 3t 1 5. determine 2x b) f (0) c) f (1) 2 f (3) a) f (23) 6. determine y = f(x) x 4 6 a) h(a) b) h(b 1 1) c) h(3c 2 1) d) h(2 2 5x) 8.1. and f (1. What does f (22) represent on the graph of f ? State the domain and range of the relation. d) f a b 1 f a b 1 4 3 4 y 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 2 a) State the domain and range of f. Consider the function f (s) 5 s 2 2 6s 1 9. For h(x) 5 2x 2 5. There is 1. b) Determine each value. a) Use function notation to write an equation for this situation. Evaluate f (21). b) How much will be left in the carton at 1:00 p. How do you know that f is a function from its graph? 3 5 x 11. For g(x) 5 4 2 5x. determine the input for x when the output of g(x) is a) 26 b) 2 c) 0 d) NEL Introduction to Functions 23 .m. b) Determine each value. The graph at the right shows f (x) 5 2(x 2 3) 2 1.2 L of milk in the carton at 11:00 a. b) Evaluate. i) g(0) iv) g(2) 2 g(1) ii) g(3) v) g(1001) 2 g(1000) iii) g(1) 2 g(0) vi) g(a 1 1) 2 g(a) 9. 10. a) Create a table of values and graph the function. Milk is leaking from a carton at a rate of 3 mL/min.

with examples. b) Use the function to determine the new marks that correspond to original marks of 95. a) Use function notation to express the final answer in terms of the original number. what function notation is and how it relates to the C graph of a function. 175. is supported by T 15. A function f (x) has these properties: • The domain of f is the set of natural numbers.15/km. • f (1) 5 1 • f (x 1 1) 5 f (x) 1 3x(x 1 1) 1 1 a) Determine f (2). Ontario. c) Determine how far you can drive in a day for $80. a) Determine a linear function that will convert 285 to 200 and 75 to 60. b) Describe the function. 25. b) Determine the rental cost if you drive 472 km in one day. f (5). Let f (x) 5 3x 1 1 and g(x) 5 2 2 x. Let f (x) 5 x 2 1 2x 2 15. Determine the values of x for which 17. Each arch is set in concrete foundations that are on opposite sides of the St. All the marks must be reduced so that the highest and lowest marks become 200 and 60. Clair River. The arches are 281 m apart. a teacher asked her students to think of a A number. a) 16. The highest and lowest marks awarded on an examination were 285 and 75. 215. c) Determine the maximum result possible. Include a discussion of the advantages of using function notation. and subtract the resulting number from 24. The top of each arch rises 71 m above the river. Graph the function f (x) 5 3(x 2 1) 2 2 4. As a mental arithmetic exercise. A company rents cars for $50 per day plus $0. a) Express the daily rental cost as a function of the number of kilometres travelled. 24 Chapter 1 NEL . Write a function to model the arch. 20. and 10. Determine values for a such that a) f (a) 5 g(a) b) f (a 2 ) 5 g(2a) 18. The second span of the Bluewater Bridge in Sarnia. Finally. 13. triple it. Explain. they were asked to multiply the resulting difference by the number they first thought of.12. f (4). c) Use the equation to determine i) f (2) 2 f (1) ii) 2f (3) 2 7 iii) f (1 2 x) a) f (x) 5 0 b) f (x) 5 212 c) f (x) 5 216 14. f (3). b) What does f (21) represent on the graph? Indicate on the graph how you would find f (21). and f (6). and 255. two parabolic arches. Extending 19. b) Determine the result of choosing numbers 3.

every function can be classified as a member of a family. or base. f(x) 5 2x 2 1 3 y 4 x 2 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 x Introduction to Functions 25 . function sharing the same characteristics. Linear Functions Quadratic Functions !x always means the positive square root of x. f(x) 5 2 1 x 2 2 2 y 4 2 x 2 4 4 2 0 2 4 Parent function: f(x) 5 x 2 Family members: f(x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k Examples: f(x) 5 5(x 2 3) 2 2 1. This function is called the parent function. or most basic. Communication Tip family a collection of functions (or lines or curves) sharing common characteristics parent function the simplest. Here are some members of the linear and quadratic families. function in a family y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Parent function: f(x) 5 x Family members: f(x) 5 mx 1 b Examples: f(x) 5 3x 1 2.1.3 GOAL Exploring Properties of Parent Functions YOU WILL NEED Explore and compare the graphs and equations of five basic functions. you learned how to recognize different animal families. In mathematics. The parent functions are in green. Each member of a family of functions is related to the simplest. • graphing calculator or graphing technology EXPLORE the Math • graph paper As a child.

for example. Is it a function? Explain. You can change to these settings by pressing ZOOM 26 4 . How is it different from the graphs of linear and quadratic functions? In your table. D. What are the characteristics of these parent functions that distinguish them from each other? Make a table like the one shown. sketch the graph and describe its shape. Graph the square root function. ? A. Explain how you know that these equations are both functions. record the domain and range of each of f (x) 5 x and f (x) 5 x 2. C. the 1 reciprocal function f (x) 5 x . f (x) 5 !x. Sketch of Graph Special Features/ Symmetry • straight line that goes through the origin • slope is 1 • divides the plane exactly in half diagonally • graph only in quadrants 1 and 3 • parabola that opens up • vertex at the origin • y has a minimum value • y-axis is axis of symmetry • graph only in quadrants 1 and 2 Domain Range y x f(x) 5 x2 quadratic function y x f(x) 5 "x f(x) 5 1 x f(x) 5 |x| square root function reciprocal function absolute value function B. 0. Clear all equations from the equation editor. |3| 5 3 and |23| 5 2 (23) 5 3 Equation of Function f(x) 5 x Name of Function linear function Three more parent functions are the square root function f (x) 5 !x . equals x when x $ 0 or 2x when x . describes the distance of x from 0. Tech Support Use the following WINDOW settings to graph the functions: Use your graphing calculator to check the sketches shown for f (x) 5 x and f (x) 5 x 2 and add anything you think is missing from the descriptions.absolute value written as |x|. and the absolute value function f (x) 5 |x|. In your table. NEL Chapter 1 .

Using the table of values and the graph. Explain how each of the following helped you determine the domain and range. Parent functions include.U. and f (x) 5 |x| could you use to x sketch their graphs? II III I IV In Summary Key Idea • Certain basic functions. form the building blocks for families of more complicated functions. When you have finished. I. Tech Support G. x (continued) NEL Introduction to Functions 27 . vertices. on some portion of its domain y Reflecting J. M. press MATH X. but never meets. a) the table of values b) the graph c) the function’s equation Which graphs lie in the listed quadrants? a) the first and second quadrants b) the first and third quadrants Which graph has asymptotes? Why? asymptotes x K. see Technical Appendix. called parent functions. and f(x) 5 |x|. You have used the slope and y-intercept to sketch lines. Quadrants L. Go to the table of values and scroll up and down the table. What characteristics of the new 1 parent functions f (x) 5 !x. Use the table x of values to see what happens to y when x is close to 0 and when x is far from 0. a line that the graph of a relation or function gets closer and closer to.3 E. and directions of opening to sketch parabolas. f(x) 5 x. but are not 1 limited to. 1 Repeat parts D through F for the reciprocal function f (x) 5 .1.n asymptote 1 ) . Where are the asymptotes of this graph? Repeat parts D through F for the absolute value function f (x) 5 |x|. F. Explain why the graph is in two parts with a break in the middle. H. f (x) 5 . f(x) 5 "x. For help with the TABLE function of the graphing calculator.T. f(x) 5 . Which of the other functions is the resulting graph most like? Explain. determine and record the domain and range of the function. To graph f(x) 5 |x|. B-6. Does ERR: appear in the Y column? Explain why this happens. make sure that your table contains enough information for you to recognize each of the five parent functions. f(x) 5 x2.

f(x) 5 x2. Describe 3. the graphs of g(x) 5 !x and h(x) 5 x. On the same axes. What do the graphs have in common? What is different about the graphs? Write equations of the asymptotes for the reciprocal function. f(x) 5 Equation of Function f(x) 5 x Name of Function linear function 4 2 1 . Sketch the graphs of f (x) 5 x and g (x) 5 1 x on the same axes. 2.Need to Know • Each of the parent functions f(x) 5 x. f(x) 5 ! x. Describe how the three graphs are related. and x f(x) 5 |x| has unique characteristics that define the shape of its graph. Sketch of Graph 4 2 2 4 y x 2 4 y x 2 4 f(x) 5 x 2 f(x) 5 ! x quadratic function 4 2 4 2 2 4 square root function 4 2 4 2 2 4 y x 2 4 f(x) 5 1 x reciprocal function 4 2 4 2 2 4 y x 2 4 f(x) 5 |x| absolute value function 4 2 4 2 2 4 y x 2 4 FURTHER Your Understanding 1. sketch 28 Chapter 1 NEL . Sketch the graphs of f (x) 5 x 2 and g(x) 5 |x| on the same axes. how these graphs are alike and how they are different. Sketch the graph of f (x) 5 x 2 for values of x $ 0.

This gave me the domain for the function. So d can take only values that lie in between 0 and 346. The speed of the pebble as it falls to the ground is a function of how far it has fallen. Xscl 20 and 0 # Y # 100. The equation for this function is v(d) 5 !2gd .1. Sally’s Solution: Using a Graph The pebble falls a total distance of 346 m. graphs.4 GOAL Determining the Domain and Range of a Function YOU WILL NEED Use tables.6 x into my graphing calculator.8 metres per second squared (m>s2 ) A gull landing on the guardrail causes a pebble to fall off the edge. in metres.6. ? How can you determine the domain and range of the function v(d)? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to determine the domain and range Determine the domain and range of v(d ). Yscl 10 for WINDOW settings. and equations to find domains and ranges of functions. • graph paper • graphing calculator LEARN ABOUT the Math The CN Tower in Toronto has a lookout level that is 346 m above the ground. in metres per second (m/s) • g is the acceleration due to gravity—about 9. the pebble’s speed.8 5 19. I entered Y= ! 19. The distance d is 0 m when the pebble first falls off the edge and 346 m when the pebble lands on the ground. so the function is v(d ) 5 "19. where • d is the distance. the pebble has fallen • v(d ) is the speed of the pebble. So the domain is 0 # d # 346.6d for 0 # d # 346 NEL Introduction to Functions 29 . 2 3 9. I used 0 # X # 346.

The domain is 5d [ R | 0 # d # 3466 and the range is 5v(d ) [ R | 0 # v(d ) # 82. This happens when d 5 346. and d 5 346 when it lands. real numbers numbers that are either rational or irrational. such that x is greater than or equal to 0 and less than 50. I found the domain by thinking about all the values that d could have. these include positive and negative integers. When the pebble lands. to one decimal place v(0) 5 "19. 506 is read “the set of all values x that belong to the set of real numbers. and irrational numbers such as ! 2 and p Set notation can be used to describe domains and ranges. I used set notation to write the domain and range. d 5 346.6(0) 5 0 v(346) 5 "19.46.” Domain 5 5d [ R | 0 # h # 3466 Range 5 5v(d ) [ R | 0 # v(d ) # 82. The pebble starts with no velocity. I used the equation as a check. zero. v(346) 8 82. its speed increases. 5 82. so the speed was zero at the start. I used the function equation to find how fast the pebble was falling when it landed.” The symbol “|” stands for “such that.46 David’s Solution: Using the Function Equation d 5 0 when the pebble begins to fall. As the pebble falls. So d must take values between 0 and 346. I used set notation to write the domain and range. The graph showed me that as the pebble’s distance increases. I defined them as sets of real numbers. I knew that the pebble would gain speed until it hit the ground. 5x [ R | 0 # x . I evaluated this using the value operation.Range: I saw that the graph started at the origin. d is 0 m when the pebble first falls off the edge and 346 m when the pebble lands on the ground. fractions.4 So the range is 0 # v(d ) # 82. so does its velocity.6(346) 30 Chapter 1 NEL . The pebble must be travelling the fastest when it hits the ground. For example.4. The maximum value of the range is v(346) . Communication Tip The pebble starts with speed 0 m/s. The pebble fell off the edge. So the domain is 0 # d # 346.4. So 0 is the minimum value of the range.

NEL Introduction to Functions 31 . 0. Why did Sally need to think about the possible values for distance fallen before she graphed the function? What properties of the square root function helped David use the given equation to find the domain and range? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Determining domain and range from graphs a) For each relation.4 Reflecting A. 1. 21. I noticed that the x-coordinates were all the integers from 23 to 3 and the y-coordinates were all the integers from 22 to 4. 21. Melanie’s Solution or 523. 22. 2. The graph passes the vertical-line test. or 522.1. 1. 2. state the domain and range and whether the relation is a function. 0. c) y y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y 10 5 10 5 0 5 10 5 10 x 4 d) 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 x y 2 4 x b) a) Domain 5 5x [ I | 23 # x # 36. 46 The graph is that of a function. 3. B. 36 Range 5 5 y [ I | 22 # y # 46.

The function has a maximum value at the vertex (21. b) g(x) 5 23(x 1 1) 2 1 6 Domain 5 5x [ R6 This is a quadratic equation in vertex form. x cannot be 25. x can be any value. Range 5 52. Therefore. 3). A closed circle means that the endpoint is included. so x can be any number. x # 116 c) Domain 5 5x [ R6 Range 5 5 y [ R | y # 3)6 This is a function. There are only two y-values. This is the equation of a parabola that opens down. 0) and radius of 5. The graph is a parabola with a maximum value at the vertex. The graph is a circle with centre (0. so y can never be more than its value at the vertex. The graph passes the vertical-line test. There are many vertical lines that cross the graph in two places d) Domain 5 5x [ R | 25 # x # 56 Range 5 5 y [ R |25 # y # 56 This is a function. Range 5 5 y [ R | y # 66 32 Chapter 1 NEL . So. which is the point (1. x and f(x) can be any numbers. but y cannot be greater than 3. EXAMPLE 3 Determining domain and range from the function equation a) f (x) 5 2x 2 3 Determine the domain and range of each function. 6). so x and y can be any value. 66 An open circle on the graph shows that the endpoint of the line is not included in the graph.b) Domain 5 5x [ R | 25 . The graph passes the vertical-line test. I used y instead of f(x) to describe the range. b) g(x) 5 23(x 1 1) 2 1 6 Jeff’s Solution a) f (x) 5 2x 2 3 c) h(x) 5 !2 2 x This is a linear function. Domain 5 5x [ R6 Range 5 5 y [ R6 This is the equation of a straight line that goes on forever in both directions. Any value of x will work in the equation. This is not a function. x can be any real number. The graph fails the vertical-line test. but it can be 11.

2 is okay. Jenny’s Solution a) Let the width of the garden be x m. EXAMPLE 4 Determining domain and range of an area function Vitaly and Sherry have 24 m of fencing to enclose a rectangular garden at the back of their house.c) h(x) 5 !2 2 x 1. I realized I had to use values less than or equal to 2. Domain 5 5x [ R | 0 . To find the length. at 0 and 12. so y is never negative. I thought about different possible values of x. Domain 5 5x [ R | x # 26 22x$0 Range 5 5 y [ R | y $ 06 2 2 x $ 0 as long as x # 2 !2 2 x means the positive square root. A(x) 5 22x(x 2 12) NEL Introduction to Functions 33 . but 4 is not. Any number # 0 or $ 12 will result in a zero or negative area. A(x) 5 x(24 2 2x) b) The smallest the width can Area 5 width 3 length I factored out 22 from 24 2 2x to write the function in factored form. It has two zeros. Then the length is (24 2 2x) m. The vertex lies halfway in between the zeros. so 2 2 x must be positive or zero. above the x-axis.4 You cannot take the square root of a negative number. The largest the width can approach is 12 m. This is a quadratic function that opens down. a) Express the area of the garden as a function of its width. since 2 2 2 5 0. I subtracted the two widths from 24. They need fencing on only three sides of the garden because the house forms the last side. so the numbers in the domain have to be between 0 and 12. x . which doesn’t make sense. 126 approach is 0 m. since 2 2 4 is negative. x 24 2x x Let the area be A(x). b) Determine the domain and range of the area function.

The range of a function depends on the equation of the function. Linear functions of the form f(x) 5 mx 1 b. or from the function equation. have range 5 y [ R6. They are usually easier to determine from a graph or a table of values. For example. so the domain or range must be restricted to nonnegative values. where m 2 0. • All quadratic functions have domain 5x [ R6 . • The function f(x) 5 ! x has domain 5 5x [ R | x $ 06 and range 5 5y [ R | y $ 06. from a table of values. A(x) # 726 The area ranges from 0 to 72 m2. • The domains of square root functions are restricted because the square root of a negative number is not a real number. The x-coordinate of the vertex is 6. The graph depends on the domain and range.x 5 (0 1 12) 4 2 x56 A(6) 5 22(6) (6 2 12) 5 72 The vertex is halfway between x 5 0 and x 5 12. Constant functions f(x) 5 b have range {b}. In Summary Key Ideas • The domain of a function is the set of values of the independent variable for which the function is defined. For example. The ranges are restricted because the square root sign refers to the positive square root. Range 5 5A(x) [ R | 0 . Need to Know • All linear functions include all the real numbers in their domains. • The function g(x) 5 ! x 2 3 has domain 5 5x [ R | x $ 36 and range 5 5y [ R | y $ 06. I substituted x 5 6 into the area function to find the y-coordinate of the vertex. • When working with functions that model real-world situations. 34 Chapter 1 NEL . The range of a quadratic function depends on the maximum or minimum value and the direction of opening. • The domain and range of a function can be determined from its graph. Since area must be a positive quantity. consider whether there are any restrictions on the variables. all the output values of the function must lie between 0 and 72. negative values often have no meaning in a real context.

State the domain and range of each relation. a) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 b) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 c) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 y d) 8 x 4 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 y e) 8 x 4 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 y f) 8 x 4 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 3. (3.4 CHECK Your Understanding 1.3 54.1.7 77. a) Year of Birth 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Life Expectancy (years) 47. Identify which of the relations in questions 1 and 2 are functions. 21)6 5 1 0 3 9 15 17 23 2. (0. NEL Introduction to Functions 35 . 0).0 b) c) 5 (24. State the domain and range of each relation. Determine the domain and range of the function f (x) 5 2(x 2 1) 2 2 3 by sketching its graph. (5. 4. (0. 5). 7).9 69.7 73.1 62. 3).

6. The graph shows how 2007 prices for mailing letters in Canada vary with mass. 8. K a) Graph the relation. jog. The route for a marathon is 15 km long. Participants may walk. Why is it important for this to be so? b) State the domain and range of the function. A relation is defined by x 2 1 y 2 5 36. Write a function to describe coffee dripping into a 10-cup carafe at a rate of 1 mL/s. Speed (km/h) Time (h) 1 15.PRACTISING 5. 36 Chapter 1 NEL .00 0.50 Canadian Domestic Letter Prices 2. Copy and complete the table to show times for completing the marathon at different speeds. 7. y 2. b) State the domain and range of the relation. or cycle.00 Price ($) 1.0 2 7. c) Is the relation a function? Explain.00 x 100 300 200 Mass (g) 400 500 a) Explain why this relation is a function. run.50 1.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Graph the relation in the table and explain how you know that it is a function. State the domain and range of the function.50 0. State the domain and range of the function (1 cup 5 250 mL).

Extending 16. 66. The large square in the diagram has side length 10 units. a) Write an equation to express the total area enclosed as a function of the width. NEL Sketch the graph of a function whose domain is 5x [ R6 and range is 5 y [ R | y # 2)6. c) Determine an equation for the function.5. Determine the domain and range of each function. 0. The ball reaches a A height of 45 m above the ground after 2 s and hits the ground 5 s after being thrown. b) Determine the domain and range of this area function.5(x 1 3) 2 1 4 2 (x 2 2) 2 2 5 3 5 e) q(x) 5 11 2 x 2 f ) r(x) 5 !5 2 x d) p(x) 5 11. a) Determine the area of the inscribed square as a function of x. You can draw a square inside another square by placing each vertex of the inner square on one side of the outer square. Explain the terms “domain” and “range” as they apply to relations and C functions. Determine the range of each function if the domain is 523. A ball is thrown upward from the roof of a 25 m building. x Introduction to Functions 37 . a) f (x) 5 4 2 3x b) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 3x 1 1 1 x2 d) p(x) 5 !x 2 2 5 c) h(x) 5 15. c) Determine the perimeter of the inscribed square as a function of x. A farmer has 450 m of fencing to enclose a rectangular area and divide it into T 14. and an equation. d) Determine the domain and range of this perimeter function. 2. b) State the domain and range of the function. a) Sketch a graph that shows the height of the ball as a function of time. with examples. 10. two sections as shown. c) Determine the dimensions that give the maximum area. b) Determine the domain and range of this area function. 12. how the domain and range are determined from a table of values. a graph. 21. a) 17. Describe. b) Sketch the graph of a relation that is not a function and whose domain is 5x [ R | x $ 246 and range is 5 y [ R6.1.4 9. a) f (x) 5 !3 2 x 1 2 b) g(x) 5 x 2 2 3x a) f (x) 5 4x 1 1 b) f (x) 5 !x 2 2 c) f (x) 5 3(x 1 1) 2 2 4 d) f (x) 5 22x 2 2 5 c) h(x) 5 !x 2 1 a) f (x) 5 23x 1 8 b) g(x) 5 20. and range. Use a graphing calculator to graph each function and determine the domain 13. Write the domain and range of each function in set notation.

(3. the point (21. the relation 5(22. The equation f (21) 5 3 means “When x 5 21. When a relation is a function. 3. For example. 4). you can use the vertical-line test. 3). (0. A A y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 A3: x 2 1 0 1 2 B 0 3 4 5 4 3 5 4 3 0 3 4 B y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 A4: If you have the graph of the relation.” in other words.2. 23). y 5 3. 3). you can see if any first elements appear more than once. the relation is not a function. If you have the equation of the relation. f is a name for the function and f (a) is the value of y or output when the input is x 5 a. For example. (21. For example. 0). 38 Chapter 1 NEL . but the relation 5 (25. If the relation is shown in a mapping diagram. If you can draw a vertical line that crosses the graph in more than one place. A2: If the relation is described by a list of ordered pairs. there must be only one value of the dependent variable for each value of the independent variable. Examples 1.1 Study Mid-Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A1: Aid How can you determine whether a relation is a function? • See Lesson 1. you can look at the arrows. If more than one arrow goes from an element of the domain (on the left) to an element of the range (on the right). • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 and 2. (2. you can use function notation to write the equation. graph A shows a function but graph B does not. you can substitute numbers for x to see how many y-values correspond to each x-value. 4). Examples 1. For a relation to be a function. then the relation is not a function. What does function notation mean and why is it useful? x Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 1. If a single x-value produces more than one corresponding y-value. 0). because 24 and 3 each appear more than once as first elements. (3. 24). the equation does not represent a function. diagram A shows a function but diagram B does not. (24.1. 3) belongs to the function. If they do. (1. and 3. you can write the equation y 5 4 2 x 2 in function notation as f (x) 5 4 2 x 2. 0) 6 is not. 0) 6 is a function. 2. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 3 and 4. (24. then an element in the domain corresponds to two elements in the range. and 4. For example. For example. The equation x 2 1 y 2 5 25 does not represent a function because there are two values for y when x is any number between 25 and 5. so the relation is not a function. 3). (5. the equation y 5 4 2 x 2 is the equation of a function because you would get only one answer for y by putting a number in for x.

Domain 5 5x [ R | x $ 216. such as v(t) to describe velocity as a function of time. so g(x) is always positive or zero. substitute 21 for x in the function equation: f (21) 5 4 2 (21) 2 5421 53 Or you can read the value from a graph. 3) 2 4 x How can you determine the domain and range of a function? Study and 3. Range 5 5y [ R | y # 46 If g(x) 5 !x 1 1. So x can be any real number greater than or equal to 21 and y can be any real number greater than or equal to 0. Also. You can also determine the domain and range from the equation of a function. then any value of x will work in this equation. f (x) is always less than or equal to 4. 0) and continues forever in the positive x direction and positive y direction. because x 2 is always positive or zero. Aid The domain of a function is the set of input values for which the function is defined. the square root sign refers to the positive square root. or the number inside the square root sign would be negative. Range 5 5y [ R | y # 46 A • See Lesson 1. if f (x) 5 4 2 x 2. You can express these facts in set notation: Domain 5 5x [ R6. For example. and 8. you can work with more than one function at a time by giving each function a different name. 7. then x cannot be less than 21.4. or C(n) to describe the cost of producing n items. you can see the domain and range. y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y = f(x) x 2 4 Graph B starts at the point (21.Mid-Chapter Review To evaluate f (21). Set notation can be used to describe the domain and range of a function. If you have the graph of a function. t. Domain 5 5x [ R | x $ 216 . Because this function has a maximum value at the vertex. y cannot have a value greater than this maximum value. 3) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y = f(x) (0. The range is the set of output values that correspond to the input values. so x [ R. Examples 2 • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 6. Range 5 5y [ R | y $ 06 B y 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 8 y = g(x) x NEL Introduction to Functions 39 . Range 5 5 y [ R | y $ 06 Domain 5 5x [ R6. Also. You can choose meaningful names. Function notation is useful because writing f (x) 5 3 gives more information about the function—you know that the independent variable is x—than writing y 5 3. Also. Q: A: y ( 1. as in the following examples: Because graph A goes on forever in both the positive and negative x direction. x can be any real number.

40 Chapter 1 NEL .4 d) f (x) 5 |x | c) f (x) 5 !x 6. 7. explain why. c) A circle has a centre at (0. b) Determine the outputs for the input numbers 1.2 e) y 5 2 (x 2 3) 1 5 f ) y 5 !x 2 4 5 2 enclosed as a function of the width. a) A parabola has a vertex at (22. function. Determine the domain and range of each relation in question 1. d) A circle has a centre at (2. and 7. Then she asked them to multiply the resulting difference by the number they first thought of. Lesson 1. Use numeric and graphical representations to show that x 2 1 y 5 4 is a function but x 2 1 y 2 5 4 is not a function. (2. and y 5 4 is its minimum value. A farmer has 600 m of fencing to enclose a d) 5 y rectangular area and divide it into three sections as shown.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 1. a) Graph the function f (x) 5 22(x 1 1) 2 1 3. ii) 3f (2) 2 5. (2. and y 5 5 is its maximum value. 5 0 x 5 a) Write an equation to express the total area 2. multiply it by 5. Graph each function and state its domain and range. a) Use function notation to express the final answer in terms of the original number. A teacher asked her students to think of a number. c) Determine the maximum result possible. 4). a) f (x) 5 x 2 1 b) f (x) 5 x x 2 4 Lesson 1. 0) and a radius of 7. For those which are. 4). 2). c) Determine the dimensions that give the maximum area. b) A parabola has a vertex at (3. c) What does f (23) represent on the graph of f ? d) Use the equation to determine i) f (1) 2 f (0).3 c) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y 5.1 1. and iii) f (2 2 x). 5) and a radius of 4. 5). Lesson 1. 21. b) Determine the domain and range of this area 3. Determine the domain and range for each. 8. b) Evaluate f (23). 5)6 b) 2 0 3 7 1 1 3 4 4. a) 5(1. and subtract the product from 20. Determine which relations are functions. 3). (4.

Is this relation a function? Explain. using the company’s prices.1. C. Tom needs to do the reverse of what the company’s function does.5 GOAL The Inverse Function and Its Properties YOU WILL NEED Determine inverses of linear functions and investigate their properties. E Cost ($) 450 850 1250 1650 2050 Area (sq ft) 40 F. B. The company calculates the cost to the customer as a function of the area to be paved. What is the independent variable in table A? the dependent variable? Is the relation in table A a function? Explain. inverse of a function the reverse of the original function. Tom wants to express area in terms of cost to see how much of his yard he can pave for different budget amounts. A x Area (sq ft) 40 80 120 y Cost ($) 450 What relation can Tom use. Write the equation for f (x) that describes the cost as a function of area. E. • graph paper • MiraTM (transparent mirror) (optional) INVESTIGATE the Math The Backyard Paving Company charges $10/sq ft for installing interlocking paving stones. undoes what the original function has done NEL Introduction to Functions 41 . plus a $50 delivery fee. Use the same scale of 2100 to 2100 on each axis. Graph f (x). D. Copy and complete table E for Tom. Graph this inverse relation on the same axes as those in part D. and how is it related to the function used by the company? 160 200 Copy and complete table A. What is the independent variable? the dependent variable? How does this table compare with table A? The relationship in part E is the inverse of the cost function. ? A.

O. M. Use inverse operations on the cost function. Draw the line y 5 x on your graph. 42 Chapter 1 NEL . Make a list of all the connections you have observed between the Backyard Paving Company’s cost function and the one Tom will use. K. or fold your graph paper along that line. J. to solve for x. Place a Mira along the line y 5 x. the operations on x are as follows: Multiply by 25 and then add 2. Reflecting L. I. subtract 2 and then divide the result by 25. Is the inverse a function? Explain. I wrote down the operations on x in the order they were applied. i) How are the slopes related? ii) How are the y-intercepts related? iii) Use the slope and y-intercept to write an equation for the inverse. What do you notice about the two graphs? Where do they intersect? Compare the coordinates of points that lie on the graph of the cost function with those which lie on the graph of its inverse. Compare this equation with the equation of the inverse you found in part I. f. Then I worked backward and wrote the inverse operations. How are the domain and range of the inverse related to the domain and range of a linear function? How could you use inverse operations to determine the equation of the inverse of a linear function from the equation of the function? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the equation of the inverse of a linear function Find the inverse of the function defined by f (x) 5 2 2 5x.G. What do you notice? Write the slopes and y-intercepts of the two lines. To reverse these operations. How would a table of values for a linear function help you determine the inverse of that function? i) How can you determine the coordinates of a point on the graph of the inverse function if you know a point on the graph of the original function? ii) How could you use this relationship to graph the inverse? N. Jamie’s Solution: Reversing the Operations In the equation f (x) 5 2 2 5x. H.

so I switched x and y in the equation. so it must be a function. then (y. x 2 2 5 25y 1 2 2 2 x 2 2 5 25y x22 5y 25 f 21 (x) 5 x22 22x or f 21 (x) 5 25 5 I wrote the equation in function notation.5 f 21 (x) 5 x22 or 25 1 2 f 21 (x) 5 2 x 1 5 5 I used these inverse operations to write the equation of the inverse. I knew the inverse was a line. The inverse is a function. a) b) y y y = f(x) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x y = g(x) 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 4 8 x NEL Introduction to Functions 43 .1. This use of 21 is different from raising values to the power 21. The graph of y 5 f 21 (x) is a straight 1 line with slope 5 2 . since all linear relations except vertical lines are functions. The function f is the inverse of the function f. x) is on the inverse graph. EXAMPLE 2 Relating the graphs of functions and their inverses Use the graph of each function to obtain the graph of the inverse. Communication 21 Tip The inverse is linear. y) is on the graph of f(x). The graph 5 passes the vertical-line test. Lynette’s Solution: Interchanging the Variables f (x) 5 2 2 5x y 5 25x 1 2 x 5 25y 1 2 I wrote the function in y 5 mx 1 b form by putting y in place of f(x). Is the inverse a function? Explain. I knew that if (x. I solved for y by subtracting 2 from both sides and dividing both sides by 25.

1). I plotted the points in red. 0) of g21 (x). 21). 44 Chapter 1 NEL . The inverse is not a function: The graph fails the vertical-line test at x 5 1. Then I switched the coordinates to find the two points (0. 3). (1. 23). 0). Plot the points for the inverse and draw the line y 5 x to check for symmetry. 1). I checked that the points on one side of the line y 5 x were mirror images of the points on the other side.and y-intercepts of g(x): (5. (4. 3).Carlos’s Solution a) f (x) is a function represented by the So f 21 (x) is 5(1. 22)6 . y 4 f(x) 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 f –1 y=x x 4 set of points 5 (23. I wrote the coordinates of the x. so a vertical line drawn here would go through three points. I drew the line y 5 x and checked that the graphs of g(x) and g21 (x) crossed on that line. The inverse is a function. That gave me the inverse. I plotted the two points of g21 (x) and joined them with a straight line. (3. (22.and y-coordinates of each point. (1. (1. 0) and (0. 22). b) g(x) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 y=x x 4 g –1(x) y There are three red points for x 5 1. (0. 1). The inverse is a function because it passes the vertical-line test. 4)6. (22. (0. 1). 5) and (3. 0). I noticed that they were the intercepts. (21. I wrote the coordinates of the points in the graph and then switched the x.

I wrote the temperature function with y and x instead of T(d) and d.015x x 5 11 1 0. so I chose to end the domain at 5000. 22 °C.5 EXAMPLE 3 Using the inverse of a linear function to solve a problem Recall from Lesson 1. for example.015y I realized that d is 0 m on the surface. d(22) 5 22 2 11 0.015d. c) State the domain and range of T 21 (d ). The deeper mine has a depth of 4100 m. Because I had switched the variables. The inverse function is used to determine how far down a mine you would have to go to reach a temperature of. the depth is about 733 m.015y x 2 11 5 0.015d y 5 11 1 0. I wrote the inverse in function notation. a) Domain 5 5d [ R |0 # d # 50006 Erynn’s Solution b) Range 5 5T(d ) [ R | 11 # T(d ) # 866 T(d ) 5 11 1 0.015 I switched x and y and solved for y to get the inverse equation.015 Range 5 5d(T ) [ R | 0 # d(T ) # 50006 function of the temperature. This is the beginning of the domain.2 that the temperature below Earth’s surface is a function of depth and can be defined by T(d ) 5 11 1 0. c) Domain 5T [ R | 11 # T # 866 d) The inverse shows the depth as a x 2 11 5y 0.015 T 2 11 d(T ) 5 is the inverse function. I calculated the beginning and end of the range by substituting d 5 0 and d 5 5000 into the equation for T(d). 0. and the range of the inverse is the same as the domain of the original function. d) Explain what the inverse represents. b) Determine the inverse of this function. I substituted 22 for T in the equation to get the answer. NEL Introduction to Functions 45 . 8 733 When the temperature is 22 °C. The domain of the inverse is the same as the range of the original function.1. Someone planning a geothermal heating system would need this kind of information. I knew that y was now distance and x was temperature. a) State the domain and range of T(d ).

a) is a point on the graph of y 5 f 21 (x). For each graph. (3. (2. rewrite this x28 . Which inverse relations are functions? a) b) y y 5 5 3 5 3 1 10 1 3 5 x 3 5 5 3 3 1 10 1 3 5 x 3 5 46 Chapter 1 NEL . • If (a. 4). 1). To reverse this function. the inverse is also a linear function. (4. b) is a point on the graph of y 5 f(x). 1)6 identify the points that are common to the function and its inverse. Copy the graph of each function and graph its inverse. Determine the inverse relation for each set of ordered pairs. to apply the function defined by f(x) 5 5x 1 8. This implies that the domain of f is the range of f21 and the range of f is the domain of f21.In Summary Key Ideas • The inverse of a linear function is the reverse of the original function. relation and its inverse. • The graph of the inverse is the reflection of the graph of y 5 f(x) in the line y 5 x. equation as x 5 5y 1 8 and solve for y to get y 5 5 • If the original function is linear (with the exception of a horizontal line). then (b. 5). if y 5 5x 1 8. Need to Know • A way to determine the inverse function is to switch the two variables and solve for the previously independent variable. (2. For example. For example. (5. (0. 5). Graph each 2. It undoes what the original has done and can be found using the inverse operations of the original function in reverse order. CHECK Your Understanding 1. subtract x28 8 from x and then divide the result by 5: f 21 (x) 5 . 21). 6)6 b) 5 (2. Which of the relations and inverse relations are functions? a) 5 (22. 5 • The inverse of a function is not necessarily a function itself. multiply x by 5 and then add 8. 3). • f 21 is the notation for the inverse function of f.

Is each inverse linear? Is each inverse a function? Explain. Sketch the graph of each function in questions 5 and 6. Determine the inverse of each linear function by reversing the operations. a) f (x) 5 x 1 7 b) f (x) 5 2 2 x c) f (x) 5 5 e) f (x) 5 x f ) f (x) 5 1 d) f (x) 5 2 x 2 2 5 x23 4 7. then subtract 1. interchange x and y. Then solve for y to determine the inverse. then add 1. g : Add 2. NEL Introduction to Functions 47 .1. then divide by 5. a) f (x) 5 x 2 4 b) f (x) 5 3x 1 1 c) f (x) 5 5x d) f (x) 5 e) f (x) 5 6 2 5x f ) f (x) 5 x 1 2 1 x21 2 3 4 6. For each linear function.5 c) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 4 2 4 x 4 y e) 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 x y d) f) 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 3. Determine whether each pair of functions described in words are inverses. and sketch its inverse. Determine the inverse of each linear function by interchanging the variables. a) b) f : Multiply by 3. g : Divide by 3. then subtract 2. 4. a) y 5 4x 2 3 1 b) y 5 2 2 x 2 c) 3x 1 4y 5 6 d) 2y 2 10 5 5x PRACTISING 5. f : Multiply by 5.

b) Write f 21 as a rule. uses a 5 simpler rule to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit: Double the Celsius temperature. Repeat parts (a) to (e) for g(x) 5 2 1x 1 3. Explain how you can tell that f 21 is also a linear function. uses this rule to convert centimetres to inches: Multiply by 4 and then divide by 10. Graph f and f 21 on the same axes. e) Another day. (2. 4). Who might use this rule? c) Determine f 21 (x). The formula for converting a temperature in degrees Celsius into degrees A Fahrenheit is F 5 9C 1 32. according to Ben’s rule. (3. Ben. and state the domain and range of both the function and its inverse. the temperature was 70 °F. Use function notation to express this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. sketch the graphs of the function K and its inverse. another American visitor to Canada. 2 p(x) 5 6 2 x. d) One day. (1. how do the domain and range of the function compare with the domain and range of the inverse? a) 5 (21. determine each value. a) Determine f b) c) d) e) f) for the linear function f (x) 5 5x 2 2. Compare the slopes of the two lines. an American visitor to Canada. Call the function f and let x represent the temperature in degrees Celsius. a) Use function notation to write an equation for this rule. State the coordinates of any points that are common to both f and f 21. the temperature was 14 °C. a) Write g21 as a rule. then add 30. a) g(13) b) g(7) c) g(13) 2 g(7) 13 2 7 e) g21 (7) f) g21 (13) 2 g21 (7) 13 2 7 d) g21 (13) 11. 48 Chapter 1 NEL . h(x) 5 2x 2 1. Use function notation to express this temperature in degrees Celsius. and q(x) 5 2. In each case. Let the function g be the method for converting centimetres to inches. determine the inverse. For g(t) 5 3t 2 2. Shirelle. 2). 8)6 c) f (x) 5 1 2 3x b) d) y 4 4 3 2 2 6 1 x 8 5 0 4 2 2 4 2 4 9. Explain what parts (c) and (f ) represent in question 10. 12. 6). b) Describe a situation in which the rule for g21 might be useful. 21 10.8. For each function. 13.

Then evaluate. Use function notation to represent his height in centimetres. Explain why the ordered pair (2. d) One day. Self-inverse functions are their own inverses. 15. Then she would earn $8.05(40) 1 0.5 c) Determine g(x) and g21 (x). tall. The ordered pair (1. Find three linear functions that are self-inverse. 15 cm of snow fell. Given f (x) 5 k(2 1 x).63x 2 1. For example. 14. plus 5% of her sales over $1000. a) Graph the relation between Tiffany’s total pay for a 40 h work week and her sales for that week. b) Write the relation in function notation. Write the correct equation for the relation in the form y 5 mx 1 b.29.05/h. for a 40 h work week. Tiffany is paid $8. 5) belongs to a function f. Determine the inverse of the inverse of f (x) 5 3x 1 4. Definition: Inverse of a Linear Function Methods: Examples: Properties: Extending 19. Use function notation to represent this amount in inches. find the value of k if f T 21 (22) 5 23. 17. c) Graph the inverse relation. Use a chart like the one shown to summarize what you have learned about C the inverse of a linear function. 20. Ali did his homework at school with a graphing calculator.05($800) 5 $362. Once he got home. d) Write the inverse relation in function notation.1. e) Write an expression in function notation that represents her sales if she earned $420 one work week. 18. NEL Introduction to Functions 49 . e) Ben is 5 ft 10 in. he realized he had mixed up the independent and dependent variables. He determined that the equation of the line of best fit for some data was y 5 2. 1) cannot belong to f 21. 16. suppose Tiffany sold $1800 worth of merchandise.

1 3 2 Repeat part C for y 5 . and for y 5 3|x|. NEL 1 Graph the parent functions f (x) 5 x 2. and y 5 2 . When f(x) 5 ! x. and 2 y 5 22x 2.U. ? A. Communication Tip EXPLORE the Math Anastasia and Shelby made patterns with parabolas by applying transformations to the graph of the parent quadratic function y 5 x 2. g(x) 5 x2d The function defined by g(x) 5 af(x 2 d) 1 c describes a transformation of the graph of f. Anastasia thinks they could make more interesting patterns by applying transformations to other parent functions as well. Sketch and label each graph. Without using a calculator. g(x) 5 a(x 2 d) 2 1 c. Describe the transformations in words.n . Compare the effect of these transformations with the effect of the same transformations on quadratic functions. 1 When f(x) 5 . use what you know about transformations of quadratic functions to sketch the graphs of y 5 3x 2. h(x) 5 . Use brackets when entering transformed versions of y 5 D. When f(x) 5 x 2. Predict what the graphs of y 5 3f (x) 1 2 and y 5 3f (x) 2 1 for each of the other parent functions will look like. g(x) 5 !x.6 YOU WILL NEED Exploring Transformations of Parent Functions GOAL • graphing calculator or graphing software Investigate transformations of parent functions. y 5 1 !x. press MATH 1 X. When f(x) 5 |x|. y 5 1|x|. Shelby wonders whether the transformations will have the same effect on the other functions as they do on quadratic functions. Sketch y 5 3x 2 1 2 and y 5 3x 2 2 1 without a calculator. along with a sketch of the parent function. g(x) 5 a ! x 2 d 1 c. Do transformations of other parent functions behave in the same way as transformations of quadratic functions? B. x a 1 c. and x j(x) 5 |x|. E. 2 x x 2x and y 5 22|x|.1. y 5 1 x 2.T. Predict what the graphs of y 5 3!x. To enter f(x) 5 |x|. Verify your predictions with a graphing calculator. y 5 . Sketch and label each curve on the same axes. 50 Chapter 1 . and y 5 22!x will look 2 like. Make labelled sketches and compare them with transformations on quadratic functions as before. Use a graphing calculator to verify your predictions. g(x) 5 a|x 2 d| 1 c. Describe the transformations in words. Tech Support 1 : x C.

Experiment with each of the parent functions to create patterns on NEL Introduction to Functions 51 . I.6 F. and y 5 3f (x 2 1) 1 2. y 5 1 f (x 1 1). c. How do the 4. K. Reflecting H. The graph of y 5 2x 2 is narrower than the graph of y 5 x 2. What do you know about the graphs of the following equations? 1 a) y 5 !x 2 1 1 2 b) y 5 |x 2 1| 1 2 c) y 5 12 x21 would you compare the graphs of the following pairs of equations? a) y 5 !x and y 5 2 !x b) y 5 |x| and y 5 2|x| 1 1 c) y 5 and y 5 2 x x following graphs compare? a) y 5 2!x and y 5 !x b) y 5 2|x| and y 5 |x| 2 1 c) y 5 and y 5 x x a graphing calculator screen. 1 compare with the graph for which 0 . 2). Repeat part E for y 5 f (x 2 2). FURTHER Your Understanding 1. The graph of y 5 x 2 opens up and the graph of y 5 2x 2 opens down. G. The shape of the graph of g(x) depends on the graph of the parent function g(x) and on the value of a. the constants a. 1? In Summary Key Idea • In functions of the form g(x) 5 af(x 2 d) 1 c. a .1. J. 3. How did the effect of transformations on parent functions compare with that on quadratic functions? When you graphed y 5 af (x 2 d ) 1 c. and d each change the location or shape of the graph of f(x). Did the transformations have the same effect on the new parent functions as they had on quadratic functions? Explain. what were the effects of c and d? How did the graphs with a $ 0 compare with the graphs with a # 0? How did the graphs for which a . The graph of the equation y 5 (x 2 1) 2 1 2 is the graph of a parabola that 2. How opens up and has its vertex at (1. 2 Examine your sketches for each type of transformation.

y 5 "x x y 0 1 4 9 10 y 5 " 2x x 0 0. as a function of its length. 0) for this graph and transformation y 4 y = x2 4 4 2 2 0 2 y= 4 x2 2 4 4 x Graph both functions on the same set of axes. (22.5 8 y What transformation must be applied to the graph of y 5 f(x) to get the graph of y 5 f(kx)? invariant point a point on a graph (or figure) that is unchanged by a transformation—for example. She wonders 1 what transformation is caused by multiplying x by 10. In this formula. Compressions. C.5 2 4. • p(L) represents the time in seconds • L represents the pendulum’s length in metres Shannon wants to sketch the graph of this function.7 YOU WILL NEED Investigating Horizontal Stretches.1. 0) and (2. and reflections to parent functions INVESTIGATE the Math 1 The function p(L) 5 2p"10 L describes the time it takes a pendulum to complete one swing. 52 Chapter 1 NEL . How could you transform the graph of y 5 "x to obtain the graph of y 5 "2x? Compare the position and shape of the two graphs. ? A. from one side to the other and back. and Reflections GOAL • graph paper (optional) • graphing calculator Investigate and apply horizontal stretches. Are there any invariant points on the graphs? Explain. B. She knows that the parent function is f (x) 5 "x and that the 2p causes a vertical stretch. State the domain and range of each function. compressions. Copy and complete tables of values for y 5 "x and y 5 "2x .

1. 0? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Applying horizontal stretches. NEL Introduction to Functions 53 . 1 a) f (x) 5 x 2 b) f (x) 5 c) f (x) 5 |x| x Write a summary of the results of your investigations. but for horizontal stretches/ compressions f(kx). the scale factor is a. The quadratic function f (x) 5 x 2 is the parent function. Compare the points in the tables of values. L. In both cases. describe the transformations required to graph them from the parent function. What happens to the 2 point (x. y 5 a xb For each pair of functions. y) under this transformation? Describe the transformation in words. a compression occurs. identify the parent function. K. with x multiplied by a number. H. investigate the effect of varying k in y = f (kx) on the graphs of the given parent functions. and iii) less than 0. In each case. 1 pendulum function p(L) 5 2p "10 L ? Communication Tip In describing vertical stretches/compressions af (x). Reflecting I. Using a graphing calculator. 1 5 2 b) y 5 |0. 2 Repeat parts A through D for y 5 "x and y 5 "2 x. try values of k that are i) between 0 and 1. Repeat parts A through D for y 5 "x and y 5 "1 x. Explain why this is a good description. and sketch all three graphs on the same set of axes. 1? ii) 0 . G. Explain how you would use the graph of y 5 f (x) to sketch the graph of y 5 f (kx). and for a scale factor between 0 and 1. ii) greater than 1. for k a scale factor greater than 1. E. y 5 |2x 2 3| Ana’s Solution a) These functions are of the form y 5 f (kx)2. 1 What transformation is caused by multiplying L by 10 in the J. How is the graph of y 5 f (2x) different from the graph of y 5 2f (x)? How is the graph of y 5 f (2x) different from the graph of y 5 2f (x)? What effect does k in y 5 f (kx) have on the graph of y 5 f (x) when i) |k| . a stretch occurs. 1? iii) k .25x|. y) under this transformation? This transformation is called a horizontal compression of factor 1. |k| . the scale 1 factor is .7 D. How could you use the first table to obtain the second? What happens to the point (x. I saw that these functions were y 5 x2. and reflections a) y 5 (4x) 2. F. compressions.

1). Q 1 . 2). 1) corresponded to the new point (4. 4 R . but is 6 1 4 for y 5 (4x)2. (2. Instead of using an x-value of 61 to get a y-value of 1.25x x I joined these points to the invariant point (0. (10. stretch the graph of 5 y 5 x 2 horizontally by the factor 5. 9) on y 5 x2 by 1 to find three points. stretch the graph of y 5 |x| horizontally by the factor 4. That makes sense. Then I used symmetry to complete the other half of the graph. 1 R . 5 I knew from the absolute value signs that the parent function was the absolute value function. 54 Chapter 1 NEL .25x|. I need an x-value of 65. and (12. 4). 0) to graph one-half of the parabola. 9 R . 1). on y 5 (4x)2. since the x-value required to make y 5 1 is 61 for y 5 x2. To graph y 5 ( 1 x 2 ) . 1). The point that originally was (1. 0) and symmetry to complete the graph of y 5 ( 1 x) 2. 2). and (3. I used the same x-coordinates as before and multiplied by 5. 9) to plot.To graph y 5 (4x)2. 4 y 8 6 4 2 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 12 16 x y = x2 y = (4x)2 I multiplied the x-coordinates of the points (1. I plotted these points and joined them to the invariant point (0. (8. 3 When x is multiplied by a number greater than 1. 3) on the new graph. y 8 6 4 2 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 y = x2 y = (4x)2 1 y = ( – x) 2 5 This time. 4). 0) to graph one-half of the stretched absolute value function. 1 I knew that the stretch factor was 0. I used symmetry to complete the graph. x 12 16 b) The parent function is f (x) 5 |x|. Q 1 . the graph is compressed horizontally. 1).25 5 4. 1). and 4 4 2 Q 4. and (3. So I multiplied the x-coordinates of the points (1. compress the graph of y 5 (x)2 horizontally by the factor 1. To graph y 5 | 0. I used the invariant point (0. (2. x is multiplied by a number between 0 and 1. so the graph is stretched horizontally. 3) on y 5 |x| by 4 to find the points (4. y 3 2 1 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 12 16 y= x y = 0. which gave me points (5. and (15.

|2x 2 3| 5 | x 1 3 |. so I really reflected the graph of y 5 | x | in the y-axis. I reasoned that since |2x | 5 | x |. so the graph didn’t change. and (1. I knew that y 5 f(kx) represents a horizontal stretch or compression and/or a reflection in the y-axis. and (22. and (21.1. EXAMPLE 2 Using a graph to determine the equation of a transformed function In the graphs shown. 1). 1). reflect the parent function graph in the y-axis. 0). Next. (23. The points that were originally (21. y 3 2 y= 16 x 3 12 8 1 4 0 4 8 12 16 y= x y = 0. (0. and (1. 0). (0. (0. 1). 1) on y 5 |x| corresponds to point (4. 1) on the red graph. NEL Introduction to Functions 55 . 1). 1). 0). I recognized the V shape of the absolute value function. 1). The functions graphed in red have equations of the form y 5 f (kx). I shifted the graph of y 5 | x | 3 units left. then translate it 3 units left. 0). Point (1. The points that were originally (21. 1) changed to (1. For this graph. Explain your reasoning.7 To graph y 5 |2x 2 3|. a) b) y y 3 2 1 14 10 6 20 2 6 10 14 8 x 4 3 2 1 4 0 4 8 x c) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 Robert’s Solution a) The parent function is f (x) 5 |x|. 1) changed to (24. Determine the equations. I switched the values of x and 2x. three parent functions have been graphed in green. Therefore.25x x First I thought about the graph of y 5 |2x |.

(4. The equation is y 5 1 .25. 2). and point (3. So I could complete the equation. 1). Since the stretch scale factor is 6. and 0 . Each x-coordinate has been divided by 24. 3). The red graph is a compressed version of the green graph that had been flipped over the y-axis. I divided the corresponding x-coordinates to find k: 1 4 20. 22) corresponds to (23. 4) corresponds to (24. 22). k . 2) corresponds to (3. so k 5 24 The green graph has been compressed horizontally and reflected in the y-axis to produce the red graph. 21). 6 The graph has been stretched horizontally. 1. ( 6 x) 56 Chapter 1 NEL . The equation is y 5 "24x. 2). 4 b) The green graph is a graph of the square root The red graph is a stretched-out version of the green graph. 2 Each x-coordinate has been multiplied 1 by 6. 3) corresponds to point (12. The red graph is further away from the asymptotes than the green graph.Point (2. Since the stretch scale factor is 4. 4). (1. (1. (16. c) The parent function is f (x) 5 . 1) corresponds to (20. it follows that k 5 1. 2). 21) corresponds to (26. function f (x) 5 "x. so k must be between 0 and 1. Therefore. The x-coordinates of points on the red graph are 4 times the ones on the green graph. it follows that k 5 1. 2 (21. 0) and has the shape of a half parabola on its side. 1) corresponds to (6. The equation is y 5 | 1 x|. 1 x I recognized the reciprocal function because the graph was in two parts and had asymptotes. 2) corresponds to (21. (2 1. 4 The green graph is the square root function because it begins at (0. 2) corresponds to point (8. (1.25 5 24 4 4 21 5 24 16 4 24 5 24. 1). so it must have been stretched. and 0 . The red graph is the green graph stretched horizontally by the factor 4. k . k is negative and less than 21. 1.

the graph is stretched horizontally by a scale 1 factor of 1 5 10. 1) moves to (10. (40. the graph is stretched vertically by a scale factor of 2p. Since 0 .6) .3 (to one decimal place): (10. I multiplied the x-coordinates by 10 to find points on the horizontally stretched graph: (1. k .3). 1. 10 y 15 10 5 0 y 15 y=2 10 5 0 5 y= 1x —– 10 Because a 5 2p and 2p . 2) moves to (40. Shannon’s Solution The original equation was in the form y 5 af(kx). 2) moves to (40. 1). Use transformations to sketch the graph of the pendulum function 1 p(L) 5 2p" 10 L. y= x 1x —– 10 x 10 15 20 25 NEL Introduction to Functions 57 . y= x y= 5 1x —– 10 x 10 15 20 25 Then I applied the vertical stretch to the red graph. in metres. I multiplied the y-coordinates by 2p. in seconds. 1) moves to (10. that it takes for a pendulum to complete one swing and L is the length of the pendulum. (4. 2). where p(L) is the time.7 EXAMPLE 3 Using transformations to sketch the graph for a real situation 1 The graph of y 5 2p" 10 x is the graph of the parent function y 5 !x stretched horizontally by the factor 10 and vertically by the factor 2p. I applied the horizontal stretch.1. which is approximately 6. 1. 12. 6.

0. Write the equation of the blue graph. Need to Know y 5 y = x2 x 5 0 5 CHECK Your Understanding 1. the graph is compressed horizontally by the factor . the graph is stretched horizontally by the factor . • If g(x) 5 f(kx). 1 2 1 a) y 5 |0. 1. 58 Chapter 1 NEL . then the value of k has the following effect on the graph of f(x): 1 • When |k| . a) y 4 2 4 2 0 y= x x 2 4 2. y) on the graph of f(x) is the point a . |k| 1 • When 0 . b) The blue graph has been stretched horizontally by the factor 2 relative to the graph of y 5 !x and then reflected in the y-axis. In Summary Key Idea x • The image of the point (x. the graph is also reflected in the y-axis. yb on the k graph of f(kx). identify the parent function and describe how the graph of the function can be obtained from the graph of the parent function.Period versus Length for a Pendulum y 15 Time (s) p(L) 10 5 0 x 5 10 15 20 25 Length (m) I drew a correctly labelled graph of the situation. |k| • When k . • Functions of the form g(x) 5 f(kx) have graphs that are not congruent to the graph of f(x). I copied the sketch onto a graph with length L on the x-axis and time p(L) on the y-axis. Then sketch both graphs on the same set of axes. The differences in shape are a result of stretching or compressing in a horizontal direction.5x| b) y 5 a xb c) y 5 !22x d) y 5 4 (5x) The red graph has been compressed horizontally by the factor 1 relative 3 to the graph of y 5 x 2. |k| . Write the equation of the red graph. For each function. 1.

7 PRACTISING image of this point on each graph. y 5 x d) y 5 ` x `.5x) 3. b) y 5 !23x. y 5 2 x Å 2 Å 3 d) y 5 ` 2 x `. Describe the transformations in words and note any invariant points. x x x 6 8 10 NEL Introduction to Functions 59 . 1 1 a) y 5 (2x) 2. on the same set of axes. a) c) y y 4 2 4 b) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 4 2 0 2 y 2 4 d) 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 x 4 4 2 2 0 2 y 2 4 1 1 2 x.1. one of the parent functions f (x) 5 x 2. Sketch graphs of each pair of transformed functions. ( 1 x) 2 1 y5 1 ( 1 x) 4 b) y 5 8. y 5 ` 2 x ` 1 3 1 5 1 . 1 2 1 2 1 1 . Determine the equations of the transformed functions graphed in red. In each graph. State the coordinates of the 1 d) y 5 f (24x) 3 4. Repeat question 4 for each pair of transformed functions. y 5 ` x ` Å2 Å3 3 5 7. f (x) 5 b) y 5 K and f (x) 5 |x| has undergone a transformation of the form f (kx). y 5 !24x a) y 5 a xb . c) y 5 f a xb 1 1 1 1 x. y 5 a2 xb c) y 5 1 2 3 (2 2x) (2 1x) 4 6. a) y 5 f (2x) b) y 5 f (0. f (x) 5 !x. y 5 a xb a) y 5 (22x) 2. y 5 (25x) 2 1 1 . y 5 !4x d) y 5 | 3x |. 4) is on the graph of y 5 f (x). Repeat question 4 for each pair of transformed functions. Repeat question 4 for each pair of transformed functions.y5 a) y 5 a2 xb . y 5 |5x | 5. y 5 (5x) 2 c) y 5 . y 5 |25x| c) y 5 1 2 2 1 3 2 c) y 5 .y5 (2x) (3x) b) y 5 !3x.y5 (22x) (23x) d) y 5 |23x|. The point (3. along with the graph of the parent function.

If you get two different results. Determine the 1 x` 2 value of k for each transformation. a) a horizontal stretch by the factor 4 b) a horizontal compression by the factor 1 2 c) a reflection in the y-axis d) a horizontal compression by the factor 1 and a reflection in the y-axis 5 12. h(x) 5 !25x Å5 1 1 1 c) f (x) 5 . Include examples that show how the transformations vary with the value of k. A quadratic function has equation f (x) 5 x2 2 x 2 6. b) Apply a horizontal stretch with factor 2. g(x) 5 a x 2 b. g(x) 5 |22x|. ground is a function of the height from which it was dropped. transform the graph of f (x) to sketch g(x) and h(x). h(x) 5 x 4x (2 1x) 3 d) f (x) 5 |x|. What two transformations are required? Does the order in which you apply these transformations make a difference? Choose one of the parent functions and investigate. h(x) 5 (24x 2 ) 4 1 b) f (x) 5 !x.9. h(x) 5 ` for this function is t(h) 5 #4. Suppose you are asked to graph y 5 f (2x 1 4). Determine the T x-intercepts for each function. When an object is dropped from a height. the time it takes to reach the A 10. b) Compare the graph of y 5 f (kx) with the graph of y 5 kf (x) for different values of k and different functions f (x). and state the domain and range of each function. What do you notice? d) Write the equations of the functions that result from the transformations in parts (b) and (c). a) Describe the domain and range of the function.9. 1 a) f (x) 5 x 2. g(x) 5 x. Explain why these equations are the same. How are the transformations alike? How are they different? Extending 1 14. a) y 5 f (2x) 13. c) Apply a vertical stretch with factor 2. 60 Chapter 1 NEL . a) Describe how the graph of y 5 f (kx) can be obtained from the graph of C b) y 5 f a xb 1 3 c) y 5 f (23x) y 5 f (x). a) Graph the function y 5 x . g(x) 5 . use a graphing calculator to verify which graph is correct. where h is in metres and t is in seconds. For each set of functions. The function y 5 f (x) has been transformed to y 5 f (kx). 15. b) Sketch the graph by applying a transformation to the graph of t(h) 5 !h. An equation h 11.

3b 2 NEL Introduction to Functions 61 .1. 2 f(x ) (0. Vertical stretch by a factor of 3 The function is a transformed square root function. 0) (2. 3) 1 a . 2) (9. Horizontal translation 4 units left f(x) = Reflection in the x-axis 3 2(x + 4) 1 Vertical translation 1 unit down I looked at each part of the function and wrote down all the transformations I needed to apply. 1) (4. • graph paper or graphing calculator LEARN ABOUT the Math How can Neil apply the transformations necessary to sketch the graph? 1 Applying a combination of transformations Neil’s Solution The parent function is f (x) 5 !x. ? EXAMPLE Neil wants to sketch the graph of f (x) 5 23 !2(x 1 4) 2 1. 0) (1. Apply combinations of transformations. Horizontal compression 1 by a factor of — 2 10 8 6 4 2 y = 2x y= x x 2 4 6 8 10 y First I divided the x-coordinates of points on y 5 ! x by 2 to compress the graph horizontally by the factor 1 .8 GOAL Using Transformations to Graph Functions of the Form y 5 af [k(x 2 d )] 1 c YOU WILL NEED Sketch the graph of f (x) 5 23 !2(x 1 4) 2 1. to sketch graphs of functions. in a systematic order. 1b 2 f(2x ) (0. State the domain and range of the transformed function. 2) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 a4 .

10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 y y = 3 2x I multiplied the y-coordinates of y 5 "2x by 3 to stretch the graph vertically by the factor 3. 3) 1 1 1 a4 . f(x ) 1 a . 23b 2 (2. 0) (2. 29b 2 2 2 y= 3 2x 62 Chapter 1 NEL . f(x ) 1 a . 2) 3f(2x ) (0. 6) 2 3f(2x ) (0. 0) (2. 2) 3f(2x ) (0. 1b 2 f(2x ) (0. 1) (4. 0) (1. 9b 2 2 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 y y = 3 2x I flipped the graph of y 5 3"2x over the x-axis. 3) a4 . 3b 2 (2. 0) 1 a . 1b 2 f(2x ) (0. 2) 1 1 (9. 3b a4 . 0) (1. 26) y = 2x y= x x 2 4 6 8 10 (0. 1) (4. 9b a4 . 3b 2 (2. 0) 1 a . 0) 1 a . 3b a4 . 2) (9. 6) y = 2x y= x x 2 4 6 8 10 (0.

I subtracted 4 from each of the x-coordinates and subtracted 1 from each of the y-coordinates of the graph of y 5 23 ! 2x. 0) 1 a . 3) 1 a . 2) 3f(2x) (0. 9b a4 . 21B Range 5 5y [ R | y # 216 10 y= 3 2x From the final graph. She would do both stretches or compressions and any reflections to the parent function first and then both translations. 0) (2. B. 0) (1. 26) 1. C. 210b 2 A24. D.and y-coordinates of each point on the parent function ? How did Neil determine the domain and range of the final function? How does the order in which Neil applied the transformations compare with the order of operations for numerical expressions? Sarit says that she can graph the function in two steps.Translate the graph 4 units left and 1 unit down. Do you think this will work? Explain. x $ 24 and y # 21.8 23f(2x) 23f(2(x 1 4) )21 Domain 5 5x [ R | x $ 246 y= 3 2(x + 4) 1 1 1 1 a4 . 29b 2 2 2 1 a23 . 1b 2 f(2x) (0. 2) (9. 1) (4. 6) 1 a . 23b 2 (0. 27) 1 a . f(x) (0. 3b 2 (2. 3b a4 . How do the numbers in the function f (x) 5 23 !2(x 1 4) 2 1 affect the x. 0) (2. 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 y = 2x y= x x 8 10 y y = 3 2x I did both shifts together. Reflecting A. 24b 2 (22. NEL Introduction to Functions 63 .

64 Chapter 1 NEL . 21). 1) 2 4 x I sketched the graph of f(x) and labelled the points (1. 1) and (21. c) State the domain and range of both functions. d 5 5 and c 5 4. in order. because there is a vertical stretch by the factor 2.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Applying transformations to the equation and the graph 1 : x Some transformations are applied. A horizontal stretch by the factor 3 and a reflection in the y-axis means that k 5 2 1. to the reciprocal function f (x) 5 • • • • horizontal stretch by the factor 3 vertical stretch by the factor 2 reflection in the y-axis translation 5 units right and 4 units up a) Write the equation for the final transformed function g(x). 1) 2 4 (1. a) g(x) 5 af 3k(x 2 d )4 1 c Lynn’s Solution 5 1 5 2f c2 (x 2 5) d 1 4 3 1 a2 (x 2 5) b 3 2 14 I built up the equation from the transformations. The vertical asymptote is x 5 0 and the horizontal asymptote is y 5 0. b) Sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x). because the translation is 5 units right and 4 units up. 3 a 5 2. b) Graph of f (x): y 4 2 4 2 0 ( 1.

1) 2 4 (3. 2) 4 2 (1. 4 2 0 ( 1. for g(x). Also. The asymptotes did not change. 2) and (21. c) For f (x). I drew in the translated asymptotes first. 6) 3 1 y=– x 2 4 (8. The graphs do not meet their asymptotes.1. x cannot be 5 and y cannot be 4. the new horizontal asymptote is y 5 4. x cannot be 0 and y cannot be 0. 1) became (23. the new vertical asymptote is x 5 5. 21) became (3.8 y ( 3. Domain 5 5x [ R | x 2 06 Range 5 5 y [ R | y 2 06 For g(x). Since all the points moved 5 right. I made a sketch of the stretched and reflected graph before applying the translation. x= 5 Domain 5 5x [ R | x 2 56 Range 5 5 y [ R | y 2 46 NEL Introduction to Functions 65 . Then I drew the stretched and reflected graph in the new position after the translation. 5 right and 4 up. (1. since x and y still couldn’t be 0. I labelled the graphs and wrote the equations for the asymptotes. 2) x I applied the stretches and reflection to the labelled points by multiplying the x-coordinates by 23 and the y-coordinates by 2. Since all the points moved up 4. I used the equations of the asymptotes to help determine the domain and range. so for f(x). 1) 2 4 Graph of g(x): 8 6 y= 4 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y 2 y = ——————— + 4 1 (x 5) – (2. 22). 2) x 6 8 10 To apply the translations.

EXAMPLE 3 Factoring out k before applying transformations I wrote g(x) in af 3k(x 2 d)4 1 c form by factoring out k 5 25. Stefan’s Solution g(x) 5 f (25x 1 10) 5 f 325(x 2 2)4 10 8 6 4 2 y = f(5x) y y = f(x) x 2 4 I graphed y 5 f(x) and compressed the graph horizontally by the factor 1 5 . sketch the graph of g(x) 5 f (25x 1 10). y = ( 5x)2 10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 2 f( 5(x x 4 2)) y y = f(x) I translated the compressed and reflected graph 2 units right. The graph of y 5 f(25x) looked the same because the y-axis is the axis of symmetry for y 5 f(5x). This gave me the graph of y 5 f(5x). 4 2 0 2 y = ( 5x)2 y 10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 2 4 y = f(x) x I reflected y 5 f(5x) in the y-axis. 66 Chapter 1 NEL . This gave me the graph of y 5 f 325(x 2 2)4. For f (x) 5 x 2.

Explain your reasoning. 5). y 5 22 4. y 5 2 "3(x 1 2) 2 1 6.4(x 2 4) 1 3 0. 1) has been stretched to 5 (1. The point (1. 7) 8 x x 4 0 4 8 y 8 4 8 4 0 ( 2.3(x 1 1) 2. 1) 4 8 4 8 x E y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 (7. 1 1.8 4 Identifying the equation of a transformed function from its graph 7. 5) x 4 8 ( 2. x Graph A is like the graph of y 5 NEL Introduction to Functions 67 . so the scale factor is 5. but it has been x stretched vertically. 4)4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 B 8 (1.5(x 2 4) ) 2 1 2 5 3. 3 1) x 8 4 C y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 (0. 6) (4.Match each equation to its graph. y 5 x EXAMPLE 1. The equation really is y 5 . 1) 8 4 4 (0. y 5 24|x 1 2| 1 1 5. 3) 4 8 x Donna’s Solution Graph A matches equation 6. 2) x 4 8 F y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 (4. y 5 (0. y 5 " 20. y 5 23(x 1 1) 2 1 4 A y D y G y 8 ( 1. 1 .

and shifted 2 units left and 1 unit up. when you apply the translations by 3 subtracting 1 from the x-coordinate and 2 from the y-coordinate. so the answer can’t be equation 7 and has to be equation 5. So. This is the graph of a square root function that has been flipped over the x-axis. Graph C is a parabola. I checked: The vertex is (4. a will be negative. This is the graph of an absolute value function. this point 68 Chapter 1 NEL . 1B. in the equation. It starts at (22. c 5 22 and d 5 21. the parabola opens upward. 1 when you multiply the x-coordinate by 0.5 5 2. Equation 5 is the equation of a parabola with vertex (4. stretched vertically. The equations for the asymptotes are x 5 21 and y 5 22. Also. 21.3. 2). so it has been stretched horizontally or compressed vertically. so it has to match equation 5 or equation 7.3. The parent square root graph has been compressed horizontally or stretched vertically. Then. Graph C is wider than the parent function. Graph E matches equation 1. and that has been stretched horizontally by the 1 factor 0. This is a transformation of the graph of y 5 becomes A 7. 2). k 5 0. Graph C matches equation 5. so the x answer has to be equation 1 or equation 6. so it has been translated 2 units left and 1 unit down. Since a . 0. The equation must have a . so d 5 4 and c 5 2. in the equation. 10 The point (1.Graph B matches equation 3. and c 5 1.3 means that the parent 1 graph has been stretched horizontally by the factor 0. so. 21) instead of (0. 21B. 1) on the parent graph becomes A 3 . so d 5 21 and c 5 22. The parent graph has been reflected in the x-axis. 0). that opens up. d 5 22. 1 . Graph D matches equation 2. This matches equation 1.

Also. compressions. 0. one at a time. • The value of c determines the vertical translation: • For c . the graph is compressed horizontally by the factor . then c and d together. the graph is also reflected in the y-axis. • When a . |k| . the graph is translated d units right. • The value of k determines the horizontal stretch or compression and whether there is a reflection in the y-axis: 1 • When |k| . 0.1. the graph of y 5 f(x) is stretched vertically by the factor |a|. |k| 1 • When 0 . 0. the graph is translated d units left. c 5 21 and d 5 4. and translated 4 units right and 3 units up. 0. so it has to match equation 7 because it is vertically stretched (narrow) and has vertex at (21. In Summary Key Ideas • You can graph functions of the form g(x) 5 af 3k(x 2 d)4 1 c by applying the appropriate transformations to the key points of the parent function. to get the desired graph in fewer steps. Graph G matches equation 7. 1. Equation 7 has a 5 23. the graph is compressed vertically by the factor |a|. so 21 . 4). 0. 1. 0. |k| • When k . NEL Introduction to Functions 69 . It has been stretched horizontally. so k . This is another square root function.8 Graph F matches equation 4. Graph G is a parabola that opens down. • For d . and reflections) are done before additions and subtractions (translations). 0. • For c . you can apply a and k together. since multiplications (stretches. which means that the vertex is (21. The parent function has been flipped over the y-axis. making sure to apply a and k before c and d. This order is like the order of operations for numerical expressions. Need to Know • The value of a determines the vertical stretch or compression and whether there is a reflection in the x-axis: • When |a| . the graph is translated c units down. as in graph G. • The value of d determines the horizontal translation: • For d . which means that the parabola opens down and is vertically stretched by the factor 3. k . the graph is stretched horizontally by the factor . |a| . 1. 1. so d 5 4 and c 5 3. the graph is also reflected in the x-axis. • For 0 . 0. 4). the graph is translated c units up. • When using transformations to graph.

CHECK Your Understanding 1. 1 3 b) y 5 2f (2 (x 2 3) ) 1 1 c) y 5 23f (2(x 2 1) ) 2 3 70 Chapter 1 NEL . Use words from the list to describe the transformations indicated by the arrows. Complete the table for the point (1. y 5 2 ` x` . Divide the x-coordinates by 3. y 5 3(x 2 2) 2 1 1 c) y 5 1 . b) y 5 " x . Add 4 to the y-coordinate. 1) f(3x) f(23x) 5f(23x) A B C D E 5f(23(x 2 2)) 1 4 PRACTISING 4. y 5 "3x . 3. a) b) 5. y 5 "23(x 1 1) 2 4 a) y 5 x2. y 5 ` x `. y 5 3x2. Sketch each set of functions on the same set of axes. Multiply the y-coordinates by 5. Add 2 to the x-coordinate. horizontal vertical stretch compression reflection translation x-axis y-axis factor up down right left A D f(x) = 5 B 3(x C 2) + 4 E 2. f(x ) (1. Match each operation to one of the transformations from question 1. y 5 2 . y 5 "23x . 1). Explain what transformations you would need to apply to the graph of K y 5 f (x) to graph each function. y 5 2 ` (x 1 3) ` 22 2 2 2 y 5 f (x) to graph each function. Multiply the x-coordinates by 21. y 5 2 2 . y 5 2 a) y 5 f a (x 1 4) b 1 y 5 f (x 2 2) 1 3 d) y 5 2f a xb 2 2 f ) y 5 4f (2x) 2 4 2 y 5 3f (x) 2 1 c) y 5 f (2x) 2 5 e) y 5 2 f (x 1 3) 1 1 3 6. Explain what transformations you would need to apply to the graph of 2 13 x x x x21 1 1 1 d) y 5 |x|.

it will take varies with his kayaking speed. Use transformations to sketch both graphs. For f (x) 5 "x . Bhavesh uses the relationship Time 5 Speed to plan his kayaking trips.8 c) y 5 0. sketch the graph of each function and state the domain and range. Low and high blood pressure can both be dangerous. Pd. Sketch the graph of this index. NEL Introduction to Functions 71 . 16. Assume that normal systolic blood pressure is 120 mm(Hg). The graph of g (x) 5 "x is reflected across the y-axis. sketch the graph of each function and state the domain and 7.5a b 1 2 10. to measure how far from normal someone’s blood pressure is. stretched vertically by the factor 3. T. sketch the graph of each function and state the domain and range. Distance 15. and then translated 5 units right and 2 units down. In the equation Pd 5 |P2P |. 1 x22 1 b) y 5 1 2 x a) y 5 1 x 12. the factor 3. 9. sketch the graph of h(x) 5 f (23x 2 12). He wants to 20 graph the relation T(s) 5 s to see how the time. A 14. If f (x) 5 |x|. 13. The graph of y 5 f (x) is reflected in the y-axis. sketch the graph of p(x) 5 f (4x 1 8). Describe the transformations that you would apply to the graph of f (x) 5 to transform it into each of these graphs. he will kayak 15 km up a river that flows 15 at 3 km/h. Tomorrow Bhavesh plans to kayak 20 km across a calm lake. If f (x) 5 "x . The next day. For f (x) 5 |x|. Write the equation of the new function in terms of f. If f (x) 5 x2. s. stretched vertically by 17. P is a person’s systolic blood pressure and P is the normal systolic blood pressure. Doctors use a special index. Draw the graph of the new function and write its equation. 1 x d) y 5 2 x 1 2x 1 f) y 5 2 x e) y 5 11.5f (3(x 2 4) ) 2 1 c) y 5 22f (2 (x 2 2) ) 1 1 c) y 5 2 f (3 (x 1 2) ) 1 4 c) y 5 0. and then translated up 2 units and 1 unit left. a) y 5 f (x 2 1) 1 4 1 2 b) y 5 f a (x 1 4) b 2 3 2 range. He will need the graph of T(s) 5 s 2 3 to plan this trip. sketch the graph of g(x) 5 f (2x 1 6). For f (x) 5 x2. a) y 5 2f (x 2 3) b) y 5 4f (2(x 2 1) ) 2 2 1 b) y 5 2f a (x 1 1) b 1 2 4 a) y 5 f (x 2 2) 1 3 1.8.

5!1 2 x 1 1 1 h) y 5 2 (x 1 4) 2 1 1 2 e) y 5 2 E y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x B y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x F y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x C y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x G y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x D y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x H y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x 72 Chapter 1 NEL .25(x 2 2)) 2 2 3 A 4 23 x f ) y 5 20.5|x 1 4| 1 2 g) y 5 20. Match each equation to its graph. 3 11 2 (x 2 2) b) y 5 2|x 2 3|22 c) y 5 22!x 1 3 2 2 a) y 5 d) y 5 (0.18. Explain your reasoning.

12 8 y=? 16 12 8 4 4 0 4 8 y y = x2 x 4 8 23. a 2 translation 3 units left. and a translation 4 units down are applied to 1 f (x) 5 . and c. a translation 1 unit right. How are they alike? How are they different? Develop a procedure to obtain the graph of g(x) from the graph of f (x). 1. and d. Compare the graphs and the domains and ranges of f (x) 5 x 2 and g(x) 5 !x. and state the domain and range for each transformation. d. a) y 5 f (x) b) y 5 24f (x) C 21. second parabola from the first. x c) A horizontal compression by the factor 1 . b) Determine a possible equation for the second parabola. 1 3 d) y 5 f (2 (x 1 2) ) c) y 5 f a2 xb 20. a) A vertical stretch by the factor 2. and a translation 4 units right are applied to y 5 !x. k. determine the x-intercepts for each function.19. c. k.8 Determine a. a vertical stretch by the factor 3 3. The function y 5 f (x) has been transformed to y 5 af 3k(x 2 d )4 1 c. a reflection in the y-axis. The graphs of y 5 x 2 and another parabola are shown. and the order in which they would be applied. List the steps you would take to sketch the graph of a function of the form y 5 af (k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c when f (x) is one of the parent functions you have studied in this chapter. and a translation 6 units down are applied to y 5 |x|. sketch the graph. a reflection in the x-axis. Extending 22. If f (x) 5 (x 2 2) (x 1 5). Discuss the roles of a. b) A vertical compression by the factor 1 . a) Determine a combination of transformations that would produce the NEL Introduction to Functions 73 .

so the inverse function is f 3 A3: 21 (x) 5 x14 . Whenever k is negative. • Try Chapter Review Questions 10 and 11. so the x14 inverse function is f 21 (x) 5 . x 5 3y 2 4 x 1 4 5 3y 2 4 1 4 y 4 ( 4. or reflection. 3 4 2 0 2 4 2 y = f(x) y=x 4 (0. the graph is stretched horizontally by the 1 factor . y) is on the graph of f (x). When k is a number greater than 1 or less than 1 21. compression. the operations on x are as follows: Multiply by 3 and then subtract 4. if f (x) 5 3x 2 4. For example. x) is on the inverse graph. 0) 2 y=f 1(x) x 1 4 5 3y x14 5 y. the graph is compressed horizontally by the factor . • Try Chapter Review Questions 12 and 13.7. or reflection to the graph of a function? • See Lesson 1. It undoes what the original has done. unless the original function represents a horizontal line. When k is a k number between 21 and 1. compression. if f (x) 5 3x 2 4. 3 Input 3 4 Output Inverse Input 3 4 A2: If (x. 4) x If you have the graph of a linear function. This means that you can find the equation of the inverse by reversing the operations on x.5. For example. so you can switch x and y in the equation to find the inverse equation. Examples 1 and 2. you add 4 and divide by 3. you can write this as y 5 3x 2 4. The inverse of a linear function is the reverse of the original function. then ( y. Then switch x and y and solve for y. To reverse these operations. The graph of y 5 f (kx) is the graph of y 5 f (x) after a horizontal stretch. the graph is also reflected in the y-axis. you can graph the inverse function by reflecting in the line y 5 x.1 Study Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A1: Aid How can you determine the inverse of a linear function? • See Lesson 1. Example 1. The inverse of a linear function is another linear function. k NEL 74 Chapter 1 . Q: Study Aid A: How do you apply a horizontal stretch.

y y= 3x 4 2 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 y = 3x y= x x Chapter Review (3. (3. y 5 !23x.8. 2) ( x (1. and then both translations. When k is negative. 0). 1). For example. to sketch the graph of 1 y 5 3f (6 2 2x) 2 5 when f (x) 5 . 2). 2. you also reflect the graph in the y-axis. to graph y 5 !3x. (4. ( 4. 1) (4. and 3. • See Lesson 1. For example. For example. starting with the compressions. 2) 3 (9. begin by putting the equation x into the form y 5 a f 3k(x 2 d )4 1 c by factoring. Examples 1. 1). 2). 0). • d 5 3 means a horizontal translation 3 units right. A2: NEL Introduction to Functions 75 . 3) by 1 3 (or multiply by 3) to get the points (0. (9. This gives y 5 3f 322(x 2 3)4 2 5. stretches. 3) y = 3xy = x ( 4 .You apply a horizontal compression by dividing the x-coordinates of points on the original graph by k. 1) 3 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 y Q: A1: How do you sketch the graph of y have the graph of y 5 f(x) ? af k(x d) c when you Study Aid You can graph the parent function and then apply the transformations one by one. • c 5 25 means a vertical translation 5 units down. ( 1. graph y 5 !x and then divide the x-coordinates of the points (0. • k 5 22 means a horizontal compression by the factor 1 and 2 a reflection in the y-axis. Then identify all the transformations you need to apply: • a 5 3 means a vertical stretch by the factor 3. • Try Chapter Review Questions 14 to 18. (1. 3) 2 1 . and reflections and leaving the translations until last. You can graph the function in two steps: Apply both stretches or compressions and any reflections to the parent function first. 3) on the 3 3 transformed graph.

A ball is thrown upward from the roof of a building 2. d) x 2 1 y 2 5 1 (1. Sketch the graph of a function whose domain is the of a relation. (4. whether the relation is a function? Graph each relation and determine which are functions.4 iii) f (1 2 x) 6. i) f (3) 2 f (2) ii) 2f (5) 1 7 whose output is f (x) 5 8. 0). 0). 1 a) f (x) 5 2x 2 5 c) f (x) 5 4 2 x 2 x13 b) f (x) 5 7 76 Chapter 1 NEL . Lesson 1. describe three methods for determining the inverse of a linear function. What rule can you use to determine. Lesson 1. (0. (0. (2. 22). on the graph. determine the input(s) for x 7. 8. 5). a) Sketch a graph that shows the height of the ball as a function of time. determine the domain and range and whether the relation is a function. 9. (21. b) State the domain and range of the function. b) Determine the domain and range of this area function. The ball reaches a height of 80 m above the ground after 2 s and hits the ground 6 s after being thrown. 1). 1). State the domain and range of each function. (1. Using the functions listed as examples. 1). b) What does f (1) represent on the graph? Indicate. a) Graph the function f (x) 5 22(x 2 3) 2 1 4. 21).1 1. 1). c) Determine the dimensions that give the maximum area. c) Determine an equation for the function. A farmer has 540 m of fencing to enclose a a) f (x) 5 2(x 2 1) 2 1 3 b) f (x) 5 !2x 1 4 rectangular area and divide it into two sections as shown.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 1. set of real numbers and whose range is the set of real numbers less than or equal to 3. and state its domain and range. a) f (21) d) f (2b) b) f (0) e) g(1 2 4a) 1 c) g a b f ) x when f (x) 5 g(x) 2 5. For each relation. (0. from the graph 3. If f (x) 5 x 1 3x 2 5 and g(x) 5 2x 2 3. Explain your reasoning. Use a different method for each function. Lesson 1. If f (x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 3. enclosed as a function of the width. 6) 6 b) y 5 4 2 x c) y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x c) Use the equation to determine each of the following. (1.2 a) Write an equation to express the total area 2 4. a) 5(22. determine each. 22)6 1 b) y 5 4 2 3x e) y 5 x c) y 5 (x 2 2) 2 1 4 f ) y 5 !x d) x 2 1 y 2 5 16 60 m tall.5 10. how you would find f (1). a) 5 (23.

For a fundraising event. reflected in the x-axis. and a translation 4 units down. and state the domain and range of each function. and state its domain and range. 4) is on the graph of y 5 f (x). sketch its graph. For each set of functions. In each graph. x-intercepts of each function. a parent function has undergone a transformation of the form f (kx). a) y 5 2f (x) c) y 5 3f (x 1 1) 1 4 b) y 5 f (2x) d) y 5 22f (2x 1 5) 1 1 b) y 5 22f (x) 1 2 d) y 5 f (2 (x 1 1)) NEL Introduction to Functions 77 . Determine the equations of the transformed functions graphed in red. a) The graph of f (x) 5 !x is compressed horizontally by the factor 1. The point (1. In each case. 2 and translated 3 units right and 2 units down. a) Explain what you would need to do to the graph Determine the coordinates of the image of this point on the graph of y 5 3f 324(x 1 1)4 2 2.Chapter Review 11. A function f (x) has domain 5x [ R |x $ 246 and range 5 y [ R | y . h(x) 5 ` x ` 4 19. transform the graph of 17. Explain your reasoning. Determine the domain and range of each function. a) Use function notation to express the total income from the event as a function of the number of people who attend. 1 2 a) f (x) 5 x 2. a translation 3 units right. y a) 8 4 8 b) 4 0 4 10 6 10 6 2 20 2 6 10 13. c) The organizers want to know how many tickets they need to sell to reach their fundraising goal. a) Is the order of the transformations important? b) Is there any other sequence of these transformations that could produce the same result? 15.8 expects to receive $15 000 from corporate sponsorship. and translated 4 units left and 1 unit up. If f (x) 5 (x 2 4) (x 1 3). Create a function to express the number of people as a function of expected income. h(x) 5 2(2x) 2 2 1 b) f (x) 5 |x|. g (x) 5 |24x|. Three transformations are applied to y 5 x 2: a vertical stretch by the factor 2.7 14. 3 b) Graph the function in part (a) for f (x) 5 x 2. Lesson 1. g(x) 5 a xb . function. State the domain of this new function. x 4 y 8 18. 216. write the equation for the transformed of y 5 f (x) to graph the function y 5 22f 3( 1 x 1 4)4 2 1. 1 b) The graph of y 5 is stretched vertically by the x factor 3. plus $30 from each person who attends the event. Explain your reasoning. a local charity organization Lesson 1. a) y 5 f (x) c) y 5 f a2 xb 12. 16. reflected in the y-axis. b) Suggest a reasonable domain and range for the function in part (a). determine the x 6 10 f (x) to sketch g(x) and h(x).

A fluorescent bulb costs $3. c) Graph the inverse relation. 1 x22 b) f (x) 5 !3 2 x 2 4 a) f (x) 5 c) f (x) 5 2| x 1 1| 1 3 8. c) After how long is the fluorescent bulb cheaper than the regular bulb? d) Determine the difference in costs after one year. Determine the value of k for each transformation. translation 2 units 1 left. d. a) Use function notation to write a cost equation for each type of bulb. (0. a) 5(22. 1. Explain your reasoning. (4. An incandescent light bulb costs $0. 3).65 to buy and $0. write the equation. 3. The function y 5 f (x) has been transformed to y 5 f (kx). For each function.50 to buy and $0. 5). and c.1 5 2 0 3 1 1 7 Chapter Self-Test is a function. How are 5. b) State the domain and range of each function. a) a horizontal stretch by the factor 5 b) a horizontal compression by the factor 1 and a reflection in the y-axis 3 Determine a. and translation 2 units down.004/h for electricity to run. applied to y 5 |x| NEL 78 Chapter 1 . and state the domain and range of both the function and its inverse. vertical stretch by the factor 3 . reflection in the y-axis. 7. determine the domain and range and whether the relation 2. and translation 3 units down. 6). Show your steps. 8)6 b) f (x) 5 3 2 4x the domain and range of a linear function related to the domain and range of its inverse? commission on her sales over $2500. sketch the graphs of the function and 6. and 2 translation 2 units right. reflection in the x-axis. d) Use function notation to write an equation of the inverse. applied to y 5 !x b) vertical stretch by the factor 4. Assume the light is on for an average of 6 h/day. a) Graph the relation between monthly earnings and sales. b) Use function notation to write an equation of the relation. a) The function shown at the left.001/h to run. b) y 5 !x 1 2 4. determine the inverse. The function y 5 f (x) has been transformed to y 5 af 3k(x 2 d ) 4 1 c. Rebecca is paid a monthly salary of $1500. e) Use the equation in part (d) to express Rebecca’s sales if she earned $1740 one month. translation 3 units right. Explain what the term inverse means in relation to a linear function. and state the domain and range of each transformed function. sketch the graph. 4 2 reflection in the x-axis. plus 4% its inverse. Determine the domain and range of each function. At Phoenix Fashions. (2. applied to y 5 x c) horizontal compression by the factor 1 . For each relation. Then evaluate. a) vertical compression by the factor 1 . k.

and the corresponding Did you describe the transformations in appropriate math language? NEL Introduction to Functions 79 . y 5 .03x 2 2 2 y 5 20. and f (x) 5 |x|.25| x | 2 2 Domain 1#x#4 24 # x # 21 21 # x # 1 24 # x # 0 0#x#4 1#x#3 23 # x # 21 25 # x # 5 25 # x # 5 25 # x # 5 eyes whiskers ? How can you use transformations of parent functions to create other pictures? A. using transformations of the parent functions 1 f (x) 5 x 2. The functions used are listed in the table that follows. You must use each parent x function at least once.2 # Y # 6. The first three entries are shown. f (x) 5 !x.1x 2 2 2 y 5 0. domains in a table. Xscl 1 26. describe • which properties of the parent function were useful for that feature • which transformations were used and why • how symmetry was used and which transformations ensured symmetry C. List the parts of your picture. Describe how transformations were used to create the cat’s features.1 Functional Art Chapter Task Parts of transformed parent functions were used to make this cat’s face on a graphing calculator.58. 26. Create your own picture. Begin by putting the calculator in DOT mode. B. the functions used. Yscl 1 Feature ears top of head chin Function y 5 2| 2x 2 5 | 1 6 y 5 2| 22x 2 5 | 1 6 y 5 2x 2 1 4 5 25 x15 5 25 y5 2x 1 5 y5 y 5 2 ! 4 2 2x 1 2 y 5 2 ! 4 2 2x 1 2 y 5 0. Then enter each function listed in the table. Re-create the cat’s face on a graphing calculator. Explain why you chose each function and each transformation.2.58 # X # 6. Task Checklist Did you use each parent function at least once? Did you list the transformed functions and the corresponding domains? Did you explain why you chose each function and each transformation? D. along with its domain. For each feature.

E M x 1 Σ ∞ an en s 1 2 2 at F ma 80 NEL .

and factor polynomials Simplify rational expressions Add. What role does mathematics play in this quest for knowledge? NEL 81 . Nicolaus Copernicus. and divide rational expressions ? Many great scientists and E mc2 mathematicians. multiply. and Steven Hawking. Caroline Herschel. subtract. Albert Einstein.Chapter Fg m1m2 G 2 r 2 Equivalent Algebraic Expressions GOALS You will be able to • • • • Determine whether algebraic expressions are equivalent Add. Isaac Newton. multiply. such as Hypatia. Johannes Kepler. subtract. have spent their lives trying to explain the nature of the universe.

Determine where each function is undefined. Study Aid For help. Simplify.2 Polynomial 3x 2 1 2x 2 1 Type trinomial Degree 2 Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1. For each polynomial in the table at the left. then state its domain. The first one has been done for you. where possible. where necessary. 2. see Essential Skills Appendix. a) c) e) 4x 2 7 b) 3 7 1 2x 2 d) 2xy x2 2 3xy 1 y 2 a) b) c) d) (2x 1 3) 1 (7x 2 5) (4x 2 2 7x 1 1) 2 (2x 2 2 3x 1 10) (2x 2 3) (4x 1 5) (2x 2 1)2 3. Complete the chart to show what you know about polynomials. 3 1 1 4 6 22 1 b) 2 5 10 a) 6. Simplify. How are expanding and factoring related to each other? Use an example in your explanation. and then simplify. 4. 7. Factor. state the type and the degree. m(x) 5 !x f (x) 5 x e) j(x) 5 3 x24 f ) n(x) 5 "x 1 10 d) h(x) 5 1 x Definition: Examples: Polynomials Characteristics: Non-examples: 82 Chapter 2 NEL . Question 2 4 5 6 Appendix A-8 A-9 A-2 A-3 a) 6 x y 3 2 8 x 2 y 3 b) a 2 2 7a 1 10 c) 12n 2 1 7n 2 10 5. 2x 2 5x 3 ba b 3 4 3x x3 b) a b 4 a b 2 5 a) a) a 212 210 ba b 25 9 22 4 d) a b 4 a b 3 15 c) c) d) 9 2 25x 2 e) x 2 1 5x 1 8 f ) y 2 2 5y 2 36 a (2x 2y 3 ) (4x y 2 ) d) (25x 5y 3 ) 4 (5x 2y) b) g(x) 5 2x 2 c) 8. Expand.

x x 1 x ? 2 Suppose each dimension of the box is doubled. and x 1 2. length l. x 1 1. B. D. Write expressions for the volume and surface area of the new box after the dimensions are doubled. NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 83 . and height h? Use the given dimensions to write expressions for the volume and surface area of the box. By what factor has the volume increased? By what factor has the surface area increased? Explain how you know. By what factors will the surface area and volume of the box increase? A.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Doubling Dimensions A rectangular box has dimensions x. What are the formulas for the volume and surface area of a rectangular box of width w. C.

1 YOU WILL NEED Adding and Subtracting Polynomials GOAL • graphing calculator Determine whether polynomial expressions are equivalent. EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to determine equivalence Determine if f (t) and g(t) are equivalent functions. is given by f (t) 5 (25t 2 1 100t 1 1000) 2 (25t 2 1 75t 1 1200) Fred simplified f (t) to g (t) 5 175t 1 2200 . Polynomials behave like numbers because. ? Are the functions f(t) and g(t) equivalent? The numbers 1 and 2 in a1 (t) and a2 (t) are called subscripts. the functions are not equivalent. In this case. subtraction is equivalent to adding the opposite. Anita’s Solution: Simplifying the Polynomial in f(t) f (t) 5 (25t 2 1 100t 1 1000) 2 (25t 2 1 75t 1 1200) 5 25t 2 1 100t 1 1000 1 5t 2 2 75t 2 1200 5 25t 2 200 Since g(t) 2 25t 2 200. f (t).2. Then I collected like terms. LEARN ABOUT the Math Fred enjoys working with model rockets. in metres. He wants to determine the difference in altitude of two different rockets when their fuel burns out and they begin to coast. they are used to distinguish one function from the other. The altitudes. in seconds. the result is a number. The difference in altitude. I know that with numbers. are given by these equations: a1 (t) 5 25t 2 1 100t 1 1000 and Communication Tip a2 (t) 5 25t 2 1 75t 1 1200 where t is the elapsed time. so I subtracted the polynomials by adding the opposite of the second expression. This distinction is necessary because both functions are named with the letter a. 84 Chapter 2 NEL . for any value of the variable.

their function values are different. in Y1 and his final function. C.1 If two expressions are not equivalent. g(t) . the functions must be different. the functions are not equivalent. B. Maria’s Solution: Evaluating the Functions for the Same Value of the Variable f (t) 5 (25t 2 1 100t 1 1000) 2 (25t 2 1 75t 1 1200) f (0) 5 (25(0) 2 1 100(0) 1 1000) 2 (25(0) 2 1 75(0) 1 1200) 5 1000 2 1200 5 2200 g(0) 5 175(0) 1 2200 5 2200 Since f (0) 2 g(0). Reflecting A. then their graphs should be identical. The functions are not equivalent. The exception is when the functions intersect. Y2 Y1 Since the graphs are different. in Y2. How is subtracting two polynomials like subtracting integers? How is it different? If Fred had not made an error when he simplified. Sam’s Solution: Graphing Both Functions I used t 5 0 because it makes the calculations to find f(0) and g(0) easier. If two functions are equivalent. whose method would have shown that his original and final expressions are equivalent? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three methods used to determine whether two polynomials are equivalent? Equivalent Algebraic Expressions NEL 85 . then. I graphed Fred’s original function. I zoomed out until I could see both functions. f(t) .2. for most values of t.

The cost of the food is (10n 1 500). Both cost functions simplify to the same function. for food. which I then simplified. plus $20 per person. Nigel and Petra have created two different functions for the total cost. 5 25n 1 700 C2 (n) 5 (10n 1 20n 2 5n) 1 (500 1 200) 5 25n 1 700 I simplified by collecting like terms. • $200. where n represents the number of guests and n .APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Reasoning whether two polynomials are equivalent Nigel and Petra are hosting a dinner for 300 guests. 200. 86 Chapter 2 NEL . The result is two groups of like terms. C1 (n) 5 25n 1 700 C2 (n) 5 25n 1 700 The two cost functions are equivalent. Petra’s cost function was developed by adding the variable costs (10n 1 20n 2 5n) and the fixed costs (500 1 200) . Nigel’s cost function: C1 (n) 5 (10n 1 500) 1 (20n 1 200) 2 5n Petra’s cost function: C2 (n) 5 (10n 1 20n 2 5n) 1 (500 1 200) Are the functions equivalent? Lee’s Solution C1 (n) 5 (10n 1 500) 1 (20n 1 200) 2 5n 5 10n 1 20n 2 5n 1 500 1 200 Nigel’s cost function was developed using the cost of each item. Cheers banquet hall has quoted these charges: • $500. and • a discount of $5 per person if the number of guests exceeds 200. for drinks. The cost of the drinks is (20n 1 200). plus $10 per person. The discount is 5n.

I substituted some values for x. y 5 0. I evaluated the second expression. using the same values for x. I tried x 5 0. 1. Evaluating both functions at a single value is sufficient to demonstrate non-equivalence. but it isn’t enough to demonstrate equivalence.2. y. The expressions result in different values. In Summary Key Ideas • Two polynomial functions or expressions are equivalent if • they simplify algebraically to give the same function or expression • they produce the same graph • Two polynomial functions or expressions are not equivalent if • they result in different values when they are evaluated with the same numbers substituted for the variable(s) Need to Know • If you notice that two functions are equivalent at one value of a variable. and 21 are often good choices. NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 87 . y. and z 5 1 and evaluated the first expression. since they usually make expressions easy to evaluate.1 EXAMPLE 3 Reasoning about the equivalence of expressions Are the expressions xy 1 xz 1 yz and x 2 1 y 2 1 z 2 equivalent? Dwayne’s Solution To check for non-equivalence. and z. The values 0. • The difference of two polynomial functions or expressions can be determined by adding the opposite of one polynomial and collecting like terms. and z. xy 1 xz 1 yz 5 0(0) 1 0(1) 1 0(1) 5 0 x 2 1 y 2 1 z 2 5 02 1 02 1 12 5 1 The expressions are not equivalent. it does not necessarily mean they are equivalent at all values of the variable. • The sum of two or more polynomial functions or expressions can be determined by writing an expression for the sum of the polynomials and collecting like terms.

f (x) 5 2(x 2 3) 1 3(x 2 3) g(x) 5 5(2x 2 6) PRACTISING 4. Use two different methods to show that the expressions K (2x 2 y) 2 (23x 1 4y) 1 (6x 2 2y) (3x 2 2 2x) 1 (x 2 2 7x) 2 (7x 1 3) (2x 2 1 xy 2 y 2 ) 2 (x 2 2 4xy 2 y 2 ) 1 (3x 2 2 5xy) (xy 2 xz 1 4yz) 1 (2x 2 3yz) 2 (4y 2 xz) 1 1 1 a x 1 yb 2 a x 2 yb 2 3 5 1 2 1 3 a x 1 yb 2 a x 1 y 2 1b 4 2 3 4 (3x 2 2 x) 2 (5x 2 2 x) and 22x 2 2 2x are not equivalent. a) b) c) (3x 2 2 7x 1 5) 1 (x 2 2 x 1 3) (x 2 2 6x 1 1) 2 (2x 2 2 6x 1 5) (2x 2 2 4x 1 3) 2 (x 2 2 3x 1 2) 1 (x 2 2 1) f (x) 5 (2x 2 1) 2 (3 2 4x) 1 (x 1 2) g(x) 5 (2x 1 6) 1 (6x 2 9) 2 (22x 2 1) 2. a) (m 2 n 1 2p) 2 (3n 1 p 2 7) b) (26m 2 2q 1 8) 2 (2m 1 2q 1 7) c) (4a 2 2 9) 2 (a 3 1 2a 2 9) d) (2m 2 2 6mn 1 8n 2 ) 2 (4m 2 2 mn 2 7n 2 ) e) (3x 2 1 2y 2 1 7) 2 (4x 2 2 2y 2 2 8) f ) 5x 2 2 (2x 2 2 30) 2 (220) 6. a) b) c) d) e) f) 7. a) b) c) d) e) f) (2a 1 4c 1 8) 1 (7a 2 9c 2 3) (3x 1 4y 2 5z) 1 (2x 2 1 6z) (6x 1 2y 1 9) 1 (23x 2 5y 2 8) (2x 2 2 7x 1 6) 1 (x 2 2 2x 2 9) (24x 2 2 2xy) 1 (6x 2 2 3xy 1 2y 2 ) (x 2 1 y 2 1 8) 1 (4x 2 2 2y 2 2 9) 5.CHECK Your Understanding 1. Simplify. Simplify. Show that f (x) and g (x) are equivalent by simplifying each. Show that f (x) and g(x) are not equivalent by evaluating each function at a suitable value of x. Simplify. 88 Chapter 2 NEL . Simplify. 3.

a) b) c) d) e) f) f (x) 5 (2x 2 1 7x 2 2) 2 (3x 1 7) and g(x) 5 (x 2 1 12) 1(x 2 1 4x 2 17) s1 (t) 5 (t 1 2) 3 and s2 (t) 5 t 3 1 8 y1 5 (x 2 1)(x)(x 1 2) and y2 5 3x (x 2 2 1) f (n) 5 0. Determine whether each pair of functions is equivalent. a) Is his conclusion correct? Explain. if any. Kosuke wrote a mathematics contest consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions. The perimeter of the triangle is 7x 1 9y. b) Write an expression.5n 2 1 2n 2 3 1 (1. For each pair of functions.2. revenue and cost functions for Tino’s company are shown below. 10. He concluded that two of his functions were equivalent. Ramy used his graphing calculator to graph three different polynomial C functions on the same axes. The 13. 2 points for not answering a question. a) f (2) 5 g (2) b) h(3) 5 g(4) c) j(8) 2 k(8) d) l(5) 2 m(7) e) n(x) 5 p(x) for all values of x in their domain 14. P(x) 5 R(x) 2 C(x) . for Kosuke’s score. The equations of the functions all appeared to be different. Determine two non-equivalent polynomials. The scoring system gave 6 points for a correct answer. c) Use the expressions you wrote in parts (a) and (b) to determine Kosuke’s score if he answered 13 questions correctly and 7 incorrectly. Determine the length of the third side. label the pairs as equivalent. 11. b) How could he determine which. non-equivalent. of the functions were equivalent without using his graphing calculator? NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 89 . in simplified form. Revenue: R(x) 5 250x 2 1 2500x Cost: C(x) 5 150x 1 9500 a) Write the simplified form of the profit function. b) What profit will the company make if it sells the cases for $12 each? 12. The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle each have a length of A 2x 1 3y 2 1. a) Write an expression for the number of questions he answered incorrectly.1 8. Tino owns a small company that produces and sells cellphone cases. Kosuke got x correct answers and left y questions unanswered.5n 2 2 6) and g(n) 5 n 2 2 n 1 1 2 (2n 2 2 3n 1 10) y1 5 3p(q 2 2) 1 2p(q 1 5) and y2 5 p(q 1 4) f (m) 5 m(5 2 m) 2 2(2m 2 m 2 ) and g(m) 5 4m 2 (m 2 1) 2 3m 2 1 5m 9. such that f (0) 5 g (0) and f (2) 5 g (2) . and 1 point for an incorrect answer. but his calculator showed only two different graphs. where x represents the selling price in dollars. or T cannot be determined. f (x) and g (x).

b) Suppose m is a natural number that is greater than 2 and n 5 5m. Express 105 as the sum of five consecutive natural numbers. for the other three orientations of the L. f (3) 5 g(3). c) Express 91 as a sum of seven consecutive natural numbers. Show that the functions must be equivalent. Show that the functions must be equivalent. 70 has 5 as a divisor. Express n as the sum of five consecutive natural numbers. For example.Extending 15. Write expressions for the sum of the five numbers. 90 Chapter 2 NEL . Sanya noticed an interesting property of numbers that form a five-square capital-L pattern on a calendar page: 5 12 19 6 7 13 14 20 21 1 8 15 2 9 16 3 10 17 corner number In each case that she checked. the sum of the five numbers was 18 less than five times the value of the number in the corner of the L. Suppose that f (2) 5 g(2). b) The sum of certain numbers in this pattern is 112. 16. and f (4) 5 g(4). b) Consider the two quadratic functions f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c and g(x) 5 px 2 1 q x 1 r. a) 17. Since 70 5 5 3 14. when x is the corner number. Determine the value c) of the corner number. Suppose that f (2) 5 g(2) and f (5) 5 g(5). The number 70 can also be expressed as the sum of five consecutive natural numbers: 70 5 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 105 5 5 3 21. a) Consider the linear functions f (x) 5 ax 1 b and g (x) 5 cx 1 d. 5 1 12 1 19 1 20 1 21 5 5(19) 2 18 1 1 8 1 15 1 16 1 17 5 5(15) 2 18 a) Show that this pattern holds for any numbers on the calendar page. in the calendars shown.

2.5) 5 50t 3 2 50t 2 2 25t 2 2 25t 1 25t 1 12. Then I grouped and collected like terms. I multiplied each of the three terms in the trinomial by each of the terms in the binomial. h(t). LEARN ABOUT the Math In a physics textbook. ultimately landing in the water below the cliff.5 3 2 2 I used the commutative property for multiplication to create an equivalent expression.5). NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 91 .5 5 50t 3 2 75t 2 1 12. ? How can she simplify the expression for v(t) 3 h(t)? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to simplify a product: The distributive property Simplify the expression v(t) 3 h(t) 5 (210t 1 5) (25t 2 1 5t 1 2. Kristina reads about an experiment in which a ball is thrown upward from the top of a cliff. v(t).5) 1 (5) (25t 2 1 5t 1 2. I used the distributive property to expand the product of the polynomials. Sam’s Solution v(t)h(t) 5 (210t 1 5) (25t 2 1 5t 1 2.2 GOAL Multiplying Polynomials Simplify polynomials by multiplying. and when the ball moves toward. The height of the ball above the cliff.5) 5 (50t 2 50t 2 25t) 1 (225t 1 25t 1 12. and its velocity. at time t are respectively given by h(t) 5 25t 2 1 5t 1 2.5) 5 (210t) (25t 2 1 5t 1 2. Kristina learns that the product of the two functions allows her to determine when the ball moves away from. the top of the cliff.5 and v(t) 5 210t 1 5.

How does the simplified expression differ from the original? 2. 3. Next. Is this always necessary? Explain.5) (210t 1 5) by multiplying each term in the second factor by each term in the first factor? Explain. x 3 x x 1 2 Fred’s Solution: Starting with the First Two Binomials V 5 lwh V 5 (x 1 1) (x 1 2) (x 1 3) 5 (x 2 1 3x 1 2) (x 1 3) I know that multiplication is associative. WORK WITH the Math EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to multiply three binomials Determine a simplified function that represents the volume of the given box. I simplified by collecting like terms and arranged the terms in descending order. Would Sam have gotten a different answer if he multiplied (25t 2 1 5t 1 2.Reflecting 1. 5 (x 2 1 3x 1 2) (x) 1 (x 2 1 3x 1 2) (3) 5 x 3 1 3x 2 1 2x 1 3x 2 1 9x 1 6 5 x 3 1 6x 2 1 11x 1 6 92 Chapter 2 NEL . I multiplied the first two binomials together and got a trinomial. Finally. I took the 3 term from (x 1 3) and multiplied it by the trinomial. Sam grouped together like terms in order to simplify. so I can multiply in any order. Then I took the x-term from (x 1 3) and multiplied it by the trinomial.

the expressions are not equivalent. multiplying each term in one polynomial by each term in the other.2 Atish’s Solution: Starting with the Last Two Binomials V 5 (x 1 1) (x 1 2) (x 1 3) 5 (x 1 1) (x 2 1 5x 1 6) I multiplied the last two binomials together and got a trinomial. Since the left side did not equal the right side. I simplified by collecting like terms and arranged the terms in descending order. NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 93 . The simplified expression does not result in 4x 2 1 9y 2 1 16z 2. I took the 1 term from (x 1 1) and multiplied it by the trinomial. Next. Finally. 5 (2x 1 3y 1 4z) 2 R.2. The expressions are not equivalent. 5 4x 2 1 9y 2 1 16z 2 5 (2 1 3 1 4) 2 5 92 5 81 5 4 1 9 1 16 5 29 I substituted 1 for each of the variables in each expression to see if the results would be different. Lee’s Solution: Expanding and Simplifying I wrote the left side of the equation as the product of two identical factors.S.S. 5 x 3 1 5x 2 1 6x 1 x 2 1 5x 1 6 5 x 3 1 6x 2 1 11x 1 6 EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine non-equivalence Is (2x 1 3y 1 4z) 2 5 4x 2 1 9y 2 1 16z 2? Mathias’s Solution: Using Substitution and then Evaluating Let x 5 y 5 z 5 1 L. Then I took the x-term from (x 1 1) and multiplied it by the trinomial. (2x 1 3y 1 4z) 2 5 (2x 1 3y 1 4z)(2x 1 3y 1 4z) 5 4x 2 1 6xy 1 8xz 1 6xy 1 9y 2 1 12yz 1 8xz 1 12yz 1 16z 2 5 4x 2 1 12xy 1 16xz 1 9y 2 1 24yz 1 16z 2 I simplified by collecting like terms. I multiplied directly.

w A1 2w A2 5 (2w 1 1) (w 2 1) 5 2w 2 2 w 2 1 change in area 5 A2 2 A1 5 (2w 2 2 w 2 1) 2 (2w 2 ) 5 2w 2 1 My prediction was wrong. Predict how the area will change if the length of the rectangle is increased by 1 and the width is decreased by 1. to represent the change in area. A1. A2. I increased the length by 1 and decreased the width by 1 by adding and subtracting 1 to my previous expressions. I let w represent the width and 2w the length. A1. A1 5 (2w)w 5 2w 2 w 1 A2 2w 1 To check my prediction. which is always positive. I took the difference of the new area.EXAMPLE 4 Representing changes in area as a polynomial A rectangle is twice as long as it is wide. w represents width. Write an expression for the change in area and interpret the result. Their product gives the original area. Kim’s Solution Since we are increasing the length and decreasing the width by the same amount. and the original area. The product gives the area of the new rectangle. I predict that there will be no change in the area. Substituting any positive value for w into 2w 2 1 results in a negative number. A2. This means that the new rectangle must have a smaller area than the original one. 94 Chapter 2 NEL .

b. Expand and simplify. a) c) (x 1 4) 2 d) (x 1 1) (x 2 1 2x 2 3) Is (3x 1 2) 2 5 9x 2 1 4? Justify your decision. Need to Know • Since polynomials behave like numbers. the product of two polynomials can be found by multiplying each term in one polynomial by each term in the other. a) b) c) d) e) f) 5x(5x 2 1 3x 2 4) (x 2 6) (2x 1 5) (x 1 3) (x 2 3) 1 (5x 2 6)(3x 2 7) 4(n 2 4) (3 1 n) 2 3(n 2 5)(n 1 8) 3(2x 2 1) 2 2 5(4x 1 1) 2 2(3a 1 4) (a 2 6) 2 (3 2 a) 2 1 4(5 2 a) NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 95 . CHECK Your Understanding 1. a) multiplying from left to right b) multiplying from right to left 3.2. Expand and simplify (2x 1 4) (3x 2 1 6x 2 5) by PRACTISING 4. a) 2x (3x 2 5x 2 1 4y) b) (3x 2 4) (2x 1 5) 2. and c: ab 5 ba (commutative property) (ab)c 5 a(bc) (associative property) a(b 1 c) 5 ab 1 ac (distributive property) With the use of the distributive property. the multiplication of polynomials has the same properties: For any polynomials a.2 In Summary Key Idea • The product of two or more expressions. one of which contains at least two terms. b) Write the simplified expression that is equivalent to (3x 1 2) 2. can be found by using the distributive property (often called expanding) and then collecting like terms. Expand and simplify.

a) b) c) d) e) f) T (3x 2 2)(2x 2 1) and 3x(2x 2 1) 2 2(2x 2 1) (x 2 4)(2x 2 1 5x 2 6) and 2x 2 (x 2 4) 1 5x(x 2 4) 2 6(x 2 4) (x 1 2)(3x 2 1) 2 (1 2 2x) 2 and x 2 1 9x 2 3 2(x 2 3)(2x 2 2 4x 1 5) and 4x 3 2 20x 2 1 34x 2 30 (4x 1 y 2 3) 2 and 16x 2 2 8xy 1 24x 1 y 2 2 6y 1 9 3(y 2 2x) 3 and 224x 3 1 36x 2y 2 18xy 2 1 3y 3 7. where m represents the mass of the object and v represents its speed. The two sides of the right triangle shown at the left have lengths x and y. where SA 5 2pr 2 1 2prh b) volume. b) Is (x 2 3) 3 5 (3 2 x) 3? Explain. a) 11.5. b) Which method did you find easier? a) 8. A cylinder with a top and bottom has radius 2x 1 1 and height 2x 2 1. Recall that the associative property of multiplication states that (ab)c 5 a(bc). Is the equation (x 2 1) (x 4 1 x 3 1 x 2 1 x 1 1) 5 x 5 2 1 true for all. Expand and simplify. where V 5 pr 2h Is (x 2 3) 2 5 (3 2 x) 2? Explain. Expand and simplify. K 2x 2x 1 1 9. Represent the change in the triangle’s area if the length of one side is doubled and the length of the other side is halved. The kinetic energy of an object is given by E 5 mv 2. some. Write a simplified expression for the kinetic energy of the object if a) its mass is increased by x b) its speed is increased by y 1 2 96 Chapter 2 NEL . Determine whether each pair of expressions is equivalent. or no real numbers? Explain. (x 2 1 2x 21) 2 (2 2 a) 3 c) (x 3 1 x 2 1 x 1 1) (x 3 2 x 2 2 x 2 1) d) 2(x 1 1) 2 2 3(2x 2 1) (3x 2 5) x 12. A Write a simplified expressions for its a) surface area. y 13. a) 4x(x 1 5) (x 2 5) b) 22a(a 1 4) 2 c) (x 1 2) (x 2 5) (x 2 2) d) (2x 1 1) (3x 2 5) (4 2 x) e) (9a 2 5) 3 f ) (a 2 b 1 c 2 d ) (a 1 b 2 c 2 d ) 6. a) b) 10. Verify this property for the product 19(5x 1 7)(3x 2 2) by expanding and simplifying in two different ways.

2.2

14. a)

C

If f (x) has two terms and g(x) has three terms, how many terms will the product of f (x) and g(x) have before like terms are collected? Explain and illustrate with an example. b) In general, if two or more polynomials are to be multiplied, how can you determine how many terms the product will have before like terms are collected? Explain and illustrate with an example.

Extending

15. Suppose a 3 3 3 3 3 cube is painted red and then divided into twenty-seven

1 3 1 3 1 cubes. a) How many of the 27 smaller cubes are coloured red on i) three faces? iii) one face? ii) two faces? iv) no faces? b) Answer (i) to (iv) from part (a) for a 10 3 10 3 10 cube divided into one thousand 1 3 1 3 1 cubes. c) Answer (i) to (iv) from part (a) for an n 3 n 3 n cube. d) Check your results for parts (a) and (b) and by substituting 3 and then 10 into the expressions obtained in your answers to part (c).

16. Many tricks in mental arithmetic involve algebra. For instance, Cynthie

claims to have an easy method for squaring any two-digit number whose last digit is 5; for example, 75. Here are her steps: i) Remove the last digit from the number you wish to square. ii) Add the resulting number from part (i) to its square. iii) Write the digits 25 at the end of the number you obtained in part (ii). The number that results will be the answer you want. Choose a two-digit number whose last digit is 5, and determine whether Cynthie’s method for squaring works for that number. b) Show algebraically that Cynthie’s method always works.

a)

Cynthie’s steps for 752 75 7 7 1 72 5 56 5625 5 75 2

Curious Math

Pythagorean Triples

A Pythagorean triple is three natural numbers that satisfy the equation of the Pythagorean theorem, that is, a 2 1 b 2 5 c 2. An example of a Pythagorean triple is 3, 4, 5, since 32 1 42 5 52. The numbers 6, 8, 10 also work, since each number is just twice the corresponding number in the example 3, 4, 5. 1. Show that 5, 12, 13 and 8, 15, 17 are Pythagorean triples. 1 1 2 1 1 2 2. Show that, for any value of p, p 2 1 a p 2 2 b 5 a p 2 1 b . 2 2 2 2 3. Use the relationship in question 2 to produce three new Pythagorean triples. 4. Show that, for any values of p and q, (2pq)2 1 ( p 2 2 q 2 )2 5 ( p 2 1 q 2 ) 2. This relationship was known to the Babylonians about 4000 years ago! 5. Use the relationship in question 4 to identify two more new Pythagorean triples.

a2+ b2 = c2

a2 b2

c2

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

97

2.3

Factoring Polynomials

GOAL

Review and extend factoring skills.

**LEARN ABOUT the Math
**

Mai claims that, for any natural number n, the function f (n) 5 n 3 1 3n 2 1 2n 1 6 always generates values that are not prime.

? Is Mai’s claim true?

EXAMPLE

1

Selecting a factoring strategy: Testing values of n to determine a pattern

Show that f (n) 5 n 3 1 3n 2 1 2n 1 6 can be factored for any natural number, n.

Sally’s Solution

f (1) 5 12 5 4 3 3 f (2) 5 30 5 5 3 6 f (3) 5 66 5 6 3 11 f (4) 5 126 5 7 3 18 f (5) 5 216 5 8 3 27 f (n) 5 (n 1 3) (n2 1 2) 5 n3 1 3n2 1 2n 1 6 Since both factors produce numbers greater than 1, f (n) can never be expressed as the product of 1 and itself. So Mai’s claim is true.

To confirm the pattern, I multiplied (n 1 3) by (n 2 1 2). After some calculations and guess and check, I found a pattern. The first factor was of the form n 1 3 and the second factor was of the form n 2 1 2.

Sometimes an expression that doesn’t appear to be factorable directly can be factored by grouping terms of the expression and dividing out common factors.

98

Chapter 2

NEL

2.3

EXAMPLE

2

Selecting a factoring strategy: Grouping

Factor f (n) 5 n3 1 3n2 1 2n 1 6 by grouping.

Noah’s Solution

f (n) 5 n3 1 3n2 1 2n 1 6 5 (n 3 1 3n 2 ) 1 (2n 1 6) 5 n 2 (n 1 3) 1 2(n 1 3) 5 (n 1 3) (n 2 1 2) Both factors produce numbers greater than 1, so f (n) can never be expressed as the product of 1 and itself. So Mai’s claim is true.

I separated f(n) into two groups: the first two terms and the last two terms. I factored each group by dividing by its common factor. Then I factored by dividing each term by the common factor n 1 3.

Reflecting

A. B.

Why is Noah’s method called factoring by grouping? What are the advantages and disadvantages of Sally’s and Noah’s methods of factoring?

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

3

Selecting factoring strategies: Quadratic expressions

Factor.

a) x 2 2 x 2 30 b) 18x 2 2 50 c) 10x 2 2 x 2 3 d) 9x 2 1 30x 1 25 e) 2x 2 1 x 1 3

Winnie’s Solution

a) x 2 2 x 2 30

This is a trinomial of the form ax 2 1 bx 1 c, where a 5 1. I can factor it by finding two numbers whose sum is 21 and whose product is 230. These numbers are 5 and 26.

5 (x 1 5) (x 2 6)

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

99

Check: (x 1 5) (x 2 6) 5 (x 1 5)x 2 (x 1 5)6 5 x 2 1 5x 2 6x 2 30 5 x 2 2 x 2 30

b) 18x 2 2 50

I checked the answer by multiplying the two factors.

5 2(9x 2 2 25) 5 2(3x 1 5) (3x 2 5)

c) 10x 2 2 x 2 3

First I divided each term by the common factor, 2. This left a difference of squares. I took the square root of 9x 2 and 25 to get 3x and 5, respectively. This is a trinomial of the form ax2 1 bx 1 c, where a 2 1, and it has no common factor. I used decomposition by finding two numbers whose sum is 21 and whose product is (10) (23) 5 230. These numbers are 5 and 26. I used them to “decompose” the middle term. I factored the group consisting of the first two terms and the group consisting of the last two terms by dividing each group by its common factor. I divided out the common factor of 2x 1 1 from each term. I noticed that the first and last terms are perfect squares. The square roots are 3x and 5, respectively. The middle term is double the product of the two square roots, 2(3x) (5) 5 30x. So this trinomial is a perfect square, namely, the square of a binomial. Trinomials of this form may be factored by decomposition. I tried to come up with two integers whose sum is 1 and whose product is 6. There were no such integers, so the trinomial cannot be factored.

5 10x 2 1 5x 2 6x 2 3

5 5x(2x 1 1) 2 3(2x 1 1)

5 (2x 1 1) (5x 2 3)

d) 9x 2 1 30x 1 25

5 (3x 1 5) 2

e) 2x 2 1 x 1 3

100

Chapter 2

NEL

2.3

EXAMPLE

4

Selecting a factoring strategy: Grouping

**Factor f (x) 5 x 3 1 x 2 1 x 1 1. Fred’s Solution f (x) 5 x 3 1 x 2 1 x 1 1 5 (x 3 1 x 2 ) 1 (x 1 1) 5 x 2 (x 1 1) 1 (x 1 1) 5 (x 1 1) (x 2 1 1)
**

I grouped pairs of terms. Then I factored the greatest common factor (GCF) from each pair. Then I factored out the greatest common factor, (x 1 1), to complete the factoring.

EXAMPLE

5

Selecting a factoring strategy: Grouping as a difference of squares

Factor g (x) 5 x 2 2 6x 1 9 2 4y 2.

Fran’s Solution

g(x) 5 x 2 2 6x 1 9 2 4y 2 5 (x 2 3) 2 2 (2y) 2

I recognized that the group consisting of the first three terms was the square of the binomial x 2 3 and the last term was the square of 2y. I factored the resulting expression by using a difference of squares.

5 (x 2 3 2 2y) (x 2 3 1 2y)

In Summary

Key Ideas

• Factoring a polynomial means writing it as a product. So factoring is the opposite of expanding.

factoring

x 2 1 3x 2 4 5 (x 1 4) (x 2 1)

expanding

(continued)

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

101

• If a polynomial has more than three terms, you may be able to factor it by grouping. This is only possible if the grouping of terms allows you to divide out the same common factor from each group.

Need to Know

• To factor a polynomial fully means that only 1 and 21 remain as common factors in the factored expression. • To factor polynomials fully, you can use factoring strategies that include • dividing by the greatest common factor (GCF) • recognizing a factorable trinomial of the form ax 2 1 bx 1 c, where a 5 1 • recognizing a factorable trinomial of the form ax 2 1 bx 1 c, where a 2 1 • recognizing a polynomial that can be factored as a difference of squares: a 2 2 b 2 5 (a 1 b) (a 2 b) • recognizing a polynomial that can be factored as a perfect square: a 2 1 2ab 1 b 2 5 (a 1 b) 2 and a 2 2 2ab 1 b 2 5 (a 2 b) 2 • factoring by grouping

**CHECK Your Understanding
**

1. Factor.

a) x 2 2 6x 2 27 b) 25x 2 2 49

c) 4x 2 1 20x 1 25 d) 6x 2 2 x 2 2

2. Each expression given can be factored by grouping. Describe how you would

**group the terms to factor each. a) ac 1 bc 2 ad 2 bd b) x 2 1 2x 1 1 2 y 2 c) x 2 2 y 2 2 10y 2 25
**

3. Factor.

a) x 2 2 3x 2 28 b) 36x 2 2 25

c) 9x 2 2 42x 1 49 d) 2x 2 2 7x 2 15

PRACTISING

4. Factor.

a) b) c) d) e) f)

**4x 3 2 6x 2 1 2x 3x 3y 2 2 9x 2y4 1 3xy 3 4a(a 1 1) 2 3(a 1 1) 7x 2 (x 1 1) 2 x(x 1 1) 1 6(x 1 1) 5x(2 2 x) 1 4x(2x 2 5) 2 (3x 2 4) 4t(t 2 1 4t 1 2) 2 2t(3t 2 2 6t 1 17)
**

d) 2y 2 1 5y 2 7 e) 8a 2 2 2ab 2 21b 2 f ) 16x 2 1 76x 1 90

NEL

5. Factor.

a) x 2 2 5x 2 14 b) x 2 1 4xy 2 5y 2 c) 6m 2 2 90m 1 324

102

Chapter 2

2.3

6. Factor.

a) x 2 2 9 b) 4n2 2 49 c) x 8 2 1

7. Factor.

d) 9( y 2 1) 2 2 25 e) 3x 2 2 27(2 2 x)2 f ) 2p2q2 1 81 d) 1 2 x 2 1 6x 2 9 e) a 2 2 b 2 1 25 1 10a f ) 2m 2 1 10m 1 10n 2 2n 2

a) ax 1 ay 1 bx 1 by b) 2ab 1 2a 2 3b 2 3 c) x 3 1 x 2 2 x 2 1

K

8. Andrij claims that the following statement is true:

**x 3 2 y 3 5 (x 2 y) (x 2 1 y 2 ) Is Andrij correct? Justify your decision.
**

a) 2x(x 2 3) 1 7(3 2 x) b) xy 1 6x 1 5y 1 30 c) x 3 2 x 2 2 4x 1 4 d) y 2 2 49 1 14x 2 x 2 e) 6x 2 2 21x 2 12x 1 42 f ) 12m 3 2 14m 2 2 30m 1 35

9. Factor.

**10. Show that the function f (n) 5 2n 3 1 n2 1 6n 1 3 always produces a
**

T

number that is divisible by an odd number greater than 1, for any natural number, n. of length a and b and hypotenuse of length c. a) Write an expression in factored form for a 2. b) The hypotenuse is 3 m longer than b, and the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and b is 11 m. What are the lengths of the sides of the pond?

11. Sedna has designed a fishpond in the shape of a right triangle with two sides

**12. Saturn is the ringed planet most people think of, but Uranus and Neptune
**

A

also have rings. In addition, there are ringed planets outside our solar system. Consider the cross-section of the ringed planet shown.

outer ring inner ring planet r1 r2 r3

Write factored expressions for i) the area of the region between the planet and the inner ring ii) the area of the region between the planet and the outer ring iii) the difference of the areas from parts (i) and (ii) b) What does the quantity in part (iii) represent?

a)

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

103

**13. Create a flow chart that will describe which strategies you would use to try
**

C

to factor a polynomial. For each path through the flow chart, give an example of a polynomial that would follow that path and show its factored form. Explain how your flow chart could describe how to factor or show the non-factorability of any polynomial in this chapter.

Extending

14. The polynomial x4 2 5x 2 1 4 is not factorable, but it can be factored by a

form of completing the square: x4 2 5x 2 1 4 5 x 1 4x 1 4 2 4x 2 5x 5 (x 2 1 2) 2 2 9x 2 5 (x 1 2 2 3x) (x 1 2 1 3x) 5 (x 2 2 3x 1 2) (x 2 1 3x 1 2) 5 (x 2 2) (x 2 1) (x 1 2) (x 1 1) Use this strategy to factor each polynomial by creating a perfect square. a) x 4 1 3x 2 1 36 b) x 4 2 23x 2 1 49

15. Expanding confirms that x 2 2 1 5 (x 2 1) (x 1 1) and also that

2 2 4 2 2 2

The first three terms form a perfect square. This is now a difference of squares.

x 3 2 1 5 (x 2 1) (x 2 1 x 1 1). Make conjectures and determine similar factorings for each expression. a) x 4 2 1 c) x n 2 1 b) x 5 2 1 d) x n 2 y n natural number. For example, if m 5 6, then 26 2 1 5 64 2 1 5 63, and if m 5 5, then 25 2 1 5 32 2 1 5 31. 63 5 3 3 21 is a Mersenne number that is composite, and 31 5 1 3 31 is a Mersenne number that is prime. The French mathematician Mersenne was interested in finding the values of m that produced prime numbers, n. a) 63 5 3(21) can also be expressed as (2 2 2 1) (2 4 1 2 2 1 2 0 ), and 63 5 7(9) can also be expressed as (2 3 2 1) (2 3 1 2 0 ). Expand the expressions that contain powers, treating them like polynomials, to show that you get 2 6 2 1. b) If m 5 9, then n 5 2 9 2 1 5 511 5 7(73) 5 (2 3 2 1) (2 6 1 2 3 1 2 0 ). Using these types of patterns, show that n 5 235 2 1 is composite. c) If m is composite, will the Mersenne number n 5 2 m 2 1 always be composite? Explain.

16. Mersenne numbers are numbers of the form n 5 2m 2 1, where m is a

104

Chapter 2

NEL

2

Q:

A1:

**Mid-Chapter Review
**

Study

**FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions
**

How can you determine whether two polynomials are equivalent? For example, suppose that f(x) 5 (x 2 2) 2, g(x) 5 (2 2 x) 2, and h(x) 5 (x 1 2) (x 2 2).

Aid

**• See Lesson 2.1, Examples
**

1, 2, and 3 and Lesson 2.2, Example 3. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Question 2.

You can simplify both polynomials. If their simplified versions are the same, the polynomials are equivalent; otherwise, they are not. Simplifying yields f (x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 4, g(x) 5 4 2 4x 1 x 2, and h(x) 5 x 2 2 4.

**So f (x) and g(x) are equivalent, but h(x) is not equivalent to either of them.
**

A2:

If the domains of two functions differ in value for any number in both domains, then the functions are not equivalent. For example, for the functions above, f (0) 5 4 while h(0) 5 24. So f (x) and h(x) are not equivalent.

A3:

You can graph both functions. If the graphs are exactly the same, then the functions are equivalent; otherwise, they are not.

How do you add, subtract, and multiply polynomials? Study

Q:

A:

Aid

When the variables of a polynomial are replaced with numbers, the result is a number. The properties for adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomials are the same as the properties for the numbers. For any polynomials a, b, c : Commutative Property a 1 b 5 b 1 a; ab 5 ba (Note: a 2 b 2 b 2 a, except in special cases.) Associative Property (a 1 b) 1 c 5 a 1 (b 1 c); (ab)c 5 a(bc) (Note: (a 2 b) 2 c 2 a 2 (b 2 c), except in special cases.) Distributive Property a(b 1 c) 5 ab 1 ac; a(b 2 c) 5 ab 2 ac

**• See Lesson 2.1, Example 1
**

Anita’s Solution and Example 2. • See Lesson 2.2, Examples 1, 2, and 3 Lee’s Solution. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 and 3 to 6.

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

105

Because of the distributive property, the product of two polynomials can be found by multiplying each term in one polynomial by each term in the other and can be simplified by collecting like terms. For example, (2x 1 3y 2 5z) (2x 1 3y 1 4z) 5 4x 2 1 6xy 1 8xz 1 6xy 1 9y 2 1 12yz 2 10xz 2 15yz 2 20z 2 5 4x 2 1 12xy 2 2xz 1 9y 2 2 3yz 2 20z 2

Study

to 5.

Aid

Q:

A:

What strategies can you use to factor polynomials?

**• See Lesson 2.3, Examples 1 • Try Mid-Chapter Review
**

Questions 7 to 10.

**The strategies include: Common factoring
**

EXAMPLE

**9x 2 2 18x 5 9x(x 2 2) Decomposition
**

EXAMPLE

**6x 2 1 5x 2 4 5 6x 2 2 3x 1 8x 2 4 5 3x(2x 2 1) 1 4(2x 2 1) 5 (2x 2 1) (3x 1 4) Factoring a difference of squares
**

EXAMPLE

**9x 2 2 16 5 (3x 1 4) (3x 2 4) Factoring by grouping
**

EXAMPLE

5b 1 2ab 1 4a 1 10 5 (5b 1 2ab) 1 (4a 1 10) 5 b(5 1 2a) 1 2(2a 1 5) 5 (2a 1 5) (b 1 2)

106

Chapter 2

NEL

Mid-Chapter Review

PRACTICE Questions

Lesson 2.1

**6. If the length of the rectangle shown is increased by 2
**

2 2

1. Simplify.

a) b) c) d) e) f)

(4a 2 3a 1 2) 2 (22a 2 3a 1 9) (2x 2 2 4xy 1 y 2 ) 2 (4x 2 1 7xy 2 2y 2 ) 1 (3x 2 1 6y 2 ) 2 (3d 2 2 2cd 1 d) 1 d(2c 2 5d ) 2 3c(2c 1 d ) 3x(2x 1 y) 2 4x 35 2 (3x 1 2)4 2a(3a 2 5b 1 4) 2 6(3 2 2a 2 b) 7x(2x 2 1 3y 2 3) 2 3x(9 2 2x 1 4y)

and the width is decreased by 1, determine the change in a) the perimeter b) the area

w

2. Determine whether each pair of functions is

**equivalent. a) g(t) 5 (t 2 2) 5 and h(t) 5 (2 2 t) 5 b) f (x) 5 (x 2 2 6x) 2 (x 2 1 x 2 4) 1 (2x 2 1 1) and g(x) 5 (4x2 2 7x 2 3) 2 (2x 2 2 8) c) h(x) 5 (x 2 4) (x 1 7) (x 1 4) and d(x) 5 (x 1 7) (x 2 2 16) d) b(t) 5 (3t 1 1) 3 and c(t) 5 27t 3 1 27t 2 1 9t 2 1
**

Lesson 2.2

l

Lesson 2.3

7. Factor.

a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f)

x(x 2 2) 2 3(x 2 2) x 2 2 11x 1 28 3a 2 2 10a 2 8 30x 2 2 9x 2 3 16 2 25x 2 4(2 2 a) 2 2 81 2n 2 6m 1 5n 2 2 15mn y 2 1 9 2 6y 2 x 2 y 2 b 2 ( y 2 b) 2 2x 2 2 8y 2 1 8x 1 8 w 2 1 wb 2 aw 2 ab ab 1 b2 1 6a 1 6b

8. Factor.

3. If you multiply a linear polynomial by a quadratic

**one, what is the degree of the product polynomial? Justify your answer.
**

4. The sum of the ages of Pam, Dion, and their three

children, in years, is 5x 2 99, where x is Dion’s age. Pam is five years younger than Dion. What is the sum of the ages of their children?

5. Expand and simplify.

9. What is the perimeter of the square shown?

a) b) c) d) e) f)

2(x 2 5) (3x 2 4) (3x 2 1) 3 2(x 2 2 3x 1 4) (2x 2 1 3x 2 4) (5x 2 4) (3x 2 5) 2 (2x 2 3) 2 3(2x 2 5) 2 9(4x 2 5) 2 (x 2 y) 3

Area

25x2

20x

4

10. The expression 3n 2 2 11n 1 k can be factored into

two linear polynomials with integer coefficients. Determine the possible values of k.

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

107

2.4

**Simplifying Rational Functions
**

GOAL

Define rational functions, and explore methods of simplifying the related rational expression.

**LEARN ABOUT the Math
**

Adonis has designed a game called “2 and 1” to raise money at a charity casino. To start the game, Adonis announces he will draw n numbers from a set that includes all the natural numbers from 1 to 2n. The players then pick three numbers. Adonis draws n numbers and announces them. The players check for matches. Any player who has at least two matches wins.

rational function any function that is the ratio of two polynomials. A rational function can be expressed as R(x) , where R and S are f(x) 5 S(x) polynomials and S 2 0; for example, x 2 2 2x 1 3 1 ,x2 4x 2 1 4 A rational expression is a quotient of polynomials; for example, f(x) 5 2x 2 1 , x20 3x

The probability of a player winning is given by the rational function P(n) 5 3n3 2 3n2 8n3 2 12n2 1 4n

For example, if Adonis draws 5 numbers from the set 1 to 10, the probability of winning is P(5) 5 5 3(5) 3 2 3(5) 2 8(5) 3 2 12(5) 2 1 4(5) 5 12

The game is played at a rapid pace, and Adonis needs a fast way to determine the range he should use, based on the number of players and their chances of winning.

? What is the simplified expression for the probability of a player winning at “2 and 1”?

NEL

108

Chapter 2

2.4

EXAMPLE

1

Simplifying rational functions

Write the simplified expression for the function defined by 3n3 2 3n2 P(n) 5 3 . 8n 2 12n2 1 4n Faez’s Solution P(n) 5 3n2 (n 2 1) 4n(2n2 2 3n 1 1)

I knew that I could simplify rational numbers by first factoring numerators and denominators and dividing each by the common factor 24 3(8) 8 ae.g., 5 5 b. 27 3(9) 9 So I tried the same idea here. I factored the numerator and denominator of P(n).

3n2 (n 2 1) 5 4n(2n 2 1) (n 2 1)

1

1

Then I divided by the common factor, (n 21).

5

3n 4n(2n 2 1)

Since I cannot divide by zero, I determined the restrictions by calculating the values of n that make the factored denominator zero. I solved 4n(2n 2 1) (n 2 1) 5 0 by setting each factor equal to 0. restrictions the values of the variable(s) in a rational function or rational expression that cause the function to be undefined. These are the zeros of the denominator or, equivalently, the numbers that are not in the domain of the function.

2

Restrictions: When 4n(2n 2 1) (n 2 1) 5 0, 4n 5 0 (2n 2 1) 5 0 (n 2 1) 5 0 1 n5 n51 n50 2 P(n) 5 3n 2 1 ; n 2 0, , 1. 4n(2n 2 1) 2

Reflecting

A. B. C.

How is working with rational expressions like working with rational numbers? How is it different? How do the restrictions on the rational expression in P(n) relate to the domain of this rational function? How does factoring help to simplify and determine the restrictions on the variable?

NEL

Equivalent Algebraic Expressions

109

5 25y 2 . This gives the restrictions x. 5 5x 2 4x 1 2 . y 2 0. y 2 0 x3 EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy for simplifying the quotient of a polynomial and a monomial Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy for simplifying the quotient of a monomial and a monomial Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables. x. Then I divided both the numerator and denominator by 2x. I determined the restrictions by finding the zeros of the original denominator by solving 26x7y 5 0. The only restriction is x 2 0. Then I divided the numerator and denominator by the GCF.x20 x 3 110 Chapter 2 NEL . I determined the restrictions by solving 2x 2 5 0 to get the zeros of the original denominator. 30x 4y 3 26x 7y Tanya’s Solution 26x4y (25y 2 ) 30x 4y 3 7 5 26x y 26x4y (x 3 ) 1 1 I factored the numerator and denominator by dividing out the GCF 26x 4y. 10x 4 2 8x 2 1 4x 2x 2 Lee’s Solution 10x 4 2 8x 2 1 4x 2x 2 2x (5x 3 2 4x 1 2) 5 2x (x) 1 1 I factored the numerator and denominator by dividing out the GCF 2x.

I determined the restrictions by solving 2(1 2 x) 5 0. 2y x 1 3y 1 I factored the numerator and denominator and then divided by the GCF x 2 2y. I determined the restrictions by finding the zeros of the factored denominator by solving (x 1 3y) (x 2 2y) 5 0. 2 2 2x Simplify f (x) and state the domain. 2y. I divided the numerator and denominator by the GCF 1 2 x. so x 5 1 must be excluded from the domain. 5 2 (1 2 x) (x 1 8) 2(1 2 x) 1 The domain is 5x P R | x 2 16. x 2 1 xy 2 6y 2 Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables: Hermione’s Solution 4x 2 2 16y 2 x 2 1 xy 2 6y 2 5 4(x 2 2y) (x 1 2y) (x 1 3y) (x 21 2y) 4(x 1 2y) . The restrictions are x 2 23y. I divided out the common factor. The only restriction is x 2 1. where f (x) 5 Michel’s Solution f (x) 5 x 2 1 7x 2 8 2 2 2x (x 2 1) (x 1 8) 5 2(1 2 x) 1 I factored the numerator and denominator and noticed that there were two factors that were similar. This means that f(x) is undefined when x 5 1. 2 (x 1 8) . 5 NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 111 . x 2 23y.x21 5 2 EXAMPLE 5 Selecting a strategy for simplifying the quotient of quadratics in two variables 4x 2 2 16y 2 . (x 1 3y) 5 0 and (x 2 2y) 5 0.4 EXAMPLE 4 Selecting a strategy for simplifying a function involving the quotient of a trinomial and a binomial x 2 1 7x 2 8 . so that it became identical to (1 2 x) in the denominator. but with opposite signs. 21. from (x 2 1) in the numerator. So.2.

• The restrictions are found by determining all the zeros of the denominator.x21 x21 • Both rational functions and rational expressions are undefined for numbers that make the denominator zero. the domain is the set of all real numbers. Simplify. 6x 1 2 . Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. If the denominator contains two or more terms. These numbers must be excluded or restricted from being possible values for the variables. except those numbers that make the denominator equal zero. CHECK Your Understanding 1. f(x) 5 6x 1 2 . a) b) c) 112 Chapter 2 NEL .x21 x21 A rational expression is the ratio of two polynomials. a) b) c) 3. For example. a) 6 2 4t 2 5(x 1 3) (x 1 3) (x 2 3) (x 2 1) (x 2 3) (x 1 2) (x 2 1) b) 9x 2 6x 3 6x 2 9 2x 2 3 5x 2 1 x 2 4 25x 2 2 40x 1 16 c) 7a 2b3 21a4b 4a 2b 2 2ab2 (2a 2 b) 2 x 2 2 7xy 1 10y 2 x 2 1 xy 2 6y 2 2. Need to Know • Rational functions and rational expressions can be simplified by factoring the numerator and denominator and then dividing both by their greatest common factor. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. As a result. For example. State any restrictions on the variables.In Summary Key Ideas • A rational function can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomial functions. for all rational functions. the zeros can be determined from its factored form before the function or expression is simplified.

4 PRACTISING 4. Two cones have radii in the ratio 5:4 and heights in the ratio 2:3. 21x x 3 b) g(x) 5 x(x 2 2) 23 c) h(x) 5 (x 1 5) (x 2 5) a) f (x) 5 1 x2 2 1 1 e) g(x) 5 2 x 11 x21 f ) h(x) 5 2 x 21 6x 2 1 3x 2 21 3 3 3x 1 5x 2 1 x j(x) 5 . The perimeter of the triangle is 30x 1 10. State the domain of each function. State any restrictions on the variables. a14 2 a 1 3a 2 4 x2 2 9 b) 15 2 5x a) x 2 2 5x 1 6 x 2 1 3x 2 10 10 1 3p 2 p2 d) 25 2 p2 c) d) f (x) 5 t 2 2 7t 1 12 t 3 2 6t 2 1 9t 6t 2 2 t 2 2 f) 2t 2 2 t 2 1 e) 6.2. K 3 4 20t 3 1 15t 2 2 5t 5t 5(4x 2 2) b) 8(2x 2 1) 2 a) x 2 2 9x 1 20 16 2 x 2 2 2x 2 xy 2 y 2 d) 2 x 2 2xy 1 y 2 c) NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 113 . 9. b) Explain why the restriction on x in part (a) is necessary in this situation. Determine which pairs of functions are equivalent. a) Determine the ratio of the base to the perimeter. where V 5 1 pr 2h. Explain your reasoning. Determine the ratio of their volumes. State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify. State the restriction on x. in simplified form. 14x 3 2 7x 2 1 21x 7x 25x 3y 2 b) 10xy 3 a) 2t(5 2 t) 5t2 (t 2 5) 5ab d) 4 15a b 2 10a 2b 2 c) 2x 2 1 10x 23x 2 15 2ab 2 6a f) 9a 2 3ab e) 5. 3 2 5 10. Explain how you found each answer.x20 x 7. a) f (x) 5 2x 2 1 x 2 7 and g(x) 5 b) h(x) 5 3x 2 1 5x 1 1 and A 8. An isosceles triangle has two sides of length 9x 1 3. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify.

for each set of restrictions. and has only the x24 restriction x 2 4? Explain. x. if its width is w. are consecutive numbers. 22(1 1 t 2 ) 2 1 2t(2) (1 1 t 2 ) (2t) (1 1 t 2 ) 4 2(2x 1 1) (2) (3x 2 2) 3 2 (2x 1 1) 2 (3) (3x 2 2) 2 b) f (x) 5 (3x 2 2) 6 a) a(t) 5 114 Chapter 2 NEL . For example. 4 iv) x 2 2 . State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify. a 2 0. 4 3 2 b) Is there a rational expression with denominator of the form 2x 1 1 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. 50x 1 73 x 2 10x 2 400 4x 3 2 100 b) g(x) 5 3 5x 1 87x 1 28 27x 2 1 3x c) h(x) 5 200x 1 9999 a) f (x) 5 2 17.11. Give two examples of a rational expression equivalent to this polynomial that has the restriction x 2 4. in simplest form. a rational expression with integer coefficients that 2x 1 1 . 4 ii) x 2 0. 13. A rectangle is six times as long as it is wide. that “As x approaches positive infinity” is commonly written as x S ` . gets greater and greater and approaches infinity and as the input. if possible. the output of f (x) 5 as x approaches x infinity gets closer and closer to 0. Explain using examples. x. The quotient of two polynomials is 3x 2 2. make a conjecture about both end behaviours of each rational function. The limiting end behaviour 1 of the function f(x) 5 . By calculating values of the function. Give an example of a rational function that could have three restrictions that 14. x which approaches zero as x approaches infinity. that simplifies to . Can two different rational expressions simplify to the same polynomial? C Extending Communication Tip 16. 12. Consider the rational expression T 2x 1 1 . Determine the ratio of its area to its perimeter. and “as x approaches negative infinity” is commonly written as x S 2 ` . x24 a) Identify. 15. simplifies to x24 2 1 i) x 2 21. the value of the output as the input. is written as lim f(x) 5 0 xS` is. 4 iii) x 2 . gets lesser and lesser and approaches 1 negative infinity. Mathematicians are often interested in the “end behaviour” of functions.

1 . and zoom in and trace near x 5 2. Explore some features of rational functions. Determine another rational function with domain 5x [ R | x 2 26 that can’t be simplified. Graph your function. for example.5 GOAL Exploring Graphs of Rational Functions YOU WILL NEED 1 The graph of the rational function f (x) 5 is shown at the right. Some rational functions cannot be simplified. B. Equivalent Algebraic Expressions E. Determine the equation of a simplified rational function that has two vertical asymptotes: x 5 21 and x 5 2. or horizontal asymptotes. NEL 115 . x Apply a transformation to h(x) that will result in a rational function that has the horizontal asymptote y 5 2. For example.” Graph your function. Determine the equation of this function and graph it. g(x) 5 x23 Graph g(x) and zoom in near x 5 3.” vertical asymptotes. Graph your function. where x 2 2. F. • graphing calculator EXPLORE the Math 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 y f(x) 2 4 1 x x 6 ? A. Describe what happens to the graph near x 5 3. D. C. Determine the equation of a rational function without any “holes. at or near numbers that are not in their domain? Some rational functions simplify to polynomials. 1 The rational function h(x) 5 has a horizontal asymptote y 5 0. What are some features of the graphs of rational functions. Its domain is x 5x [ R | x 2 06. Determine another rational function that simplifies to a polynomial with domain 5x [ R | x 2 16.2. Describe what happens to the graph at x 5 1. Determine the equation of a rational function that has both a vertical asymptote and a “hole. H. Describe what happens to the graph at x 5 2. Graph x22 f (x) prior to simplifying it. x2 2 4 f (x) 5 can be simplified by factoring from x22 (x 1 2) (x 2 2) f (x) 5 to f (x) 5 x 1 2. I. Graph your function and describe what happens to the graph at x 5 2. Review what you have discovered and summarize your findings. and it has a vertical asymptote at x 5 0 and a horizontal asymptote at y 5 0. G.

h(x) 5 has a vertical asymptote at x 5 8. For example. and some have both. Graph the function. 3. L. others have holes. 2. which graphical features a rational function will have. In Summary Key Idea • The restricted values of rational functions correspond to two different kinds of graphical features: holes and vertical asymptotes. K. g(x) 5 x 2 1 7x 1 12 x13 has a hole at x 5 23. Graph the function. Need to Know • Holes occur at restricted values that result from a factor of the denominator that is also a factor of the numerator. without graphing. Explain how you can identify.Reflecting J. What determines where a rational function has a hole? A vertical asymptote? When does a rational function have the horizontal asymptote y 5 0? When does a rational function have another horizontal line as a horizontal asymptote? Some rational functions have asymptotes. since g(x) can be simplified to the polynomial g(x) 5 (x 1 3) (x 1 4) 5x14 (x 1 3) • Vertical asymptotes occur at restricted values that are still zeros of the denominator after simplification. Identify a rational function whose graph has the horizontal asymptote y 5 2 and two vertical asymptotes. For example. 116 Chapter 2 NEL . Identify a rational function whose graph is a horizontal line except for two holes. 5 x28 FURTHER Your Understanding 1. Identify a rational function whose graph lies entirely above the x-axis and has a single vertical asymptote. Graph the function.

Daisy: Tell me what the units of the three quantities are. mol L . All of the units are like rational expressions. and Z are related. Daisy: Hold on. Tulia: I guess I’ll have to look for help elsewhere. Tulia: They were # . Tulia: I didn’t catch how X.6 GOAL Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions Develop strategies for multiplying and dividing rational expressions. L s mol Daisy: I have no idea what any of those mean. so maybe there is some operation that relates them. LEARN ABOUT the Math Tulia is telling Daisy about something that her chemistry teacher was demonstrating. and s 21. Tulia: Like what? ? How are the three quantities related? NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 117 . and Z.2. Y. respectively. It is about the variables X. Y.

and s21 are related. For x 5 1. and Z were rational expressions? Explain why Daisy’s method for multiplying the rational expressions was correct. I wrote the quantities as a product and then simplified the expression. s 21 5 So. Was Daisy correct in saying that the units of X. Y. . APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy for multiplying simple rational expressions Simplify and state the restrictions. L # s mol Use multiplication to show how the expressions Luke’s Solution mol L 1 # s 3 mol 5 s L 1 1 1 1 Daisy suggested that the quantities are related by multiplication.EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy for multiplying rational expressions mol L . so I multiplied the rational expressions the same way as when I multiply fractions. B. This showed that the quantities are related by multiplication. y 5 1 the expression becomes 6(1) 2 15(1) (1) 3 6 15 9 3 5 3 5 5(1) (1) 8(1) (1) 4 5 8 4 118 Chapter 2 NEL . 1 s mol L 21 # s 3 mol 5 s L Reflecting A. I wrote the variable with a negative exponent as a rational expression with a positive exponent. the result was a fraction. 6x 2 15xy 3 3 5xy 8xy 4 Buzz’s Solution 6x 2 15xy 3 3 5xy 8xy 4 When I substituted values for the variables.

(x 2 2) (x 1 2) (x 1 3) (x 1 6) 5 22(x 1 6) 2 1 (22 1 x) 1 5 2 (x 1 2) (x 1 3) . I noticed that (x 2 2) in the numerator was the opposite of (2 2 x) in the denominator. I determined the restrictions on the denominators by solving the equations (x 1 6) 2 5 0 and (22 1 x) 5 0. y 2 0 4y 2 EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy for multiplying more complex rational expressions Simplify and state the restrictions. x 2 0. 2 2(x 1 6) NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 119 . x 2 26.2. Then I divided both the numerator and denominator by the GCF. I divided out the common factor 21 from (22 1 x) to get the signs the same in these factors. So. I factored the numerator and denominator by dividing out the GCF 10x 2y 3. I did this by multiplying the coefficients and adding the exponents when the base was the same. 10x2y3 (9x) 5 10x2y3 (4y 2 ) 1 5 9x .6 90x 3y 3 40x 2y 5 1 5 I multiplied the numerators and then the denominators. I multiplied the numerators and denominators and then divided out the common factors. neither x nor y can be zero. x2 2 4 x 2 1 9x 1 18 3 (x 1 6) 2 2(2 2 x) Willy’s Solution x2 2 4 x 2 1 9x 1 18 3 (x 1 6) 2 2(2 2 x) 5 5 (x 2 2) (x 1 2) (x 1 3) (x 1 6) 3 2 (x 1 6) 2(2 2 x) (x 2 2) (x 1 2) (x 1 3) (x 1 6) 3 (x 1 6) 2 22(22 1 x) 1 I factored the numerators and denominators. I determined the restrictions by setting the original denominator to zero: 40x 2 y 5 5 0.

provided that B. I simplified by dividing the numerators and denominators by all of their common factors. (2 2 p) 5 0. D.EXAMPLE 4 Selecting a strategy for dividing rational expressions Simplify and state the restrictions. provided that B. just as I would for fractions. and (3 1 p) 5 0. so I divided by multiplying the first rational expression by the reciprocal of the second. 24. then C AC A 3 5 . That is. B. I used the factored form of each denominator to determine the zeros by solving for p in 4p 5 0. (7 2 p) 5 0. 21p 2 3p2 14 2 9p 1 p2 4 16p 1 4p2 12 1 7p 1 p2 Aurora’s Solution 21p 2 3p2 14 2 9p 1 p2 4 16p 1 4p2 12 1 7p 1 p2 21p 2 3p2 12 1 7p 1 p2 5 3 16p 1 4p2 14 2 9p 1 p2 5 (3 1 p) (4 1 p) 3p(7 2 p) 3 4p(4 1 p) (7 2 p) (2 2 p) 1 1 When I substituted values for the variables. D 2 0 B D BD A C A D AD 4 5 3 5 . 23 4(2 2 p) In Summary Key Idea • The procedures you use to multiply or divide rational numbers can be used to multiply and divide rational expressions. 3p(7 2 p) (3 1 p) (4 1 p) 5 3 4p(4 1 p) (7 2 p) (2 2 p) 1 1 3(3 1 p) 5 . and C 2 0 B D B C BC (continued) 120 Chapter 2 NEL . if A. (4 1 p) 5 0. the result was a fraction. C. 2. and D are polynomials. 7. p 2 0. I factored the numerators and the denominators.

State any restrictions on the variables. Both are needed because the reciprocal of this expression is used in the calculation. if possible • divide out any factors that are common to the numerator and denominator • multiply the numerators. a) b) 5 2 3 3 8 xy 6x 2y 3 3 5y 8 2x x 2 4 3 5 x 2 7 2x 2 14 4 10 25 c) d) (x 1 1) (x 2 5) (x 1 4) 3 (x 1 4) 2(x 2 5) x2 6x 1 3 3 2x 1 1 5x (x 2 6) 3x(x 2 6) 4 (x 1 2) (x 2 7) (x 1 2) x2 2 1 x11 4 x22 12 2 6x 2. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. if possible • multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor • divide out any factors common to the numerator and denominator • multiply the numerators and then multiply the denominators • write the result as a single rational expression • To determine the restrictions. • factor the numerators and denominators. multiply the denominators.2.6 Need to Know • To multiply rational expressions. CHECK Your Understanding 1. State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify. • factor the numerators and denominators. a) b) c) d) 3. (x 2 1) 2 (x 1 1) 2 3 2 x 2 1 2x 2 3 x 1 4x 1 3 2x 1 10 x 2 2 25 4 b) x 2 2 4x 1 4 x22 a) NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 121 . In the case of division. solve for the zeros of all of the denominators in the factored expression. Simplify. both the numerator and denominator of the divisor must be used. and then write the result as a single rational expression • To divide two rational expressions.

State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify. Simplify. K 9. A 5x x 35 3 4x2 16x x2 63 NEL 122 Chapter 2 . State any restrictions on the variables. 2(x 1 2) (x 1 1) (x 2 3) 3 2 (x 1 2) (x 2 3) (x 1 3) 2 2(n 2 7n 1 12) 5(n 2 4) 4 2 b) n2 2 n 2 6 n 24 a) c) d) 2x 2 2 x 2 1 6x 2 2 5x 1 1 3 2 2 x 2x26 8x 1 14x 1 5 9y 2 2 4 9y 2 1 12y 1 4 4 4y 2 12 18 2 6y x 2 2 5xy 1 4y 2 x 2 1 2xy 1 y 2 2 2 3 x 1 3xy 2 28y x2 2 y2 7. State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify. Simplify. Determine the area of the triangle in simplified form. a) b) c) d) 4a 2 2 12ab 2a 2 2 12ab 1 18b 2 4 2 a 2 2 7ab 1 10b 2 a 2 7ab 1 10b 2 10x 2 1 3xy 2 y 2 6x 2 1 3xy 4 9x 2 2 y 2 12x 1 4y 15m 2 1 mn 2 2n 2 7m 2 2 8mn 1 n 2 3 2n 2 14m 5m 2 1 7mn 1 2n 2 x2 1 x 2 6 x(2x 2 1) 2 x2 2 4 3 2 4 (2x 2 1) 2 x 1 2x 2 3 3x 8.PRACTISING 4. State the restrictions. State any restrictions on the variables. a) b) x21 2(x 1 1) 3 3 6(x 1 1) 3a 2 6 a 2 2 4 a12 a12 c) d) 6. a) b) 21 2x 2 3 x 7 7a 14a 2 4 3 5 c) d) 2x 3y 9x 2 3 3xy 4x 2y 3a 2b 3 9a 2b 4 2ab 2 14a 2 2(x 2 2) 12x 4 3 9x 3 22x 3(m 1 4) 2 5(m 1 4) 4 2m 1 1 7m 1 14 5. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables.

x 1 y 5 0. then y 5 1. since x 5 y. Pluto is 102. Is this true? Explain. G is a constant (the universal gravitational constant). m2 2 n2 m 2 2 mn 24 2 6m 1 11mn 1 3n 2m 2 mn 2 6n 2 4m 2 2 7mn 2 2n 2 3m 2 1 7mn 1 2n 2 2 14. x1y50 Sarit says that’s impossible because if x 5 1.6 10. and r is the separation distance between the centres of objects. where r 5 . An object has mass m 5 p2 2 1 p11 and density r 5 2 . x2 5 y2 So x 2 2 y 2 5 0. gives 1 1 1 5 2. 12. m1 and m 2 are the masses of the objects. I factored and simplified. 11. Extending 13. c) Sam says that dividing two rational functions and multiplying the first function by the reciprocal of the second will produce the same function. a) C Why do you usually factor all numerators and denominators before multiplying rational functions? b) Are there any exceptions to the rule in part (a)? Explain. Newton’s law of gravitation states that any two objects exert a gravitational force m1m2 . How many times greater is the gravitational force between the Sun and Mercury than the gravitational force between the Sun and Pluto? on each other due to their masses.2.1 times as far from the Sun as Mercury. The mass of Mercury is 2. Explain the error in Liz’s reasoning. Simplify. Substituting into Liz’s final equation. Fg 5 G NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 123 . where F is the gravitational r2 force. I divided both sides by x 2 y.2 times greater than the mass of Pluto. 3p 1 1 9p 1 6p 1 1 m Determine its volume v. I rearranged terms in the equation. State any restrictions on the variables. State the restrictions on any v variables. she can show that x 1 y 5 0 by following these steps: T Since x 5 y. x2 2 y2 0 5 x2y x2y (x 2 y) (x 1 y) 0 5 x2y x2y 1 1 I squared both sides of the equation. not 0. Liz claims that if x 5 y.

v 540 is the time elapsed from Toronto to Montreal. Determine which trip takes less time. distance . respectively. since its value is not given.7 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions GOAL Develop strategies for adding and subtracting rational expressions. I determined speed expressions for the elapsed time for each way of the trip at each airspeed. it made the round trip when there was a constant wind blowing from Toronto to Montreal at 80 km/h. LEARN ABOUT the Math A jet flies along a straight path from Toronto to Montreal and back again. So the speed with the wind from Toronto and the speed against the wind from Montreal are v 1 80 and v 2 80. Using the relation time 5 124 Chapter 2 NEL . v 1 80 540 is the time elapsed from Montreal to Toronto. to the jet’s airspeed in still air. 540 is the time elapsed when there is no wind. Basil’s Solution v is the jet’s airspeed in still air. v. On Friday. The straight-line distance between these cities is 540 km. v 2 80 I assigned a variable. v 1 80 is the jet’s airspeed from Toronto to Montreal. v 2 80 is the jet’s airspeed from Montreal to Toronto. the jet made the round trip when there was no wind.2. ? EXAMPLE Which round trip takes less time? 1 Selecting a strategy for adding and subtracting rational expressions Write expressions for the length of time required to fly from Toronto to Montreal in each situation. the jet travels at constant speed. While travelling in still air. On Monday.

I need to have the same denominator. I found the round-trip times by adding the times for each way. To compare T1 with T2. C. Reflecting A. Since I am dealing with division. in this case T1. Why were the expressions for time rational expressions? How can you determine a common denominator of two rational functions? How do the methods for adding and subtracting rational expressions compare with those for adding and subtracting rational numbers? NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 125 . T2 has a smaller denominator because 6400 is subtracted from v 2. 5 1080v v2 The trip without wind took less time. 1080 5 v Wind T2 5 5 5 T1 5 540 540 1 v 1 80 v 2 80 540(v 2 80) 1 540(v 1 80) (v 1 80) (v 2 80) 1080v v 2 2 6400 v 1080 3 v v I noticed that T1 has the denominator v while T2’s denominator contains v 2. with no wind. I let T2 represent the time on Friday. the lesser of the two expressions is the one with the greater denominator. B. so I rewrote T1 by multiplying its numerator and denominator by v.7 No wind T1 5 540 540 1 v v I let T1 represent the time on Monday. Now the numerators are both the same. with wind.2.

I used the LCD to rewrite each term. and 6x 3. 4x. 2n 1 1 n23 Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables: Tom’s Solution LCD 5 (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) 4 3n 1 2n 1 1 n23 5 (2n 1 1)4 (n 2 3)3n 1 (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) I found the lowest common denominator by multiplying both denominators. 126 Chapter 2 NEL . I added and subtracted the numerators. 8x 2 4x 6x Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables: Sheila’s Solution LCD 5 24x 3 I found the lowest common denominator (LCD) by finding the least common multiple of 8x 2. For each term. I determined the restrictions on the denominator by solving 24x 3 5 0.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Using the lowest common denominator strategy to add rational expressions 3 1 5 1 2 3. I multiplied the denominator by the factor necessary to get the LCD. Then. I used the lowest common denominator to rewrite each term. I multiplied the numerator by the same factor.x20 24x 3 EXAMPLE 3 Using a factoring strategy to add expressions with binomial denominators 3n 4 1 . 3 1 5 2 3 2 1 8x 4x 6x 5 (3x)3 (6x 2 )1 (4)5 1 2 3 2 (3x)8x (6x )4x (4)6x 3 9x 1 6x 2 2 20 5 .

NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 127 . that is. 5 2t t12 2 (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 2) (t 1 4)2t 2 (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) (t 1 1) (t 2 1) (t 1 4) 2t 2 1 8t 2 t 2 2 2t 2 t 2 2 (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) t 2 1 5t 2 2 . t 2 1. To find the LCD. EXAMPLE 4 Using a factoring strategy to add expressions with quadratic denominators 2t t12 2 2 . • The LCD is not always the product of all the denominators. • Restrictions are found by finding the zeros of all denominators. t 21 t 1 3t 2 4 2 Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables: Frank’s Solution 2t t12 2 2 t 21 t 1 3t 2 4 2 I factored the denominators. 21. Need to Know • To add or subtract rational functions or expressions. The LCD consists of the product of any common factors and all the unique factors. factor all the denominators. When rational expressions are added or subtracted. • After finding the LCD. To do this. I created a product by using the three unique factors: (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) I used the lowest common denominator to rewrite each term. I collected like terms and determined the restrictions by solving (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) 5 0. rewrite each term using the LCD as the denominator and then add or subtract numerators. the zeros of the LCD.2. x22 .7 5 (n 2 3)3n 1 (2n 1 1)4 (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) 3n2 2 9n 1 8n 1 4 5 (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) 5 3n2 2 n 1 4 1 . I simplified by expanding the numerators. I collected like terms and determined the restrictions by solving (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) 5 0. they must have a common denominator. determine the lowest common denominator (LCD).3 (2n 1 1) (n 2 3) 2 I simplified by expanding the numerators. 24 (t 2 1) (t 1 1) (t 1 4) 5 5 5 In Summary Key Idea • The procedures for adding or subtracting rational functions are the same as those for adding and subtracting rational numbers.

2x 3x x 1 2 3 4 6 3 1 3 b) 4 1 2 2 2t 5t t a) x2 3 2x 2 31 4 3y 4y 5y n m d) 1 2m m n c) 6. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. State any restrictions on the variables. c) Evaluate the simplified expression when x 5 5. 7 3 2 x23 5x 2 1 7 2 b) 1 2 x13 x 29 9 5 c) 2 2 2 x 2 4x 1 3 x 2 2x 1 1 a) 4. 2 5 2 9 3 5y y b) 2 3 2 a) 7 5 2 2 3x 5 5 6 d) 2 2 3xy y c) 3. a) Evaluate 2 3 when x 5 5. 2 7 1 a a24 4 b) 16 3x 2 2 7 5 c) 1 x14 x13 a) 4 6 2 2n 2 3 n25 3x 7x e) 1 x14 x26 7 4 f) 1 2x 2 6 10x 2 15 d) 128 Chapter 2 NEL . Simplify. Simplify. Simplify. What do you notice? 2 PRACTISING 5. 1 5 1 3 4 2x 6x b) 1 5 2 a) 1 5 1 3 4x 2 7x 2 6 d) 1 2 x x c) 2. 1 (x 2 9) (x 2 3) b) Simplify the original expression by adding. State any restrictions on the variables. State any restrictions on the variables. Simplify.CHECK Your Understanding 1. State any restrictions on the variables.

what is the change in R? t NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 129 . Simplify. R. K 4m 1 5 3m 1 2 1 2 5 3 5 b) 2 3 x2 4x a) 11. State any restrictions on the variables. 5 3 2 4x 2 1 7x 1 3 16x 2 1 24x 1 9 a22 a21 b) 2 2 a 2 2 8a 1 15 2a 2 9a 2 5 3x 1 2 2x 2 5 c) 1 2 4x 2 2 1 4x 1 4x 1 1 a) 9. 4 3 1 2 x11 x 2 3x 2 4 2t 5t 2 2 b) t24 t 2 16 3 5 c) 1 t2 1 t 2 6 (t 1 3) 2 3x 4x 2 2 d) x 2 1 6x 1 8 x 2 3x 2 10 x17 x21 e) 1 2 2 x 29 x 2 5x 1 6 5t 2t 1 1 f) 1 2 2 2t 2 14t 1 24 4t 2 8t 2 12 a) 8. 2y 9y 2x 3 2 3 a) 3y 2 10x 3x x11 2(x 1 1) 2 11 b) 4 1 2x 2 6 22x x22 p11 p2 1 p 2 12 p2 2 4p 2 12 1 2 3 2 c) p2 1 2p 2 35 p 2 2p 2 24 p 1 2p 2 15 d) 5m 2 n 4m2 2 4mn 1 n2 6m2 2 mn 2 n2 2 4 2m 1 n 4m2 2 n2 3m 1 15n 2 3 2 y11 y22 2x 5 d) 2 1 2 x 1x26 x 1 2x 2 8 c) s 10. State any restrictions on the variables. Remember the order of operations. When two resistors. State any restrictions on the variables.2. s R t If s is increased by 1 unit and t is decreased by 1 unit. their combined T resistance.7 7. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. is given by 1 1 1 5 1 . Simplify. s and t. Simplify. are connected in parallel.

Extending 15. you encountered an equation of the form 1 1 1 1 5 . x 1 100 km in 2 h. he decides to move farther from the stage. a) Show that this method always produces a triple. 37 is a triple. k Sound intensity is given by the formula I 5 2 . a) For two rational numbers in simplified form. 13. So 12. b) Determine the values of x for which the speed was greater for the second trip. To avoid 14. Matthew is attending a very loud concert by The Discarded. Suppose you want to determine natural-number x z y 1 1 1 1 1 1 solutions of this equation. where k is a constant and d d is the distance in metres from the listener to the source of the sound. 122 1 352 5 1369. Fred drove his car a distance of 2x km in 3 h. For example. 5 2 and 5 2 . 130 Chapter 2 NEL . One way to produce a Pythagorean triple is to add the reciprocals of any two consecutive even or odd numbers. time a) Write a simplified expression for the difference between the first speed and the second speed. the lowest common C denominator is always one of the following: i) one of the denominators ii) the product of the denominators iii) none of the above Give an example of each of these.12. 35. 1 1 1 5 2 n n(n 1 1) n11 1 1 1 b) State two more solutions of the equation 5 2 . x z y can be written as 16. Illustrate with examples. which it is: 1369 5 372. A Pythagorean triple is a triple of natural numbers satisfying the equation a 2 1 b 2 5 c 2. In question 11. b) Explain how you would determine the LCD of two simplified rational functions with different quadratic denominators. 5 7 35 Now. Determine an expression for the decrease in sound intensity if Matthew moves x metres farther from the stage. This is a triple if 1369 is a square. Use the equation speed 5 permanent ear damage. which x y z 1 1 1 5 2 . he drove a distance of A distance . Later. b) Determine a triple using the method. 6 2 3 20 4 5 a) Show that the difference between reciprocals of consecutive positive integers is the reciprocal of their product. for example. 1 1 12 1 5 .

all Examples. divide out common factors of the numerator and denominator. 21. subtract. 23 2(x 1 1) (x 1 3) (x 1 3) 1 1 Q: A: How do we add. EXAMPLE • See Lesson 2. and divide rational expressions? Study Aid Rules for adding. 2x 2 4x 7 1 24 2 (x 2 1) x 21 2x 2 2 2 2x 4x 7 5 4 1 (x 2 1) (x 2 1) (x 1 1) (x 2 1) 2(x 2 1) 2x 2 (x 2 1) (x 1 1) 7 5 3 1 (x 2 1) (x 2 1) 4x 2(x 2 1) x(x 1 1) 7 5 1 2(x 2 1) 2(x 2 1) x2 1 x 1 7 5 . Examples 1 to 4 for multiplication and division. 4(x 1 1) (x 1 2) 2(x 1 2) f (x) 5 5 .4. • See Lessons 2. and how do you determine these restrictions? Study Aid The restrictions occur because division by zero is undefined. usually by factoring. 2x 2 2 5 0. set (x 2 1) 2 5 0.7.4. 0 2(x 2 1) Q: A: Why are there sometimes restrictions on the variables in a rational expression. 2(x 2 1) 5 0. set all denominators equal to zero before simplifying and solve. NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 131 . • Try Chapter Review Questions 12 to 17.2 Q: A: Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions What is a rational function and how do you determine its simplified form? Aid A rational function is a function that can be expressed as a quotient of two polynomials.6. multiply.6. and 4x 5 0 4x 5 0 Solve by factoring: (x 2 1) 2 5 0. 0. Examples 1 to 4 for addition and subtraction. • Try Chapter Review Questions 9 to 17. except the zeros of the denominator. In the preceding example. (x 2 1) (x 1 1) 5 0. 10. and Solving gives the restrictions x 2 1. multiplying.7. The domain of a rational function is the set of all real numbers. Examples 1 to 5. 2. x 2 21. subtracting. EXAMPLE • See Lesson 2. • Try Chapter Review Questions 9. and 2. 21. x 2 1. • See Lesson 2. x 2 2 1 5 0. To determine restrictions. To simplify. and dividing rational expressions are the same as those for rational numbers. and 11.

A(n) 5 2 (n 1 30) 1 (2n 1 5) B(n) 5 (7 2 n) 2 (32 2 2n) C(n) 5 (n 2 26) 2 (n 1 4) 1 (n 2 3) All ages are expressed in years. 6x 3 a) 8xy 2 1 12x 2y 2 2xy 7a 2 14b b) 2(a 2 2b) m13 c) m2 1 10m 1 21 4x 2 2 4x 2 3 d) 4x 2 2 9 3x 2 2 21x e) 7x 2 2 28x 1 21 3x 2 2 2xy 2 y 2 f) 3x 2 1 4xy 1 y 2 a) 11. and n represents Ms. 132 Chapter 2 NEL . 4.3 6. Simplify. Simplify. 2 2 1. Determine two non-equivalent polynomials f (x) and a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) 12m 2n 3 1 18m 3n 2 x 2 2 9x 1 20 3x 2 1 24x 1 45 50x 2 2 72 9x 2 2 6x 1 1 10a 2 1 a 2 3 2x 2y4 2 6x 5y 3 1 8x 3y 2x(x 1 4) 1 3(x 1 4) x 2 2 3x 2 10 15x 2 2 53x 1 42 a4 2 16 (m 2 n) 2 2 (2m 1 3n) 2 g(x) . a) b) c) d) 23(7x 2 5) (4x 2 7) 2 ( y 2 2 4y 1 7) (3y 2 2 5y 2 3) 2(a 1 b) 3 3(x 2 2 2) 2 (2x 2 3) 2 1 5. 8. Flanagan has three daughters: Astrid. and Cassandra. State any restrictions on the variables. 3.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 2. Simplify. a) (2x 4 2 3x 2 2 6) 1 (6x 4 2 x 3 1 4x 2 1 5) b) (x 2 2 4) (2x 2 1 5x 2 2) c) 27x(x 2 1 x 2 1) 2 3x(2x 2 2 5x 1 6) d) 22x 2 (3x 3 2 7x 1 2) 2 x 3 (5x 3 1 2x 2 8) e) 22x 35x 2 (2x 2 7)4 1 6x 33x 2 (1 1 2x)4 f ) (x 1 2) 2 (x 2 1) 2 2 (x 2 4) 2 (x 1 4) 2 g) (x 2 1 5x 2 3) 2 10a 2b 1 15bc 2 25b 2 3 30x y 2 20x 2z 2 1 50x 2 b) 10x 2 x y 2 x yz c) xy 16mnr 2 24mnp 1 40kmn d) 8mn 10. January 1.2 Lesson 2. are they equivalent? Explain and illustrate with an example. Flanagan’s age. Ms. c) How old was Ms. Beatrice. such that f (0) 5 g(0) and f (1) 5 g(1). a) Are the daughters triplets? Explain.4 9. Factor.1 7. Today. Lesson 2. Expand and simplify. Flanagan when Cassandra was born? Lesson 2. Determine the volume of the cone in simplified form if the radius is increased by x and the height is increased by 2x. b) Are any of them twins? Explain. State any restrictions on the variables. If two rational functions have the same restrictions. respectively. Simplify. The volume of a cone is given by V 5 3 pr 2h. their ages are. (7x 2 2x 1 1) 1 (9x 2 4x 1 5) 2 (4x 2 1 6x 2 7) b) (7a 2 2 4ab 1 9b 2 ) 2 (2a 2 1 2ab 1 6b 2 ) a) 2. Factor.

x2 x (3x) 2 3 24 2xy 2y xy2 2 x 2 5x 1 6 x 2 2 4x 2 5 x25 3 4 2 b) x2 2 1 x2 2 4 x 1 3x 1 2 1 2 x2 1 2 y2 y3 2 y 4 3 c) 11y x 1 x2 x2 a) d) determined entirely by two exams. After he selects his numbers.Lessons 2. b) What would Sam’s probability of winning be if i) n 5 5? ii) n 5 4? NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 133 .6 and 2. State any restrictions on the variables. The final exam was out of 2x marks and was worth 75% of his final mark. Simplify and state any restrictions on the variables. Sam plays a game in which he selects three different x 2y 4x 1 8xy 1 3y 2x 1 3y 4 2 2 3 4x 2 y x1y 2x 2 y 2 2 2 2 14. Simplify. State any restrictions on the variables. State any restrictions on the variables. 17. Determine the value of x if Fred earned a final mark of 50% in the course. 2 4 2 5x 3x 5 2 b) 2 x11 x21 1 1 c) 1 2 x 2 1 3x 2 4 x 1 x 2 12 1 1 d) 2 2 2 x 2 5x 1 6 x 29 a) 15. 3 2 1 3 24 4 2 n n 2 3n 1 2n 3 The first number chosen is one of Sam’s! His probability of winning is now given by P(n) 5 7 4 1 a) 2 21 3 2x 3x x 4x 3x b) 1 x12 x26 6x 3x c) 2 2 x 2 2 5x 1 6 x 1 x 2 12 a) Simplify P(n) and state the restrictions on n. Fred scored 40 marks on the first exam and 60 marks on the second exam. The mid-term exam was out of x marks and was worth 25% of his final mark. four different winning numbers from 1 to n are chosen.7 12. one at a time. Sam wins if all three of his numbers are among the four winning numbers. Fred’s final mark in an online course was 13. numbers from 1 to n (n . 3). d) e) f) 6x 2y 2 3 8y 3x 10m 2 6mn b) 3 3n 20m 2 2ab 6ac 4 c) 5bc 10b 3p 5p 4 d) 8pq 12q a) 2(x 2 2) 2 3x 1 15 3 x 2 1 6x 1 5 (2 2 x) 2 (x 2 2y) 2 (x 2 2y) (x 1 3y) 4 x2 2 y2 (x 1 y) 2 2b 2 5 3b 1 2 3 2 b 2 2b 2 15 b 1 b 2 30 b 2 1 8b 1 12 b13 16. Simplify. Simplify.

Factor. x11 Are Mauro’s two rational functions equivalent? Explain. Expand and simplify. the denominator of the sum is the product of the three denominators. Mauro found that two rational functions each simplified to f (x) 5 2 . Use factoring to determine the x-intercepts of the curve y 5 x 3 2 4x 2 2 x 1 4. 3 4 5 60 1 1 74 1 1 1 5 . for example. a) 2(12a 2 5) (3a 2 7) b) (2x 2y 2 3xy 2 ) (4xy 2 1 5x 2y) (4x 2 1) (5x 1 2) (x 2 3) (3p2 1 p 2 2) 2 3. 4. 9. Simplify. Roman thinks that he has found a simple method for determining the sum of the reciprocals of any three consecutive natural numbers. Is Roman’s conjecture true? 134 Chapter 2 NEL . If Bonnie is away from Clyde for n consecutive days. 5 6 4a 2b 6a 2b 1 c) 34 2 5ab 35ab t 2 7t 2 18 t12 2x 2 8 3x x22 4x 3 2 2 2 b) d) 2 2 x 2 x 2 12 x 2 4x 1 4 6x 1 13x 1 6 4x 2 9 a) 8. a) b) (2x 2 1 2x 1 7) 1 (2x 2 2 7x 2 7) (2m 2 2 mn 1 4n 2 ) 2 (5m 2 2 n 2 ) 1 (7m 2 2 2mn) c) d) 2. Is there a value of a such that f (x) 5 9x 2 1 4 and g(x) 5 (3x 2 a) 2 are equivalent? Explain. 7. plus 2. 6. State any restrictions on the variables. 1 1 1 47 1 1 5 . Also.2 Chapter Self-Test 1. by how much does Clyde’s pain increase between day n and day n 1 1? b) How much more pain will he feel on day 6 than on day 5? a) 3m(m 2 1) 1 2m(1 2 m) b) x 2 2 27x 1 72 c) 15x 2 2 7xy 2 2y 2 d) (2x 2 y 1 1) 2 2 (x 2 y 2 2) 2 e) 5xy 2 10x 2 3y 1 6 f ) p 2 2 m 2 1 6m 2 9 5. or 4 5 6 120 37 60 Roman conjectures that before simplification. He writes. Simplify. a) If Bonnie is absent. the numerator of the sum is three times the product of the first and third denominators. then the amount of heartache Clyde feels is given by h(n) 5 (2n 1 1) 3.

? A. • When a polynomial and a different-coloured rational expression are side by side. then one or both of the polynomials must be perfect squares. their product must simplify. will make filling the table and counting your score as easy as possible? Why should you avoid reusing a factor unless it is necessary? Play the game by completing the table. including numerators and denominators. Check your answers. Rules: 1. After you have completed the table. their quotient must simplify. The expressions you write must satisfy each of these conditions: 1R 1P 6P 6R 2R 3R 3P 8P 2P 5R 5P 8R 4P 4R 7R 7P • Polynomials and numerators and denominators of each rational function must be quadratics without a constant common factor. D. E. How can you maximize your score? Task Checklist What form for the polynomials. You get one point for every different linear factor that remains in your table. simplify the products and quotients wherever possible. • When two rational expressions are side by side. Count the linear factors and write your score next to your table. 2. Write a polynomial in each square marked P and a rational function in each square marked R. their quotient must simplify. Does each square contain a polynomial and rational function of the right type? Are all of the rules satisfied? Did you check to see if you could make changes to improve your score? NEL Equivalent Algebraic Expressions 135 . • When a polynomial is on top of a different-coloured rational expression (or vice versa). Tally your score. C. • When a rational expression is on top of a rational expression. What could you do to increase your score? List some strategies you can use to maximize your score. 4. B. 3. their quotient must simplify. F. their product must simplify. • When two polynomials are side by side. • When a polynomial is on top of another polynomial. • Restrictions on the variable of each rational function must be stated in its square.24 Chapter Task Chapter Self-Test The Algebraic Dominos Challenge The game shown at the right consists of eight pairs of coloured squares called dominos.

136 NEL .

Chapter 3 Quadratic Functions GOALS You will be able to • • • • Graph and analyze the properties of quadratic functions Determine the zeros of quadratic functions Calculate the maximum or minimum values of quadratic functions Solve problems involving quadratic functions ? What role does the parabola play in the construction of the bridge in the photograph? NEL 137 .

4.5(x 1 7) 2 2 3 d) y 5 23(x 1 2) (x 2 5) c) 3x 2 2 2x 2 5 5 0 d) 3x 2 1 2x 5 x 2 1 9x 2 3 5. a) f (x) 5 x 2 2 9 b) f (x) 5 x 2 2 8x 2 18 7. 7 5. Complete the chart by writing what you know about quadratic functions. Answer to two decimal places if necessary. a) f (1) b) f (22) c) Study Aid 2. Determine the x-intercepts of each function. Express each function in standard form. c) y 5 20. axis of symmetry.3 Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1. 4. evaluate the following. domain. axis of symmetry. Answer to two decimal places if necessary. Sketch the graph of each function. f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. see Essential Skills Appendix. 1 fa b 3 d) f (0) e) f (k) f ) f (2k) • For help. A-10 a) f (x) 5 (x 2 3) (x 1 5) b) f (x) 5 2x(x 1 6) a) 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 y 2 4 x c) f (x) 5 23(x 1 2) 2 1 3 d) f (x) 5 (x 2 1) 2 b) 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 x y 3. Question 1 2 3. Definition: Quadratic Function Characteristics: Examples: Non-examples: 138 Chapter 3 NEL . 6 Appendix A-7 A-8 A-12 A-9. Solve each equation. and range of each parabola. Given f (x) 5 23x 2 1 4x 2 1. State the vertex. State the vertex. 6. c) f (x) 5 23x 2 1 10x 2 8 d) f (x) 5 6x 2 2x 2 c) f (x) 5 2 (x 2 2) (x 1 8) d) f (x) 5 2 (x 1 2) 2 1 3 a) f (x) 5 x 2 1 3 b) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 4 8. and direction of opening for each a) y 5 x 2 1 4 b) y 5 3(x 2 4) 2 1 1 a) x 2 2 11x 1 24 5 0 b) x 2 2 6x 1 3 5 0 parabola.

Draw a curve of good fit. Is the relation between width and perimeter linear or nonlinear? How do you know? Is the relation between width and area linear or nonlinear? How do you know? Determine the second differences for the Area column. NEL Quadratic Functions 139 . F. YOU WILL NEED • centimetre grid paper • graph paper If this pattern continues. ? A. what function can be used to model the relationship between width and area? Use centimetre grid paper to draw the next four rectangles in the pattern. What is the relationship between length and width for each rectangle? Write the function that models the relationship between width and area. D. Martina draws the first rectangle with dimensions 1 cm 3 2 cm.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Building Rectangles A set of rectangles can be formed out of 1 cm squares on centimetre grid paper. Calculate the first differences for the Perimeter and Area columns. C. Perimeter (cm) 6 12 Shape Width (cm) 1 2 Length (cm) 2 4 Area (cm)2 2 8 3 6 18 B. Use your diagrams to extend and complete the table. Does the shape of your graph support your answer to part D? Explain. G. and the third 3 cm 3 6 cm. the second 2 cm 3 4 cm. E. What do they tell you about the relationship between width and area? Create a scatter plot of area versus width.

f(x) ($10 000s) 0 232 1 214 2 0 3 10 4 16 5 18 6 16 7 10 8 0 9 214 Profit from Snowboard Sales y f(x) 18 Profit (tens of thousands of $) 12 6 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 Number of snowboards (thousands) 2 4 6 8 10 12 x ? What function models Francisco’s profit? 140 Chapter 3 NEL . x (1000s) Profit. Snowboards Sold. LEARN ABOUT the Math Francisco owns a business that sells snowboards.1 Properties of Quadratic Functions GOAL Represent and interpret quadratic functions in a number of different forms.3. His accountants have presented him with data on the business’ profit in a table and a graph.

This confirms that the graph is a parabola that opens downward. NEL Quadratic Functions 141 . To make sure. the vertex is (5. The parabola also passes through (2.1 Develop an algebraic expression for the function that models Francisco’s profit from selling snowboards. I used the vertex form of the quadratic function and substituted the coordinates of the vertex from the graph. The second differences are all equal and negative. From the graph. so I substituted (2. 18). Since the first differences are not constant. the function is nonlinear. So the function is quadratic. Once I did that. I solved for a. f (x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k 5 a(x 2 5) 2 1 18 I could determine the quadratic function model if I knew the vertex and at least one other point on the graph. 0). f (2) 5 0. since its graph appears to be a parabola. I checked the first and second differences.EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to describe the algebraic model 3. Kelly’s Solution: Using the Vertex Form of the Quadratic Function Snowboards Sold (1000s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Profit First ($10 000s) Differences 232 214 0 10 16 18 16 10 0 214 18 14 10 6 2 22 26 210 214 Second Differences 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 This function looks quadratic. 0 5 a(2 2 5) 2 1 18 0 5 9a 1 18 218 5 9a 22 5 a The function f (x) 5 22(x 2 5) 2 1 18 models Francisco’s profit. 0) into the function.

10) from the table of values and substituted its coordinates into f(x) to help me find the value of a. 0). f (x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s) f (x) 5 a(x 2 2) (x 2 8) 10 5 a(3 2 2) (3 2 8) 10 5 a(1) (25) 10 5 25a 225a The function f (x) 5 22(x 2 2) (x 2 8) models Francisco’s profit.Jack’s Solution: Using the Factored Form of the Quadratic Function The graph is a parabola. I read these from the graph and used the table of values to check. B. I took the factored form of a quadratic function and substituted the values of the x-intercepts for r and s. Explain. C. The graph is symmetric about the line x 5 5. Reflecting A. I then chose the point (3. so it has to be a quadratic function. What information do you need to write the vertex form of the quadratic function? What information do you need to write the factored form of the quadratic function? Use the graph to state the domain and range of the function that models Francisco’s profit. 0) and (8. or zeros. opening down with axis of symmetry x 5 5. D. The x-intercepts are the points (2. Will both of the models for Francisco’s profit lead to the same function when expressed in standard form? 142 Chapter 3 NEL . I could find the factored form of the quadratic function if I knew the x-intercepts. The graph looks like a parabola.

The axis of symmetry passes through the midpoint of the two zeros of the function. but the negative answer is not possible. Range 5 5h [ R 0 0 # h # 456 5 220 1 40 1 25 5 45 NEL h(2) 5 25(2) 2 1 20(2) 1 25 Quadratic Functions 143 . The least possible value of h(t) is zero. where h(t) is height in metres and t is the time in seconds after the toss. 5 25 The window is 25 m above the ground. The height of the tool above the ground is modelled by the quadratic function h(t) 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 25.3. I found the value of h at t 5 2. b) 0 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 25 0 5 25(t 2 2 4t 2 5) 0 5 25(t 1 1) (t 2 5) t 5 21 or t55 If the partner missed the tool. and the tool will stop when it hits the ground. so its equation is t 5 2. The height at the ground is zero. where would the axis of symmetry be? d) Determine the domain and range of the function in this situation. The tool will hit the ground after 5 s.1 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Determining the properties of a quadratic function A construction worker repairing a window tosses a tool to his partner across the street. c) t 5 21 1 5 2 4 2 d) Domain 5 5t [ R 0 0 # t # 56 t5 t52 The axis of symmetry is t 5 2. André’s Solution a) h(0) 5 25(0) 2 1 20(0) 1 25 The height of the window must be the value of the function at t 5 0 s. Then I factored the quadratic. a) How high above the ground is the window? b) If his partner misses the tool. since the greatest value is the y-coordinate of the vertex. I found two values for t. which is always on the axis of symmetry. In this situation. t must be 0 or greater. I added the zeros together and divided by two to find that t-value. when will it hit the ground? c) If the path of the tool’s height were graphed. it would hit the ground. since time must be positive. I set h(t) equal to zero. The axis of symmetry is a vertical line.

f (2) 5 23 f (3) 5 3 f (4) 5 13 The values had to be the same for 0. axis of symmetry. I found the values of f(x) when x 5 2. Because the vertex has a y-value of 25 and the parabola opens up. and 4. state the vertex. direction of opening. and 22 because the graph is symmetric about the line x 5 1. the parabola opens up. 25) Axis of symmetry: x 5 1 Direction of opening: up The x-coordinate of the vertex is 1 and the y-coordinate is 25. 3. Sacha’s Solution Vertex: (1. the y-values have to be greater than or equal to 25. domain. I substituted x 5 0 to calculate the y-intercept and solved the equation. 25). 21. f (0) 5 2(0 2 1) 2 2 5 Domain: 5x [ R6 5225 5 23 5 2(21) 2 2 5 y-intercept: 23 Range: 5 y [ R 0 y $ 256 f (x) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 1)2 x x=1 There are no restrictions on the values for x. I plotted the vertex and the axis of symmetry. To graph the function. I plotted the points and joined them with a smooth curve. The axis of symmetry is a vertical line through the vertex at (1.EXAMPLE 3 Graphing a quadratic function from the vertex form Given f (x) 5 2(x 2 1) 2 2 5. Since a is positive. y-intercept. and range. Graph the function. f(x) = 2(x 5 144 Chapter 3 NEL .

Give a reason for your answer.3. Need to Know • Quadratic functions can be represented by equations in function notation. a) x 22 21 0 1 2 y 15 11 7 3 b) x 22 21 0 1 2 y 1 3 6 10 15 c) x 22 21 0 1 2 y 4 8 12 16 20 d) x 22 21 0 1 2 y 7 4 3 4 7 21 2. If the second differences are positive. by tables of values. Determine whether each function is linear or quadratic. state a) the vertex b) the equation of the axis of symmetry c) the domain and range NEL Quadratic Functions 145 . a 2 0 CHECK Your understanding 1. • Quadratic functions can be expressed in different algebraic forms: • standard form: f(x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. a 2 0 • factored form: f(x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s). State whether each parabola opens up or down. the parabola opens down and the coefficient of x2 is negative. state a) the zeros b) the direction of opening c) the equation of the axis of symmetry 4. Given the parabola at the right. or by graphs. • Quadratic functions have a degree of 2. • Quadratic functions have constant nonzero second differences. If the second differences are negative. a) f (x) 5 3x 2 c) d) b) f (x) 5 22(x 2 3) (x 1 1) f (x) 5 2 (x 1 5) 2 2 1 2 f (x) 5 x 2 2 2x 2 1 3 4 2 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 y x 3. a 2 0 • vertex form: f(x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k. Given f (x) 5 23(x 2 2) (x 1 6).1 In Summary Key Ideas • Graphs of quadratic functions with no domain restrictions are parabolas. the parabola opens up and the coefficient of x2 is positive.

Examine the parabola shown at the left. 21) 11 3 c) (6. 3). State the direction of opening. 2) d) (25. List the values of the x-intercepts. How could you have c) predicted their signs? Determine the equation of the function. Each pair of points (x. Examine the parabola at the left. the vertex. If you calculated the second differences. a) f (x) 5 x 2 2 3 State the direction of opening. y) are the same distance from the vertex of their 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 y 10. x f(x) 22 21 0 1 2 x 2 4 6 b) Calculate the second differences of the function. (2. 21).PRACTISING 5. 0b 8 4 a) Copy and complete this table. State the domain and range of the function. (3. a . a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) y 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 x 8. 1) e) (26. Determine the equation of the axis of symmetry of each parabola. parabola. (1. what would their sign be? How do you know? f ) Determine the algebraic model for this quadratic function. 7). 146 Chapter 3 NEL . and the y 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 x f (x) 5 2(x 2 4) (x 1 2) 1 b) f (x) 5 2 (x 1 3) 2 2 4 d) f (x) 5 2 x 2 1 4 2 6. a) (22. K equation of the axis of symmetry. 2). 9. (25. Examine the parabola at the left. what would their sign be? Explain. 3) f ) a2 . Find the coordinates of the vertex. If you calculated the second differences. 7) b) (29. Express each quadratic function in standard form. State the y-intercept of each. a) f (x) 5 23(x 2 1) 2 1 6 b) f (x) 5 4(x 2 3) (x 1 7) c) 7. 0b. State the direction of opening. 1). Graph each function. (18. Name the coordinates of the vertex. What is the equation of the axis of symmetry? State the domain and range of the function.

The height of a rocket above the ground is modelled by the quadratic A function h(t) 5 24t 2 1 32t. A 20 m tree is between his ball and the hole. write an algebraic expression to model the height of the ball if it just clears the top of the tree. and two ways in which they are different. Determine the y-intercept of this parabola. in thousands of dollars. Calculate the maximum profit the business can earn. A quadratic function has these characteristics: T 13. If f (22) 5 19. where x is in thousands of computers sold. The first differences and second differences of a quadratic function with domain ranging from x 5 22 to x 5 3 are given. Describe two ways in which the functions f (x) 5 2x 2 2 4x and C Extending 14. • y 5 32 is the maximum value. With the base of the tree as the origin. Jim has a difficult golf shot to make. He wants the ball to land 5 m in front of the hole. The company’s profit. a) Graph the quadratic function. b) How long will the rocket be in the air? How do you know? c) How high will the rocket be after 3 s? d) What is the maximum height that the rocket will reach? • x 5 21 is the equation of the axis of symmetry. His ball is 100 m from the hole. so it can roll to the hole. where x is in thousands of stereo systems sold. A company’s profit. 40 m from the hole and 60 m from Jim’s ball. 16. x f(x) First Differences Second Differences 22 19 210 2 6 4 4 22 4 2 4 6 21 0 1 2 3 15. 12. on sales of stereo systems is modelled by the function P(x) 5 2 (x 2 2) (x 2 7).3. copy the table and complete the second row by determining the missing values of the function. where h(t) is the height in metres t seconds after the rocket was launched. in thousands of dollars. • x 5 3 is the x-intercept.1 11. g(x) 5 2 (x 2 1) 2 1 2 are alike. NEL Quadratic Functions 147 . on sales of computers is modelled by the function P(x) 5 22(x 2 3) 2 1 50.

a is negative.2 Determining Maximum and Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function GOAL Use a variety of strategies to determine the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function. 148 Chapter 3 NEL . The function that models the height of the ball is h(t) 5 25t 2 1 40t 1 100. I changed the value of the expression. The graph of h(t) is a parabola that opens down. determine whether the ball will hit the power line. Jonah’s Solution: Completing the Square h(t) 5 25t 2 1 40t 1 100 I needed to find the maximum height of the ball to compare it to the height of the power lines. Its maximum value occurs at the vertex. I subtracted 16. then squared it to create a perfect-square trinomial. There are power lines 185 m above the ground. 5 25(t 2 2 8t 1 16 2 16) 1 100 I divided the coefficient of t in half. ? EXAMPLE Will the golf ball hit the power lines? 1 Selecting a strategy to find the vertex Using the function for the golf ball’s height. I factored 25 from the t 2 and t terms. By adding 16. where h(t) is the height in metres at time t seconds after contact.3. To make up for this. h(t) 5 25(t 2 2 8t) 1 100 I put the function into vertex form by completing the square. LEARN ABOUT the Math A golfer attempts to hit a golf ball over a gorge from a platform above the ground.

I factored the perfect square and collected like terms. I found them by setting each factor equal to 0 and solving the resulting equations. To find the zeros. This was also the x-coordinate. The zeros are the values that make h(t) 5 0. h(t) 5 25(t 2 2 8t 2 20) h(t) 5 25(t 2 10) (t 1 2) 0 5 25(t 2 10) (t 1 2) t 5 10 or t 5 22 For the axis of symmetry. I substituted t 5 4 into the factored form of the equation. Sophia’s Solution: Factoring to Determine the Zeros h(t) 5 25t 2 1 40t 1 100 The maximum height of the golf ball is at the vertex of the parabola. The maximum height will be 180 m after 4 s. Since the power lines are 185 m above the ground. Since the vertex is at the maximum height. which is always in the middle of the two zeros of the function. The vertex is located on the axis of symmetry. 180). I added the zeros and divided the result by 2 to locate the axis of symmetry. the ball goes up only 180 m.3. h(4) 5 25(4 2 10) (4 1 2) 5 25(26) (6) 5 180 The vertex is (4.2 5 25(t 2 2 8t 1 16) 1 80 1 100 I grouped the first 3 terms that formed the perfect square and moved the subtracted value of 16 outside the brackets by multiplying by 25. t5 t5 10 1 (22) 2 8 2 t54 The t-coordinate of the vertex is 4. or height h. 5 25(t 2 4) 2 1 180 The vertex is (4. or in this case. the ball will not hit them. the ball will not hit them. after 4 s. Alternatively. Since the power lines are 185 m above the ground. I divided 25 out as a common factor. Inside the brackets was a simple trinomial I could factor. The maximum height will be 180 m. NEL Quadratic Functions 149 . the t-coordinate of the vertex. I could have substituted into the function in standard form. To find the y-value. 180). I factored the quadratic.

I used a graphing calculator because the numbers in the question were decimals and it would not have been easy to complete the square or factor. 150 Chapter 3 NEL .5. I picked a maximum x of 10 and an x scale of 1. C.Reflecting A. How are they the same? How are they different? Not all quadratic functions have zeros. I chose both the x. How can you tell from the algebraic form of a quadratic function whether the function has a maximum or a minimum value? Compare the two methods for determining the vertex of a quadratic function. Which method allows you to find the vertex without finding the zeros? Explain. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Using the graphing calculator as a strategy to determine the minimum value The cost. I chose a WINDOW that would display the graph. where x is the speed in kilometres per hour. B-9. B. the minimum value will be at the vertex. Tech Support For help using the graphing calculator to determine the minimum value of a function.8x 2 2 14. c(x). see Technical Appendix. since neither cost nor speed could be negative. I estimated the corresponding maximum y from the function. Therefore. in dollars per hour of running a certain steamboat is modelled by the quadratic function c(x) 5 1.and y-values to have a minimum of 0.4x 1 156. At what speed should the boat travel to achieve the minimum cost? Rita’s Solution This parabola opens up.

EXAMPLE 3 Solving a problem to determine when the maximum value occurs Communication Tip The demand function for a new magazine is p(x) 5 26x 1 40. Levi’s Solution 5 3 p(x)4 (x) Revenue 5 Demand 3 Number sold P(x) 5 3 p(x)4 (x) 2 C(x) I found the revenue function by multiplying the demand function by the number of magazines sold. I started by factoring the common factor 26x from 26x 2 and 36x. Profit is the difference between revenue and cost.70/h. The cost function C(x) is the total cost of making x items. The coefficient of x 2 is negative. so the parabola opens down with its maximum value at the vertex. Revenue is the money brought in by selling x items. Revenue is the product of the demand function and the number sold.2 I used the minimum operation to locate the vertex. x. of the magazine and x is the number sold. I determined two points symmetrically opposite each other. The demand function p(x) is the relation between the price of an item and the number of items sold. in thousands.3.70). To find the profit function. I subtracted the cost function from the revenue function and simplified. Instead of completing the square. Profit 5 Revenue 2 Cost 5 (26x 1 40) (x) 2 (4x 1 48) 5 26x 2 1 40x 2 4x 2 48 5 26x 2 1 36x 2 48 P(x) 5 26x(x 2 6) 2 48 NEL Quadratic Functions 151 . The minimum cost to operate the steamboat is $127. Calculate the maximum profit and the number of magazines sold that will produce the maximum profit.127. in thousands of dollars. The cost function is C(x) 5 4x 1 48. The vertex is (4. when the boat is travelling at about 4 km/h. where p(x) represents the selling price.

if possible. factored form. or vertex form. I found the axis of symmetry. and averaging the x-coordinates of these points to determine the x-coordinate of the vertex • by using a graphing calculator 152 Chapter 3 NEL . P(3) 5 26(3) 2 1 36(3) 2 48 5 254 1 108 2 48 56 The maximum profit is $6000. then the parabola opens down. 016 I knew that the x-intercepts of the graph of y 5 26x(x 2 6) would help me find the two points I needed on the graph of the profit function. So the x-coordinate of the vertex is 3. since both functions have the same axis of symmetry. factored form. or vertex form. • If a . I remembered that x is in thousands of magazines sold. and P(x) is in thousands of dollars. Need to Know • If a . The quadratic has a minimum value. then the parabola opens up. 0 in standard form. The axis of symmetry is x 5 2 or x 5 3. In Summary Key Idea • The maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function is the y-coordinate of the vertex. which gave me the x-coordinate of the vertex.26x(x 2 6) 5 0 x 5 0 or x 5 6 Points on the graph of the profit function are (0. when 3000 magazines are sold. • The vertex can be found from the standard form f(x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c algebraically in several ways: • by completing the square to put the quadratic in vertex form f(x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k • by expressing the quadratic in factored form f(x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s). 248) and (6. The quadratic has a maximum value. and averaging the zeros at r and s to locate the axis of symmetry. 0 in standard form. 248). This will give the x-coordinate of the vertex 2 • by factoring out the common factor from ax 1 bx to determine two points on the parabola that are symmetrically opposite each other. I substituted x 5 3 into the function to determine the profit.

2x 1 4.6x 1 15 d) p(x) 5 21. State the vertex of each parabola and indicate the maximum or minimum y b) 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 y x 2 4 6 8 3.8x NEL Quadratic Functions 153 . a) y 5 2x 2 1 7x b) f (x) 5 3(x 2 1) 2 2 4 value of the function.2 CHECK Your Understanding 1. a) 8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 2 x c) f (x) 5 24(x 1 2) (x 2 3) d) g(x) 5 4x 2 1 3x 2 5 2.8 6. where x is the number of items sold. in thousands. Determine i) the revenue function ii) the maximum revenue in thousands of dollars a) b) p(x) 5 2x 1 5 p(x) 5 24x 1 12 c) p(x) 5 20.3. Determine the maximum or minimum value for each. a) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 6. Each function is the demand function of some item.5x 1 3. a) y 5 x 2 2 4x 2 1 b) f (x) 5 x 2 2 8x 1 12 c) y 5 2x 2 1 12x d) y 5 23x 2 2 12x 1 15 e) y 5 3x(x 2 2) 1 5 f ) g(x) 5 22(x 1 1) 2 2 5 5. Use a graphing calculator to determine the maximum or minimum value. Determine the maximum or minimum value.2 b) f (x) 5 23. Round to two decimal places where necessary.6x 2 1 4. Use at least two different K methods. Which of the following quadratic functions will have a maximum value? Explain how you know. a) b) y 5 24(x 1 1) 2 1 6 f (x) 5 (x 2 5) 2 c) f (x) 5 22x(x 2 4) d) g(x) 5 2x 2 2 7 PRACTISING 4.

in metres. A rock is thrown straight up in the air from an initial height h0. The profit P(x) of a cosmetics company.7. Can both coaches be satisfied? Explain your answer. C(x) 5 12x 1 28 5 22x 2 1 32x. 15. 30 fewer students attend the dance. C(x) 5 8x 1 18 5 22x 2 1 25x. A ticket to a school dance is $8. Usually. function f (x) 5 3x 2 2 7x 1 2. For each pair of revenue and cost functions.9t 2 1 v0t 1 h0. The football coach wants the rectangular infield area to be as large as possible. where h(t) is the ball’s height above the ground. determine i) the profit function ii) the value of x that maximizes profit a) b) c) d) R(x) R(x) R(x) R(x) 5 2x 2 1 24x. A high school is planning to build a new playing field surrounded by a T 13. a) Determine the maximum height of the ball. Determine the minimum production cost. Which method would you choose for this particular function? Give a reason for your answer. where x is the amount spent on advertising. c) What amount must be spent on advertising to obtain a profit of at least $4 000 000? running track. C(x) 5 3x 1 17 8. The track coach wants two laps around the track to be 1000 m. The cost function in a computer manufacturing plant is C(x) 5 0. 11. The height in metres above the ground after t seconds is given by h(t) 5 24. Find an expression for the time it takes the rock to reach its maximum height. a) Determine the maximum profit the company can make. What ticket price will maximize the revenue? 154 Chapter 3 NEL . 10.28x 2 2 0. 12. The dance committee knows that for every $1 increase in the price of a ticket. at time t seconds after the throw. is given by A P(x) 5 25x 2 1 400x 2 2550. Show that the value of 3x 2 2 6x 1 5 cannot be less than 1. 300 students attend. in thousands of dollars. Compare the methods for finding the minimum value of the quadratic C Extending 14. in thousands of dollars. b) Determine the amount spent on advertising that will result in the maximum profit. where C(x) is the cost per hour in millions of dollars and x is the number of items produced per hour in thousands. b) How long does it take for the ball to reach its maximum height? c) How high is the rooftop? 9. C(x) 5 14x 1 45 5 23x 2 1 26x. in metres. with initial velocity v0. in metres per second.7x 1 1. The height of a ball thrown vertically upward from a rooftop is modelled by h(t) 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 50.

She has 864 cm2 of cardboard to use. State the domain and range of the inverse. F. Cube Side Length (cm) Area of Each Face (cm2) Surface Area (cm2) 1 1 6 2 4 24 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B. How are the surface area function and its inverse related a) in the table of values? b) in their graphs? c) in their domains and ranges? Quadratic Functions NEL 155 . Determine the equation that represents the cube’s surface area as a function of its side length. C. H. Write the equation that represents the cube’s side length for a given surface area. Use function notation and state the domain and range.3. given different representations. E. Compare the graph of the inverse with the original graph. Is the inverse a function? Explain.3 GOAL The Inverse of a Quadratic Function YOU WILL NEED Determine the inverse of a quadratic function. Use your equation from part H to determine the largest cube Suzanne will be able to construct. Draw a graph of surface area versus side length. What type of function is this? Explain how you know. D. She wants to use all of the material provided. I. Draw a graph of the inverse. ? A. • graph paper • ruler • graphing calculator INVESTIGATE the Math Suzanne needs to make a box in the shape of a cube. Reflecting J. How long will each side of Suzanne’s box be? Copy and complete this table. G. How would you calculate the inverse of this function to describe the side length of the cube if you know its surface area? Make a table of values for the inverse of the surface area function.

How is any quadratic function related to its inverse a) in their domains and ranges? b) in their equations? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Determining the domain and range of the inverse of a quadratic function y 8 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 x f(x) = x2 Given the graph of f (x) 5 x 2. Give a reason for your answer. The range c) The inverse of f (x) 5 x 2 is not a function. 156 Chapter 3 NEL . (2. Paul’s Solution a) 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 x y f(x) = x2 y=x To graph the inverse of f(x) 5 x 2. Therefore. of f (x) 5 x 2 is 5 y [ R | y $ 06. and the range is 5 y [ R6. and vice versa. a) graph the inverse relation b) state the domain and range of f (x) 5 x 2 and the inverse relation c) determine whether the inverse of f (x) 5 x 2 is also a function. the domain of f 21 is 5x [ R | x $ 06. I took the coordinates of each point on the original graph and switched the x. The graph of the inverse is a reflection of the original function about the line y 5 x.K. 2).and y-coordinates. I had to do this because the input value becomes the output value in the inverse. 4) became (4. The range of the inverse is the domain of the original function. f -1: + x - The domain of the inverse is the range of the original function. b) The domain of f (x) 5 x 2 is 5x [ R6. I knew this because the inverse fails the vertical-line test: For each number in the domain except 0. there are two values in the range. For example.

I could tell from the graph of the inverse that there were two parts to the inverse function. (23. respectively. I interchanged x and y in the original function.3 EXAMPLE 2 Determining the equation of the inverse of a quadratic function Given the quadratic function f (x) 5 2(x 1 3) 2 2 4. NEL Quadratic Functions 157 . the lower from taking the negative square root. an upper branch and a lower branch.and y-coordinates of the points on the original function. which are also the same values of f(24) and f(25). because y represents the output value in the function. a) graph f (x) and its inverse b) determine the equation of the inverse Prashant’s Solution a) 8 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 f -1: 3+ x + 4 2 First I wrote the equation with y replacing f(x).3. since the inverse is not a function. To graph the inverse. I interchanged the x. The upper branch came from taking the positive square root of both sides. I then rearranged the equation and solved for y by using the inverse of the operations given in the original function. and I could write it in function notation. y f(x) = 2(x + 3)2 4 I graphed f(x) by plotting the vertex. f 21 (x) 5 23 1 x14 5y Å 2 x14 5y13 2 x14 Å 2 I couldn’t write f 21 (x) for y. But if I restricted the original domain to x $ 23. The parabola opens up because the value of a is positive. I found f(22) 5 22 and f(21) 5 4. x 2 4 6 8 b) f (x) 5 2(x 1 3) 2 2 4 y 5 2(x 1 3) 2 2 4 x 5 2( y 1 3) 2 2 4 Å x 1 4 5 2( y 1 3) 2 x14 5 ( y 1 3) 2 2 6 23 6 For f (x) restricted to x $ 23. 24). then I would use only one branch of the inverse. To find the equation of the inverse.

I switched x and y and used inverse operations with the original function. 6 6 x24 215y Å 22 I entered both parts of the inverse x24 21 separately. 4) and the parabola opened down.EXAMPLE 3 Using a graphing calculator as a strategy to graph a quadratic function and its inverse Using a graphing calculator. I entered y 5 Ä 22 x24 21 into Y2 and y 5 2 Ä 22 into Y3. f (x) 5 22(x 1 1) 2 1 4 y 5 22(x 1 1) 2 1 4 x 5 22( y 1 1) 2 1 4 x24 5y11 Å 22 x 2 4 5 22( y 1 1) 2 x24 5 ( y 1 1) 2 22 To graph the inverse. 210 # y # 10. because I knew the vertex was located at (21. The calculator displayed the function and its inverse. I used WINDOW settings 210 # x # 10. I needed to find the equation of the inverse. graph f (x) 5 22(x 1 1) 2 1 4 and its inverse. 158 Chapter 3 NEL . Bonnie’s Solution I entered the function into the equation editor at Y1.

This function is a parabola that opens down.18). then the value of t is 6.005(t 2 6) 2 S 2 0.18. the range values are between 0 and 12.18 Å 0.18 5 (t 2 6) 2 20.3. The vertex is (6. so the value under the square root would be negative.18 5t26 Å 20. so 0 is the minimum value. Surface area cannot be less than zero.18 5 20. the numerator would be positive. b) Determine the model that describes time in terms of the surface area. so S must be at least 0.18. Therefore. I solved the given equation for t by using the inverse operations.18. For values greater than 0. so the greatest value S can have is 0. If S 5 0. Thomas’ Solution a) Domain 5 5t [ R | 0 # t # 126 Range 5 5S [ R | 0 # S # 0.3 EXAMPLE 4 Solving a problem by using the inverse of a quadratic function The rate of change in the surface area of a cell culture can be modelled by the function S(t) 5 20.18 S 2 0. c) Determine the domain and range of the new model. so the maximum value is 0. To find the inverse of the original function. and 0 # t # 12. If S 5 0.005 S 2 0.186 Range 5 5t [ R | 0 # t # 126 2S 1 0.005 The domain is given in the problem as part of the model. NEL Quadratic Functions 159 .005 The value under the square root sign has to be positive. a) State the domain and range of S(t).18 Å 20. where S(t) is the rate of change in the surface area in square millimetres per hour at time t in hours. 0.186 S 5 20.18. 6 I did not interchange S and t in this case because S always means surface area and t always means time.005(t 2 6) 2 1 0. The domain and range of the new model: Domain 5 5S [ R | 0 # S # 0.18. The surface area also cannot be negative.005 t566 t566 S 2 0. then t 5 6 6 6. so t 5 0 or t 5 12.005(t 2 6) 2 1 0.

(1. 4). (0. (2. • In the equation of the inverse of a quadratic function.In Summary Key Ideas • The inverse of the original function undoes what the original function has done. • The inverse of a quadratic function can be a function if the domain of the original function is restricted. (1. 3). while the negative root represents the lower branch. If the original quadratic opens down (a . CHECK Your Understanding 1. 4). (2. • The inverse of a quadratic function defined over all the real numbers is not a function. 0). 24)6 a) y b) 8 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 x 8 6 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 y x 2 3. It is a parabolic relation that opens either to the left or to the right. the inverse opens to the left. graph the inverse relation. the positive square root function represents the upper branch of the parabola. Given the graph of f (x). If the original quadratic opens up (a . the inverse opens to the right. 160 Chapter 3 NEL . Need to Know • The equation of the inverse of a quadratic can be found by interchanging x and y in vertex form and solving for y. 0). 0). (3. a) 5(0. 27)6 b) 5(23. Given f (x) 5 2x 2 2 1. 5). It can be used to determine which values of the original dependent variable produce given values for the original independent variable. Each set of ordered pairs defines a parabola. (22. 24). (21. its inverse. Graph the relation and 2. determine the equation of the inverse. 12). 1). (3. 1).

in metres. b) Sketch the graph of its inverse on the same axes. Given f (x) 5 7 2 2(x 2 1) 2. Time (s) Height (m) 0 0 0. determine 5. The height of a ball thrown from a balcony can be modelled by the function A h(t) 5 25t 2 1 10t 1 35.0 2. determine the equation for K f 21 (x).5 1. For 22 . Graph the data and a curve of good fit for the relationship. a) Write h(t) in vertex form.3 PRACTISING 4. 7.5 12. x . Is the inverse a function? Explain. at time t seconds after it is thrown. d) Determine the equation for g 21 (x). determine 10. Determine the vertex of the parabola. c) State the domain and range of g 21 (x). x . 3 9. Determine the domain and range of f 21 (x) for y $ 0. Consider f (x) 5 22x 2 1 3x 2 1.375 a) b) c) d) T Use first and second differences to extend the table. b) Determine the domain and range of h(t). 3 and f (x) 5 3x 2 2 6x.75. d) What are the domain and range of the new model? 11.5 39. a) b) c) d) e) NEL Quadratic Functions 161 . Given f (x) 5 2 (x 1 1) 2 2 3 for x $ 21. a) Graph g(x) 5 2 !x for x $ 0. a) f (3) b) f 21 (x) c) f 21 (5) 2 d) f 21 (2a 1 7) Sketch the graph of f (x) 5 3(x 2 2) 2 2.3. Graph f (x). x $ 1. find the equation for f 2 (x) for the part of the function where x # 5.5 30. Graph the function and its inverse on the same axes. a) the domain and range of f (x) b) the equation of f 21 (x) if f (x) is further restricted to 1 . Graph f 21 (x) for y $ 0. Why were the values of x restricted in parts (c) and (d)? 12. Given f (x) 5 (x 2 5) 2 1 3.375 2 36. 21 1 8. a) 6. where h(t) is the height above the ground. c) Determine the model that describes time in terms of the height. b) Graph its inverse on the same axes. Use a graphing calculator to graph f 21 (x). Graph the inverse relation and its curve of good fit.375 1 22.75. The height of a golf ball after Lori Kane hits it is shown in the table.

NEL 162 Chapter 3 . a) Determine an algebraic expression for P(x). Interpret its meaning.13. You are given the relation x 5 4 2 4y 1 y 2. 14. A meat department manager discovers that she can sell m(x) kilograms of ground beef in a week. will its inverse be a function? Explain. Graph f 21. b) If the domain of the quadratic function is 5 x [ R 6. She pays her supplier $3. b) Find the equation for the inverse relation. Determine the domain and range of the relation. c) Write an expression in function notation to represent the price that will earn $1900 in profit. a) C Extending If you are given a quadratic function in standard form. Each graph shows a function f that is a parabola or a branch of a parabola. Determine the equation of the inverse. Is the inverse a function? Explain. a) 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 y x 2 4 6 8 c) 6 4 2 –6 –4 –2 0 –2 –4 y x 2 b) 6 4 2 –4 –2 0 –2 –4 y d) 8 6 4 2 –6 –4 –2 0 –2 y x 2 4 6 x 2 4 i) ii) iii) iv) Determine f (x). e) The supply cost drops to $3. where P(x) represents the total profit in dollars for 1 week. Determine the equation(s) for f 21. explain how you could determine the equation of its inverse. d) Determine the price that will maximize profit. real numbers also to be a function? 16. where m(x) 5 14 700 2 3040x. Evaluate and explain.10/kg.21/kg for the beef. What price should the manager set? How much profit will be earned at this price? 17. State restrictions on the domain or range of f to make its inverse a function. a) b) c) d) Graph the relation. What must happen for the inverse of a quadratic function defined over all the 15. if she sells it at x dollars per kilogram.

H. Compare the results in each pair of products. From the preceding results. Reflecting E. ? A.4 GOAL Operations with Radicals Simplify and perform operations on mixed and entire radicals. is given by s(t) 5 10!4 1 t. the distance between the particle and the given point at 20 s? Copy and complete these products of radicals: !100 3 !9 5 B. explain why using the factors !4 3 !6 is a better choice than using !3 3 !8.3. such as ! 4 5 2 or "27 5 3. Determine s(20). s(t). describe how !ab is related to !a 3 !b. express this product as a) an entire radical b) a mixed radical Use your calculator to verify that your products are equivalent. in millimetres of a particle from a certain point at any time. If a . Why would the decimal answer for !24 not be considered exact? !16 3 !9 5 !4 3 !36 5 !25 3 !4 5 5 3 2 5 10 !100 3 9 5 ! 5 ! 4 3 36 5 ! 5 !16 3 9 5 ! 5 !25 3 4 5 !100 5 10 a square. His answer must be in simplest form and he is not permitted to use a decimal. for example. a radical with coefficient other than 1. 2 ! 3 mixed radical a radical with coefficient 1. Don needs to find the exact distance between the point and the particle after 20 s. G. INVESTIGATE the Math The distance. ! 12 entire radical F. why is b!a a simpler form of "ab 2 ? Determine s(20) as a decimal. C. If a and b are positive whole numbers. 0. for example. Use what you observed in parts A to C to simplify the expression so that your answer uses the smallest possible radical. What is the exact value of s(20). t. cube. ! is called the radical symbol radical 3 D. or higher root. Consider !4 3 !6. To express !24 as a mixed radical. NEL Quadratic Functions 163 .

but to put the mixed radical in lowest terms. I could have chosen 4 or 9. 164 Chapter 3 NEL . EXAMPLE 2 Changing mixed radicals to entire radicals a) 4!5 5 4 3 !5 a) 4!5 Express each of the following as entire radicals. So I wrote 26 as the product of 21 and 6. I evaluated ! 36. b) 26!3 5 !16 3 !5 5 !80 5 2 !108 Sami’s Solution b) 26!3 5 (26) 3 !3 5 (21) 3 6 3 !3 5 (21) 3 !36 3 !3 To create an entire radical. I evaluated the square root of 9 and multiplied it by the coefficient 5. I had to choose the greatest perfect square. I had to change 4 into a square root. Then I was able to multiply the numbers under the radical signs.APPLY the Math Express each of the following as a mixed radical in lowest terms. I expressed 6 as ! 36 so that I could multiply the radical parts together to make an entire radical. which was 36. I knew that the negative sign would not go under the radical. since squares of real numbers are always positive. I found the largest perfect square that would divide evenly into 27. it was 9. a) !72 b) 5!27 EXAMPLE 1 Simplifying radicals by using a strategy involving perfect-square factors a) !72 5 !36 3 !2 Jasmine’s Solution 5 6!2 b) 5!27 5 5 3 !9 3 !3 5 5 3 3 3 !3 5 15!3 I needed to find a perfect square number that divides evenly into 72. I expressed 4 as the square root of 16. Once I expressed ! 72 as ! 36 3 ! 2.

so my answer was in lowest terms.236 I used my calculator to evaluate two radicals that were not like each other: ! 3 and ! 5.732 1 2.968 3!2 5 !2 1 !2 1 !2 5 !2 3 4 5 4!2 5 4!2 !8 8 2. When I added ! 2 to this sum. he may also have to add expressions that contain radicals. I used 3 ! 2 and ! 2. 5 3. 55 was not divisible by a perfect square. 3!2 1 !2 5 !2(3 1 1) Then I tried two like radicals. It makes sense that I can add like radicals by adding the integers in front of the radicals together.Simplify. I was able to simplify.732 !5 8 2. When I calculated ! 8. I expressed 3 ! 2 as the sum of three ! 2 s. or 4 ! 2. EXAMPLE 4 Adding radicals radicals that have the same number under the radical symbol. so I grouped together the integer products and the radical products. So 3!2 1 !2 5 !2 1 !2 1 !2 1 !2 Also. I had 4 of them altogether. It looks like I cannot add radicals together if the numbers under the radical signs are different. I found that it was not equal to ! 3 1 ! 5.236 !3 1 !5 2 !8.4 Multiplying radicals 3 a) !5 3 !11 5 !55 b) 24!6 3 2!6 Caleb’s Solution b) 24!6 3 2!6 5 (24) 3 2 3 !6 3 !6 5 (28) 3 6 5 248 5 (28) !36 I multiplied the numbers under the radical signs together. Since 36 is a perfect square. such as 3 ! 6 and 22 ! 6 like radicals In Don’s research.828 !3 8 1. Can he add radicals that are like radicals? What about other radicals? Marta’s Solution !3 1 !5 5 1. a) !5 3 !11 EXAMPLE 3. NEL Quadratic Functions 165 . A mixed radical is the product of the integer and the radical. I rounded each value to 3 decimal places and then performed the addition.

I grouped.EXAMPLE 5 Solving a problem involving radicals Calculate the perimeter. After I multiplied the terms. I then evaluated ! 144 and simplified. EXAMPLE 6 Multiplying binomial radical expressions (3 2 !6) (2 1 !24) 5 6 1 3( !4 3 !6) 2 2!6 2 12 5 6 2 12 1 6 !6 2 2 !6 5 26 1 4!6 5 6 1 3(2!6) 2 2!6 2 12 5 6 1 3!24 2 2!6 2 !144 I simplified this expression by first expanding the quantities in brackets. Leave your answer in simplest radical form. and then added the like radicals together. Barak’s Solution Simplify a3 2 ! 6b a2 1 !24b. 166 Chapter 3 NEL . I collected and combined like radicals. I noticed that some of them could be simplified further. I factored the numbers I could by using perfect squares to see if any of these are like radicals. 8 18 Robert’s Solution P 5 !8 1 2!3 1 !12 1 !18 2 3 12 5 !4 3 !2 1 2!3 1 !4 3 !3 1 !9 3 !2 5 2!2 1 2!3 1 2!3 1 3!2 5 2!2 1 3!2 1 2!3 1 2!3 5 5!2 1 4!3 To find the perimeter I needed to add up the sides. I factored ! 24 by using a perfect square. I can add only like radicals.

a) !5 3 !7 b) !11 3 !6 c) !98 d) !32 a) 4!5 1 3!5 b) 9!7 2 4!7 c) 2 !3 3 5 !2 d) 24 !3 3 8 !13 PRACTISING a) c) 3!3 1 8!2 2 4!3 1 11!2 d) !8 2 !18 d) 2 !60 4.3. one of which contains a perfect square. • ! a 3 ! b 5 ! ab for a $ 0. • A mixed radical is in simplest form when the smallest possible number is written under the radical sign. a) !3(2 2 !5) b) 2!2( !7 1 3!3) c) (4 !2) 2 b) 25!125 3!12 c) 10!40 1 2 2 !45 3 9 !1200 f) 2 10 e) d) (22!3) 3 e) 4!3 3 3!6 f ) 27!2 3 5!8 NEL Quadratic Functions 167 . Express as a mixed radical in simplest form. 2. 5. Need to Know CHECK YOUR Understanding 1. • An answer containing a radical is an exact answer. a) !27 b) !50 3. Simplify. Simplify. b $ 0 • c ! a 3 d ! b 5 cd ! ab for a $ 0. Simplify. An answer containing a decimal is an approximate answer. This results in a mixed radical. b $ 0 • The only radicals that can be added or subtracted into a single term are like radicals. Express each of these as mixed radicals in simplest form.4 In Summary Key Idea • Entire radicals can sometimes be simplified by expressing them as the product of two radicals.

K !8 2 !32 !12 1 !18 2 !27 1 !50 3!98 2 5!72 24!200 1 5!242 25!45 1 !52 1 3!125 1 2 f ) 7!12 2 3!28 1 !48 1 !63 2 3 a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) f) For questions 8 to 12. 15. Calculate the side length. 10. 9. If a > 0 and b > 0.6. 1). Which answer is in 3 8 2 T C Extending 16. which is greatest. 8. 13. Simplify. Simplify. Simplify "! !4096 . A square has an area of 450 cm2. 7. Calculate the length of the diagonal of a square with side length 4 cm. Determine the length of the line segment from A(22. Calculate the perimeter and area of this triangle. Express each radical in simplest radical form. 17. Solve ( !2) x 5 256 for x. c) 5!n7 2 2n!n5 d) ( !p 1 2!q) ( !q 2 !p) 168 Chapter 3 NEL . 11. a ! a 1 !bb or !a2 1 !b2 ? 2 2 80 14. a) "a 3 b) !x 5y 6 simplest radical form? Explain how you know. calculate the exact values and express your answers is simplest radical form. 7) to B(4. Determine the length of the diagonal of a rectangle with dimensions (6 2 !5) (3 1 2!10) (2 1 3!3) 2 ( !2 1 !5) ( !2 2 !5) (3!3 1 4!2) ( !3 2 2!2) (2!5 2 3!7) 2 (1 2 !3) (2 1 !6) (5 1 !2) 3 cm 3 9 cm. A 12. Give three mixed radicals that are equivalent to !200.

0) and the minimum point if the parabola opens up (a . graph the function on a graphing calculator and determine the maximum or minimum value. 10. Examples 2 and 3. and 12. • See Lesson 3.1. • If the equation is of degree 2. How can you determine the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function? • See Lesson 3.4. If two points are known that are the same distance from the vertex and opposite each other on the graph. The maximum or minimum value occurs at the x-value that is the average of the two x-intercepts. Remember that when you take the square root of an expression. If the equation is in factored form f (x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s). find the x-intercepts of the function. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 9. then the maximum or minimum value occurs at the x-value that is the average of the x-coordinates of the two points. A2: A3: A4: Q: A: Study Aid Interchange the values of x and y in the equation that defines the function. the function is quadratic. How can you determine the equation of the inverse of a quadratic function? • See Lesson 3. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Question 13. Example 1.2. How do you know if a radical can be simplified? • See Lesson 3. Q: A: Study Aid A radical can be simplified if the number under the radical sign is divisible by a perfect-square number other than 1. • If the graph is a parabola opening either up or down. which is the maximum point if the parabola opens down (a . one positive and one negative. then the function is quadratic. and then solve the new equation for y. If the equation is in standard form and the values of the coefficients are decimals. then the function is quadratic. complete the square to find the vertex.3 Q: A: Mid-Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions How can you tell if a function is quadratic from its table of values? its graph? its equation? Aid • If the second differences are constant. Example 2. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 5 and 8. Q: A1: Study Aid If the equation is in standard form f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. Examples 1 to 3. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 and 2.3. NEL Quadratic Functions 169 . 0) . there are two possible solutions.

where x is the number of items sold.1 8. !7 3 !14 3!5 3 2!15 !12 1 2!48 2 5!27 3!28 2 2!50 1 !63 2 3!18 (4 2 !3) (5 1 2!3) (3!5 1 2!10) (22!5 1 5!10) d) 23!75 e) 5!98 f ) 28!12 170 Chapter 3 NEL .2x 1 2. b) List the domain and range of f (x) and its inverse. equation P(x) 5 24x 1 16x 2 7. Express the number sold in terms of the revenue. where x is the number of items sold. Lesson 3. where C(x) is the cost per hour in thousands of dollars. possible product between these numbers? Lesson 3.3 Determine whether the function is quadratic. The sum of two numbers is 16. and P(x) is dollars in thousands. 14. in thousands. a) f (x) 5 x 2 2 6x 1 2 b) f (x) 5 2(x 2 4) (x 1 6) c) f (x) 5 22x 2 1 10x d) f (x) 5 3. For each function in question 2. For each table. calculate the second differences. in thousands. The profit function for a business is given by the 13. Express each radical in simplest form.2 12. a) Determine the equation of the inverse of the quadratic function f (x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 3. Almost all linear functions have an inverse that is a 5. The revenue for a business is modelled by the 2. c) Sketch the graphs of f (x) and its inverse. Simplify. the equation of the axis of symmetry. Explain why? a) the domain and range of f (x) b) the equation of f 21 a) !48 b) !68 c) !180 a) b) c) d) e) f) 10. function R(x) 5 22.2x 2 1 15x 2 7 6. The cost per hour of running an assembly line in a 2 manufacturing plant is a function of the number of items produced per hour.4 11. Determine the most economical production level. 4. Determine the maximum or minimum value of each quadratic function. state the vertex.3x 2 2 1. Graph each function. in thousands.8(x 2 10) 2 1 15. 7. and x is the number of items produced per hour.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 3. and R(x) is the revenue in thousands of dollars. a) b) x y x y 22 21 0 1 2 28 22 0 22 28 22 21 0 1 2 0 1 4 9 16 9. Calculate the maximum profit and how many items must be sold to achieve it. but quadratic functions do not. and the domain and range. The cost function is C(x) 5 0. Express each function in question 2 in standard form. a) f (x) 5 23(x 2 2) 2 1 5 b) f (x) 5 2(x 1 4) (x 2 6) 3. What is the largest 1. function. Graph f (x) 5 2 !x 1 3 and determine Lesson 3.

What point is the focus of this parabola? NEL Quadratic Functions 171 . 5. (2. 4). 1). and the parabola represents the dish. 1 YOU WILL NEED • ruler • protractor 1 f(x) 5 4 x2 y 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 tangent lines 2 4 6 x 1. 3. With a protractor. Mark these points on a copy of the graph: (24. 2. 4. The reflected ray will make the same angle with the tangent line. Draw a line parallel to the y-axis through each of the points. Each vertical line represents a satellite signal ray. measure the angle made between the ray and the tangent line. called the focus of the parabola. All reflected rays should pass through the same point on the y-axis. which is positioned at a fixed point called the focus.4 Curious Math Investigating a Special Property of Parabolas In a parabolic satellite reception dish. Use the protractor to draw the line representing the reflected ray. You can locate this 1 point by using math. 1). Each signal ray will be reflected.) You can use the tangent lines to determine the focus. The graph of f (x) 5 x 2 shows four tangent lines. (22. (4. 4. 6. (Each tangent line just touches 4 the curve at one point. all of the signal rays are directed to a feed horn.3. Let the function f (x) 5 x 2 model the shape of a satellite 4 dish.). Extend the lines representing the reflected ray until they cross the y-axis.

LEARN ABOUT the Math Anthony owns a business that sells parts for electronic game systems. ? How many parts must Anthony sell in order for his business to break even? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to solve a quadratic equation Determine the number of parts Anthony must sell to break even.3. Because x is measured in thousands. Tech Support Derek’s Solution: Using Graphing Technology For help using the graphing calculator to graph functions and find their x-intercepts. I used the zero operation and found the x-intercepts from my graph.5 YOU WILL NEED Quadratic Function Models: Solving Quadratic Equations GOAL • graphing calculator Solve problems involving quadratic functions in different ways. where x is the quantity sold. and P(x) is the profit in thousands of dollars. in thousands. see Technical Appendix.5x 2 1 8x 2 24. B-2 and B-8. I knew that the break-even values were 4000 and 12 000. Anthony must sell 4000 parts or 12 000 parts. The profit function for his business can be modelled by the equation P(x) 5 20. so I looked for the x-intercepts of my function. 172 Chapter 3 NEL . I graphed P(x). Breaking even means that the profit is zero. There were two possible values. at x 5 4 and x 5 12.

5x 2 1 8x 2 24 5 0 20. b 5 8. I used the quadratic formula. since the number sold was in thousands.5) or x5 28 2 4 21 My answer would have to be in thousands. NEL Quadratic Functions 173 . To solve the equation. and c 5 224 from the equation into the quadratic formula and simplified. I substituted the values a 5 20.5. 20.5. I divided all the terms by the common factor 20. Tracey’s Solution: Using the Quadratic Formula 2 b 6 "b2 2 4ac 2a P(x) 5 0 I needed to find the values of x that would make the profit function equal to zero. the profit is zero. I found the values of x that would give me zero in each bracket. Since x is measured in thousands.5x 2 1 8x 2 24 5 0 x5 5 5 5 x5 28 6 "64 2 48 21 28 6 "16 21 28 1 4 21 28 6 " (8) 2 2 4(20.5 Tina’s Solution: By Factoring P(x) 5 0 20. x54 or x 5 12 Anthony must sell 4000 parts or 12 000 parts to break even. Inside the brackets was a simple trinomial that I could also factor.5(x 2 2 16x 1 48) 5 0 20.5(x 2 4) (x 2 12) 5 0 x 2 4 5 0 or x 2 12 5 0 If Anthony’s business breaks even.5) (224) 2(20. x 5 4 or x 5 12 Anthony’s business must sell 4000 parts or 12 000 parts to break even.3. my answer was 4000 or 12 000 parts.

25(t 2 3) 2 1 55 5 0 Range 5 5h(t) [ R | 0 # h(t) # 556 5 25(t 2 2 6t 1 9 2 9) 1 10 5 25(t 2 3) 2 1 55 5 25(t 2 2 6t 1 9) 1 45 1 10 t 5 3 1 "11 or t 5 3 2 "11 25(t 2 3) 2 5 255 (t 2 3) 2 5 11 t 5 3 1 3. How are the three methods for calculating the break-even points for Anthony’s business the same? How are they different? Will there always be two break-even points for a profit function? Why or why not? If break-even points exist. The vertex is (3. I calculated the values of t that would make the height 0.32 or t 5 3 2 3. 174 Chapter 3 NEL .326 t 5 6. a) What are the domain and range of this function? b) When will the balloon reach a height of 30 m? Brian’s Solution a) h(t) 5 25(t 2 2 6t) 1 10 The graph must be a parabola opening down because the value of a is negative. To get the range. in metres. Domain 5 5t [ R | 0 # t # 6. h(t).32 or One value of t is negative.Reflecting A. of the balloon after t seconds is h(t) 5 25t 2 1 30t 1 10.32 t 5 20. B. C. which method may not work to determine where they are? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem involving a quadratic equation A water balloon is catapulted into the air from the top of a building. The time t must be greater than 0. so the domain must start at 0 and go to the positive value of t that I found. 55). I found the vertex by completing the square. so the maximum height is 55 m and the minimum height is 0.32 t 2 3 5 6 "11 The domain is the interval of time the balloon was in flight. It stops when it hits the ground. The height.

764 s or 5.b) 30 5 25t 2 1 30t 1 10 0 5 25t 2 1 30t 2 20 t5 5 8 t8 230 6 "500 210 230 6 22. EXAMPLE 3 Representing and solving a problem by using a quadratic equation 80 m Communication Tip A factory is to be built on a lot that measures 80 m by 60 m. How wide is the strip of lawn.236 s.36 210 or t8 230 2 22. The ball reaches 30 m going up and again coming down. equal to the area of the factory. t 8 0. must surround it. I replaced h(t) with 30 and solved for t.5 To know when the ball reached 30 m. 60 – 2x 60 m 80 – 2x NEL Quadratic Functions 175 .36 210 Both answers are possible in this question. 80 m x x x x I chose a variable for the width of the lawn. A lawn of uniform width.236 The ball will reach a height of 30 m after 0.36 210 230 6 " (30) 2 2 4(25) (220) 2(25) 3. 60 m Rachael’s Solution Let the width of the lawn be x metres. and what are the dimensions of the factory? Any solution of an equation that does not work in the context of a problem is said to be an inadmissible solution. 230 1 22.764 or t 8 5. I used the quadratic formula to solve for t.

This equation was quadratic. I found two possible values of x. The area of the lawn is equal to the area of the factory. I wrote down and simplified an expression for the area of the factory. The area of the lawn is the difference between the area of the lot and the area of the factory. so I rearranged it so that it was equal to zero and solved it by factoring. Area of factory 5 length 3 width 5 (60 2 2x) (80 2 2x) 5 4800 2 120x 2 160x 1 4x 2 5 4800 2 280x 1 4x 2 Area of lawn 5 Area of lot 2 Area of factory 5 4800 2 (4800 2 280x 1 4x 2 ) 5 24x 2 1 280x 24x 2 1 280x 5 4800 2 280x 1 4x 2 28x 2 1 560x 2 4800 5 0 28(x 2 2 70x 1 600) 5 0 28(x 2 60) (x 2 10) 5 0 x 5 60 or x 5 10 Since the lawn was the same width all around. Since a width of 60 for the strip made the dimensions of the factory negative. I had to subtract 2x from 60 and 2x from 80 to get the dimensions of the factory. But x 5 60 is inadmissible in this problem. 176 Chapter 3 NEL . the width of the lawn had to be 10 m. so x 5 10. I then substituted x 5 10 into the expressions for the length and width of the factory to find its dimensions. 60 2 2(10) 5 40 80 2 2(10) 5 60 The lawn is 10 m wide.The dimensions of the factory are (60 2 2x) m and (80 2 2x) m. so I set the two expressions equal to each other. and the dimensions of the factory are 60 m by 40 m.

a) x 2 2 4x 2 9 5 0 b) 3x 2 1 2x 2 8 5 0 a) c) 22x 2 1 3x 2 6 5 0 d) 0.2x 2 4. Use a graphing calculator to solve each equation. a) 2x 2 2 3x 5 x 2 1 7x b) 4x 2 1 6x 1 1 5 0 c) x 2 1 4x 2 3 5 0 a) d) (x 1 3) 2 5 22x e) 3x 2 2 5x 5 2x 2 1 4x 1 10 f ) 2(x 1 3) (x 2 4) 5 6x 1 6 b) f (x) 5 24x 2 1 25x 2 21 5. f (x) 5 3x 2 2 7x 2 2 NEL Quadratic Functions 177 . Locate the x-intercepts of the graph of each function. or zeros. The equations can be solved in a number of ways. 0 5 24x 2 2 5x 2 1 PRACTISING 4. Use the quadratic formula to determine each of the roots to two decimal places. either by hand or with technology. When appropriate. or approximately with decimals. the solutions of a quadratic equation may be expressed exactly by using radicals or rational numbers. ii) Use your strategy to solve the equation. a) x 2 1 5x 1 4 5 0 b) x 2 2 11x 1 18 5 0 c) 4x 2 2 9 5 0 d) 2x 2 2 7x 2 4 5 0 2. decide on a strategy to solve it and explain why you chose that strategy. leave your answer in simplest radical form.5 In Summary Key Idea • All quadratic equations can be expressed in the form ax2 1 bx 1 c 5 0 by algebraic techniques. i) K For each equation.5x 2 2 2. These zeros are the solutions or roots of the equation ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0. • Quadratic equations can also be solved • by factoring 2b 6 !b 2 2 4ac • with the quadratic formula. Determine the roots of each equation by factoring. Need to Know • Quadratic equations can be solved by graphing the corresponding functions f(x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c and locating the x-intercepts.3.7 5 0 b) 0 5 2x 2 2 11x 1 9 3. x 5 2a • Depending on the problem and the degree of accuracy required. CHECK Your Understanding 1.

6 m tall can be modelled by the function h(t) 5 24. The length of the hypotenuse is 6 cm more than twice the length of one of the other sides. the company estimates that it will lose 40 passengers per day. Find the zeros of the function f (x) 5 3x 2 1 1 1 . A right triangle has a height 8 cm more than twice the length of the base. If the area of the triangle is 96 cm2. For each $0. The height of the flare above 14. How long will it take for the ball to hit the ground? P(t) 5 0. 11. what fare should be charged? 15. what are the dimensions of the triangle? 12. where x is the number sold. What are the dimensions of the rectangle? 10. Jackie mows a strip of uniform width around her 25 m by 15 m rectangular T lawn and leaves a patch of lawn that is 60% of the original area.9t 2 1 92t 1 9. A small flare is launched off the deck of a ship. a) When will the flare’s height be 150 m? b) How long will the flare’s height be above 150 m? 13.4t 2 1 10t 1 50. 8. 17. The population of a region can be modelled by the function 9. One side is 7 m longer than the other.6.6. A rectangle has an area of 330 m2. Extending 16. in thousands. A bus company has 4000 passengers daily. a) What was the population in 1995? b) What will be the population in 2010? c) In what year will the population be at least 450 000? Explain your answer. What is the width of the strip? the water is given by the function h(t) 5 24. If the company needs to take in $10 450 per day to stay in business. Determine the break-even quantities for each profit function. a) P(x) 5 2x 2 1 12x 1 28 b) P(x) 5 22x 2 1 18x 2 40 A c) P(x) 5 22x 2 1 22x 2 17 d) P(x) 5 20. The perimeter of a right triangle is 60 cm. where h(t) is measured in metres and t is time in seconds. Find the lengths of all three sides. What could the integers be? List all possibilities. The flight of a ball hit from a tee that is 0.15 increase. Describe three possible ways that you could determine the zeros of the C quadratic function f (x) 5 22x 2 1 14x 2 24. x11 178 Chapter 3 NEL . The sum of the squares of two consecutive integers is 685.5x 2 1 6x 2 5 7. each paying a fare of $2. where P(t) is the population in thousands and t is the time in years since the year 1995. where h(t) is the height in metres at time t seconds.9t 2 1 6t 1 0.

so I factored it. or 2 zeros. then factored the trinomial inside the brackets. Tara’s Solution: Using Properties of the Quadratic Function f (x) 5 22x 2 1 12x 2 18 f (x) 5 22(x 2 2 6x 1 9) 5 22(x 2 3) 2 Vertex is (3. LEARN ABOUT the Math Samantha has been asked to predict the number of zeros for each of three quadratic functions without using a graphing calculator. g(x) 5 2x 2 1 6x 2 8 g(x) 5 2(x2 1 3x 2 4) 5 2(x 1 4) (x 2 1) This function has two zeros. I decided to find the vertex of the first function.6 GOAL The Zeros of a Quadratic Function Use a variety of strategies to determine the number of zeros of a quadratic function. This function has one zero. I used the factors to find the zeros. Because the vertex is on the x-axis. This put the function in vertex form. so this function has two. there is only one zero. NEL Quadratic Functions 179 . Samantha knows that quadratics have 0. I factored 22 out as a common factor. at x 5 24 and x 5 1. The three functions are: f (x) 5 22x 2 1 12x 2 18 g(x) 5 2x 2 1 6x 2 8 h(x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 7 ? How can Samantha predict the number of zeros each quadratic has without graphing? EXAMPLE 1 Connecting functions to their graphs Determine the properties of each function that will help you determine the number of x-intercepts each has. 1.3. 0) and the parabola opens down. I factored 2 out as a common factor in the second function. The trinomial that was left was a perfect square.

I set f(x) 5 0. The vertex is above the x-axis. 3) and the parabola opens up. Asad’s Solution: Using the Quadratic Formula f (x) 5 22x 2 1 12x 2 18 0 5 22x 2 1 12x 2 18 x5 5 5 5 5 2b 6 "b2 2 4ac 2a 212 6 !0 24 The zeros or x-intercepts occur when each function equals 0. Therefore. and c 5 218. 212 6 " (12) 2 2 4(22) (218) 2(22) 212 6 "144 2 144 24 212 24 53 The first function has only one value for the x-intercept. then solved the resulting equation using the quadratic formula with a 5 22. which is zero. This can be seen from the value of the discriminant (the quantity under the radical sign). There were two solutions. b 5 6. the function has no zeros. This function has one zero. This function has no zeros. so there is only one zero. so I found the vertex by completing the square. So the function has two zeros. b 5 12. 180 Chapter 3 NEL . This function would not factor. and the parabola opens up because a is positive. g(x) 5 2x 2 1 6x 2 8 0 5 2x 2 1 6x 2 8 x5 5 5 2b 6 "b 2 2 4ac 2a 26 6 "36 1 64 4 26 6 " (6) 2 2 4(2) (28) 2(2) I used the quadratic formula again with a 5 2. since the discriminant was positive. and c 5 28.h(x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 7 5 (x 2 2 4x 1 4 2 4) 1 7 5 (x 2 2 4x 1 4) 2 4 1 7 5 (x 2 2) 2 1 3 The vertex is (2.

How can finding the vertex help determine the number of zeros? Why is the factored form useful in determining the number of zeros of a quadratic function? Explain how the quadratic formula can be used to predict the number of zeros of a quadratic function. C.6 26 1 10 4 x 5 24 or This function has two zeros. and c 5 7. Describe the possibilities for the number of zeros of a quadratic function. 4 6 "212 2 Reflecting A. The discriminant was negative. B. D. NEL Quadratic Functions 181 . b 5 24. The function has no zeros. so there were no real-number solutions. This function has no zeros.5 x5 26 6 "100 4 26 2 10 4 or x51 x5 3. h(x) 5 x 2 2 4x 1 7 0 5 x 2 2 4x 1 7 x5 5 5 5 4 6 " (24) 2 2 4(1) (7) 2 4 6 "16 2 28 2 2b 6 "b2 2 4ac 2a I used the quadratic formula with a 5 1.

0. there are no zeros. so the function has only one zero. In this function. so the function has no zeros. 0.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Using the discriminant to determine the number of zeros Find the value of the discriminant to determine the number of zeros of each quadratic function. b2 2 4ac is a negative number. there are two distinct zeros. the function has two zeros. 182 Chapter 3 NEL . a) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 3x 2 5 b) g(x) 5 4x 2 1 4x 1 1 c) h(x) 5 25x 2 1 x 2 2 Larry’s Solution a) b2 2 4ac 5 (23) 2 2 4(2) (25) The discriminant b2 2 4ac is the value under the square root sign in the quadratic formula. there is one zero. c) b 2 2 4ac 5 (1) 2 2 4(25) (22) 5 1 2 40 5 239 Since 239 . b) b2 2 4ac 5 (4) 2 2 4(4) (1) 5 16 2 16 50 Therefore. This time. the discriminant is equal to zero. 5 9 1 40 5 49 Since 49 . If b2 2 4ac is a positive number.

I expressed the values of k using a mixed radical in simplest form. NEL Quadratic Functions 183 . where x is based on the number of items produced. Ruth’s Solution b 2 2 4ac 5 0 (2k) 2 2 4(1) (3) 5 0 k 2 2 12 5 0 k 2 5 12 k 5 6!12 k 5 62!3 Since I had to take the square root of both sides to solve for k.3x 2 1 3x 2 15. there were two possible values. Therefore.3) (215) 5 9 2 18 5 29 Since b2 2 4ac . EXAMPLE 4 Solving a problem by using the discriminant A market researcher predicted that the profit function for the first year of a new business would be P(x) 5 20. b.3x 2 1 3x 2 15 5 0 b 2 2 4ac 5 (3) 2 2 4(20.3. there are no zeros for this function. and c into the equation b2 2 4ac 5 0 and solved for k. it is not possible for the business to break even in its first year. then the discriminant is zero. 0. At a break-even point. I used the value of the discriminant to decide. If there is only one zero. Will it be possible for the business to break even in its first year? Raj’s Solution P(x) 5 0 20. I put the values for a.6 EXAMPLE 3 Solving a problem involving a quadratic function with one zero Determine the value of k so that the quadratic function f (x) 5 x 2 2 kx 1 3 has only one zero. so I only needed to know if the profit function had any zeros. the profit is zero. I just wanted to know if there was a break-even point and not what it was.

0. there are two zeros. and the vertex is above the x-axis. You can determine the number of zeros either by graphing or by analyzing the function.In Summary Key Idea • A quadratic function can have 0. and the vertex is below the x-axis. there are no zeros. and the vertex is below the x-axis. Need to Know • The number of zeros of a quadratic function can be determined by looking at the graph of the function and finding the number of x-intercepts. 0. 0. and the vertex is above the x-axis. • If a . 7 5 3 5 3 y a. see the table below: Value of the Discriminant b2 2 4ac . and the direction of opening: • If a . • For a quadratic equation ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0 and its corresponding function f(x) 5 ax2 1 bx 1 c. 0 2 2 Number of Zeros/Solutions 2 1 0 • The number of zeros can be determined by the location of the vertex relative to the x-axis. 1. there are no zeros. • If a .0 a. 0. • If the vertex is on the x-axis. there is one zero.0 2 0 1 1 3 5 7 x 3 5 5 3 2 0 1 1 3 5 7 2 0 1 1 3 5 7 x 3 5 no zeros one zero two zeros a.0 a.0 7 5 3 y 7 5 3 x 3 5 5 3 y a.0 a. 0 b 2 4ac 5 0 b 2 4ac . • If a .0 184 Chapter 3 NEL . there are two zeros. or 2 zeros.

06x 2 5. c) The parabola opens down and the vertex is also the zero of the function.8 c) P(x) 5 22x 2 1 6. Then state the number of zeros. 11.4 b) P(x) 5 20.6 CHECK Your Understanding 1. Determine the number of zeros. b) The parabola opens up and has no zeros. a) P(x) 5 22. Determine the vertex and the direction of opening for each quadratic function. a) The parabola opens down and has two zeros.4x 1 5. Factor each quadratic function to determine the number of zeros. For what value(s) of k will the function f (x) 5 kx 2 2 4x 1 k have no zeros? 8. If A the company can break even.2 x-intercept? 6. Do not use the same method for all K four parts.3x 2 1 2x 2 7. determine whether the company can break even.1x 2 1 9. NEL Quadratic Functions 185 . The graph of the function f (x) 5 x 2 2 kx 1 k 1 8 touches the x-axis at one point. a) f (x) 5 23(x 2 2) 2 1 4 b) f (x) 5 5(x 2 3) (x 1 4) c) f (x) 5 4x 2 2 2x d) f (x) 5 3x 2 2 x 1 5 5. a) f (x) 5 3x 2 2 5 d) f (x) 5 3(x 1 2) 2 2 b) f (x) 5 24x 1 7 e) f (x) 5 24(x 1 3) 2 2 5 2 c) f (x) 5 5x 1 3 f ) f (x) 5 0.3. a) f (x) 5 2x 2 6x 2 7 b) f (x) 5 3x 2 1 2x 1 7 PRACTISING 4. determine in how many ways it can do so. What are the possible values of k? 10.4x 2 1 x 2 1.76 2 2 4ac to determine the number of zeros. Write the equation of a quadratic function that meets each of the given conditions. For what values of k will the function f (x) 5 3x 2 1 4x 1 k 5 0 have no zeros? one zero? two zeros? 9. For what value(s) of k will the function f (x) 5 3x 2 2 4x 1 k have one 7. a) f (x) 5 x 2 2 6x 2 16 b) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 6x 3. Calculate the value of b 2 c) f (x) 5 4x 2 2 1 d) f (x) 5 9x 2 1 6x 1 1 c) f (x) 5 x 2 1 8x 1 16 d) f (x) 5 9x 2 2 14. For each profit function.5(x 2 4) 2 2 2 2.4x 2 5. Is it possible for n2 1 25 to equal 28n? Explain.12 d) P(x) 5 22.

Machine A: C(x) 5 4. For what values of k does the function have no zeros? one zero? two zeros? 186 Chapter 3 NEL . The cost function for each machine is shown.8x 1 55. Which machine would you recommend to the company? 13. Explain your thinking.36 Machine C: C(x) 5 8. determine T the value of k so that there is exactly one point of intersection between the two parabolas. without solving the related quadratic equation or graphing. Describe how each transformation or sequence of transformations of the function f (x) 5 3x 2 will affect the number of zeros the function has. where x is the quantity sold in thousands and p is the price in dollars.5.9x 1 19. The company that manufactures the product is planning to buy a new machine for the plant.1x 1 92.16 Machine B: C(x) 5 17.12. 18. The demand function for a new product is p(x) 5 24x 1 42. If f (x) 5 x 2 2 6x 1 14 and g(x) 5 2x 2 2 20x 2 k.4 Investigate the break-even quantities for each machine. a) a vertical stretch of factor 2 b) a horizontal translation 3 units to the left c) a horizontal compression of factor 2 and then a reflection in the x-axis d) a vertical translation 3 units down e) a horizontal translation 4 units to the right and then a vertical translation 3 units up f ) a reflection in the x-axis. Investigate the number of zeros of the function f (x) 5 (k 1 1)x 2 1 2kx 1 k 2 1 for different values of k. then a horizontal translation 1 unit to the left. There are three different types of machine. Determine the number of zeros of the function f (x) 5 4 2 (x 2 3) (3x 1 1) 16. 15. and then a vertical translation 5 units up 14. Show that (x 2 2 1)k 5 (x 2 1) 2 has one solution for only one value of k. Describe how you can determine the number of zeros of a quadratic function C if the equation of the function is in a) vertex form b) factored form c) standard form Extending 17.

F. yet their graphs can have similar characteristics. How are the graphs the same? How are they different? Write each of the functions in Group 2 in vertex form. C.7 GOAL Families of Quadratic Functions Determine the properties of families of quadratic functions. What do you notice? Clear all functions. G. What characteristics do the graphs in each of these groups have in common? A. B. What do you notice? Clear all functions.5x 2 2 1x 1 3. and then graph each of the functions in Group 3 on a graphing calculator. NEL Quadratic Functions 187 . C. F. E. D. What do these functions have in common? Summarize your findings for each group. Use the window settings shown.5x 2 1 1. INVESTIGATE the Math Equations that define quadratic functions can look quite different. Group 1 f(x) 5 x 2 2 3x 2 10 g(x) 5 22x 2 1 6x 1 20 h(x) 5 4x 2 2 12x 2 40 k(x) 5 20.5 p(x) 5 26x 2 1 12x 2 3 q(x) 5 10x 2 2 20x 1 13 Group 3 r(x) 5 23x 2 1 5x 2 2 s(x) 5 2x 2 1 x 2 2 t(x) 5 7x 2 2 2x 2 2 u(x) 5 24x 2 2 4x 2 2 ? A. How are the graphs the same? How are they different? Write each of the functions in Group 1 in factored form. Use the window settings shown. Graph each of the functions in Group 1 on a graphing calculator.5x 1 5 Group 2 m(x) 5 22x 2 1 4x 1 1 n(x) 5 0.3. Use the window settings shown. and then graph each of the functions for Group 2 on a graphing calculator.

but not horizontally or vertically translated. 20) if its zeros are 2 and 21. then simplified by expanding. In each of Groups 1 and 2. To get another quadratic function with the same vertex. I. Describe the common characteristics of each of the groups. I needed to change the value of a because parabolas with the same vertex are vertically stretched or compressed. 21). I wrote the general function of all parabolas that have zeros at 2 and 21. Ian’s Solution f (x) 5 23(x 1 2) 2 2 1 Vertex is (22. 188 Chapter 3 NEL . what single value was varied to create the family? What transformation is this parameter associated with? What common characteristic appears in all quadratic functions in the same family if the equation is in factored form? vertex form? standard form? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Looking for quadratics that share a vertex Given the function f (x) 5 23(x 1 2) 2 2 1. J. Family of parabolas is of the form f (x) 5 a(x 1 2) 2 2 1 So another quadratic in the family is g (x) 5 2(x 1 2) 2 2 1. determine another quadratic function with the same vertex. EXAMPLE 2 Determining a specific equation of a member of the family f (x) 5 a(x 2 2) 3x 2 (21) 4 Preet’s Solution 5 a(x 2 2) (x 1 1) 5 a(x 2 2 x 2 2) 5 a 3x 2 2 2x 1 x 2 24 Determine the equation of the quadratic function that passes through (23. Each of the three groups of functions forms a family of parabolas. I identified the vertex.Reflecting family of parabolas a group of parabolas that all share a common characteristic H.

EXAMPLE 3 Solving a problem by applying knowledge of the vertex form of a quadratic A highway overpass has a shape that can be modelled by the equation of a parabola. f (x) 5 2(x 2 2 x 2 2). so I substituted those values into the equation and solved for a. Once I had the value of a. If the edge of the highway is the origin and the highway is 10 m wide. then one of the zeros is 0. 20). I wrote the equation in factored form. If the edge of the highway is at the origin. If the highway is 10 m wide. I substituted the point into the equation and solved for a. I wrote the equation in factored form.3.7 f (x) 5 a(x 2 2 x 2 2) 20 5 a3 (23) 2 2 (23) 2 2)4 20 5 10a a52 Therefore. Since I had the zeros. (2. 13) is a point on the curve. what is the equation of the parabola if the height of the overpass 2 m from the edge of the highway is 13 m? Elizabeth’s Solution y I drew a sketch. the equation that models the overpass is h52 13 x(x 2 10) 16 NEL Quadratic Functions 189 . x 0 2 4 6 8 10 h 5 ax(x 2 10) 13 5 a(2) (2 2 10) 13 5 216a a52 13 16 Therefore. then the other zero is at (10. To determine the equation passing through (23. I had to find the correct value of a. so I needed to find the value of a. 0). The equation that would model the overpass would be in the same family.

to 19-year-old males who smoke has been tracked by Health Canada. Bryce’s Solution a) Percent of 15.6 22.3 1995 1996 28. Since the values were 22.6 in both 1989 and 1991. Determine a quadratic function that will model the data.7 25. Year Smokers (%) 1981 1983 1985 1986 1989 1991 1994 43. I used (1990. 22) as my estimated vertex.EXAMPLE 4 Selecting a strategy to determine the quadratic function from data The percent of 15.6 26. 190 Chapter 3 NEL .1 a) b) c) d) Draw a scatter plot of the data. The data from 1981 to 1996 are given in the table.5 29. Estimate the location of the vertex.4 39. Draw a curve of good fit. They could be represented by a quadratic function. I drew a curve of good fit by hand so that I could estimate the vertex.to 19-year old Males that Smoke 50 40 % 30 20 10 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year b) Percent of 15.6 27.to 19-year old Males that Smoke 50 40 % 30 20 10 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year I plotted the points on a graph.2 22.

3. write in vertex form with a unknown. In Summary Key Ideas • If the value of a is varied in a quadratic function expressed in vertex form. Need to Know • The algebraic model of a quadratic function can be determined algebraically. a family of parabolas with the same x-intercepts and axis of symmetry is created. I substituted the point into the equation and solved for a. I chose the point (1995.5 5 a(1995 2 1990) 2 1 22 28. substitute another known point.7 c) The graph models a parabola I used vertex form with the vertex I knew. a family of parabolas with the same vertex and axis of symmetry is created.5 5 25a 1 22 6.5 5 25a 65 5a 25 a 8 0. Estimated vertex: (1990. and solve for a. • If the vertex is known. • If the values of a and b are varied in a quadratic function expressed in standard form.26 Therefore. and solve for a. 22) d) f (x) 5 a(x 2 1990) 2 1 22 28. NEL Quadratic Functions 191 . substitute a known point. with the vertex above the x-axis. • If the value of a is varied in a quadratic function in factored form. • If the zeros are known. f(x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s). I needed to find the value of a to approximate the data. write in factored form with a unknown.26(x 2 1990) 2 1 22.5) as the point on the curve. f(x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. f(x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k. a model for the data is f (x) 5 0. a family of parabolas with the same y-intercept is created.5 5 a(25) 2 1 22 28. 28.

Determine the equation of the parabola with vertex a) (22. What characteristics will two parabolas in the family f (x) 5 a(x 2 3) (x 1 4) share? 2. 7. Determine the equation of the quadratic function that passes through 10. 5) and that passes through (4. 25) and that passes through (21. 192 Chapter 3 NEL . 7) 0 and 8. and that passes through (25. 3) 1 2 ! 2 and 1 1 ! 2. and that passes through (2. 27) c) (4. If the height of the arch 4 m T from the left edge is 6 m. 23) d) (4. A tunnel with a parabolic arch is 12 m wide. b) Use your graph to sketch the graph of g(x) 5 22(x 2 2) (x 1 6). b) Draw a curve of good fit. c) Sketch the graph of h(x) 5 3(x 2 2) (x 1 6).CHECK Your Understanding 1. 8. 5) if its zeros are 2 1 ! 3 and 2 2 ! 3. How are the parabolas f (x) 5 23(x 2 2) 2 2 4 and g(x) 5 6(x 2 2) 2 2 4 the same? How are they different? g(x) 5 5x 2 1 3x 2 7 have in common? 3. 28) b) (1. a) Sketch the graph of f (x) 5 (x 2 2) (x 1 6). 0) and that passes through (11. 6) and that passes through (0. 4) 6.5 m wide pass through the tunnel? Justify your decision. A projectile is launched off the top of a platform. 6). The table gives the height A a) Draw a scatter plot of the data. Determine the equation of the quadratic function f (x) 5 ax 2 2 6x 2 7 if f (2) 5 3. What point do the parabolas f (x) 5 22x 2 1 3x 2 7 and PRACTISING a) b) c) d) 4. 11. Time (s) Height (m) 0 11 1 36 2 51 3 56 4 51 5 36 6 11 (24. 9. Determine the equation of the parabola with x-intercepts 64 and passing K through (3. c) Determine the equation that will model this set of data. of the projectile at different times during its flight. 8) 24 and 3. Determine the equation of the parabola with x-intercepts 5. and that passes through (2. 26) !7 and 2 !7. can a truck that is 5 m tall and 3. and that passes through (23.

60 0. if the height 5 m in from the outside edge is 8 m. c) Determine an algebraic model for the data.45 0. A family of cubic equations with zeros 23.00 5 1. Express the function in standard form.35 1.90 1. 29) is on the graph? 15. Definition: Families of Parabolas Characteristics: Examples: Non-examples: Extending 16. c) Determine an algebraic expression that models the data.1875 0. and factored form.50 35 104 198 287 348 401 427 442 418 a) Draw a scatter plot and a curve of good fit. x. in hundreds of kilograms per hectare (100 kg/ha). vertex. Which equation describes the cubic in the family that passes through the point (3.25 4.3. x (ha • m) Yield.05 1. and 5 can be represented by the function f (x) 5 a(x 1 3) (x 2 1) (x 2 5).75 0.75 1. 1.50 3. A parabolic bridge is 40 m wide.7 12. 6)? NEL Quadratic Functions 193 .6875 1. Amount of Water.75 4. Determine the height of the bridge 12 m in from the outside edge.75 0. b) Draw a curve of good fit. Students at an agricultural school collected data showing the effect of different annual amounts of water (rainfall plus irrigation). on the yield of broccoli. 13. 14.75 2. What is the equation of the parabola at the right if the point (24.20 1. y.6875 1. Complete the chart shown.1875 2. Include what you know about families of C 4 2 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 y x 2 parabolas in standard. 17.50 3.30 0. b) Estimate the location of the vertex. y (100 kg/ha) 0. Jason tossed a ball over a motion detector and it recorded these data.25 2.00 0 a) Draw a scatter plot of the data. in hectaremetres (ha ? m). Time (s) Height above Ground (m) 0 0 0.

t seconds after jumping out. For help using the graphing calculator to find points of intersection. how long after jumping out of the airplane should Adam release his parachute? At what height will this occur? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to solve a linear–quadratic system of equations Determine when the two functions have the same height values. • His height after jumping from the airplane before he opens his parachute can be modelled by the quadratic function h1 (t) 5 24.3. ? According to these models. B-12. LEARN ABOUT the Math Adam has decided to celebrate his birthday by going skydiving. He loves to freefall. so he will wait for some time before opening his parachute. he begins falling at a constant rate. where t is time in seconds and h1 (t) is the height above the ground. in metres. • After he releases his parachute. 194 Chapter 3 NEL . see Technical Appendix. Tech Support Kobi’s Solution: Using a Graphical Approach I graphed both functions on my graphing calculator.9t 2 1 5500. I looked for the point of intersection of the two graphs.8 Linear–Quadratic Systems GOAL Solve problems involving the intersection of a linear and a quadratic function. His height above the ground can be modelled by the linear function h2 (t) 5 25t 1 4500. I was looking for the time at which both function values were the same.

and c 5 1000 to solve for t.8. I put the equation into standard form and then used the quadratic formula with a 5 24. I got two possible values for t.9t 1 5t 1 1000 5 0 t5 5 5 5 25 6 "52 2 4(24.8 or t 8 213.8 s.8 25 6 "19 625 29. so the only answer was t 5 14. NEL Quadratic Functions 195 .78 d inadmissible Adam should open his parachute after 14. He will be 4426 m above the ground at that time.9) (1000) 2(24.9) 2 25 6 "25 1 19 600 29.8 I adjusted the window settings until both graphs and the point of intersection on the right was visible.9. the heights represented by each equation will be the same. 4426). This resulted in a quadratic equation that I needed to solve.9t 2 1 5500 5 25t 1 4500 t 8 14. I was only interested in this point since time must be positive. b 5 5. so I set the right-hand sides of the equations equal to each other.8 s after jumping out of the airplane.8 s. I used the intersection operation to locate the point of intersection: (14.9t 2 1 5500 Just after parachute opens: h(t) 5 25t 1 4500 At the moment the parachute is opened. Christina’s Solution: Using Algebra Just before parachute opens: h(t) 5 24. That means that Adam should release his parachute 14.3.8 2b 6 "b 2 2 4ac 2a 24. but the time after jumping cannot be negative. 24.

I put the resulting quadratic function into standard form. Explain how you would determine the point of intersection of a linear function and a quadratic function graphically and algebraically. I chose the second one because it was an easier calculation. What are an advantage and a disadvantage of each method? Do you think that a linear function always intersects a quadratic function in two places? Why or why not? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to predict the number of points of intersection Determine the number of points of intersection of the quadratic and linear functions f (x) 5 3x 2 1 12x 1 14 and g(x) 5 2x 2 8.8) 1 4500 5 4426 Adam will be about 4426 m above the ground when he opens his parachute. the values of f(x) and g(x) will be equal at that point. Julianne’s Solution 3x 2 1 12x 1 14 5 2x 2 8 3x 2 1 10x 1 22 5 0 b2 2 4ac 5 (10) 2 2 4(3) (22) 5 100 2 264 5 2164 If there is a point of intersection. so I set the expressions for f(x) and g(x) equal to each other. B. Reflecting A.h2 5 25(14. To find the height above the ground. I substituted my value for t into one of the equations. Since 2164 . 0. C. 196 Chapter 3 NEL . there are no real roots. The line and the parabola do not intersect. I then calculated the value of the discriminant.

Then I put the resulting quadratic equation into standard form.5) 5 31.5 6 " (0.8 EXAMPLE 3 Solving a problem involving the point of intersection Justin is skeet shooting. The height of the skeet is modelled by the function h(t) 5 25t 2 1 32t 1 2.4 20.5(0. but time cannot be negative.5 2 4.5) 2 2 4(25) (1) 210 20.5 t5 210 t 5 0. g(0.75 m off the ground when it is hit.5t 1 1 25t 2 1 0.75 The skeet will be 16.4.5 t5 210 t 5 20.5t 1 1.5) 1 1 5 16. The bullet will hit the skeet after 0.25 210 or or 2b 6 "b2 2 4ac 2a I needed to find the point of intersection of the quadratic and the linear functions. I set them equal to each other. with the same units. so I couldn’t use the solution t 5 20. I used the quadratic formula to solve for t.5 s.5 1 4.5 I got two possible values for t. NEL Quadratic Functions 197 . I substituted the value of t into g(t) to solve for the height.5t 1 1 25t 2 1 32t 1 2 5 31. How long will it take for the bullet to hit the skeet? How high off the ground will the skeet be when it is hit? Stephanie’s Solution h(t) 5 25t 2 1 32t 1 2 g(t) 5 31. where h(t) is the height in metres t seconds after the skeet is released.5t 1 1 5 0 t5 5 5 20.5 6 "20.3. The path of Justin’s bullet is modelled by the function g(t) 5 31. 20.

g(x) 5 x 1 7 5 5x 2 1 x 2 2. g(x) 5 3x 1 1 c) f (x) 5 3x 2 2 2x 2 1. g(x) 5 0. use substitution to replace f(x) in the quadratic function with the expression for g(x) from the linear function. Determine the point(s) of intersection of each pair of functions. Find the two integers. An integer is two more than another integer. a) f (x) 5 x 2. g(x) 5 23x 2 6 5 24x 2 2 2x 1 3. • In many situations. g(x) 5 24x 1 19 b) f (x) 5 2x 2 2 1. This results in a quadratic equation whose solutions correspond to the x-coordinates of the points of intersection.5x 1 3 c) f (x) 5 (x 2 3) 2 1 1. g(x) 5 22x 2 2 2. PRACTISING 4. Determine the number of points of intersection of f (x) 5 4x 2 1 x 2 3 and g(x) 5 5x 2 4 without solving. 198 Chapter 3 NEL . K a) b) c) d) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) 5 22x 2 2 5x 1 20. CHECK Your Understanding 1. • The point(s) of intersection of a line and a parabola can be found • graphically • algebraically Need to Know • To determine the points of intersection algebraically. a) f (x) 5 2x 2 1 6x 2 5. g(x) 5 6x 2 1 5 3x 2 2 2. Twice the larger integer is one more than the square of the smaller integer. g(x) 5 2x 2 6 3. one of the two solutions will be inadmissible. g(x) 5 x 1 6 b) f (x) 5 22x 2 1 3.In Summary Key Ideas • A linear function and a quadratic function can intersect at a maximum of two points. Determine the point(s) of intersection algebraically. g(x) 5 5x 1 4 5. Find the point(s) of intersection by graphing.

and h2 (t) 5 24t 1 142 after he released his parachute. (ii) two points. a) 2 Copy the graph of f (x) 5 (x 2 2) 2 2 3. f(x) = (x 8. Given a quadratic function f (x) and a linear function g(x). A linear function T is defined by g(x) 5 mx 2 5. using the same t. in metres. describe two C Extending 14. Determine the equation of the line that passes through the points of intersection of the graphs of the quadratic functions f (x) 5 x 2 2 4 and g(x) 5 23x 2 1 2x 1 8.43t 1 4.3. 7. A punter kicks a football. Can the blocker knock down the punt? If so. What value(s) of the slope of the line would make it a tangent to the parabola? kick is given by the equation h(t) 5 24. Determine the value(s) of k such that the linear function g(x) 5 4x 1 k does 10. His height. 15. In how many ways could the graphs of two parabolas intersect? Draw a sketch to illustrate each possibility. at what point will it happen? ways you could determine the number of points of intersection of the two functions without solving for them. How long after jumping did the daredevil release his parachute? 11. t seconds after the 13. 16. Determine the value of k such that g(x) 5 3x 1 k intersects the quadratic 9. A daredevil jumps off the CN Tower and falls freely for several seconds before A releasing his parachute. t seconds after jumping can be modelled by h1 (t) 5 24. Determine the coordinates of any points of intersection of the functions x 2 2 2x 1 3y 1 6 5 0 and 2x 1 3y 1 6 5 0. 12. The height of an approaching blocker’s hands is modelled by the equation g(t) 5 21. b) Write the equations of the lines from part (a). not intersect the parabola f (x) 5 23x 2 2 x 1 4. The cost function for the production is C(t) 5 600 2 50t. h(t) . h(t) . NEL Quadratic Functions 199 . and (iii) no points.24t 1 0. Its height.8 6.9t 2 1 t 1 360 before he released his parachute. in metres.8. Then draw lines with slope 24 that intersect the parabola at (i) one point.26. c) How are all of the lines with slope 24 that do not intersect the parabola related? function f (x) 5 2x 2 2 5x 1 3 at exactly one point. Determine the ticket price that will allow the production to break even.9t 2 1 18. A quadratic function is defined by f (x) 5 3x 2 1 4x 2 2. where t is the ticket price in dollars. The revenue function for a production by a theatre group is y 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 2)2 3 x R(t) 5 250t 1 300t.

A: The members of the first family of parabolas will all have the same x-intercepts. Arrange the equation into standard form ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0. y 5 27. The members of the third family will have the same y-intercept.7. (2. Example 2.3 Study Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A: Aid How can you determine the solutions to a quadratic equation? • See Lesson 3.6. 25). Examples 2. • Try Chapter Review Questions 12. What characteristics do the members of the family of parabolas f(x) 5 a(x 2 2) (x 1 6) have in common? the family of parabolas g(x) 5 a(x 2 2) 2 2 5? the family of parabolas h(x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 2 7? Study Aid Q: • See Lesson 3. determines the number of roots of a quadratic equation.5. 2. y x 200 Chapter 3 NEL . there are no roots. If b 2 2 4ac . there are two distinct roots. 13. In how many ways can a line intersect a parabola? Q: A: A line can intersect a parabola in at most two places. 2 and 26. • Try Chapter Review Questions 15 and 16. How can you use the discriminant to determine the number of solutions of a quadratic equation? The value of the discriminant. 3. If b 2 2 4ac . Examples 1. If b 2 2 4ac 5 0. and 4. the numbers that make each factor zero are the solutions to the original equation • graph the corresponding function f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0 and determine its x-intercepts. The members of the second family will have the same vertex. 0. there is one root. then: • try to factor. b 2 2 4ac. • Try Chapter Review Questions 18 and 19. 0. and 3. and the same axis of symmetry. these points are the solutions to the original equation • use the quadratic formula x 5 2b 6 "b 2 2 4ac 2a Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 3. x 5 22. and 14.

Examples 1 and 3.Chapter Review It may intersect a parabola at only one point. NEL Quadratic Functions 201 . You could equate the two functions. y x Q: A1: How can you determine the points of intersection between a linear and a quadratic function? Study Aid You can graph both functions on the same set of axes and determine the point(s) of intersection from the graphs. y x There may be no points of intersection.8. • Try Chapter Review Questions 21 and 23. This results in a quadratic equation whose solutions are the x-coordinates of the points of intersection. A2: • See Lesson 3.

and 10. 10.4 2 9. and h(x) 5 2!x.3 6 cm and 3 cm? Leave your answer in simplest radical form. c) State the domain and range. Determine the equation of the axis of symmetry of the parabola with points (25. 8. a) State the direction of opening and the zeros of the function. 2. The height. f (x) 5 x 2. What is the perimeter of a right triangle with legs a1b1c A 5 "s(s 2 a) (s 2 b) (s 2 c). Consider the quadratic function Give a reason for your answer. g(x) 5 !x. Determine the maximum height of the football and the time when that height is reached.1 7. Leave your answer in simplest radical form. Describe the relationship between 202 NEL . and the axis of symmetry. a) State the direction of opening. Is the inverse of a quadratic function also a function? 1. Express each number as a mixed radical in simplest football is given by h(t) 5 2 1 28t 2 4. where a. 7.9t . c) 4!12 2 3!48 d) (3 2 2! 7 ) 2 Lesson 3. Chapter 3 11. a) f (x) 5 23(x 2 2) 2 1 5. d) Graph the function.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 3. c) Graph the function. of the trajectory of a Lesson 3. For each quadratic function. b) State the domain and range of the inverse relation. Lesson 3. b) State the domain and range. c) Is the inverse relation a function? Why or why not? 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 y y 5 f(x) x f (x) 5 4(x 2 2) (x 1 6). 3. h(t). 3) and (3. The area of a triangle can be calculated from Heron’s form. b. Calculate the area of a triangle with s5 2 side lengths 5. a) !98 b) 25!32 formula. sketch the graph of the inverse relation. 6. state the maximum or minimum value and where it will occur. Consider the quadratic function Given the graph of f (x). a) f (x) 5 23(x 2 4) 2 1 7 b) f (x) 5 4x(x 1 6) 5.2 4. where t is the time in flight. in seconds. 3) equally distant from the vertex on either side of it. in metres. the vertex. b) Determine the coordinates of the vertex. and c are the side lengths and .

can be modelled by the equation h(t) 5 14t 2 5t 2. in metres. a) Determine a quadratic function that satisfies these conditions. Will the paintball hit the baseball? If so. h(t). Can the projectile ever reach a height of 9 m? Explain.7 18. 13. 6)? 20. Lesson 3. Which member passes through the point (22. A rectangular field with an area of 8000 m2 is enclosed Lesson 3. in thousands. Determine the x-intercepts of the quadratic function f (x) 5 2x 1 x 2 15. b) Change the slope of the line so that it will intersect the parabola in two locations. The population of a Canadian city is modelled by family of parabolas f (x) 5 a(x 1 3) 2 2 4 have in common. function P(x) 5 22x 2 1 7x 1 8. The height. at time 15. b) What is the width of the arch at its base? 14. Describe the characteristics that the members of the 2 12. 17. h(t). The trajectory of the paintball is given by the function g(t) 5 3t 1 3. A boy shoots at the baseball with a paintball gun.6 21. where t is the time in years. and 6 m wide at a height of 8 m. in metres. when? At what height will the baseball be? 23. and passing through the point (2. When t 5 0. The arch P(t) 5 12t 2 1 800t 1 40 000. The height. Calculate the point(s) of intersection of f (x) 5 2x 2 1 4x 2 11 and g(x) 5 23x 1 4. 2 1 !3 and 2 2 !3. of a baseball. Check these values in the original equation. 5).8 by 400 m of fencing. what will the population be in 2020? b) In what year is the population predicted to be 300 000? must be 15 m high. where x is the number of dirt bikes produced. Determine the dimensions of the field to the nearest tenth of a metre.Chapter Review Lesson 3. 22. a) According to the model. the year is 2007. Lesson 3. t seconds after it is tossed out of a window is modelled by the function h(t) 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 15. Determine the values of k for which the function f (x) 5 4x 2 2 3x 1 2kx 1 1 has two zeros. of a projectile. a) 16. Determine the equation of the parabola with roots NEL Quadratic Functions 203 . An engineer is designing a parabolic arch. Determine the break-even points of the profit Will the parabola defined by f (x) 5 x 2 2 6x 1 9 intersect the line g(x) 5 23x 2 5? Justify your answer.5 19. where t is the time in seconds after the projectile is released.

Does the linear function g(x) 5 6x 2 5 intersect the quadratic function f (x) 5 2x 2 2 3x 1 2? How can you tell? If it does intersect. function in standard form. Determine the equation in standard form of the parabola shown below. c) Explain why the answer to part (a) has fewer terms than the answer to 4. Identify the zeros. Graph the function. 2. If you needed to know the information listed. Determine the maximum area of a rectangular field that can be enclosed by 2400 m of fencing. 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 y x 2 4 6 8 204 Chapter 3 NEL . which form would you choose and why? a) the vertex b) the y-intercept c) the zeros d) the axis of symmetry e) the domain and range b) Simplify (3 1 "5) (5 2 "10). State the domain and range. determine the point(s) of intersection. factored form. You can choose whether you are provided the equation of a quadratic 6. 9. part (b). 8. a) b) c) d) Express the function in factored form and determine the vertex. For each function. a) f (x) 5 22x 2 2 8x 1 3 b) f (x) 5 3(x 2 1) (x 1 5) 3. state whether it will have a maximum or a minimum value. Describe the method you would choose to calculate the maximum or minimum value. the axis of symmetry. You are given f (x) 5 25x 2 1 10x 2 5. 5. 7. and the direction of opening. Calculate the value of k such that kx 2 2 4x 1 k 5 0 has one root. or vertex form. Determine the equation of the inverse of f (x) 5 2(x 2 1) 2 2 3. a) Simplify (2 2 !8) (3 1 "2).3 Chapter Self-Test 1.

Why did you approach the problem this way? Use the model you created to graph the flight of Vernon’s ball. and h(x) is the height of the ball at that distance.5 m above the ground when it was hit. but you want to find one that is close to reality. and show all of your steps. b) The ball reached a maximum height of 17 m when it was approximately 70 m away from Vernon.5x(x 2 142) b) h(x) 5 20.0015x 2 1 0.5x 2 1 71x 1 1 c) h(x) 5 20. What is the function that will model the height of Vernon’s ball accurately over time? Assume that the ball was between 0.6 m and 1. Explain the method you are using to get the equation. Task Checklist Did you state your reasons that the given models were not reasonable? Did you draw a welllabelled graph.2 m off the ground when it was hit. D. including some values? B.3 Chapter Task Baseball Bonanza Vernon Wells hits a baseball that travels for 142 m before it lands. and support your claim with reasons and a well-labelled sketch. NEL Quadratic Functions 205 . given this additional information: a) The ball was 1. The flight of the ball can be modelled by a quadratic function in which x is the horizontal distance the ball has travelled away from Vernon. a) h(x) 5 20.2 Determine an equation that models the path of the ball. ? A. Did you show your work in your choice of method for part C? Did you support your choice of method in part C? C. There are many quadratic equations you could use to model the distance and height.213x 1 1. a) What would h(142) be? b) What happens when x 5 0? c) What are the possible values for h(x) when x 5 0? d) What would be a good range of values for the height of the ball? Are some values for the height unreasonable? Explain why each function is not a good model of the situation.

of a baseball after Bill hits h(x) 5 (x 1 6) (x 1 3) (x 2 6) and b(x) 5 (x 1 3) (x 2 2 36) ii) b(t) 5 (3t 1 2) 3 and c(t) 5 27t 3 1 54t 2 1 36t 1 8 iii) h(t) 5 (4 2 x) 3 and h(t) 5 (x 2 4) 3 iv) f (x) 5 (x2 2 4x) 2 (2x2 1 2x 2 4) 2 (x 2 1 1) and b(x) 5 (2x 2 5) (2x 2 1) it with a bat is described by the function h(t) 5 0. 3. 2).8 1 29.9 m d) 25 m 206 Chapters 1–3 NEL . h. The height. Identify the correct sum of (x 2 3) (x 2 5) (x 2 1) (x 2 2) (x 2 3) (x 2 5) d) (x 2 1) (x 1 2) c) 5x 2 6 3x x 1 1 1 x 2 4. where t is the time in seconds after the ball is struck. in metres. When the equation of a quadratic function is in 4. 6)} on its variable? 4( y 2 2) 3y a) 3 y22 6y ( y 2 5) 5y( y 1 3) b) 3 4y ( y 1 3) (3y 1 1) 3y( y 1 1) c) 4 (2y 2 1) 2y 2 1 10y 5 d) 4 y 1 2 2( y 1 2) 7. a) c) 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 12 23 31 b) d) {(8. Given the quadratic function f (x) 5 3x 2 2 6x 1 15. An American visitor to Canada uses this function to a) b) 2x 2 1 23x 1 24 (x 1 1) (x 2 4) 8x 2 2 23x 1 24 (x 1 1) (x 2 4) c) d) 15x 2 2 18x (x 1 1) (x 2 4) 8x2 2 29x 1 24 (x 1 1) (x 2 4) 9. 21) 10. 0. 9). x 1 30 x22 a) f 21 (x) 5 c) f 21 (x) 5 2 30 x 2 30 x12 b) f 21 (x) 5 d) f 21 (x) 5 2 30 (x 1 3) (x 2 5) (x 2 1) (x 1 2) (x 2 3) (x 1 5) b) (x 1 1) (x 1 2) a) 8. (4. which feature is most easily determined? a) y-intercepts c) vertex b) x-intercepts d) maximum value 11. Which expression has the restrictions y 2 21. 0). (3. a) vertical stretch by factor of 2 b) reflection in x-axis c) vertical translation up 3 units 1 d) horizontal compression by factor of 2 convert from temperature in degrees Celsius into degrees Fahrenheit: f (x) 5 2x 1 30.9t 2. Identify f 21 (x) . 7). The range of f (x) 5 2|x 2 2| 1 3 is a) { y [ R | y # 3} b) { y [ R | y $ 3} a) i i) b) i and ii c) { y [ R | 2 # y # 3} d) { y [ R | 0 # y # 2} c) i and iii d) iii and iv 5.4t 2 4. identify the x 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 (1. What is the maximum height of the ball? a) 4. Identify the correct product of x 2 2 5x 1 6 x 2 2 4x 2 5 2 3 x2 2 4 . Identify the relation that is not a function.9 m b) 29. 2. identify the coordinates of the vertex. x 21 transformation that would not be applied to f (x) to obtain the graph of y 5 2f (22x) 1 3.4 m c) 44. 2 Multiple Choice 1. (5.Chapters 1–3 y 4 2 x 2 y 4 2 4 Cumulative Review 1 6. For the graph of f (x) 5 "x. 1) b) (21. Which pairs of functions are equivalent? factored form. 212) d) (12. 12) c) (12. a) (1.

c) The domain of f 21 is the range of f. b) The set of all possible input values of a function is called the domain. d) This set of ordered pairs describes a function: {(0. d) To determine the equation of the inverse. The range that best corresponds to f (x) 5 x is that has two zeros.3) 2 d) g(x) 5 22(x 1 3. Which of the following statements is not true? ski trip. the company has to increase the ticket price by $5. The relation that is also a function is reflecting y 5 f (x) in the line y 5 x. plus $30 per passenger. a) n(x) 5 2x 2 2 6x 2 9 b) m(x) 5 4(x 1 1) 2 1 0. 23. Without drawing the graph. If f (x) 5 3(x 1 2) 2 2 5. The bus has seating for 22 passengers. then c) { y [ R | y . How many empty seats should the bus run with to maximize profit from this trip? a) 8 b) 6 c) 10 d) 2 13. 2). the domain must be a) f (21) 5 23 b) f (21) 5 7 restricted to which interval if the inverse is to be a function? a) x $ 25 c) x $ 2 b) x $ 22 d) x $ 5 NEL Cumulative Review 207 . 1). identify the function a) The horizontal line test can be used to show that a relation is a function.Cumulative Review 12. a) y 5 3 1 x25 .1 14. For f (x) 5 2(x 2 3) 1 5.5 c) h(x) 5 25(x 1 1.x$5 b) y 5 3 2 Å 2 x25 c) y 5 3 6 Å 2 x25 . 21)}.6) 2 1 4.x#5 d) y 5 3 1 Å 2 a) x 2 1 y 2 5 25 b) y 2 5 x Å 2 a) g21 (x) 5 ax 2 b 2 21 x25 7 x17 d) f 21(x) 5 5 c) f 21 (x) 5 b) g21 (x) 5 c) g21 (x) 5 22. It costs a bus company $225 to run a minibus on a 18. If f (x) 5 5x 2 7. For each empty seat. The inverse of g(x) 5 x 2 2 5x 2 6 is equation for f 21. c) The equation y 5 3x 1 5 describes a function. determine the 21. What are the possible values of k? a) k 5 1 or k 5 8 c) k 5 0 or k 5 1 b) k 5 24 or k 5 8 d) k 5 28 or k 5 4 15. (4. 3 19. b) The graph of the inverse can be found by 16. 0} 20. x $ 3. 23). Which of the following statements is false? d) g21 (x) 5 ax 1 b 1 1 49 6 x2 2 Å 4 1 49 6 x1 2 Å 4 1 2 2 1 2 2 49 4 49 4 a) The domain of f is the range of f 21. 0} d) { y [ R | y 2 0} a) f b) f 21 (x) 5 7x 2 5 (x) 5 x 2 7 touches the x-axis at one point. c) x 2 5 y d) x 2 2 y 2 5 25 c) f (21) 5 21 d) f (21) 5 9 17. The graph of function f (x) 5 x 2 2 kx 1 k 1 8 a) { y [ R} b) { y [ R | y . (3. then interchange x and y and solve for x.x$5 2 x15 . Given f (x) 5 x 2 2 5x 1 3. (1. and the company charges $60 per fare if the bus is full.

a. c) In factored form. State the value of the discriminant. The profit function for a new product is given by y 5 (x 1 2)(x 2 3) are a) (22. and the number of roots for 7x 2 1 12x 1 6 5 0. a) D 5 312. vertical stretch by a factor of ZaZ. followed by a translation Z p Z units to the left and ZqZ units down b) Reflection in the x-axis. x $ 1 2 1. x $ 1 1 1. The vertex form of the equation equation of a quadratic function? a) In standard form. n 5 2 d) D 5 224. How many items must be sold for the company to break even? a) 2000 or 5000 c) 5000 or 7000 b) 2000 or 3500 d) 3500 or 7000 (x 2 2) (x 2 3) 2 2(x 2 3) d) x22 208 Chapters 1–3 NEL . 30. Which of the following statements is not true for the a) b) c) d) f f f f (x) (x) 21 (x) 21 (x) 21 21 5 x2 5 x2 5 x2 5 x2 1 1. x # 1 2 1. a. 3) 1 21 b) a2 . 2 b 2 4 c) 32. a. The coordinates of the vertex for the graph of 28. p . The simplified form of a) b) c) 2(x 2 2) (x 1 2) 2 (x 1 3) 2 (x 2 3) (x 2 2 4) (x 2 3) 2x 1 4 P(x) 5 24x 1 28x 2 40. 3) 1 25 d) a . the coordinates of the vertex are clearly visible. The inverse of f (x) 5 "x 2 1 is 29. if a . the break-even points are clearly visible. b 2 0 3a 2b 7a 2 2b 1 ab . b 2 0 3a 3b 2 x2 2 4 2x 1 4 4 2 x13 x 2 9 is 27. b 2 0 3a 2b 7a 2 2a 2 1 b . followed by a translation Z p Z units to the right and ZqZ units down c) Reflection in the x-axis. vertical stretch by a factor of ZaZ. n 5 2 c) D 5 312.24. n 5 1 b) D 5 24. 0. 2 b 2 4 2 y 5 22x 2 2 12x 2 19 is a) y 5 22x(x 1 6) 2 19 b) y 5 22(x 2 3) (x 1 6) c) y 5 22(x 1 3) 2 2 1 d) y 5 22(x 2 3) 2 1 1 (2. followed by a translation Z p Z units to the right and ZqZ units up 26. the y-intercept is clearly visible. The simplified form of a) b) c) d) 6 . followed by a translation Z p Z units to the left and ZqZ units down d) Reflection in the x-axis. 0? a) Vertical stretch by a factor of ZaZ. D. What transformations are applied to y 5 f (x) to obtain the graph of y 5 af (x 2 p) 1 q. the x-intercepts are clearly visible. x # 1 25. n 5 0 7 2 1 2 1 2 is ab b 3a 31. and q . where x is the number sold in thousands. b) In vertex form. a. 0. vertical stretch by a factor of ZaZ. b 2 0 ab 2 b 1 3a 2 21a 2 6a 2 1 b . d) In vertex form.

Even with this delay. This year he will increase the price and knows that for each $50 price increase. Studying Functions Analyze two of the following functions in depth. Last year he had 25 students go and each paid $550. including all applied transformations iii) a sketch of the function 34.4 km/h faster than Jill. but sees a friend on the route and stops to talk for 20 min. who has trained all year for this event. Charity Walk Sacha and Jill set off at the same time on a 30 km walk for charity. Sacha finishes the walk 2 h ahead of Jill. 2 fewer students will go on the trip. The bus costs a flat fee of $5500. Determine a) the number of students who must go for Josh to break even b) the cost of the trip that will maximize his profit NEL Cumulative Review 209 . and how long did it take for each person to finish the walk? 35. Ski Trip Josh is running a ski trip over March Break.Cumulative Review Investigations 33. a) f (x) 5 3x 2 2 24x 1 50 b) g(x) 5 5 2 2"3x 1 6 1 c) h(x) 5 22 1 (x 2 6) 3 Include: i) the domain and range ii) the relationship to the parent function. How fast was each person walking. and hotel and lift tickets cost $240 per person. Sacha. walks 1.

210 NEL .

Do you think a linear relation would model their growth? Explain.Chapter 4 Exponential Functions GOALS You will be able to • • • • Describe the characteristics of exponential functions and their graphs Compare exponential functions with linear and quadratic functions Evaluate powers with integer and rational exponents and simplify expressions involving them Use exponential functions to solve problems involving exponential growth and decay ? Yeast cells grow by dividing at regular intervals. NEL 211 .

Simplify. a) 9x 5 81 b) 8m 5 256 a) c) (25) a 5 2125 d) 210r 5 2100 000 000 9. calculate the differences. Identify whether or not the data a) x 24 22 0 2 4 y 12 7 2 23 28 represent a linear or quadratic relationship. c) 5 21 d) 100 c) 242 d) (24) 2 e) 1002 f ) 2 23 e) (25) 3 f ) 253 a) b) (23) 2 (23) 3 3. Evaluate. 4. Evaluate. see Essential Skills Appendix. Aid • For help. Evaluate. Evaluate the following formulas for r 5 2. 2. Explain how you know. 4.5 cm and h 5 4. Predict whether the power (25) 120 will result in a positive or negative answer. b) First Differences Second Differences x 23 22 21 0 1 2 y 9 10 12 15 19 24 First Differences Second Differences 6 213 212 Chapter 4 NEL . ( !49) 2 (32 ) 2 (72 ) 4 b) 3!64 c) 3(24) 24 3 d) 32 (102 )4 3 5 5 1 8 3 5 5 2 b) 8 3 a) 7. 6. Evaluate. Explain. 7 2 4 8 3 1 3 4 2 a b d) 5 8 3 c) b) c) !4!16 e) 3(22 ) 24 2 f ) 2 3(22 ) 24 0 d) 4 9 5 1a 4 b 3 10 12 9 3 7 f) 2 a 1 b 10 8 3 e) 2 d) !9 !81 a) a 2 (a 5 ) b12 4 b8 c) (c 3 ) 4 d(d 6 )d 3 8. For each set of data.8 cm. Question 1. Determine the exponent that makes each equation true. the volume of a cylinder: V 5 pr 2h 4 b) the volume of a sphere: V 5 pr 3 3 10. Evaluate. a) b) a) 5.4 Study Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1. and 7 6 9 Appendix A-3 A-2 A-7 a) 72 b) 25 2.

E. Binary numbers are numbers that are written in base 2. 011. 11 000. G. 010. 1 00. ? A. Write the two numbers and their quotient as powers of two. 111 Number of Possible Codes 2 4 8 Possible Codes as a Power of Two 21 22 B. Repeat this several times with different pairs of numbers. What is the relationship between the exponents of the powers that you divided and the exponent of the resulting quotient? What rule for dividing powers with the same base does this suggest? How can you predict the possible number of codes if you know the number of digits? Exponential Functions C. 235 means 2 3 102 1 3 3 101 1 5 3 100. Select any two numbers (other than the last two) from the third column. number. 101. Is there a relationship between the number of digits and the possible number of codes? Copy and complete the table shown.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Binary Code The numbers we work with every day are written in base 10. H. Each number consists of only the digits 0 and 1. F. For example. 01. 10. D. 110. For example. 100. Each letter. Computers use binary code to do their calculations. or symbol needs a separate binary code. What is the relationship between the exponents of the powers that you multiplied and the exponent of the resulting product? What rule for multiplying powers with the same base does this suggest? Select any two numbers (other than the first two) from the third column. Write the two numbers and their product as powers of two. 001. NEL 213 . and calculate their product. Repeat this several times with different pairs of numbers. 1011 means 1 3 23 1 0 3 22 1 1 3 21 1 1 3 20. and divide the greater by the lesser. Number of Digits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Possible Codes 0.

? A. Is the height of each bounce related to the height of the previous bounce? Set the CBR to “Ball Bounce” mode. Use the trace key to determine the height of each bounce. golf ball) • graphing calculator with a motion detector (CBR) Collect data and study the characteristics of rapidly decaying functions. One of you holds the ball. When the CBR is triggered.4. while the other holds the CBR 0. Work with a partner. EXPLORE the Math When you drop a ball it will bounce several times. basketball. drop the ball. soccer ball.1 YOU WILL NEED Exploring Growth and Decay GOAL • two different types of balls that bounce (e. racquetball. Let the ball bounce at least 5 times while you collect the data.5 m over the ball. 214 Chapter 4 NEL ..g. B.

record the original height of the ball. plot the bounce height versus bounce number on the same graph. What happens to the bounce height as the bounce number increases? If you continue the pattern indefinitely. Repeat parts A to D for two additional starting heights. Reflecting J. Does each set of data represent a function? How do you know? State the domain and range of each graph. Bounce Number 0 1 2 Bounce Height First Differences D. and explain how the height of each bounce is related to its previous bounce. G. Need to Know • The domain and range of a function should be considered in terms of the situation it is modelling. L. F. After recording data for three different starting heights. M. Did the initial height of the drop influence the graph? Explain. In the first row. Describe how the bounce height changed from one bounce to the next. K. Draw a dashed curve through each set of points. H. will the bounce height ever reach zero? Explain. Describe the shape of each graph. Calculate and complete the first-differences column. I. Was this pattern the same for each type of ball? Explain. In Summary Key Ideas • Some real-world situations can be modelled by functions whose first differences follow a multiplicative pattern. Did the type of ball you used influence the graph? Explain. NEL Exponential Functions 215 .4.1 C. • The scatter plots for these situations show increasing or decreasing nonlinear patterns. Why was a dashed curve used in part F instead of a solid one? Look at the first-differences column. Use a different colour for each set of data. E. then record the bounce number and bounce height for next bounces. Copy the table. Repeat the exploration with a different type of ball.

the king offers the man anything he desires. A folktale tells of a man who helps a king solve a problem. in minutes. How are they the same and how are they different? 216 Chapter 4 NEL . In return. The graph shows the relationship between the temperature of the cocoa. a) Complete the table of values for the first 10 squares. and time. Number of Squares on the Chessboard 1 2 3 Number of Grains on that Square 1 2 4 First Differences b) Create a scatter plot of the data in the first two columns. c) Compare this graph and the first differences of the data with your graphs and data for the ball-bounce experiment. in degrees Celsius.FURTHER Your Understanding 1. Cooling Curve for Cocoa 90 Temperature (degrees Celsius) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Time (min) What characteristics of this graph are the same as the graph(s) you drew in the ball-bounce experiment? b) What was the temperature of the cocoa at the start of the experiment? c) What is the temperature of the classroom? a) 2. The man asks for one grain of rice on a square of a chessboard and then double the number of grains of rice for each subsequent square. A cup of hot cocoa left on a desk in a classroom had its temperature measured once every minute.

Consider the chart listing the prefix names and their factors for the unit of measure for length.000 000 001 0.001 0.1 0.000 000 000 001 ? How can powers be used to represent metric units for lengths less than 1 metre? NEL Exponential Functions 217 . it is easy to convert from one unit to another.000 1 0. LEARN ABOUT the Math The metric system of measurement is used in most of the world.000 01 0.2 GOAL Working with Integer Exponents Investigate powers that have integer or zero exponents.4. Multiple as a Power of 10 1012 109 106 103 102 101 Name terametre gigametre megametre kilometre hectometre decametre metre decimetre centimetre millimetre micrometre nanometre picometre femtometre attometre Symbol Tm Gm Mm km hm dam m dm cm mm mm nm pm fm am Multiple of the Metre 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 1 0. A key feature of the system is its ease of use. the metre. Since all units differ by multiples of 10.01 0.000 001 0.

EXAMPLE 2 Connecting the concept of an exponent of 0 to the exponent quotient rule Use the quotient rule to show that 100 51.1. I rewrote each decimal as a fraction and each denominator as a power of 10. Jemila’s Solution As I moved down the table. When you divide powers with the same base. I used a power of 10. To come up with the next row in the table. I’ll get 100 5 1. 1021 5 0. while the multiples were divided by 10. David’s Solution 106 51 106 106 5 10626 5 100 106 I can divide any number except 0 by itself to get 1. 10 I don’t think it mattered that the base was 10. 1022 5 0. The relationship would be true for any base. the powers of 10 decreased by 1. Therefore. you subtract the exponents. I noticed that 100 5 1 and 1 102n 5 n. 100 5 1. 218 Chapter 4 NEL .01. If I continue this pattern. I applied the rule to show that a power with zero as the exponent must be equal to 1. I divided the multiples and the powers by 10.EXAMPLE 1 Using reasoning to define zero and negative integer exponents Use the table to determine how multiples of the unit metre that are less than or equal to 1 can be expressed as powers of 10. etc.

the square of the number is positive. B. I evaluated the power.2 Reflecting A. a) 523 Stergios’s Solution a) 523 5 Rational numbers can be written in a variety of forms. In this case. Since the negative sign is in the parentheses.4.” 1 53 1 125 1 (24) 2 1 16 1 34 1 81 523 is what you get if you divide 1 by 53. so the entire power is negative. or as a fraction. it can be evaluated in a similar manner. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Representing powers with integer bases in rational form b) (24) 22 c) 2324 Communication Tip Evaluate. 1? How is 102 related to 1022? Why do you think this relationship holds for other opposite exponents? Do you think the rules for multiplying and dividing powers change if the powers have negative exponents? Explain. the negative sign is not inside the parentheses. The term rational form means “Write the number as an integer. What type of number results when x2n is evaluated if x is a positive integer and n . I knew that 324 5 34. 1 5 c) 2324 5 2 52 If the base of a power involving a negative exponent is a fraction. C. NEL Exponential Functions 219 . 5 b) (24) 22 5 (24) 22 is what you get if you divide 1 by (24) 2.

3 Q R 2 3 23 is what you get if you divide Dividing by a fraction is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal. multiplied exponents for the denominator. B-15. EXAMPLE 5 Selecting a strategy for expressions involving negative exponents . Tech Support Derek’s Solution: Using a Calculator I entered the expression into my calculator. Evaluate 35 3 322 (323 ) 2 Kayleigh’s Solution: Using Exponent Rules 35 3 322 351 (22) 5 2332 (323 ) 2 3 33 5 26 3 5 332 (26) 5 39 5 19 683 I simplified the numerator and denominator separately.EXAMPLE 4 Representing powers with rational bases as rational numbers Evaluate ( 2 ) 23. Then I divided the numerator by the denominator. 220 Chapter 4 NEL . For help with evaluating powers on a graphing calculator. see Technical Appendix. 3 Sadira’s Solution 2 23 a b 5 3 1 2 3 a b 3 1 5 8 a b 27 27 513 8 27 5 8 3 1 by Q 2R . I added exponents for the numerator. so I used this to evaluate the power. I made sure I used parentheses around the entire numerator and denominator so that the calculator would compute those values before dividing. and subtracted exponents for the final calculation.

4.2

In Summary

Key Ideas

• An integer base raised to a negative exponent is equivalent to the reciprocal of the same base raised to the opposite exponent. b2n 5 1 , bn where b 2 0

• A fractional base raised to a negative exponent is equivalent to the reciprocal of the same base raised to the opposite exponent. a 2 0, b 2 0

a 2n a b 5 b

• A number (or expression), other than 0, raised to the power of zero is equal to 1. b0 5 1, where b 2 0

1 b n 5 a b , where a n a a b b

Need to Know

• When multiplying powers with the same base, add exponents. bm 3 bn 5 bm1n • When dividing powers with the same base, subtract exponents. bm 4 bn 5 bm2n if b 2 0 • To raise a power to a power, multiply exponents. (bm ) n 5 bmn • In simplifying numerical expressions involving powers, it is customary to present the answer as an integer, a fraction, or a decimal. • In simplifying algebraic expressions involving powers, it is customary to present the answer with positive exponents.

**CHECK Your Understanding
**

a) b)

1. Rewrite each expression as an equivalent expression with a positive exponent.

524

2. Write each expression as a single power with a positive exponent.

a2

1 23 b 10

d) 2 a b c)

1 224

e)

23

6 5

f)

a)

(210) 8 (210) 28

b) 627 3 65

**28 225 1123 d) 115
**

c)

1

**3. Which is the greater power, 225 or ( 2 ) 25? Explain.
**

NEL

f ) 3(723 ) 224 22 e)

722 821

a

3 21 b 11

(294 ) 21

Exponential Functions

221

PRACTISING

4. Simplify, then evaluate each expression. Express answers in rational form.

a) b)

223 (27 ) (28) 3 (28) 23

54 56 328 d) 26 3

c)

e) f)

(423 ) 21 (721 ) 2

5. Simplify, then evaluate each expression. Express answers in rational form.

a) b)

33 (32 ) 21 (9 3 921 ) 22

**(1221 ) 3 1223 (53 ) 22 d) 526
**

c)

e)

(322 (33 ) ) 22

6. Simplify, then evaluate each expression. Express answers in rational form.

a)

10(104 (1022 ) )

b) 8(82 ) (824 )

**625 (62 ) 22 4210 d) (424 ) 3
**

c) d) a b

7. Evaluate. Express answers in rational form.

a) b) c)

1621 2 222

8. Evaluate. Express answers in rational form.

(23) 21 1 40 2 621 2 21 2 21 a2 b 1 a b 3 5

**1 22 1 a2 b 2 e) 523 1 1023 2 8(100021 ) 3 f ) 322 2 622 1 (29) 21 2 1 5
**

21

**225 b 26 132 21 f ) 1325 3 a 8 b 13
**

f ) 97 (93 ) 22

e) 28 3 a

a)

52 (210) 24

b) 1621 (25 )

1221 (24) 21 (29) 22 d) (321 ) 2

c) c) 2 (5) 23 d) 2 (5) 22

e) f)

(821 ) a

223 b 421 (25) 3 (225) 21 (25) 22

**9. Evaluate. Express answers in rational form.
**

K

a) b)

(24) 23 (24) 22

e) (26) 23 f ) 2 (6) 22

**10. Without using your calculator, write the given numbers in order from least to
**

T

greatest. Explain your thinking.

**(0.1) 21, 421, 522, 1021, 322, 223
**

A

11. Evaluate each expression for x 5 22, y 5 3, and n 5 21.

**Express answers in rational form.
**

a) b)

(x n 1 y n ) 22n (x 2 ) n ( y22n )x2n

xn n b yn x y n 2n d) a b (xy) 2n

c)

a

222

Chapter 4

NEL

4.2

12. Kendra, Erik, and Vinh are studying. They wish to evaluate 322 3 3.

Kendra notices errors in each of her friends’ solutions, shown here.

**a) Explain where each student went wrong. b) Create a solution that demonstrates the correct steps.
**

13. Evaluate using the laws of exponents.

a) b) c)

23 3 422 4 22 (2 3 3) 21

14. Find the value of each expression for a 5 1, b 5 3, and c 5 2.

a

321 22 b 221

d) 421 (42 1 40 ) e) f)

25 321 22 3 3 24 (50 1 52 ) 21

**322 3 223 321 3 222 422 1 321 h) 22 3 1 223 521 2 222 i) 521 1 222
**

g)

a) ac c b) a cb c

c) (ab) 2c d) (b 4 c) 2a

e) f)

(2a 4 b) 2c (a21b22 ) c

**15. a) Explain the difference between evaluating (210) 3 and evaluating 1023.
**

C

b) Explain the difference between evaluating (210) 4 and evaluating 2104.

g) (a bb a ) c h) 3(b) 2a4 2c

Extending

16. Determine the exponent that makes each equation true.

a) 16 x 5

1 16

c) 2 x 5 1 d) 2n 5 0.25

b) 10x 5 0.01

**1 625 1 f ) 12n 5 144
**

e) 25n 5

17. If 102y 5 25, determine the value of 102y, where y . 0. 18. Simplify.

a) b) c)

(x 2 ) 52r

(b2m13m ) 4 (bm2n ) (b2m13n ) 4 (bm2n )

e)

f ) 3(3x4 ) 62m4 a b d) x 3(72r)x r

1 P (a102p ) a b a

1 x

m

NEL

Exponential Functions

223

4.3

**Working with Rational Exponents
**

GOAL

Investigate powers involving rational exponents and evaluate expressions containing them.

x x x

The volume of this cube is V(x) 5 x 3 and the area of its base is A(x) 5 x 2. In this cube, x is the side length and can be called • the square root of A, since if squared, the result is A(x) • the cube root of V, since if cubed, the result is V(x)

**LEARN ABOUT the Math
**

? What exponents can be used to represent the side length x as the square root of area and the cube root of volume?

EXAMPLE

1

Representing a side length by rearranging the area formula

**Express the side length x as a power of A and V. Ira’s Solution A 5 x2 x 5 An A 5 (x) (x) A 5 An 3 An A5A
**

n1n

I used the area formula for the base. Since I didn’t know what power to use, I used the variable n to write x as a power of A. I rewrote the area formula, substituting An for x. Since I was multiplying powers with the same base, I added the exponents. I set the two exponents equal to each other. I solved this equation. The exponent that represents a square root is 1 . 2

**A1 5 A2n Therefore, Therefore, x 5 A 2 5 !A . 1 5n 2
**

1

1 5 2n

224

Chapter 4

NEL

4.3

EXAMPLE

2

Representing a side length by rearranging the volume formula

**Sienna’s Solution V 5 x3 x5V
**

n

V 5 (x) (x) (x) V 5 Vn 3 Vn 3 Vn V 5 V n1n1n V 1 5 V 3n Therefore, 1 5 3n 1 5n 3

3 Therefore, x 5 V 3 5 "V .

1

I used the volume formula for a cube. I represented the edge length x as a power of the volume V. I used the variable n. I rewrote the volume formula, substituting V n for x. I added the exponents.

I set the two exponents equal to each other. I solved this equation. The exponent that represents a cube root is 1. 3

Reflecting

A. B. C.

Why could x be expressed as both a square root and a cube root? Make a conjecture about the meaning of x n. Explain your reasoning. Do the rules for multiplying powers with the same base still apply if the exponents are rational numbers? Create examples to illustrate your answer.

1

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

3

Connecting radical notation and exponents

a) 492 2

**Express the following in radical notation. Then evaluate. 1 1 1 b) (28) 3 c) 10 000 4 "49 1 5 7 1 49 1
**

1 2

Donato’s Solution

a) 492 2 5

1

5

I wrote the power using the reciprocal of its base and its opposite exponent. An exponent of 1 means 2 square root. I evaluated the power.

NEL

Exponential Functions

225

index (plural indices) the number at the left of the radical sign. It tells which root is indicated: 3 for cube root, 4 for fourth root, etc. If there is no number, the square root is intended.

3 b) (28) 3 5 "28

1

c) 10 000 5 "10 000

1 4

5 22

1 An exponent of 3 means cube root. I wrote the root as a radical, using an index of 3. That means the number is multiplied by itself three times to get 28. The number is 22.

4

An exponent of 1 means the fourth 4 root, since 10 000 4 3 10 000 4 3 10 000 3 10 000 4 5 10 0001. That number must be 10.

1 4 1 1 1

5 10

EXAMPLE

4

2

Selecting an approach to evaluate a power

**Evaluate 27 3. Cory’s Solutions 27 3
**

2

I know that the exponent 1 3 indicates a cube root. So I used the power-of-a-power rule to separate the exponents:

5 (!27) 2 5 27 3 32

1 1

5 (27 3 )2

3

5 (3) 2 59

3 5 !272

2 3

5231 3

and

2 3

5132 3

5 27 23 3

5 (27 2 ) 3

59

3 5 !729

1

1

To see if the order in which I applied the exponents mattered, I calculated the solution in two ways. In the first way, I evaluated the cube root before squaring the result. In the other way, I squared the base and then took the cube root of the result. Both ways resulted in 9.

226

Chapter 4

NEL

4.3

EXAMPLE

5

**Evaluating a power with a rational exponent
**

b) (16) 20.75

Evaluate. 4 a) (227) 3

Casey’s Solutions

4

a) (227) 3 5 ( (227) 3 ) 4

3 4

5 (!227) 5 (23) 4 5 81

3

1

3 I represented (227) 3 as ! 227. I calculated the cube root of 227. I evaluated the power.

**I rewrote the exponent as 4 3 1. 3
**

1

b) 1620.75 5 1624

1 5 3 2 5 1 8

1 5 4 (!64) 3 5 1 16 4

3

I rewrote the power, changing the exponent from 20.75 to its equivalent fraction. I expressed 1624 as a rational number, using 1 as the numerator and 16 4 as the denominator. I determined the fourth root of 64 and cubed the result.

3 3

**The rules of exponents also apply to powers involving rational exponents.
**

EXAMPLE

6

**Representing an expression involving the same base as a single power
**

5

**Simplify, and then evaluate Lucia’s Solution
**

5

86 ! 8 83

5

86 !8 83

5

.

5

8682 83

5 5 1 6 12 5

5 1

To simplify, I converted the radical into exponent form. Since the bases were the same, I wrote the numerator as a single power by adding exponents, then I subtracted exponents to simplify the whole expression.

5

8

83

NEL

Exponential Functions

227

5

83 83

5 5 4

4

5 83 2 3 58 5 5

23

1

1 83 1 2

1

Once I had simplified to a single power of 8, the number was easier to evaluate.

I checked my work on my calculator.

In Summary

Key Ideas

exponent 1 indicates the nth root of the base. If n . 1 and n [ N, then n 1 n bn 5 ! b, where b 2 0. • If the numerator of a rational exponent is not 1, and if m and n are positive m n n integers, then bn 5 (! b) m 5 ! bm, where b 2 0. • A number raised to a rational exponent is equivalent to a radical. The rational

Need to Know

• The exponent laws that apply to powers with integer exponents also apply to powers with rational exponents. Included are the product-of-powers rule a an3 bn 5 (ab) n and the quotient of powers rule an 4 bn 5 Q b R n. • The power button on a scientific calculator can be used to evaluate rational exponents. • Some roots of negative numbers do not have real solutions. For example, 216 does not have a real-number square root, since whether you square a positive or negative number, the result is positive. • Odd roots can have negative bases, but even ones cannot.

228

Chapter 4

NEL

4.3

**CHECK Your Understanding
**

1. Write in radical form. Then evaluate without using a calculator.

9 a) ! 512

a)

492

1

b) 1002

1

2. Write in exponent form, then evaluate. Express answers in rational form.

3. Write as a single power.

3 b) !227

d) 160.25

3 5 d) (! 2216 )

3 2 c) ! 27

c)

(2125) 3

1

a)

83 (83 )

2 3 1 3

2

1

d) (76 ) e)

3

5

25

6

232 5 Ä 243 16 21 f) 4 a b Ä 81

e)

e) 814

1

f ) 2 (144) 0.5

b) 8 4 8 c)

95 93

2

21

(211) 2 (211) 4

PRACTISING

b)

**4. Write as a single power, then evaluate. Express answers in rational form.
**

4 4

5. Evaluate.

a) ! 5! 5 a)

1

492 1 162

2 3

1

3 !216 3 !2

c)

!28! 4 !7

3

f ) 10 5 (1015 ) 4 103

2

4

1

2

d)

b) 273 2 814 c)

**e) 162 1 1620.5 1 8 2 273
**

2

1 4 1 4 3

164 1 164 2 81

3

3

6. Write as a single power, then evaluate. Express answers in rational form.

a)

4 (4 )

27

1 5

0.3

64 3 c) 64

d)

4

3 f ) 812 1 ! 8 2 325 1 164

d) 12827 2 160.75

5

!18 (!9) 4 !2

2

b) 1000.2 (100 10 )

2721 27 3

22

7. Predict the order of these six expressions in terms of value from lowest to

**highest. Check your answers with your calculator. Express answers to three decimal places. 5 10 4 a) ! 623 c) ! 10.24 e) 17.58
**

b) 1255

2

16 4 22 (8 ) (82.5 ) f) (86 ) 20.25

e)

(1622.5 ) 20.2

3

d) 80.9 4

1

f ) 21.4 2

3

NEL

Exponential Functions

229

**8. The volume of a cube is 0.015 625 m3. Determine the length of each side.
**

A

9. Use your calculator to determine the values of 27 3 and 271.3333. Compare the

4

**two answers. What do you notice?
**

10. Explain why (2100) 0.2 is possible to evaluate while (2100) 0.5 is not.

C

22

**11. Write 125 3 in radical form, then evaluate. Explain each of your steps.
**

K

12. Evaluate.

a)

22560.375

4

b) 15.6253

d) (23.375) 3

c) "20.0274

3

2

13. The power 43 means that 4 is multiplied by itself three times. Explain the

meaning of 42.5.

1 1 1

14. State whether each expression is true or false.

6 1 1 1 1 21 f ) c a x 3 b a y 3 b d 5 x 2y 2 a 1 b 5a1b a b m 15. a) What are some values of m and n that would make (22) n undefined? m T b) What are some values of m and n that would make (6) n undefined?

a)

92 1 42 5 (9 1 4) 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

b) 9 1 4 5 (9 3 4) c)

2 2 e) a x 3 1 y 3 b 5 x 1 y

d) a 3 b

f ) (27776) 1.6

e) " (0.0016) 3

4

1 a

1 b

21

5 ab

1

1 6

Extending

16. Given that x y 5 y x, what could x and y be? Is there a way to find the answer

graphically?

17. Mary must solve the equation 1.225 5 (1 1 i) 12 to determine the value of

each dollar she invested for a year at the interest rate i per year. Her friend Bindu suggests that she begin by taking the 12th root of each side of the equation. Will this work? Try it and solve for the variable i. Explain why it does or does not work.

18. Solve.

a) b)

1 4 4 2 " x4 1 15 5 " 16 Å8

1

1 4 8 a b 2 3 5 "x 2 16 Å 27

3

230

Chapter 4

NEL

4.4

GOAL

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions Involving Exponents

Simplify algebraic expressions involving powers and radicals.

**LEARN ABOUT the Math
**

The ratio of the surface area to the volume of microorganisms affects their ability to survive. An organism with a higher surface area-to-volume ratio is more buoyant and uses less of its own energy to remain near the surface of a liquid, where food is more plentiful. Mike is calculating the surface area-to-volume ratio for different-sized cells. He assumes that the cells are spherical. For a sphere, SA(r) 5 4pr 2

Radius (mm) 1 Surface Area/ Volume 4p 4 a pb 3

1.5

9p 4.5p

and

V(r) 5 4pr 3. 3

2

He substitutes the value of the radius into each formula and then divides the two expressions to calculate the ratio.

16p 32 a pb 3

2.5

3

36 p 36 p

25p 125 a pb 6 49p 343 a b 6p

3.5

?

How can Mike simplify the calculation he uses?

NEL

Exponential Functions

231

EXAMPLE

1

Representing the surface area-to-volume ratio

Simplify

SA(r) , given that SA(r) 5 4pr 2 and V(r) 5 4 pr 3. 3 V(r)

Bram’s Solution

SA(r) V(r)

I used the formulas for SA and V and wrote the ratio. The numerator and denominator have a factor of p, so I divided both by p. I started to simplify the expression by dividing the coefficients. a4 4

4pr 2 5 4 3 pr 31 5 3r 21 5 3 r

1

4 3 5 4 3 5 3b 3 4

The bases of the powers were the same, so I subtracted exponents to simplify the part of the expression involving r.

I used a calculator and substituted r 5 2 in the unsimplified ratio first and my simplified expression next. Each version gave me the same answer, so I think that they are equivalent, but the second one took far fewer keystrokes!

Reflecting

A. B. C. D.

How can you use the simplified ratio to explain why the values in Mike’s table kept decreasing? Is it necessary to simplify an algebraic expression before you substitute numbers and perform calculations? Explain. What are the advantages and disadvantages to simplifying an algebraic expression prior to performing calculations? Do the exponent rules used on algebraic expressions work the same way as they do on numerical expressions? Explain by referring to Bram’s work.

232

Chapter 4

NEL

4.4

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

2

Connecting the exponent rules to the simplification of algebraic expressions

Simplify

(2x23y 2 ) 3 . (x 3 y24 )2

Adnan’s Solution

(2 x23y 2 ) 3 (2) 3 (x23 ) 3 ( y 2 ) 3 5 (x 3y24 ) 2 (x 3 ) 2 ( y24 ) 2

I used the product-of-powers rule to raise each factor in the numerator to the third power and to square each factor in the denominator. Then I multiplied exponents. I simplified the whole expression by subtracting exponents of terms with the same base. One of the powers had a negative exponent. To write it with positive exponents, I used its reciprocal.

5

8x29y 6 x 6y28

**5 8x2926y62 (28) 5 8x215y14 5 8y x15
**

14

EXAMPLE

3

Selecting a computational strategy to evaluate an expression (x 2n11 ) (x 3n21 ) for x 5 23 and n 5 2. x 2n25

Evaluate the expression

**Bonnie’s Solution: Substituting, then Simplifying
**

(x 2n11 ) (x 3n21 ) (23) 2(2) 11 (23) 3(2) 21 5 x 2n25 (23) 2(2) 25 5 5 (23) 5 (23) 5 (23) 21 (2243) (2243) 1 23

I substituted the values for x and n into the expression. Then I evaluated the numerator and denominator separately, before dividing one by the other.

5 2177 147

NEL

Exponential Functions

233

I substituted 23 for x and 2 for n and evaluated. I did the same in the denominator. 5 x(5n) 2 (2n25) 5 x 3n15 5 (23) 3(2) 15 5 (23) 11 5 2177 147 EXAMPLE 4 1 1 Simplifying an expression involving powers with rational exponents . Simplify (27a 23b 12 ) 3 (16a 28b 12 ) 2 Jane’s Solution 1 1 23 12 3 3 3 1 28 12 (27a23b12 ) 3 (16a b ) 1 28 12 2 5 27 a b 162a 2 b 2 3a21b4 5 24 6 4a b In the numerator. using the power-of-a-power rule.Alana’s Solution: Simplifying. I applied the 1 exponent 3 to each number or variable inside the parentheses. I added the exponents in the numerator to express it as a single power. 3 5 a2114b426 4 3 5 a 3b22 4 5 3a 3 4b 2 I expressed the answer with positive exponents. so I simplified by using exponent rules before I substituted. Then I subtracted the exponents in the denominator to divide the powers. Once I had a single power. 1 applying the exponent 2 to the numbers and variables. I simplified by subtracting the exponents. then Substituting (x 2n11 ) (x 3n21 ) x 2n25 5 5 x (2n11) 1 (3n21) x 2n25 x 5n x 2n25 Each power had the same base. 234 Chapter 4 NEL .

I couldn’t write it as a single radical.4. I changed the radical expressions to exponential form and used exponent rules to simplify. Simplify. I converted it to radical form. • Algebraic expressions involving radicals can often be simplified by changing the expression into exponential form and applying the rules for exponents. !x 3 5 Representing an expression involving radicals as a single power Albino’s Solution 8 5 !x8 3 x5 3 a 3 b 5 a 3b !x x2 Since this is a fifth root divided by a square root.4 Sometimes it is necessary to express an expression involving radicals using exponents in order to simplify it. simplify prior to substituting. but the number of calculations will be reduced. Simplify a EXAMPLE 5 ! x8 3 b. 5 (x5 8 2 3 2 3 ) 5 (x10 5 x10 10 3 5 (x ) 5 !x 3 16 2 15 10 3 ) 1 10 3 When I got a single power. Need to Know • When evaluating an algebraic expression by substitution. CHECK Your Understanding 1. The answer will be the same if substitution is done prior to simplifying. In Summary Key Idea • Algebraic expressions involving powers containing integer and rational exponents can be simplified with the use of the exponent rules in the same way numerical expressions can be simplified. a) b) NEL x 4 (x 3 ) ( p23 ) ( p) 5 m5 m23 a24 d) 22 a c) e) ( y 3 ) 2 f) (k 6 ) 22 Exponential Functions 235 . Express each answer with positive exponents.

25 "25m212 p25 (r 3 ) 2 (p 2r) 2 (p 21 ) 2 7. Express answers with positive exponents. Then substitute the values for x and y to evaluate it. b 5 10 (7a22b) 2 (81x 4y 6 ) 2 8(x 9y 3 ) 3 1 1 (9p22 ) 2 for p 5 3 6p 2 1 for x 5 10. x 5y 4 a) Substitute x 5 22 and y 5 3 into the expression. Simplify. y 5 1 b) c) "512x 27 10 9 "1024x 20 (x 3y) 21 (x 4y 3 ) 21 b (x 2y 23 ) 22 (32x 5 ) 22 0. Simplify. Express answers with positive exponents. c) Which method seems more efficient? PRACTISING 4. y 5 5 1 236 Chapter 4 NEL . b) Simplify the expression. a (pq 2 ) 21 (p 3q 3 ) x 3 22 b y c) d) (ab) 22 b5 m 2n 2 (m 3n 22 ) 2 (10x) 21y 3 15x 3y23 (3m 4n 2 ) 2 12m22n 6 "36m10 3 f) a e) f) a e) e) a (w 2x) 2 (x 21 ) 2w 3 a) b) (3xy 4 ) 2 (2x 2y) 3 (2a3 ) 2 4ab2 c) d) 6. Express each answer with positive exponents. Express answers with positive exponents. Consider the expression x 7 ( y 2) 3 . 1 a) (16x 6y 4 ) 2 for x 5 2. Simplify. and evaluate it. Simplify.2.5 (16c 12 ) 0. Express answers in rational form with positive (10x 3 ) 2 Ä (10x 6 ) 21 f) exponents. Evaluate each expression.2 b (x 21 ) 10 (ab) 21 22 b a 2b 23 (25a4 ) 21 2 d) a b for a 5 11. a) b) 5. a) b) y 10 ( y 4 ) 23 (x23 ) 23 (x21 ) 5 c) d) (n 24 ) 3 (n 23 ) 24 w 4 (w23 ) (w 22 ) 21 e) f) (x21 ) 4x x23 (b27 ) 2 b(b25 )b9 3. K a) b) (x 4 ) 2 (x 6 ) 1 2 1 3 c) d) 9(c 8 ) 0.

b) Calculate the ratio for a radius of 0. Simplify NEL Exponential Functions 237 . a) The formula for the volume of a sphere of radius r is V(r) 5 4 p r 3. .8. Evaluate. Simplify. x . If x 5 22 and y 5 3. 3 ! x 3n b) Determine the radius of a sphere with a volume of 256p m3.4 (x 18 ) 6 0. Express answers in rational form with positive exponents. n 5 1 Ä 4mn 23 (36m4n6 ) 0. 3 15. 1 d) M . ( y 25 ) (x 5 ) 22 ( y 2 ) (x 23 ) 24 x 25 ( y 24 ) 2 (x 25 ) ( y 4 ) 13. How is simplifying algebraic expressions like simplifying numerical ones? C How is it different? Extending 14.5 (81m12n8 ) 0. 0. Write two versions. b 5 2 a) ("10 000x) 2 for x 5 16 b) d) 9. respectively. Express answers in rational form with positive exponents. write the three expressions in order from least to greatest. If M 5 . The volume and surface area of a cylinder are given.5 26 b (a ) formulas V 5 pr 2h a) and SA 5 2prh 1 2pr 2. M . 2 (16x 8y 24 ) 4 10. that represents the surface area-to-volume ratio for a cylinder. 1 c) 0 .5 b d) a 5 !243x 10 21 !64a12 3 c) a 1. y 24 (x 2 ) 23y 23 x 23 ( y 21 ) 22 . 3 Solve this equation for r. by the A (6x 3 ) 2 (6y 3 ) b) a b (9xy) 6 a) 1 (18m 25n 2 ) (32m 2n) for m 5 10. determine values for x and y so that 32x 22 y 8 T a) M 5 1 b) M . Determine an expression.25 2 1 3 a (4x 3 ) 4 20. c) (22a 2b) 23 " 25a 4b 6 for a 5 1. ! x(x 2n11 ) . in simplified form.5 b for x 5 5 (x 3 ) 6 3 4. 12. one in radical form and one in exponential form. 0 11.8 cm and a height of 12 cm.

and 4.4 Study Mid-Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A: Aid How do you evaluate an expression involving a negative exponent? • See Lesson 4. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 9.2. 10.3. Examples 2. To evaluate a number raised to a negative exponent. 3. 2. 4. bx b20 EXAMPLE 523 5 Study 1 1 3 5 5 125 and Aid • See Lesson 4. and 3. and 5. How do you evaluate an expression involving a rational exponent? Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 4. The numerator has the same meaning as an integer exponent. Examples 3. and 4.4. 3 22 4 2 16 a b 5a b 5 4 3 9 b2x 5 1 . • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1. The denominator of a rational exponent indicates the index of the root of the base. These can be evaluated in two different ways: m EXAMPLE 2 273 5 (273 ) 2 or 3 5 (! 27 ) 2 1 a n 5 (!a ) m or a n 5 !a m n m n 273 5 (272 ) 3 2 5 32 59 3 5 "272 3 5 "243 59 1 238 Chapter 4 NEL . and then evaluate the equivalent expression. 3. Q: A: How do you simplify algebraic expressions involving rational exponents? You can use the same exponent rules you use to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions. you can take the reciprocal of the number. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 5 to 8. change the sign of the exponent. and 11. Examples 1.

2 23 Lesson 4. Express values in the 49 2 a) a b 81 100 b) Ä 121 16 20. Simplify. 5 1. Write as a single power. Simplify. a (x2 3 )x 5 x7 (n24 )n26 (n22 ) 7 ( y 2 ) 6 22 b y9 d) e) f) (22x 5 ) 3 8x 10 (3a 2 ) 23 (9a21 ) 2 (4r26 ) (22r 2 ) 5 (22r) 4 22 2abc 3 b (2a 2b 3c) 2 a) 2 x 0. Evaluate. a) b) c) 22 b 3 (23) 22 d) (23) 25 1 2 3 c) 2521 1 3(521 ) 2 c) 10. !(29) 22 4 1 b) c) e) last column in rational form. Express your answers with positive exponents.4 21 9.5 (mn3 ) 4. Evaluate each expression for a 5 2 and b 5 3.5 ! 1024 10 Exponential Functions 239 . What restrictions are there on the value of x in x ? 5. Express values in rational form.75 4 4 5 8 a b 8 5 d) ("21000) 3 c) Mid-Chapter Review 8. Express answers to three decimals. Express answers with positive exponents.3y 2. Evaluate. Exponential Form 3 2!512 f) 5 !21024 d) ( (2125) 3 ) 23 1 11. Explain the difference between the two. a) 12. 1 6.2 7. Evaluate 283 and (28) 3.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 4. Lesson 4. Radical Form ! 121 Evaluation of Expression (a 1012p ) (a 2p28 ) 1 2m b) (2x 2 ) 322m a b x a 5 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) NEL 100 1 2 160.5 c) a b 9 1 2 Are these restrictions different for x 2 ? Explain.3 4 a b 7 2 3 b) a2 b 5 b) a) 422 2 821 (4 1 8) 0 2 522 d) a b 1 423 2 f) 3(3) 6 35 1 6 1 24 e) a b a b 10 10 d) a) 4 24567 a a (7) b (7) 4 2 b) 980. Simplify.25 5 3 3(c) 2n23m 4 (c 3 ) m 4 (c 2 ) n 1 m1n d) (x 4n2m ) a 3 b x a) c) a mn "x 2y 4 (x22y 3 ) 2 1 2 1 2 1 5 2 22 d) a e) f) b3 b a 2 2a4 b b5 b) 9b 3 (ab) 2 Å (a 2b 3 ) 3 6 !(8x6 ) 2 4 !625x8 4 !81p8 !9p4 (227) 492. Evaluate. Express answers in rational form. Express answers in rational form. a) 3. Copy and complete the table.5y 1. a) b) c) 5(54 ) (28) 4 (28) 5 (93 ) 6 2. Evaluate. Express answers with positive exponents. Express answers in rational form.8 x 0.

C. where 23 # x # 5 In each of your tables. y 5 5x. g(x) 5 x. y 10 y = 2x x y = 1 10 2 () y x –10 0 10 –10 0 10 x ? What are the characteristics of the graph of the exponential function f(x) 5 b x. Use the WINDOW settings shown. Describe the difference patterns for each type of function. State the domain and range of each function. x. h(x) 5 x 2. Create a tables of values for each of the following functions. Graph all three functions on the same graph.4. increase and decrease. change as the values of the independent variable. describe how values of the dependent variable. calculate the first and second differences. F. Label each curve with the appropriate equation. Graph each function on graph paper and draw a smooth curve through each set of points. EXPLORE the Math exponential function a function of the form y 5 a(bx ) Functions such as f (x) 5 2x and g(x) 5 ( 1 ) x are examples of exponential 2 functions. 240 Chapter 4 NEL . and k(x) 5 2 x. For each function. y. and y 5 10 x.5 YOU WILL NEED Exploring the Properties of Exponential Functions GOAL • graphing calculator • graph paper Determine the characteristics of the graphs and equations of exponential functions. including population growth and the cooling of a liquid. E. Use a graphing calculator to graph the functions y 5 2x. and how does it compare with the graphs of quadratic and linear functions? A. B. These types of functions can model many different phenomena. D.

Compare the features of the graphs of f (x) 5 bx for each group. and replace 1 them with y 5 ( 1 ) x and y 5 ( 10 ) x (or y 5 0. H.4. compared with values of b . 1 ii) different values of b when 0 . state • the domain and range • the intercepts • the equations of any asymptotes 1 Describe how each of the graphs of y 5 ( 1 ) x and y 5 ( 10 ) x differs from 2 y 5 2x as the x-values increase and as they decrease. intercepts. How do the differences for exponential functions differ from those for linear and quadratic functions? How can you tell that a function is exponential from its differences? The base of an exponential function of the form f (x) 5 b x cannot be 1. L. i) different values of b when b . 0 Reflecting N. Which curve increases faster as you trace to the right? Which one decreases faster as you trace to the left? Delete the second and third functions ( y 5 5x and y 5 10x ). B-2. b . Think about the domain. J. Explain how you can distinguish an exponential function from a quadratic function and a linear function by using • the graphs of each function • a table of values for each function • the equation of each function Exponential Functions O. Explain why this restriction is necessary. if present Examine the y-values as x increases and decreases. K. P. 1 iii) values of b when 0 . 1.1x ). range. 0 compared with values of b . For each function.5x and y 5 0. see Technical Appendix. Discuss your findings.5 G. Investigate what happens when the base of an exponential function is negative. For help tracing functions on the graphing calculator. state • the domain and range • the intercepts • the equations of any asymptotes. Tech Support I. M. 1 iii) values of b . and asymptotes. 2 For each new function. NEL 241 . b . Try y 5 (22) x.

A function with a single squared term (e. Exponential Exponential functions have first differences that are related by multiplication. as horizontal asymptote. quadratic. • The function has a y-intercept of 1. • The function has the x-axis. • If b . b . and its range is 5y [ R | y $ 06 . A function with a positive base (0 and 1 excluded) and variable exponent (e. 6 4 y f(x) = x y 15 10 f(x) = x2 y 15 f(x) = x2 ∆y = 4 x 2 =8 –4 ∆y= 1 ∆y= 1 2 ∆y= 1 x ∆y= 1 0 ∆y= 1 –2 2 4 ∆y= 1 –2 ∆x = 1 ∆y = 5 + 2 =7 10 5 –5 ∆y = 3 + 2 =5 5 ∆y = 1 + 2 =3 x ∆y = 1 ∆x = 1 5 10 –5 ∆y = 2 x 2 =4 ∆y = 1 x 2 =2 ∆y = 1 x ∆x = 1 5 10 • The exponential function f(x) 5 bx is • an increasing function representing growth when b . f(x) 5 5x) is exponential. 1. Linear Linear functions have constant first differences. 1 Need to Know • The exponential function f(x) 5 bx has the following characteristics: • If b . the faster the decay. then the lesser the value of b. Their second finite differences are not constant. then the function is defined. • Linear. Linear functions are represented by straight lines. • A function in which the variables have exponent 1 (e. and exponential functions by quickly increasing or decreasing curves with a horizontal asymptote. 1. and exponential functions have unique first-difference patterns that allow them to be recognized. and exponential functions can be recognized from their graphs. the faster the growth. • If 0 . f(x) 5 2x) is linear.. quadratic functions by parabolas. Quadratic Quadratic functions have first differences that are related by addition. y 5 0.. Their second differences are constant.In Summary Key Ideas • Linear. 1 • a decreasing function representing decay when 0 . b . quadratic.g. f(x) 5 3x 2 2 1) is quadratic. then the greater the value of b.g. 0.g. its domain is 5x [ R6. 242 Chapter 4 NEL ..

3 1.5 FURTHER Your Understanding 1.7 1.75 1 1. What type of function is represented in each graph? Explain how you know.4.9 1.25 1.75 22 1 13 61 253 y 0.1 1.75 2.5 1. a) x y 24 23 22 21 0 1 5 8 13 20 29 40 y 32 16 8 4 2 1 c) x 22 0 2 4 6 8 y 22.9 b) x 25 24 23 22 21 0 d) x 0. a) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 b) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 y c) 8 x 4 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 y d) 4 x 4 8 4 2 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 NEL Exponential Functions 243 . Use differences to identify the type of function represented by the table of values.5 0.5 1.

Use the window settings shown. d. k. You can adjust to these settings by pressing ZOOM and Use your graphing calculator to graph the function f (x) 5 2x. • It is an increasing function. ZDecimal . • It has a y-intercept of 1. y 10 y = 2x x –10 0 10 ? If f(x) 5 2x. • Its asymptote is the line y 5 0. INVESTIGATE the Math Recall the graph of the function f (x) 5 2x. Predict what will happen to the function f (x) 5 2x if it is changed to • g(x) 5 2x 1 1 or h(x) 5 2x 2 1 • p(x) 5 2x11 or q(x) 5 2x21 244 Chapter 4 NEL . B.4. 4 . how do the parameters a. and c in the function g(x) 5 af(k(x 2 d)) 1 c affect the size and shape of the graph of f(x)? Tech Support A.6 YOU WILL NEED Transformations of Exponential Functions GOAL • graphing calculator Investigate the effects of transformations on the graphs and equations of exponential functions.

Exponential Functions E. Keep the graph of f (x) 5 2x as Y1 for comparison. NEL 245 . Predict what will happen to the function f (x) 5 2x if it is changed to • g(x) 5 3(2x ) • h(x) 5 0. complete the table of values. and describe how its points and features have changed. Graph each function one at a time. one at a time.6 C. sketch the graph on the same grid.5(2x ) • j(x) 5 2 (2x ) Create a table like the one in part C using the given functions in part E. Keep the graph of f (x) 5 2x as Y1 for comparison. Comment on how the features and points of the original graph were changed by the transformations. For each function. Description of Changes of New Graph y 5 2x 1 1 Function g(x) 5 2x 1 1 Sketch Table of Values x 21 0 1 y 5 2x h(x) 5 2x 2 1 x 21 0 1 y 5 2x y 5 2x 2 1 p(x) 5 2x11 x 21 0 1 y 5 2x y 5 2x11 q(x) 5 2x21 x 21 0 1 y 5 2x y 5 2x21 D. sketch the graph on the same grid and describe how its points and features have changed. as Y2. F. as Y2. Copy and complete the table by graphing the given functions. In your table.4. Describe the types of transformations you observed in part C.

1 f (x) 5 x 2. and describe how its points and features have changed.G. Are the changes in the function affected by the value of the base? Summarize your findings by describing the roles that the parameters a. as Y2. Experiment with different kinds of transformations. J. Keep the graph of f (x) 5 2x as Y1 for comparison. L. Graph each function one at a time. d. and c play in the function defined by f (x) 5 ab k(x2d ) 1 c. 246 Chapter 4 NEL . H. Describe the types of transformations you observed in part I. Choose several different bases for the original function. N. sketch the graph. Do the transformations affect f (x) 5 b x in the same way they affect f (x) 5 x. f (x) 5 x . and f (x) 5 |x|? Explain. Which transformations change the location of the asymptote? Explain how the equation is changed by these transformations. I. Describe the types of transformations you observed in part F.5x • j(x) 5 22x Create a table like the one in part C using the given functions in part H. O. k. Comment on how the features and points of the original graph were changed by such transformations. Predict what will happen to the function f (x) 5 2x if it is changed to • g(x) 5 22x • h(x) 5 20. K. f (x) 5 !x. Reflecting M. Comment on how the features and points of the original graph were changed by the transformations. In your table. Which transformations change the shape of the curve? Explain how the equation is changed by these transformations. complete the table of values.

4.6

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

1

Using reasoning to predict the shape of the graph of an exponential function

Use transformations to sketch the function y 5 22(3x24 ). State the domain and range.

J.P.’s Solution

10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 y = 3x

The function I really want to graph is y 5 22(3x24 ). The base function, y 5 3x, was changed by multiplying all y-values by 22, resulting in a vertical stretch of factor 2 and a reflection in the x-axis. Subtracting 4 from x results in a translation of 4 units to the right. I could perform these two transformations in either order, since one affected only the x-coordinate and the other affected only the y-coordinate. I did the stretch first.

y

I began by sketching the graph of y 5 3x. Three of its key points are (0, 1), (1, 3), and (21, 1 ). The asymptote is 3 the x-axis, y 5 0.

x

10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4

y y = 3x

**1 With vertical stretches and reflection in the x-axis (multiplying by 22,
**

graphed in red), my key points had their y-values doubled: (0, 1) S (0, 22), (1, 3) S (1, 26), and (21, 1 ) S (21, 2 2 ) 3 3 The asymptote y 5 0 was not affected.

**2 With translations (subtracting 4, graphed in black), the key points
**

x 2 4 y= 22(3x

4)

changed by adding 4 to the x-values: (0, 22) S (4, 22), (1, 26) S (5, 26), and (21, 2 2 ) S (3, 2 2 ) 3 3 This shifted the curve 4 units to the right. The asymptote y 5 0 was not affected.

**The domain of the original function, 5x [ R6 , was not changed by the transformations. 1 2
**

y = 22( 3x)

The range, determined by the equation of the asymptote, was y . 0 for the original function. There was no vertical translation, so the asymptote remained the same, but, due to the reflection in the x-axis, the range changed to 5 y [ R | y , 06.

NEL

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EXAMPLE

2

Connecting the graphs of different exponential functions

Use transformations to sketch the graph of y 5 422x24 1 3.

Ilia’s Solution

I began by sketching the graph of the base curve, y 5 4x. It has the line y 5 0 as its asymptote, and three of its key points are (0, 1), (1, 4), and (21, 1 ). 4 I factored the exponent to see the different transformations clearly: y 5 422(x12) 1 3 The x-values were multiplied by 22, resulting in a horizontal compression of factor 1, as well as a reflection in the y-axis. 2

10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0

y y = 4x

x 2 4

There were two translations: 2 units to the left and 3 units up. I applied the transformations in the proper order. The table shows how the key points and the equation of the asymptote change:

10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0

y y = 4x

Point or Asymptote

4

Horizontal Stretch and Reflection (0, 1) (2 1, 2 4)

Horizontal Translation (22,1) (221, 2 4) (211, 1 ) 2 4 y50

Vertical Translation (22, 4) (221, 7) 2 (211, 31 ) 2 4 y53

(0, 1)

2 y = 422x 1 y = 422x x

2 4

3

(1, 4) (21, 1 ) 4 y50

( 1, 1 ) 2 4 y50

**1 There was one stretch and one reflection, each of which applied only to
**

the x-coordinate: a horizontal compression of factor 1 and a reflection 2 in the y-axis (shown in red).

**2 There were two translations: 2 units to the left and 3 units up (shown
**

in black).

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EXAMPLE

3

Communicating the relationship among different exponential functions

Compare and contrast the functions defined by f (x) 5 9x and g(x) 5 32x.

**Pinder’s Solution: Using Exponent Rules
**

f (x) 5 9x 5 (32 ) x 5 32x 5 g(x) Both functions are the same.

9 is a power of 3, so, to make it easier to compare 9x with 32x, I substituted 32 for 9 in the first equation. By the power-of-a-power rule, f(x) has the same equation as g(x).

Kareem’s Solution

f(x) 5 9x is an exponential function with a y-intercept of 1 and the line y 5 0 as its asymptote. Also, f(x) 5 9x passes through the points (1, 9) and (21, 1 ). 9 g(x) 5 32x is the base function y 5 3x after a horizontal compression of factor 1. This 2 means that the key points change by multiplying their x-values by 1. 2 The point (1, 3) becomes (0.5, 3) and (2, 9) becomes (1, 9). When I plotted these points, I got points on the curve of f(x).

f(x) = 9x y y = 3x 10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 x

Both functions are the same.

NEL

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EXAMPLE

4

Connecting the verbal and algebraic descriptions of transformations of an exponential curve

An exponential function with a base of 2 has been stretched vertically by a factor of 1.5 and reflected in the y-axis. Its asymptote is the line y 5 2. Its y-intercept is (0, 3.5). Write an equation of the function and discuss its domain and range.

Louise’s Solution

y 5 a2k(x2d) 1 c

I began by writing the general form of the exponential equation with a base of 2. Since the function had been stretched vertically by a factor of 1.5, a 5 1.5. The function has also been reflected in the y-axis, so k 5 21. There was no horizontal translation, so d 5 0. Since the horizontal asymptote is y 5 2 the function has been translated vertically by 2 units, so c 5 2. I substituted x 5 0 into the equation and calculated the y-intercept. It matched the stated y-intercept, so my equation seemed to represent this function.

y 5 1.5(22x ) 1 c

y 5 1.5(22x ) 1 2

The original domain is 5x [ R6 . The transformations didn’t change this. y 5 1.5(22(0) ) 1 2 5 1.5(1) 1 2 5 3.5

The range changed, since there was a vertical translation. The asymptote moved up 2 units along with the function, so the range is 5 y [ R | y . 26.

250

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4.6

In Summary

Key Ideas

• In functions of the form g(x) 5 af(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c, the constants a, k, d, and c change the location or shape of the graph of f(x). The shape is dependent on the value of the base function f(x) 5 bx, as well as on the values of a and k. • Functions of the form g(x) 5 af(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c can be graphed by applying the appropriate transformations to the key points of the base function f(x) 5 bx, one at a time, following the order of operations. The horizontal asymptote changes when vertical translations are applied.

Need to Know

• In exponential functions of the form g(x) 5 a bk(x2d ) 1 c: • If |a| . 1, a vertical stretch by a factor of |a| occurs. If 0 , |a| , 1, a vertical compression by a factor of |a| occurs. If a is also negative, then the function is reflected in the x-axis. 1 • If |k| . 1, a horizontal compression by a factor of Z k Z occurs. If 0 , |k| , 1, a 1 horizontal stretch by a factor of Z k Z occurs. If k is also negative, then the function is reflected in the y-axis. • If d . 0, a horizontal translation of d units to the right occurs. If d , 0, a horizontal translation to the left occurs. • If c . 0, a vertical translation of c units up occurs. If c , 0, a vertical translation of c units down occurs. • You might have to factor the exponent to see what the transformations are. For example, if the exponent is 2x 1 2, it is easier to see that there was a horizontal stretch of 2 and a horizontal translation of 1 to the left if you factor to 2(x 1 1). • When transforming functions, consider the order. You might perform stretches and reflections followed by translations, but if the stretch involves a different coordinate than the translation, the order doesn’t matter. • The domain is always 5x [ R 6 . Transformations do not change the domain. • The range depends on the location of the horizontal asymptote and whether the function is above or below the asymptote. If it is above the asymptote, its range is y . c. If it is below, its range is y , c.

**CHECK Your Understanding
**

1. Each of the following are transformations of f (x) 5 3x. Describe each

transformation.

a)

g(x) 5 3x 1 3

c) g(x) 5

1 x (3 ) 3

x

b) g(x) 5 3x13

2. For each transformation, state the base function and then describe the

NEL

b) g(x) 5 2a b

d) g(x) 5 3 3

**transformations in the order they could be applied. a) f (x) 5 23(4x11 ) c) h(x) 5 7(0.5x24 ) 2 1 1 2
**

2x

13

d) k(x) 5 53x26

Exponential Functions

251

3. State the y-intercept, the equation of the asymptote, and the domain and

range for each of the functions in questions 1 and 2.

PRACTISING

4. Each of the following are transformations of h(x) 5 ( 2 ) x. Use words to

b) g(x) 5 5a b a)

**describe the sequence of transformations in each case. 1 3x19 g(x) 5 24a b 26 2 1 2
**

2(x23)

1 2x g(x) 5 2 a b 2

1

c)

**5. Let f (x) 5 4x. For each function that follows,
**

K

• • • •

state the transformations that must be applied to f (x) state the y-intercept and the equation of the asymptote sketch the new function state the domain and range

c) g(x) 5 22f (2x 2 6) d) h(x) 5 f (20.5x 1 1)

a) g(x) 5 0.5f (2x) 1 2 b) h(x) 5 2f (0.25x 1 1) 2 1

**6. Compare the functions f (x) 5 6x and g(x) 5 32x.
**

C

7. A cup of hot liquid was left to cool in a room whose temperature was 20 °C.

T(t) 5 80 Q R 30 1 20. Use your knowledge of transformations to sketch this 2 function. Explain the meaning of the y-intercept and the asymptote in the context of this problem. The temperature changes with time according to the function

1

t

8. The doubling time for a certain type of yeast cell is 3 h. The number of cells

after t hours is described by N(t) 5 N023, where N0 is the initial population. a) How would the graph and the equation change if the doubling time were 9 h? b) What are the domain and range of this function in the context of this problem?

9. Match the equation of the functions from the list to the appropriate graph at

t

b) y 5 a b 1 3 a)

the top of the next page.

1 2x f (x) 5 2 a b 1 3 4 1 4

x

c) g(x) 5 2 a b

d) h(x) 5 2a b 1 3

5 4

2x

13

5 4

x

252

Chapter 4

NEL

4.6

i) 10 8 6 4 2 8 ii) 4 0 10 8 6 4 2 8 4 0 4 8 x 5 3 y 4 8 iv) 8 6 4 2 10 1 3 5 x y x 8 y iii) 8 6 4 2 4 0 4 8 x y

10. Each graph represents a transformation of the function f (x) 5 2x. Write an

**equation for each one. a) y
**

8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x

b) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8

y

x 4 8

**11. State the transformations necessary (and in the proper order) to transform
**

T

f (x) 5 2x11 1 5 to g(x) 5 1 (2x ). 4

Extending

12. Use your knowledge of transformations to sketch the function 23 f (x) 5 x 1 2 2 1. 2 13. Use your knowledge of transformations to sketch the function 1 g(x) 5 4 2 2 Q R 20.5x11. 3 14. State the transformations necessary (and in the proper order) to transform 3 9 m(x) 5 2 Q R 2x22 to n(x) 5 2 Q R 2x11 1 2. 2 4

NEL

Exponential Functions

253

4.7

YOU WILL NEED

**Applications Involving Exponential Functions
**

GOAL

• graphing calculator

Use exponential functions to solve problems involving exponential growth and decay.

The regional municipality of Wood Buffalo, Alberta, has experienced a large population increase in recent years due to the discovery of one of the world’s largest oil deposits. Its population, 35 000 in 1996, has grown at an annual rate of approximately 8%.

Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo

?

How long will it take for the population to double at this growth rate?

**LEARN ABOUT the Math
**

EXAMPLE

1

Selecting a strategy to determine the doubling rate

**Carter’s Solution: Using a Table of Values and a Graph 0.08(35) 1 35 5 35(0.08 1 1) 5 35(1.08)
**

When you add 8% of a number to the number, the new value is 108% of the old one. This is the same as multiplying by 1.08, so I created the table of values by repeatedly multiplying by 1.08. I did this 10 times, once for each year, and saw that the population doubled to 70 000 after 9 years of growth. Time (year from 1996) Population (thousands)

0 35.0

1 37.8

2 40.8

3 44.1

4 47.6

5 51.4

6 55.5

7 60.0

8 64.8

9 70.0

10 75.6

254

Chapter 4

NEL

4.7

Population of Wood Buffalo 80 70 Population (thousands) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Years

I plotted the points and drew a smooth curve through the data. I drew a horizontal line across the graph at 70 000 and saw that it touched the curve at 9 years.

Sonja’s Solution: Creating an Algebraic Model P(1) 5 35(1.08) 5 37.8 P(2) 5 37.8(1.08) 5 40.8 Substituting P(1) into P(2): P(2) 5 35(1.08) (1.08) 5 35(1.08) 2 So, P(3) 5 35(1.08) (1.08) 5 35(1.08) 3 Therefore, P(n) 5 35(1.08) n P(6) 5 35(1.08) 6 5 35(1.586 874 323) 5 55.540 601 3 P(9) 5 35(1.08) 9 5 35(1.999 004 627) 5 69.965 161 95 8 70 The population would double in approximately 9 years at an 8% rate of growth.

Since population is a function of time, I expressed the relationship in function notation. I used P (n), where the exponent, n, would represent the number of years after 1996 and P (n) would represent the population in thousands. I guessed that it would take 6 years for the population to double. I substituted n 5 6 into the expression for the function, but it was too low. I tried values for n until I got an answer that was close to the target of 70; n 5 9 was pretty close.

2

To calculate the population after 1 year, I needed to multiply 35 by 1.08. For each additional year, I repeatedly multiply by 1.08. Repeated multiplication can be represented with exponents. The value of the exponent will correspond to the number for the year. This led to an algebraic model.

NEL

Exponential Functions

255

Reflecting

A. B. C.

Which features of the function indicate that it is exponential? Describe what each part of the equation P(n) 5 35(1.08) n represents in the context of the problem and the features of the graph. Compare Carter’s and Sonja’s solutions. Which approach do you think is better? Why?

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

2

Solving an exponential decay problem, given the equation

A 200 g sample of radioactive polonium-210 has a half-life of 138 days. This means that every 138 days, the amount of polonium left in a sample is half of the original amount. The mass of polonium, in grams, that remains after 1 t t days can be modelled by M(t) 5 200 Q R 138. 2 a) Determine the mass that remains after 5 years. b) How long does it take for this 200 g sample to decay to 110 g? Zubin’s Solution: Using the Algebraic Model

a) 5 years 5 5(365) days

1 1825 M(1825) 5 200a b 138 2 5 1825 days 8 0.021

Since the half-life is measured in days, I converted the number of years to days before substituting into the function. I used my calculator to determine the answer.

8 200(0.000 104 5)

1 138 b) M(t) 5 200a b 2

t

**There is approximately 0.02 g of polonium-210 left after 5 years. 1 138 110 5 200a b 2
**

t t

I began by writing the equation and substituting the amount of the sample remaining. I needed to isolate t in the equation, so I divided each side by 200. I didn’t know how to isolate t, so I used guess and check to find the answer.

110 1 138 5a b 200 2

256

Chapter 4

NEL

**1 M(100) 5 200a b 138 2
**

t 100

1 138 0.55 5 a b 2 8 121 g

4.7

I knew that if the exponent was 1 (t 5 138 days), the original amount would be halved, but the amount I needed to find was 110 g, so the exponent needed to be less than 1. I guessed 100 days, which I substituted into the original equation. I calculated the answer. It was too high, which meant that my guess was too low. I guessed and checked a few more times until I found the answer of approximately 119 days.

**1 138 M(119) 5 200a b 2
**

119

8 110 g

**Barry’s Solution: Using a Graphical Model
**

a)

I graphed M(t), then used the value operation. I had to change 5 years into days.

Tech

Support

For help determining the point(s) of intersection between two functions, see Technical Appendix, B-12.

**There is about 0.02 g remaining after 5 years.
**

b)

I graphed M(t), and I graphed a horizontal line to represent 110 g. I knew that the point where the line met the curve would represent the answer.

I used the “Intersect” operation on the graphing calculator to find the point. The x-value represents the number of days.

It takes approximately 119 days for the sample to decay to 110 g.

NEL

Exponential Functions

257

EXAMPLE

3

Solving a problem by determining an equation for a curve of good fit

A biologist tracks the population of a new species of frog over several years. From the table of values, determine an equation that models the frog’s population growth, and determine the number of years before the population triples.

Year Population 0 400 1 480 2 576 3 691 4 829 5 995

Tech

Support

Fred’s Solution

I used my graphing calculator to create a scatter plot. The equation is of the form P(t) 5 abt, where • P(t) represents the population in year t • a is the initial population • b is the base of the exponential function Since the function is increasing, b . 1. The initial population occurs when x 5 0. That means that a 5 400. If b 5 2, then the population would have doubled, but it went up by only 80 in the first year, so the value of b must be less than 2.

For help creating scatter plots on a graphing calculator, see Technical Appendix, B-11.

I tried b 5 1.5 and entered the equation P(t) 5 400(1.5) t into the equation editor. The graph rose too quickly, so 1.5 is too great for b.

I changed the equation to P(t) 5 400(1.1) t. I graphed the equation on the calculator. I checked to see if the curve looked right. It rose too slowly, so b must be between 1.1 and 1.5.

258

Chapter 4

NEL

4.7

I continued this process until I found a good fit when b 5 1.2.

The equation that models this population is P(t) 5 400(1.2) t

To determine the year that the population tripled, I graphed the line P 5 1200 and found the intersection point of the curve and the line.

From this graph, I determined that the frog population tripled in approximately 6 years.

EXAMPLE

4

Representing a real-world problem with an algebraic model

A new car costs $24 000. It loses 18% of its value each year after it is purchased. This is called depreciation. Determine the value of the car after 30 months. Gregg’s Solution y 5 abx

The car’s value decreases each year. Another way to think about the car losing 18% of its value each year is to say that it keeps 82% of its value. To determine its value, I multiplied its value in the previous year by 0.82. The repeated multiplication suggested that this relationship is exponential. That makes sense, since this has to be a decreasing function where 0 , b , 1.

NEL

Exponential Functions

259

608 884 097) 814. as a decimal. For example. n 5 30 months 5 30 4 12 years 5 2. For example.” then the number of decay periods in the equation is measured in metres.5 years V(2.08. then the base of the power in the equation can be obtained by adding the rate. then the base of the power in the equation is obtained by subtracting the rate. Note that • f(x) is the final amount or number • a is the initial amount or number • for exponential growth.82) 2. if light intensity decreases “per metre. b 5 1 1 growth rate. a growth rate of 8% involves multiplying repeatedly by 1. b 5 1 2 decay rate • x is the number of growth or decay periods Need to Know • For situations that can be modeled by an exponential function: • If the growth rate (as a percent) is given.5 5 24(0.g. as a decimal. light intensity.5) 5 24(0.82) n I used V and n to remind me of what they represented. which is the value of a and the exponent n is measured in years.. • One way to tell the difference between growth and decay is to consider whether the quantity in question (e. I converted 30 months to years to get my answer. The initial value is $24 000.92. In Summary Key Ideas • The exponential function f(x) 5 ab x and its graph can be used as a model to solve problems involving exponential growth and decay. The base of the exponential function that models the value of the car is 0. to 1. dollar value) has increased or decreased. For example.6 The car is worth about $14 600 after 30 months. population.V(n) 5 24(0. 260 Chapter 4 NEL . from 1. • The units for the growth/decay rate and for the number of growth/decay periods must be the same. • If the decay rate (as a percent) is given. for exponential decay. a decay rate of 8% involves multiplying repeatedly by 0. too.82.

Solve each exponential equation.8) n A(x) 5 0.25) 1.02) t 5 w Q(w) 5 600a b 8 P(n) 5 (0. NEL Exponential Functions 261 . Express answers to the nearest hundredth of b) P 5 9000a b a unit. a) b) c) d) What is the growth rate? What is the initial amount? How many growth periods are there? Write an equation that models the growth of the investment. a) What is the initial value of the computer? Explain how you know. Its value as a function of time.95) m. b) What is the growth rate? Explain how you know. b) What is the rate of depreciation? Explain how you know.4.7 CHECK Your Understanding 1. Complete the table. in months. a) What is the initial population? Explain how you know. A computer loses its value each month after it is purchased. and use it to determine the value of the investment after 15 years. c) Determine the value of the computer after 2 years. is modelled by V(m) 5 1500(0.25 d) 625 5 P(0.05) 10 1 8 2 c) 500 5 N0 (1.71) 9 2. a) A 5 250(1. In 1990.5(3) x 3. c) Determine the population in the year 2007. a sum of $1000 is invested at a rate of 6% per year for 15 years. The growth in population of a small town since 1996 is given by the function P(n) 5 1250(1.03) n. d) In which year does the population reach 2000 people? 4. d) In which month after it is purchased does the computer’s worth fall below $900? PRACTISING 5. Exponential Growth or Decay? Growth or Decay Rate Function Initial Value a) b) c) d) V(t) 5 20(1.

c) How much time did it take for the sandwich to reach an internal temperature of 30 °C? t 262 Chapter 4 NEL . The function that models the town’s growth is P(n) 5 12(1. c) Use this equation (or another method) to determine the number of years ago that the population was 8000. P. a) What was the temperature of the sandwich when she began to record its temperature? b) Determine the temperature. A species of bacteria has a population of 500 at noon.5% for the last 10 years. Determine the population at noon the next day. of the sandwich after 20 min. d) What are the domain and range of the function? 9. P(t) 5 500 a 2 10 b . t 7. t.025n ) where P(n) represents the population (in thousands) and n is the number of years from now. a) g(x) 5 24(3) x b) h(x) 5 0. at any hour.6. Suppose this growth rate will be maintained in the future.9) 2 3 8. Determine the time at which the population first exceeds 2000. to the nearest degree.2) x c) j(x) 5 3(0. K The function that models the growth of the population. It doubles every 10 h. A student records the internal temperature of a hot sandwich that has been A left to cool on a kitchen counter. A town with a population of 12 000 has been growing at an average rate of 2. is t a) b) c) d) e) f) Why is the exponent 10? Why is the base 2? Why is the multiplier 500? Determine the population at midnight. b) Determine the number of years until the population doubles. An equation that models this situation is T(t) 5 63(0. a) Determine the population of the town in 10 years.8(1.8) 2x d) k(x) 5 x 1 (0. Answer to the nearest year. The room temperature is 19 °C.5) 10 1 19 where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and t is the time in minutes. Which of these functions describe exponential decay? Explain.

b) Explain how each part of your equation is related to the given information. a) Write an equation that represents the percent of germs left with n applications. write an equation that models the situation described. Explain what each part of each equation represents. of this colony of yeast cells? b) Write an equation that can be used to determine the population of cells at t hours.7 10. 13. a) 14. Assume that the intensity is 100% at the surface.. b) Suppose a kitchen countertop has 10 billion (1010 ) germs.5 m. b) Determine the increase in value of the card in the 4th year after it was purchased (from year 3 to year 4).5% each year after that for t years c) the population of a colony if a single bacterium takes 1 day to divide into two. c) Determine the increase in value of the card in the 20th year after it was purchased.4. A collector’s hockey card is purchased in 1990 for $5. Fifteen years later. d) Use your equation to determine the population after 90 min. How many applications are required to eliminate all of the germs? 15. At 9 a.m. b) Determine the intensity of light at a depth of 7. In each case. The value increases by 6% every year. A town has a population of 8400 in 1990. a) the percent of colour left if blue jeans lose 1% of their colour every time they are washed b) the population if a town had 2500 residents in 1990 and grew at a rate of 0. given the number of years since 1990. Assume an initial population of 80 cells. A population of yeast cells can double in as little as 1 h. its population T grew to 12 500. a) Write an equation that models the number of cells.m. there are C NEL 263 . Exponential Functions 16. a) What is the growth rate. Write an equation that models the intensity of light per metre of depth. A group of yeast cells grows by 75% every 3 h. Determine the average annual growth rate of this town’s population. A disinfectant is advertised as being able to kill 99% of all germs with each application. c) Use your equation to determine the population after 6 h. a) Write an equation that models the value of the card. in percent per hour. the population is P after t days 11. 200 yeast cells. Light intensity in a lake falls by 9% per metre of depth relative to the surface. e) Approximately how many hours would it take for the population to reach 1 million cells? f ) What are the domain and range for this situation? 12. given the number of hours after 9 a.

Curious Math Zeno’s Paradox Zeno of Elea (c.08T 0. there was a new. after a period of time. and create a possible equation to model the growth in the popularity of this name. a Greek philosopher and mathematician. A C D B He illustrated his point of view with a story. Achilles travelled half the distance between himself and Tortoise (point C ). In the year 2002.21 where R(T ) is the percent of words remembered after T hours. a) Investigate whether or not this is an example of exponential growth. is famous for his paradoxes that deal with motion. • Two years later. Each time he arrived at the halfway point. but may actually be true. there is an infinite number of halfway points and Achilles would never catch up to Tortoise. So if you look at it this way. Wed. Describe its features and decide whether or not it is an example of exponential decay. and smaller. What is the function that models this problem. there were 70 girls with the name (National Post. Ebbinghaus performed experiments in which he had people memorize lists of words and then tested their memory of the list. After the race started. He found that the percent of words they remembered can be modelled by R(T ) 5 100 1 1 1. Who will win the race between Achilles and Tortoise? Explain. 18. Psychologist H. 2.. he travelled half the remaining distance between himself and Tortoise (point D).Extending 17. Tortoise was given a head start (point B). (A paradox is a statement that runs counter to common sense. 2006. b) Determine what the growth rate might be. 1. there were 18 girls (including the first one) with that name. a single baby girl born in Alberta was given the name Nevaeh. This equation is now known as the “forgetting curve. c) Discuss any limitations of your model. 490–425 BCE). 264 Chapter 4 NEL . b) Predict the percent of words remembered after 24 h. May 24. p.” even though it actually models the percent of words remembered! a) Graph this function with technology.) Zeno suggested that it is impossible to get to point B from point A. • By 2005. And again. A2). Achilles (point A) and Tortoise agreed to have a race. halfway point. if Tortoise was given a head start of 1000 m? Does this function support Zeno’s paradox? Explain.

1. First Differences 2 6 18 54 162 486 Second Differences x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 y 5 3x 1 3 9 27 81 243 729 4 12 36 108 324 NEL Exponential Functions 265 . y 10 y = 2x y = 1 10 2 x –10 0 10 –10 0 10 Study Aid • See Lesson 4. A differences table for an exponential function shows that the differences are never constant. They are related by a multiplication pattern. () x y x If b . the function has the x-axis (the line y 5 0) as its horizontal asymptote. • Try Chapter Review Questions 9 and 10. The shape of its graph depends upon the parameter b. In each case. then the curve decreases as x increases. 1. then the curve increases as x increases. where the variable is an exponent. as they are for linear and quadratic functions.4 Q: • its equation? • its graph? • a table of values? A: Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions How can you identify an exponential function from The exponential function has the form f (x) 5 b x. If 0 .5. b .

This will help you organize the information and create the equation you require to solve the problem. The shape of the graph of g(x) depends on the value of the base of the function. then reflections. If a . then the function has also been reflected in the x-axis. and 3. list these four elements of the equation and fill in the data as you read the problem. 1.1 When solving problems. following an appropriate order—often. then amount decay 0. Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 4. and finally translations. Examples 1.): P(t) 5 P0 (2)D Population growth: P(n) 5 P0 (1 1 r) n Growth in money: A(n) 5 P(1 1 i) n t 1 t Radioactivity or half-life: N(t) 5 100a b H 2 Decay Depreciation of assets: V(n) 5 V0 (1 2 r) n Light intensity in water: V(n) 5 100(1 2 r) n 266 Chapter 4 NEL .b. Each formula is modelled after the exponential function y 5 ab x The amount in the future The present The growth/decay The number factor: if growth. d. • Try Chapter Review Questions 13 to 17.7. • a represents the vertical stretch or compression factor. 3 and 4. 2. If k . 0.Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 4. 0. and c change the location or shape of the graph of f (x). How can transformations help in drawing the graphs of exponential functions? Functions of the form g (x) 5 af (k(x 2 d )) 1 c can be graphed by applying the appropriate transformations to the key points and asymptotes of the parent function f (x) 5 b x. Here are some examples: Growth Cell division (doubling bacteria.6. etc. How can exponential functions model growth and decay? How can you use them to solve problems? Exponential functions can be used to model phenomena exhibiting repeated multiplication of the same factor. f (x) 5 b x. of periods of value or then b . • d represents the number of units of horizontal translation right or left. • k represents the horizontal stretch or compression factor. In functions of the form g (x) 5 ab k(x2d ) 1 c. k. yeast cells. Examples 1. • Try Chapter Review Questions 11 and 12. 2. then the function has also been reflected in the y-axis. the constants a. stretches and compressions. if initial growth or decay. • c represents the number of units of vertical translation up or down.

25 e) f ) " ( (22) ) 6 d) ( !227) 4 ( !p) answers in rational form. Express 2. quadratic.4 22 2 1. Write each as a single power.5 ) 3 ) 21.8 b) 20. Evaluate each expression for the given values. a6b5 Å a8b3 m 2n 22 mn 7 2 3 3 2 2 11 d) e) 4 "x216 (x6 ) 26 5 6 ( !232) ( !64) 5 3 2 b) c) f) "x6 ( y 3 ) 22 (x 3y) 22 (x4 ) 2 2 11 ( (2x0. 1. y 5 22 d) (3y21 ) 3 e) (6(x24 ) 3 ) 21.25 c) 3 !2125 a) a ( a d) m1. a) b) x y x 25 0 5 10 15 20 238 23 42 97 162 237 0 2 4 6 8 10 y 245 215 15 45 75 105 6. Express answers in rational form. Simplify. x 2 true? Explain. Explain why !a 1 b 2 !a 1 !b. 3 5. 0.5 9.5 b b) a 225 (81) 20.3 3. a) (27) 3 (27) 24 b) c) Lesson 4. which is greater. for a . 0 and 5 b0. a) (5x) 2 (2x) 3. Write with only positive exponents. Write each expression using only positive exponents. Express each radical in exponential form and each power in radical form. Express answers in rational form. Evaluate. x or x ? Why? b) Are there values of x that make the statement x22 . 3 a) !x 7 a) a b b) y 8 5 (22) 8 (22) 3 (5) 23 (5) 6 53 c) 4. Simplify. x 5 22 1 (22 x22 ) 3 (6x) 2 f) .2 Lesson 4.m54 (2m) 23 2w(3w22 ) c) .x5 21 3 2(23x ) 2 3 a) !27x 3y 9 8. Then evaluate.2 b c) c ac 6 b c 2 3 2 23 2 ) d) d e) d (d ) 25 11 2 23 2 7 22 2 22 ( (e ) ) ( (f f) 1 6 26 5 21 ) ) b . 2 23 5 16 20. a) If x . or exponential) for each table of values. All variables are positive. x 5 22 8m25 b) . w 5 23 (2w) 2 (9y) 2 .Chapter Review PRACTICE Questions Lesson 4. NEL Exponential Functions 267 .2 Lesson 4. 4210 (423 ) 6 (424 ) 8 1 7 e) (11) 9 a b 11 (23) 7 (23) 4 23 b f) a (234 ) 3 d) 7. Identify the type of function (linear.

10 8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 x y 268 Chapter 4 NEL .4 7.4 0.2 22.5 y 210. The exponential function shown has been reflected in the y-axis and translated vertically. and a possible equation for it.8 29.25 e) x 22 21 0 1 2 3 y 2000 1000 500 250 125 62. Then state the transformations that map the base function onto the given function.c) x 1 2 3 4 5 6 y 13 43 163 643 2 563 10 243 y 40 20 10 5 2.2 26. or exponential) from its graph.6 27.8 1 1.5 1. Use transformations to sketch each graph. y 5 b x.2 0. its asymptote.2 Lesson 4.6 11. Identify each type of function (linear.4 c) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 y x 4 8 d) x 22 21 0 1 2 3 f) x 0. x a) b) c) d) 10. State its y-intercept. y a) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 b) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x y 4 8 x 1 2 y5a b 23 2 1 y 5 (2) 2x 1 1 4 y 5 22(3) 2x14 21 y5 (5) 3x29 1 10 10 12. For each exponential function. state the base function. quadratic.6 0.

Complete the table. a) Write an equation that models the growth of the city. case.5 3 109 years c) the intensity of light if each gel used to change the colour of a spotlight reduces the intensity of the light by 4% 17. Explain how the equation would change if the coffee cooled faster.95) n n 14.875) n where V(n) is the car’s value in the nth year since it was purchased.08)t P(n) 5 32(0. b) Use your equation to determine the population of the city in 2007. A hot cup of coffee cools according to the equation t where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and t is the time in minutes. 1 30 T(t) 5 69a b 1 21 2 a) b) c) d) e) f) What is the purchase price of the car? What is the annual rate of depreciation? What is the car’s value at the end of 3 years? What is its value at the end of 30 months? How much value does the car lose in its first year? How much value does it lose in its fifth year? 16. a) the percent of a pond covered by water lilies if they cover one-third of a pond now and each week they increase their coverage by 10% b) the amount remaining of the radioactive isotope U238 if it has a half-life of 4. the population was 45 000. In each a) b) c) d) e) f) Which part of the equation indicates that this is an example of exponential decay? What was the initial temperature of the coffee? Use your knowledge of transformations to sketch the graph of this function.Chapter Review Lesson 4. Function a) c) d) Q(n) 5 600a b b) A(x) 5 5(3) x 5 8 V(t) 5 100(1. Explain what each part of the equation represents.or Decay Decay? intercept) Rate according to the formula V(n) 5 28 000(0. d) Suppose the population took only 10 years to double. after 48 min. describe each part of your equation. In 1990. What growth rate would be required for this to have happened? NEL Exponential Functions 269 . Exponential Initial Growth Growth or Value (y. c) Determine the year during which the population will have doubled. The value of a car after it is purchased depreciates 13. to the nearest degree. Write the equation that models each situation.7 15. The population of a city is growing at an average rate of 3% per year. Explain how the graph would change if the coffee cooled faster. Determine the temperature of the coffee.

b) Use your equation to determine the percent of light left if three gels are used. Express answers as rational numbers. What are the restrictions on the value of n in an if a . c) Describe the transformations necessary (in the proper order) that map g(x) onto f (x). a) Write an equation that models the intensity of light. Evaluate. 5. y 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 x 6. Each gel reduces the original intensity of the light by 3. b) Use your equation to determine when the population will double (assuming that the growth rate remains stable). I. A spotlight uses coloured gels to create the different colours of light required for a theatrical production. Use only positive exponents in your final answers.6%. a) Explain how you can tell what type of function f (x) represents just by looking at the equation. a) f (x) 5 2(32x ) 1 5 b) g(x) 5 (322x24 ) 2 5 7. 1024(x21 ) 10 Å (2x23 ) 5 2 2. d) p(x) 5 22 a 3 2 1 1 c) h(x) 5 20. a) (23x 2y) 3 (23x23y) 2 c) 5 (5a21b 2 ) 22 b) 125a 5b23 (8x6y23 ) 3 d) (2xy) 3 1 4. 0? Explain. Simplify. a) Write an equation that models the population. P. since 1990.4 Chapter Self-Test 1. b) Create a table of values for f (x). of this country as a function of the number of years.8(3x23 ) x 21 b22 270 Chapter 4 NEL . as a function of the number of gels used. The function f (x) 5 2 2 (32x14 ) 1 5 is the transformation of the function 1 g(x) 5 3x. A small country that had 2 million inhabitants in 1990 has experienced an average growth in population of 4% per year since then. n. a) (25) 23 b) 273 3. Describe how to tell the type of function it is from its table of values. Sketch f (x) and state the equation of its asymptote. Which of these equations correspond to the graph? Explain how you know. c) Explain why this is an example of exponential decay.

Does the model you found predict these same values? Write a report that summarizes your findings. Task Checklist Did you include all the required elements in your report? Did you properly label the graphs including some values? Did you show your work in your choice of the equation for part E? Did you support your decision in part G? NEL Exponential Functions 271 . How well does your graph fit the data? Make any necessary adjustments to your equation. What type of function is this? Explain.5 4.7 6. until you are satisfied with the fit. Use the data in the table to estimate the average growth rate for a 5-year period and the y-intercept of the function. and national population size and growth. What is the equation of the function you could use to model the world’s population? Use the data from the table to create a scatter plot on graph paper. C. Chapter Task Modelling Population Every two years.2 billion by 2075 and decline slightly to 8. Graph your equation. D. F. Draw a curve of good fit.97 billion by 2300. The estimated population of the world since 1950 is given in the table. E. B. supported by your reasons. Using a graphing calculator. create a scatter plot. the UN predicted that the world’s population will peak at 9.1 H.3 5. G.8 3 3. the United Nations Population Division prepares estimates and projections of world.7 4 4.55 2. Discuss • the estimated average 5-year growth rate and the y-intercept of the function • the original equation you determined • the changes you made to your original equation and the reasons for those changes • the calculations you used to check whether your model matches the future population predictions made by the UN • why the UN predictions may differ from those of your model Year 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Years since 1950 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 World Population (billions) 2. In your report. In 2004. regional. include your graph-paper scatter plot and the prediction of the type of function you thought this might be. Do so as often as needed.4 ? A. Use the values you found in part D to write an equation for this function.3 3.85 5.

272 NEL .

Chapter 5 Trigonometric Ratios GOALS You will be able to • • • Relate the six trigonometric ratios to the unit circle Solve real-life problems by using trigonometric ratios. properties of triangles. and the sine and cosine laws Prove simple trigonometric identities ? How would changes in the boat’s speed and the wind’s speed affect the angles in the vector diagram and the speed and direction of the boat? N speed of wind 2 speed of boat 1 NEL 273 .

h 42 32 40 m 6. determine the sine. he estimates the angle of depression to the bottom of the tower as 32°. Aid • For help. Use a graphic organizer to show how to use the sine law to calculate an unknown angle.8 m C b a A Tech 8. see Technical Appendix. He is in the basket of a repair truck 40 m from the tower. cosine. a) /A b) /D 3. Use a calculator to evaluate to the nearest thousandth.2 m long.3 m parking meter that is nearby casts a shadow 1.8 m long. B-13. determine each given angle to the nearest degree. a b c 5 5 sin A sin B sin C B Support c For help using the inverse trigonometric keys on a graphing calculator. a) /B a) sin 31° a) cos u 5 0. NEL 274 Chapter 5 . a tower casts a shadow 35. a 1. he estimates the angle of elevation to the top of the tower as 42°. see Essential Skills Appendix.1145 4. At the same time. When he looks up. Using the triangles in question 1.2 m 1. 5.3 m 35. When he looks down.3312 b) /F b) cos 70° b) sin u 5 0. The sine law states that in any triangle. How high is the tower to the nearest tenth of a metre? 1. Use the Pythagorean theorem to determine each unknown side length. On a sunny day. Question 1 2–7 8 Appendix A-4 A-16 A-17 a) c A 12 m B 5m C b) E f D 8m F 11 m 2. Mario is repairing the wires on a radio broadcast tower. the side lengths are proportional to the sines of the opposite angles. How high is the tower to the nearest metre? 7. Using the triangles in question 1. Use a calculator to determine u to the nearest degree. and tangent ratios for each given angle.7113 c) tan u 5 1.5 Study Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1.

D. Is ^ ABC a right triangle? Justify your decision. B. F. Which triangular stone would you use for the corner of the patio? Justify your decision. The side opposite each angle is labelled with the lower case letter corresponding to that angle. They need one tile that has a right angle for the corner of the patio. C 66 cm 38 cm B 77 cm A J 30 cm K F 86 cm 91 cm 35 cm 40 cm Communication Tip It is common practice to label the vertices of a triangle with upper case letters. The measurements are shown. E. Repeat parts A to D for the remaining triangles. They don’t have a protractor. Check to see if ^ ABC is a right triangle by evaluating each side of the relationship you wrote in part B. C. A b c B a C D ? A. 20 cm E L Which of these triangles can be used for the corner of the patio? In ^ ABC. which angle is most likely a right angle? Justify your decision. Assuming that ^ ABC is a right triangle.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Finding a Right-Angled Triangle Raymond and Alyssa are covering a patio with triangular pieces of stone tile. so they use a tape measure to measure the side lengths of each triangle. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 275 . Compare both sides. write down the mathematical relationship that relates the three sides.

1 Trigonometric Ratios of Acute Angles GOAL Evaluate reciprocal trigonometric ratios.7° I used my calculator to evaluate. determine the length of MN. I multiplied both sides of the equation by MN. MN(tan 16.0 m.0 MN 5 3.5. LEARN ABOUT the Math From a position some distance away from the base of a tree.0 m EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to determine a side length in a right triangle In ^MNP. to the nearest tenth of a metre. A clinometer is a device used to measure the angle of elevation (above the horizontal) or the angle of depression (below the horizontal).7° 5 3.0 m Monique is about 10. is Monique from the base of the tree? P M 16. 276 Chapter 5 NEL . ? N How far.7° 3. So I used tangent. Monique uses a clinometer to determine the angle of elevation to a treetop. The symbol 8 means “approximately equal to” and indicates that a result has been rounded. Communication Tip MN 8 10. then divided by tan 16. Communication Tip Clive’s Solution: Using Primary Trigonometric Ratios tan 16.7º.0 MN I knew the opposite side but I needed to calculate the adjacent side MN. Monique estimates that the height of the tree is about 3.0 tan 16.0 m away from the base of the tree.7°) 5 3.

1 Cot u is the short form for the cotangent of angle u.7° 5 MN 3.7°. Most calculators do not have buttons for evaluating the reciprocal ratios. use cos 20° 1 • cot 20°.5. use sin 20° 1 • sec 20°. sec u is the short form for the secant of angle u. Reflecting A. use tan 20° APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Evaluating the six trigonometric ratios of an angle C 3 cm A B ^ABC is a right triangle with side lengths of 3 cm.7° angle.0 m away from the base of the tree. 4 cm. and MN is adjacent.0 NP is opposite the 16. Tech Support 10. What was the advantage of using a reciprocal trigonometric ratio in Tony’s solution? Suppose Monique wants to calculate the length of MP in ^MNP. This gave me an equation with the unknown in the numerator. Which one would be better? Explain. I used the reciprocal trigonometric ratio cot 16. and csc u is the short form for the cosecant of angle u.0. I multiplied both sides by 3. To solve for MN. B.7 ° cot 16.0) cot 16. For example.0 m 8 MN Monique is about 10. and 5 cm.7°. If CB 5 3 cm and /C 5 90°.7° 5 MN I evaluated to get tan 16.1 reciprocal trigonometric ratios the reciprocal ratios are defined as 1 divided by each of the primary trigonometric ratios csc u 5 sec u 5 cot u 5 1 hypotenuse 5 sin u opposite 1 hypotenuse 5 cos u adjacent 1 adjacent 5 tan u opposite Tony’s Solution: Using Reciprocal Trigonometric Ratios cot 16. making the equation easier to solve. which trigonometric ratio of /A is the greatest? NEL Trigonometric Ratios 277 . State the two trigonometric ratios that she could use based on the given information. to evaluate 1 • csc 20°. (3.

D 8.67 5 1.33 I expressed these ratios as decimals to compare them more easily. EXAMPLE 3 Solving a right triangle by calculating the unknown side and the unknown angles a) Determine EF in ^DEF to the nearest tenth of a centimetre.Sam’s Solution C 3 cm I labelled the sides of the triangle relative to /A.75 cot A 5 5 Then I evaluated the reciprocal trigonometric ratios for /A. If the side opposite /A is 3 cm. The greatest trigonometric ratio of /A is csc A. 5 0. The hypotenuse is the longest side. I wrote the reciprocal of each primary ratio to get the appropriate reciprocal ratio. first in words and then with the side lengths.25 8 1. and tangent of /A. then the side adjacent to /A is 4 cm.0 cm 20. 8 1. Then calculate the unknown angles to the nearest degree.0 cm E F 278 Chapter 5 NEL . b) Express one unknown angle in terms of a primary trigonometric ratio and the other angle in terms of a reciprocal ratio. cosine.80 sec A 5 5 5 0. t en jac ad 4 cm A e sit po op B 5 cm hypotenuse sin A 5 5 opposite hypotenuse 3 5 hypotenuse opposite 5 3 cos A 5 5 adjacent hypotenuse 4 5 hypotenuse adjacent 5 4 tan A 5 5 opposite adjacent 3 4 adjacent opposite 4 3 First. I used the definitions of the primary trigonometric ratios to determine the sine. so its length must be 5 cm.60 csc A 5 5 5 0.

and arctangent (tan 21 ) are the names given to the inverse trigonometric functions. F tan a 5 5 5 opposite adjacent e f 8. b 8 68° EF is about 21. I determined angle b directly by evaluating 1 cos21 Q R with my 2. f 20.5 cm long.69 cos b 8 b 8 cos 21 a 1 2.69 1 b 2. and b (beta). respectively. 5 0.0 I expressed b in terms of the reciprocal trigonometric ratio sec b.1 Communication Tip Lina’s Solution a) EF 2 5 (8.5 8. These are used to determine the angle associated with a given primary ratio.69 To determine angle a.5 cm E I labelled /E as a. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 279 . and /E and /F are about 22° and 68°.0 cm2 EF 8 21.0 cm adjacent e nus ote hyp d 21.0) 2 EF 2 5 464.0) 2 1 (20.0 Since ^DEF is a right triangle. Unknown angles are often labelled with the Greek letters u (theta).40 a 5 tan a 8 22° (0. Communication 21 Tip sec b 8 2. Since my calculator doesn’t have a sec21 key. So I expressed a in terms of the primary trigonometric ratio tan a. I used my calculator to evaluate tan21 (0. Side d is the hypotenuse and e is adjacent to b.0 20. I wrote sec b in terms of the primary trigonometric ratio cos b before determining b.69 calculator.5.40) directly.0 cm opposite EF 5 !464. I labelled /F as b. arccosine (cos 21 ). Side e is opposite a and f is adjacent to a.0 21 sec b 5 5 5 hypotenuse adjacent d e 21.69 Arcsine (sin ).5 cm b) e D 8. a (alpha). I used the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the length of EF.40) 8 2.

and tan u 5 . making calculations easier. Given ^ABC. CHECK Your Understanding 1. • Calculators don’t have buttons for cosecant. For each primary trigonometric ratio. 1 2 3 b) cos u 5 4 a) sin u 5 3 2 1 d) tan u 5 4 c) tan u 5 b) sec 10° c) cot 75° d) csc 45° 4. Evaluate to the nearest hundredth. and are defined as 1 divided by each of the primary trigonometric ratios: 1 hypotenuse • csc u 5 5 sin u opposite 1 hypotenuse • sec u 5 5 cos u adjacent 1 adjacent • cot u 5 5 tan u opposite Need to Know • In solving problems. are always greater than or equal to 1. B 5 C 13 12 A 2. or cotangent ratios. state the six trigonometric ratios for /A. determine the corresponding reciprocal ratio. or greater than 1. cotangent. • The tangent ratio for an acute angle in a right triangle can be less than 1. 17 17 15 3. • The sine and cosine ratios for an acute angle in a right triangle are less than or equal to 1 so their reciprocal ratios. can take on this same range of values. cos u 5 . so the reciprocal ratio. reciprocal trigonometric ratios are sometimes helpful because the unknown variable can be expressed in the numerator. cosecant and secant. a) cos 34° 280 Chapter 5 NEL .In Summary Key Idea • The reciprocal trigonometric ratios are reciprocals of the primary trigonometric ratios. State the reciprocal trigonometric ratios that correspond to 8 15 8 sin u 5 . secant. equal to 1.

5 17 iv) 15 8 12 6.7 cm b) 24 x 8.2711 c) sec u 5 1. a) K For each triangle.0 m b) 5.5814 7. a) cot u 5 3. Given any right triangle with an acute angle u.4526 d) cot u 5 0. a) explain why csc u is always greater than or equal to 1 b) explain why cos u is always less than or equal to 1 NEL Trigonometric Ratios 281 . a) x 35 1.0 3.5 8.0 ii) 8. sec u.0 m 39 h 8.6 km 9. i) iii) 10 6 3. and cot u. a) 35 h 3.8 km 3.6 8 2. use two different methods to determine x to the nearest tenth of a unit.2404 b) csc u 5 1. use one of the reciprocal ratios from part (a) to determine u to the nearest degree.5.1 PRACTISING 5. For each triangle. calculate csc u. For each triangle. determine the length of the hypotenuse to the nearest tenth of a metre. Determine the value of u to the nearest degree. b) For each triangle.0 cm 0.

secant. The wires are attached to the antenna 3. r.7512 d) sin A 5 0.11 m from the door. 19. c.2703 b) cos A 5 0.1515 of 55° with the ground. 20. Describe the appearance of a triangle that has a secant ratio that is greater than any other trigonometric ratio. The maximum grade (slope) allowed for highways in Ontario is 12%. describe what this triangle would look like. In right ^PQR.35 m tall at an angle of elevation of 25°. From a position some distance away from the base of a flagpole. sine cotangent secant cosine hypotenuse angle of depression tangent cosecant angle opposite adjacent angle of elevation Extending 18. Given a right triangle with an acute angle u. needed to fly the kite using a) a primary trigonometric ratio b) a reciprocal trigonometric ratio run of 7. to the nearest tenth of a metre. associated with this slope. to the nearest hundredth of a metre. to the nearest degree. The two guy wires supporting an 8. 16. If Julie is 1. A kite is flying 8. A Calculate the length of string. 12. 17. List all the angles between 0° and 90° (if any) for which cosecant. including explanations where C appropriate. The hypotenuse.0 cm long. Which of these triangles has the greatest area? Justify your decision. Calculate the length of the ramp to the nearest hundredth of a metre.10.51. c) Determine the six trigonometric ratios for angle u. Organize these terms in a word web. 282 Chapter 5 NEL . if tan u 5 cot u. Calculate side lengths p and q to the nearest centimetre and all three interior angles to the nearest degree. of right ^ABC is 7. A trigonometric ratio for T angle A is given for four different triangles.6 m above the ground at an angle of elevation of 41°. a) Predict the angle u.71 m above ground.7105 c) csc A 5 2. the hypotenuse. is 117 cm and tan P 5 0. Using a reciprocal trigonometric ratio. a) sec A 5 1.5 m TV antenna each form an angle 15. and cotangent are undefined.55 m tall. Julie estimates that the pole is 5. b) Calculate the value of u to the nearest degree. A wheelchair ramp near the door of a building has an incline of 15° and a 13. The tangent ratio is undefined for angles whose adjacent side is equal to zero. 11. What assumption did you make? 14. calculate the length of each wire to the nearest tenth of a metre. use a reciprocal trigonometric ratio to calculate how far she is from the base of the flagpole.

I used the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the length of the hypotenuse. 458. The height of an equilateral triangle of side length 2 units creates two congruent right scalene triangles. The triangle is isosceles with equal sides of length 1. and 608 angles? EXAMPLE 1 Evaluating exact values of the trigonometric ratios for a 458 angle Use ^ ABC to calculate exact values of sine.5. cosine. Carol’s Solution B 45 1 2 adjacent A opposite 45 1 C BC 2 5 AB 2 1 AC 2 BC 2 5 12 1 12 BC 2 5 2 BC 5 !2 I labelled the sides of the triangle relative to /B. • ruler • protractor LEARN ABOUT the Math The diagonal of a square of side length 1 unit creates two congruent right isosceles triangles. cosine. B 45 2 30 E A ? 45 1 C D 60 F How can isosceles ^ ABC and scalene ^ DEF be used to determine the exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios for 308. and tangent for specific angles.2 GOAL Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios for Special Angles YOU WILL NEED Evaluate exact values of sine. hy po n te e us NEL Trigonometric Ratios 283 . and tangent for 45°.

sin E 5 DF DE cos E 5 tan E 5 5 !3 DF EF I wrote the primary trigonometric ratios for /E in terms of the sides of the triangle. Since the height of an equilateral triangle divides the triangle into two smaller identical triangles. EXAMPLE 2 Evaluating exact values of the trigonometric ratios for 308 and 608 angles Use ^ DEF to calculate exact values of sine. and 1. I would get an equivalent number with a whole-number denominator.7. This would be an easier number to use to estimate the size. 2 respectively. cosine. 284 Chapter 5 NEL . 1 sin D 5 sin D 5 sin 60° 5 opposite hypotenuse EF DE !3 2 opposite 3 5 EF 2 cos D 5 cos D 5 cos 60° 5 adjacent hypotenuse DF DE 1 2 EF DE tan D 5 tan D 5 tan 60° 5 opposite adjacent EF DF !3 1 I wrote the primary trigonometric ratios for /D. !2 5 2 1 3 !2 5 !2 3 !2 opposite hypotenuse 1 !2 cos B 5 cos 45° 5 !2 5 2 1 3 !2 5 !2 3 !2 adjacent hypotenuse 1 !2 tan B 5 tan 45° 5 opposite adjacent 1 1 I wrote the primary trigonometric ratios for /B. So DF must be 1. so half of it is about 0. cosine. DF is equal to 2 DE. If I multiplied both the numerator and denominator by ! 2.4. Trevor’s Solution E DE 2 5 DF 2 1 EF 2 30 hy po ten use 2 3 D 60 adjacent 1 F !3 5 EF 2 2 2 5 1 1 EF 4 5 1 1 EF 2 2 I labelled the sides of the triangle relative to /D. since I knew that ! 2 is about 1. I used the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the length of EF. 51 !2 2 .sin B 5 sin 45° 5 The exact values of sine. and tangent for 45° are ! 2. and tangent for 30° and 60°.

2.2 I noticed that sin E and cos E are equal to cos D and sin D. Tina’s Solution 2 !3 1 4 4 2 1 !3 4 (sin 45°) (cos 45°) 1 (sin 30°) (sin 60°) I substituted the exact values of each trigonometric ratio. sin 30° 5 cos 60° cos 30° 5 sin 60° tan 30° 5 cot 60° sin E 5 cos D cos E 5 sin D tan E 5 cot D 1 "3 !3 3 1 3 !3 !3 3 !3 "3 1 !3 If I multiplied both the numerator and denominator by !3.57. and tangent for 30° are 2.sin 30° 5 1 2 cos 30° 5 !3 2 tan 30° 5 5 5 The exact values of sine. so a third of it is about 0. I evaluated the expression by multiplying. cosine. would you get the same results if you used /C for the 45° angle instead of /B? Explain. Reflecting A. 5 The exact value is NEL Trigonometric Ratios 285 . How can remembering that a 30°260°290° triangle is half of an equilateral triangle and that a 45°245°290° triangle is isosceles help you recall the exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios for the angles in those triangles? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Determining the exact value of a trigonometric expression Determine the exact value of (sin 45°) (cos 45°) 1 (sin 30°) (sin 60°). In Example 1. In Example 2. since ! 3 is about 1.7. respectively. D. and !3 . 5. C. This is an easier number to estimate. then adding the numerators. B. respectively. respectively "3 1 and for 60° are 2 . Explain how sin 30° and cos 60° are related. explain why the reciprocal ratios of tan 30° and cot 60° are equal. and 3 . 5a 5 !2 !2 1 !3 ba b 1 a ba b 2 2 2 2 2 1 !3 4 . 2 . I would get an equivalent number with a whole-number denominator. I also noticed that tan E is equal to the reciprocal of tan D.

Label the sides using the lengths 1. and 60° angles can be found by using the appropriate ratios of sides in isosceles right triangles and half-equilateral triangles with right angles. 1. and 1.5 2 1 5 0. • If a right triangle has one side that is half the length of the hypotenuse. 2.In Summary Key Idea • The exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios for 30°. Label the sides using the lengths ! 3.5 2 tan u ! 3 8 1.” B 45 2 1 2 30 E 3 A 45 1 u 30° 45° 60° sin u 60 C !3 !3 8 0. a) Draw a right triangle that has one angle measuring 30°. the angle opposite that one side is always 30°. Draw a right triangle that has one angle measuring 45°. CHECK Your Understanding 1. and angles between 45° and 90° have tangent ratios greater than 1.7321 Need to Know • Since tan 45° 5 1. then the angles opposite those sides are always 45°. c) Identify the adjacent and opposite sides relative to the 60° angle. • If a right triangle has two equal sides.7071 8 0. Explain your reasoning. angles between 0° and 45° have tangent ratios that are less than 1. b) Identify the adjacent and opposite sides relative to one of the 45° angles.8660 2 1 5 0. and ! 2.7071 1 2 2 cos u !3 8 0. 2.5774 2 3 D 1 F !2 !2 8 0. a) 3.8660 8 0. State the exact values. Explain your reasoning. 45°. b) Identify the adjacent and opposite sides relative to the 30° angle. These are often referred to as “special triangles. a) sin 60° b) cos 30° c) tan 45° d) cos 45° NEL 286 Chapter 5 .

7. a) u 5 30° b) u 5 45° c) 2 ! 2 cos u 5 2 b) u 5 45° sin u 6. show that cos u 5 tan u for each angle. To claim a prize in a contest. b) Use Sarah’s method to calculate this distance to the nearest tenth of a metre. A baseball diamond forms a square of side length 27. Using exact values. Determine the exact area of each large triangle. determine u if 0° # u # 90°. c) Only Megan received the prize. T a) tan a 5 1 C b) cos b 5 !3 2 Q 45 P B A 6 60 D S 12. Determine the exact value of each trigonometric expression. Using the appropriate special triangle. a) Louise used a calculator to evaluate the expression. a) Describe how Sarah might calculate this distance. K Communication 2 Tip a) sin 30° 3 tan 60° 2 cos 30° c) tan 30° 2 cos 45° d) 1 2 2 2 b) 2 cos 45° 3 sin 45° sin 45° cos 45° c) u 5 60° tan 30° 5 (tan 30°) (tan 30°) . b) Megan used exact values. Show that tan 30° 1 10. 5.2 PRACTISING 4. Determine her answer in radical form. the following skill-testing question was asked: C 13 R Calculate sin 45° (1 2 cos 30°) 1 5 tan 60° (sin 60° 2 tan 30°). The expression is squared. 11. Explain why this might have occurred. What assumption did you make? 1 1 5 . A 5 m stepladder propped against a classroom wall forms an angle of 30° A !3 2 b) ! 3 tan u 5 1 a) u 5 30° a) sin u 5 with the wall. show that sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 for each angle. Sarah says that she used a special triangle to calculate the distance between home plate and second base. Using exact values. not the angle. tan 30° sin 30° cos 30° d) 2 cos u 5 ! 3 c) u 5 60° 9. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 287 .4 m.5. Determine her answer to three decimal places. Exactly how far is the top of the ladder from the floor? Express your answer in radical form. 8.

14. a) For each puzzle piece. a) u 5 30° b) u 5 45° c) u 5 60° Curious Math The Eternity Puzzle Eternity. show that 1 1 cot 2 u 5 csc 2 u for each angle. Copy these pieces and see if you can find a solution. Monckton’s solution remains unknown. 2. b) Calculate the area of each puzzle piece. respectively. Suppose one such triangle has side lengths of 1. The seven puzzle pieces shown can be fit together to form a convex shape. consists of 209 different pieces. A second solution was found by Guenter Stertenbrink shortly afterwards. 1. Round your answer to the piece 1 piece 2 piece 3 nearest tenth of a square unit. It turned out that the puzzle didn’t take an eternity to solve after all! Alex Selby and Oliver Riordan presented their solution on May 15. determine the perimeter. The puzzle was introduced in Britain in June 1999. If csc b 5 2. calculate tan b 2 sin2 b exactly. 2000.Extending 13. Using exact values. 288 Chapter 5 NEL . and collected the prize. calculate (sin a) (cot a) 2 cos2 a exactly. Interestingly. Consider the first three pieces of the Eternity puzzle. Each piece is made up of twelve 30°260°290° triangles. and a £1 000 000 award (about $2 260 000 Canadian dollars) was offered for the first solution. and 2. Write your answer in radical form. and the goal was to arrange the pieces into the shape of a dodecagon (12-sided polygon). Monckton provided six clues to solve his puzzle. all three mathematicians ignored Monckton’s clues and found their own answers. Each contains twelve 30°260°290° triangles. If cot a 5 ! 3. sec b 15. a puzzle created by Christopher Monckton. !3.

or 4 principal angle the counterclockwise angle between the initial arm and the terminal arm of an angle in standard position. 3. y m l ar ina m ter Next he performed a series of reflections in the y. What is its angle measure? What is the size of the principal angle u and in which quadrant does the terminal arm lie? P y related acute angle the acute angle between the terminal arm of an angle in standard position and the x-axis when the terminal arm lies in quadrants 2. 0 Which angles in the Cartesian plane. have primary trigonometric ratios related to those of a 308 angle? initial arm x vertex Use Raj’s sketch of a 30° angle in standard position in the Cartesian plane to record the lengths of all sides and the primary trigonometric ratios for 30° to four decimal places.5. ? A.3 GOAL Exploring Trigonometric Ratios for Angles Greater than 90° YOU WILL NEED Explore relationships among angles that share related trigonometric ratios. /PrOrQr is now called the related acute angle b. Angle u is measured from the initial arm to the terminal arm (the arm that rotates). He drew one of the special triangles on a Cartesian grid as shown. • graph paper • dynamic geometry software (optional) EXPLORE the Math Raj is investigating trigonometric ratios of angles greater than 90°. y 2 30 0 3 Q 60 P 1 x standard position an angle in the Cartesian plane whose vertex lies at the origin and whose initial arm (the arm that is fixed) lies on the positive x-axis. y quadrant 1 quadrant 2 terminal arm related acute angle vertex 0 quadrant 3 B.and x-axes. if any. Reflect the triangle from part A in the y-axis. Its value is between 0° and 360°. x Q O principal angle initial arm quadrant 4 x NEL Trigonometric Ratios 289 .

Round your answers to four decimal places and record them in a table similar to the one shown. Use negative angles for some of your trials. y O Q x negative angle an angle measured clockwise from the positive x-axis F. but this time. but this time start with a 45° and then a 60° angle in quadrant 1. Based on your observations. which principal angles and related acute angles in the Cartesian plane have the same primary trigonometric ratio? x 0 210 290 Chapter 5 NEL . How are the primary trigonometric ratios for the related acute angle related to the corresponding ratios for the principal angle? y Q O x P E. Repeat part D. Reflect the triangle from part B in the x-axis. G. What is the size of the related acute angle b? What is the size of the principal angle u. Angles principal angle related acute angle Quadrant Sine Ratio Cosine Ratio Tangent Ratio How are the primary trigonometric ratios for the related acute angle related to the corresponding ratios for the principal angle? D. Use a calculator to determine the values of the primary trigonometric ratios for the principal angle and the related acute angle.C. and in which quadrant does the terminal arm lie? Use a calculator to complete your table for each of these angles. P y Repeat parts A to E. reflect the triangle from part D in the y-axis.

• An angle in standard position is determined by a counterclockwise rotation and is always positive. An angle determined by a clockwise rotation is always negative. and tangent of an acute principal angle and the resulting reflected principal angles? How could you have predicted the relationships you described in part I? J. why is the resulting principal angle 180° 1 u? iii) When you reflect an acute principal angle u in the x-axis. the ratios for the related acute angle. When you reflect an acute principal angle u in the y-axis. the values of the primary trigonometric ratios are either the same as. or the negatives of. These relationships are based on angles in standard position in the Cartesian plane and depend on the quadrant in which the terminal arm of the angle lies. • If u is an acute angle in standard position. • If the terminal arm of an angle in standard position lies in quadrants 2.5. 3. why is the resulting principal angle 180° 2 u? ii) When you reflect an acute principal angle u in the y-axis and then in the x-axis. or 4. What does your table tell you about the relationships among the sine. Need to Know • An angle in the Cartesian plane is in standard position if its vertex lies at the origin and its initial arm lies on the positive x-axis. why is the resulting principal angle 360° 2 u (or 2u)? i) I. cosine.3 Reflecting H. then • the terminal arm of the principal angle (180° 2 u) lies in quadrant 2 y sin (180° 2 u) 5 sin u cos (180° 2 u) 5 2cos u tan (180° 2 u) 5 2tan u 180 x (continued) NEL Trigonometric Ratios 291 . In Summary Key Idea • For any principal angle greater than 908. there exists a related acute angle and a principal angle.

a) b) c) d) sin 45° 5 sin cos 5 2cos (260°) tan 30° 5 tan tan 135° 5 2tan 2. a) What is the value of angle u? b) What would be the exact value of tan u. copy and complete the table below to summarize the signs of the trigonometric ratios for a principal angle that lies in each of the quadrants. a) sine b) cosine c) tangent 3. Based on your observations. State all the angles between 0° and 360° that make each equation true. sketch two angles in the Cartesian plane that have the same value for each given trigonometric ratio. Using the special triangles from Lesson 5. cos u. and sin u? 4.• the terminal arm of the principal angle (180° 1 u) lies in quadrant 3 y sin (180° 1 u) 5 2sin u cos (180° 1 u) 5 2cos u tan (180° 1 u) 5 tan u 180 x • the terminal arm of the principal angle (360° 2 u) lies in quadrant 4 y sin (360° 2 u) 5 2sin u cos (360° 2 u) 5 2cos u tan (360° 2 u) 5 tan u 360 x FURTHER Your Understanding 1. Quadrant Trigonometric Ratio sine cosine tangent 1 1 1 1 NEL 2 3 4 292 Chapter 5 .2. Sylvie drew a special triangle in quadrant 3 and determined that tan (180° 1 u) 5 1.

4) on the circumference of the circle. Since r is the radius of the circle. 4) on the circumference. determine the primary trigonometric ratios for the principal angle. • graph paper • protractor • dynamic geometry software (optional) LEARN ABOUT the Math Miriam knows that the equation of a circle of radius 5 centred at (0. I also knew that r 2 5 x 2 1 y 2. In ^OPQ. b) Determine the principal angle to the nearest degree. so I labelled it r. She also knows that a point P(x. Angle u is the principal angle and is in standard position. Then I formed a right triangle with the x-axis. 4) y 5 x 3 Q 5 4 x I drew a circle centred about the origin in the Cartesian plane and labelled the point P(3. In this case.5. y) r 0 x y x EXAMPLE 1 Relating trigonometric ratios to a point in quadrant 1 of the Cartesian plane a) If Miriam chooses the point P(3. ? For any point on the circumference of the circle. Flavia’s Solution a) y r 0 5 P(3. y) on its circumference can rotate from 0° to 360°. From the Pythagorean theorem. it will always be positive. I noticed that the side opposite u has length y 5 4 units and the adjacent side has length x 5 3 units. 0) is x 2 1 y 2 5 25. r 5 5 units. x2 y2 25 5 5 NEL Trigonometric Ratios 293 . The hypotenuse is equal to the radius of the circle. how can Miriam determine the size of the corresponding principal angle? x2 y2 y 25 P(x.4 GOAL Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios for Any Angle Between 08 and 3608 YOU WILL NEED Use the Cartesian plane to evaluate the primary trigonometric ratios for angles between 08 and 3608.

I used the Pythagorean theorem to confirm this. Angle b is the related acute angle. 0 In ^OPQ. and r in the Cartesian plane. b) Determine the principal angle to the nearest degree. EXAMPLE 2 Relating trigonometric ratios to a point in quadrant 2 of the Cartesian plane a) If Miriam chooses the point P(23. since r . cosine. and tangent to write each ratio in terms of x. I knew that the lengths of the two perpendicular sides were 0x 0 5 023 0 5 3 and y 5 4. Gabriel’s Solution a) P( 3. y 5 r 4 u 5 sin 21 a b 5 4 5 5 4 5 x 5 r 5 3 5 y 5 x 5 4 3 b) sin u 5 I used the inverse sine function on my calculator to determine angle u. y. y x2 1 y2 5 25 Q x 0 r2 5 x2 1 y2 r 2 5 32 1 42 r 2 5 9 1 16 r 2 5 25 r 5 5. determine the primary trigonometric ratios for the principal angle to the nearest hundredth. Angle u is the principal angle and is in standard position. 294 Chapter 5 NEL . so r 5 5. 4) on the circumference of the circle. 4) y r x I drew a circle centred about the origin in the Cartesian plane and labelled the point P(23.sin u 5 opposite hypotenuse cos u 5 adjacent hypotenuse tan u 5 opposite adjacent I used the definitions of sine. 4) on the circumference. Then I formed a right triangle with the x-axis. The radius of the circle is still 5. u 8 53° The principal angle is about 53°.

4 sin u 5 sin b 5 cos u 5 2cos b 52 3 5 tan u 5 2tan b 52 4 3 b) sin b 5 4 b 5 sin21 a b 5 4 5 8 53° u 1 b 5 180° u 5 180° 2 b 5 180° 2 53° 5 127° The principal angle is about 127° because the related acute angle is about 53°. y. the sine ratio is positive while the cosine and tangent ratios are negative.sin b 5 5 5 opposite hypotenuse y r 4 5 4 5 cos b 5 5 5 adjacent hypotenuse 3 5 0x0 r tan b 5 opposite adjacent 5 5 4 3 y 0x0 In ^OPQ. If Miriam chose the points (23. I knew that u and b add up to 180°. cos u 2 cos b. B. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 295 . I used the definitions of sine. Then I took into account the relationship among the trigonometric ratios of the related acute angle b and those of the principal angle u. explain how the coordinates of that point vary from quadrants 1 to 4. Reflecting A. How does this variation affect the size of the principal angle (and related acute angle. and tan u 2 tan b. what would each related acute angle be? How would the primary trigonometric ratios for the corresponding principal angles in these cases compare with those in Examples 1 and 2? Given a point on the terminal arm of an angle in standard position. 24). the side opposite b has length y and the adjacent side has length 0x 0. In Example 2. I used a calculator 5. and r in the Cartesian plane. to evaluate sin21 A 4 B directly. Since the terminal arm of angle u lies in quadrant 2. explain why sin u 5 sin b. if it exists) and the values of the primary trigonometric ratios for that angle? C. So I subtracted b from 180° to get u. cosine. 24) and (3. and tangent to write each ratio in terms of x. 5 To determine angle b.

Since x 5 0 and it is in the denominator. cosine. I used the definitions of sine. and r to write each ratio. and r 5 1. x2 1 y 2 5 1 This meant that I couldn’t use the trigonometric definitions in terms of opposite. I couldn’t draw a right triangle by drawing a line perpendicular to the x-axis to P. Charmaine’s Solution y P(0. 1) x 0 I drew a circle centred about the origin in the Cartesian plane and labelled the point P(0. Angle u is the principal angle and is 90°. tan 90° is undefined. 1) defines a principal angle of 90°. sin u 5 5 y r 1 1 cos u 5 5 x r 0 1 tan u 5 5 y x 1 0 Since P(0. I knew that x 5 0. sin 90° 5 1 cos 90° 5 0 tan 90° is undefined The point P(0. and hypotenuse. adjacent. 1) to determine the values of sine. 1).APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Determining the primary trigonometric ratios for a 908 angle Use the point P(0. respectively. y. and tangent for 90°. y 5 1. 1) on the circumference. cosine. 296 Chapter 5 NEL . and tangent in terms of x. The sine and cosine of 90° are 1 and 0. In this case. The tangent of 90° is undefined.

There were two cases where a point on the terminal arm has a negative y-coordinate: one in quadrant 3 and the other in quadrant 4. 3 EXAMPLE 4 Determining all possible values of an angle with a specific trigonometric ratio Jordan’s Solution 2!3 3 3 2!3 Since 0° # u # 360°. The angle 260° corresponds to a related acute angle of 60° of clockwise rotation and has its terminal arm in quadrant 4. I added 360° to 260° to get the equivalent angle using a counterclockwise rotation. In quadrant 3. y must be 23 in this case. Then I took the inverse sine of One angle is 260°. I used my calculator to evaluate csc u 5 2 sin u 5 2 the result to determine the angle. u can be either 240° or 300°.5. I had to use the Cartesian plane to determine u. I found the reciprocal ratio by switching r and y. Given csc u 5 2 2 ! 3 and 3 0° # u # 360°. 23 2 !3 . The angle in quadrant 3 must have a related acute angle of 60° as well. which is equivalent to 360° 1 (260°) 5 300° in quadrant 4. Cosecant is the reciprocal of sine. the angle is 180° 1 60° 5 240°. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 297 .4 Determine the values of u if csc u 5 2 2 ! 3 and 0° # u # 360°. Since r is always positive. So I added 180° to 60° to determine the principal angle.

b. u. y) r 0 x y x r 2 5 x 2 1 y 2 from the Pythagorean theorem and r . using coordinates of any point P(x. y) in the Cartesian plane. in standard position. can be determined by finding the related acute angle. y P(x. the trigonometric ratios for angles in standard position can be expressed in terms of x.In Summary Key Idea • The trigonometric ratios for any principal angle. y) Need to Know • For any point P(x. y. y x 0 P(x. 0 sin u 5 csc u 5 y r r y cos u 5 sec u 5 x r r x tan u 5 cot u 5 y x x y (continued) 298 Chapter 5 NEL . and r. y) that lies on the terminal arm of the angle. where 0° # u # 360°.

28) a) (5.5. Calculate the value of u to the nearest degree. only Cosine (C) is positive. Since r is always positive. only Tangent (T) is positive because both x and y are negative. 3) c) (25. the sign of each primary ratio depends on the signs of the coordinates of the point. only Sine (S) is positive. a) sin 315° b) tan 110° c) cos 285° d) tan 225° 2. • In quadrant 4. 28) d) (6.4 • The CAST rule is an easy way to remember which primary trigonometric ratios are positive in which quadrant. use a sketch to determine in which quadrant the terminal arm of the principal angle lies. i) ii) iii) iv) Draw a sketch of each angle u. Each point lies on the terminal arm of angle u in standard position. • In quadrant 3. Use the related acute angle to state an equivalent expression. 2 y 1 S T 3 0 A C 4 x CHECK Your Understanding 1. All (A) ratios are positive because both x and y are positive. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 299 . • In quadrant 2. a) 180° b) 270° a) sin 160° b) cos 300° c) 360° c) tan 110° d) sin 350° 4. since x is negative and y is positive. the value of the related acute angle b. Use the method in Example 3 to determine the primary trigonometric ratios for each given angle. Determine the value of r to the nearest tenth. b) (28. • In quadrant 1. For each trigonometric ratio. Determine the primary trigonometric ratios for angle u. 11) 3. since x is positive and y is negative. and the sign of the ratio.

i) For each angle u. determine the smallest negative 8. i) determine the exact values of x. ii) Determine the primary trigonometric ratios to the nearest hundredth.5 4 angle that has the same ratio.1516 e) csc u 5 22. K Given each trigonometric ratio. 7.8722 d) cot u 5 8.4815 b) tan u 5 20.5 3 4 b) cot u 5 2 e) tan u 5 21. Use each trigonometric ratio to determine all values of u.PRACTISING 5. y. a) sin u 5 0. For each trigonometric ratio in question 6.1623 c) cos u 5 20. a) y 15 x c) 71 y x b) y x 55 d) y x 28 6. and r ii) sketch angle u in standard position iii) determine the principal angle u and the related acute angle b to the nearest degree 1 a) sin u 5 d) csc u 5 2.3424 f ) sec u 5 0 300 Chapter 5 NEL . to the nearest degree if 0° # u # 360°.1 3 1 c) cos u 5 2 f ) sec u 5 23. predict which primary trigonometric ratios are positive. Angle u is a principal angle that lies in quadrant 2 such that 0° # u # 360°.

2882 e) tan u 5 2. opposite. state the value of u.4 9. a) sin u 5 20. 21) b) P(0. Justify your answer. T Determine the value of a to the nearest degree.75 17. Dennis doesn’t like using x. solve for u to the nearest degree. a) cos u 5 0. y) lying on the terminal arm of angle u.6951 b) tan u 5 20. determine two possible values of u where each ratio would be true. describe what errors might result. c) evaluate all possible values of u to the nearest degree. 21) A c) P(21.8 b) cos u 5 20. Sketch both principal angles. and r to investigate angles. When you use the inverse trigonometric functions on a calculator. Use sketches to explain why each statement is true. where 0° # u # 360°.5. you determine the trigonometric ratios associated with the angle formed by the x-axis and a ray drawn from the origin to P? Use an example in your explanation. Given cos u 5 2 12. where 0° # u # 360°. Given angle a. a) cos 2u 5 0.3151 f ) sin u 5 20. it is important to interpret the calculator result to avoid inaccurate values of u. 14. 0) d) P(1. y. where 0° # u # 360°.2045 c) tan(90° 2 2u) 5 1. a) 2 sin 32° 2 sin 64° b) sin 20° 1 sin 40° 2 sin 60° c) tan 75° 2 3 tan 25° NEL Trigonometric Ratios 301 .6420 b) sin(u 1 20°) 5 0.6443 16. Explain the weaknesses of his strategy. 360°.7571 c) sin u 5 0. Given angle u. Given angle u. cos a is equal to a unique value. 0) 11. where 0° # a . 5 12.3154 d) cos u 5 20. He says that he is going to continue using adjacent. a) in which quadrant could the terminal arm of u lie? b) determine all possible primary trigonometric ratios for u. and hypotenuse to evaluate trigonometric ratios for any angle u. Given each point P(x. How does knowing the coordinates of a point P in the Cartesian plane help C Extending 15. Using these trigonometric ratios. using both a counterclockwise and a clockwise rotation ii) determine the primary trigonometric ratios i) a) P(21.7503 10. 13.

0 R csc 14° 4.0 sin 14° 16.5 Study Mid-Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A: Aid • See Lesson 5.732 1 1 !3 8 0.5774 3 60 1 F tan u Chapter 5 NEL . Given any right triangle. B 45 2 1 2 E 30 3 A 45 1 u 30° 45° 60° sin u C !2 8 0.1.7071 2 !3 8 0. EXAMPLE Determine x to the nearest tenth of a unit.5 2 !2 8 0.8660 2 D 302 ! 3 8 1. Examples 1.5 Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 5.7071 2 cos u 1 5 0. how would you use a trigonometric ratio to determine an unknown side or angle? You can use either a primary trigonometric ratio or a reciprocal trigonometric ratio. Examples 1.0 x or sin 14° x sin 14° x 4. x P 14 Q 4. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 to 5. and 3.2. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 6 and 7.0 x 4.5 8 x x 8 16. What is significant about the trigonometric ratios for 45824582908 and 30826082908 right triangles? The trigonometric ratios for 30°.0 csc 14° x 4. 2. 2. 45°.0 4. and 60° can be determined exactly without using a calculator.5 2 !3 8 0.8660 2 1 5 0. The ratio in which the unknown is in the numerator makes the equation easier to solve. and 3.

y). where r is the distance from the origin to P.4. The trigonometric ratios can then be expressed in terms of x. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 10. 11. y. Use this value of b to determine all possible values of the principal angle u. and r. and 12. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 303 . y x x y y r P(x. Examples 1 to 4. r 2 5 x 2 1 y 2 from the Pythagorean theorem and r . Interpret the calculator result in terms of your sketch. 0 sin u 5 csc u 5 y r r y cos u 5 sec u 5 x r r x tan u 5 cot u 5 y x x 0 • See Lesson 5.4. Use the appropriate inverse trigonometric function on your calculator to determine a value for u. • See Lesson 5. Then sketch the angle(s) in standard position. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 9 to 13.Mid-Chapter Review Q: A: How can you determine the trigonometric ratios for any angle u.3 and Lesson 5. An angle in standard position is determined by a counterclockwise rotation and is always positive. A negative angle is determined by a clockwise rotation. provided that P lies on the terminal arm of the angle. y) Q: A: How can you determine all possible values of the principal angle u in the Cartesian plane associated with a given trigonometric ratio? Study Aid Use the sign of the ratio to help you decide in which quadrant(s) the terminal arm of angle u could lie. Example 4. and determine the value of any related acute angle b. where 0° # u # 360°? Study Aid Any angle in standard position in the Cartesian plane can be defined using the point P(x.

A trigonometric ratio is 5 . and with her eyes level with the base of the mast. Determine the value of u to the nearest degree if 8. a) cos u 5 2. The mast is 8. ii) If 0° # u # 360°.1 a) determine the exact measure of each unknown 1.3151 f ) sin u 5 2.1011 7 c) cot 10° d) csc 81° side if sin a 5 1 2 b) determine the exact values of the primary trigonometric ratios for /A and /DBC Lesson 5. Given ^ABC as shown. determine the value of u to the nearest degree. a) sin 60° b) tan 45° 7. What ratio could it be. a) cot u 5 0. Use the sketch to determine the exact value of the given trigonometric ratio. a) Sketch the principal angle u.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 5. a) csc 20° b) sec 75° 0° # u # 90°.2 Is that possible if 0° # u # 360°? Explain. P(29. 15 6. 11. Determine the exact value of each trigonometric ratio. Without using a B 14 D 45 A calculator. If sin u 5 20. c) csc 30° d) sec 45° a) state the other five trigonometric ratios as fractions b) determine the value of u to the nearest degree 12.3151 d) csc u 5 2. If csc u .3151 b) tan u 5 2. 5.3151 304 Chapter 5 NEL .3 m long.8190 and 0° # u # 360°. Claire is attaching a rope to the top of the mast of her sailboat so that she can lower the sail to the ground to do some repairs.6406 d) sec u 5 2. i) c) csc u 5 1.4312 3. How much rope does Claire need if 0. which ratios must be false? Justify your reasoning. Sketch each angle in standard position. Given tan u 5 2 8 . b) What is the value of the related acute angle b to the nearest degree? c) What is the value of the principal angle u to the nearest degree? 10.3 2. Evaluate each reciprocal trigonometric ratio to four decimal places.3151 c) sec u 5 2. Angle u lies in quadrant 2. sec u and u is acute. 4) lies on the terminal arm of an angle in standard position.5 m of rope is required to tie to the mast? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a metre. Jeff said he found three angles for which cos u 5 5.8701 b) sec u 5 4. C 13.4 9. 4 about u? Lesson 5. a) sin 120° b) cos 225° c) tan 330° d) cos 300° and what angle might it be referring to? 4. what do you know Lesson 5. state all values of u that have the same given trigonometric ratio.3151 e) cot u 5 2. where 90° # u # 180°. the top forms an angle of 31° with the ground.

where 0° # u # 360°. identity a mathematical statement that is true for all values of the given variables. The object of the game is to lay down pairs of equivalent expressions so that each pair forms an identity. Any restrictions on a variable must be stated. LEARN ABOUT the Math Trident Fish is a game involving a deck of cards. the denominators cannot be zero. If the identity involves fractions. and r sin u Prove the quotient identity tan u 5 cos u for all angles u.S. y.5 GOAL Trigonometric Identities Prove simple trigonometric identities. Jinji’s Solution tan u 5 sin u cos u R. Suppose you have the cards shown. 5 sin u cos u I separated the left and the right sides so that I could show that both expressions are equivalent. each of which has a mathematical expression written on it.S. sin ——— cos sec2 tan csc2 1 tan2 sin2 cos2 1 1 cot2 ? What identities can you form with these cards? EXAMPLE 1 Proving the quotient identity by rewriting in terms of x.5. 5 tan u NEL 1 Trigonometric Ratios cot2 sin2 cos2 tan 305 . L.

tan u. Tan u is undefined when cos u 5 0. 5 x a b r y a b r I wrote sin u. Lisa’s Solution sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 y 2 x 2 5a b 1a b r r 5 y2 x2 1 2 r2 r y 2 1 x2 5 r2 5 r2 r2 I separated the left and the right sides so that I could show that both expressions are equivalent. and cos u in terms of x. the original equation is an identity. I wrote sin u and cos u in terms of x. 5 1 I knew that r 2 5 x 2 1 y 2 from the Pythagorean theorem. where 0° # u # 360° and u 2 90° or 270°. where 0° # u # 360°. and r.y L. y. the original equation is an identity. 6 sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 for all angles u. and r Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 for all angles u. 5 sin2 u 1 cos2 u R. 5 x R.S. since u can be greater than 90°. This occurs when u 5 90° or 270°. So u cannot equal these two values.S. and r. y.S. 51 5 R.S.S.S. 306 Chapter 5 NEL . Since the left side works out to the same expression as the right side. where 0° # u # 360°. Then I simplified. since u can be greater than 90°. I simplified the right side by multiplying the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. L. 6 tan u 5 cos u for all angles u. y. sin u EXAMPLE 2 Proving the Pythagorean identity by rewriting in terms of x. 5 y r1 3 r1 x 5 y x 5 L. I used this equation to further simplify the left side. Since the left side works out to the same expression as the right side.

180°.S. 180°.S. 5 csc2 u 5 5a 1 sin2 u 1 2 b sin u cos2 u sin2 u 5 2 1 sin u sin2 u On the left side. or 360°. sin2 u 5 sin2 u 1 cos2 u sin2 u 1 sin2 u 5 5 R. I used the Pythagorean identity sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 to simplify the numerator. 180°. I expressed 1 as sin2 u to get a common denominator of sin2 u. I don’t have any term that is undefined. cos u sin u 1 511 cos2 u sin2 u cos u 2 b sin u R. sin u 2 0. I knew that cot u 5 tan u and tan u 5 cos u. and 360°. Since the left side works out to the same expression as the right side.5. I expressed the reciprocal trigonometric ratios in terms of the primary ratios sin u and cos u. the original equation is an identity. Since u can’t be 0°. so cot u 5 sin u . 5 1 1 cot2 u 511a I separated the left and the right sides so that I could show that both expressions are equivalent. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 307 . 6 1 1 cot 2 u 5 csc 2 u for all angles u between 0° and 360° except 0°. Pedro’s Solution 1 1 cot 2 u 5 csc 2 u L.S.5 EXAMPLE 3 Proving an identity by using a common denominator Prove that 1 1 cot 2 u 5 csc 2 u for all angles u between 0° and 360° except 0°. and 360°.

sin f 1 sin2 f 308 Chapter 5 NEL . 5 tan f sin f cos f I separated the left and the right sides so that I could show that both expressions are equivalent. where cos f 2 0. Jamal’s Solution tan f 5 sin f 1 sin2 f (cos f) (1 1 sin f) R. I knew that tan f could be written as cos f. C. so I factored out sin f from the numerator. What strategy would you use to prove the identity 1 1 tan2 u 5 sec2 u? What restrictions does u have? When is it important to consider restrictions on u? How might you create new identities based on Examples 1 and 2? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 4 Proving an identity by factoring sin f 1 sin2f Prove that tan f 5 (cos f) (1 1 sin f) for all angles f between 0° and 360°. the original equation is an identity. 6 tan f 5 (cos f) (1 1 sin f) for all angles f between 0° and 360°. the denominator will not be 0. The right side is more complicated.S. 5 sin f 1 sin2 f (cos f) (1 1 sin f) sin f(1 1 sin f ) (cos f) (1 1 sin f) 1 1 L.Reflecting A. Since the left side works out to the same expression as the right side.S. where cos f 2 0. sin f 5 5 5 sin f cos f 5 L. Since cos f 2 0.S. B. I divided the numerator and denominator by the factor 1 1 sin f.

and r • rewriting all expressions involving tangent and the reciprocal trigonometric ratios in terms of sine and cosine • applying the Pythagorean identity where appropriate • using a common denominator or factoring as required NEL Trigonometric Ratios 309 . y. Identities Based on Definitions Reciprocal Identities csc u 5 sec u 5 cot u 5 1 . where sin u 2 0 sin u Pythagorean Identities sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 1 1 tan2 u 5 sec 2 u 1 1 cot 2 u 5 csc 2 u • To prove that a given trigonometric equation is an identity.5 In Summary Key Ideas • A trigonometric identity is an equation involving trigonometric ratios that is true for all values of the variable. where sin u 2 0 sin u 1 . while others are derived from relationships that exist among trigonometric ratios. Need to Know • Some trigonometric identities that are important to remember are shown below (0° # u # 360°) . where cos u 2 0 cos u 1 . where cos u 2 0 cos u cos u .5. This can be done by • simplifying the more complicated side until it is identical to the other side or manipulating both sides to get the same expression • rewriting all trigonometric ratios in terms of x. where tan u 2 0 tan u Identities Derived from Relationships Quotient Identities tan u 5 cot u 5 sin u . both sides of the equation need to be shown to be equivalent. • Some trigonometric identities are a result of a definition.

c) cos2 a 1 sin2 a d) cot a sin a a) 1 2 cos2 u b) sin2 u 2 cos2 u c) sin2 u 2 2 sin u 1 1 d) cos u 2 cos2 u PRACTISING cos2f 4. 1 sin u d) cos u sec u 5 1 c) csc u 5 (1 2 sin a) (1 1 sin a) tan a b) sin a a) 3. y. cos u a) cot u 5 sin u b) tan u cos u 5 sin u 2. by expressing cos 2 f in terms of sin f. where sin f 2 1.CHECK Your Understanding 1. Factor each expression. Prove that 1 2 sin f 5 1 1 sin f. sin tan tan cos 5. Is Marcia’s reasoning correct? Explain. Mark claimed that cot u 5 tan u is an identity. a) b) 1 6. Prove each identity. Simplify each trigonometric expression. She said that this proves that the equation is an identity. Prove each identity. Simplify each expression. Marcia let u 5 30° and found 1 that both sides of the equation worked out to !3 . State any restrictions on the variables. x 5 cos x x u sin u 5 u 1 2 sin 2 u c) 1 1 sin a 1 1 tan a 5 cos a cos a d) 1 2 cos 2 u 5 sin u cos u tan u 7. State any restrictions on the variables. a) b) c) d) e) f) 310 Chapter 5 . State the restrictions on u. a) sin u cot u 2 sin u cos u b) cos u(1 1 sec u) (cos u 2 1) c) (sin x 1 cos x) (sin x 2 cos x) 1 2 cos 2 x d) csc 2 u 2 3 csc u 1 2 csc 2 u 2 1 sin2 f 5 1 1 cos f 1 2 cos f tan2 a 5 sin2 a 1 1 tan2 a cos2 x 5 (1 2 sin x) (1 1 sin x) sin2 u 1 2 cos2 u 2 1 5 cos2 u sin4 a 2 cos4 a 5 sin2 a 2 cos2 a 1 1 tan u 1 5 tan u sin u cos u NEL 8. and r. Prove each identity by writing all trigonometric ratios in terms of x.

State any restrictions on the variables. Prove that sin2 x a1 1 tan2 x b 5 1. it is false. b) Discuss the limitations of her approach. and graph them on the same xy-axes on a graphing calculator. Show how you can create several new identities from the identity C sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1 by adding. subtracting. multiplying. variables. a) Is her claim correct? Justify your answer. b) For those equations that are identities. Extending 14. 10. cos2 u 1 cos u sin2 u 1 2 cos u 2 1 5 sin2 u 1 3 cos u 2 3 2sin2 u 2 sin2 a 2 2 sin4 a 2 1 b) sin2 a 2 cos2 a 2 tan2 a 5 1 2 sin2 a a) 13. or dividing both sides of the equation by the same expression. Prove each identity. Farah claims that if you separate both sides of an equation into two functions A 1 11. where sin x 2 0. a) Which equations are not identities? Justify your answers.5 9.5. you can use the result to prove that the equation is an identity. state any restrictions on the i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) sin2 x 2 2 sin4 x 1 2 sin2 x 2 4 4 1 2 2 cos f 5 sin f 2 cos f sin u tan u 5 sin u tan u sin u 1 tan u 1 1 2 sin b cos b 5 sin b 1 cos b sin b 1 cos b 1 2 cos b sin b 5 sin b 1 1 cos b sin x 5 csc x 2 cot x 1 1 cos x (1 2 cos2 x) (1 2 tan2 x) 5 NEL Trigonometric Ratios 311 . Is csc 2 u 1 sec 2 u 5 1 an identity? Prove that it is true or demonstrate why K T 12.

8 5 sin 36° sin B 1 1 (sin B) (5. Round only after the very last calculation.9 to isolate sin B. 5. and the balloon are positioned relative to each other. The team is about to launch a weather balloon into an active part of a cloud. So I first calculated /B using the sine law. I knew one angle and two sides. to the nearest tenth of a metre. Albert’s rope is 7.9 m long. ? How far. save intermediate answers by using the memory keys of your calculator.5. 312 Chapter 5 NEL . Belle.9 1 (sin 36 °) (7.9 ) (sin 36°) (7. I multiplied both sides of the equation by the lowest common denominator (sin 36° 3 sin B) to eliminate the fractions. A c B 1 5. To determine AB (side c).9 m a 7. it is not clear how Albert. Adila’s Solution: Assuming that Albert and Belle are on Opposite Sides of the Balloon C b 5.6 YOU WILL NEED The Sine Law • dynamic geometry software (optional) GOAL Solve two-dimensional problems by using the sine law. LEARN ABOUT the Math Albert and Belle are part of a scientific team studying thunderclouds.9 5. I assumed that Albert and Belle are on opposite sides of the balloon. Then I divided both sides by 5. Belle’s rope is 5.8 m 36 From the problem. is Albert from Belle? EXAMPLE 1 Using the sine law to calculate an unknown length Determine the distance between Albert and Belle. Communication Tip To perform a calculation to a high degree of accuracy.9 7.8 (sin 36° 3 sin B) a b 5 (sin 36° 3 sin B ) a b sin 36° sin B b a 5 sin A sin B In ^ ABC.9 7. I drew a sketch of this situation.8) 5 5. I needed to know /C.9 1 1 To solve for /B.8) b /B 5 sin21 a 5.8 m long and makes an angle of 36° with the ground.

and the balloon are positioned relative to each other. 10. I rounded to the nearest tenth. To solve for c. I calculated /C by using the fact that all three interior angles add up to 180°.9 m a b 7. they are about 10.8 m 36 The problem did not state how Albert.6 I used my calculator to evaluate /B.0 m 8 c If Albert and Belle are on opposite sides of the balloon. Reuben’s Solution: Assuming that Albert and Belle are on the Same Side of the Balloon C 5.0 m apart. Belle. /B 8 51° /A 1 /B 1 /C 5 180° 36° 1 51° 1 /C 5 180° /C 5 180° 2 (36° 1 51°) 5 93° a c 5 sin A sin C c 5.5. I assumed that Albert and Belle are on the same side of the balloon. A c B NEL Trigonometric Ratios 313 . I multiplied both sides of the equation by sin 93°. Then I used the sine law again to determine c.9 3 sin 93° 5 3 sin 93° sin 36° sin 93° 1 I rounded to the nearest degree. I drew a sketch of this situation.9 5 sin 36° sin 93° 1 c 5.

but I wanted the obtuse angle /CBA in the triangle. /CBX 8 51° /CBA 5 180° 2 51° 5 129° /C 5 180° 2 (/A 1 /CBA) 5 180° 2 (36° 1 129°) 5 15° 51° is the value of the related acute angle /CBX.C b 7.9 m A 36 c B X In ^ ABC. I used my calculator to evaluate /B.8 5 sin 36° sin B 1 (sin 36°) (7. If I knew /C. I knew one angle and two sides. 314 Chapter 5 NEL .8) (sin B) (5.8 (sin 36° 3 sin B) a b 5 (sin 36° 3 sin B ) a b 1 sin 36° sin B b a 5 sin A sin B I used the sine law to calculate /B. I first multiplied both sides of the equation by the lowest common denominator (sin 36° 3 sin B) to eliminate the fractions. 5. I could determine c using the sine law.9 7.9 1 1 To solve for /B.8 m a 5.9 1 (sin 36°) (7.9 7.8) /B 5 sin21 a b 5.9 5. I calculated /C by using the fact that all three interior angles add up to 180°. 1 5.9 to isolate sin B.9 ) 5 5. First I had to determine /B in order to get /C. I divided both sides by 5. I rounded to the nearest degree.

1. or 2 triangles can be drawn given the information in a problem. Why is the situation in Example 1 called the ambiguous case of the sine law? What initial information was given in this problem? What is the relationship between sin B in Adila’s solution and sin B in Reuben’s solution? Explain why both values of sine are related. 0 or 1 triangle is possible (see the In Summary box for this lesson). APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Using the sine law in the ambiguous case to calculate the only possible angle Karl’s campsite is 15. If the given angle is acute. What is the bearing of the lookout from Karl’s position (/NAC)? N B C 140 N 1 A 5. I multiplied both sides of the equation by sin 15°. Reflecting A.0 m from a scenic lookout as shown. This occurs when you know two side lengths and an angle opposite one of the sides rather than between them (an SSA triangle).9 c 5 sin 15° 3 sin 36° sin 15° 1 I used the sine law again to calculate side c.6 c a 5 sin A sin C c 5. For example. or 2 triangles are possible. If the given angle is obtuse. D. 0. What do you notice? Compare this value with the length of a and b. Calculate the height of ^ ABC in both solutions. To solve for c. I rounded to the nearest tenth. the bearing of the lighthouse shown is 335°. bearing the direction in which you have to move in order to reach an object.0 E W 25 E 335 S NEL Trigonometric Ratios 315 .6 m from a lake and 36.5. B. the angle formed between the campsite and the lookout is 140°. From the lake. 1.6 m m 36. the ambiguous case of the sine law a situation in which 0. A bearing is a clockwise angle from magnetic north.6 m apart. C.6 m 8 c If Albert and Belle are on the same side of the balloon. 2.9 5 sin 36° sin 15° sin 15° 3 1 5. Karl starts hiking from his campsite to go to the lookout. they are about 2.

the lookout has a bearing of about 74°. u 8 16° N C 16 A E I rounded to the nearest degree.6 36. so I set up the sine law equation with the angles in the numerators. I needed to know the complementary angle of 16° . 316 Chapter 5 NEL .Sara’s Solution Based on the given information. So I subtracted 16° from 90° . they are equal. this is an SSA triangle. Since /C and u are alternate angles between parallel lines. But since the given angle is obtuse.0 15. I multiplied both sides of the equation by 15.6 3 1 sin u sin 140° 5 15.6 3 15. I knew that AE is parallel to BC. To solve for sin u.0 E sin C sin B 5 c b sin 140° sin u 5 15.6) (sin 140°) b 36. B C 6m 15 .0 1 u 5 sin21 a (15. A 140 m 36. only one situation had to be considered. I needed to calculate an angle. In order to state the bearing of the lookout.6.6 36. /NAC 5 90° 2 16° 5 74° From Karl’s campsite. In ^ ABC.0 I used the inverse sine function on my calculator to determine /C (angle u).

a. and b are given and /A is obtuse. and b are given and /A is acute. b. no triangle exists. a b A A If /A is acute and a . the sine law can be used if you know • two sides and one angle opposite a given side (SSA) or • two angles and any side (AAS or ASA) • The ambiguous case arises in a SSA (side. the sine law calculation may lead to 0. If /A is acute and a . no triangle exists. there are two cases to consider. Need to Know • In the ambiguous case.6 In Summary Key Ideas • The sine law states that in any ^ ABC. h. a . b c a 5 5 sin A sin B sin C or sin B sin C sin A 5 5 a b c C b A c B a • Given any triangle. 1. a. b. one triangle exists. the height of the triangle is h 5 b sin A. one triangle exists. if /A. one right triangle exists. or 2 solutions. b or a 5 b. a b b A NEL a A Trigonometric Ratios 317 . h b h5a b A h a b a h a A If /A. If /A is acute and h . b.5. two triangles exist. the ratios of each side to the sine of its opposite angle are equal. In this situation. If /A is obtuse and a . angle) triangle. there are four cases to consider. side. If /A is obtuse and a . In each case. depending on the size of the given angle and the lengths of the given sides. If /A is acute and a 5 h.

Determine the measure of angle u to the nearest degree.6 m long.7 cm.2 cm. A triangular plot of land is enclosed by a fence.CHECK Your Understanding 1. /B 5 43° 318 Chapter 5 NEL . /A 5 33° d) c 5 22. /A 5 30° c) a 5 1. Label all side lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimetre and all angles to the nearest degree.2 cm 45 Q 10. b 5 9. c 5 2. respectively. b 5 14. a) A 105 B 20.5 cm 15.8 m and 6. sketch all possible triangles. Label all side lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimetre and all angles to the nearest degree.6 m.8 cm. a) 12. b 5 2.8 m side. /C 5 63° c) a 5 5. /A 5 35° b) a 5 7. Determine whether it is possible to draw a triangle.5 cm C b) D 9 cm 7 cm E 38 F 2.3 cm.2 cm. Where appropriate.5 cm. Determine the measure of angle u to the nearest degree. /B 5 65° b) b 5 6. /A 5 36° PRACTISING 4.3 m. Sketch all possible triangles where appropriate. c) How many lengths are possible for the third side? Explain. The other side forms an angle of 40° with the 9. given each set of K information. /A 5 75°. c 5 8.8 cm R 5.1 cm.0 cm.8 cm.1 cm N b) S 14. a) a 5 7.3 mm.2 mm. 3. Two sides of the fence are 9. a) Draw a sketch of the situation. b) Calculate the height of the triangle to the nearest tenth. given each set of information. Compare it to the given sides. a) a 5 5.3 cm L 120 M 9. b 5 2.

An observer in a hot-air balloon some distance away from the aqueduct determines that the angle of depression to each end is 54° and 71° . If the slope of the hill is 13° from the horizontal.0 m apart as shown. a 35. Calculate the length of the aqueduct to the nearest tenth of a metre. To prevent the tree from falling over. The trunk of a leaning tree makes an angle of 12° with the vertical. that are A 105. Calculate the height. The closest end of the aqueduct is 270. at those two points? 32 9750 m 45 A B 9. h. A building of height h is observed from two points. France.0 m rope is attached to the top of the tree and is pegged into level ground some distance away.5. to the nearest tenth of a metre. A surveyor in an airplane observes that the angle of depression to two points on the opposite shores of a lake are 32° and 45°. The Pont du Gard near Nîmes. is a Roman aqueduct.0 m 8.0 m from its base to its top.0 m from the balloon. respectively. A wind tower at the top of a hill casts a shadow 30 m long along the side of T the hill. respectively. h 40 32 Q P 105. P and Q. 10. An observer at the farthest edge of the shadow from the tower estimates the angle of elevation to the top of the tower to be 34°. to the nearest metre. as shown. respectively. 7.6 6. how high is the tower to the nearest metre? NEL Trigonometric Ratios 319 . If the tree is 20. What is the width of the lake. The angles of elevation at P and Q are 40° and 32°. calculate the angle the rope makes with the ground to the nearest degree.

Determine the other side length of this lot to the nearest metre and the interior angles to the nearest degree. The upper guy wires form an angle of 59° with the ground and attach to the mast 350 m above ground. 14. b) Two triangles are possible. However. on which a 273. The captain of the Algomarine calls you from the bridge. is the sailor from both lighthouses? b) What is the shortest distance. Your neighbour claims that his lot is triangular. are you from the stern? b) Are you in danger of being swamped? 17. Two friends standing some distance from Carol see the kite at angles of elevation of 66° and 35° . with one side 430 m long and the adjacent side 110 m long. to the nearest metre. From lighthouse B. A sailor out in a lake sees two lighthouses 11 km apart along the shore and gets bearings of 285° from his present position for lighthouse A and 237° for lighthouse B. The Algomarine is a cargo ship that is 222. c) No triangle is possible. small watercraft have the right of way. Using a sketch.5 m guyed mast is mounted. to the nearest kilometre.5 m long. There is a specific point on the ground where you can be equidistant from both the top and the bottom of the tower. When the tower was first built. a) How far.11. Extending 15. Carol is flying a kite on level ground.8°. explain the relationship between C /L. One friend is 11 m from Carol. For each question below. The Huqiu Tower in China was built in 961 CE. /L is acute. How far is this point from the base of the tower? Round your answer to the nearest metre. and the string forms an angle of 50° with the ground. The bow and stern of the carrier appear separated by 12°. a) Only one triangle is possible. a) How high is the kite above the ground? b) How long is the string? c) How far is the other friend from Carol? 12. Since then it has tilted 2. its height was 47 m. and says that you are 8° off his bow. lighthouse A has a bearing of 45°. from the sailor to the shore? 16. located at the stern. On the water. a) How far. 320 Chapter 5 NEL . bulk carriers cruise at nearly 30 km/h. your boat could get swamped! Suppose you spot the Algomarine on your starboard (right) side headed your way. to the nearest kilometre. so it is best to stay out of their way: If you pass a cargo ship within 40 m. In ^LMN. and the height of the triangle for each situation. so it is called China’s Leaning Tower. respectively. The angle opposite one of these sides is 35°. sides l and m. The lower guy wires form an angle of 36° with the ground and attach to the tower 155 m above ground. The Gerbrandy Tower in the Netherlands is an 80 m high concrete tower. How long are the upper and lower guy wires? Round your answers to the nearest metre. 13. state all possible answers to the nearest metre.

I labelled the point where the side of the building touches the ground C. /AXC 1 /CXP 5 180° 135° 1 /CXP 5 180° /CXP 5 180° 2 135° 5 45° 6 ^XCP is a 45° 245° 290° special triangle. • dynamic geometry software (optional) LEARN ABOUT the Math A barn whose cross-section resembles half a regular octagon with a side length of 10 m needs some repairs to its roof. The base of the ramp is 15. 10 m top of ramp 22.6 m ? How far.9 m P 26 B I labelled the top of the ramp A and the bottom of the ramp B. each interior angle is 135°. to the nearest tenth of a metre. forming an angle of 26° with the ground.9 m ramp against the side of the building. The ramp will be used to transport the materials needed for the repair.5.6 m from the side of the building. is the top of the ramp from the flat roof of the building? EXAMPLE 1 Using the cosine law to calculate an unknown length Determine the distance from the top of the ramp to the roof by using the cosine law. Tina’s Solution 10 m A X C d ? 22. /C is 90°. Since the octagon is regular.7 GOAL The Cosine Law YOU WILL NEED Solve two-dimensional problems by using the cosine law. I subtracted 135° from 180°. To determine /CXP. Then I drew a line from A along the sloped part of the building to X and extended the line to the ground at P. In ^ XCP. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 321 . The roofers place a 22.9 m 5m 26 15. So / AXC is 135°.

9 m The top of the ramp is about 2. 322 Chapter 5 NEL .9)cos 26° b2 5 200.6 PB 5 15.16 AX 5 14. Then I subtracted AX from 10 m to get the distance from the top of the ramp to the roof.6) 2 1 (22.6 m B b 2 5 a 2 1 p 2 2 2ap cos B b2 5 (10. I used the cosine law instead.9) 2 2 2(10. I knew that XP is a multiple of ! 2 because ^XCP is a 45° 245° 290° special triangle.16 m XP 5 5!2 AX 1 XP 5 b AX 1 5!2 5 14. So I couldn’t use the sine law to determine AP.42 m2 b 8 14. I then subtracted CP from CB to determine the length of PB.6 m A x p 22. So I subtracted XP from b to determine AX. I needed to calculate AX first. since the triangle is isosceles. CP 1 PB 5 15. so CP 5 5 m.16 2 5!2 8 7.9 m 26 P 15. I substituted the values of a.6 5 1 PB 5 15.42 To determine the distance from the top of the ramp to the roof. p.9 m from the flat roof of the building.09 m required distance 5 10 2 AX 5 10 2 7. I calculated b by evaluating the right side of the equation and determining its square root.10 m A 135 X C 45 22.6 m B From the given information.6 2 5 5 10. b 5 !200.9 m 26 b P a 10. and /B into the formula.6) (22. In ^APB. I knew two side lengths and the contained angle formed by those sides. I knew that XC 5 5 m.09 8 2.

Will Mitchell be able to install this system by himself ? NEL Trigonometric Ratios 323 . The Pythagorean theorem is a special case of the cosine law.1 m long. determine /A to the nearest degree if a 5 55 cm. b. So I used the cosine law to determine /A. Since I knew all three sides (SSS) but no angles.0 wide house to be heated with a solar hot-water system. the array must be installed on the south side of the roof and the roof needs to be inclined by 60°. Claudio’s Solution C b 26 cm A 2 2 2 a 55 cm c B 32 cm I drew a diagram of the triangle and labelled all sides. C. What conditions would have to exist in a triangle in order for the cosine law to simplify to the Pythagorean theorem? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Using the cosine law to determine an angle In ^ABC. the roof will be too steep for Mitchell to install the system himself. If the north side of the roof is inclined more than 40°. B. b 5 26 cm. and c into the formula. The tubes form an array that is 5. I substituted the values of a. instead of the cosine law. and c 5 32 cm. In order for the system to be effective. /A is about 143°.7 Reflecting A. Given ^ABC. EXAMPLE 3 Solving a problem by using the cosine and the sine laws Mitchell wants his 8. a 5 b 1 c 2 2bc cos A 552 2 (262 1 322 ) /A 5 cos 21 a b 22(26)(32) 552 2 (262 1 322 ) 22(26)(32) /A 8 143° 552 5 262 1 322 2 2(26)(32)cos A cos A 5 I used the inverse cosine function on my calculator to determine /A. I couldn’t use the sine law. to solve the problem? Explain your reasoning.5. Why did Tina draw line AP on her sketch as part of her solution? Could Tina have used the sine law.

0 m b 5 !49. I wanted to use the sine law to determine angle u to solve the problem. c.21 Since I knew two sides and the angle between them.0)(5.0) 2 1 (5. sin C sin B 5 c b sin 60° sin u 5 5.0 5.21 m2 b 8 7.0 m a b I drew a sketch of the situation.0 I used the inverse sine function on my calculator to determine angle u.1 7. and /B into the formula. I wrote the sine law with the angles in the numerators. I substituted the values of a.1 3 sin 60° 7. I calculated b by evaluating the right side of the equation and determining its square root. I needed to determine the length of side b. I multiplied both sides of the equation by 5.Serina’s Solution A 5.1) 2 2 2(8. But before I could do that. Since I needed to solve for an angle.1 3 1 sin u sin 60° 5 5.0 1 u 5 5. I determined /C (u) by using the sine law.1)cos 60° b 2 5 49. I couldn’t use the sine law to determine b. So I used the cosine law. u 8 39° Since Mitchell’s roof is inclined about 39° on the north side. he will be able to install the solar hot-water system by himself. 324 Chapter 5 NEL .1 7. B C b 2 5 a 2 1 c 2 2 2ac cos B b 2 5 (8.1 3 5.1 to solve for sin u.1 m c 60 8.

a) 4.0 b) G 5.0 4.0 B b) P 12. a2 5 b2 1 c 2 2 2bc cos A b2 5 a2 1 c 2 2 2ac cos B c 2 5 a2 1 b2 2 2ab cos C C b a A c B • If / A 5 90° and / A is the contained angle. a) T 4.5.0 r Q 2. the cosine law can be used if you know • two sides and the angle contained between those sides (SAS) or • all three sides (SSS) Need to Know • The cosine law states that in any ^ ABC.7 In Summary Key Idea • Given any triangle. determine the value of u to the nearest degree. For each triangle. then the cosine law simplifies to the Pythagorean theorem: a2 5 b2 1 c 2 2 2bc cos 90° a2 5 b2 1 c 2 2 2bc(0) a2 5 b2 1 c 2 CHECK Your Understanding 1.0 125 R 9. Determine each unknown side length to the nearest tenth.7 H NEL Trigonometric Ratios 325 .4 7.0 A c 62 C 7.2 T 3.0 U 6.

Calculate p to the 4 nearest tenth.0 4. Calculate /A to the nearest degree. W 10. a) c) L 7.5 43 X 11.1.0 V c) In ^ ABC.5. Sahar hits a tee shot from T toward a hole at H. The posts of a hockey goal are 2. A player attempts to score by H T 23 B Chapter 5 shooting the puck along the ice from a point 6.PRACTISING 3.5 cm S A d) Y T B X 21 18. a 5 11.0 m from the other. Calculate each unknown angle to the nearest degree and each unknown K length to the nearest tenth of a centimetre. 23° and lands at B.2 w V b) Determine the value of u to the nearest degree. but the ball veers 326 . how far.6. 1 d) In ^PQR.6 cm 8.3.0 m apart. 3. and c 5 6.0 cm 6. If Sahar walks 160 m to the ball (B).5 m from one post and 8.7 cm 35 Z 120 28 5. 4. The scorecard says that H is 270 m from T. Within what angle u must the shot be made? Round your answer to the nearest degree.0 L U 2. is the ball from the hole? NEL 6. and cos P 5 .3. to the nearest metre. r 5 71.5 cm M 105 11. While golfing. a) Determine w to the nearest tenth. b 5 8.2 cm N A 5 cm C 8 cm 10 cm b) R 25. q 5 25.

For each situation. is the fire from each tower? 9. each at a different location.3 km apart. to the nearest tenth of a kilometre.5° from the vertical.0 cm. If 11. are 20. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is 55. a) What is the distance separating the balloons. a) Create a question that requires using the sine law to solve it. 14.0 cm. The side lengths and the interior angles of any triangle can be determined by C using the cosine law. and 10. Darryl is standing on one of the roads T B 45 D 2. Two hot-air balloons are moored to level ground below. what is the distance from the top of the tower to the top edge of its shadow? Assume that the ground around the tower is level. Two roads intersect at an angle of 15°. Round your answer to the nearest metre.0 30 C 270 m from the intersection. An observer at each location determines the angle of elevation to the opposite balloon as shown at the right. How far.0 and D is the midpoint of BC. its shadow is 90. The bearing from tower A is 25° and from tower B is 345°. or a combination of both. Round your answer to the nearest metre.5. 7. A B 80 20 25 2.0 km apart. Determine the perimeter of the triangle to the nearest centimetre. to the nearest tenth. determine all unknown side lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimetre and/or all unknown interior angles to the nearest degree. 10.9 m tall and leans 5. The ranger in each tower observes a fire and radios the bearing of the fire from the tower.5 cm. From tower A. A and B. Two forest fire towers. and 20°. BC 5 2. b) Create a question that requires using the cosine law to solve it. 40°. b) An isosceles triangle has at least one interior angle of 70° and at least one side of length 11. 8. Extending 12. if /ADB 5 45° and /ACB 5 30° . use the algebraic representation of the law to show how to determine all unknown quantities. If more than one solution is possible. the sine law. Sketch a triangle and state the minimum information required to use a) the cosine law b) both laws Under each sketch. state all possible answers. 13. Given ^ ABC at the right. The longest side is 10 cm longer than the shortest side.7 7. a) A triangle has exactly one angle measuring 45° and sides measuring 5. A Determine AB.0 m long. to the nearest tenth of a kilometre? b) Determine the difference in height (above the ground) between the two balloons. The interior angles of a triangle are 120°. Include a complete solution and a sketch.4 cm. The observers are 2. the bearing of tower B is 70°.0 km 75 NEL Trigonometric Ratios 327 . Include a complete solution and a sketch.

himself. Joe estimates the angle between the base of the cliff.5. In ^ DBC. and his friend Joe to be 63°. himself. and Manny to be 42°. while Manny estimates the angle between the base of the cliff. I don’t have enough information to calculate h.8 YOU WILL NEED Solving Three-Dimensional Problems by Using Trigonometry GOAL • dynamic geometry software (optional) Solve three-dimensional problems by using trigonometry. Manny uses a clinometer to determine the angle of elevation to the top of a cliff as 38°. I needed to determine /C. 328 Chapter 5 NEL .5 m away from Manny. but BC is also in ^ DBC. I knew two angles and a side length. 68. Before I could calculate BC. From point D. In ^ ABC. I used the fact that the sum of all three interior angles is 180° . Matt’s Solution In ^DBC: /C 5 180° 2 (63° 1 42°) 5 75° BC is in ^ ABC. A h C 38 63 42 D ? 68.5 m B What is the height of the cliff to the nearest tenth of a metre? EXAMPLE 1 Solving a three-dimensional problem by using the sine law Calculate the height of the cliff to the nearest tenth of a metre. LEARN ABOUT the Math From point B.

So I used tangent.45.5 sin 75° I used my calculator to evaluate.45 1 h 3 47.1 m 8 h The height of the cliff is about 37.45 m tan 38° 5 tan 38° 5 h BC h 47. C.45 47.45 5 37. B. Why did Matt begin working with ^ DBC instead of ^ ABC? What strategies might Matt use to check whether his answer is reasonable? NEL Trigonometric Ratios 329 . I multiplied both sides of the equation by 47. I knew that ^ ABC is a right triangle and that h is opposite the 38° angle while BC is adjacent to it. BC 68.1 m.8 BC BD 5 sin D sin C BC 68. BC 5 sin 42° 3 68. I multiplied both sides of the equation by sin 42° .5 5 sin 42° sin 75° sin 42° 3 1 Using ^ DBC and the value of /C.5 5 sin 42° 3 sin 42° sin 75° 1 To solve for BC. tan 38° 3 47. Was the given diagram necessary to help Matt solve the problem? Explain. BC 8 47. To evaluate h.45 1 Then I used ^ ABC to calculate h. I used the sine law to calculate BC.5. Reflecting A.

Using the same reasoning. I used these angles to determine the values of /EAQ and /EBQ. /Q 5 230° 2 120° 5 110° E 38 50 m Q b 110 q a 35 In ^ AQB. From her position. boat A has a bearing of 230° and boat B has a bearing of 120°. So I subtracted 120° from 230°. I determined that /EBQ is equal to 35°. I knew only one angle and no side lengths. How far apart are the boats to the nearest metre? 120 230 A q B Kelly’s Solution In ^ AQB: In ^ AQB. I knew that the value of /Q is equal to the difference of the bearings of boats A and B. I drew a sketch that included the angles of depression. So /EAQ is equal to 38°. I needed to determine AQ (side b) and BQ (side a) first. A B The angle of depression to A is measured from a line parallel to AQ. /EAQ 5 38° E /EBQ 5 35° 50 m Q 38 A b 110 q 35 a B I included the values of /EAQ and /EBQ in my sketch. 330 Chapter 5 NEL .APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Solving a three-dimensional problem by using the sine law N E 50 m Q Emma is on a 50 m high bridge and sees two boats anchored below. In order to calculate q. Emma estimates the angles of depression to be 38° for boat A and 35° for boat B.

such as facts about parallel lines.0 m a 8 71. use the sine law and/or the cosine law. Then use trigonometry to solve the original problem. use the primary or reciprocal trigonometric ratios. • In right triangles. q 2 5 b 2 1 a 2 2 2ba cos 110° q 2 5 (64. Since ^ AEQ and ^ BEQ are right triangles. and so on. In Summary Key Ideas • Three-dimensional problems involving triangles can be solved using some combination of these approaches: • trigonometric ratios • the Pythagorean theorem • the sine law • the cosine law • The approach you use depends on the given information and what you are required to find. So I used the cosine law to calculate q. always start with a sketch of the given information.8 In ^AEQ: tan 38° 5 b5 50 b 50 tan 38° In ^BEQ: tan 35° 5 a5 50 a 50 tan 35° In ^ AQB. I now knew two side lengths and the angle between those sides. • In all other triangles. Need to Know • When solving problems.4) 2 2 2(64.5. Given Information SSA ASA or AAS SAS SSS Required to Find angle side side side Use sine law sine law cosine law cosine law NEL Trigonometric Ratios 331 . Determine any unknown angles by using any geometric facts that apply. I expressed AQ in terms of tan 38° and BQ in terms of tan 35°. I substituted the values of b and a into the equation and evaluated q.4)cos 110° q 8 111 m q 5 !12 320.0) 2 1 (71. Revise your sketch so that it includes any new information that you determined.6 b 8 64.4 m The boats are about 111 m apart.0) (71. interior angles in a triangle. Then I solved for b and a.

5 m overhang on each side of the shed. a) Determine h to the nearest tenth of a metre.0 m are equal in length and must meet at an angle of 80°.5 m 1. Morana is trolling for salmon in Lake Ontario. b) How could Josh use the primary trigonometric ratios to calculate x ? Explain. The two sides of the roof 4.CHECK Your Understanding 35 1m B x A 0. PRACTISING 3.0 m 66 C 4. Describe the steps you would use to calculate the length of line she must let out. Explain your reasoning for each step of your solution. She knows that there are fish at a depth of 45 m. She sets the fishing rod so 45 m that its tip is 1 m above water and the line forms an angle of 35° with the water’s surface. Explain each of your steps. a group of students was asked to determine the altitude. Determine the value of x to the nearest centimetre and u to the nearest K degree. As a project. h. Josh is building a garden shed that is 4. There will be a 0. of a promotional blimp.5 m 80 x C 0. a) Should he use the sine law or the cosine law? Explain. 332 Chapter 5 NEL . The students’ measurements are shown in the sketch at the left. b) Is there another way to solve this problem? Explain.0 m wide. Josh wants to determine the length of each side of the roof. a) c) E D 65 55 x F 15 cm 45 x G A A 27 18 cm 70 D B 15 cm B d) 70 115 B A 15 cm D 95 14 cm D 10 cm C 35 E b) in ABC x C A h D 74 B 50 175. 2.

A coast guard helicopter hovers between an island and a damaged sailboat. • From the helicopter. the angle of elevation to the helicopter is 73°. • They measured the angle between the lines of sight to the two towns as 80°. From this position. Paris. Justify your reasoning with calculations. While Travis and Bob were flying a hot-air balloon from Beamsville to Vineland in southwestern Ontario. • the bearing of boat A is 180° at an angle of depression of 40° • the bearing of boat B is 250° at an angle of depression of 34° Calculate the distance between the two boats to the nearest metre. Ontario. facing north and sees the balcony at an angle of elevation of 20°. • From an altitude of 226 m. From the tourist’s position. to the nearest metre. • From the island. A tourist in the observation deck notices two boats on the water. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 333 . • A police rescue boat heading toward the sailboat is 800 m away from the scene of the accident. the angle between the island and the sailboat is 35°.8 5. Suppose Romeo is serenading Juliet while she is on her balcony. Romeo is h 20 R 100 m 18 P 8. from the helicopter to the sailboat. Determine the height of Juliet’s balcony above the ground. between the two towns. is A 166 m above the Niagara River. to the nearest metre. the island and the sailboat are 40° apart. Is there enough information to calculate the distance between the two towns? Justify your reasoning with calculations. Juliet’s other suitor. to the nearest metre. is observing the situation and is facing west. an observer on the island notices that the sailboat and police rescue boat are 68° apart. J 7. 6. Paris sees the balcony at an angle of elevation of 18°. • At the same moment. Explain how you would calculate the straight-line distance. they decided to calculate the straight-line distance. Romeo and Paris are 100 m apart as shown. they simultaneously measured the angle of depression to Beamsville as 2° and to Vineland as 3°.5. The observation deck of the Skylon Tower in Niagara Falls.

1 m 2. 10. Bert wants to calculate the height of a tree on the opposite bank of a river. Calculate the distance between the two friends. Justify your reasoning with calculations.5 m 4. which runs north to south. The angle of elevation from A to the top of the tree is 28°. each piece must fit exactly inside the vehicle.0 m 2. Justify your reasoning with calculations. 2.0 m 4.7 m 4. In order to prevent damaging the platform. they see a hot-air balloon toward the east at angles of elevation of 41° and 55°.0 m 4. When the boat is equidistant between both girls. Justify your reasoning with calculations. a stage platform has been dismantled T into three triangular pieces as shown. Describe how you would calculate the angle. if any. b) What additional information. To 85 A 30 80 m B do this.5 m C 2. 334 Chapter 5 NEL .9 m 2.0 m mast is 51° for both observers. Brit and Tara are standing 13.7 m 42 J A 130 B 4. G 3. When both of them stand at their front doors.9.0 m I 4. Explain how you would match each piece of the platform to the best-suited vehicle. a) Chandra says she doesn’t have enough information to answer the question. Chandra’s homework question reads like this: C Bill and Chris live at different intersections on the same street. between Tara and the boat as viewed from Brit’s position.5 m 1. 12. Explain if this information helps Bert to calculate the height of the tree to the nearest metre. would you need to solve the problem? Justify your answer. he lays out a baseline 80 m long and measures the angles as shown at the left. respectively.5 m apart on a dock when they observe a sailboat moving parallel to the dock.6 m 6. In setting up for an outdoor concert. to the nearest degree.6 m 1. Justify your reasoning with calculations. the angle of elevation to the top of its 8.1 m 2.5 m H L K There are three vehicles available to transport the pieces. Evaluate Chandra’s statement.8 m 11.

0 m away at an angle of elevation of 34°. Simone is facing north at the entrance of a tunnel through a mountain. Mario notices that his friend Thomas’s window on the west side of the building appears 71. From Mario’s position. Two cars leave the intersection on different roads at speeds of 80 km/h and 100 km/h. 14. After she exits the tunnel. a) Calculate the straight-line distance.8 Extending 13. a) If a rope were pulled taut from one window to the other. Calculate the distance between the two planes to the nearest tenth of a kilometre. to the nearest tenth of a metre. how long. Explain your reasoning for each step of your solution.8 km. After 2 h. The first plane. Assuming that the tunnel is perfectly level and straight. The other plane. Trigonometric Ratios NEL 335 . a traffic helicopter that is above and between the two cars takes readings on them. Assume that both cars are travelling at constant speed. The angle of depression to the slower car is 20°. b) Determine the altitude of the helicopter to the nearest kilometre.5 m away at an angle of elevation of 55°. from the helicopter to the faster car. 16. b) What is the straight-line distance through the building between the two windows? Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a metre. Q. P. the same mountain has a bearing of 258° and its peak appears at an angle of elevation of 31°. She notices that a 1515 m high mountain in the distance has a bearing of 270° and its peak appears at an angle of elevation of 35°. at a bearing of 70° and with an altitude of 2. around the outside of the building. is 180 km away on a bearing of 125° and with an altitude of 1. how long is it to the nearest metre? 15. Mario is standing at ground level exactly at the corner where two exterior walls of his apartment building meet. his apartment window on the north side of the building appears 44.5.7 km. would the rope need to be? Explain your reasoning. to the nearest kilometre. and the straight-line distance from the helicopter to that car is 100 km. is 120 km from the airport. A. An airport radar operator locates two planes flying toward the airport. Two roads intersect at 34°.

5 tan2 u 1 1 5a 5 5 5 sin2 u 11 cos2 u sin u 2 b 11 cos u R. 336 Chapter 5 NEL .5. 6 tan2 u 1 1 5 sec2 u for all angles u. Find a common denominator. sin u 5 R. EXAMPLE tan2 u 1 1 5 sec2 u L. there are restrictions on the variable because the denominator cannot equal zero. sin2 u 1 cos2 u cos2 u 1 cos 2 u Write tan u as cos u. A trigonometric identity is an equation involving trigonometric ratios that is true for all values of the variable. • Try Chapter Review Questions 6 and 7.S. y. so cos u 2 0. Since the denominator cannot equal 0.S. so simplify it. the solution below is one way to prove that tan2 u 1 1 5 sec2 u is an identity. The left side of the equation is more complicated.S.5 Study Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A: Aid What steps would you follow to prove a trigonometric identity? • See Lesson 5. there is a restriction on u. Then use the Pythagorean identity. or you may rewrite each side of the equation in terms of sine and cosine and then use the Pythagorean identity sin2 u 1 cos2 u 5 1. where appropriate. If a trigonometric ratio is in the denominator of a fraction. Examples 1 to 4. and r and then simplify. You may rewrite the trigonometric ratios in terms of x. 5 sec 2 u 5a 5 1 cos 2 u 1 2 b cos u First separate both sides of the equation. For example. where cos u 2 0.

Q: A: Study Aid Always start with a sketch of the given information because the sketch will help you determine whether the Pythagorean theorem. use the sine law. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 337 . or 2 triangles are possible given the information in a problem.4 10 A 36 a C 6.0 cm 60 C A • See Lesson 5. 6. Examples 1 and 2.and threedimensional trigonometric problems? • See Lesson 5. This situation occurs when you know two side lengths and an angle (SSA). What approaches are helpful in solving two.1 cm. if you know two sides and the angle between those sides. For all other cases. or all three sides. then ^ ABC is a right triangle and 6. Examples 1.7. Examples 1 and 2.0 cm. • Try Chapter Review Questions 8 and 9.0 cm 60 If a 5 6. cm . If you have right triangles. a 5 7.4 10 A 36 cm . or the cosine law is the best method to use. there are two possible triangles: B B 7.1 cm If a . and c 5 10. • See Lesson 5. use the sine law. and 3. use the cosine law. a triangle cannot be drawn.1 cm is the shortest possible length for a: B cm . If you know an angle opposite a side.4 10 36 C 7. 1. • Try Chapter Review Questions 10 and 11. • Try Chapter Review Questions 12 and 13. 2. use the cosine law.1 cm. where /A 5 36°. For example. Q: A: How do you decide when to use the sine law or the cosine law to solve a problem? Study Aid Given any triangle.6. If you know three sides or two sides and the contained angle in an oblique triangle.8.Chapter Review Q: A: How do you know when you are dealing with the ambiguous case of the sine law? Study Aid The ambiguous case of the sine law refers to the situation where 0. use the Pythagorean theorem and/or trigonometric ratios. given ^ ABC. the sine law.4 cm.

Label the principal angle and the related acute angle on your sketch. determine the principal angle and. state the primary trigonometric ratios associated with angle u. i) For each triangle. 5) 13 x 8 b) 12 35 b) y c) 39 23 P(3. ii) For each trigonometric ratio.2 x 3) c) y 2. 5) a) in which quadrant(s) does the terminal arm of angle f lie? Justify your answer. i) State the sign of each trigonometric ratio. state the reciprocal trigonometric ratios for angle u. ii) Calculate the value of u to the nearest degree.3 x 3. Express your answers in simplified radical form. a) y P( 2. 5. a) (sin 45°) (cos 45°) 1 (sin 30°) (cos 60°) b) (1 2 tan 45°)(sin 30°)(cos 30°)(tan 60°) c) tan 30° 1 2(sin 45°) (cos 60°) Lesson 5. the related acute angle.1 Lesson 5. For each sketch. Given cos f 5 ! 53.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 5. b) state the other five trigonometric ratios for c) calculate the value of the principal angle f to the nearest degree. a) tan 18° b) sin 205° c) cos(255°) 27 . Determine the exact value of each trigonometric expression.4 1. Lesson 5. a) 4. Express your answers in simplified radical form. Use a calculator to determine the value of each ratio. angle f. where appropriate. 338 Chapter 5 NEL . where 0°# f # 360° P( 4. Then sketch another angle that has the equivalent ratio.

5 cm. P and Q.7 takes two measurements.8 given each set of information. the base of the pole and point C are 90. State any restrictions on the 6.6 11. Sketch all possible triangles where appropriate.0 km apart. a) K 11. How high. then label. Justin ranger at station Q sees a fire 15. From her position. From point A.5 30 m 10.9 m wide and 4.1 cm. to the nearest tenth of a metre. to the nearest degree. c 5 8.5 variables if all angles vary from 0° to 360°. to the top of the left exterior wall? NEL Trigonometric Ratios 339 . are 20. Two spotlights.2 cm. State any restrictions on angle b.2 55 M m Q 4. A stationary observer standing on the ballroom floor notices that the angle of elevation is 45° to the blue spotlight and 70° to the white one. /C 5 34° c) a 5 11. Two forest fire stations. Calculate. how far. h B 15.3 108 j J 7.0 B 72 C front of her school. what is the angle of elevation. a) b 5 3. Suzie is 12. To determine the height of a pole across a road. From her position. to the nearest tenth of a kilometre. is station P from the fire? Lesson 5. are 8. /B 5 30° b) b 5 12. all side lengths to the nearest tenth of a centimetre and all angles to the nearest degree.0 m from the base of the right exterior wall.2 cm.0° apart.0 km away. one blue and the other white. He stands at point A directly across from the base of the pole and determines that the angle of elevation to the top of the pole is 15. a) tan a cos a 5 sin a 1 b) 5 sin f sec f cot f sin x cos x c) 1 2 cos2 x 5 cot x d) sec u cos u 1 sec u sin u 5 1 1 tan u Lesson 5. She determines that the left and right exterior walls appear to be 39° apart. /C 5 33° 9.2 cm.0 m apart on a track on the ceiling of a ballroom. c 5 5.7 L A C 13. c 5 5. is the ceiling of the ballroom? Lesson 5.7 m high. Determine each unknown side length to the nearest tenth. where he sees that the base of the pole and point A are 57. 7. A 12. Determine whether the equation 1 cos b cot b 5 sin b 2 sin b is an identity.Chapter Review Lesson 5. If the angle between the line PQ and the line from P to the fire is 25°. Calculate the height of the pole to the nearest metre.0 c 8. Determine whether it is possible to draw a triangle placed 6.5° apart.5 c) N 6. Suzie estimates that the front face is 8.3 57. He then walks 30 m parallel to the freeway to point C. While standing at the left corner of the schoolyard in b) A 6.3°. Prove each identity.0 cm.

a) P(23. a) sin u cos u restrictions on the variables.8 cm. Use a different method for parts (a) and (b). and / A 5 41° b) a 5 2. then label. For each triangle. where appropriate.1 cm. The angle formed at the base of the tree between points A and B is 90°. 0) b) S(28. Given cos u 5 2 13 . b 5 2.1 cm. b) cot u tan u 4. Given angle u. respectively. 5. a) b) 1 1 cot 2 a 5 csc 2 a Sketch a triangle of your own choice and label the sides and angles. i) Prove each identity. Given each set of information.5 Chapter Self-Test 1. and A and B are 30 m apart. b) State all forms of the cosine law that apply to your triangle. a) tan2 f 1 1 5 sec2 f 5. a) a 5 1.0 m B 49 D w 53 C G 40 48 H w b) I 6. she determined that the angles of elevation for a certain tree were 41° and 52°. i) For each point.5 m J 7. where appropriate.5 cm. If the tree is perpendicular to the ground. ii) Determine the value of the principal angle and the related acute angle. To estimate the amount of usable lumber in a tree. to the nearest degree. calculate the value of w to the nearest tenth of a metre. c) State all forms of the sine law that apply to your triangle. determine all possible angles for u. Chitra must first estimate the height of the tree. From points A and B on the ground. determine how many triangles can be drawn. where the terminal arm of angle u lies in quadrant 2. and / A 5 20° 8. what is its height to the nearest metre? 340 Chapter 5 NEL . Calculate. 26) 1 2 !3 b) cos u 5 2 a) sin u 5 2 2. State any ii) Explain why these identities are called Pythagorean identities. a) A 60. sketch the angle in standard position to determine all six trigonometric ratios. c) cot u 5 21 d) sec u 5 22 5 3. all side lengths to the nearest tenth and all interior angles to the nearest degree. c 5 6. evaluate each trigonometric expression. where 0° # u # 360°.

UK) AC (Montréal. took a digital photo of the Moon during a lunar eclipse at exactly the same time. 2004. Shortest Distance on Earth’s Surface Between Two Locations AB (Montréal. Canada to Montevideo.384° ? A. and for A and C. B. is the Moon from either Montréal or Selsey? Repeat parts A and B for locations B and C. Label all the given angles and distances. parallax angle Moon apparent image of the Moon ruler Earth apparent image of the Moon Astronomers measure the parallax of celestial bodies to determine how far those bodies are from Earth. Calculate the relative error. NEL Trigonometric Ratios 341 . Which of your results is most accurate? What factors contribute most to the error in this experiment? Task Checklist Did you draw the correct sketches? Did you show your work? Did you provide appropriate reasoning? C. for all three distances you calculated. The data related to these photos is shown. Did you explain your thinking clearly? E. Pete Lawrence. 2004. Uruguay) 5 220 km 9 121 km 10 967 km Parallax Angle 0. D. from the given data? Sketch a triangle with the Moon and locations A and B as the vertices. On October 28. What is the most accurate method to determine the distance between the Moon and Earth.189° 1. On October 28.7153° 1. to the nearest tenth of a percent. the Moon was about 391 811 km from Earth (surface to surface). UK to Montevideo. three astronomers (Peter Cleary. Uruguay) BC (Selsey.5 Parallax A B Chapter Task Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object when it is viewed from two different positions. How far. What kind of triangle do you have? Determine all unknown sides to the nearest kilometre and angles to the nearest thousandth of a degree. to the nearest kilometre. Canada to Selsey. and Gerardo Addiègo) each at a different location on Earth.

342 NEL .

where x is measured in degrees Determine the equations of sinusoidal functions in real-world situations and use those equations to solve problems • ? This picture of NASA’s mission control shows the flight path of the space shuttle as it orbits Earth.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Functions GOALS You will be able to • • • Identify situations that can be modelled using sinusoidal and other periodic functions Interpret the graphs of sinusoidal and other periodic phenomena Understand the effect of applying transformations to the functions f(x) 5 sin x and g(x) 5 cos x. What type of function would model this path? NEL 343 .

3. A survey Aid • For help. see Essential Skills Appendix.6 Study Getting Started SKILLS YOU NEED 1.50 back. he will sell 20 more shirts per week. How tall is the building? 7.25 s? d) State the domain and range of the function. describe how a graph of f (x) 5 x 2 would change if the transformation is applied to it. a) 15 cm 40° 22 cm b) 9 cm 52° 11 cm 35° 7m 9m x 4. 344 Chapter 6 NEL . Marcus sells 100 T-shirts per week at a price of $30 per shirt. b) How many times will the price have to be dropped for the total revenue to be 0? c) How many times will the price have to be dropped to reach the maximum revenue? d) What is the maximum revenue? e) What price will the T-shirts sell for to obtain the maximum revenue? f ) How many T-shirts will be sold to obtain the maximum revenue? 2. An air hockey puck is shot to the opposite end of the table and ricochets t 0 0.25 Time (s) 0. 5 6. List all the different types of transformations that you know. An aerial photograph shows that a building casts a shadow 40 m long when 40 m the angle of elevation of the Sun was 32°. Determine u to the nearest degree. Determine the value of x in the triangle at the left to the nearest tenth of a metre. Question 3. Use transformations of the graph f (x) 5 2x to sketch the graphs of the following: a) y 5 2f (x) b) y 5 3f (x) c) y 5 f (x) 1 4 d) y 5 22f (x 2 3) 6. 5. If x represents the number of times the price is reduced by $2. a) How far did the puck travel? b) When was the puck farthest away from where it was shot? c) How fast was the puck travelling in the first 0. 4. then the revenue generated from T-shirt sales can be modelled by the function R(x) 5 (30 2 2x) (100 1 20x) . 7 Appendix A-16 A-14 180 Distance (cm) 120 60 d(t) Puck Motion indicates that if he reduces the price of each shirt by $2. For each one. The puck’s distance in centimetres from where it was shot in terms of time in seconds can be modelled by the graph shown at the left. a) Explain what the factors (30 2 2x) and (100 1 20x) represent in R(x) .

Explain what this value represents in this situation. where the height. F. When will the arrow strike the ground? When will the arrow reach its maximum height? What is the maximum height reached by the arrow? State the domain and range of the function in this situation. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 345 . C. G. measured in seconds. Summarize what you determined about the relationship between the height of the arrow and time. B. t. E. How can you describe the flight of the arrow using this function? What is the initial height of the arrow? Calculate h(2). D. The height of the arrow above the ground is a function of time and can be modelled by h(t) 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 25. ? A. h(t) .Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Flying Arrows An arrow is shot into the air from the edge of a cliff. is measured in metres at time.

The number of hours of daylight for day 943 is about 17 h. and 531 2 166 5 365.6.9 349 5.5 714 5. I used the pattern to extend the graph to year 3. LEARN ABOUT the Math The number of hours of daylight at any particular location changes with the time of year. Note: Day 15 is January 15 of year 1.9 ? EXAMPLE How many hours of daylight will there be on August 1 of year 3? 1 Representing data in a graph to make predictions Jacob’s Solution Hours of Daylight in Hudson Bay I drew a scatter plot with the day as the independent variable and the hours of daylight as the dependent variable. Day 74 is March 15 of year 1.2 684 7. I drew a smooth curve to connect the points. I can tell because the greatest number of hours of daylight occurs on days 166 and 531.9 411 9. Day 411 is February 15 of year 2.9 653 10. 346 Chapter 6 NEL . Hours of daylight 24 18 12 6 0 365 730 Day number Aug 1 1095 day: 943 The least number of hours of daylight occurs on days 349 and 714.8 258 12. The table shows the average number of hours of daylight for approximately a two-year period at Hudson Bay. I used the graph to estimate the number of hours of daylight for day 943. Day Hours of Daylight 15 6.2 166 18. also 365 days apart. Nunavut.7 135 17. The data and graph repeat every 365 days.6 531 18.2 470 14. That would be 1095 days.1 YOU WILL NEED Periodic Functions and Their Properties GOAL • graph paper Interpret and describe graphs that repeat at regular intervals.8 561 18.7 74 11.1 623 12.

During manufacturing.0 Height (cm) Cutting Blade Motion 0.0 7. B.0 4. periodic function a function whose graph repeats at regular intervals.0 3.6.0 6. Tanya and her brother Norman accompany their mother to work.0 Time (s) How can Norman interpret the graph and relate its characteristics to the manufacturing process? Norman’s Solution It’s a periodic function because the graph repeats in exactly the same way at regular intervals.0 5. C. D.0 2. a cycle of a periodic function is a portion of the graph that repeats Why does it make sense to call the graph of the hours of daylight a periodic function? How does the table help you predict the period of the graph? Which points on the graph could you use to determine the range of this function? How does knowing the period of a periodic graph help you predict future events? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Interpreting periodic graphs and connecting them to real-world situations y 1 cycle x 0 period Part A: Analyzing a Cutting Blade’s Motion Tanya’s mother works in a factory that produces tape measures. the y-values in the table of values show a repetitive pattern when the x-values change by the same increment period the change in the independent variable (typically x) corresponding to one cycle.0 9.5 0 1. a metal strip is cut into 6 m lengths and is coiled within the tape measure holder. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 347 . Tanya’s mother shows a graph that models the motion of the cutting blade on the machine in terms of time.1 Reflecting A.0 8. One day. 1. This is a periodic function. A cutting machine chops the strips into their appropriate lengths.

5 cm or less. Part B: Analyzing the Motion of the Tape as It Is Spooled Farther down the assembly line. like the ones from 0 to 3. show that the blade takes 0. The y-value is always 0. like from t 5 3.5 The cutting blade cuts a new section of metal strip every 4 s because the graph has a pattern that repeats every 4 s.5 s. must mean that the blade stops for these intervals. 1.0 to 7.0. show that the blade takes 0. the metal strip is raised and spooled onto a rotating cylinder contained within the tape measure. Other parts of the graph. When the height is 0 cm.0 Height (cm) 4 0.5 s to go up.0 3. The blade takes 1 s to go up and down.5 s to go down. Parts of the graph. Since the graph repeats every 4 s and the blade hits the surface at 3.0 to t 5 3. 348 Chapter 6 NEL .5 cm.0 Time (s) The maximum height of the blade is 0.5 s and 7. The minimum height is 0 cm. The blade will strike the cutting surface again at 11.5 s and every 4 s after that. The blade stops for 3 s intervals. I can figure out the next time it will hit the surface. the blade is hitting the cutting surface.0 and 4. 0 1.0 2.0.0 4. The machine is probably pulling the next 6 m section of metal strip through before it’s cut. Flat sections. Tanya notices that the height of the end of the metal strip that attaches to the spool goes up and down as the rest of the strip is pulled onto the cylinder. like from t 5 3.5.The period of this function is 4 s. so the blade can’t be higher than this.5 to t 5 4.

0 0 0.50 0.25 t 1. Height of the End of the Metal Strip 10. trough the minimum point on a graph This is a periodic function. The next trough is at t 5 0.0 6. The highest the graph goes is 9 mm.25.75 1.25 0. The range for this function is 5h [ R | 1 # h # 96. peak the maximum point on a graph y peak trough x NEL Sinusoidal Functions 349 .00 Time (s) 1. The first trough is at t 5 0.1 Tanya’s mother shows them a graph that models the height of the end of the strip in terms of time. I could also have measured the distance between the first two peaks to get that value.0 4.0 2. This time the action is smooth. The period represents the time it takes for the rotating cylinder to make one complete revolution.50 end of strip How can Tanya interpret the graph and relate its characteristics to the manufacturing process? Tanya’s Solution It’s a periodic function because the graph repeats in exactly the same way at regular intervals. and the lowest is 1 mm.25 s.6. The period of this function is 0. The distance between the two troughs gives the period. The heights are always at or between these two values.0 h Height (mm) 8.

equation of the axis. I calculated the halfway point between the maximum and minimum values of the graph. giving me the equation of the axis. and amplitude. The waves repeat at regular intervals. so the function is periodic. 350 Chapter 6 NEL . That is the period of the function. I calculated the halfway point between the maximum and minimum values of the height. The amplitude of a function is the vertical distance from its axis (h 5 5) to its maximum value (9 mm). state the period.equation of the axis the equation of the horizontal line halfway between the maximum and the minimum. amplitude half the difference between the maximum and minimum values. a) the average number of b) the motion of a piston on an c) a student is moving a metre stick hours of daylight over a three-year period Daylight Hours 18 automated assembly line Piston Motion Height (cm) back and forth with progressively larger movements Metre Stick Motion Distance (cm) 18 6 2 0 2 6 Time (s) 2 4 6 8 10 Hours 12 6 0 365 730 Days 1095 1 0 1 3 5 6 12 Tina’s Solution a) periodic Time (s) The graph looks like a series of waves that are the same size and shape. If so. 92554 The amplitude of this function is 4 mm. it is determined by y5 maximum value 1 minimum value 2 911 55 2 The equation of the axis for this function is h 5 5. The amplitude is the vertical distance from its axis (h 5 12) to the maximum value (18 h) or minimum value (6 h). To get the equation of the axis. it is also the vertical distance from the function’s axis to the maximum or minimum value EXAMPLE 3 Identifying a periodic function from its graph Determine whether the term periodic can be used to describe the graph for each situation. period 5 1 year 18 1 6 5 12 2 equation of the axis: h 5 12 18 2 12 5 6 amplitude 5 6 h The graph repeats its pattern every 365 days.

5 1 2 (22. or equation of the axis.6. repeating in the same way over and over. In Summary Key Ideas • A function that produces a graph that has a regular repeating pattern over a constant interval is called a periodic function. The equation of the axis is halfway between the maximum of 1 and the minimum of 26. It describes something that happens in a cycle.5 2 equation of the axis: h 5 22.1 b) periodic The shape of the graph repeats over the same interval. amplitude. The distance between the maximum and the axis is 3. so the function is not periodic.5. so the function is periodic.5 cm c) nonperiodic The graph repeats every 6 s. and equation of the axis. The shape of the graph does not repeat over the same interval.5) 5 3.5 amplitude 5 3. Need to Know • Extending the graph of a periodic function by using the repeating pattern allows you to make reasonable predictions by extrapolating. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 351 . so that’s the period of the function. This means that the function does not have a period. • The graph of a periodic function permits you to figure out the key features of the repeating pattern it represents. such as the period. amplitude. period 5 6 s 1 1 (26) 5 22. Height on a Ferris Wheel Height above ground (m) 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time (s) • A function that produces a graph that does not have a regular repeating pattern over a constant interval is called a nonperiodic function.

e) Determine the equation of the axis. determine the domain of the function. period. Determine the range.” 352 Chapter 6 NEL . and amplitude of the function shown. The motion of an automated device for attaching bolts to a household 1.0 0. Which of the following graphs are periodic? Explain why or why not. Explain what each part could mean in the context of “attaching the bolt. a) What is the period of one complete cycle? b) What is the maximum distance between the device and the appliance? c) What is the range of this function? d) If the device can run for five complete cycles only before it must be turned off. f ) Determine the amplitude. equation of the axis. g) There are several parts to each complete cycle of the graph.5 0 1 2 Time (s) x 3 appliance on an assembly line can be modelled by the graph shown at the left.CHECK Your Understanding 1. a) 20 0 –20 f(x) x 1 2 c) 4 f(x) x 0 –4 d) 1 f(x) 5 10 b) f(x) 5 0 x 5 0 5 10 x 2. f(x) 10 8 6 4 2 0 Distance between device and appliance (cm) Bolt Machine Motion y x 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3.5 1.

and the chain is spinning. depending on how far you travel. Estimate the period of the functions that K you identify as periodic. • independent variable: time • dependent variable: value of the certificate NEL Sinusoidal Functions 353 .1 PRACTISING 4.6. Which of the following situations would produce periodic graphs? a) Sasha is monitoring the height of one of the cutting teeth on a chainsaw. • independent variable: time • dependent variable: Alex’s height above the ground c) The cost of riding in a taxi varies. The saw is on the ground. Identify which graphs are periodic. • independent variable: distance travelled • dependent variable: cost d) Brittany invested her money in a Guaranteed Investment Certificate whose return was 4% per year. a) f(x) 4 2 0 2 4 b) f(x) x 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 6 10 14 18 22 x d) 8 6 4 2 0 f(x) x 2 f(x) x 2 4 6 8 10 12 4 6 8 10 4 2 0 2 4 e) 4 2 0 2 4 c) 2 0 2 4 f(x) x 2 4 6 8 10 12 f) 0 2 4 6 f(x) x 10 20 30 40 50 60 5. • independent variable: time • dependent variable: height of tooth above the ground b) Alex is doing jumping jacks.

7 1. • independent variable: time • dependent variable: intensity of the signal 6. Which of the tables of values might represent periodic functions? Justify. but she is so far away that the ball bounces on the ground four times.5 7 7.9 1. Chantelle has a submersible pump in her basement. The graph models the depth of the water below her basement floor in terms of time. water pumped to surface pump intake motor cable the pump turned off and on to drain water collecting under her house’s foundation. • independent variable: distance • dependent variable: bounce height f ) The antenna on a radar tower is rotating and emitting a signal to track incoming planes.1 1.5 d) x 1 2 4 7 11 16 22 29 y 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 7.7 0. The depth of the water decreased when the pump was on and increased when the pump was off.3 1. Depth of Water under Basement Floor Depth (cm) water enters here 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time (min) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Is the function periodic? At what depth does the pump turn on? How long does the pump remain on? What is the period of the function? Include the units of measure.9 2.e) You throw a basketball to a friend. What is the range of the function? What will the depth of the water be at 3 min? When will the depth of the water be 10 cm? What will the depth of the water be at 62 min? NEL 354 Chapter 6 . a) x 25 24 23 22 21 0 1 2 y 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 b) x 0.1 y 5 6 7 5 6 7 5 6 c) x 23 26 29 32 35 38 41 44 y 6 6. During a heavy rain.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 1.

Trevor’s height above the ground in terms of A time can be represented by the graph shown. she picks up a stone in her tire.6.6 km/h. The spacecraft’s distance Plot the data. Is the graph periodic? What is the period of the function. Sketch the graph of a periodic function with a period of 20. While riding on a Ferris wheel. 10. when will Trevor be at the lowest height again? At what times is Trevor at the top of the wheel? When will his height be 4 m between 24 s and 30 s? 12. what is the domain of the function? a) b) c) d) NEL Sinusoidal Functions 355 . Trevor’s Height above the Ground Height above ground (m) 6 4 2 0 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time (s) 9.1 8. and what does it represent? What is the approximate distance between the spacecraft and Earth at 8 min? e) At what times is the spacecraft farthest from Earth? f ) If the spacecraft completes only six orbits before descending to Earth. and whose equation of the axis is y 5 7. and what does it represent? What is the equation of the axis? What is the amplitude? What is the range of the function? After 24 s. Time (min) Distance (km) 0 550 6 869 12 1000 18 869 24 550 30 232 36 100 42 232 48 550 54 869 60 1000 66 869 72 550 78 232 5 y [ R |22 # y # 56. an amplitude of 6. Draw a graph that shows the stone’s height above the ground as she continues to ride at this speed for 2 s more. As she rides at a speed of T 21. and draw the resulting curve. Maria’s bicycle wheel has a diameter of 64 cm. Sketch the graph of a periodic function whose period is 4 and whose range is 11. What is the period of this function. A spacecraft is in an elliptical orbit around Earth. above Earth’s surface in terms of time is recorded in the table.

and other times water is added. the equation of the axis. 16. Include an example. Include a scale.5 s. The data are stored in the calculator.13. He holds the paddle there for 2 s and then. When the CBR is activated. 14. within 0. A Calculator-Based Ranger (CBR) is a motion detector that can attach to a graphing calculator. Water is stored in a cylindrical container. moves the paddle so that it is 30 cm from the detector. d) How fast is the depth of the water increasing when the container is being filled? e) How fast is the depth of the water decreasing when the container is being drained? f ) Is the container ever empty? Explain. Write a definition of a periodic function. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Distance (cm) 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 356 Chapter 6 NEL . and the amplitude of the function. Time (min) Depth (cm) 0 10 1 20 2 30 3 40 4 40 5 40 6 7 8 20 9 30 10 40 11 40 12 40 13 25 14 10 15 20 16 30 17 40 18 40 19 40 25 10 a) Plot the data. it records the distance an object is in front of the detector in terms of time. Extension 15. and time is the independent variable. Denis repeats this process three times.5 s. within 0. and draw the resulting curve. moves the paddle back to the 60 cm location. Describe the motion of the paddle in front of a CBR that would have produced the graph shown. Sometimes water is removed from the container. a) Draw a sketch of the resulting graph. Denis holds the paddle of the CBR at 60 cm for 3 s and then. Distance is the dependent variable. and use your C definition to explain why it is periodic. A scatter plot based on those recorded distances and times can then be drawn using the graphing calculator. The table records the depth of the water at specific times. b) Is the graph periodic? c) Determine the period. b) What is the period of the function? c) Determine the range and domain of the function.

the wheel rotates counterclockwise to power the generator. C. How can you describe the position of the nail using an equation? Construct a scale model of the water wheel. Attach the cardboard wheel to the centre of the rectangular piece of cardboard with a thumbtack. On a rectangular piece of cardboard about 100 cm long and 30 cm wide. The height of the nail changes as the wheel rotates. INVESTIGATE the Math Paul uses a generator powered by a water wheel to produce electricity. draw a horizontal line to represent the water level and a vertical line both through the centre. As the current flows down the river. Draw a dot to represent the nail on the circumference of the circle at one of the lines you drew to divide the wheel.6. The wheel has a radius of 1 m. 30° initial position of nail NEL Sinusoidal Functions 357 . nail height 1m angle of rotation • • • • • • cardboard ruler protractor metre stick thumbtack graphing calculator current ? A. with the rectangle behind the wheel. On a piece of cardboard. Half the water wheel is submerged below the surface of a river. Use a protractor to divide your cardboard wheel into 30° increments through the centre. Locate the centre of the circle.2 GOAL Investigating the Properties of Sinusoidal Functions YOU WILL NEED Examine the two functions that are associated with all sinusoidal functions. A nail on the circumference of the wheel starts at water level. cut out a circle with a radius of 10 cm to represent the water wheel’s 1 m radius. B.

Use your graphing calculator to determine the cosine and sine of each rotation angle. Angle of Rotation. record the height as a negative value. Use your data to graph height versus angle of rotation. u (º) Actual Distance from Vertical Line. and measure the distance the nail is from the vertical line. of the nail: the perpendicular distance from the nail to the horizontal line. Continue to rotate the wheel in 30° increments. Copy the table. If the nail goes below the horizontal line. Measure the height. Make sure your calculator is in DEGREE mode and evaluate to the nearest hundredth.” u cos u u sin u 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° 360° 358 Chapter 6 NEL . Continue to rotate the wheel in 30° increments. and record the actual distance the nail is above the horizontal line at 30° by multiplying the scale height by 10 and converting to metres. replacing L2 with “cos(L1)” and L3 with “sin(L1). Start with the nail initially positioned at water level. u (º) Actual Height of Nail. If the nail goes to the left of the vertical line. 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° 360° Tech Support H. h. Copy the table. d (m) G. d Rotate the cardboard wheel 30° counterclockwise. h (m) 0 0 30 60 90 120 1 ••• 690 720 E. 1 h Rotate the cardboard wheel 30° counterclockwise. You can generate the tables using the List feature on your graphing calculator. Use your model of the water wheel to examine the horizontal distance. measuring h and recording the actual heights. and record the actual distances. Continue until the nail has rotated 720°. and record the actual distance the nail is from the vertical line at 30°. 0 0 30 60 90 1 120 ••• 690 720 Use your data to graph horizontal distance versus angle of rotation. F. Try putting degrees in L1. the nail is from a vertical line that passes through the centre of the water wheel. again adjusting for the scale factor. Angle of Rotation. record the distance as a negative value. Continue until the nail has rotated 720°.D. d.

What transformation can you apply to the cosine curve that will result in the sine curve? What ordered pair could you use to represent the point on the wheel that corresponds to the nail’s location in terms of u. B-14. see Technical Appendix. and compare these graphs to the graphs from parts E and G. Support Use your graphing calculator to graph y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x. If it does. where any portion of the wave can be horizontally translated onto another portion of the curve. domain. period. d(u) 5 sin u h(u) 5 sin u d(u) 5 0. select the appropriate equation that describes the height. h. Based on the tables you created in parts D. equation of the axis. and range in your comparison. increasing intervals.5 u h(u) 5 0. the nail is from the vertical line in terms of the rotation. K. decreasing intervals. State the coordinates of five key points that would allow you to draw the sinusoidal function y 5 sin x quickly over the interval 0° to 360°. the angle of rotation? For help graphing trigonometric functions on your graphing calculator.6. of the nail on the water wheel in terms of the rotation. N. M. Use words such as amplitude.5 u u(d ) 5 sin d u(d ) 5 sin h d(u) 5 cos u h(u) 5 cos u Tech Reflecting J. sinusoidal function a periodic function whose graph looks like smooth symmetrical waves. d. determine whether it represents a sinusoidal function. graphs of sinusoidal functions can be created by transforming the graph of the function y 5 sin x or y 5 cos x APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 4 2 0 2 y 1 Identifying the function Determine whether the graph represents a periodic function. L. where 0° # x # 360°. Also.2 I. a) c) f(x) f(x) 20 x 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 10 4 6 0 b) 2 0 2 4 f(x) x 2 4 6 8 10 d) 2 0 2 4 5 f(x) x 10 20 30 40 50 x 10 15 20 25 x 2 4 6 8 10 NEL Sinusoidal Functions 359 . F. and H. identify another equation that describes the distance. State the coordinates of five key points that would allow you to draw the sinusoidal function y 5 cos x quickly over the interval 0° to 360°.

a) Is the function periodic? If it is. 360 Chapter 6 NEL . where any portion of the wave can be horizontally translated onto another portion of the curve. The pattern repeats but the waves aren’t symmetrical.Bridget’s Solution a) periodic and sinusoidal The function repeats. the amplitude. Since it forms a series of identical. b) periodic c) neither periodic nor sinusoidal d) periodic EXAMPLE 2 Identifying the properties of a sinusoidal function Graph the function f (x) 5 4 sin(3x) 1 2 on a graphing calculator using the WINDOW settings shown in DEGREE mode. The pattern repeats but the waves aren’t smooth curves. I can’t horizontally translate any portion of the wave onto another portion of the curve. so it’s periodic. Beth’s Solution a) Because it repeats. It looks like smooth symmetrical waves. the equation of the axis. it is sinusoidal. however. and the range. It looks like smooth symmetrical waves. symmetrical smooth waves. determine the period. is it sinusoidal? b) From the graph. c) Calculate f (20°). the graph is periodic.

866) 1 2 5 5. To get the amplitude. 0) (3.2 b) period 5 120° The graph completes three cycles in 360°. y) 70° x (0.6. equation of the axis: y 5 22 1 6 2 range: 5 y [ R | 22 # y # 66 62254 amplitude 5 4 c) y52 f (x) 5 4 sin(3x) 1 2 f (20°) 5 4 sin(3(20°) ) 1 2 5 4 sin(60°) 1 2 8 4(0. The axis is halfway between the minimum of 22 and the maximum of 6. the greatest y-value on the graph (the maximum) is 6. y) resulting from a rotation of 70° centred at the origin and starting from the point (3. which is the period. f(20°) means find y when x 5 20°. 0). 0) Determine the coordinates of the point P(x. For the range. It’s 4. I substituted 20 for x and then calculated y. and the least y-value (the minimum) is 22. I calculated the vertical distance between a maximum and the axis. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 361 . must be 120°. so one cycle.464 EXAMPLE 3 Determining the coordinates of a point from a rotation angle y P(x.

and the minimum value is 21. • The zeros are located at 0°. P(x. r sin u) and got the coordinates of the image point. The coordinates of the nail after a rotation of u were (cos u. I substituted the radius and angle of rotation into the ordered pair (r cos u. 2. y) 5 (r cos u. 180°.Anne’s Solution sin u 5 opp hyp The water wheel solution was based on a circle of radius 1. y) 5 (3 cos 70°. • The domain is 5u [ R6. P(x. y) on a circle of radius r are P(x. In Summary Key Idea • The function f(u) 5 sin u is a periodic function that represents the height (vertical distance) of a point from the x-axis as it rotates u ° about a circle with radius 1. 3 sin 70°) 8 (1.03.82) This means that the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of u from the point (r. sin u). 0) about (0. • The amplitude is 1. Need to Know • The graph of f(u) 5 sin u has these characteristics: • The period is 360°.. 0) can be determined from (r cos u. 360°. r sin u). and the range is 21 # f(u) # 1. But this circle doesn’t have a radius of 1. . f( ) 1 0 1 90° 180° 270° 360° f( ) = sin (continued) 362 Chapter 6 NEL ... r sin u). Its radius is 3. y) 5 (3 cos u. 3 sin u) 3 y 1 cos sin x The coordinates for any point P(x. the maximum value is 1. y sin u 5 r 3 x 5 1 cos u x 5 3 cos u and y 3 5 1 sin u y 5 3 sin u I used similar triangles to figure out the coordinates of the larger triangle. • The function f(u) 5 cos u is a periodic function that represents the horizontal distance of a point from the y-axis as it rotates u ° about a circle with radius 1.

Use DEGREE mode. a) g(90°) K b) h(90°) 8. 450°. and equation of the axis for each. PRACTISING 5.5x) 1 2 e) y 5 2 sin(0. From the graph. If so.005x 1 sin x f ) y 5 sin 90° 6. in 2. 0 90° 180° 270° 360° • The zeros are located at 90°.5x) 1 2 Sinusoidal Functions NEL 363 . 1 • The amplitude is 1. graph each function. list the values of x where 0° # x # 360°. From the graph. decreasing intervals. a) y 5 3 sin(2x) 1 1 b) y 5 4 cos(0. does the displacement first reach 20. a) y 5 3 sin x 1 1 c) y 5 cos (2x) 2 sin x e) y 5 0. and the range is 21 # f(u) # 1. to the nearest second. 270°. c) What is the displacement at 35 s? d) At what time. b) Determine the period of the function from the graph. what can you conclude about any function that possesses sine or cosine in its equation? 7. 6. period.• The graph of f(u) 5 cos u has these characteristics: f( ) • The period is 360°. in metres at t seconds. 1 f( ) = cos • The sine function and cosine function are congruent sinusoidal curves. . Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 50° about (0.25x) b) y 5 3 sin x 1 1 d) y 5 sin(2x) 2 1 f ) y 5 3 sin(0. a) Graph the displacement from 0 s to 20 s. y) on a circle centred at (0. where 0° # x # 360°. the maximum value is 1.5x) 2 2 2.5 cos x 2 1 b) y 5 (0. a) y 5 2 sin x 1 3 c) y 5 sin(0. and equation of the axis for each. calculate each and explain what it means. A buoy rises and falls as it rides the waves.8 m? 4.. increasing intervals. Using a graphing calculator and the WINDOW settings shown. 0). 0) with radius r and rotated through an angle u can be expressed as an ordered pair (r cos u. Use the WINDOW settings shown. • The domain is 5u [ R6. Based on your observations in question 5. h(t). 0) from the point (2. state whether they are sinusoidal. and the minimum value is 21. calculate h(25°). • Any point P(x. 3. a) If h(x) 5 sin(5x) 2 1. the cosine curve is the sine curve translated 90° to the left. r sin u). Using a graphing calculator in DEGREE mode.. state the amplitude. state the amplitude. b) If f (x) 5 cos x and f (x) 5 0.2 CHECK Your Understanding 1. If g(x) 5 sin x and h(x) 5 cos x. State whether the resulting functions are periodic. graph each sinusoidal function.004x)sin x d) y 5 0.5 s intervals. Using a graphing calculator in DEGREE mode. The equation h(t) 5 cos(36t)° models the displacement of the buoy. Use the WINDOW settings shown.. period. graph each sinusoidal function.

0). c) Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 120° about (0. C Extending 15. Jim is riding a Ferris wheel. 0) from the point (1. d) Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 230° about (0. calculate x for 0° # x # 360°.9. c) Explain why the function models periodic behaviour. b) Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 80° about (0.5 cos (120t)°. calculate x for 0° # x # 360°. 0). 0) from the point (4. If h(x) 5 cos(3x) 1 1. Explain what each of A the following represents. If g(x) 5 sin(2x). where t is time in seconds. Sketch the sinusoidal graphs that satisfy the properties in the table. where d(t) is the displacement in centimetres from the rest position and t is time in seconds. d) What is the relationship between the amplitude of the function and the displacement of the spring from its rest position? 364 Chapter 6 NEL . where h(t) 5 5 cos(18t)° b) h(10). 16. b) Draw the graph. 12. 0). and how are they different? 14. calculate g(10°). Use 0. where h(t) 5 5 sin(18t)° How are they the same. Equation of the Axis y55 y54 y 5 22 Period Amplitude 3 6 5 Number of Cycles 2 3 2 a) b) c) 4 20 80 13. 11. If the water level in the original water wheel situation was lowered so that three-quarters of the wheel was exposed. where 0° # x # 360°. determine the equation of the sinusoidal function that describes the height of the nail in terms of the rotation. If f (x) 5 cos x and f (x) 5 21. calculate h(20°). The model does not consider the effects of gravity. 0).5 s intervals. a) h(10). 0) from the point (5. a) b) c) d) e) T If f (x) 5 cos x. 0) from the point (3. If f (x) 5 sin x and f (x) 5 21. Compare the graphs for y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x. Determine all values where sin x 5 cos x for 2360° # x # 360°. A spring bounces up and down according to the model d(t) 5 0. 10. a) Make a table for 0 # t # 9. calculate f (35°). a) Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 25° about (0.

6 s to complete one revolution. LEARN ABOUT the Math Two students are riding their bikes. The diameter of the wheel on Bike B is 50 cm. is 0. The diameter of the wheel on Bike A is 60 cm. Glen’s Solution: Comparing Periods The wheel on Bike A takes 0.5 s to complete one revolution. A pebble is stuck in the tire of each bike. The peak for Bike A is at h 5 60. the pebble was initially at its highest height of 60 cm. For Bike A. The period of Bike B is 0. the graph starts at a peak. I noticed that the peaks on the graph are different. so the period is 0. the pebble was initially at its lowest height of 0 cm. the graph starts at a trough. or length of one cycle. so the period. The graph for Bike A completes 5 cycles in 3 s.6 s.6. h 5 0.6 s. The two graphs show the heights of the pebbles above the ground in terms of time. which is greater than the peak for Bike B. The wheels have different diameters. For Bike B. The graph for Bike B completes 2 cycles in 1 s. h Height of a Pebble Bike A Bike B 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Height (cm) t 1 Time (s) 2 3 ? What information about the bikes can you gather from the graphs of these functions? EXAMPLE 1 Connecting the graph of a sinusoidal function to the situation Joanne’s Solution: Comparing Peaks of a Sinusoidal Function For Bike A.5 s. The troughs.5 s. The period of Bike A is 0. are the same. The wheel on Bike B takes 0. which is at h 5 50. For Bike B. however.3 GOAL Interpreting Sinusoidal Functions Relate details of sinusoidal phenomena to their graphs. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 365 .

50 1 0 Bike B: 5 25 2 The equation of the axis for Bike A is h 5 30. Speed is equal to distance divided by time.14 m>s sB 8 3. I added the maximum and the minimum and then divided by 2. so first I had to figure out how far each bike travels when the wheel completes one revolution. The equation of the axis for Bike B is h 5 25.14 m>s 366 Chapter 6 NEL .885 0. This distance is the circumference. The axle for the wheel on Bike B is 25 cm above the ground. Karen’s Solution: Comparing Speeds Circumference: Bike A CA 5 2prA CA 5 2p(30) CA 5 60p CA 8 188. I calculated the two circumferences.571 m sB 5 sB 5 d t 1.1 cm CB 8 1.885 m sA 5 sA 5 d t 1. sA 8 3.6 Bike B CB 5 2prB CB 5 2p(25) CB 5 50p CB 8 157. I divided each circumference by the time taken to complete one revolution.5 The bikes are travelling at the same speed. The axle for the wheel on Bike A is 30 cm above the ground.5 cm CA 8 1.571 0.Scott’s Solution: Comparing Equations of the Axes in Sinusoidal Functions Bike A: 60 1 0 5 30 2 The axis is halfway between a peak (or maximum) and a trough (or minimum). To calculate the speed.

08 0.12 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) Height of cutting tooth (inches) Height of cutting tooth (inches) Table Saw B 2 h(t) t 0 0. In each case.08 0.10 0.6.10 0.3 Reflecting A.04 0.12 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) What information about the table saws can Annette gather from the graphs? NEL Sinusoidal Functions 367 .02 0. the graphs show the height of one tooth on the circular blade relative to the cutting surface of the saw in terms of time.04 0. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Comparing graphs and situations Annette’s shop teacher was discussing table saws.02 0. how would the graph of the resulting sinusoidal function compare with that for Bike A and Bike B? What type of information can you learn by examining the graph modelling the height of a pebble stuck on a tire in terms of time? C. B. Table Saw A Table Saw B Table Saw A 2 h(t) t 0 0. The teacher produced two different graphs for two different types of saw. How would changing the speed of the bike affect the sinusoidal graph? For a third rider travelling at the same speed but on a bike with a larger wheel than that on Bike A.06 0.06 0.

I got the amplitude by taking the difference between 2 and 23. For graph B.03 s to complete one revolution.03 s. On graph A.02 s. On graph B. The blade on Table Saw B takes 0.03 s. The axle for the blade on Table Saw A is 3 in. The radius of the circular cutting blade on Table Saw B is 6 in.02 s to complete one revolution. The equation of the axis for graph A is h 5 23. 368 Chapter 6 NEL . below the cutting surface. the peak for B is at h 5 1. In both cases. and the next is at 0. The blade on Table Saw A takes 0. The peaks on the graph are different. and the next is at 0. The peak for A is at h 5 2. The amplitude for graph A is 5.02 s. the distance from the axis to a peak represents the radius of the circular cutting blade. The axle for the blade on Table Saw B is 5 in. The equation of the axis for graph B is h 5 25. For graph A. The amplitude for graph B is 6. For graph B. the first peak is at 0 s. the first peak is at 0 s. the amplitude is the difference between 1 and 25. The radius of the circular cutting blade on Table Saw A is 5 in. below the cutting surface. The period of graph B is 0. That gave me 25. That gave me 23. One of the easiest ways to find the period is to figure out how long it takes to go from one peak on the graph to the next.Repko’s Solution The blade on Table Saw A is set higher than the blade on Table Saw B. For graph A. I found the equation of the axis by adding 2 and 28 and then dividing by 2. This means that the period of graph A is 0. I added 1 and 211 and then divided by 2.

a) Using graphing technology in DEGREE mode and the WINDOW settings shown.34 5 5.9 2 1. Karl’s Solution Job applications/ week (hundreds) a) j(t) 12 8 4 0 5 10 Time (years) 15 t I sketched all the cycles the window showed. per week is 170.3 EXAMPLE 3 Using technology to understand a situation The function j(t) 5 4. I looked for a trough on the graph and read the j-coordinate. I looked for the place where the t-coordinate was 10. In Summary Key Idea • The sine and cosine functions can be used as models to solve problems that involve many types of repetitive motions and trends.56 The employment cycle is 5. b) How long is the employment cycle? Explain how you know.7t)° 1 5. • One cycle of motion corresponds to one period of the sine function.1 sin(64. graph the function and then sketch the graph.8. and explain what it represents in terms of the situation. Need to Know • If a situation can be described by a sinusoidal function. models demand for employment in a particular city. the graph of the data should form a series of symmetrical waves that repeat at regular intervals. the distance between peaks or troughs. • The distance of a circular path is calculated from the circumference of the path. I calculated the x-interval between the first and second peak. the time to complete one rotation. c) The minimum number of applications To calculate the cycle. b) 6. c) What is the minimum number of applications per week in this city? d) Calculate j(10). NEL Sinusoidal Functions 369 .56 years. d) j(10) 5 1. where t is time in years since May 1992 and j(t) is the number of applications for jobs each week (in hundreds).88 There were 188 applications in May 2002.6. The amplitude of the sine or cosine function depends on the situation being modelled. The speed of an object following a circular path can be calculated by dividing the distance by the period.

Olivia’s Motion Distance (m) 14 10 6 2 0 t 4 8 Time (s) 12 16 d(t) a) What is the equation of the axis. Height of paddle (m) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 y Paddle Wheeler A Paddle Wheeler B x 24 Time (s) 48 3. Olivia was swinging back and forth in front of a motion detector when the detector was activated. 370 Chapter 6 NEL . Refer to the radius of each wheel. the height of the axle relative to the water. and explain how the wheels differ. Her distance from the detector in terms of time can be modelled by the graph shown. and the speed of each wheel. Marianna collected some data on two paddle wheels on two different boats and constructed two graphs.CHECK Your Understanding 1. and what does it represent in this situation? How close did Olivia get to the motion detector? At t 5 7 s. and what does it represent in this b) c) d) e) f) situation? What is the amplitude of this function? What is the period of this function. the time taken to complete one revolution.) Would the resulting graph be sinusoidal? Why or why not? 2. Analyze the graphs. If the motion detector was activated as soon as Olivia started to swing from at rest. Draw two sinusoidal functions that have the same period and axes but have different amplitudes. how would the graph change? (You may draw a diagram or a sketch. would it be safe to run between Olivia and the motion detector? Explain your reasoning.

with waves 0.6 6.) 258 12.6.8 135 13. a) What is the period of the function? Include the units of measure. and what does it represent in this situation? d) How fast is a tooth on the circular cutting blade travelling in inches per second? curve on its display. An oscilloscope hooked up to an alternating current (AC) circuit shows a sine Height (in.2 349 8. Timmins.5 y 3. and what does it represent in this situation? c) What is the amplitude of the function. Evan’s teacher gave him a graph to help him understand the speed at which a K tooth on a saw blade travels.4 288 10. located at a latitude of 25°.5 Current (amperes) NEL Sinusoidal Functions 371 . The graph shows the height of one tooth on the circular blade relative to the cutting surface relative to time.9 319 9. b) What is the equation of the axis of the function? Include the units of measure.3 PRACTISING 4.7 46 11.04 0. located Oscilloscope Display 4. Height of a Saw Tooth 2 h(t) t 0 0. whose axle is 8 m above the ground.5 m in height that occur at 7 s intervals 7.5 Time (s) at a latitude of 48°. Ontario. Florida.3 74 12. at latitude 488 Day of Year Hours of Daylight 15 8. at latitude 258 Day of Year Hours of Daylight 15 10. c) What is the amplitude of the function? Include the units of measure.9 349 10. and that rotates once every 15 s c) A bicycle tire with a radius of 40 cm and that rotates once every 2 s d) A girl lying on an air mattress in a wave pool that is 3 m deep. Draw at least three cycles.6 319 10.0 1.8 196 13.5 x 0 0. Sketch a height-versus-time graph of the sinusoidal function that models each situation.0 4.0 105 12.6 227 13. and Miami. a) How high above the cutting surface is the blade set? b) What is the period of the function. and that rotates once every 40 s b) A water wheel with a radius of 3 m. The tables show the varying length of daylight for Timmins.7 135 15.8 46 10.1 196 15.08 1.3 288 11.9 105 13.5 3.12 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) 5.6 165 13.04 0.1 258 12. a) A Ferris wheel with a radius of 7 m.3 Miami.08 0. whose centre is at water level. The length of the day is calculated as the interval between sunrise and sunset.7 227 14.2 74 11.2 165 16. Assume that the first point plotted on each graph is at the lowest possible height.

d) How far does the buoy drop from its highest point to its lowest point? Explain how you know.a) Plot the data on separate coordinate systems. graph h(t) and sketch the graph. b) How high above the ground will the nail be after the car has travelled 0. amplitude. c) What is the radius of the wheel? Explain how you know. and equation of the axis? 9. of a basket on a water wheel at time t can be modelled by h(t) 5 2 sin(12t) 1 1. If the wind speed decreases by 20 km/h. c) How many waves will cause the buoy to rise and fall in 1 min? Explain how you know. a) Draw a graph of the height of the nail above the ground in terms of the distance the car has travelled since the tire picked up the nail. Using graphing technology in DEGREE mode and the WINDOW settings shown. The distance the 10.5 sin(72t)° models the displacement of a buoy in A metres at t seconds. where t is in seconds and h(t) is in metres. While the car is being driven. The height. amplitudes. b) Compare the two curves. a) Using graphing technology in DEGREE mode and the WINDOW settings shown. a) Using graphing technology in DEGREE mode and the WINDOW settings shown.5°. b) How long does it take for the wheel to make a complete revolution? Explain how you know. 372 Chapter 6 NEL . and explain what it represents in terms of the situation. c) What might you infer about the relationship between hours of daylight and the latitude at which you live? 8. produce the two graphs. e) Calculate h(10). The diameter of a car’s tire is 52 cm. h(t) . d) Where is the centre of the wheel located in terms of the water level? Explain how you know. How does the reduced wind speed affect the period. the top of a signpost vibrates back and forth. The equation h(t) 5 2. and draw a smooth curve through each set of points. b) How long does it take for the buoy to travel from the peak of a wave to the next peak? Explain how you know. 11. Refer to the periods. graph h(t) and sketch the graph. where d(t) represents the distance in centimetres at time t seconds.1 km? c) How far will the car have travelled when the nail reaches a height of 20 cm above the ground for the fifth time? d) What assumption must you make concerning the driver’s habits for the function to give an accurate height? tip of the post vibrates to the left and right of its resting position can be defined by the function d(t) 5 3 sin(1080t)°. and equations of the axes. the vibration of the tip can be modelled by the function d(t) 5 2 sin(1080t)°. the tire T picks up a nail. In high winds.

e) Compare the motions of the two wrecking balls. d.2))° 1 5. The average monthly temperature. a) Using graphing technology in DEGREE mode and the WINDOW settings shown. What pieces of information could they be? Extending 15. a) In which direction is the larger gear turning? b) If the period of the smaller gear is 2 s. A gear of radius 1 m turns counterclockwise and drives a larger gear of radius 4 m. record convenient intervals for each gear.3 12. can be modelled by the function T(t) 5 14. 4 Distance (m) 2 0 2 4 Time (s) a) What is the period of each function. and what does it represent in this situation? d) Determine the range of each function. d) What is the displacement of the point on the large wheel when the drive wheel first has a displacement of 20. Both gears have their axes along the horizontal. what is the period of the larger gear? c) In a table. For t 5 1. the month is January. b) What does the period represent in this situation? c) What is the average temperature range in Kingston? d) What is the mean temperature in Kingston? e) Calculate T(30). and explain what it represents in terms of the situation. 13.5 m? e) What is the displacement of the drive wheel when the large wheel first has a displacement of 2 m? f ) What is the displacement of the point on the large wheel at 5 min? NEL Sinusoidal Functions 373 . How many pieces of information do you need to know to sketch a sinusoidal C function.6. 14. and what does it represent in this 8 16 d(t) Ball A Ball B t 24 situation? b) What is the equation of the axis of each function. Ontario. and what does it represent in this situation? c) What is the amplitude of each function.2 sin(30(t 2 4. where t represents the number of months. Graph vertical displacement versus time. the month is February. Begin the table at 0 s and end it at 24 s. of the point where the two gears first touched. and so on. to show the vertical displacement.9. graph T(t) and sketch the graph. T(t). Two wrecking balls attached to different cranes swing back and forth. The distance the balls move to the left and the right of their resting positions in terms of time can be modelled by the graphs shown. for t 5 2. in degrees Celsius in Kingston.

the equation of the axis is y 5 0. Examples 1 and 2. (A cycle of a sinusoidal function is a portion of the graph that repeats. It can be determined with the formula y5 (maximum value 1 minimum value) 2 Amplitude The amplitude is the vertical distance from the function’s axis to the minimum or maximum value. Period The period is the change in x corresponding to one cycle. Equation of the Axis The equation of the axis is the equation of the line halfway between the maximum and minimum values on a sinusoidal function.6 Study Mid-Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: A: Aid • See Lesson 6. as well as any periodic function. Unlike other periodic functions. EXAMPLE 2 1 0 1 2 y f(x) sin x amplitude x axis 90° 180° 270° 360° period For the function f (x) 5 sin x.2. What are sinusoidal functions. sinusoidal functions form smooth symmetrical waves such that any portion of a wave can be horizontally translated onto another portion of the curve. It is always positive. Sinusoidal functions are formed from transformations of the functions y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x . the period is 360°. and what characteristics are often used to describe them? Sinusoidal functions. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Question 3. and the amplitude is 1. and the amplitude.) One way to determine the period is to look at the change in x between two maxima. The three characteristics of a sinusoidal function. like other periodic functions. 374 Chapter 6 NEL . repeat at regular intervals. the equation of the axis. are the period.

A maximum for y 5 cos x occurs at 0° and at increments of 360° from that point. A minimum for y 5 cos x occurs at 180° and at increments of 360° from that point.3. The graph of the function y 5 sin x can be changed to a graph of the function y 5 cos x by applying a horizontal translation of 90° to the left. • the motion of objects in a circular orbit • the motion of swinging objects. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 5 and 6. The amplitude 5 1. The graph of the function y 5 cos x can be changed to a graph of the function y 5 sin x by applying a horizontal translation of 90° to the right. Q: A: Why might it be useful to learn about sinusoidal functions? Study Many real-world phenomena that have a regular repeating pattern can be modelled with sinusoidal functions. The range is 5 y [ R |21 # y # 16. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 375 .Mid-Chapter Review Q: How do the graphs of y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x compare? 2 1 0 1 2 180° y = cos x y y = sin x x 360° A: Similarities Differences A maximum for y 5 sin x occurs at 90° and at increments of 360° from that point. Examples 1. The period is 360°. A minimum for y 5 sin x occurs at 270° and at increments of 360° from that point. and 3. For example. such as a pendulum • the number of hours of sunlight for a particular latitude • the phase of the Moon • the current for an AC circuit Aid • See Lesson 6. The equation of the axis is y 5 0. 2.

in centimetres per second. One mark is made on the 376 Chapter 6 Height of mark (cm) b) c) d) e) f) a) What is the period of each function. d) Determine the values of x. and what does it represent in this situation? d) What is the amplitude of the function.3 5.50 0. the position in terms of the day of the year can be modelled by the function 360 P(d ) 5 28 sin Q d 2 81 R°. how would the graph of this function compare with the other two graphs? a) Graph the function using a graphing calculator and adjust the WINDOW settings as required. The position. psi) in the tank of an air compressor at different times. Adjust the WINDOW settings so that 0° # x # 360° and 0 # g(x) # 15. 6. a) Graph the function g(x) 5 5 cos(2x) 1 7 using a graphing calculator. d. depends on the latitude and the day of the year. equation of the axis. and what does it represent in this situation? c) What is the equation of the axis of the function. 60 40 20 0 0. Determine the amplitude. Sketch the graph of a periodic function whose period 2. The two graphs show the relationship between the heights of the white marks above the ground in terms of time as the car moves forward. c) Calculate g(125). Determine the speed of each mark. Lesson 6. If a third mark were placed on the tire but closer to the centre. amplitude. of the Sun at sunset. and what does it represent in this situation? e) Determine the range of the function. 0) from the point (7. and what does it represent in this situation? What is the equation of the axis of each function. Determine the period. P(d ) . north or south of due west. for which g(x) 5 12. and range of the function. square inch. and what does it represent in this situation? Determine the range of each function. b) Explain why the function is sinusoidal. 0).PRACTICE Questions Lesson 6. in degrees Lesson 6. 0° # x # 360°.2 3. For a specific latitude.25 0.1 1. Determine the coordinates of the new point after a rotation of 64° about (0. How do you know that the graph is periodic? Determine the period of the function.00 h(t) Mark 1 Mark 2 Pressure 60 (psi) Time (s) 10 80 100 100 90 80 70 60 11 12 13 90 14 15 16 17 18 19 Pressure 80 100 100 (psi) 80 70 60 60 80 100 a) Create a scatter plot of the data and the curve b) c) d) e) f) g) h) that best models the data. the other mark is made a few centimetres from the edge. 365 4.75 Time (s) t 1. The following data show the pressure (in pounds per is 10 and whose range is 5 y [ R | 4 # y # 106. b) What is the period of the function. and what does it represent in this situation? What is the amplitude of each function. Determine the equation of the axis. f ) What is the angle of sunset on February 15? NEL . Two white marks are made on a car tire by a parking meter inspector. Time (s) 0 1 60 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 60 outer edge of the tire. How fast is the air pressure increasing when the compressor is on? How fast is the air pressure decreasing when the equipment is in operation? Is the container ever empty? Explain.

amplitude. Part 2 The graphs of y 5 sin x 1 c and y 5 cos x 1 c F. 0° # x # 720°. and k affect the graphs of f(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c and f(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c • graphing calculator EXPLORE the Math 2 1 0 1 2 y y = sin x x 180° y = cos x 360° They want to know if these same transformations can be applied to y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x. c. Repeat parts A to C using y 5 a cos x. will look like for a 5 1.4 GOAL Exploring Transformations of Sinusoidal Functions YOU WILL NEED Paula and Marcus know how various transformations affect several types of 1 functions. Predict what the graphs of y 5 a sin x. Tech Support B. and 2. and 2. Sketch the graphs on the same axes. and graph using ZoomFit by pressing ZOOM 0 . and maximum or minimum values change for each function. and then verify your predictions using a graphing calculator. NEL 377 . Explain how the value of a affects the graphs of y 5 a sin x and y 5 a cos x. 21. for a 5 21. and f (x) 5 | x |. and do they have the same effect on the graph and the equation? Part 1 The graphs of y 5 a sin x and y 5 a cos x A. On a new set of axes. how the equations and graphs of these functions change. ? Can transformations be applied to sinusoidal functions in the same manner. 22. 1. E. C. 21.6. 2. 0° # x # 720°. Y3. Predict what the graphs of y 5 cos x 1 c. Sinusoidal Functions G. D. 0° # x # 720°. f (x) 5 x . and so on. will look like for c 5 22. Predict what the graphs of y 5 sin x 1 c. verify your sketches by graphing the parent function (y = sin x or y = cos x) in Y1 and each transformed function in Y2. f (x) 5 !x. Sketch the graphs on the same axes. For Parts 1 and 2. Use an Xscl = 90°. H. repeat part A for the graphs of y 5 a sin x. and 23. How do the graphs in part A compare with those in part B? Discuss how the zeros. 2 4 Verify your sketches using a graphing calculator. Explain how the value of c affects the graphs of y 5 a sin x 1 c and y 5 a cos x 1 c. and then verify your predictions using a graphing calculator. Determine how changing the values of a. d. 1. will look like for c 5 22. Discuss which features of the graph have changed. 0° # x # 720°. and if so. such as f (x) 5 x 2. and 3 and for a 5 1 and a 5 1. Discuss which features of the graph have changed. Sketch the graphs on the same axes.

O. K. Tech Support Reflecting Q. T. How could you determine the period of y 5 sin kx and y 5 cos kx knowing that the period of both functions is 360°? Explain how the value of k affects y 5 sin kx and y 5 cos kx. S. P.Tech Support Part 3 The graphs of y 5 sin kx and y 5 cos kx I. a) Predict the effect of d on the graph of y 5 sin(x 2 d ). y i) x 45 45 135 225 315 y ii) x 120 210 300 390 480 a) Predict the effect of d on the graph of y 5 cos(x 2 d ). R. Repeat parts I and J using y 5 cos kx. and discuss which features of the graph have changed. For Part 4. M. from the graphing calculator before entering another equation. and 4. b) Copy and complete the tables of values at the left. Explain how the value of d affects the graphs of y 5 sin(x 2 d ) and y 5 cos(x 2 d ). For Part 3. NEL 378 Chapter 6 . Repeat part I for k 5 1. i) y 5 sin(x 2 60°) ii) y 5 sin(x 1 120°) c) Use your tables to sketch the graphs of the two sinusoidal functions from part (b) on the same coordinate system. Clear the previous equation. J. U. 3. L. i) x 60 150 240 330 420 y ii) x 120 30 60 150 240 y Part 4 The graphs of y 5 sin(x 2 d) and y 5 cos(x 2 d) N. Predict what the graphs of y 5 sin kx will look like for k 5 2. k 5 1. Verify your sketches with a graphing calculator. verify your sketches by graphing the parent function in Y1 and each transformed function in Y2. Sketch each graph. 0° # x # 720° . Use an Xscl 5 90º and graph using ZoomFit. Include the graph of y 5 sin x. What transformation affects the period of a sinusoidal function? What transformation affects the equation of the axis of a sinusoidal function? What transformation affects the amplitude of a sinusoidal function? What transformations affect the location of the maximum and minimum values of the sinusoidal function? Summarize how the graphs of y 5 a sin (k(x 2 d) ) 1 c and y 5 a cos(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c compare with the graphs of y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x. and k 5 21. Adjust the WINDOW on the 2 4 graphing calculator so that you can see one complete cycle of each graph. and discuss which features of the graph have changed. verify your sketches using a domain of 0° # x # 360° and an Xscl = 30°. i) y 5 cos(x 1 45°) ii) y 5 cos(x 2 120°) c) Use your tables to sketch the graphs of the two sinusoidal functions from part (b) on the same coordinate system. and then verify your predictions using a graphing calculator. Graph using ZoomFit. Verify your sketches using a graphing calculator. Include the graph of y 5 cos x. Discuss which features of the graph have changed. b) Copy and complete the tables of values at the left. but not the base equation.

• The values a. domain. amplitude. but has no effect on the amplitude. amplitude. or domain. amplitude. domain. amplitude. Which two of these transformations do not affect the period. and range unless the situation forces a change in the domain or range. a) y 5 3 cos x c) y 5 2cos x b) y 5 sin(x 2 50°) d) y 5 sin(5x) e) y 5 cos x 2 6 f ) y 5 cos(x 1 20°) 2. • Changing the value of d results in a horizontal translation and slides the graph to the left or right but has no effect on the period. • Changing the value of k results in a horizontal stretch or compression and affects the period. State the transformation to the graph of either y 5 sin x or y 5 cos x that has occurred to result in each sinusoidal function. In each case. and f(x) 5 |x|. the maximum and minimum values.25 cos x b) y 5 4 sin x d) y 5 sin(2x 1 30°) f ) y 5 sin(0. maximum and minimum values. or equation of the axis. equation of the axis.5x) 3. If k is negative. and d in the functions f(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c and f(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c affect the graphs of y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x in the same way that they affect the graphs of y 5 f (k(x 2 d) ) 1 c. a reflection in the x-axis also occurs. where 1 f(x) 5 x 2 . 360° FURTHER Your Understanding 1. Each sinusoidal function below has undergone one transformation that has affected either the period. a) y 5 sin x 1 2 c) y 5 cos(8x) e) y 5 0. or equation of the axis of a sinusoidal function? a) reflection in the x-axis d) horizontal stretch/ b) vertical stretch/vertical compression horizontal compression c) vertical translation e) horizontal translation NEL Sinusoidal Functions 379 . and range of the function but has no effect on the period or domain. • Changing the value of a results in a vertical stretch or compression and affects the maximum and minimum values. and the range of the function but has no effect on the period. f(x) 5 x . determine which characteristic has been changed and indicate its value. f(x) 5 ! x . c. equation of the axis. The differences are only in the placement of the graph and how stretched or compressed it is. If a is negative. a reflection in the y-axis also occurs. amplitude.6. or range unless the situation forces a change in the domain or range. changing it to |k| .4 In Summary Key Ideas • The graphs of the functions f(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c and f(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c are periodic in the same way that the graphs of f(x) 5 sin x and f(x) 5 cos x are. k. Need to Know • Changing the value of c results in a vertical translation and affects the equation of the axis.

5 YOU WILL NEED Using Transformations to Sketch the Graphs of Sinusoidal Functions GOAL • graph paper Sketch the graphs of sinusoidal functions using transformations. I graphed y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) 1 4 (in black) by x 60° 120° 180° 240° 300° 360° applying a vertical translation of 4 to y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) . 4 380 Chapter 6 NEL . This means that the whole graph has slid up 4 units and that the equation of the axis is now y 5 4 because 4 has been added to all the y-coordinates of the points on the previous graph. Glen’s Solution y Graph A 1 I started by graphing y 5 sin x (in green). 1 1 60° 120° 180° 240° 300° 360° 0 1 2 3 Then I graphed y 5 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) (in blue) by applying 3 a horizontal translation of y 5 sin (2x) 60° to the right because 60° has been added to all the x-coordinates of the points on the previous graph. 2 Then I graphed y 5 sin (2x) (in red). It has a horizontal x compression of 1. I graphed y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) (in purple) by applying a vertical stretch of 3 to y 5 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) . ? How can you graph sinusoidal functions using transformations? EXAMPLE 1 Using transformations to sketch the graph of a sinusoidal function Sketch the graph of f (x) 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°)) 1 4. The amplitude is now 3 because all the y-coordinates of the points on the previous graph have been multiplied by 3.6. LEARN ABOUT the Math Glen has been asked to graph the sinusoidal function f (x) 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) 1 4 without using technology. 7 5 3 1 10 3 y Graph B 4 Next. 5 5 Finally. so the period is 360° 5 180° instead of 2 2 360° because all the x-coordinates of the points on the graph of y 5 sin x have been divided by 2.

The period is 120°. In what order were the transformations applied to the function y 5 sin x? If the equation of the function y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) 1 4 were changed to y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) 2 5. period. E. B. I did the vertical translation. I graphed y 5 22 cos(3x) (in blue) starting at its lowest value due to the reflection. F. how would the graph of the function change? Which transformations affect the range of the function? How? Which transformations affect the period of the function? How? Could Glen graph this function faster by combining transformations? If so. changing its amplitude to 2 due to the vertical stretch. Steven’s Solution a) 3 2 1 10 2 3 y 3 2 1 1 I started by graphing y 5 cos x x (in green). and range of phase shift the horizontal translation of a sinusoidal function this sinusoidal function. 60° 120° 180° 240° 300° 360° 2 I dealt with the horizontal compression first. which ones? C. phase shift. The phase shift is 0. The equation of the axis is y 5 21. b) State the amplitude. 4 3 I dealt with the vertical stretch and the reflection in the x-axis. The range is 5 y [ R |23 # y # 16. I graphed y 5 cos(3x) (in red) using a period of 360° 5 120° instead of 3 360°. I graphed y 5 22 cos(3x) 2 1 (in black) by sliding the previous graph down 1 unit. so the equation of the axis is y 5 21. how would the graph of the function change? How would it stay the same? If the equation of the function y 5 3 sin(2(x 2 60°) ) 1 4 were changed to y 5 3 sin(9(x 2 60°) ) 1 4.5 Reflecting A.6. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 381 . D. equation of the axis. 4 Finally. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Connecting transformations to the graph of a sinusoidal function a) Graph y 5 22 cos(3x) 2 1 using transformations. b) The amplitude is 2.

(360°. following the order of operations (multiplication and division before addition and subtraction) for all vertical transformations and for all horizontal transformations. John's Solution y 5 2sin(0. you need to apply the transformations to the key points of f(x) 5 sin x or f(x) 5 cos x only. respectively.5 3 I applied the phase shift and graphed y 5 2sin(0. • Key points for f(x) 5 sin x (0°. 1 I started by graphing y 5 sin x (in green). I dealt with all stretches/compressions and reflections at the same time. 21). 0). The horizontal and vertical transformations can be completed in either order.5(x 1 90°) ) (in black) by shifting all the points on the previous graph 90° to the left. 1) (continued) 382 Chapter 6 NEL . one at a time.5 1 90° 270° 450° 630° y 1 2 x 2 Rather than graph this one transformation at a time. 1). 3 In Summary Key Idea • Functions of the form g(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c and h(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c can be graphed by applying the appropriate transformations to the graphs of f(x) 5 sin x and f(x) 5 cos x. (270°. 0) • Key points for f(x) 5 cos x (0°.5x) (in red) by using a period of 360° 5 720° and reflecting this across the x-axis. (90°. 0). 1 0.5(x 1 90°)4 I factored the expression inside the brackets so that I could see all the transformations. 0). • As with other functions. 1). (360°. 0. I graphed y 5 2sin(0. (180°.5 0 0. you can apply all stretches/compressions and reflections together followed by all translations to graph the transformed function more efficiently. Need to Know • To graph g(x) .5x 1 45°) y 5 2sin30. not to every point on f(x) .5 from 0. (180°.5x 1 45°) using transformations. EXAMPLE 3 Using a factoring strategy to determine the transformations Graph y 5 2sin(0. (270°.5x and 45. 0). I divided out the common factor 0.You can graph sinusoidal functions more efficiently if you combine and use several transformations at the same time. (90°. 21).

• CHECK Your Understanding sinusoidal function. 0. 1.6. and range. State the transformations. • Reflect the graph in the x-axis if a . Use transformations to predict what the graph of g(x) 5 5 sin(2(x 2 30°) ) 1 4 will look like. 3. amplitude. you end up with a function with • an amplitude of |a| 360° • a period of |k| • an equation of the axis y 5 c • Horizontal and vertical translations of sine and cosine functions can be summarized as follows: Horizontal • Move the graph d units to the right when d .25 cos(x 2 20°) c) g(x) 5 2sin(0. If the function f (x) 5 4 cos 3x 1 6 starts at x 5 0 and completes two full cycles. 0. |a| . a) f (x) 5 sin(4x) 1 2 b) y 5 0. 1. for each d) y 5 12 cos(18x) 1 3 1 e) f (x) 5 220 sin c (x 2 40°) d 3 2. 1. 0. • Horizontal and vertical stretches of sine and cosine functions can be summarized as follows: Horizontal 1 • Compress the graph by a factor ` ` when |k| . 0. k 1 • Stretch the graph by a factor ` ` when 0 . • Move the graph |d| units to the left when d . k • Reflect the graph in the y-axis if k . |k| .5x) 1. 0.5 By doing so. domain. determine the period. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 383 . Vertical • Move the graph |c| units down when c . • Move the graph c units up when c . • Compress the graph by a factor |a| when 0 . in the order you would apply them. equation of the axis. 0. Verify with a graphing calculator. 1. Vertical • Stretch the graph by a factor |a| when |a| .

5 sin(2x 2 30°) 2 7. a) y 5 sin(2u 2 90°). a) y 5 22 sin(x 1 10°) b) y 5 cos(5x) 1 7 c) y 5 9 cos(2(x 1 6°) ) 2 5 1 sin(x 2 15°) 1 1 5 1 e) h(x) 5 2sin c (x 1 37°) d 2 2 4 f ) d 5 26 cos(3t) 1 22 d) g(x) 5 5. 0° # u # 360° c) y 5 sina 1 30°b. a) k(x) 5 2sin(2x) 1 6 c) y 5 7 cos(90(x 2 1°) ) 1 82 1 1 b) j(x) 5 25 sina xb 1 20 d) f (x) 5 sin(360x 1 72°) 2 27 2 2 384 Chapter 6 NEL . domain. There is more than one acceptable answer. 0° # u # 360° b) y 5 sin(3u 2 90°). a) y 5 2 sin x 1 3 d) y 5 4 cos(2x) 2 3 1 b) y 5 23 cos x 1 5 e) y 5 cos(3x 2 120°) 2 1 c) y 5 2sin(6x) 1 4 f ) y 5 28 sin c (x 1 50°) d 2 9 2 that enable you to see a complete cycle for each function. a) y 5 3 sin x 1 2 d) h(x) 5 cos(4(x 2 12°) ) 2 9 b) g(x) 5 24 cos(2x) 1 7 e) d 5 10 sin(180(t 2 17°) ) 2 30 1 c) h 5 2 sin t 2 5 f ) j(x) 5 0. Predict what the graph of each sinusoidal function will look like by K 8. amplitude. Determine the appropriate WINDOW settings on your graphing calculator describing the transformations of y 5 sin x or y 5 cos x that would result in the new graph. Sketch the graph. and then verify with a graphing calculator. State the transformations in the order you would apply them for each sinusoidal function.PRACTISING 4. equation of the axis. Match each function to its corresponding graph. determine the period. and range of each without graphing. 0° # u # 360° i) y ii) y iii) y u 2 2 1 0 1 2 2 1 2 1 120° 240° 360° 0 1 2 90° 180° 270° 360° 0 1 2 120° 240° 360° 6. If each function starts at x 5 0 and finishes after three complete cycles.

b) Determine the equation of the cosine function that results in the same graph as your function in part (a). a) T Extending 12. D(t). the function P(t) 5 220 cos(300t)° 1 100 models the blood pressure. The function D(t) 5 4 sin3 365 (t 2 80)4° 1 12 is a model of the number 360 of hours. in millimetres of mercury at time t seconds. But there is a range of blood A pressure values that is considered healthy. Determine the equation of a sine function that would have the range 5 yPR |21 # y # 76 and a period of 720°. For a person at rest. what transformation would map the resulting sine curve onto the resulting cosine curve? 13. a) Explain why a trigonometric function is a reasonable model for predicting the number of hours of daylight. Each person’s blood pressure is different.5.5 9. If the functions y 5 sin x and y 5 cos x are subjected to a horizontal compression of 0. of daylight on a specific day. 10. P(t). at latitude 50° north. a) What is the period of the function? What does the period represent for an individual? b) What is the range of the function? Explain the meaning of the range in terms of a person’s blood pressure. t. b) How many hours of daylight do March 21 and September 21 have? What is the significance of each of these days? c) How many hours of daylight do June 21 and December 21 have? What is the significance of each of these days? d) Explain what the number 12 represents in the model. Explain how you would graph the function f (x) 5 2 cos(120x) 1 30 2 C using transformations. 1 11. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 385 .6.

equation of the axis. so |k| 5 k 386 Chapter 6 NEL . Sasha’s Solution Horizontal compression factor: k period 5 360 |k| I calculated the period. Height of a Nail 3 h(t) Height (cm) 2 1 0 1 10 20 Time (s) ? How can you determine the equation of a sinusoidal function from its graph? 30 t EXAMPLE 1 Representing a sinusoidal graph using the equation of a function Determine an equation of the given graph. Then I figured out how they are related to different transformations. The horizontal stretch or compression factor k had to be positive because the graph was not reflected in the y-axis. The period is 10 s since the peaks are 10 units apart. The height of the nail in terms of time can be modelled by the graph shown.6 Investigating Models of Sinusoidal Functions GOAL Determine the equation of a sinusoidal function from a graph or a table of values. I used the formula relating k to the period. LEARN ABOUT the Math A nail located on the circumference of a water wheel is moving as the current pushes on the wheel. k . The period is 10 s. 0. and amplitude.6.

3. so d 5 0.6.6 10 5 k5 360 k 360 10 k 5 36 The graph was compressed by a 1 factor of 36. Tanya says that another possible equation of the sinusoidal function created by Sasha is y 5 2 cos(36(x 2 10))° 1 1.5. On this graph. and the amplitude of this graph is 2. Vertical translation: c equation of the axis 5 5 max 1 min 2 3 1 (21) 2 I calculated the amplitude by taking the maximum value. just as this graph does. what would be the equation of the resulting function? NEL Sinusoidal Functions 387 . 1. the domain is restricted to x $ 0 because it represents the time elapsed. there is a horizontal translation of 7. This means that for a cosine curve. there isn’t any horizontal translation. A sine curve increases from a y-value of 0 at x 5 0. so c 5 7. Is she correct? Why or why not? If the period on the original water wheel graph is changed from 10 to 20. that happens at 7.5. D. I found the equation of the function by substituting the values I calculated into f(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d)) 1 c. and subtracting the axis. C. The cosine curve is easier to use for my equation since the graph has its maximum on the y-axis. 5 1 (vertical translation) c51 Vertical stretch: a a 52 Base graph: y 5 cos x As a cosine curve: y 5 2 cos(36x)° 1 1 As a sine curve: y 5 2 sin(36(x 2 7. Since the amplitude of y 5 cos x is 1. 3. what would be the new equation of the sinusoidal function? If the speed of the current increases so that the water wheel spins twice as fast. I could have used the sine function instead. This gave me the vertical translation and the value of c. 21. Reflecting A. the vertical stretch is 2.5. and the minimum. what would be the new equation of the sinusoidal function? If the maximum value on the original water wheel graph is changed from 3 to 5. B. for a sine curve. The axis is halfway between the maximum.5) ) ° 1 1 For both functions. This means that.

Since there was no horizontal reflection. unless they’ve been translated horizontally. The equation of the axis of this cosine curve is y 5 1. and a maximum at (0. A minimum would be halfway between the two maximums. 3). Represent the function with an equation in two different ways. 1) corresponds to the start of the cycle of the sine function. k . 388 Chapter 6 NEL . so there has been a horizontal compression. I found the equation of the function by substituting the values into f(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d )) 1 c. The sine curve with the same period and axis as this cosine curve has the equation y 5 2 sin(2x) 1 1. a period of 180°. 3) and a period of 180°. Since the amplitude is 2. The equation of the axis gave me the vertical translation. so the next maximum would be at (180. but its starting point is (0°. the point (135°. 2 For a cosine curve: No horizontal translation so d50 Equation: y 5 2 cos(2x) 1 1 For a sine curve: horizontal translation 5 135° y 5 2 sin(2(x 2 135°)) 1 1 Cosine curves have a maximum at x 5 0. the minimum would have to be at (90°. The amplitude gives me the vertical stretch. k52 Compression factor is 1 . so d 5 135°. Rajiv’s Solution 3 2 1 0 1 45° 90° 135° 180° x y The graph has a maximum at (0. 21 ). and 2 2 3 5 21. 3). Since the equation is y 5 1 instead of y 5 0. This curve starts at its maximum. This means the function y 5 2 sin(2x) 1 1 must be translated horizontally to the right by 135°. I took 360° and divided it by the period.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Connecting the equation of a sinusoidal function to its features A sinusoidal function has an amplitude of 2 units. 0. On this cosine curve. so there would be no horizontal translation with a cosine function as a model. To find k. 1) . Vertical translation: c 5 1 Vertical stretch: a amplitude 5 3 2 1 5 2 a52 Horizontal compression: k period 5 180° 5 k5 360° |k| 360° k 360° 180° The period is 180°. there was a vertical translation of 1.

00 0.8 0.00 0.5. How much of the Moon we see depends on where it is in its orbit around Earth.41 0.00 a) Determine the equation of the sinusoidal function that models the proportion of visible Moon in terms of time. so the period must be 30 days.02 4 7 10 14 20 24 29 34 We see: Last Quarter Earth We see: First Quarter 0.12 0. I figured out some of the important features of the sinusoidal function.00 0.0 0.73 0. Rosalie’s Solution a) Cycle of the Proportion of the Moon Visible Proportion of Moon visible 1. When I drew the curve.22 0.6 0.92 44 48 53 56 59 63 70 74 We see: Waning Crescent We see: Waxing Crescent We (don't) see: New Moon 1.83 1.2 1.86 0. The graph repeats every 30 days.4 0.6.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Day of year I plotted the data. Day of Year Proportion of Moon Visible Day of Year Proportion of Moon Visible 1 0.34 0. c) Use the equation to determine the proportion of the Moon that is visible sunlight is coming from this direction on day 110. and the minimum value 0. The table shows the proportion of the Moon that was visible from Southern Ontario on days 1 to 74 in the year 2006.6 EXAMPLE 3 Connecting data to the algebraic model of a sinusoidal function We see: Full Moon We see: Waning Gibbous We see: Waxing Gibbous The Moon is always half illuminated by the Sun. Vertical translation: c Equation of the axis is y 5 0. c 5 0. the graph looked like a sinusoidal function. b) Determine the domain and range of the function.55 0.23 0. The axis is halfway between the maximum of 1 and the minimum of 0.28 41 0.88 1. The maximum value was 1.00 0.5 NEL Sinusoidal Functions 389 .

I chose the x-coordinate of the maximum closest to the origin.5 2 1 5 cos(12(110 2 14)°) 1 0. since y 5 cos x has a maximum at x 5 0. x 5 14. Since x represents the time in days. since they are days of the year. so |k| 5 k 30 5 k5 k 5 12 Horizontal translation: d b) domain: 5x [ R | 0 # x # 3656 c) Using a cosine curve: d 5 14 A sine curve or a cosine curve will work. 65% of the Moon is exposed. I substituted 110 for x in the equation to calculate the amount of the Moon visible at that time.Vertical stretch: a amplitude 5 (1 2 0) 2 1 2 The amplitude is the vertical distance between the maximum and the axis.5 Horizontal compression: k period 5 360 |k| 360° k 360° 30 I used the period to get the compression. k . The horizontal translation is equal to the x-coordinate of a maximum. Then I solved for y. it is 0. The domain is only the non-negative values of x up to 365. I used the cosine curve. 0.3090) 1 0.5 or a 5 0. range: 5 y [ R | 0 # y # 16 y5 1 cos(12(x 2 14)°)1 0. 2 5 0. 1 y 5 cos(12(x 2 14)°) 1 0.5.5 2 8 1 (0.5 2 I put the information together to get the equation. or 1.5 2 1 5 cos(1152)° 1 0.65 On day 110. In this case. 390 Chapter 6 NEL .5 2 5 0. The range is 0 to 1.

respectively. a) 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 y i b) 35 25 15 y i ii iii 1 2 3 4 5 6 x ii x 2 4 6 iii 8 10 5 1 50 15 NEL Sinusoidal Functions 391 . 9). • The domain and range of a sinusoidal model may need to be restricted for the situation you are dealing with. The value of d is determined by estimating the required horizontal shift (left or right) compared with the graph of the sine or cosine curve.6. and c.6 In Summary Key Idea • If you are given a set of data and the corresponding graph is a sinusoidal function. 2. and equation of the axis. in the equations g(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c and h(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d ) ) 1 c. PRACTISING 4. Determine the equation for each sinusoidal function. This information will help you determine the values of k. Determine the function that models the data in the table and does not 8 f(x) 6 4 2 0 2 4 a b involve a horizontal translation. a. then you can determine the equation by calculating the graph’s period. Determine the equation of the function. and a maximum at (0. a period of 120°. A sinusoidal function has an amplitude of 4 units. x y 0° 9 45° 7 90° 5 135° 7 180° 9 225° 7 270° 5 x 90° 180° 270° 360° c 3. it may be easier to use the cosine function as your model. Determine an equation for each sinusoidal function at the right. CHECK Your Understanding 1. Need to Know • If the graph begins at a maximum value. amplitude.

d) What is the average monthly temperature for month 20? 392 Chapter 6 NEL . Determine the equation of the cosine function whose graph has each of the K following features. The table shows the average monthly high temperature for one year in A Kapuskasing.3 D 214. and a minimum at (0. Determine an equation of the function.6 a) Draw a scatter plot of the data and the curve of best fit. Amplitude Period 360° 180° 40° 720° Equation of the Axis y 5 11 y 5 15 y50 y 5 23 Horizontal Translation 0° 30° 7° 256° a) b) c) d) 3 4 2 0.5 7.4 S 10.1 A 0. a period of 45°.0 A 15.5. For each table of data.8 J 17. F 216. Let January be month 0.8 Time (months) Temperature (8C) J 218. 1). A sinusoidal function has an amplitude of 6 units.4 N 24. Ontario.3 O 4. determine the equation of the function that is the simplest model. a) x y 0° 3 30° 2 60° 1 0° 13 260° 7 90° 2 180° 17 0° 4 120° 3 360° 21 60° 1 100° 2 150° 2 540° 17 120° 4 130° 5 180° 1 720° 13 180° 7 160° 2 900° 17 240° 4 b) x 2180° y 17 2120° 4 220° 2 c) x y d) x y 10° 5 40° 2 70° 1 6. b) What type of model describes the graph? Why did you select that model? c) Write an equation for your model.4 M 8.5 J 13.3 M 29. 8. Describe the constants and the variables in the context of this problem.

82 1. (The units of stress are megapascals (MPa). the tire picks up a nail.5 L/s? 10. graph the data as a scatter plot.75 1.5 0. Matthew is riding a Ferris wheel at a constant speed of 10 km/h. 10 8 6 4 2 Stress on a Motor Shaft f(t) 12.06 0. The boarding height for the wheel is 1 m.0 0. and Moscow. and the wheel has a radius of 7 m. B-11. c) Explain the differences in the amplitude and the vertical translation for each city. b) Graph the data.75 0.25 0. e) How many seconds have passed when the velocity is 0. d) What does this tell you about the cities? 11.45 0. How high above the ground is the nail after the car has travelled 1 km? 14. The table shows the average monthly temperature for three cities: Athens.25 0.143 s? on a given graph. What is the equation of the function that describes Matthew’s height in terms of time.6. The table shows the velocity of air of Nicole’s breathing while she is at rest. and determine an equation that models the situation.22 0.75 0. While the car is being driven.85 1. c) Using a graphing calculator.02 Extending 13. see Technical Appendix.5 0.83 2 0.6 9.23 3 0 a) Explain why breathing is an example of a periodic function. For help creating a scatter plot using a graphic calculator. Lisbon.10 Time (s) 0 0.75 0.43 2. Time (s) Velocity (L/s) 0 0 0.74 2. Time (month) Athens (8C) Lisbon (8C) Moscow (8C) J 12 13 29 F 13 14 26 M 15 16 0 A 19 18 10 M 24 21 19 J 30 24 21 J 33 26 23 A 32 27 22 S 28 24 16 O 23 21 9 N 18 17 1 D 14 14 24 a) Graph the data to show that temperature is a function of time for each city.25 0.61 2.61 1. b) What do the peaks of the function represent in this situation? c) How much stress was the motor undergoing at 0. The relationship between the stress on the shaft of an electric motor and time Equivalent stress (MPa) C can be modelled with a sinusoidal function. The diameter of a car’s tire is 60 cm. Describe a procedure for writing the equation of a sinusoidal function based T t 0. b) Write the equations that model each function. d) What is the velocity of Nicole’s breathing at 6 s? Justify. Enter your Tech Support equation and graph.) a) Determine an equation of the function that describes the equivalent stress in terms of time. assuming Matthew starts at the highest point on the wheel? NEL Sinusoidal Functions 393 .5 0. Comment on the closeness of fit between the scatter plot and the graph.

6. John. That gave me the vertical translation and the value of c. I drew a smooth curve to connect the points to look like a wave. LEARN ABOUT the Math A group of students is tracking a friend. They know that John reaches the maximum height of 11 m at 10 s and then reaches the minimum height of 1 m at 55 s. 394 Chapter 6 NEL . then it would take him 90 s to do one complete revolution and be back to a height of 11 m at 100 s. ? How can you develop the equation of a sinusoidal function that models John’s height above the ground to determine his height at 78 s? EXAMPLE 1 Connecting the equation of a sinusoidal function to the situation Justine’s Solution John’s Height above the Ground f(t) 10 Height (m) 8 6 4 2 0 t 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Time (s) I found the equation of the axis by adding the maximum and minimum and dividing by 2. Since it takes John 45 s to go from the highest point to the lowest. That gave me the vertical stretch and the value of a. I plotted the two points I knew: (10.7 Solving Problems Using Sinusoidal Models GOAL Solve problems related to real-world applications of sinusoidal functions. who is riding a Ferris wheel. 11) and (55. 1). Vertical translation: c equation of the axis: y5 11 1 1 56 2 c56 Vertical stretch: a amplitude 5 11 2 6 5 5 a55 I found the amplitude by taking the maximum and subtracting the y-value for the equation of the axis.

Once I had the equation.17 m At 78 s. That gave me the value of d.035) 1 6 8 6. y 5 5 cos(4(78 2 10)° ) 1 6 5 5 cos 272° 1 6 y 8 5(0.6.17 m.7 For the horizontal compression. I substituted x 5 78. so k is positive. C. how would the sinusoidal function change? State the value and type of transformation associated with this change. So there was a horizontal translation of 10. I used the formula relating the period to k.17 m looks reasonable based on the graph. Reflecting A. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 395 . If the radius of the Ferris wheel remained the same but the axle of the wheel was 1 m higher. If it took John 60 s instead of 90 s to complete one revolution. The answer 6. his height will be about 6. the first maximum is at x 5 0. I got the equation of the sinusoidal function by substituting the values I found into y 5 a cos(k(x 2 d )) 1 c. and solved for the height. Horizontal compression: k period 5 k . how would the sinusoidal function change? State the value and type of transformation associated with this change. what would be the equation of the sinusoidal function describing John’s height above the ground in terms of time? B. If both characteristics from parts A and B were changed. The curve wasn’t reflected. so the period 5 90 5 k5 360 |k| 360 k 360 k 360 90 k 54 Horizontal translation: d d 5 10 y 5 5 cos(4(x 2 10)° ) 1 6 If I use the cosine function. The first maximum of the new function is at x 5 10. 0.

50 0. the pole was momentarily at its resting position. and the lowest will be 210.25 240 60 54 period 5 Vertical translation: c equation of the axis: y 5 0 so c 5 0 Vertical stretch: a amplitude 5 10 so a 5 10 The axis is at y 5 0.25 0. 0) because the pole was at its resting position at t 5 0. The top sways 10 cm to the right (110 cm) and 10 cm to the left (210 cm) of its resting position and moves back and forth 240 times every minute. and the distance the top of the pole moves is the dependent variable. I took the distance between a peak and the equation of the axis to get the amplitude. Ryan’s Solution a) Distance flag pole sways (cm) 10 5 0 5 10 Time (min) 0. At t 5 0. 396 Chapter 6 NEL . Since the pole sways back and forth 240 times in 60 s. what is the new equation of the sinusoidal function? Assume that the period remains the same. Then it started moving to the right.75 f(t) t 1.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem involving a sinusoidal function The top of a flagpole sways back and forth in high winds. This is the period.0 I drew a graph where time is the independent variable. I started at (0. b) How does the situation affect the domain and range? c) If the wind speed decreases slightly such that the sway of the top of the pole is reduced by 20%.25 s. the time to complete one sway must be 0. a) Determine the equation of a sinusoidal function that describes the distance the top of the pole is from its resting position in terms of time. Number of sways each second 5 1 4 5 0. This gives the vertical translation. The highest point on my graph will be 10.

I used the x-coordinate of the first maximum of the new function.25 I decided to use the sine function since this graph starts at (0°. 360 |k| k 5 1440 The sine function: y 5 10 sin(1440x)° Horizontal translation: d d5 1 16 1 ° b b 16 y 5 10 cosa1440ax 2 b) For either function. the horizontal translation is equal to the x-coordinate of any maximum. The amplitude will then change from 10 to 8. the domain is restricted to positive values because the values represent the time elapsed. 0). Using the values of a and k. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 397 . c) 80% of 10 or y 5 8 sin(1440x)° y 5 8 cos a1440ax 2 5 0. If the sway is reduced by 20%. The range of each function depends on its amplitudes.0 period 5 0. it’s 80% of what it used to be. I put all these transformations together to get the equation of the function.7 Horizontal compression: k period 5 k. That maximum is 1 at t 5 16. i determined the equation For the cosine function.80 3 10 58 1 ° bb 16 If the sway is the only thing that’s changing. then the amplitude is going to change on the graph.6.25 5 k5 360 |k| 360 k 360 0. The vertical stretch is 8. I found the horizontal compression from the formula relating the period to the value of k. since the maximum of a cosine function is at 0.

e) Determine the equation of the sinusoidal function. a fictional character in a Spanish novel. Need to Know • When you have a description of an event that can be modelled by a sinusoidal graph rather than data. and what does it represent in this situation? d) If Don Quixote remains snagged for seven complete cycles. f ) If the wind speed decreased. and what does it represent in this situation? b) What is the amplitude of the function. At one point. This information will help you determine the values of k. he got snagged by one of the blades and was hoisted into the air.0 1. causing the rear end of the trailer to swing 1 2 3 Time (s) t 4 left and right. The load on a trailer has shifted. in the equations g(x) 5 a sin(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c and h(x) 5 a cos(k(x 2 d) ) 1 c. a) What is the equation of the axis of the function. and equation of the axis. Don Quixote. a) What is the equation of the axis of the function. attacked windmills Height (m) 16 12 8 4 0 Height above Ground f(t) 40 20 Time (s) t 60 because he thought they were giants.5 1. e) What are the domain and range of the function in terms of the situation? f ) How far is the tail light from the curve at t 5 3. CHECK Your Understanding Distance (m) 2.In Summary Key Idea • Algebraic and graphical models of the sine and cosine functions can be used to solve a variety of real-world problems involving periodic behaviour. The graph models this behaviour. and what does it represent in this situation? c) What is the period of the function. determine the domain and range of the function.2 s? 2.0 0. and c. and what does it represent in this situation? b) What is the amplitude of the function.5 0 Distance Between the Tail Light and the Curb f(t) 1. and what does it represent in this situation? d) Determine the equation and the range of the sinusoidal function. amplitude. The graph shows his height above ground in terms of time. respectively. • You will have to determine the equation of the sinusoidal function by first calculating the period. The distance from one of the tail lights on the trailer to the curb varies sinusoidally with time. it is useful to organize the information presented by drawing a rough sketch of the graph. how would that affect the graph of the sinusoidal function? 398 Chapter 6 NEL . a. and what does it represent in this situation? c) What is the period of the function.

the top A floor of a building swayed 30 cm to the left (230 cm). and at t 5 12. 5. The interior and exterior temperatures of an igloo were recorded over a 48 h K period. determine the equation of each function. 4 m. a) Determine the equation of the function that expresses Milton’s distance from the bottom of the pool in terms of time.6. A stopwatch starts timing at this point. 12 m.5 m from the NEL Sinusoidal Functions 399 .25 s. PRACTISING 4. Interior and Exterior Temperatures T(h) h 12 24 36 48 20 Temperature (°C) 10 0 10 20 30 Time (h) a) How are these curves similar? Explain how each of them might be related to this situation. at t 5 2 s. 6. b) Describe the domain and range of each curve. he is on the crest of the wave. are often added to the top floors of skyscrapers to reduce the severity of the sways. a) What is the equation of a sinusoidal function that describes the motion of the building in terms of time? b) Dampers. In one case. Milton is floating in an inner tube in a wave pool. The data were collected and plotted.1 m from the bottom of the pool. Determine an equation of a sinusoidal function that describes Chantelle’s distance from the vertical beam in relation to time. What is the equation of the new function that describes the motion of the building in terms of time? bottom of the pool when he is at the trough of a wave. she is the minimum distance from the beam. and two curves were drawn through the appropriate points. she is the maximum distance from the beam. 2. Skyscrapers sway in high-wind conditions. Her distance from a vertical support beam in terms of time can be modelled by a sinusoidal function. Chantelle is swinging back and forth on a trapeze. the top floor swayed 30 cm to the right (130 cm) of its starting position.7 3. In 1. c) Assuming that the curves can be represented by sinusoidal functions. He is 1. it will reduce the sway (not the period) by 70%. At 1 s. in the forms of large tanks of water. If a damper is added to this building. At 3 s.

the mark moves in a circular motion. The paintball leaves a circular mark 10 cm from the outer edge of the wheel.b) What is the amplitude of the function. how many complete cycles of the sinusoidal function will there be? e) If the period of the function changes to 3 s. determine the domain and range of the sinusoidal function. The device records the current in amperes (A) on the vertical axis and the time in seconds on the horizontal axis.6 s. 8. With a little concentration. Determine the equation of the function that expresses the current in terms of time. The first maximum height occurs at 0. the current reads its first minimum value of 24. A paintball is shot at a wheel of radius 40 cm. An oscilloscope hooked up to an alternating current (AC) circuit shows a sine curve. a) Determine the equation of the sinusoidal function that represents the height of the lead ball in terms of time.5 A.5 A. Candice is holding onto the end of a spring that is attached to a lead ball. what is the equation of this new function? 7. At t 5 120 s. c) What is the height of the mark when the wheel has travelled 120 cm from its initial position? 400 Chapter 6 NEL . As she moves her hand slightly up and down. she can repeatedly get the ball to reach a maximum height of 20 cm and a minimum height of 4 cm from the top of a surface. and what does it represent in this situation? c) How far above the bottom of the pool is Milton at t 5 4 s? d) If data are collected for only 40 s.2 s. At t 5 0 s. As the wheel rolls. b) If the wheel completes five revolutions before it stops. and the first minimum height occurs at 0. b) Determine the domain and range of the function. the current reads its 1 first maximum value of 4. 40 cm 10 cm a) Assuming that the paintball mark starts at its lowest point. determine the equation of the sinusoidal function that describes the height of the mark in terms of the distance the wheel travels.3 s? 9. and what does it represent in this situation? d) What is the height of the lead ball at 1. c) What is the equation of the axis. the ball moves up and down.

Examine the graph of the function f (x). and Pulley B has a radius of 6 cm. then which of the following is true for x? i) 180° 1 360°k. k [ I d) If f (x) 5 21. model of a situation that could be modelled with a sinusoidal function? 11. The population of rabbits. k [ I ii) 360° 1 180°k. Initially. k [ I iii) 90° 1 360°k. Using graphing technology. in a given T region are modelled by the functions R(t) 5 10 000 1 5000 cos(15t)° and F(t) 5 1000 1 500 sin(15t)°. Pulley A has a radius of 3 cm. k [ I iv) 90° 1 180°k. 2 f(x) 1 0 1 2 3 4 a) Determine the equation of the function.6.7 10. and the population of foxes. where t is the time in months. a drop of paint on the circumference of Pulley B rotates around the axle of Pulley B. determine x when f (x) 5 7 for the function NEL f (x) 5 4 cos(2x) 1 3 in the domain 5x [ R | 0° # x # 360°6. c) If f (x) 5 2. Two pulleys are connected by a belt. As Pulley A rotates. What information would you need to determine an algebraic or graphical C Extending 12. explain how the number of rabbits and the number of foxes are related. k [ I iii) 90° 1 180°k. b) Evaluate f (20). k [ I iv) 270° 1 360°k. R(t) . k [ I ii) 360° 1 90°k. Sinusoidal Functions 401 . Referring to each graph. then which of the following is true for x? i) 180° 1 360°k. Determine the equation of a sinusoidal function that describes the height of the drop of paint above the ground in terms of the rotation of Pulley A. F(t) . k [ I 180° 360° 540° x 720° 14. the paint drop is 7 cm above the ground. 13.

Which combinations display consonance and which display dissonance? a) CC (C in first octave.o. Graph this function using your graphing calculator. a string vibrates. Graph the function for this series of notes using your graphing calculator. Is the function for the A major chord periodic. where x is time in seconds and f (x) is the displacement (or movement) of air molecules in micrometres (1 3 1026 m).o. 3. and C in the next octave. When you strike a key. Some combinations of keys produce dissonance. C#. Compare with the C major and the A major graphs. sinusoidal. causing the air to vibrate. The sound waves caused by striking various notes can be described by the functions in the table. Compare the C major graph with the A major graph. or both? 2. Equations for Notes (n. E. and F. means next octave) Note A A# B C C# Equation f(x) 5 sin(158 400x)° f(x) 5 sin(167 831x)° f(x) 5 sin(177 806 x)° f(x) 5 sin(188 389x)° f(x) 5 sin(199 584x)° Note D D# E F F# Equation f(x) 5 sin(211 427x)° f(x) 5 sin(224 026x)° f(x) 5 sin(237 348x)° f(x) 5 sin(251 465x)° f(x) 5 sin(266 402x)° Note G G# A n. 4. Equation f(x) 5 sin(282 239x)° f(x) 5 sin(299 015x)° f(x) 5 sin(316 800x)° f(x) 5 sin(355 612x)° f(x) 5 sin(376 777x)° YOU WILL NEED • graphing calculator One combination of notes is the A major chord. E.o. the sound will be dissonance rather A major than consonance. The sound can be modelled by graphing the sum of the equations for each note in Y1 using the WINDOW settings shown. The C major chord is made up of C. C#. B n. This vibration of air produces a sound wave that your ear detects.o. Graph and sketch each combination of notes below using your graphing calculator and the WINDOW settings shown above. 1. which is made up of A. and A in the next octave. or pleasant sounds. If you strike the keys A. G. C in next octave) b) CF c) CD d) CB (B in next octave) 402 Chapter 6 NEL . B. or unpleasant sounds. Sketch the graph in your notebook.Curious Math Music Pressing certain piano keys at the same time produces consonance. C n. Sketch the resulting curve.

Determining this gives you the value of d. then the range would be 5 y [ R | 4 # y # 106. in many questions. Use the formula amplitude 5 maximum 2 axis to determine the amplitude of the function. and then go above and below that value an amount equivalent to the amplitude. How do you use transformations to determine the domain and range of a sinusoidal function? Aid • See Lesson 6. which is equivalent to the vertical stretch or compression and the value of a. 360° 0k0 5. You then determine the amplitude. 2. Example 2. based on the vertical translation. • Try Chapter Review Question 12. A restriction in the domain can occur when you consider the real-world situation you are trying to model. which is equivalent to the vertical translation and the value of c. maximum 1 minimum y5 2 to determine the equation of the axis. 3. based on the vertical stretch or compression. • Try Chapter Review Question 11. How do you determine the equation of a sinusoidal function from its graph? 1. Incorporate all the transformations into the equation y 5 a cos(k(x 2 d )) 1 c or y 5 a sin(k(x 2 d )) 1 c. If you are transforming y 5 cos x. it is easier to identify the coordinates of the peak of the function rather than points on the axis. the horizontal translation is equivalent to the x-coordinate of any maximum. you must determine the equation of the axis.6 Q: A: Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions The domain of a sinusoidal function is 5x [ R6. If the graph is reflected in the x-axis. 0k0 4. Determine the horizontal translation. For example. 1 . Use the formula Study Aid A: • See Lesson 6. Example 1.6. It is often easier to transform the function y 5 cos x than to transform y 5 sin x because. if the equation of the axis is y 5 7 and the amplitude is 3. Q: To determine the range. Use the formula period 5 to determine the horizontal stretch or compression. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 403 . then a is negative. Determine the equation of the axis.5.

Sketch the graph of a sinusoidal function that has a period of 6. e) Determine the amplitude. and whose equation of the axis is y 5 22. 4. f ) What is the range of this function? Graph the function h(x) 5 4 cos(3x) 1 9 using a graphing calculator in DEGREE mode for 0° # x # 360°. a) a) Plot the data. in metres per second? f ) What is the range of the function? g) If the building is 6 m tall. equation of the axis. Colin is on a unique Ferris wheel: it is situated on the top of a building. an amplitude of 4.4 150 22.3 5. b) Is the function sinusoidal? c) Calculate h(45). b) Is the graph periodic? c) What is the period of the function. If one has. does it represent in this situation? d) Determine the equation of the axis. A ship is docked in port and rises and falls with the 3. amplitude.4 130 9. a) What is the period of the function. d) Determine the values of x. in metres at t seconds. what was Colin’s boarding height in terms of the building? Lesson 6. Time (s) Height (m) Time (s) Height (m) Time (s) Height (m) 0 25 60 16 120 7 10 22. and answer the following questions. Lesson 6.1 a) What is the period of the function. and what does it represent in this situation? d) Was the Ferris wheel already in motion when the data were recorded? Explain. Graph the function using a graphing calculator. 0° # x # 360°.2 is 20 and whose range is 5 y [ R | 3 # y # 86.7 20 16 80 25 140 16 30 9. Time (min) Volume (L) Time (min) Volume (L) Time (min) Volume (L) 0 0 8 16 16 0 1 16 9 16 17 16 2 16 10 0 18 16 3 16 11 16 19 16 4 16 12 16 20 0 5 16 13 16 6 0 14 16 7 16 15 16 it represent in this situation? c) What is the amplitude of the function.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 6. or equation of the axis of the function. Each sinusoidal function has undergone one transformation that may have affected the period. and what 2. Use Xscl 5 90°. Sketch a graph of a periodic function whose period Lesson 6. indicate its new value.4 70 22. what would be the depth of the propeller? c) What is the depth of the propeller at t 5 5.7 90 22. d(t). 0). In each case.7 waves. e) How fast is Colin travelling around the wheel. and what does it represent in this situation? b) If there were no waves. The function d(t) 5 2 sin(30t)° 1 5 models the depth of the propeller. The table shows the amount of water in the dishwasher at different times. 6. at what times is the propeller at a depth of 3 m? 7. 0) from the point (4. Colin’s height above the ground at various times is recorded in the table. Determine the coordinates of the image point after a rotation of 25° about (0. The automatic dishwasher in a school cafeteria runs does it represent in this situation? b) What is the equation of the axis. and what does constantly through lunch. and draw the resulting graph.5 s? d) What is the range of the function? e) Within the first 10 s. NEL 404 Chapter 6 . and what 1.4 8. determine which characteristic has been changed. and the range of the function.7 110 9.4 40 7 100 16 160 25 50 9. Determine the period. amplitude. for which h(x) 5 5.

the chair is closest to the wall and d(1) 5 18 cm.5 A 22. Write an equation for the axis of the curve. b) Draw a curve of good fit. Use transformations to graph each function for 0° # x # 360°.2 13.75) 5 34 cm. The average daily maximum temperature in Kenora. 213. is shown for each month. the chair is farthest from the wall and d(1. between the wall and the rear of the chair varies sinusoidally with time t. Determine the range of each sinusoidal function x 5 y 10 without graphing. Explain why this type of data can be expressed as a periodic function.Chapter Review a) b) c) d) y 5 sin x 2 3 y 5 sin(4x) y 5 7 cos x y 5 cos(x 2 70°) 12.2 A 8. a) y 5 5 cos(2x) 1 7 b) y 5 20.6 O 9.1 J 24. d) What is the period of the curve? Explain why e) f) g) h) this period is appropriate within the context of the question. How can the table be used to confirm this prediction? d(t) . Time (months) Temperature (°C) Time (months) Temperature (°C) Time (months) Temperature (°C) J F M 21. a graph. a) y 5 23 sin(4x) 1 2 b) y 5 0. and what does it represent in this situation? f ) What is the equation of the sinusoidal function? g) What is the distance between the wall and the chair at t 5 8 s? 14.9 D 210.0 M 16.3 a) Prepare a scatter plot of the data. a) y 3 2 1 0 b) 6 4 2 0 Lesson 6. At t 5 1. The distance.5 cos(3(x 2 40° ) ) Lesson 6. Use the equation to predict the temperature for month 38. Summarize how you can determine the equation of a sinusoidal function that represents real phenomena from data.7 Lesson 6. explain how each part of the equation relates to the characteristics of the graph. Meagan is sitting in a rocking chair.3 J 21.75 s. and what does it represent in this situation? b) How far is the chair from the wall when no one is rocking in it? c) If Meagan rocks back and forth 40 times only. a) What is the period of the function. Let January represent month 0. or a description of the situation.5 9.8 S 16.1 29. Determine the sine function y 5 a sin k(u 2 d) 1 c for each graph. NEL Sinusoidal Functions 405 . Ontario. At t 5 1 s. What is the phase shift if the cosine function acts as the base curve? Use the cosine function to write an equation that models the data. what is the domain of the function? d) What is the range of the function in part (c)? e) What is the amplitude of the function. In your summary.7 N 21.6 x 5 10 11.5 sin(x 2 30°) 2 4 10. c) State the maximum and minimum values.

Determine the coordinates of the point after a rotation of 65° about (0. and what does it represent in this situation? b) Determine the equation of the axis for this periodic function. d) Determine the range of f (x). what is the domain of the periodic function? f ) Steven states that the stair will be at ground level at t 5 300 s. 5. and an equation of the axis y 5 21. through the hole. and equation of the axis. If she rotates the stick at the same constant rate. then the distance from its short end to the top of the plywood can be modelled by the function in red. what is the domain of the sinusoidal function? g) Determine the equation of each sinusoidal function. Keri has drilled a hole at the 30 cm mark in a metre stick. 3. then the distance from its long end to the top of the plywood can be modelled by the function in blue in the graph shown. h) What is the distance between the short end of the metre stick and the top of the plywood at t 5 19 s? 90 1m 406 Chapter 6 NEL .5(x 1 90°)) 2 6 using transformations of f (x) 5 cos x. 2. 24) and has a period of 20. Sketch a sinusoidal function that passes through (0. c) Calculate f (135°). 0) from the point (7. a) top short end 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Graph f (x) 5 24 cos(0. The height of the step in terms of time can be modelled by the graph shown. and what does it represent in this situation? e) What is the range of each sinusoidal function? f ) If Keri rotates the metre stick five complete revolutions. b) State the amplitude.6 Height of Step 5 h(t) 3 1 t 0 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Time (s) Height (m) Chapter Self-Test 1. e) If the escalator completes only 10 cycles before being shut down. Steven is monitoring the height of one particular step on an escalator that takes passengers from the ground level to the second floor. an amplitude of 3. If she rotates the stick at a constant rate. a) What do the troughs of the sinusoidal functions represent in this situation? b) How do the periods of the sinusoidal functions compare? Why is this so? c) How far is the nail from the top of the plywood? d) What is the amplitude of each sinusoidal function. 0). 4. Is he correct? Justify your answer. a) What is the period of the function. She then nails the long end bottom 275 f(t) 225 175 125 75 t 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time (s) Distance (cm) metre stick onto a piece of plywood. c) What do the peaks of the periodic function represent in this situation? d) State the range of the function. period.

Draw a line around the cylinder connecting points D and E and continue back to D. D. Select one of the cylindrical objects. F. Determine the equation of the resulting sinusoidal function. marking the points D and E in different locations. G. Remove the tape and unroll the paper. C. f ) Another cylinder has a radius of 7 cm. point D at 12 cm high. what would have to be included in the instructions? d) How could you do a similar activity and create a function that was periodic but not sinusoidal? e) If the period of the resulting sinusoidal function was 69. a pop can. Record the equation in the table. Take a sheet of paper. Determine an equation that models the resulting curve. Record the position in the table. complete the table.6 ? Radius of the Cylinder Chapter Task YOU WILL NEED Cylinders and Sinusoidal Functions Can sinusoidal functions be obtained from cylinders? • three cylindrically shaped objects. Make sure that the paper is narrow enough that the top portion of the cylinder is still exposed. a) What is the relationship between the circumference of the cylinder and the resulting sinusoidal function? b) What effect does changing the locations of points D and E have on the resulting sinusoidal function? c) If you wanted to see three complete cycles on the paper. H. Mark a point D along the seam of the paper. and tape it in place. for example. cut along the line you drew. Mark a point E on the opposite side of the cylinder at least 4 cm below the height of point D. a wooden dowel. and record the measurement in the table. Determine its circumference. leaving the tube of paper. somewhere near the top of the paper. Remove the cylindrically shaped object. E. Circumference of the Cylinder Height of Point D Height of Point E Equation of the Resulting Sinusoidal Function Cylinder 1 2 3 A. Record the position in the table. and point E at 8 cm high. calculate the radius of the cylinder. Task D B. Repeat this procedure two more times using the other cylindrical objects. wrap it around the cylinder.12 cm. Using scissors. E Checklist Did you show and explain the steps you used to determine the equations? Did you support your choice of data used to determine each equation? Did you explain your thinking clearly when answering the questions asked in part H? NEL Sinusoidal Functions 407 . and an empty paper towel roll • 216 3 279 mm (letter-size) paper • tape • scissors As you follow the instructions.

24) is on the terminal arm of an angle 7 a) 22 19° b) 22° c) 15° d) 27° 10. Point P(27. In 2000. which is the correct ratio for cos u? a) 4 5 b) 2 3 5 c) 2 4 5 d) 3 5 408 Chapters 4–6 NEL . 3(c) (a1012p ) (a2p28 ) (2x ) 1 6 c (x4n2m ) a b d x 2 322m 2n23m 3 m 4 (c ) 4 (c ) 1 2m a b x 12 63° x a) 4 b) 5 c) 6 d) 7 2 n 9. What is the measure of x to the nearest unit? 3. Which equation is not an identity? Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following expressions has a value of 27? a) c) 25 1 16 2 1 2 b) 83 2 814 1 42 a) b) (1 2 tan2 u) (1 2 cos2 u) 5 sin2 u 2 4 sin4 u 1 2 sin2 u 2.Chapters 4–6 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 1 Cumulative Review 7. Identify the expressions that are true when x 5 2. The population of a town is growing at an average rate of 5% per year. Which is the correct ratio for csc u? in standard position. If tan u 5 and u lies in the third quadrant. Identify the expression that simplifies to 1. 32x21 5 27 b) 62x23 5 !6 1 c) 53x12 5 5 d) (22x ) (2x21 ) 5 32 a) a) b) c) d) 82 4 2 8124 1 823 d) 812 4 1 162 4 2 1622 tan x sin x tan x sin x 5 tan x 1 sin x tan x sin x cos2 u 2 sin2 u 5 1 2 tan u c) cos2 u 1 sin u cos u 1 2 cos x cos x 1 2 cos x d) 5 tan x sin x 8. What is the measure of the related acute angle and the principal angle to the nearest degree? a) 74° and 106° c) 16° and 164° b) 16° and 344° d) 74° and 286° 6. What is the best estimate of the population in 2020 if the town continues to grow at this rate? a) 40 000 c) 35 000 b) 30 000 d) 45 000 5. What is the measure of u to the nearest degree? 4. What is the exact value of csc 300°? 5 13 a) a) !3 2 b) 2 !3 5 13 4 3 b) 13 5 c) 13 12 d) 12 5 c) 2 2!3 3 d) 1 2 11. its population was 15 000.

1. a spotlight is placed at a height of 12. Which is the a) b) c) d) a) Solve the triangle.5 km b) 32 km B 83° c) 984 km d) 23. and a 5 24. Which is the graph of y 5 2 cos 2(u 1 45°) 1 4? 2 1 180° 0 1 2 720°.9 y 17. Identify the correct equation of this function. AB 5 44. /C 5 81°.4. and identify the correct solution.0 m. A weather balloon is spotted from two angles of b) elevation.9 m c) 25 m b) 12. a period of 15.1 m d) 9.9 /B 5 52°. AC 5 41. The tracking stations are 15 km apart. A sine function has an amplitude of 5. from two different tracking stations. The spotlight beam shines down at an angle of depression of 35°. Refer to the graphs in question 15. How far is the spotlight from the stage? a) 20. At a concert.9. AB 5 44. c) 5 3 1 120° y 1 0 y 120° 240° 5 3 360° 1 0 360° 720° 57° A a) 28. 180° 540° 16. Determine the altitude of the balloon if the tracking stations and the point directly below the ballon lie along the same straight line. AC 5 14. a) y 5 5 sin 2u 1 7 b) y 5 5 sin 2u 2 7 c) y 5 5 sin 0. AB 5 44. and range 5 y [ R | 2 # y # 126 .9 /B 5 67°.7 km d) 6 4 2 180° 0 y 13.5u 2 7 graph of y 5 2 cos 2u? a) graph a) b) graph b) c) graph c) d) graph d) 180° 360° NEL Cumulative Review 409 . AB 5 44. /B 5 125°.2.5u 1 7 d) y 5 5 sin 0.Cumulative Review 12. /A 5 32°. AC 5 41. 57° and 83°.6 m 14. AC 5 29.9 /B 5 107°. In ^ ABC.9.

5t)°). The coordinates of her position are (x. or the domain. where t is the time in minutes and x and y are in metres. and the domain and range. the simplified form of the x sin2 u 1 cos2 u expression is cos u sin u x y x y a) b) c) d) y x r r sin x sin x is (1 2 sin x) (1 1 sin x) sin2 x cos x 25. y) 5 (20 cos (7.9 cm c) 85. A circular dining room at the top of a skyscraper 22.5 cm 1 2 !3 2 23. and the equation of the axis. The period of the function y 5 sin 4u in degrees is a) 2 b) sin x 1 1 b b is equivalent to a b 21 b a 2a a) b) c) a b b 360° b) 180° 21 1 sin2 x 1 1 sin2 x c) 90° d) 1440° d) 2b a 1 64 20.18. 16. Identify which of the following statements is true regarding sinusoidal functions of the form y 5 a sin(k(x 2 d)) 1 c. a) Changing the value of a affects the maximum and minimum values. Eighteen minutes later she realizes that her table has moved. radius of 14 cm. c 5 10 cm. b) The amplitude is 1.7 cm b) 56. the amplitude. the equation of the axis.8 cm b) 8. cos u 5 . A woman sits next to the window ledge and places her purse on the ledge as shown.5t)°.0 m d) 62. Which of the following statements is not true about 28. The exact value of cos (2420°) is a) c) !3 2 b) 2 d) 1 24. a a b a sin x 26. c) Changing the value of c affects the period.9 cm a) 576 b) 64 c) 16 d) 410 Chapters 4–6 NEL . d) Changing the value of d affects the period. and the range. Using the definitions sin u 5 . but her purse is on the ledge where she left it.0 cm c) 13.0 cm d) 42. 19. and b 5 15 cm. A possible height of ^ ABC is a) 10. the amplitude. If 3x 2 5 12. then x is equal to 21. b) Changing the value of k affects the amplitude. y . /A 5 85°.0 m b) 37. c) The equation of the axis is y 5 0.6 cm d) 12.1 m c) 114. The perimeter is a) 32. A regular octagon is inscribed inside a circle with a the graph of y 5 sin x? a) The period is 360°. 20 sin (7. the amplitude. d) The range is 5 y [ R | 0 . What is the shortest distance she has to walk to retrieve her purse? a) 54. In ^ ABC .9 m y x r r y and tan u 5 . The simplified form of the expression a) c) tan2 x d) woman’s table woman’s purse 27. rotates in a counterclockwise direction so that diners can see the entire city.

Give a complete solution.94 21:00 1.25 22:00 1.55 Graph the data. they measured the depth of the water every hour over a 24 h period. 125°. In the figure.95 12:00 2.56 4:00 6. Dock Dilemma A C The Arps recently bought a cottage on a small.05 20:00 2.56 15:00 5.25 16:00 6.Cumulative Review Investigations 29.81 19:00 3.55 18:00 4.94 9:00 1. b) What is the maximum depth of the water at this location? c) The hull of their boat must have a clearance of at least 1 m at all times. To determine the tide’s effect at this position.69 2:00 5. If it was possible to keep folding indefinitely. and determine an equation that models this situation over a 24 h period. which is 553 m? 30. On the 7th fold it is about as thick as a notebook. 165°. using paper of any size or shape.1 mm thick.89 23:00 1. AC is 75 cm and AB is 55 cm.62 17:00 5. Determine the positions for the notches on BC that will produce the required angles. A sheet of letter paper is about 0. 145°.45 3:00 5. 31.95 24:00 2. The Paper Folding Problem The Paper Folding Problem was a well-known challenge to fold paper in half more than seven or eight times. On the third fold it is about as thick as your fingernail. a) NEL Cumulative Review 411 . and 175°. Time Depth (m) Time Depth (m) Time Depth (m) Time Depth (m) 1:00 3. The task was commonly known to be impossible until April 2005.69 13:00 3.05 8:00 2.25 10:00 1. They wish to build a dock on an outcropping of level rocks. Is this location suitable for their dock? Explain. sheltered inlet on Prince Edward Island.81 7:00 3. when Britney Gallivan solved it.25 5:00 5.45 14:00 5. Lawn Chairs B The manufacturer of a reclining lawn chair would like to have the chair positioned at the following angles: 105°.89 11:00 1.62 6:00 4. how many folds would be required to end up with a thickness that surpasses the height of the CN Tower.

1st generation (1 ancestor) 2nd generation (1 ancestor) 3rd generation (2 ancestors) 4th generation (3 ancestors) 5th generation (5 ancestors) 6th generation (8 ancestors) drone queen 412 NEL .

honeybees don’t always have two biological parents. How can you determine the number of ancestors a bee has over a given number of generations? NEL 413 .Chapter 7 Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series GOALS You will be able to • • • • Identify and classify sequences Create functions for describing sequences and use the sequences to make predictions Investigate efficient ways to add the terms of a sequence Model real-life problems using sequences ? Unlike humans. Male drones have only one parent (a female queen). while a queen has two parents (a drone and a queen).

What percent of the pond will be covered after nine weeks? 7. 4) c) x-intercept 5 5 and y-intercept 5 27 d) passing through (212. 0.7 Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1. Definition: Exponential Functions Rules/Method: Examples: Non-examples: 414 Chapter 7 NEL .7. A radioactive material has a half-life of 100 years. Complete the chart to show what you know about exponential functions. • For help with Questions 5 and 6.1% of a pond is covered by lily pads. If 2. Calculate the 1st and 2nd differences to determine whether each relation is g(–2). quadratic. for f (x) 5 x 1 4 5 10 a) d) ha b. a) b) x 0 1 2 3 4 f (x) 18 23 28 33 38 x 0 6 12 18 24 f(x) 6 12 24 48 96 c) x 0 1 2 3 4 f(x) 5 7 13 23 37 Study Aid 4. Examples 2 and 3. a) 2x 2 3 5 7 b) 5x 1 8 5 2x 2 7 c) 5(3x 2 2) 1 7x 2 4 5 2(4x 1 8) 2 2x 1 3 d) 28x 1 1 3 5 x 2 12 4 3 5. 3. see Essential Skills Appendix. 2 slope 5 2 and y-intercept 5 8 5 b) slope 5 29 and passing through (5. or neither. • For help with Question 2. Evaluate. 17) and (5. how much of the radioactive material will remain after 1000 years? 6. for h(x) 5 64x c) g Q "6 R . A-7. see Lesson 4. State the equation of each line.3 kg of the substance is placed in a special disposal container. for g(x) 5 3x 2 1 x 2 4 3 4 7 b) f a b. Each week the number of lily pads doubles. Solve each equation. 217) a) Study Aid 2. for g(x) 5 4x 2 2 24 1 3 linear.

2. The base of the triangle will contain 40 golf balls. A display involves constructing a stack of golf balls within a large equilateral triangle frame on one of the walls. 6. Then determine the 1st differences between the numbers of counters used. 3. YOU WILL NEED • counters or coins • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software (optional) How many golf balls are needed to construct the triangle? Use counters or coins to construct a series of equilateral triangles with side lengths 1. 5. ? A.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Stacking Golf Balls George’s Golf Garage is having a grand-opening celebration. What does this tell you about the type of function that models the number of balls needed to create an equilateral triangle? How is the triangle with side length • 4 related to the triangle with side length 2? • 6 related to the triangle with side length 3? • 2n related to the triangle with side length n? Repeat part C for triangles with side lengths of • 5 and 2 • 7 and 3 • 2n 1 1 and n Use your rules from parts C and D to determine the number of golf balls in a triangle with side length 40. D. 4. with each stacked row using one less ball than the previous row. E. Number of Counters Used 1 3 6 Side Length 1 2 3 Diagram 4 B. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 415 . Create a scatter plot of number of counters versus side length. respectively. Record the total number of counters used to make each triangle in a table. C. and 7.

Reflecting F. then to calculate the 12th term (t12).7. 625. How are the two sequences similar? Different? How does the definition of an arithmetic sequence help you predict the shape of the graph of the sequence? A recursive formula for Chris’s sequence is t1 5 1. D. Subscripts are usually used to identify the positions of the terms. figure 2 figure 3 How many linking cubes are there in the 100th figure? Create the next three terms of Chris’s arithmetic sequence. Use the general term to calculate the 100th term. For example. He wrote the sequence that represents the number of cubes in each shape.1 YOU WILL NEED Arithmetic Sequences • linking cubes • graphing calculator or graph paper GOAL Recognize the characteristics of arithmetic sequences. . the common difference. 1. figure 1 ? A. where n [ N and n . The first three shapes are shown. 630. E. that expresses each term of a sequence as a function of its position.. if the general term is tn 5 2n. C. labelled tn. How is this recursive formula related to the characteristics of Chris’s arithmetic sequence? 416 Chapter 7 NEL . How is each term of this recursive sequence related to the previous term? Construct a graph of term (number of cubes) versus figure number. Chris’s sequence is an arithmetic sequence. tn 5 tn21 1 2 . t12 5 2(12) 5 24 recursive formula a formula relating the general term of a sequence to the previous term(s) INVESTIGATE the Math Chris used linking cubes to create different shapes. substitute n 5 12. • spreadsheet software sequence an ordered list of numbers term a number in a sequence. 620. H.. Another arithmetic sequence is 635. arithmetic sequence a sequence that has the same difference. G. B. between any pair of consecutive terms recursive sequence a sequence for which one term (or more) is given and each successive term is determined from the previous term(s) general term a formula. and express the general terms in a variety of ways. What type of relation is this? Determine a formula for the general term of the sequence.. 615.

. Wanda’s Solution: Using Differences a) 12 2 3 5 9 I knew that the sequence is arithmetic. a 1 3d. I simplified by collecting like terms. b) State a formula that defines each term of any arithmetic sequence. tn 5 3 1 (n 2 1) (9) 5 3 1 9n 2 9 5 9n 2 6 The general term is tn 5 9n 2 6. So for the nth term. 3 1 3(9).. The general term of the sequence of multiples of 9 is 9n.. to get each new term.... so I subtracted 6 to get the general term of my sequence. 3 1 9. General term: tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d I wrote an arithmetic sequence using a general first term. and a common difference. 5 a. Each multiple of d that I added was one less than the position number. a 1 d. Each term of my sequence is 6 less than the term in the same position in the sequence of multiples of 9. Nathan’s Solution: Using Multiples of 9 a) 12 5 3 1 9 Since the sequence is arithmetic. So I knew that I had a formula for the general term. I added 9 to the previous term. (a 1 2d ) 1 d. Each multiple of 9 that I added was one less than the position number. I thought about the sequence of multiples of 9 because each term of that sequence goes up by 9s. . a 1 2d. 12. 27. 21.. . a 1 d. so the terms increase by the same amount. 18. a. Since I added 9 each time.1 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the general term of an arithmetic sequence a) Determine a formula that defines the arithmetic sequence 3. . 21. 30. 12.... 21 5 12 1 9 30 5 21 1 9 tn 5 9n 9. b) a. (a 1 d ) 1 d.7. d. . 30. 3.. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 417 . I needed to add (n 2 1) 9s.. . I subtracted t1 from t2 to determine the common difference.. I wrote this sequence as 3.. 36. . The general term is tn 5 9n 2 6. 3 1 2(9).

23. 3d. 418 Chapter 7 NEL . a 1 2d. But the first term of my sequence was a. 1. I had to add a to. 21 5 12 1 9 30 5 21 1 9 The recursive formula is t1 5 3.. you can use it to determine any term in the sequence. I expressed the general term of the sequence using a recursive formula. 4d. to get each new term. a 1 3d.? David’s Solution: Using Differences and the General Term 11 2 18 5 27 4 2 11 5 27 23 2 4 5 27 I subtracted consecutive terms and found that each term is 7 less than the previous term. a 1 d. b) a. . 2d. 2d 1 (a 2 d). tn 5 tn21 1 9. not d. Since I added 9 each time. where n [ N and n . General term: tn 5 nd 1 (a 2 d) 5 a 1 nd 2 d 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d Since I added the common difference d each time.. Tina’s Solution: Using a Recursive Formula a) 12 5 3 1 9 Since the sequence is arithmetic. .. To get the terms of any arithmetic sequence. 4d 1 (a 2 d ). 11. 4. . and subtract d from. d 1 (a 2 d). EXAMPLE 2 Connecting a specific term to the general term of an arithmetic sequence What is the 33rd term of the sequence 18.. So the sequence is arithmetic. . tn 5 tn – 1 1 d..b) tn 5 nd d. I thought about the sequence of multiples of d. Recursive formula: t1 5 a. where a is the first term. I added 9 to the previous term. 1 Once you know the general term of an arithmetic sequence.... I would add d to the previous term each time. where n [ N and n . each term of the sequence of multiples of d. I simplified to get the general term. So to get my sequence. 3d 1 (a 2 d).

I used this information to write the function that describes the line. Communication Tip A dashed line on a graph indicates that the x-coordinates of the points on the line are natural numbers. The y-intercept corresponds to the term t0 but it is not a term of the sequence since x [ N. I substituted x 5 33 into the equation f(x) 5 27x 1 25. Since the terms are decreasing. n 1 2 3 4 tn 18 11 4 23 1st Differences 27 27 27 The 1st differences are constant so these points lie on a line. The first term of the sequence is 18. Leila’s Solution: Using a Graph and Function Notation I represented the sequence as a function using ordered pairs with the term number (n) as the x-coordinate and the term (tn ) as the y-coordinate. f (33) 5 27(33) 1 25 5 2206 The 33rd term is 2206. To get the 33rd term of the sequence. f (x) 5 27x 1 25 The slope of the line is m 5 27 and the y-intercept is b 5 25. I let n 5 33. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 419 . I used a dashed line to connect the points. the common difference is 27.1 a 5 18. I substituted these numbers into the formula for the general term of an arithmetic sequence. To get the 33rd term. d 5 27 tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d t33 5 18 1 (33 2 1) (27) 5 2206 The 33rd term is 2206.7. Since n [ N and the terms lie on this line.

1 2 3 4 Year 1 $300.00 I used the spreadsheet to continue the pattern until the amount reached $732.00 $408.00 $678.00 $498. fill down. When will his investment be worth $732? Philip’s Solution: Using a Spreadsheet 6% of $300 5 $18 A B Terry earns 6% of $300.00 $570. B-21.00 $732. I set up a formula to increase the amount by $18 per year.Arithmetic sequences can be used to model problems that involve increases or decreases that occur at a constant rate.00 2 5 B2118 Terry's $ Tech Support For help using a spreadsheet to enter values and formulas.00 $462.00 $444. I entered the amount.00 $624. In one column I entered the year number. and in the other column. and fill right. 420 Chapter 7 NEL .00 $390.00 $516. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 A Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B Terry's $ $300. I set up a spreadsheet.00 $336.00 $588. see Technical Appendix. From the spreadsheet.00 $642. Terry’s investment will be worth $732 at the beginning of the 25th year.00 $372.00 $696.00 $318.00 $660.00 $426. which is $18 interest per year.00 $552. EXAMPLE 3 Representing an arithmetic sequence Terry invests $300 in a GIC (guaranteed investment certificate) that pays 6% simple interest per year.00 $534.00 $714.00 $606.00 $480.00 $354.

I divided by the amount of interest paid per year to determine how many interest payments were made. I solved for n. per year. This is an arithmetic sequence. So the amount at the start of each year will form an arithmetic sequence. where a 5 300 and d 5 18. d 5 18 Terry earns 6% of $300 5 $18 interest per year. So his investment increases by $18/year.1 Jamie’s Solution: Using the General Term Terry earns 6% of $300. 732 2 300 5 432 432 4 18 5 24 The investment will be worth $732 at the beginning of the 25th year. or $18 interest. Since interest was paid every year except the first year. tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d tn 5 300 1 (n 2 1)(18) 732 5 300 1 (n 2 1)(18) 732 5 300 1 18n 2 18 732 2 300 1 18 5 18n 450 5 18n 25 5 n Terry’s investment will be worth $732 in the 25th year. I needed to determine when tn 5 732.7. Suzie’s Solution: Using Reasoning a 5 300. $732 must occur in the 25th year. I calculated the difference between the starting and ending values to know how much interest was earned. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 421 .

I substituted t7 5 53 and n 5 7 into the general term. you can determine any term in the sequence. I knew that the sequence is arithmetic. EXAMPLE 4 Solving an arithmetic sequence problem The 7th term of an arithmetic sequence is 53 and the 11th term is 97. For the 11th term. a and d are the same in both equations. To solve for d. Tanya’s Solution: Using Reasoning t11 2 t7 5 97 2 53 5 44 4d 5 44 d 5 11 t100 5 97 1 89 3 11 5 97 1 979 5 1076 The 100th term is 1076. 97 5 a 1 10d 253 5 2(a 1 6d ) 44 5 4d 11 5 d 422 Chapter 7 NEL . Deepak’s Solution: Using Algebra tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d I knew that the sequence is arithmetic. So I divided 44 by 4 to get the common difference. so the terms increase by the same amount each time. The equations for t7 and t11 represent a linear system.If you know two terms of an arithmetic sequence. I knew that to get the 100th term. There are four differences to go from t7 to t11. Since both equations describe terms of the same arithmetic sequence. t7 53 5 a 1 (7 2 1)d 53 5 a 1 6d t11 97 5 a 1 (11 2 1)d 97 5 a 1 10d For the 7th term. Determine the 100th term. I would have to add it to t11 89 times. so I wrote the formula for the general term. I substituted t11 5 97 and n 5 11. I subtracted the equation for t7 from the equation for t11. Since the common difference is 11.

I substituted a 5 213. tn 5 tn 2 1 1 d. For example.. To get the 100th term.. where b 5 t0 5 a 2 d. and so on). . the domain is the set of natural numbers. 14. is decreasing with a common difference of 23.. 1st term 2nd term Domain: {1. . 4. 12. 20. . 1.} Range: {4.. 14 14 14 t2 2 t1 5 6 2 2 5 4 t3 2 t2 5 10 2 6 5 4 t4 2 t3 5 14 2 10 5 4 ( t2 2 t1 5 6 2 9 5 23 t3 2 t2 5 3 2 6 5 23 t4 2 t3 5 0 2 3 5 23 ( and 9. 6.}. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 423 . 2. 28. d 5 11. . .. or • by a discrete linear function f (n) 5 dn 1 b.. To solve for a. 3. n [ N. 4.. 3. 2.7.1 53 5 a 1 6(11) 53 5 a 1 66 213 5 a tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d t100 5 213 1 (100 2 1) (11) 5 1076 The 100th term is 1076. N 5 {1... is increasing with a common difference of 4. .. 2nd. 12. In Summary Key Ideas • Every sequence is a discrete function.} • An arithmetic sequence is a recursive sequence in which new terms are created by adding the same value (the common difference) each time. 2. Since each term is identified by its position in the list (1st. and d is the common difference. 10. In all cases. 0. • recursively by t1 5 a. The range is the set of all the terms of the sequence. 23 23 23 Need to Know • An arithmetic sequence can be defined • by the general term tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d.. 3. 6. where n . a is the first term. I substituted d 5 11 into the equation for t7. For example. and n 5 100 into the formula for the general term.. 28. 20.

42. .. For those that are. 6. 9. tn 5 14 1 tn 2 1 b) t1 5 5. . . 45. 6 3 2 3 6. tn 5 2tn 2 1 2 n 1 2 iii) t11 8. 7. f) 13.. 24. ii) If the sequence is arithmetic. determine K i) the general term a) ii) the recursive formula d) 11. 26. 11. ii) If a sequence is arithmetic... What is the 15th term of the arithmetic sequence 85. 34. 20. 3. 241... tn 5 tn 2 1 1 n 2 1 d) t1 5 1. a) 1. 5.. ... 27.. e) 1. 17.. 24. 31.. state the first five terms and the common difference. 119. . state the common difference. . 37. Determine which sequences are arithmetic. 13.. d) 59... . The 10th term of an arithmetic sequence is 29 and the 11th term is 41. 102.. 18. i) Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic.. formula. 6... .57. 253. 11. a) c) 3. b) 3. 17. 49. . 17. 56. b) 15. . 1. State the general term and the recursive formula for each arithmetic sequence. . ..... 0. 23. 0. 11. . c) 229. 12. . 2221. 12.. 31. Determine the recursive formula and the general term for the arithmetic sequence in which a) the first term is 19 and consecutive terms increase by 8 b) t1 5 4 and consecutive terms decrease by 5 c) the first term is 21 and the second term is 26 d) t4 5 35 and consecutive terms decrease by 12 7....CHECK Your Understanding 1.? PRACTISING 5. . e) 23. . 15. where n [ N and n . 40.. 28. b) 53. c) d) 3... . 424 Chapter 7 NEL . For each arithmetic sequence.. . 2111. What is the 12th term? 4. .. . 13. 1 1 1 2 .. 56. b) 31. 45. 6 7 5 5 f ) 0. 48... . 16. 19. state the general term and the recursive a) 8. 9. .. 35. . a) t1 5 13...74..4. 13. tn 5 3tn 2 1 c) t1 5 4. . . 14. 2. i) Determine whether each recursive formula defines an arithmetic sequence.. c) 21. 45.

16.. 34 seats in the second row. 27. . 15th. a) How many seats are in the 10th row? b) How many rows of seats are in the opera house? of $0. . . The 50th term of an arithmetic sequence is 238 and the 93rd term is 539. 226. 230. terms of the original sequence as t1. 15. . Create an arithmetic sequence that has t1 . .1 9. of your new sequence. ..7.. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 13. 86 f ) 28. the terms described by the sequence. 100 e) 233. 10.) Is this new sequence always arithmetic? NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 425 . . you would choose the 3rd. An opera house has 27 seats in the first row. for the sequence 3..25/h. . Two terms of an arithmetic sequence are 20 and 50. 15. You are given the 4th and 8th terms of a sequence. t3... A 11.. How long will he have to leave his money in the account if he wants to have $7800? 13. Her boss promises her a raise 12. t2. Describe how to determine the 100th term without finding the general term... a) 7.. Janice gets a job and starts out earning $9. 11. . and so on. 11. 23. from the original sequence. i) Determine whether each general term defines an arithmetic sequence. The common difference between consecutive terms is an integer. . Two other terms of the sequence are 37 and 73. 23. . 9.5% simple interest per year. 1 1 a) tn 5 8 2 2n c) f (n) 5 n 1 2 4 2n 1 5 b) tn 5 n2 2 3n 1 7 d) f (n) 5 7 2 3n 41 seats in the third row. State the general term. C Create three different arithmetic sequences given these terms.. 225 T d) 9. 244 14. 19. . (For example. When will Janice start earning at least twice her starting wage? 10. 219... . b) How are the common differences related to the terms 20 and 50? a) Extending 17. 16.15/h after each month of work. 30. The last row has 181 seats. 7th.. 7. 19. 235. Phil invests $5000 in a high-interest savings account and earns 3. state the first five terms and the common difference. Each of the three sequences should have a different first term and a different common difference. Determine the number of terms in each arithmetic sequence. 225. . t4. ii) If the sequence is arithmetic. .. 11th. 212. 18.. Create a new sequence by picking. 13. . 1. 63 b) 220.. 0 and in which each term is greater than the previous term. 2205 c) 31. Determine all possible values for the 100th term..

how many trees will be planted at the 10th stage? Create the first five terms of the geometric sequence that represents the number of trees planted at each stage. How is this recursive formula related to the characteristics of this geometric sequence? NEL G. 426 Chapter 7 . How are the two sequences similar? Different? How is the general term of a geometric sequence related to the equation of its graph? A recursive formula for the tree-planting sequence is t1 52. 1. What type of relation is this? Determine a formula for the general term of the sequence. Reflecting F. D.7.tn 57tn 2 1. 500 000. 250 000. Denise and Lise both initially accepted the challenge. Use the general term to calculate the 10th term. the common ratio.. E. stage 1 stage 2 ? geometric sequence a sequence that has the same ratio. Another geometric sequence is 1 000 000. The tree-planting sequence is a geometric sequence. C. where n [ N and n ... between any pair of consecutive terms A. If the pattern continues. B.2 YOU WILL NEED Geometric Sequences • graphing calculator • graph paper GOAL Recognize the characteristics of geometric sequences and express the general terms in a variety of ways. . INVESTIGATE the Math A local conservation group set up a challenge to get trees planted in a community. The challenge involves each person planting a tree and signing up seven other people to each do the same. H. 125 000. How is each term of this recursive sequence related to the previous term? Use a graphing calculator to graph the term (number of trees planted) versus stage number.

ar 2. I recognized this as an exponential function. . I would multiply the previous term by r each time. I made a table starting with the first term. To get the 13th term.. The 13th term is 36 864. I wrote a geometric sequence using a general first term. I simplified the terms.. (ar)r. Leo’s Solution: Using a Recursive Formula a) n tn n tn 1 9 8 1152 2 18 9 2304 3 36 10 4608 4 72 11 9216 5 144 12 18 432 6 288 13 36 864 7 576 I knew that the sequence is geometric so the terms increase by the same multiple each time. so I knew that I had a formula for the general term. where a is the first term. the result was one less than the position number. Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series NEL 427 . and I multiplied each term by 2 to get the next term until I got the 13th term..7. ar. where n [ N and n . b) a. 5 a. ar. and a common ratio. (ar 2 )r.. . Then I multiplied the common ratio 12 times. b) State a formula that defines each term of any geometric sequence. b) a. r. 1 To get the terms of any geometric sequence. . Tamara’s Solution: Using Powers of r a) a59 r52 t13 5 9 3 212 5 36 864 The 13th term is 36 864. a. ar. (ar 2)r. tn 5 rtn21. ar 3. Each time I multiplied by r.. Recursive formula: t1 5 a. I knew that the sequence is geometric with first term 9 and common ratio 2.2 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Connecting a specific term to the general term of a geometric sequence a) Determine the 13th term of a geometric sequence if the first term is 9 and the common ratio is 2. I started with the first term. (ar)r. General term: tn 5 ar n21 or f (n) 5 ar n21 Geometric sequences can be used to model problems that involve increases or decreases that change exponentially..

3 3 0. r 5 0.9510021 533 0. I wrote the formula for the general term. I determined the value of n when f (n) 5 11 by substituting a 5 52 612 659.95. 3 3 0.95 f (n) 5 ar n21 f (100) 5 3 3 0. . How much radioactive material will be left after 100 years? Jacob’s Solution 3.. there will be about 19 g of radioactive material left. I calculated the common ratio by dividing t2 by t1. 11? Suzie’s Solution a 5 52 612 659 r5 17 537 553 1 5 52 612 659 3 I knew that the sequence is geometric with first term 52 612 659. I needed to determine the value of f (n) when n 5 100. 2 3 Every year.952 ) 3 0.019 After the 100th year.95. so its position number will be equal to the number of terms in the sequence..95) 3 0. 5 3.EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem by using a geometric sequence A company has 3 kg of radioactive material that must be stored until it becomes safe to the environment. 1 f (n) 5 ar n21 1 n21 11 5 52 612 659 3 a b 3 428 Chapter 7 NEL . After one year. and n 5 100 into the formula.95. and f(n) 5 11 into the formula. 17 537 553.95.. . EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine the number of terms in a geometric sequence How many terms are in the geometric sequence 52 612 659. (3 3 0.. .9599 8 0. The last term of the sequence is 11. r 5 3.. a53 r 5 0. 3 3 0. 95% of the radioactive material remains.95.95.95 . So I substituted a 5 3. 95% of the radioactive material remains. The sequence is geometric with first term 3 and common ratio 0. . The terms show the amounts in each year. (3 3 0. I wrote the formula for the general term of a geometric sequence. 3 3 0..95 . I represented the amount of radioactive material as a sequence.

the sequence has terms that alternate from positive to negative. 220. Then I found the point of intersection. 36. In Summary Key Idea • A geometric sequence is a recursive sequence in which new terms are created by multiplying the previous term by the same value (the common ratio) each time. 3 33 3 3 3 t2 6 5 53 t1 2 18 t3 5 53 t2 6 t4 54 5 53 t3 18 o 1 and 144. 2 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 72 1 t2 5 5 t1 144 2 36 1 t3 5 5 t2 72 2 t4 1 18 5 5 t3 36 2 o If the common ratio is negative. 6. t 5 rt 1 n n21... 3 (24) 3 (24) 3 (24) Need to Know • A geometric sequence can be defined • by the general term t 5 ar n21. For example.. 80. 54. has a common ratio of 24. 72. I graphed the functions Y1 5 52 612 659(1/3)^(X21) and Y2 5 11 using my graphing calculator. 2. is increasing with a common ratio of 3. see Technical Appendix. n • recursively by t 5 a.. 1. or • by a discrete exponential function f (n) 5 ar n21.. The x-coordinate represents the number of terms in the sequence. where n . In all cases. n [ N. 2320. 5. There are 15 terms in the geometric sequence. Tech Support For help using a graphing calculator to determine the point of intersection of two functions. a is the first term. 18. . B-12.7. 18. . is decreasing with a common ratio of . NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 429 . and r is the common ratio.. . For example.2 Instead of using guess and check to determine n.

. Determine which sequences are geometric.. 21... b) 1. state the general term. 72. 18.. geometric. 750. 26.. 100. .. 24. determine K i) the general term a) 4. . 244. 6561... state the general term and the recursive formula. 37.. 9. . c) 18. . 15.. 14. 240.. state the common ratio.. f ) 125. b) 5. 20. 48. .. 15. 1500. . 9. 2135. d) 31.. 218.. c) 3. For each geometric sequence. 15. a) 12. or neither. Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic. c) 3.CHECK Your Understanding 1.. 36. 96. 135.. a) 9. . . 222..? PRACTISING 5.. . . 32. For those that are. 20. d) 896. 45. 45...04. . 448. 0. a) 9. 260.. 34.. . 3000.. e) 6. 81.. ii) the recursive formula iii) t6 6. 3.. d) 6000. b) 625. 9.. 2.. 6. 63. 218.. 19. .. 21. b) 211. ... d) 5. 3.... 0. What is the 33rd term? 4. 2189. e) 29... 17.. ii) If a sequence is arithmetic or geometric... What is the 10th term of the geometric sequence 1 813 985 280. 224. Determine the recursive formula and the general term for the geometric sequence in which a) the first term is 19 and the common ratio is 5 b) t1 5 29 and r 5 24 c) the first term is 144 and the second term is 36 1 d) t1 5 900 and r 5 6 430 Chapter 7 NEL . e) 6. 6750. . f ) 128. c) 7... 54.. ii) If a sequence is geometric. 8. 4500. 215.. 50 388 480.. a) 15. 2 3 f ) 1. b) 7. 8. . .2. 48. 375. . 7. c) 10 125. The 31st term of a geometric sequence is 123 and the 32nd term is 1107. . 7.. . 96. i) Determine whether each sequence is geometric... 144. 221.. 13. 302 330 880. State the general term and the recursive formula for each geometric sequence. . 1250. 50. . .. .. 12. 2500. i) 15. . . 2. . 37.

How many doses must be administered to reduce the bacterial population to the desired level? NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 431 . what percent of the original bacterial population is left? b) Biologists have determined that when a person has a bacterial infection. If the pattern continues. 1 3 b) t1 5 28. 2 n21 t1 5 18. i) Determine whether each recursive formula defines a geometric sequence. The 5th term of a geometric sequence is 45 and the 8th term is 360. a) tn 5 4n d) tn 5 7 3 (25) n24 e) f (n) 5 b) tn 5 3n 1 5 c) f (n) 5 n2 2 13n 1 8 2 3n 1 1 11 f ) f (n) 5 n 13 11. ii) If the sequence is geometric. state the first five terms and the common ratio. a) If four doses of the antibiotic are taken. A certain antibiotic reduces the number of bacteria in your body by 10% each dose. Sam invested $5000 in a GIC earning 8% compound interest per year. ii) If the sequence is geometric. where n [ N. as well as on the original amount. 2 a) 10. 1 3 d) t1 5 10. tn 5 4tn22. 1 t c) t1 5 123. where n . so the next year Sam gets interest on the interest already earned. where n [ N. where n . how many bacteria will be present at the 9th observation? Observation 1 2 3 4 Number of Bacteria 5 120 7 680 11 520 17 280 13. t2 5 20. state the first five terms and the common ratio. if the bacterial level can be reduced to 5% of its initial population.2 9. where n . the person can fight off the infection. The interest gets added to the amount invested. Determine the 20th term. tn 5 23tn21. How much will Sam’s investment be worth at the end of 10 years? 14. The A table below shows his first four observations. 12. where n . tn 5 n21 . i) Determine whether each general term defines a geometric sequence.7. tn 5 a b tn21. A doctor makes observations of a bacterial culture at fixed time intervals.

provide an example. stage 1 a) stage 2 stage 3 If the process continues indefinitely. . How many shaded triangles would be present in the sixth stage? b) If the triangle in the first stage has an area of 80 cm2. Determine the 10th term of the sequence 3. Is it possible for the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence to be equal to the first three terms of a geometric sequence? If so. The midpoints of the square are joined creating a smaller square and four triangles. 3.. 21. Is it possible to determine the 29th term without finding the general term? If so. 20. and 4 terms. describe how you would do it. the stages get closer to the Sierpinski gasket. Create an arithmetic sequence such that some of its terms form a geometric sequence. 2.. what is the area of the shaded portion of the 20th stage? 17. what will be the total area of the shaded region in stage 6? stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 stage 4 432 Chapter 7 NEL . The first three stages are shown. At each T stage. Given the geometric sequence with t1 5 1 and r 5 . 16. State the general term. 176. calculate the 2 sum of the first 1. In what ways are arithmetic and geometric sequences similar? Different? C Extending 1 18. How is the geometric sequence related to the arithmetic sequence? 22. You are given the 5th and 7th terms of a geometric sequence. The Sierpinski gasket is a fractal created from an equilateral triangle.. If you continue this process. the “middle” is cut out of each remaining equilateral triangle. A square has a side length of 12 cm.15. 10. 72. 28. What would happen to the sum if you added more and more terms? 19.

with the smallest on top.7. start end ? NEL What is the minimum number of moves required to complete the game? Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 433 . • circles (or squares) of paper of increasing size LEARN ABOUT the Math The Tower of Hanoi is a game played with three pegs and 10 discs of increasing size.3 GOAL Creating Rules to Define Sequences YOU WILL NEED Create rules for generating sequences that are neither arithmetic nor geometric. The object of the game is to stack all the discs on a different peg in the same order of size as you started with in the fewest number of moves. The rules for moving discs are: • You may move only one disc at a time. • You may place a disc only on an open peg. • You may move only a disc that is alone on a peg. or one that is on top of a pile. all of the discs are arranged in order of size on one of the pegs. At the start of the game. or on top of another disc that is larger than it.

I noticed that each term was double the previous term plus 1. Reflecting A. C. tn 5 2tn21 1 1 t2 5 3. 2. B. I noticed that for 3 discs. and 3 discs. and it worked for the first three cases. t2 5 2 3 1 1 1 t3 5 7. I then used the formula to calculate the number of moves needed for 10 discs. and finally move the top two discs on top of the third disc. I assumed that this pattern was correct. 434 Chapter 7 NEL . respectively. t1 5 1. Mario’s Solution Number of Discs 1 2 3 Number of Moves 1 3 7 I started with a simpler problem by counting the moves needed with 1. Use these new numbers to help you determine the general term of the sequence. I first had to move the top two discs to another peg. Then I used my formula to calculate the number of moves needed for 4 discs. then move the third disc to the open peg. I wrote my pattern rule as a recursive formula. t3 5 2 3 3 1 1 t4 5 2 3 7 1 1 5 15 t5 5 2 3 15 1 1 5 31 t6 5 2 3 31 1 1 5 63 t7 5 2 3 63 1 1 5 127 t8 5 2 3 127 1 1 5 255 t9 5 2 3 255 1 1 5 511 t10 5 2 3 511 1 1 5 1023 To move 10 discs to a new peg requires 1023 moves. How is Mario’s recursive formula useful for understanding this sequence? Why would it be difficult to use a recursive formula to figure out the number of moves if there were 1000 discs? Add 1 to each term in the sequence.EXAMPLE 1 Using a pattern to represent the moves Determine the minimum number of moves needed to move 10 discs to another peg.

There was no common ratio so the sequence is not geometric. Explain your reasoning.. 39. I worked backward again to calculate the next two terms. determine the next three terms. .. I could determine the next terms of the sequence. so the pattern rule seemed to be valid. Term 1 8 16 26 39 39 1 17 5 56 56 1 22 5 78 1st Difference 7 8 10 13 13 1 4 5 17 17 1 5 5 22 2nd Difference 1 2 3 31154 41155 I calculated the next two 2nd differences and worked backward to get the next two 1st differences. Tina’s Solution Term 1 8 16 26 39 1st Difference 7 8 10 13 I calculated the 1st differences of the first five terms to determine whether the sequence is arithmetic. 26. t2 8 5 58 t1 1 t3 16 5 52 t2 8 Term 1 8 16 26 39 1st Difference 7 8 10 13 1 2 3 2nd Difference I checked to see if the sequence is geometric. 56. I calculated the 2nd differences. 16. My values of t6 and t7 matched those in the given sequence. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 435 . The 2nd differences go up by 1. EXAMPLE 2 Using reasoning to determine the next terms of a sequence Given the sequence 1.7. identify the type of pattern (if one exists) that relates the terms to each other to get the general term. The sequence is not arithmetic since the 1st differences were not constant. . 78. If this pattern continues. 8. I first checked whether this pattern was valid by calculating the next two terms.3 APPLY the Math If a sequence is neither arithmetic nor geometric.

.93 t2 14 t4 122 5 8 2. 141. 3281. 436 Chapter 7 NEL . The sequence is not geometric. Sometimes the pattern between terms in a sequence that is neither arithmetic nor geometric can be best described using a recursive formula.98 t3 41 t5 365 5 8 2. EXAMPLE 3 Using reasoning to determine the recursive formula of a sequence Given the sequence 5. 365. Ali’s Solution t2 2 t1 5 14 2 5 5 9 t3 2 t2 5 41 2 14 5 27 t2 14 5 5 2. and 184. determine the recursive formula. The next three terms of the sequence are 106.. 14. 1094. I calculated a few ratios and found they were not the same.. . I calculated some 1st differences and found they were not the same.99 t4 122 The ratios seemed to be getting closer to 3.8 t1 5 t3 41 5 8 2. 41. 122.Term 1 8 16 26 39 56 78 78 1 28 5 106 106 1 35 5 141 141 1 43 5 184 1st Difference 7 8 10 13 17 22 22 1 6 5 28 28 1 7 5 35 35 1 8 5 43 2nd Difference 1 2 3 4 5 5+156 6+157 7+158 I applied the rule to determine the next three terms. Explain your reasoning. The sequence is not arithmetic.

365. the recursive formula for the sequence 5. . 1 Assuming that the pattern continues. t1 5 5.. I created a table to compare each term tn in the given sequence with 3 times the previous term... . Since the ratios were almost 3. is t1 5 5. where n [ N and n . 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 Explain your reasoning. so the numerators formed an arithmetic sequence. 41. 13. . There was a common difference of 2 between terms. determine the general term. 3281. . where n [ N and n . tn 5 3tn21 2 1. 1094. . 7. .3 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 tn 5 14 41 122 365 1094 3281 3tn21 — 15 42 123 366 1095 3282 I wrote a recursive formula for the sequence based on the pattern in my table. . I looked at just the numerators to see if they formed a sequence. Monica’s Solution 3.. 15. 1. I wrote the numerator in terms of n by substituting a 5 3 and d 5 2 into the general formula for an arithmetic sequence. 5. . 9. 3tn21. .. you can sometimes find a pattern between terms if you look at the numerators and the denominators on their own. I pretended that they were actually 3.7. I noticed that the value of tn was one less than the value of 3tn21. Nn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d 5 3 1 (n 2 1) (2) 5 2n 1 1 NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 437 . tn 5 3tn21 2 1. 11. EXAMPLE 4 Using reasoning to determine the general term of a sequence 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Given the sequence . 122. If the terms of a sequence are rational numbers. 14. ..

438 Chapter 7 NEL . 82. 3. Need to Know • A sequence has a general term if an algebraic rule using the term number. I looked at the denominators to see if they formed a sequence. 62.. n. The terms were perfect squares but of the next position’s value. 49. • If a sequence is arithmetic or geometric. 7. a general term can always be found because arithmetic and geometric sequences follow a predictable pattern. 36. For example. Next. 52. the sequence of primes. The general term of the given sequence is Nn tn 5 . . not the position value for the current term. 22.... Dn 5 (n 1 1) 2 tn 5 Nn Dn 2n 1 1 (n 1 1) 2 5 Assuming that the pattern continues. it is not always possible to find a general term. 64. (n 1 1) 2 In Summary Key Idea • A sequence is an ordered list of numbers that may or may not follow a predictable pattern.4. I wrote the denominator in terms of n by using a general expression for perfect squares. 16. the general term of the given sequence is tn 5 2n 1 1 . For any other type of sequence. 11. 5. but no function or recursive formula has ever been discovered to generate them.. 2. 25. . . 32. is well understood. 72. 42. Dn I substituted the expressions for Nn and Dn into tn. .. 9. can be found to generate each term. where n [ N.

Explain your reasoning. b) How will your rule change if the row of triangles is replaced with a row of squares? Explain your reasoning. You are given the sequence 0. 1 2 3 2. 2. . Determine a rule for calculating the general term. . Determine a rule for calculating tn . . 1. 3. Explain your reasoning. Leila used toothpicks to make a row of triangles.. Sam wrote a solution to determine the 10th term of the sequence 1. . Did you have to modify your rule to do this? If so. 23. Determine a rule for calculating the terms of the sequence . 24. 2 3 4 4 5 6 .... .. .. y 1 1 2x 1 2. 3x 1 3 .. . y y NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 439 . 21. the number of toothpicks needed for n triangles. b) Compare your rule with that of a classmate... what is your new rule? a) 1 5. 22. Explain your reasoning. Did you come up with the same rule? Which rule is “better”? Why? c) Determine t12345. figure 1 figure 2 figure 3 d) Show that both your rules work for n 5 4.. . 4. Determine an expression for the general term of the sequence x 1 . the number of toothpicks needed to create an n 3 n grid of squares. 21.3 CHECK Your Understanding 1.. Sam’s Solution tn = tn–1 – tn–2 ∴t10 = – 1 Do you think Sam is right? Explain. 4. 5 6 7 PRACTISING 3. a) c) Determine a rule for calculating tn .7.. 5. Explain your reasoning. 25.

1. . • The algorithm compares the first two numbers in a list to see if they are in the correct order... How many comparisons would the algorithm have to make to arrange these numbers from lowest to highest? 9. 1.. 5. 1 Leave as is. 8. 2 n21 10. Determine the next three terms of the sequence 2. 3. 27. 24. 4. 5555 55 555 555 555 7. 5. 3. . 5. 3. Compare 1. 8. 3. with no changes. 3. 55. 2. 11. . the numbers switch places.. Compare 1. 4. a bubble sort is an algorithm used to sort numbers from A lowest to highest. 4. 1 Leave as is. 19. d) 3. . Explain your reasoning. 5. . K a) 4. Compare 1. 94.. 1 Leave as is. . Explain your reasoning. Compare 1. Suppose you had the numbers 100. 3. 12. 125. For example. 4. 2. 1 Switch to give 1. 1. all the way through the list until the last two numbers. 4. 2.. 3. 4.. 2. 2. Determine the next three terms of each sequence. 2. • The process continues with the 2nd and 3rd numbers. A sequence is defined by if tn21 is even if tn21 is odd Determine t1000. 99. In computer science. 10. b) 100. 11.. State a C rule for generating the sequence. c) 1. Compare 1. . and then the 3rd and 4th. 271. 3. 79. 5. 1 Leave as is. 6. they are left alone. 1354. 3. 2.. a bubble sort of the numbers 3. 97.. 39. 5. 4.. 5. . 21. 4. 5. 6771. 4. 13. 5. T 33 854. 3. . 13. 1. 2. 5. 90. 4. Compare 1.. 99. 2. Compare 1. 4. 2.. 5.. 2. 1 Switch to give 1.3 21 147 . 2.. 4. 2. . • The algorithm stops after it goes through the complete list and makes no switches. 2 would look like this: Compare 3. 4. 5 55 555 1029 7203 50 421 . 2. 2. . 3. 1 Leave as is. 3. 2 n21 • 5 (t 1 1) . 5. 1 Switch to give 1.. 27. 2. 1 Switch to give 1. 5. 54. NEL 440 Chapter 7 . If they are not... 5.. 3. 5. 4. 28. . 5. 3. • The algorithm starts at the beginning and repeats the whole process. 5. f ) 6. The algorithm would then make 6 more comparisons. Compare 1. 98. t1 5 1 tn 5 1 t . Explain your reasoning. 1 Switch to give 1. 9. e) 1. 97. 2. Otherwise. . 3. 5. 3. 4. 4. and stop. 52.. Compare 1. Determine a rule for calculating the terms of the sequence . 264. Create your own sequence that is neither arithmetic nor geometric. 26. Explain your reasoning.

nicknamed Fibonacci. French mathematician Edouard Lucas (1842291) named the sequence in the rabbit problem “the Fibonacci sequence. What relationships can you determine in the Fibonacci sequence? The first five terms of the Fibonacci sequence are 1. 3. Explain how these terms are related and generate the next five terms.4 GOAL Exploring Recursive Sequences YOU WILL NEED Explore patterns in sequences in which a term is related to the previous two terms. and 5. 3. 2. 4. in the sequence. If the cycle continues.. B. which eventually mate. Determine an expression for generating any term. how many pairs of rabbits are there every month? The sequence that represents the number of pairs of rabbits each month is called the Fibonacci sequence in Pisano’s honour. . described a situation like this: A man put a pair of newborn rabbits (one male and one female) in an area surrounded on all sides by a wall.. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 441 . Fn. • graph paper EXPLORE the Math In his book Liber Abaci (The Book of Calculation). they produce a new pair of rabbits every month (one male and one female). . Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano (117021250). ? A.7. When the rabbits are in their second month of life. whose terms are generated in the same way as the Fibonacci sequence. 1.” He studied the related sequence 1. Generate the next five terms of the Lucas sequence.

How are these two sequences related? What happens if you repeat this process with the Lucas sequence? F. how are the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences related to a geometric sequence? E. 1 F2 5 5 1. Repeat this process with the Lucas sequence. How is this new sequence related to the Fibonacci sequence? Reflecting G. create a new sequence by adding terms that are two apart. The second is the products of Fibonacci terms that are two apart. Starting with the Fibonacci sequence. The first new sequence is the squares of the Fibonacci terms. F2 1 F4 3 5 5 1. How are these new sequences related to the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences? D. How are the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences similar? different? Although the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences have different starting values.C. The first three ratios are shown. The first four terms are shown. they share the same relationship between consecutive terms. F1 1 2 F3 5 5 2. 442 Chapter 7 NEL . create two new sequences as shown. and they have many similar properties. H.5 F3 2 What happens to the ratios if you continue the process? What happens if you repeat this process with the Lucas sequence? Based on your answers. How are these sequences similar? different? I. What properties do you think different sequences with the same relationship between consecutive terms have? How would you check your conjecture? From part D. the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences are closely related to a geometric sequence. Starting with the Fibonacci sequence. Create a new sequence by multiplying a Fibonacci number by a Lucas number from the same position. Determine the ratios of consecutive terms in the Fibonacci sequence.

B-16. tn 5 ar n21. tn 5 tn21 1 tn22 . the terms depend on one or more of the previous terms. and has many of the properties of the Fibonacci sequence. these sequences are similar to a geometric sequence. where n [ N and n . where n [ N and n . and the number of spirals of seeds on a sunflower head. Pick any two numbers and use the same relationship between consecutive terms as the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences to generate a new sequence. A sequence is defined by the recursive formula t1 5 1. t2 5 1. What happens to the ratios? c) Develop a formula for the general term. 2. • The Lucas sequence is defined by the recursive formula t1 5 1. Tech Support For help using a graphing calculator to generate sequences using recursive formulas. where n [ N and n . among other naturally occurring phenomena. 2. the number of spirals on a pineapple. This sequence models the number of petals on many kinds of flowers. t2 5 3. Substitute the general term for a geometric sequence. a) Generate the first 10 terms. What properties does this new sequence share with the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences? 2. into the recursive formulas for the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. FURTHER Your Understanding 1. and solve for r.4 In Summary Key Ideas • The Fibonacci sequence is defined by the recursive formula t1 5 1. tn 5 tn21 1 tn22 . 2. • Two different sequences with the same relationship between consecutive terms have similar properties. see Technical Appendix. b) Calculate the ratios of consecutive terms. Since the ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci and Lucas sequences are almost constant. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 443 . tn 5 tn21 1 2tn22. How does this value of r relate to what you found in part D? 3. t2 5 5.7. Need to Know • In a recursive sequence.

down. Artists have been known to incorporate the golden ratio into their works. like the Fibonacci sequence. The ancient Greeks thought that it defined the most pleasing ratio to the eye. and so on. The start of the spiral is shown at the right. draw a 3 3 3 square touching one of the 1 3 1 squares and the 2 3 2 square. Human works aren’t the only places where the golden ratio occurs. so they used it in their architecture. and spirals in seed heads of flowers can be expressed using the golden ratio. How is this spiral related to the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio? 444 Chapter 7 NEL . draw a 5 3 5 square touching both 1 3 1 squares and the 3 3 3 square.Curious Math The Golden Ratio The golden ratio (symbolized by f. trace a 1 3 1 square. seems to pop up in unexpected places. • • • • On a piece of graph paper. Greek letter phi) was known to the ancient Greeks. draw a 2 3 2 square. On the right side of your picture. A C B AC AB The golden ratio. • Repeat this process of adding squares around the picture. Euclid defined the golden ratio by a point C on a line segment AB such that f 5 CB 5 CB. The ratio of certain proportions in the human body are close to the golden ratio. up. On top of these two squares. alternating directions left. • Below your picture. 1. Draw another 1 3 1 square touching the left side of the first square. as well as in the movie and book The Da Vinci Code. It has even received some exposure in an episode of the crime series NUMB3RS. right.

. d. EXAMPLE If the sequence 13. state the recursive formula and the general term. f(n) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Position number. t1 t3 5 r.2. 27. t4 5r t3 • See Lesson 7. t4 2 t3 5 d • See Lesson 7. Examples 1. . Its general term is defined by a discrete exponential function since the graph of term versus position number gives an exponential curve.1. The recursive formula of an arithmetic sequence is based on adding the same value to the previous term. 34.7 Q: A: Mid-Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions How do you know if a sequence is arithmetic? Aid A sequence is arithmetic if consecutive terms differ by a constant called the common difference. and 3. . t2 . where n [ N and n . 1. t2 2 t1 5 d . r. 20. So the recursive formula is t1 5 13. Solution Each term is 7 more than the previous term. 41. The recursive formula of a geometric sequence is based on multiplying the previous term by the same value. n 9 10 Q: A: How do you know if a sequence is geometric? Study Aid A sequence is geometric if the ratio of consecutive terms is a constant called the common ratio. t3 2 t2 5 d . Its general term is defined by a discrete linear function since the graph of term versus position number gives a straight line. t2 5 r. The general term is tn 5 13 1 (n 2 1) (7) 5 7n 1 6 and its graph is a discrete linear function. is arithmetic.. 2. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 4 to 6. . 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 f(n) = 7n + 6 Term.. tn 5 tn21 1 7. Examples 1 to 4 • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 to 5. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 445 . . .

It is also useful to look at the 1st.. So the recursive formula is t1 5 16. 6. work backward using the 3rd. and 9. Solution Each term is 5 times the previous term. 446 Chapter 7 NEL . Once you find a pattern. Solution Start by looking at the 1st. . 11. and then the 1st differences. Look for a pattern among the terms. 41. and possibly higher. is geometric. and 70. To determine the next three terms. Since the 2nd differences seem to be going up by a constant. the next three terms are 22. 80. Determine the next three terms of the sequence 1. 6. How do you determine terms of a sequence that is neither arithmetic nor geometric? Q: A: Study Aid • See Lesson 7. EXAMPLE • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 7. differences.. 10 000. where n [ N and n . 8. f(n) 25 000 000 20 000 000 15 000 000 10 000 000 5 000 000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Position number. 1. 5. the 3rd differences are the same.3. 2nd. 2000.35 000 000 30 000 000 Term. and 3rd differences.. 2nd.. Examples 1 to 4. you can use it to generate terms of the sequence. The general term is tn 5 16 3 5n21. Assuming that the pattern continues. 7. . n f(n) = 16(5)n – 1 EXAMPLE If the sequence 16. 6.. 2nd. 3rd. Term 1 6 7 6 5 6 11 22 41 70 1st Difference 5 1 21 21 1 5 11 19 29 2nd Difference 3rd Difference 24 22 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 The 1st differences are not constant. tn 5 5tn21. state the recursive formula and the general term. 400. and its graph is a discrete exponential function.

. .” What are the next three terms? Explain your reasoning.75. the recursive formula. 21. An IQ test has the question “Determine the next an arithmetic sequence.. .. b) Determine the next three terms of the sequence. where n . b) 28.25... c) State the general term of the sequence. ___.4 10. i) d) 3000. 6. . 45. a) Determine the 15th term of the sequence 3. if it hasn’t sold. and t6. d) How many unit cubes does Sarah need to build the 15th cube? a) 23.Mid-Chapter Review PRACTICE Questions Lesson 7. tn 5 2tn21 2 tn22. The number of seats in the rows of a stadium form Lesson 7. . . 1 tn21 e) t1 5 8. 2 b) tn 5 tn 5 5n Lesson 7. d) 3. determine i) the recursive formula ii) the general term iii) t10 a) 29. Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series NEL 447 . 15. For each arithmetic sequence. 3x 1 3y . where n . 900.2 three numbers in the sequence 1. 13. A work of art is priced at $10 000. or neither). If the art is not sold. 29. how many weeks will you have to wait before being able to afford it? 2. How many seats are in the 55th row? Lesson 7. 5 22 . ___. where n [ N. geometric.. ii) Determine the general term. 12. Your mother really likes the art and you would like to purchase it for her.2. 9. 2. Determine the general term of the sequence x 1 y. . 2 3 6 f ) x... . . 21. Sarah built a sequence of large cubes using unit cubes. 67. but you have only $100. 8. x 3 1 3y. e) c) 217. a) 15. 1 tn d) t1 5 22. 246. where n .. tn 5 tn21 2 12. 1 1 2 . Two employees of the stadium determine that the 13th row has 189 seats and the 25th row has 225 seats. . Explain your reasoning.. After one week. 5. . f) State the sequence of the number of unit cubes in each larger cube.... Determine the recursive formula and the general term for the arithmetic sequence in which a) the first term is 17 and the common difference is 11 b) t1 5 38 and d 5 27 c) the first term is 55 and the second term is 73 d) t3 5 234 and d 5 238 e) the fifth term is 91 and the seventh term is 57 3. 9. .. 30..1 6. .. 2 3 9 Determine the type of each sequence (arithmetic. . i) Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic or geometric... a) 3 4n 1 3 c) t1 5 5.. e) 3. its price is reduced by 10%... ii) State the first five terms. . t2 5 11. b) Write the recursive formula for the sequence in part (a).... if 1. .. 92.3 7. 5. c) 5. b) 640. 270. 1 2 5 . 129. 9.. 221. 4. Each week after that. Explain your reasoning. 160.8. 7.5. x 2 1 2y.. . 216. 29.. 224. its price is reduced by another 10%. ___. the art isn’t sold. .. 320.. 5x 1 6y . .

When German mathematician Karl Friedrich Gauss (177721855) was a child. D. INVESTIGATE the Math Marian goes to a party where there are 23 people present. He then paired terms from the two lists to solve the problem. including her. but include plus signs between terms. they shake hands with the host and everyone who is already there. Each person shakes hands with every other person once and only once. Use this method to determine the sum of your arithmetic series. his teacher asked him to calculate the sum of the numbers from 1 to 100. C. + 98 + 99 + 100 100 + 99 + 98 + .. What type of sequence is this? Write your sequence from part A. 1 + 2 + 3 + . Gauss wrote the list of numbers twice. once forward and once backward.. + 3 + 2 + 1 101 + 101 How can Marian determine the total number of handshakes that take place? A. Solve the handshake problem without using Gauss’s method. Create a sequence representing the number of handshakes each person will make.7. This expression is a series and represents the total number of handshakes. When they enter.. ? series the sum of the terms of a sequence arithmetic series the sum of the terms of an arithmetic sequence B. 448 Chapter 7 NEL .5 YOU WILL NEED Arithmetic Series • linking cubes GOAL Calculate the sum of the terms of an arithmetic sequence.. Suppose the people join the party one at a time.

. What would you notice about the 1st and 2nd differences? Why is Gauss’s method for determining the sum of an arithmetic series efficient? Consider the arithmetic series 1 1 6 1 11 1 16 1 21 1 26 1 31 1 36. of the first n terms of a sequence F. Do you think this method will work for any arithmetic series? Justify your answer. The sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic series is Sn 5 5 5 5 n 3a 1 (a 1 (n 2 1)d )4 2 n(t1 1 tn ) 2 n 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 2 n 3a 1 a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 2 NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 449 . I noticed that a is the first term of the series and a 1 (n 2 1)d is the nth term. The nth term of the series corresponds to the general term of an arithmetic sequence.. 1 (a 1 d ) 1 .. I regrouped the terms in the numerator.. Next.. first forward and then backward.7. 1 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 1 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 Sn 5 n 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 2 1 (a 1 d ) 1 3a 1 (n 2 2)d 4 1 ... Since the terms in the top row go up by d and the terms in the bottom row go down by d. I added each column. I knew that 2a 5 a 1 a. tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d.. To find Sn. Using Gauss’s method. partial sum the sum. 1 tn ˛ 1 Sn 5 3a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 2Sn 5 n 3 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 Sn 5 a 2Sn 5 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 1 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 1 . so I divided by 2. I wrote the sum out twice.. 1 3a 1 (n 2 2)d 4 1 3a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 1a The series is arithmetic. each pair of terms has the same sum.5 Reflecting E.. but that represents 2Sn. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the sum of an arithmetic series Determine the sum of the first n terms of the arithmetic series a 1 (a 1 d ) 1 (a 1 2d ) 1 (a 1 3d ) 1 . ˛ ˛ ˛ Barbara’s Solution Sn 5 a 1 (a 1 d ) 1 (a 1 2d ) 1 (a 1 3d ) 1 . Use Gauss’s method to determine the sum of this series. There are n pairs that add up to 2a 1 (n 2 1)d.. so I wrote this formula another way. Suppose the partial sums of an arithmetic series are the terms of an arithmetic sequence. I added all terms up to tn. Sn. G.

.. Jasmine’s Solution t2 2 t1 5 235 2 (231) 5 24 t3 2 t2 5 239 2 (235) 5 24 I checked to see if the series was arithmetic. seats are arranged in 50 semicircular rows facing a domed stage. EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to calculate the sum of a series when the number of terms is unknown Determine the sum of 231 2 35 2 39 2 . The differences were the same. EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem by using an arithmetic series In an amphitheatre. The first row contains 23 seats.. the number of seats in each row forms an arithmetic sequence. In order to determine the sum of any arithmetic series.. How many seats are in the amphitheatre? Kew’s Solution a 5 23. 2403. and each row contains 4 more seats than the previous row. you can use the formula for the sum of an arithmetic series. I used the formula for the sum of an arithmetic series in terms of a and d. 1 t50 (50) 32(23) 1 (50 2 1) (4) 4 2 n 32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 Sn 5 2 S50 5 5 6050 There are 6050 seats in the amphitheatre. 450 Chapter 7 NEL .If a problem involves adding the terms of an arithmetic sequence. 23 1 27 1 31 1 . you need to know the number of terms in the series. Since I knew the first term and the common difference. I wrote an arithmetic series to represent the total number of seats in the amphitheatre. so the series is arithmetic. d 5 4 Since each row has 4 more seats than the previous row. I substituted n 5 50 since there are 50 rows of seats. So I calculated a few 1st differences.

5 220 398 The sum of the series 231 2 35 2 39 2 . Since I knew the first and last terms of the series. S4 5 t1 1 t2 1 t3 1 t4 5 2 1 10 1 18 1 26 5 56 Need to Know • The sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence can be calculated using n32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 • Sn 5 or 2 n(t1 1 tn ) • Sn 5 .. . For example. In Summary Key Idea • An arithmetic series is created by adding the terms of an arithmetic sequence. Sn 5 t1 1 t2 1 t3 1 . . and t 94 5 2403.. 1 tn. t1 5 231. . 18. For the sequence 2. 18. • You can use either formula. 26. 10.. So I substituted a 5 31. a is the first term. 2 In both cases.. I needed to determine the value of n when tn 5 2403. d 5 4. the related arithmetic series is 2 1 10 1 18 1 26 1 . n [ N. Sn. I substituted n 5 94.. . use the formula in terms of t1 and tn. If you know the last term.. 2403 is 220 398.. • The partial sum. but you need to know the number of terms in the series and the first term.. and d is the common difference. and tn into the formula for the general term of an arithmetic sequence and solved for n. 26. I used the formula for the sum of an arithmetic series in terms of t1 and tn.. If you can calculate the common difference.5 tn 5 a 1 (n 2 1)d 2403 5 231 1 (n 2 1) (24) 2403 1 31 5 (n 2 1) (24) 2372 5 (n 2 1) (24) 2372 (n 2 1) (24) 5 24 24 93 5 n 2 1 93 1 1 5 n 94 5 n Sn 5 S94 5 n(t1 1 tn ) 2 943231 1 (2403)4 2 There are 94 terms in this sequence... of a series is the sum of a finite number of terms from the series. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 451 . for the sequence 2. use the formula in terms of a and d.7. 10.

2 136 f ) 263 2 57 2 51 2 . b) Show that your formula works for a regular heptagon (a seven-sided polygon). b) 2 1 10 1 50 1 250 1 . a) 59 1 64 1 69 1 ...... Bricks are stacked in 20 rows such that each row has a fixed number of bricks more than the row above it.. f ) 1 2 3 1 5 2 7 1 ......43 1 6.. b) 213 2 24 2 35 2 46 2 . i) Determine whether each series is arithmetic.. a) 37 1 41 1 45 1 49 1 . d) 6......55 1 .. 3..CHECK Your Understanding 1.. Calculate the sum of the first 10 terms of each arithmetic series. c) 2103 2 110 2 117 2 . 1 96 b) 24 1 37 1 50 1 .. 452 Chapter 7 NEL . The top row has 5 bricks and the bottom row 62 bricks. 2 99 A 8. Determine the sum of the first 20 terms of the arithmetic series in which a) b) c) d) e) f) the first term is 8 and the common difference is 5 t1 5 31 and t20 5 109 t1 5 53 and t2 5 37 the 4th term is 18 and the terms increase by 17 the 15th term is 107 and the terms decrease by 3 the 7th term is 43 and the 13th term is 109 d) 5 1 8 1 11 1 . c) 218 2 12 2 6 1 0 1 . a) Develop a formula for the number of diagonals for a regular polygon with n sides. d) 278 2 56 2 34 2 . How many bricks are in the stack? PRACTISING 4. side a) 1 1 6 1 11 1 .. a) 25 1 1 1 7 1 13 1 .31 1 5.... 1 2135 e) 231 2 38 2 45 2 . Calculate the sum of the first 20 terms of an arithmetic sequence with first term 18 and common difference 11.. For each series... K d) 18 1 22 1 26 1 30 1 .... calculate the sum of the first 25 terms... f ) p 1 (2p 1 2q) 1 (3p 1 4q) 1 (4p 1 6q) 1 . 1 63 7. b) 31 1 23 1 15 1 . c) 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 .19 1 4.. 5... A diagonal in a regular polygon is a line segment joining two nonadjacent diagonal vertices. Calculate the sums of these arithmetic series. 2. e) 31 1 22 1 13 1 4 1 ..... 1 349 c) 85 1 77 1 69 1 . ii) If the series is arithmetic. 5 10 5 10 e) 3... calculate t12 and S12.. 7 6 17 1 1 1 1 1 .

In level 1. The arithmetic series 1 1 4 1 7 1 . she continues to fall 9. what total distance will Sara run in a 10 week training session? uses linking cubes to represent the sum of the series 2 1 5 1 8 1 11 1 14 two ways. and the sum of the first 20 terms is 710. you are given 3 min 20 s to complete the task. Chandra jumps out of a plane and falls 4. he assembled 137 toys. each day she runs 2 km farther than she ran the days of the previous week. After 15 s. How far did Chandra fall before she opened her parachute? 11. He noticed that since he started. The first week she runs 5 km each day. 1 tn has a sum of 1001. Jamal got a job working on an assembly line in a toy factory. How many toys did Jamal assemble altogether during his first 20 days? 12.8 m more than the previous second.. The T next week. The 10th term of an arithmetic series is 34. On the 20th day of work. These representations are shown at the right.5 9. she runs 7 km each day.3% simple interest on his investments. at level 20. a fixed number of seconds are removed from the time until. Determine the 25th term.” a number of shapes have to be arranged into a predefined form. she opens her parachute. During each successive week. Explain how the linking-cube representations can be used to explain the formulas for an arithmetic series. What would be the total amount of time given if you were to complete the first 20 levels? 13.9 m during the first second. In the video game “Geometric Constructors. 14. If she runs for five days each week.7. During a skydiving lesson. How many terms does the series have? NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 453 . Joan is helping a friend understand the formulas for an arithmetic series. Joe invests $1000 at the start of each year for five years and earns 6. 1 min 45 s are given. every day he assembled 3 more toys than the day before. Sara is training to run a marathon. For each second afterward. 16. How much will all his investments be worth at the start of the fifth year? 10. At each level afterward.. She C Extending 15.

How do you know that this sequence is geometric? Based on your sequence. rSn and Sn. determine how many people are in John’s ancestor tree.6 YOU WILL NEED Geometric Series • spreadsheet software GOAL Calculate the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence. create a geometric series to represent the total number of people in John’s ancestor tree. INVESTIGATE the Math An ancestor tree is a family tree that shows only the parents in each generation. Subtract Sn from rSn. How many people are in John’s ancestor tree? Create a sequence to represent the number of people in each generation for the first six generations. His complete ancestor tree includes 13 generations. B. C. 3rd generation 2nd generation 1st generation ? A.7. Based on your calculation in part C. John started to draw his ancestor tree. starting with his own parents. Write both series. but this time multiply each term by the common ratio. Write the series again. 454 Chapter 7 NEL . so that equal terms are aligned one above the other. geometric series the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence D.

r21 ar n 2 a Sn 5 r21 Sn 5 tn11 2 t1 . If I multiplied every term by the common ratio.6 Reflecting E. Only the first term of Sn and the last term of rSn would remain. I wrote this new series above the original series and lined up equal terms. r21 I wrote this formula another way by expanding the numerator. so I would get zero for most of the terms when I subtracted... 1 ar n22 1 ar n21 ) (r 2 1)Sn 5 2a 1 0 1 (r 2 1)Sn 5 2a 1 ar n r21 a r 2 1 b Sn 5 1 1 I wrote the sum out. (r 2 1)Sn 5 a(r n 2 1) a(r n 2 1) r21 a(r n 2 1) r21 Sn 5 The sum of the first n terms of a geometric series is Sn 5 a(r n 2 1) . I solved for Sn by dividing both sides by r 2 1.. The nth term of the series corresponds to the general term of a geometric sequence.. To find Sn. 1 01 01 ar n 2Sn 5 2(a 1 ar 1 ar 2 1 ar 3 1 . How is the sum of a geometric series related to an exponential function? Why did lining up equal terms make the subtraction easier? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the sum of a geometric series Determine the sum of the first n terms of the geometric series. most of the terms would be repeated. rSn 5 ar 1 ar 2 1 ar 3 1 . where r 2 1. I added all terms up to tn.7.. Tara’s Solution tn 5 ar n21 The series is geometric. where r 2 1.. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 455 . F. 1 ar n22 1 ar n21 1 ar n 01 0 1 . I noticed that a is the first term in the series and ar n is the (n 1 1)th term.

So I calculated the ratio of consecutive terms. 10. and n. 50. 5 4 882 812 A total of 4 882 812 fish hatched during the first 10 days. respectively. The first term is 2 and there are 10 terms. fish hatch at different times even though the eggs were all fertilized at the same time. Since I knew the first term. Since all the ratios are the same. you can use the formula for the sum of geometric series. 250. If the pattern continues. r 5 5. calculate the total number of fish hatched during the first 10 days. EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem by using a geometric series At a fish hatchery. and 250... the common ratio. and the number of terms. and n 5 10. Joel’s Solution 10 t2 5 t1 2 55 6r55 a52 n 5 10 Sn 5 S10 5 a(r 2 1) r21 2(510 2 1) 521 n 50 t3 5 t2 10 55 t4 250 5 t3 50 55 I checked to see if the sequence 2. the sequence is geometric.If a problem involves adding together the terms of a geometric sequence. 456 Chapter 7 NEL . I substituted a 5 2. I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series in terms of a. 50. r. is geometric. . The number of fish that hatched on each of the first four days after fertilization was 2. 10.

. I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series in terms of t1 and tn11. 1 92 160. 61 440 corresponds to the (n 1 1)th term.7.6 EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to calculate the sum of a geometric series when the number of terms is unknown Calculate the sum of the geometric series 7 971 615 1 5 314 410 1 3 542 940 1 . I saw that the 12th term is 92 160.. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 457 . So I calculated the common ratio. Jasmine’s Solution: Using a Spreadsheet t2 5 314 410 5 t1 7 971 615 5 6r5 2 3 2 3 A n tn B I knew that the series is geometric.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 7971615 5314410 3542940 2361960 1574640 1049760 699840 466560 311040 207360 138240 92160 61440 I needed to determine the number of terms. 5 23 730 525 The sum of the series 7 971 615 1 5 314 410 1 3 542 940 1 . Sn 5 S12 5 tn11 2 t1 r21 61 440 2 7 971 615 2 21 3 From the spreadsheet. n.. Since I knew the first term and the (n 1 1)th term. to get to tn 5 92 160. So I set up a spreadsheet to generate the terms of the series. 1 92 160 is 23 730 525.

to get to tn 5 92 160. Tech Support Since I knew that a 5 7 971 615. n. Then I used the table function to determine the term number whose value was 92 160. I 2 substituted a 5 7 971 615 and r 5 3 into the formula.Mario’s Solution: Using a Graphing Calculator t2 5 314 410 5 t1 7 971 615 5 6r5 2 3 2 3 I wrote the formula for the general term of a geometric sequence. 2 The sum of the series 7 971 615 1 5 314 410 1 3 542 940 1 . B-6. So I calculated the common ratio. 2 n21 92 160 5 7 971 615 3 a b 3 tn 5 ar n21 2 n21 5 7 971 615 3 a b 3 I needed to determine the number of terms. I knew that the series is geometric.. and n 5 12. I entered the function Y1 5 7 971 615(2/3)^(X21) into my graphing calculator. r. see Technical Appendix. It was n 5 12. 1 92 160 is 23 730 525. and n.. 458 Chapter 7 NEL . I used my calculator to evaluate. For help using the table on a graphing calculator. a(r n 2 1) Sn 5 r21 r 5 3. I substituted these values into the formula for the sum of a geometric series in terms of a.

24... r21 In both cases. ..6 In Summary Key Idea • A geometric series is created by adding the terms of a geometric sequence. the related geometric series is 3 1 6 1 12 1 24 1 . 12.. 6.. a) 6 1 30 1 150 1 . c) 8 2 24 1 72 2 ..... Need to Know • The sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence can be calculated using a(rn 2 1) • Sn 5 . where r 2 1 or r21 tn11 2 t1 • Sn 5 .4 2 7.. CHECK Your Understanding 1. r. 81 1 63 1 45 1 27 1 . 3 6 12 2.. use the formula in terms of t1 and tn11.. and n. Calculate the sum of the first seven terms of each geometric series. PRACTISING 3.... i) K Determine whether each series is arithmetic.. 2048 2 512 1 128 2 32 1 .. and r is the common ratio..21 1 1. where r 2 1. For each geometric series.... a is the first term. a) b) c) d) e) f) NEL 459 . d) 4.. 10 2 20 1 30 2 40 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 . If you know the (n 1 1)th term. For the sequence 3. f ) 1 1 3x2 1 9x4 1 . Calculate the sum of the first six terms of a geometric sequence with first term 11 and common ratio 4. 5 1 10 1 15 1 20 1 .1 1 1. but you need to know the common ratio and the first term. 5 15 45 e) 3. b) 211 2 33 2 99 2 . geometric. calculate t6 and S6.. 1.. a) 6 1 18 1 54 1 . If you can calculate the number of terms. or neither. c) 21 000 000 1 4 200 000 1 840 000 1 .4641 1 ... 4 8 16 1 1 1 .994 2 .... use the formula in terms of a..... ... • You can use either formula.331 1 1.14 1 14. 7 1 21 1 63 1 189 1 . calculate the sum of the first eight terms.. d) b) 100 1 50 1 25 1 ..7. n [ N. Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series ii) If the series is geometric.

the ball reaches 60% of its previous height..5. 1 1 6 1 36 1 .8225 26 1 24 2 96 1 . 2 334 611 24 000 1 3600 1 540 1 . At each new stage. At the top of each bounce. A simple fractal tree grows in stages. an isosceles right triangle and two squares are attached to the last square(s) drawn. 1 279 936 960 1 480 1 240 1 .. A ball is dropped from a height of 3 m and bounces on the ground. 1 15 17 2 51 1 153 2 . Calculate the sum of each geometric series. The formula for the sum of a geometric series is Sn 5 tn112t1 . 1 98 304 1 f ) 4 1 2 1 1 1 .. two new line A a(r n 2 1) or r21 segments branch out from each segment at the top of the tree. stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 NEL 460 Chapter 7 . Calculate the area of the tree at the 10th stage. Sn 5 9.. 8. Calculate the total distance travelled by the ball when it hits the ground for the fifth time. each of which is valid only if r 2 1. A Pythagorean fractal tree starts at stage 1 with a square of side length 1 m. How many line segments need to be drawn to create stage 20? stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 stage 4 stage 5 10... Determine the sum of the first seven terms of the geometric series in which a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) t1 5 13 and r 5 5 the first term is 11 and the seventh term is 704 t1 5 120 and t2 5 30 the third term is 18 and the terms increase by a factor of 3 t8 5 1024 and the terms decrease by a factor of 3 t5 5 5 and t8 5 240 2 6. The first five stages are shown.. 1 1. Explain how you would r21 determine the sum of a geometric series if r 5 1..... 1 1024 7. The first three stages are shown. At every consecutive stage..

How many terms are in the series? 17. Justify your reasoning. Factor x15 2 1.. how many employees does the company have? 12. John solved the 3 problem by considering another geometric series with common ratio 5.6 11. 13. In a geometric series. Represent the next three terms on the diagram. who each call three other employees. Use John’s method to calculate the sum. John wants to calculate the sum of a geometric series with 10 terms. 16. a) 1 2 NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 461 .. t3 5 92. t1 5 23. Each of the five senior managers calls three employees.7. What is the greatest possible value for t5? Justify your answer. 5 where the 10th term is 5 859 375 and the common ratio is 3. The company wants to come up with a number of prizes that satisfy all of these conditions: a) The total of the prizes is at most $2 000 000.. Suppose you want to calculate the sum of the infinite geometric series 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . each prize is a constant integral multiple of the next smaller prize and is • more than double the next smaller prize • less than 10 times the next smaller prize Determine a set of prizes that satisfies these conditions. Describe several methods for calculating the partial sums of an arithmetic and a C Extending 15. 18. In a geometric series. 2 4 8 16 The diagram shown illustrates the first term of this series. geometric series. If the tree consists of seven levels. t1 5 12 and S3 5 372. b) How can the formula for the sum of a geometric series be used in this case? c) Does it make sense to talk about adding together an infinite number of terms? Justify your reasoning. How are the methods similar? different? 14. and the sum of all of the terms of the series is 62 813. b) Each prize is in whole dollars (no cents). c) When the prizes are arranged from least to greatest. and so on. A large company has a phone tree to contact its employees in case of an emergency factory shutdown. A cereal company attempts to promote its product by placing certificates for a T cash prize in selected boxes.

7. D. Blaise Pascal 462 Chapter 7 . it has the same chance of going either left or right. A version of the toy with nine levels is shown at the right. Reflecting E. Use your pattern to calculate the number of paths to each bin in a toy with nine levels. How is the number of paths for a toy with three levels related to the number of paths for a toy with two levels? Why is this so? Use the pattern to predict how many paths lead to each bin in a toy with four levels. How is the number of paths for each bin in a given level related to the number of paths in the level above it? The triangular pattern of numbers in the “Rockin’ Rollers” toy is known as Pascal’s triangle. and use one of these patterns to expand binomials efficiently. Calculate the number of paths to each bin at the bottom. INVESTIGATE the Math A child’s toy called “Rockin’ Rollers” involves dropping a marble into its top. who explored many of its properties. B. level 0 level 1 level 2 level 3 level 4 level 5 level 6 level 7 level 8 level 9 ? A. C. What other pattern(s) can you find in Pascal’s triangle? NEL F. How many paths are there to each of the bins at the bottom of this version of “Rockin’ Rollers”? Consider a “Rockin’ Rollers” toy that has only one level.7 Pascal’s Triangle and Binomial Expansions GOAL Investigate patterns in Pascal’s triangle. When the marble hits a pin. named after French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623 62). Check your prediction by counting the number of paths. Repeat the calculation with a toy having two and three levels.

the sum of the x and y exponents is always 3. and go down to zero. The binomial to the 1st power is the same as the binomial itself. while the exponents of y start at zero and go up to 3. I wrote out 6 rows of Pascal’s triangle. I used my patterns and the 6th row of the triangle. I noticed that the coefficients in each of the expansions so far are numbers in each row of Pascal’s triangle. In each term. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 463 .7. The exponents of x start from 3 (the exponent of the binomial). I expanded the square of a binomial. I expanded the binomial to the 3rd power. 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 10 3 6 10 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 0th row 1st row 2nd row 3rd row 4th row 5th row I tried one more expansion to check that these patterns continue. Pedro’s Solution (x 1 y) 1 5 1x 1 1y (x 1 y) 2 5 1x 2 1 2xy 1 1y 2 (x 1 y) 3 5 (x 1 y) (x 1 y) 2 5 (x 1 y) (x 2 1 2xy 1 y 2 ) 5 x 3 1 2x 2y 1 xy 2 1 x 2y 1 2xy 2 1 y 3 5 1x 3 1 3x 2y 1 3xy 2 1 1y 3 Each term in the expansion is in terms of a product of an exponent of x and an exponent of y. 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 (x 1 y) 4 5 (x 1 y) (x 1 y) 3 5 (x 1 y) (x 3 1 3x 2y 1 3xy 2 1 y 3 ) 5 x 4 1 3x 3y 1 3x 2y 2 1 xy 3 1 3x 2y 2 1 3xy 3 1 y 4 5 x 4 1 4x 3y 1 6x 2y 2 1 4xy 3 1 y 4 (x 1 y) 6 5 x 6 1 6x 5y 1 15x 4y 2 1 20x 3y 3 1 15x 2 y 3 1 6xy 5 1 y 6 To expand (x 1 y)6.7 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Connecting Pascal’s triangle to the expansion of a binomial power Expand (x 1 y)6. The one at the top must correspond to (x 1 y)0 1.

I used the 5th row of Pascal’s triangle to determine the coefficients. (x 2 2)5 51(x)5 1 5(x)4(22)1 1 10(x)3(22)2 1 10(x)2(22)3 1 5(x)1(22)4 1 1(22)5 5 x 5 1 5(x 4)(22) 1 10(x 3)(4) 1 10(x 2)(28) 1 5(x)(16) 1 (232) 5 x 5 2 10x 4 1 40x 3 2 80x 2 1 80x 2 32 EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to expand a binomial power involving a variable in each term Expand and simplify (5x 1 2y)3. I used the terms x and 22 and applied the pattern for expanding a binomial. As the x exponents decrease by 1 each time. Tanya’s Solution 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 10 3 6 10 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 Since the exponent of the binomial is 5. 464 Chapter 7 NEL . Jason’s Solution 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 Since the exponent of the binomial is 3. I simplified each term. the exponents of 2 increase by 1. EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to expand a binomial power involving a variable in one term Expand and simplify (x 2 2)5. The exponents in each term always add up to 5.Any binomial can be expanded by using Pascal’s triangle to help determine the coefficients of each term. I wrote out the 3rd row of Pascal’s triangle.

. 1. . tn 5 tn 2 1 1 n. which can be defined by the recursive formula t1 5 1... • In each term. Each row is generated by calculating the sum of pairs of consecutive terms in the previous row. 2. • The diagonal beside that is the counting numbers. while the exponents of b start at zero and increase by 1 up to n. • In the expansion. 1. 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 10 3 6 10 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 0th row 1st row 2nd row 3rd row 4th row 5th row • The numbers in Pascal’s triangle correspond to the coefficients in the expansion of binomials raised to whole-number exponents. Some of these relationships are recursive. 6. where n [ N and n . . a power of a... the exponents of a start at n and decrease by 1 down to zero. • The next diagonal is the triangular numbers. . • The coefficients in the expansion correspond to the numbers in the nth row in Pascal’s triangle. • For example. I simplified each term.7. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 465 . down the sides are constant sequences: 1.. Need to Know • Pascal’s triangle has many interesting relationships among its numbers.. which form an arithmetic sequence. 1.. • There are patterns in the expansions of a binomial (a 1 b)n: • Each term in the expansion is the product of a number from Pascal’s triangle. . and a power of b. 5 1(125x 3) 1 3(25x 2)(2y) 1 3(5x)(4y 2) 1 1(8y 3) 5 125x 3 1 150x 2y 1 60xy 2 1 8y 3 In Summary Key Ideas • The arrangement of numbers shown is called Pascal’s triangle. the sum of the exponents of a and b is always n. 3.7 (5x 1 2y)3 5 1(5x)3 1 3(5x)2(2y)1 1 3(5x)1(2y)2 1 1(2y)3 I used the terms 5x and 2y and applied the pattern for expanding a binomial. 1. 10. 3.

expand each binomial power to describe a pattern in Pascal’s triangle. and 220. 3.CHECK Your Understanding 1. without calculating. 2 2 are also constant. PRACTISING 4. Expand and simplify each binomial power. Using the diagram at the left. a) 2n 5 (1 1 1)n b) 0 5 (1 2 1)n. Expand and simplify the first three terms of each binomial power. the third differences are constant. the 1st differences are constant. Use the pattern for expanding a binomial to demonstrate that if a relation is cubic. The first four entries of the 12th row of Pascal’s triangle are 1. Expand and simplify each binomial power. a) a) (x 1 2)5 (x 1 5)10 b) (x 2 1)6 b) (x 2 2)8 c) (2x 2 3)3 c) (2x 2 7)9 6 e) Q !2x 1 !3 R f ) (2z 3 2 3y 2)5 3.) How are the terms related to tossing the coin 10 times? 466 Chapter 7 NEL . 66. If a relation is linear. 2. Using the pattern for expanding a binomial. Extending 12. Determine the first four entries of the 13th row of the triangle. !5 2 2 How are the terms related? d) Q !a 1 !5 R 10 c) (z5 2 z 3)11 f ) (5x 3 1 3y 2)8 e) a3b2 2 b 2 b 14 could walk to school from her house if she always travels either north or east. where n 5 1. determine the number of different ways that Joan A 1 1 2 !5 n 1 1 !5 n ca b 2a b d . binomial to expand (x 1 y 1 z)10. 2. When a fair coin is tossed. Expand and simplify (3x 2 5y)6. 9. 11. Using the pattern for expanding a binomial. Expand and simplify the first three terms of each binomial power. 12. (Hint: You may want to look at x 3 and (x 1 1)3. where n $ 1 7. how you can use the pattern for expanding a T 10. the probability of getting heads or tails is 2. If the 2nd differences 1 13. and 4. the relation is quadratic. 1 1 Expand and simplify the first three terms in the expression Q 1 R10. expand and simplify the expression school N E Joan’s house 8. K a) (k 1 3)4 b) ( y 2 5)6 c) (3q 2 4)4 d) (2x 1 7y)3 5. a) (x 2 2)13 b) (3y 1 5)9 6. Summarize the methods of expanding a binomial power and determining a C term in an expansion. Explain.

a is the first term. 2. Examples 1. n [ N. r21 r21 Study Aid • See Lesson 7. • Try Chapter Review Question 23. 2. • Try Chapter Review Questions 14 to 17. You can use either of the formulas Sn 5 n(t1 1 tn ) n32a 1 (n 2 1)d 4 2 • See Lesson 7. use the formula in terms of t1 and tn11. For either formula. one above the other. use the formula in terms of a. where n is a whole number. How do you expand a binomial power? Study Aid Use the pattern for expanding a binomial. Each term in the expansion is a product of a number from Pascal’s triangle. and d is the 2 common difference. n [ N. 2. and 3. Q: A: How do you determine the sum of a geometric series? You can use either of the formulas Sn 5 where r 2 1.5. and 3. the sum of the exponents of a and b is always n. Choose the nth row of Pascal’s triangle for the coefficients. If you can calculate the number of terms. Suppose you have the binomial (a 1 b)n. NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 467 . you need to know the common ratio and the first term. a power of a. A2: or Sn 5 .7. and 3. Examples 1. The exponents of a start at n and decrease by 1 down to zero. r.6. and n. and r is the common ratio. you need to know the number of terms in the series and the first term. use the formula in terms of a and d. In both cases. use the formula in terms of t1 and tn. • Try Chapter Review Questions 18 to 22. For either formula. once forward and once backward. In each term of the expansion. When the terms of the two series are paired together. If you know the (n 1 1)th term. • See Lesson 7. while the exponents of b start at zero and increase by 1 up to n. they have the same sum. a is the first term. Q: A: tn11 2 t1 a(r n 2 1) or Sn 5 . and a power of b. Examples 1.7 Q: A1: Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions What strategies can you use to determine the sum of an arithmetic sequence? Aid Write the series out twice. In both cases. This method works for calculating the sum of any arithmetic series. If you can calculate the common difference. If you know the last term.

A student plants a seed.3 12... For each geometric sequence. How can you determine whether a sequence is Determine the type of each sequence (arithmetic. 3.. c) 81..4.m. there were 23 000 bacteria present. a) At 1 p. . .. 1 arithmetic? 3. Explain your reasoning.. d) 29 2 14 2 19 2 . 11. 384.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 7.. . . c) 31 1 52 1 73 1 . i) the recursive formula iii) the first five terms a) d) 10.. and 33 mm. or neither. b) 21 1 17 1 13 1 . 45. the number of toothpicks needed for a stack of squares n high. Guy purchased a rare stamp for $820 in 2001. state i) the general term ii) the recursive formula 10. ii) If a sequence is arithmetic or geometric.. 69. 75.2 value of the stamp increases by 10% per year.5 1 18. . 20. f ) 512... where n . ii) the general term 13. b) 0. .. 90. . the bacteria doubles every hour. f ) 239 2 31 2 23 2 . 4.. How many bacteria will be present at midnight? b) Can this model be used to determine the bacterial population at any time? Explain. where n [ N. For each arithmetic sequence.. Explain your reasoning. 14. 6.. After the seed sprouts. 8. 231.. the count of a certain a) 58..9 1 20. For each arithmetic series.. .72. 15. a) 5. . Determine a rule for calculating tn.. geometric.5 8.... tn 5 4n 1 5 1 b) tn 5 7n 2 3 a) c) tn 5 n 2 2 1 d) t1 5 217.. or neither). i) Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic. . 73. 10. Determine the 100th term of the arithmetic sequence with t 7 5 465 and t13 5 219. calculate the sum of the the first term is 7 and the common ratio is 23 1 b) a 5 12 and r 5 2 c) the second term is 36 and the third term is 144 first 50 terms. 288. 0. 1.. e) 17. 50. a) 1 1 9 1 17 1 . 240. 5. If the student monitors the growth of the plant by measuring its height every week.. c) 288. Determine the 100th term of the sequence 1 2 3 4 .. 468 Chapter 7 NEL ..... tn 5 tn21 1 n 2 1. In a laboratory experiment. respectively. determine t 6. Represent the sequence 2. .. geometric.. The height after each of the first three weeks was 7 mm.. .. determine 14.1 9. How can you determine whether a sequence is geometric? 7. Toothpicks are used to make a sequence of stacked squares as shown. ii) State the first five terms. 14. how much will the stamp be worth in 2010? Lesson 7. in what week will the plant be more than 100 mm tall? Lesson 7. If this pattern of growth continues.3 1 .. i) 1. . a) in words b) algebraically c) graphically 2. 2 5 8 11 Lesson 7. 20 mm. 88. 8. .. e) 19. b) 249.

Expand and simplify. The 1st. how far did it descend? 21. a) b) c) (a 1 6) 4 (b 2 3) 5 (2c 1 5) 3 d) (4 2 3d) 6 e) (5e 2 2f ) 4 f) 2 19.7 23... calculate t6 and S6.. 15 625 5 25 1 1 . 1 3584 b) 23 2 6 2 12 2 24 2 . 0.6 18. Calculate the sum of each series. 1 4068 c) 123 1 118 1 113 1 ..06) 1 1000(1.5 1 38..111 111 1 1. For each month afterward.... 9 1 3 f) 1 1 1 . 2 10 50 a) b) c) d) e) Lesson 7. 32 805 1 21 870 1 14 580 1 ..Chapter Review 15... a) 7 1 14 1 28 1 . A spacecraft leaves an orbiting space station to descend to the planet below. 1 1000(1. Determine the sum of the first eight terms of the a3f 2 4 2 b f geometric series in which a) the first term is 26 and the common ratio is 4 b) t1 5 42 and t9 5 2112 NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 469 . 1 2 4 64 d) 96 000 2 48 000 1 24 000 2 .. 6 2 12 1 24 2 .. 5th. For each geometric series... A catering company has 15 customer orders during its first month. 1 145 b) 9 1 42 1 75 1 ..06) 2 1 . The spacecraft descends 64 m during the first second and then engages its reverse thrusters to slow down its descent.111 11 1 11. It travels 7 m less during each second afterward. If the spacecraft lands after 10 s..1111 1 . If the 21st term of the arithmetic sequence is 72.. 17 2 25. 1 375 e) 1000 1 1000(1.. 2 768 Lesson 7. c) the first term is 320 and the second term is 80 d) the third term is 35 and the terms increase by a factor of 5 20. 2 122 17.25 2 ..... How many orders in total did the company fill at the end of its first year? a) 1 1 13 1 25 1 . and 13th terms of an arithmetic sequence are the first three terms of a geometric sequence with common ratio 2. 22. the company has double the number of orders than the previous month... Calculate the sum of each series. calculate the sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence. Determine the sum of the first 25 terms of an arithmetic series in which a) the first term is 24 and the common difference is 11 b) t1 5 91 and t25 5 374 c) t1 5 84 and t2 5 57 d) the third term is 42 and the terms decrease by 11 e) the 12th term is 19 and the terms decrease by 4 f ) t5 5 142 and t15 5 12 16..06) 12 c) 11 11 1 33 1 99 1 ...

... b) p2 1 2q. 32. 7. . they put away $75 more than they did the previous year. p4 1 4q. Determine the number of terms in each sequence. 2 ii) Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic. a) 18. . 1 439 b) the first 10 terms of the series 10 000 1 12 000 1 14 400 1 . or neither. Every following year. i) Determine the first five terms of each sequence. tn 5 7tn21.. c) 25 19 13 7 1 .. tn 5 5 3 3n11 3n 1 2 tn 5 2n 1 1 tn 5 5n t1 5 5. . . For each sequence. Explain your reasoning. a) 1. tn 5 2tn21 2 tn22. tn 2 1 1 1 tn 2 2 . t2 5 5. 15. . Expand and simplify each binomial power. .. where n .. . a) b) c) d) e) f) 2.. where n [ N. 6. . 7. Calculate the sum of each series. 50. 210. where n . p5 2 5q. where n . A sequence is defined by the recursive formula t1 5 4. .. 25. How much money will have been put aside by the time you are 21? 8. p3 2 3q. . . a) (x 2 5)4 b) (2x 1 3y)3 5. 1 t1 5 19. tn 5 1 2 tn21. t2 5 13. Determine t123... 1 t1 5 7.7 Chapter Self-Test 1. 8. 23.. 2156 250 4. 2. determine i) the general term ii) the recursive formula a) a geometric sequence with a 5 29 and r 5 211 b) an arithmetic sequence with second term 123 and third term 2456 3. 3 6 9 12 15 470 Chapter 7 NEL . 38. Your grandparents put aside $100 for you on your first birthday. tn 5 where n [ N and n . Determine the next three terms of each sequence... geometric. 193 b) 2. a) 19 1 33 1 47 1 .

• Each pill contains 30 mg of the active ingredient. nausea) can occur when more than 180 mg are in the body. which schedule is best for Tom? Is another schedule more appropriate? Task Checklist Did you justify your “reasonable” conditions? B. as well as times of the day when you would take the medication. Did you show your work? Did you support your choice of medication schedule? C. Tom decides to try a certain brand of antihistamine. Side effects (sleepiness. How many hay fever pills should Tom take. It is unhealthy to ingest more than 180 mg within a 24 h period.7 Chapter Task Allergy Medicine It is estimated that 1 in 7 Canadians suffers from seasonal allergies such as hay fever. • For his size. The label says: • The half-life of the antihistamine in the body is 16 h. ? A. and how often should he take them? What are some conditions that would be reasonable when taking medication? For example. maximum relief is felt when there are 150 mg to 180 mg in the body. D. think about dosages. Did you explain your thinking clearly? NEL Discrete Functions: Sequences and Series 471 . A typical treatment for hay fever is over-the-counter antihistamines. Based on your calculations in part C. headaches. determine the amount of the medication present in Tom’s body for the first few days. For each of your schedules. Determine three different schedules for taking the pills considering the appropriate amounts of the medication to ingest and your conditions in part A.

472 NEL .

your parents deposit $1000 into a bank account that pays 3% interest per year on the balance. $1500. $1100. How can you determine which amount will be closest to what will be in the account when you are ready to go to college or university.Chapter 8 Discrete Functions: Financial Applications GOALS You will be able to • • • • Determine how interest is earned and charged Use the difference between future value and present value to solve problems Solve problems about money invested at regular intervals over a period of time Calculate payments that must be made when a purchase is financed over a period of time ? On your first birthday. or $2500? NEL 473 . $2000.

2525.. 9724. 80.. . 15. The 4th... 19. and 6th terms of a sequence are 9261. 2. respectively.. 2500.2 7.. . 20. 223. . 2.004512x 5 400 8.07x 5 30 000 b) 5 3 3x 5 228 d) 250 3 1.5 and 7.1 and 7. 31. Complete the chart shown by writing what you know about exponential functions.. a) 2x 5 1 000 000 c) 14 000 3 1. The fourth term of an arithmetic sequence is 46 and the sixth term is 248.. Round your answers to two decimal places.. Determine the sum of the first 10 terms of each series. d) 1000. Example: Visual representation: Definition in your own words: Personal association: 474 Chapter 8 NEL .... 320. b) What will be the expected population 10 years from now? 6. . Determine the value of x that makes the equation 2x 5 4096 true. 4. 7. b) 58. a) What type of sequence is this? Justify your reasoning. c) 5. Solve each equation by graphing the corresponding functions on a graphing calculator.7 i) the next two terms ii) the general term iii) the recursive formula a) 7. 6 Lesson 7. 5th. 5. determine Aid For help. b) Determine the recursive formula. c) State the general term. Determine a) the 5th term b) the common difference c) the 1st term d) the 100th term 3. see the following lessons in Chapters 4 and 7. and 10 210.8 Study Getting Started SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need 1. The population of a city is 200 000 and increases by 5% per year. Determine the expected population at the end of each of the next 3 years. 3 4 5.6 4. Question 1. 8 192 000 2 4 096 000 1 2 048 000 2 . 250.05. 11.. 227 2 21 2 15 2 . 48 1 31 1 14 1 ... For each sequence.. a) b) c) d) a) 3 1 5 1 7 1 . 4. d) Determine the 10th term.

or continue the table in part D to determine how long it will take Mark to save for the trip. Assuming that the cost of the trip stays the same.35% on the minimum monthly balance means? How will earning interest affect the amount of time he will have to save? Determine how much Mark will have in his account at the end of the 1st. Deposits Use a spreadsheet or the lists on a graphing calculator. He already has $200 in his account at the start of the month. D. B.Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Saving for a Trip Mark is saving for an overseas trip that costs $1895.35% on the minimum monthly balance. Discrete Functions: Financial Applications NEL 475 . Starting Balance Interest Earned Final Balance C. Determine the additional costs he will incur. Each week. Record your values in a table as shown. 2nd. What do you think earning 0. and 3rd months. how long will it take Mark to save enough money to pay for it? How do you know it will take less than three years for Mark to meet his goal? When Mark pays for the trip. Calculate the total price of the trip. YOU WILL NEED • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software (optional) ? A. he deposits $50 into a savings account that pays him 0. Month 1 2 3 E. he will have to pay the Goods and Services Tax (GST).

and I is the interest. D. Record your results in a table as shown.1 YOU WILL NEED Simple Interest • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software GOAL Calculate simple interest. ? A. F. see Technical Appendix. Calculate the interest earned and the amount of the investment at the end of the second and third years. Determine the equation of the function that models the amount of Amanda’s investment over time. C.8. using Year as the independent variable. What type of function best models the growth of Amanda’s money? You may need to calculate more data points before you decide. P is the principal. Enter your data for Year and Amount into either lists on a graphing calculator or columns in a spreadsheet. B-11. where A is the amount. Year 0 1 2 3 Interest Earned — Amount $2000 What function can be used to model the growth of Amanda’s money? Calculate the interest earned and the amount of the investment at the end of the first year. Tech Support For help using a graphing calculator to enter lists and to create scatter plots. B. principal a sum of money that is borrowed or invested simple interest interest earned or paid only on the original sum of money that was invested or borrowed interest the money earned from an investment or the cost of borrowing money amount the total value of an investment or loan. Create a scatter plot from your two lists or columns. Record your results in your table. E. 476 Chapter 8 NEL . The amount is given by A 5 P 1 I. INVESTIGATE the Math Amanda wants to invest $2000. Explain your reasoning. Her bank will pay 6% of the principal per year each year the money is kept in a savings account that earns simple interest.

52 + 77.52 3395. for t years at r%/a simple interest. To calculate the interest earned each year.4% as a decimal is 0. I.04 I set up a table to calculate the amount at the end of each year. These rates are sometimes abbreviated to 5%/a. c) Determine the total amount. Jasmine’s Solution a) I 5 0.76 77.024 3 $3240 Each year. A. Then I entered the year and amount into separate lists on a graphing calculator. or year. H. and the interest.1 Reflecting G. Allen earns 2. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 477 .76 b) Year Interest ($) 0 1 2 3 4 0 77. $P. I multiplied the principal by the interest rate. 5 $77.76 3240 Amount ($) 3240 + 77. a) Calculate the interest earned each year.024.76 3317. I added the interest earned each year to the previous amount. What type of sequence could you use to represent the amount of Amanda’s investment for successive years? How do you know? How does the recursive formula for this sequence relate to her investment? How do the principal.76 = 3473.8.76 + 77.76 = 3395. which means 5% per annum. and amount of Amanda’s investment relate to • the sequence from part G that represents the amount of the investment over time? • the function from part F that represents the amount of the investment over time? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing any situation earning simple interest as a function Communication Tip Allen invests $3240 at 2. earned if he invested a principal. Interest rates are often advertised as a certain percent per year.28 + 77.76 = 3317. interest.76 = 3551.76 77.28 3473.76 77. 2. b) Calculate the amount and the total interest earned after 20 years.4% of the principal as interest. So a rate of 5% means that 5% interest is earned each year. I.4%/a simple interest.

Allen will have $4795.76(20) 1 3240 5 4795. The increase would be the interest earned in one year. f (t) 5 77. The graph is linear. I subtracted the principal from the amount.20 2 3240 5 1555. the time in years. 478 Chapter 8 NEL . P 3 r. That is the rate of change of the amount.20 and will have earned $1555.20 After 20 years. I substituted t 5 20. A 5 P(1 1 rt) The total amount of an investment of $P for t years at r%/a simple interest is A 5 P(1 1 rt). the amount. The y-intercept is Allen’s principal of $3240.I used the calculator to create a scatter plot of amount versus time. I used two points to calculate the slope and I found that it was $77. I wrote a formula for interest in terms of t.20 in interest.76. Since interest depends on time. The amount is the sum of the principal and the interest. the time in years. I wrote the formula for the amount by factoring out the P. To determine the total interest earned. the total interest earned would go up by the same amount. and the total interest earned is I 5 Prt.20 I 5 4795. and f(t). f (20) 5 77. Allen would earn r% of his original investment of $P. c) end of 1st year: I1 5 Pr end of 2nd year: I2 5 Pr 1 Pr 5 2Pr end of 3rd year: I3 5 Pr 1 Pr 1 Pr 5 3Pr end of tth year: I 5 Prt A5P1I A 5 P 1 Prt After one year. Since the interest earned at the end of each year depends on time. To determine the amount after 20 years. the amount must also depend on time.76t 1 3240 I used the slope and y-intercept to create a linear function in terms of t. Each year.

will be charged in interest.26 3 b 365 8 ($540) (1.00 $1 020. $32. NEL 479 . B-21. How much will he need to pay back at the end of the loan period. see Technical Appendix.00 C Total Amount of Loan $15 000. 6. Discrete Functions: Financial Applications P 5 $540 r 5 26% 5 0. I subtracted the principal to get the interest.00 $25 200. EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to calculate the amount owed after less than a year Philip borrows $540 for 85 days by taking a cash advance on his credit card.00 $22 140. The interest rate is 26%/a simple interest.00 $1 020.00 $21 120.70 Of the $572.00 $19 080.1 EXAMPLE 2 Using a spreadsheet to represent the amount owed Tina borrows $15 000 at 6. and how much interest will he have paid? Lara’s Solution t5 85 365 Philip isn’t borrowing the money for a full year. or $1020. I substituted the values of P.00 "= C2 + B3" "= C3 + B4" 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A Time (Years) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B Total Interest Charged $1 020.00 $17 040. Each year. and t into the formula.00 $1 020. I used the spreadsheet to calculate the amount Tina would need to pay back at the end of each year during the 10-year period.00 $16 020. Calculate how much she will owe at the end of each year during this period.8.8/100)" 2 "= C2* (6.70 that Philip has to pay back.8%/a simple interest. as a decimal. and to fill down. so I expressed the time as a fraction of 365 days in a year.00 $1 020. P.061) 5 $572.00 I set up a spreadsheet to calculate the interest charged every year and the loan amount.00 $24 180.00 $18 060. r.00 $1 020.00 $1 020.00 $20 100.8/100)" C Total Amount of Loan $15 000.70 is interest. and I wrote the interest rate.00 $1 020. I knew the principal. Tech Support For help using a spreadsheet to enter values and formulas.26 A 5 P(1 1 rt) 85 5 ($540) a1 1 0. She plans to pay back the loan in 10 years. r.00 $1 020. Tom’s Solution A Time (Years) B Total Interest Charged 1 "= C2* (6.8% of $15 000. To calculate the amount at the end of the loan period.00 $1 020. I rounded to the nearest cent.00 $23 160.

I got a value greater than 8.6% 5 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Year Total Interest Earned Total Amount (continued) 480 Chapter 8 NEL .2 days Tanya would have to invest her money for 8 years and 200 days to get $8000.6%/a simple interest. I substituted the values of P.00 $400. are linear functions in terms of time.546 3 365 days 8 199. and A into the formula and solved for t.076 A 5 $8000 A 5 P 1 Prt 8000 5 4850 1 (4850) (0.076)t 8000 5 4850 1 368. so their graphs are straight lines (see graph below). r.EXAMPLE 4 Calculating the time needed to earn a specific amount on an investment Tanya invests $4850 at 7. I.546 of a year was.00 Dollars $300.6 When I solved for t.00 $200. • The total amount. In Summary Key Ideas • Simple interest is calculated only on the principal.00 $0.00 $500.6t 3150 5 368.6t t5 3150 368. how long will she need to invest her money? Josh’s Solution P 5 $4850 r 5 7. $300 Earning 5%/a Simple Interest $600. A. and interest earned. The 8 meant 8 years. the interest rate. and the total amount. If she wants the money to increase to $8000. so I had to figure out what 0. 8 8.546 0.00 $100. I knew the principal. The values of A and I at the end of each interest period form the terms of two arithmetic sequences.

How long will he have to leave his investment in the bank before earning $200 in interest? 4. Each situation represents an investment earning simple interest. where I is the interest.1 Need to Know • Simple interest can be calculated using the formula I 5 Prt.8. • The total amount. For each investment. and 3rd years ii) 15 years a) $500 at 6. CHECK Your Understanding 1. expressed as a decimal. calculate the interest earned and the total amount. 2nd. a) What is the principal? b) How much interest is earned in 5 years? c) What interest rate is being applied? d) State the equation that represents the amount as a function of time.9% 18% 24% 12% Time 8 years 12 years 16 months 5 months 17 weeks 100 days Discrete Functions: Financial Applications a) b) c) d) e) f) NEL $500 $3 200 $5 000 $128 $50 000 $4 500 481 . • Unless otherwise stated. an interest rate is assumed to be per year.19 interest for the 12 days her payment is late? PRACTISING 5.00 $500. Calculate the total amount at the end of each period. usually per year.00 $1 500.00 $2 500. The graph at the right represents the total amount of an investment of principal $P earning a fixed rate of simple interest over a period of 5 years. Sally has a balance of $2845 on her credit card. r is the interest rate.00 1 2 3 Year 4 5 2.00 $1 000. Michel invests $850 at 7%/a simple interest. and t is time.00 Total Amount $2 000. What rate of simple interest is she being charged if she must pay $26. i) 1st. 3. expressed in the same period as the interest rate. P is the principal. K Principal Rate of Simple Interest per Year 4.3%/a An Investment Earning Simple Interest $3 000.8% 3.1%/a c) $25 000 at 5%/a d) $1700 at 2. A.00 $0.8% 9. of an investment earning simple interest can be calculated using the formula A 5 P 1 Prt or A 5 P(1 1 rt).4%/a b) $1250 at 4.

96 Dec. Lotti invests some money at a fixed rate of simple interest. Determine a formula for the doubling time.25 $2312. The amount she owes at the end of each of the first five years is shown at the left. Sara’s parents decide to invest $500 on each of her birthdays from the day she is born until she becomes 25. 1. His bank sends him statements after each quarter. d) Graph this sequence. Len invests $5200 at 3%/a simple interest. c) State the total amount as the general term of a sequence.75t to calculate how much her investment will be worth after t years. Each investment earns 6. How long will it take for Dave’s investment to be worth more than Len’s? function A(t) 5 750 1 27.50 $2543.5 years at a fixed rate of simple interest. Ahmad deposits an amount on September 1. 2005 Mar. The doubling time of an investment is the length of time it takes for the total amount invested to become double the original amount invested.32 $4248.25 T A Balance $3994. 1. 1. What will be the total amount of the investments when Sara is 25? 482 Chapter 8 NEL . while his friend Dave invests 12.28 10. a) How much did Ahmad invest? b) What rate of simple interest is he earning? Statement Date 1 2 3 4 Year 1 2 3 4 5 Amount Owed $2081. a) By how much does the amount in her account increase each year? b) Determine the amount in her account at the end of each of the first 5 years. 2006 Jun. 2006 Sept. a) How much did Anita borrow? b) State the total amount as the general term of a sequence. 1. 14.4%/a simple interest. Anita borrows some money at a fixed rate of simple interest. She uses the C Extending 13. 11. At the end of that time.64 $4502. Nina deposits $3500 into a savings account.6. Mario borrows $4800 for 8.5%/a. D. he owes $8000.75 $2775. 2006 $4757. The rate of simple interest is 5. 9. What interest rate is he being charged? 7.3%/a simple interest to earn $250 in interest each month? 8. into an account that earns simple interest quarterly. c) How much time will have passed before Anita owes $7500? $3600 at 5%/a simple interest. The amounts for the first four quarters are shown.00 $3006. 2005. How much did she invest and what interest rate is she earning? Explain your reasoning. How much money must be invested at 6. of an investment of principal $P earning a rate of simple interest of r%/a.

C.8. What is the advantage of earning compound interest over simple interest? How are compound interest. annually 1 1 time per year semi-annually 1 2 times per year quarterly 1 4 times per year monthly 1 12 times per year Complete the table for the 2nd to 5th years. using Year as the independent variable. F. compounding period the intervals at which interest is calculated. Compare the total amount of Mena’s investment with that based on the same principal earning simple interest. for example. The savings account is called the “Accumulator” and pays compound interest. Determine the function that models the amount of her investment over time. Interest Earned — compound interest interest that is added to the principal before new interest earned is calculated. NEL 483 . Create a scatter plot. Interest is paid at regular time intervals called the compounding period. E. • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software (optional) LEARN ABOUT the Math Mena invests $2000 in a bank account that pays 6%/a compounded annually. Reflecting G. Record your answers in a table as shown. What type of function best models the growth of Mena’s money? You may need to calculate more data points before you decide. Explain how you know. D. exponential functions. Enter your data for Year and Balance at End of Year into either lists on a graphing calculator or columns in a spreadsheet. and geometric sequences related? Discrete Functions: Financial Applications H. So interest is calculated on the principal and on interest already earned.2 GOAL Compound Interest: Future Value YOU WILL NEED Determine the future value of a principal being charged or earning compound interest. Balance at Start of Year — $2000 Balance at End of Year $2000 Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 B. ? A. What type of function will model the growth of Mena’s money? Calculate the interest earned and amount at the end of the first year.

80.84 after 10 years.56 ( tn 5 5300 3 1.APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing any situation earning compound interest as a function future value the total amount. The general term of the sequence is tn 5 5300 3 1. Each time.56 t1 5 5300 3 1. and I got the same numbers as in my previous calculations. I.046(1) 4 end of 3rd year: A 5 5798.046) 5 $5543. A.81 5 530031 1 0.6%/a compounded annually.0462 8 $5798.0463 8 $6065.80(1.046 each time.04610 8 $8309. This is a geometric sequence with common ratio 1. a) How much will he have to pay back if he borrows the money for 10 years? b) Determine the future value.046. NEL I drew a timeline for the situation. I substituted n 5 10 into the formula for the general term.84 Tim would have to pay back $8309.0461 5 $5543. Tim gets charged 4.6% of his original $5300 loan.046n.046) 8 $5798.80 5 5543. $5543.81(1. of an investment after a certain length of time Tim borrows $5300 at 4. A. I rounded to the nearest cent. Shelley’s Solution a) Time now 1 2 3 8 9 10 A=? At the end of the first year. At the end of the second year. 484 Chapter 8 . I used this formula to calculate the first three terms. if he invested a principal of $P for n years at i%/a compounded annually.8031 1 0. To determine how much Tim would owe after 10 years.046(1)4 5 5798.8131 1 0. I noticed that I was multiplying by 1.046) 5 $6065. I used the same method to calculate the amount at the end of the third year. P = $5300 i = 4. he gets charged 4. So I calculated the amount he would owe at the end of that year. So I calculated the amount he would owe at the end of that year.80 t2 5 5300 3 1.6%/a compounded annually end of 1st year: A 5 P(1 1 rt) end of 2nd year: A 5 5543.046(1) 4 5 5300(1.81 t3 5 5300 3 1.6% of the amount he owed at the end of the first year.046n t10 5 5300 3 1. and interest earned.

To determine the interest earned over a period of n years.8%/a compounded quarterly NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 485 .8%/a compounded quarterly when she was born. I subtracted the principal from the total amount.b) end of 1st year: A2 5 3P(1 1 i)4 (1 1 i) 5 P(1 1 i) end of 2nd year: 5 P(1 1 i) 2 end of 3rd year: 5 P(1 1 i) A1 5 P 31 1 i(1)4 A 5 P(1 1 in) 8. EXAMPLE 5 P 3(1 1 i) n 2 14 2 Selecting a strategy to determine the amount when the compounding period is less than a year Lara’s grandparents invested $5000 at 4. and 3rd years. as it did for simple interest. I substituted i for r into the formula for the total amount and calculated the future value for the 1st. 2nd. Since the interest rate is i%/a. so I wrote the general term.2 For compound interest. which gave me the amount after n years. I factored out the common factor P. The amount is an exponential function in terms of time. P = $5000 i = 4. I5A2P 5 P(1 1 i) n 2 P The future value of an investment of $P for n years at i%/a compounded annually will be A 5 P(1 1 i) n. the amount or future value depends on time. How much will the investment be worth on her 21st birthday? Herman’s Solution Time now 1 2 20 21 A=? I drew a timeline for the situation. A3 5 3P(1 1 i) 24 (1 1 i) 3 end of nth year: A 5 P(1 1 i) n This is a geometric sequence with first term P(1 1 i) and common ratio 1 1 i. and the total interest earned will be I 5 P 3(1 1 i) n 2 14.

62 on Lara’s 21st birthday.012 n 5 21 3 4 5 84 Since interest is paid quarterly for each compounding period.94 Trudy’s investment will be worth $538 781. 486 Chapter 8 NEL .P 5 $5000 i 5 0. where i is the interest rate per compounding period and n is the number of compounding periods.048 4 4 5 0. Interest is paid 4 times per year. When Lina turns 45. I divided the annual interest rate by 4 to get the interest rate. A 5 P(1 1 i) n A 5 5000(1 1 0. I first determined the interest rate per month as a fraction.012) 84 8 $13 618. If both women leave their investments until they are 65. so I calculated the number of compounding periods.2%/a compounded annually for 84 years. she invests $10 000 at 8%/a compounded monthly. I used the formula A 5 P(1 1 i) n. EXAMPLE 3 Calculating the difference of the amounts of two different investments On her 15th birthday. This is the total number of times that the interest would be calculated over the 21 years. there will be 50 3 12 5 600 compounding periods. Since interest is compounded monthly and she is investing for 50 years. I noticed that solving this problem is the same as solving a problem in which the money earns 1.94 when she turns 65. n 5 (65 2 15) 3 12 5 600 A 5 10 000a1 1 8 $538 781.08 12 0.62 The $5000 investment will be worth $13 618. how much more will Trudy’s investment be worth? Henry’s Solution P 5 $10 000 i5 0.08 600 b 12 To calculate how much Trudy’s investment will be worth when she turns 65. Trudy invests $10 000 at 8%/a compounded monthly.

91 Trudy’s investment will be worth $489 513. To solve for t. EXAMPLE 4 Comparing simple interest and compound interest Nicolas invests $1000. I substituted the values of P.03 5 $489 513.08 240 b 12 Lina’s investment has the same principal and interest rate per month as Trudy’s. the interest earned must be the same as the principal.03 Lina’s investment will be worth $49 268.05) 5a bt 1000(0.05). Since Lina invested for 20 years.05 I 5 $1000 I 5 Prt 1000 1000(0. I divided both sides of the equation by 1000(0. I subtracted Lina’s amount from Trudy’s amount. but fewer compounding periods.05)t 20 5 t It will take 20 years for Nicolas’s investment to double at 5%/a simple interest. r. there will be 20 3 12 5 240 compounding periods. n 5 (65 2 45) 3 12 5 240 A 5 10 000a1 1 8 $49 268. Since Nicolas’s investment will double and he is earning simple interest.91 more than Lina’s.94 2 $49 268.08 12 0.05) 1000(0. $538 781.8. How long would it take for his investment to double for each type of interest earned? a) 5%/a simple interest b) 5%/a compounded semi-annually Jesse’s Solution a) P 5 $1000 r 5 5% 5 0.03 when she turns 65. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 487 .05) 1000 5 1000(0. and I into the formula for the interest earned. I knew the principal and the interest rate.2 P 5 $10 000 i5 0.

81 $1 131. or n 5 10 3 2 5 20 compounding periods.68 $2 619. or n 5 20 3 2 5 40 compounding periods.00 C Compound Interest $1 000. Then I used guess-andcheck to determine n.00 $1 150.00 $1 700. I tried 20 years.025)" 1 "=B3 + 1000*0. The investment earning simple interest took 20 years to double.00 $1 725. The amount after 20 years was too much.06 488 Chapter 8 NEL .025 into the formula for the amount.05 5 0.00 $1 050.06 Since interest is paid semi-annually.b) i5 0.025) 20 8 $1638.50 $2 046. or n 5 14 3 2 5 28 compounding periods. he gets interest on interest previously earned.025) 28 8 $1996. I tried 14 years.57 $2 685.05/2" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A Year 0 0.025)" 0.5 14 14.025 2 A 5 P(1 1 i) n A 5 1000(1 1 0. 0 $1 000. Next I tried 10 years.00 $1 100.63 $1 076.41 28 29 30 31 13 13. so his investment grows faster.80 $1 996.00 $1 025. With compound interest.00 $2 555. The result was close to double. but that wasn’t enough.5 3 B Simple Interest $1 000.00 $1 675. If Nicolas earns compound interest.00 $1 075.00 $1 025.025) 40 8 $2685.5 "=B2 + 1000*0.29 $1 947.00 $1 125. I used the spreadsheet to compare the two possibilities. I divided the annual interest rate by 2 to get the interest rate per half year.41 $1 159.5 2 2.5 40 41 42 19 19.00 $1 650.00 $1 975. I substituted P 5 1000 and i 5 0.5 20 $1 950.00 "=C2*(1 + 0.69 $1 900.5 1 1.89 $1 103.00 $1 000. I then used a spreadsheet to check my result. A 5 1000(1 1 0.00 $2 000.00 $1 050. the investment almost doubles after 14 years.62 A 5 1000(1 1 0.50 1 2 3 4 A Year B Simple Interest C Compound Interest Since my second guess was slightly closer to $2000 than my first guess.05/2" "=C3*(1 + 0.

P is the principal.00 $0.00 $2 000.00 Simple Interest Compound Interest 0 5 10 Year 15 20 25 It will take about 14 years for Nicolas’s investment to double at 5%/a compounded semi-annually. interest is calculated and added to the principal. From the graph. interest is calculated on the new balance (principal plus interest earned from the previous year). and n is the number of compounding periods. I graphed the amount of the investment for both cases.00 $1 000. i is the interest rate per compounding period. This pattern continues every year the investment is kept. Total Amount In Summary Key Ideas • Compound interest is calculated by applying the interest rate to the principal and any interest already earned. So compound interest results in exponential growth. At the end of the second year. • The future value of an investment earning compound interest can be calculated using the formula A 5 P(1 1 i) n. where I is the total interest. of an investment after a certain period is called the future value of the investment. Tech Support For help using a spreadsheet to graph functions. while the compound-interest situation is modelled by an exponential function growing at a changing rate. • The most common compounding periods are: annually semi-annually quarterly 1 time per year 2 times per year 4 times per year i 5 annual interest rate i 5 annual interest rate ÷ 2 i 5 annual interest rate ÷ 4 n 5 number of years n 5 number of years 3 2 n 5 number of years 3 4 • Compound interest can be calculated using the formula I 5 A 2 P or I 5 P 3(1 1 i) n 2 14.00 $500. where A is the future value.00 $1 500. A. monthly 12 times per year i 5 annual interest rate ÷ 12 NEL n 5 number of years 3 12 Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 489 . the simpleinterest situation is modelled by a linear function growing at a constant rate. see Technical Appendix. expressed as a decimal. B-21.2 Comparing Simple and Compound Interest $3 000.00 $2 500. If interest is compounded annually. then at the end of the first year. Need to Know • Banks pay or charge compound interest at regular intervals called the compounding period. • The total amount. • The total amounts at the end of each interest period form a geometric sequence.8.

8% 6% Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 10 years 20 years 6 years 25 years a) b) c) d) $258 $5 000 $1 200 $45 000 PRACTISING 4. K Principal Rate of Compound Interest per Year 3% 6% 2. i) 5. ii) Determine the general term for the amount owed at the end of the nth compounding period.2% 3.5% 3. Calculate the future value of each investment.6% 2. determine the future value and the total interest earned.4% 3.8% 10.65% 5. Amount Borrowed Rate of Compound Interest per Year 7.6% semi-annually monthly quarterly weekly 5 years 3 years 7 years 10 months Determine the amount owed at the end of each of the first five compounding periods. Draw a timeline for each.CHECK Your Understanding 1.9% 2. n a) b) c) d) 2.2% Compounding Period annually monthly quarterly semi-annually daily weekly Time 4 years 6 years 5 years 10 years 1 year 47 weeks a) b) c) d) e) f) $4 000 $7 500 $15 000 $28 200 $850 $2 225 490 Chapter 8 NEL .4% 5.8% Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly a) b) c) d) $10 000 $10 000 $10 000 $10 000 3. i Periods. Copy and complete the table. Principal Rate of Compound Interest per Year 3. Rate of Compound Compounding Interest per Year Period Time Interest Rate per Number of Compounding Compounding Period.5% 6.8% 6. For each investment.4% 2.

Determine the future value of the bond. Serena wants to borrow $15 000 and pay it back in 10 years. Calculate the value of his investment two years after this change. 11. Create a problem for this situation and solve it. Sima invests some money in an account that earns a fixed rate of interest compounded annually. Cliff has some money he wants to invest for his retirement. of an investment. and the compounding period.2%/a compounded monthly. b) How much did Sima invest? 6. Noreen used her graphing calculator to investigate two sequences.8. A. the interest rate will be 6%/a compounded quarterly. how much will Serena save by choosing the second option? the future value. Dieter deposits $9000 into an account that pays 10%/a compounded quarterly. a) Determine the annual rate of compound interest earned. • Option 2: Borrow the money at 12%/a compounded quarterly for 5 years and then renegotiate the loan based on the new balance for the last 5 years. Three T screenshots from her investigation are shown. He is offered two options: • 10%/a simple interest • 5%/a compounded annually Under what conditions should he choose the first option? 13.40 $4764. the interest rate changes to 9%/a compounded semi-annually. in dollars. 12. Interest rates are A high.00 $4494. Margaret can finance the purchase of a $949. the annual interest rate. Explain your reasoning.007512n to represent 9.99 refrigerator one of two ways: • Plan A: 10%/a simple interest for 2 years • Plan B: 5%/a compounded quarterly for 2 years Which plan should she choose? Justify your answer. After three years.06 for his investment to grow to $25 000? 7. Eric can redeem the bond in 7 years. in 5 years. 8. Ted used the exponential function A(n) 5 5000 3 1. 10. Eric bought a $1000 Canada Savings Bond that earns 5%/a compounded annually. so the bank makes her two offers: • Option 1: Borrow the money at 10%/a compounded quarterly for the full term. If. The amounts of the investment at the end of the first three years are shown at the right. Chris invests $10 000 at 7. How long will it take Year 1 2 3 Total Amount $4240.2 5. Determine the principal. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 491 .

and you find these rates: • 6. The interest rate on this account is then increased by 0.45/a compounded monthly Rank the rates from most to least return on your investment.2% each year. On July 1. her grandparents deposited $500 into a savings account that earns 4.55%/a compounded semi-annually • 6. Liz decides to save money to buy an electric car. What total amount of money will she have at the end of the 10th year? 20.14. 1996.5%/a compounded quarterly • 6. she moved the total amount to a new account that paid 8%/a compounded quarterly. Show how the calculations of C simple and compound interest are related to functions and sequences. They deposited the same amount on her 5th.3% 4.6%/a compounded annually • 6. 2008. 2001. You are searching different banks for the best interest rate on an investment. Create a mind map for the concept of interest. Rate of Compound Interest per Year Compounding Period semi-annually monthly quarterly a) b) c) 6. Anna invested $2000 in an account that earned 6%/a compounded monthly.2% 492 Chapter 8 NEL .2% 3. Round to two decimal places. and 15th birthdays.8%/a compounded semi-annually. On the day Rachel was born. Determine the balance in her account on January 1. assuming that compounding occurs annually. Bernie deposited $4000 into an account that pays 4%/a compounded quarterly during the first year. 16. Determine the balance in the account on Rachel’s 18th birthday.8%/a compounded monthly. Calculate the balance in Bernie’s account after three years. Calculate the effective annual interest rate for each loan. She invests $500 every 6 months at 6. An effective annual interest rate is the interest rate that is equivalent to the given one. 18. 10th. 17. Extending 19. On July 1. 15.

06(1.06(1.06P 1 0. Determine the present value of Anton’s parents’ investment if it must be worth $15 000 ten years from now. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 493 . They can earn 6%/a compounded annually on their investment.06P(1.062P The interest rate is 6%/a compounded annually. Tina’s Solution: Working Backward Time now P=? 1 2 3 8 9 10 I drew a timeline for the situation.06) 5 1. • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software LEARN ABOUT the Math Anton’s parents would like to put some money away so that he will have $15 000 to study music professionally in 10 years. I calculated the interest earned and the amount at the end of the first year.3 GOAL Compound Interest: Present Value YOU WILL NEED Determine the present value of an amount being charged or earning compound interest. since P is used for principal. I calculated the interest earned and the amount at the end of the second year.06P(1 1 0.06P A 5 P 1 0. PV is used for present value instead of P.06P end of 2nd year: I 5 0. ? How much money should Anton’s parents invest now so that it will grow to $15 000 in 10 years at 6%/a compounded annually? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to determine the principal for a given amount present value the principal that would have to be invested now to get a specific future value in a certain amount of time. For the second year.06P) A 5 1.06) 5 1.8. interest is earned on the amount at the end of the first year.06P) 5 1. A = $15 000 i = 6%/a compounded annually end of 1st year: I 5 0.06P 5 1.

92 now to get $15 000 in 10 years. The amounts at the end of each year form a geometric sequence with common ratio 1.. end of 10th year: 15 000 5 1. Since Anton’s parents want $15 000 at the end of 10 years.063P.92 Anton’s parents would need to invest $8375. I got 106% of what I started with. To calculate the principal that Anton’s parents would have to invest. 494 Chapter 8 NEL .. 1. . and solved for PV. 1. I rearranged the formula. I set the 10th term of the sequence equal to $15 000 and solved for P.0610P Since 6% is added at the end of each year. so I wrote the amount as an exponential formula.06 gives the next term of the sequence.062P.92 now to get $15 000 in 10 years. Jamie’s Solution: Representing the Formula for the Amount in a Different Way A 5 $15 000 i 5 6% 5 0. The amount at the end of the 10th year has an exponent of 10.1.92 Anton’s parents would need to invest $8375.0610P P5 15 000 1.06P. So multiplying by 1.06. An investment earning compound interest grows like an exponential function.06 n 5 10 A 5 PV(1 1 i) n Anton’s parents invest a certain amount and let it grow to $15 000 at 6%/a compounded annually. substituted.0610 8 $8375. . 1. PV 5 5 A (1 1 i) n 15 000 (1 1 0.06) 10 8 $8375.

Next I calculated the present value of the $20 000 at the given interest rate.3 Reflecting A.4%/a compounded quarterly I calculated the interest rate Monica would be charged each compounding period and how many periods the loan would last. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 495 .4%/a compounded quarterly. B.81 5 $5440.19 The most Monica can borrow is $14 559.016) 20 8 $14 559.81.19 in interest. she will pay $5440. I determined the interest by subtracting the present value from the amount. How are the problems of determining the present value and the amount of an investment related? Based on Example 1.016 4 n 5 5 3 4 5 20 PV 5 5 A (1 1 i) n 20 000 (1 1 0.064 i5 5 0.81 I 5 A 2 PV 5 $20 000 2 $14 559. 0. What is the maximum amount that she can borrow and how much interest will she pay if she doesn’t pay anything back until the end of the 5 years? Kwok’s Solution Time now P=? 1 2 4 5 I drew a timeline for the situation. Monica wants to repay the loan in 5 years.8. but doesn’t want the amount she pays back to be more than $20 000. Her bank will charge her 6. which method do you prefer to use to calculate the present value? Why? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Solving a problem involving present value Monica wants to start a business and needs to borrow some money. A = $20 000 i = 6.

What annual interest rate. and the number of years. To calculate i. I graphed both functions on the same graph and used the calculator to find the point of intersection. see Technical Appendix. B-12. I thought of the intersection of two functions: 50 000 Y1 5 and Y2 5 5000. X (1 1 100 ) 40 I entered these into my graphing calculator. Philip’s Solution: Using a Graphing Calculator PV 5 $5000 n 5 40 A 5 50 000 PV 5 5000 5 A (1 1 i) n 50 000 (1 1 i) 40 I knew the principal.EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine the interest rate Tony is investing $5000 that he would like to grow to at least $50 000 by the time he retires in 40 years. Tony would need to get at least 5. I used Y1 and Y2 for the present value and X for the interest rate. the amount (or future value). will provide this? Round your answer to two decimal places. compounded annually. I wrote the formula for the present value and substituted the given information.93%/a compounded annually to reach his goal. 496 Chapter 8 NEL . Tech Support For help using a graphing calculator to find the point of intersection of two functions.

I used the inverse operation of raising something to the 40th power. i is the interest rate per compounding period. where PV is the calculated using the formula PV 5 n or PV 5 A(1 1 i) (1 1 i) present value. A. PV.0593 i 5 0. then I divided both sides by 5000. and n is the number of compounding periods. Need to Know • The present value of an investment earning compound interest can be A 2n .93% Tony would need to get at least 5. is called the present value. 5000(1 1 i) 40 5 50 000 (1 1 i) 40 5 10 40 1 1 i 8 1. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 497 . I wrote the formula for the present value.0593 i 5 5.8. the amount (or future value). and rearranged to solve for i.3 Derek’s Solution: Using the Formula PV 5 $5000 n 5 40 A 5 $50 000 PV 5 5000 5 A (1 1 i) n 50 000 (1 1 i) 40 I knew the principal. or future value. then substituted the given information. To calculate i. which is determining the 40th root. A is the total amount. expressed as a decimal. 1 1 i 5 "10 In Summary Key Idea • The principal. that must be invested now to grow to a specific future value. I multiplied both sides of the equation by (1 1 i) 40. and the number of years.93%/a compounded annually to reach his goal.

K Rate of Compound Interest per Year Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 4 years 3 years 15 years 9 years Future Value $10 000 $6 200 $20 000 $12 800 a) b) c) d) 6% 8.2% 4.8%/a compounded monthly. After another five years.6% 4.CHECK Your Understanding 1. Rate of Compound Interest per Year Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 10 years 5 years 15 years 100 years Future Value $10 000 $100 000 $23 000 $2 500 a) b) c) d) 4% 6. he paid $5000 toward the principal and the interest. she repays $12 033. He borrowed the rest at an interest rate of 18%/a compounded monthly. He would like $15 000 in 10 years.52 for the principal and the interest. Two years later. he paid the remainder of the principal and the interest. For each investment. which totalled $5000. After 5 years. Kevin can invest at 5%/a compounded annually and Lui can invest at 4. Chandra borrows some money at 7. Calculate the present value of each investment. he paid another $5000. determine the present value and the interest earned. Who has to invest more money to reach his goal? PRACTISING 3. Rico can invest money at 10%/a compounded quarterly.2%/a compounded annually. How much does he need to invest now? 7. Three years later. Nazir saved $900 to buy a plasma TV. How much money did Chandra borrow? 5. Kevin and Lui both want to have $10 000 in 20 years.16%/a compounded quarterly. How much did the TV originally cost? 6. he paid $1429. How much money did he originally borrow? 498 Chapter 8 NEL .2% 5.50 for the principal and the interest. Colin borrowed some money at 7.2% 5.6% 2. After another two years.2% 6.

After 30 years. Who made the greater original investment and by how much? takes the principal and interest and reinvests it all at 7. he will probably get 5%/a compounded quarterly for the remainder of the term. 9. He can get only 3. each investment is worth $25 000. How much interest will you have paid on your purchase? 16.2%/a interest 12. must Tia invest her money? Round your answer to two decimal places. She would like the money to grow to $12 000. compounded quarterly.9%/a compounded annually and David A invests some money at 6. • In 5 years. How long will she have to wait? 14. At the end of this time. he will probably get 4%/a compounded quarterly for the remainder of the term.4%/a compounded semi-annually. What annual interest rate. 15. Louise invests $5000 at 5. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 499 .3 8. Tia is investing $2500 that she would like to grow to $6000 in 10 years. the 5-year one or the 8-year one? b) How much does he need to invest? 10. Extending 13.8.17 for 21 years and are charged 19.2%/a interest 2 compounded monthly. Describe how determining the present value of an investment is similar to C solving a radioactive decay problem. • In 8 years. would cause an investment to triple every 10 years? Round your answer to two decimal places. Determine a formula for the present value of an investment with future value. Steve wants to have $25 000 in 25 years. You make monthly payments of $268. a) Which guarantee should Steve choose. After 5 years. her investment is worth $14 784. she T 11.56. Franco invests some money at 6. How much did Sally originally invest? compounded quarterly. Sally invests some money at 6%/a compounded annually. You buy a home entertainment system on credit. A. compounded quarterly.9%/a compounded monthly. At what annual interest rate. earning simple interest at a rate of i% per interest period for n interest periods.2%/a compounded quarterly for 6 more years. His bank will guarantee the rate for either 5 years or 8 years.

08) 9 8 $1999.00 10. How close is your estimate to the actual amount after 45 years? 500 Chapter 8 NEL . then it will take 72 4 r years to double in value.24 9.00 14. the rule indicates that it will take 72 4 8 5 9 years for the money to double in value.21 11.67 14. predicted by the rule of 72 is very close to the actual doubling time.29 9.00 which is very close to double your money. How could you use the rule of 72 to determine how much a $1000 investment earning 8%/a compounded annually would be worth after 45 years? 2.00 18.00 23.01 8.00 7.66 35. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Interest Rate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B Double Time Using the Rule of 72 72.00 36.45 17. Suppose you invested $1000. Here is how the rule works: If an investment is earning r%/a compounded annually.04 7.55 6. So if you are earning 8%/a compounded annually. For years. banks. in years. investors.90 10. The spreadsheet below shows how the time.00 C Actual Double Time 69.20 6.40 12. Then the formula for the future value gives A 5 P(1 1 i) n 5 1000(1.00 24.12 1.00 8.64 6. and the general public have used “the rule of 72” to help approximate calculations involving compound interest.Curious Math The Rule of 72 Working with compound interest can be difficult if you don’t have a calculator handy.27 6.

grow at a constant rate.00 $80. r is the interest rate.8 Q: A1: Mid-Chapter Review Study FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions What strategies can you use to solve problems involving simple interest? Aid Since simple interest is paid only on the principal.00 $180. A.00 $200. expressed as a decimal.00 $540.00 $640. where I is the interest. or future value.00 $700. Examples 1 to 4. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 1 to 3. EXAMPLE • See Lesson 8.00 $120.00 $740.00 $400.00 $320.00 $280. A. Examples 1 to 4.00 $800.00 $560. where A is the total amount.00 $300.00 $700.00 $380. The formulas for I and A are linear in terms of time.00 $580.00 $100.00 $200.2.00 0 5 10 Time 15 20 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Dollars Interest Amount A2: To calculate the interest.00 $340. How can you solve problems involving compound interest? Study Q: A1: Aid Compound interest is paid at regular intervals.00 $300. the total amount.00 $0.00 $780. So A can be modelled by an exponential function in terms of time or a geometric sequence. where I and A are in dollars and t is time in years. use the formula A 5 P 1 Prt or A 5 P(1 1 rt). and the amount. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 501 . So interest is calculated on the principal and interest already earned.00 $860. or $20. You can model the interest and the amount by the functions I(t) 5 20t and A(t) 5 500 1 20t.00 $900.00 $800. I.00 $620. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 4 to 6.00 $220. use the formula I 5 Prt.00 $500 Earning 4%/a Simple Interest $1 000. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A Year B Interest $20. P is the principal. expressed in the same period as the interest rate.00 $40.00 $400. • See Lesson 8.00 $240. To calculate the amount.00 $140. After each compounding period.00 $160.00 $360. grows by a fixed rate.00 $840.00 $680. both the interest.00 $900.00 $60. and t is time.00 $500.1. If $500 is invested at 4%/a simple interest.00 C Amount $520. called compounding periods.00 $600.00 $760.00 $100.00 $820.00 $660. interest is earned each year. So I and A can be modelled by linear functions in terms of time or arithmetic sequences.00 $600.00 $720.00 $260. then 4% of $500.00 $880. and is added to the principal.

is the amount you start with (the principal). and n is the number of compounding periods.3.00 $973.00 $684.73 $720.00 $608. then 4% of the total amount is earned as interest each year.00 $1 000.00 $584.80 $540. These two values are related through the formulas A 5 P(1 1 i) n and A or PV 5 A(1 1 i) 2n PV 5 (1 1 i) n which are just rearrangements of each other. Present value.84 $780. PV.42 $880. what is the difference between present value and future value? Study Aid Q: A: • See Lesson 8. is the amount you end up with after the last compounding period.00 $769. i is the interest rate per compounding period. expressed as a decimal.97 $640. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 7 to 9.93 $580. The amount grows exponentially. while future value.28 $660. Examples 1 to 3.00 $540. where A is the future value in dollars and t is time in years.43 $560.EXAMPLE If $500 is invested at 4%/a compounded annually. use the formula A 5 P(1 1 i) n. 502 Chapter 8 NEL .00 $632. For problems involving compound interest.00 $562.33 $600.00 $800.12 $700.00 $520. This formula is exponential in terms of the number of compounding periods.95 $840.56 $900.00 Dollars $600.00 $400.47 $800.00 $832. or future value.00 $200.00 $740. P is the principal.00 $800.04t.66 $620.00 Comparing Simple and Compound Interest $1 200.54 $760.00 $1 095.66 $680.00 $936.00 $900.00 $865. where A is the future value.00 $711.00 $657.00 0 5 10 Time 15 20 25 Simple Interest Compound Interest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A2: To calculate the total amount.91 $860. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A Year B C Simple Interest Compound Interest $520.00 $1 053. you are determining the principal that should be invested to yield the desired amount. So the amount can be modelled by A(t) 5 500 3 1. faster than the linear growth of simple interest.52 $740.49 $820.00 $0. A. When you solve for PV.00 $1012.

Rate of Simple Interest per Year 6.8% What interest rate is she being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places. was Sara being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places.78 when they took it out 65 years ago. How much money does Maria need to invest at 2.6% 14. Lesson 8.9% 8.80 made at 7.2%/a compounded 1. The balances from his statements for the first three months are shown. A year and a half later. For each investment. compounded semi-annually.91 $9125.4% 22. Iris borrowed some money at a fixed rate of How much interest is he being charged each month? b) How much did Tom borrow? c) What interest rate is he being charged? a) Lesson 8.8% 4. Clive inherits an investment that his grandparents simple interest to earn $1200 interest? 3. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 4.2%/a compounded quarterly in order to have $25 000 after 25 years? 8. The investment was worth $39 382.1 5. Statement 1 2 3 Balance $1014. How long will it take for his investment to grow to $34 000? 6.20 $1143. but she forgot what the interest rate was.4%/a compounded semi-annually.3% 27. she pays off the loan.56 4. calculate the future value and the total interest earned.2%/a 9.3 7. She pays Principal Time 15 years 16 months 80 weeks 150 days a) b) c) d) $5 400 $400 $15 000 $2 500 $500 and borrows the remaining amount. Calculate the interest being charged and the total amount. Tom borrows some money and is charged simple interest on the principal.2 compound interest.Mid-Chapter Review PRACTICE Questions Lesson 8. which amounted to $2112. Statement 1 2 Time 6 months 1 year Balance $8715. How long would you have to invest $5300 at 7. She knew that the interest was compounded semi-annually. Sara buys a washer and dryer for $2112. George invests $15 000 at 7. What annual interest rate.60 $1079.5 years NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 503 . b) How much did Iris borrow? a) a) b) c) d) Principal $6 300 $14 000 $120 000 $298 Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 7 years 10.7% 9.1% monthly. Each situation represents a loan being charged simple interest.5 years 44 years 1. The balances of her first two statements are shown. How much did Clive’s grandparents invest? 9.

Complete the entries under Date Invested up to Dec. 1. 31.8. 1. 31. Copy the data already entered. ? A.00 $1 000. 2014. How much will her investments be worth 10 years later. 2017. 2015. 31.5%/a compounded annually. 2007. How is the value in cell D3 (FV9) related to the value in cell D2 (FV10)? How is the value in cell D4 (FV8) related to the value in cell D3 (FV9)? Use the pattern from part D to complete the rest of the entries under Value on Jan. Fill in cells D3 and D4 to show what the investments made on Dec. 31. 31. 2014 B Amount Invested $1 000. 31. on January 1. What type of sequence do the values on Jan. 1. and Dec. 2007. How would you calculate each of the future values FV1 to FV10? i = 6. Her first deposit is on December 31.00 C Number of Years Invested 0 1 2 D Value on Jan. 1. F. E. 2015 Dec. A 1 2 3 4 Date Invested Dec. Set up a spreadsheet with columns as shown. 2017 form? NEL 504 Chapter 8 . INVESTIGATE the Math Christine decides to invest $1000 at the end of each year in a Canada Savings Bond earning 6. 2017 $1 000. 2017? Copy the timeline shown. respectively will be worth on Jan.4 YOU WILL NEED Annuities: Future Value • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software GOAL Determine the future value of an annuity earning compound interest. 2016 Dec. D.00 C. 2017.5%/a compounded annually Compounding 0 Period Payment $0 1 2 3 8 9 10 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 Amount of each payment at the end of the term FV10 FV9 FV8 FV3 FV2 FV1 B.00 $1 000.

024)37 1000(1 + 0. FV. ordinary annuity. A simple annuity is an annuity in which the payments coincide with the compounding period.024)36 1000(1 + 0. The values of all of the investments at the end of each year for 10 years formed a specific type of sequence.024)38 1000(1 + 0.024)39 Payment $0 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 505 . Reflecting H.024)2 1000(1 + 0.8%/a compounded semi-annually Compounding Period 0 1 2 19 20 Amount of each payment at the end of the term 1000 1000(1 + 0. each annuity in this chapter is a simple. What will be the future value. i = 4. Unless otherwise stated.4 G. and I represented the amount of each investment.024)1 1000(1 + 0. or conversion period. It didn’t earn interest during the first compounding period because it was deposited at the end of that period. How is the total value of the annuity at the end of 10 years related to a series? How could you use the related series to solve problems involving annuities? I. Calculate the total amount of all the investments at the end of 10 years for this annuity.024 2 n 5 20 3 2 5 40 Since the interest is paid semi-annually. annuity a series of payments or investments made at regular intervals.8%/a compounded semi-annually for the next 20 years.8. I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding periods. What will be the future value of his annuity? b) You plan to invest $R at regular intervals in an annuity that earns i% compounded at the end of each interval.048 5 0. The last $1000 investment earned no interest because it was deposited at the end of the term. An ordinary annuity is an annuity in which the payments are made at the end of each interval. The first $1000 investment earned interest over 39 periods. I drew a timeline of the investments for each compounding period. of your annuity after n intervals? Barbara’s Solution a) i 5 0. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the future value of an annuity earning compound interest as a series a) Hans plans to invest $1000 at the end of each 6-month period in an annuity that earns 4.

1 R(1 1 i) n22 1 R(1 1 i) n21 a(r n 2 1) r21 R 3(1 1 i) n 2 14 (1 1 i) 2 1 Sn 5 5 The future value of an annuity in which $R is invested at the end of each of n regular intervals earning i% of compound interest per interval is (1 1 i) n 2 1 b.. The last $R investment earned no interest.. I rounded to the nearest cent. . R(1 1 i) 2..024) 2 1 .. R.08 The future value of Hans’s annuity at the end of 20 years is $65 927.024) 1 1000(1. S40 5 1000 1 1000(1.024) 2. 1000(1. . R(1 1 i) n22..024) 38.. b) Compounding Period 0 1 $R 2 $R 3 $R n –2 $R i% per compounding period n –1 $R n $R Payment $0 Amount of each payment at the end of the term R R(1 + i )1 R(1 + i )2 R(1 + i )n–3 R(1 + i )n–2 R(1 + i )n–1 I drew a timeline of the investments for each compounding period to show the amount of each investment. . R(1 1 i) n21 Sn 5 R 1 R(1 1 i) 1 R(1 1 i) 2 1 .024 2 1 8 $65 927. 1000(1.024) 38 1 1000(1. The total amount of all these investments is the first 40 terms of a geometric series.024) 39 The future values of all of the investments form a geometric sequence with first term $1000 and common ratio 1.4 1000. The total amount of all these investments is the first n terms of a geometric series.02440 2 1) 1. FV 5 R 3 a i 5R3a (1 1 i) n 2 1 b i 506 Chapter 8 NEL .08. where i is expressed as a decimal. . 1000(1. 1 1000(1.. R(1 1 i).024). I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series to calculate the total amount of all the investments.024) 39 Sn 5 S40 5 a(r n 2 1) r21 1000(1.024.8.. The first $R investment earned interest n 2 1 times. 1000(1. I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series to calculate the total amount of all of Hans’s investments. The values of all of the investments form a geometric sequence with first term R and common ratio 1 1 i.

Sn 5 S100 5 a(r n 2 1) r21 500(1.013)99 I drew a timeline of the investments for each quarter to show the amounts of each investment..013) 99 The values form a geometric sequence with first term $500 and common ratio 1.052 5 0.013100 2 1) 1. 1 500(1. .013)96 500(1 + 0. I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series to calculate the total amount of all of Chie’s investments. How much will her annuity be worth in 25 years? Kew’s Solution: Using a Geometric Series i5 0. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 507 . 500. I rounded to the nearest cent. 500(1.013) 2 1 .013)98 500(1 + 0.013)97 500(1 + 0.2%/a compounded quarterly.013)1 500(1 + 0.013) 1 500(1.013) 98.013).013. i = 5.013 4 First I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding periods. .8.. 500(1. 500(1. I calculated the value of each investment at the end of 25 years.2%/a compounded quarterly Compounding Period 0 1 24 25 n 5 25 3 4 5 100 Payment $0 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 Amount of each payment at the end of the term 500 500(1 + 0.013) 99 S100 5 500 1 500(1.013)2 500(1 + 0.91 The total amount of all of Chie’s investments at the end of 25 years will be $101 487..013) 98 1 500(1..013) 2.013)3 500(1 + 0. 500(1.91.4 EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to determine the future value of an annuity Chie puts away $500 every 3 months at 5.013)4 500(1 + 0. The total amount of all these investments is the first 100 terms of a geometric series.013 2 1 8 $101 487.

ordinary annuity.6%/a compounded monthly. and n into the formula for the future value of an annuity.008 12 (1 1 i) n 2 1 b i I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding periods.013 4 n 5 25 3 4 5 100 5 500 3 a 8 $101 487.008) 360 2 1 b 0.013 I rounded to the nearest cent. How much should he deposit each month? Chantal’s Solution i5 0. The future value of the annuity is $500 000. and n into the formula for the future value of a simple.008 I substituted the values of FV.91.013) 100 2 1 b 0.052 5 0. He would like to have $500 000 in the account at the end of 30 years. 508 Chapter 8 NEL . i.Tina’s Solution: Using the Formula for the Future Value of an Annuity R 5 $500 (1 1 i) n 2 1 b FV 5 R 3 a i i5 0.096 5 0. I substituted the values of R. (1 1 0. i. EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine the regular payment of an annuity Sam wants to make monthly deposits into an account that guarantees 9.91 I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding periods. The future value of Chie’s annuity will be $101 487. FV 5 $500 000 500 000 5 R 3 a FV 5 R 3 a n 5 30 3 12 5 360 (1 1 0.

00 $750.00 $427. To solve for R.80 Sam would have to deposit $240.94 $6.413 2076.72 –$22. She agrees to repay the loan by making equal monthly payments of $750 until the balance is paid off.55 $94 028.50 $323. The part of the principal that is paid off with each payment is $750.00 $750. which would take about 15 years and 8 months.59 $423.95 $325. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 188 187 188 189 190 Payment Number 1 2 3 4 5 184 185 186 187 188 A Payment $750.55 $13.34 $733.50 $426. The 15 meant 15 years. and to fill down.00 $94 677.66 $16. If Nahid is being charged 5. see Technical Appendix.75 $740. B-21.50 $322. After 188 payments. less the interest.26 C Principal Paid $322.00 $750.00 $750. The new balance is the old balance.413.00 $750.4 500 000 8 R 3 2076.14 $93 701. I calculated the number of years needed to make 188 payments by dividing by 12.92 $2 944.13 $421. less the part of the principal that is paid.00 "=E3*0.17 $1 468. The interest is always charged 1 2 3 4 Payment Number 1 2 A Payment B Interest Paid Principal Paid Balance $95 000.00 $750.4% since it is compounded monthly. the balance is close to zero.00 $750.50 $94 677.667 0.00 $750. how long will it take her to pay off the loan? Zak’s Solution I set up a spreadsheet to calculate the balance after every payment.02 E I used the FILL DOWN command to complete the spreadsheet until the balance was close to zero.25 $9. Tech Support For help using a spreadsheet to enter values and formulas.667 3 12 months 8 8 months Nahid can pay off the loan after 188 payments.27 $93 372.00 B Interest Paid $427.06 $743.667 of a year was.45 $736. EXAMPLE 4 Selecting a strategy to determine the term of an annuity Nahid borrows $95 000 to buy a cottage.4%/a compounded monthly. I rounded to the nearest cent.00 $750.413 2076.054/12" "=B4-C4" "=E3-D4" C D E on the balance and is 12 of 5.413 R 5 $240.00 $750.61 $3. so I had to figure out what 0.87 $328. t5 188 12 8 15. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 509 .39 $746.41 $326.80 into the account each month in order to have $500 000 at the end of 30 years. I got a value greater than 15.74 D Balance $95 000.05 $424.92 $2 208.8.11 $724.413 500 000 5R3 2076.50 $94 353.50 $750. since there are 12 payments each year. I divided both sides of the equation by 2076.

In Summary Key Ideas • The future value of an annuity is the sum of all regular payments and interest earned. i is the interest rate per compounding period. • The payment interval of an annuity is the time between successive payments. • The formula for the sum of a geometric series can be used to determine the future value of an annuity. and n is the number of compounding periods. 3 2 1 Need to Know • A variety of technological tools (spreadsheets. 510 Chapter 8 NEL . i% per compounding period Compounding 0 Period Payment $0 1 $R 2 $R 3 $R n 2 $R n 1 $R n $R Amount of each payment at the end of the term R R(1 + i)1 R(1 + i)2 R(1 + i)n R(1 + i)n R(1 + i)n • The future value can be written as the geometric series FV 5 R 1 R(1 1 i) 1 R(1 1 i) 2 1 . expressed as a decimal. • The term of an annuity is the time from the first payment to the last payment. i is the interest rate per compounding period.. 1 R(1 1 i) n22 1 R(1 1 i) n21 where FV is the future value. graphing calculators) can be used to solve problems involving annuities. and n is the number of compounding periods. R is the regular payment. • The formula for the future value of an annuity is FV 5 R 3 a (1 1 i) n 2 1 b i where FV is the future value. R is the regular payment each compounding period.. expressed as a decimal.

Mike wants to invest money every month for 40 years. b) What type of sequence do the values form? c) Determine the total amount of all of Eric’s investments.5% Regular Payment Compounding Period monthly quarterly semi-annually annually Time 50 years 15 years 8 years 10 years a) b) c) d) $100 per month $1500 per quarter $500 every 6 months $4000 per year 3. Josh borrows some money on which he makes monthly payments of $125.3% 3. a) 2. Lois invests $650 every 6 months at 4.6% 4.1%/a compounded monthly NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 511 .2%/a compounded monthly b) 5. For each investment option.4 CHECK Your Understanding 1.2% 5.8% 8% Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 10 years 3 years 7 years 35 years a) b) c) d) $1500 per year $250 every 6 months $2400 per quarter $25 per month 6. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 3.43 for 3 years. Eric invests $2500 at 8. He would like to have A $1 000 000 at the end of the 40 years. If the interest rate is 5. Calculate the future value of each annuity. Calculate the future value of each annuity.4%/a compounded monthly. K Regular Payment Rate of Compound Interest per Year 6. Each year. how much does he need to invest each month? a) 10. what will be the total amount of all of the payments at the end of the 3 years? PRACTISING 5. How much interest will she earn after the 25th year? 4.6% 6.6%/a compounded semi-annually for 25 years. Calculate the value of each of the first four investments at the end of 25 years.8.2%/a compounded annually for 25 years.6% 4.

Sonja and Anita want to make equal monthly payments for the next 35 years. compounded monthly. Greg borrows $123 000 for the purchase of a house.8%/a compounded monthly. At the end of that time.6%/a compounded monthly.2% 7.8%/a compounded monthly. related to interest. How many equal monthly payments would you have to make to get 100 times the amount you are investing each month if you are earning 8.7. At what annual interest rate. What monthly payments will Greg have to make? 14. Sonja’s bank will give her 6. He would like to have at least $6500 at the end of his investment.2%/a compounded quarterly. The bank is charging Greg 6. At the end of that time. each person would like to have $500 000. He plans to make regular monthly payments over the next 20 years to pay off the loan.2% 7. She decides to make monthly payments of $250. sequences. how much more money will she have at the end of 35 years? 10. does Jamal need to invest to reach his goal? Round your answer to two decimal places. Kiki has several options for investing $1200 per year: Rate of Compound Interest per Year 7. 8. Draw a mind map for the concept of future value of annuities. Carmen borrows $10 000 at 4. T he would like to have $25 000. Jamal wants to invest $150 every month for 10 years. Show how it is C Extending 12. a) How long will it take her to pay off the loan? b) How much interest will she pay over the term of the loan? 13.2% 7.6%/a compounded monthly. How long will he need to make regular payments? 9.4%/a compounded monthly? 512 Chapter 8 NEL . which investment would be best? Justify your reasoning. and series.2% Regular Payment Compounding Period monthly quarterly semi-annually annually a) b) c) d) $100 per month $300 per quarter $600 every 6 months $1200 per year Without doing any calculations. 11. a) How much more per month does Sonja have to invest? b) If Anita decides to invest the same monthly amount as Sonja. Kenny wants to invest $250 every three months at 5. Anita can invest through her work and earn 10.

? A. D.00 $1 000.5%/a compounded annually Compounding 0 Period Payment $0 Present value of each payment PV1 PV2 PV3 PV23 PV24 PV25 1 2 3 23 24 25 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 B. Use the relationship among the present values to complete the rest of the entries under Present Value.8. How much would Kew need to invest now if he wanted to provide $1000 at the end of the 1st year? How much would Kew need to invest now if he wanted to provide $1000 at the end of the 2nd. C.00 $1 000. Use the values in the Present Value column to determine how much Kew would need to invest now in order to provide the scholarships for the next 25 years. 3rd.00 C Present Value NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 513 .00 $1 000.00 $1 000.00 $1 000. He would like the investment to provide $1000 for scholarships at his old high school at the end of each year for the next 25 years.5 GOAL Annuities: Present Value YOU WILL NEED Determine the present value of an annuity earning compound interest. How would you calculate each of the present values PV1 to PV25? i = 5. Enter your values of PV1 and PV2 in the Present Value column.00 $1 000. • graphing calculator • spreadsheet software INVESTIGATE the Math Kew wants to invest some money at 5. respectively? How is the present value after 2 years (PV2) related to the present value after 1 year (PV1)? Set up a spreadsheet with columns as shown at the right. G. How much should Kew invest now? Copy the timeline shown.5%/a compounded annually. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B Scholarship Payment $1 000.00 $1 000.00 $1 000.00 $1 000. E. F. and 4th years.

I.083)2 500 (1 + 0. Payment $0 $500 Present value of each payment 500 (1 + 0.Reflecting H.083)10 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500 PV 5 PV1 5 PV2 5 PV3 5 ( A (1 1 i)n 500 (1.083)2 500 (1.083)9 500 (1 + 0.083) 500 (1. What type of sequence do the present values in part F form? Describe a method that you could have used to solve this problem without using a spreadsheet. 514 Chapter 8 NEL .083)8 500 (1 + 0.3%/a compounded annually 2 3 8 9 10 I drew a timeline showing the $500 payments for the next 10 years. APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 1 Representing the present value of an annuity earning compound interest as a series a) How much would you need to invest now at 8.083)3 I considered each payment separately and used the present-value formula to determine how much would need to be invested now to provide each $500 payment.083)3 500 (1 + 0.083)1 500 (1 + 0.3%/a compounded annually to provide $500 per year for the next 10 years? b) How much would you need to invest now to provide n regular payments of $R if the money is invested at a rate of i% per compounding period? Tara’s Solution a) Compounding Period 0 1 i = 8.

5 PV9 5 PV10 5 a5 r5 500 (1.08329 1 500 3 1.08321 3(1..8..083210 Sn 5 S10 5 a(r n 2 1) r21 500 3 1.08322 1 500 3 1.08321.08321 (1.08321 and common ratio 1. n 5 10 S10 5 500 3 1. A sum of $3310.08321 1.11 invested now would provide a payment of $500 for each of the next 10 years. Payment $0 Present value of each payment R (1 + i )1 R (1 + i )2 R (1 + i )3 R (1 + i )n–2 R (1 + i )n–1 R (1 + i )n NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 515 . So I had to calculate the sum of all of the present values.08321 )10 2 14 1.083)10 500 5 500 3 1.11 I rounded to the nearest cent.08321 1 500 3 1. 1 500 3 1.083 The present values for each payment are the first 10 terms of a geometric sequence with first term 500 3 1.08321 2 1 8 $3310.08323 1 .083)9 500 (1. The total amount of money invested now has to provide each of the $500 future payments. b) Compounding Period 0 1 $R 2 $R i% per compounding period 3 $R n–2 $R n–1 $R n $R I drew a timeline showing the $R payments for n regular intervals. so I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series. The sum of the present values forms a geometric series.083) 1 5 1.

So I had to calculate the sum of all of the present values. The sum of the present values forms a geometric series. 516 Chapter 8 NEL . since I was dividing by 1 1 i each time. so I used the formula for the sum of a geometric series. R PVn 5 (1 1 i)n a 5 R 3 (1 1 i)21 r 5 (1 1 i)21 I used negative exponents. The present values for each payment are the first n terms of a geometric sequence with first term R 3 (1 1 i)21 and common ratio (1 1 i)21. Sn 5 R 3 (1 1 i)21 1 R 3 (1 1 i)22 1 R 3 (1 1 i)21 3(1 1 i)2n 2 14 (1 1 i)21 2 1 a(r n 2 1) r21 R 3(1 1 i)2n 2 14 2i R 3(1 1 i)2n 2 14 1 2 (1 1 i) R 3 (1 1 i)23 1 c1 R 3 (1 1 i)2n I needed to determine the total amount of money invested now to provide each of the $R future payments. Sn 5 5 5 5 11i R 3 (1 1 i)21 3 (1 1 i)2n 2 14 3 (1 1 i)21 2 1 11i 1 2 (1 1 i)2n b i The numerator and denominator each have a factor of (1 1 i)21. i 5R3a 5 I multiplied the numerator and denominator by 21 to simplify. so I multiplied them both by 1 1 i to simplify.PV 5 PV1 5 PV2 5 PV3 5 ( A (1 1 i)n R 11i R (1 1 i)2 R (1 1 i)3 I considered each payment separately and used the present-value formula to determine how much would need to be invested now to provide each specific $R payment. The present value of an annuity in which $R is paid at the end of each of n regular intervals earning i% compound 1 2 (1 1 i)2n interest per interval is PV 5 R 3 a b.

00 $50 000.00 $50 000.00 $50 000.00 "= B3/(1.83 $20 776. The lump-sum payment should be $623 110.00 $50 000.88 $41 135.00 $50 000.85 $22 905. The present value of each payment is given by the formula A .00 $50 000.05 times the present value of the previous year.5 EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to determine the present value of an annuity Sharon won a lottery that offers $50 000 a year for 20 years or a lump-sum payment now.70 $18 844.00 $50 000. I then used the SUM command to determine the sum of all the present values.45 $30 695.47 $623 110.03 $19 786.05)^A3" $50 000.00 $50 000.52.00 C Present Value $47 619.00 $50 000. Since Sharon is earning 5%/a.97 $32 230. PV 5 n so the (1 1 i) present value of the payments form a geometric sequence 1 with r 5 1 1 i .40 $24 050.00 $50 000.47 $43 191.31 $37 310.05" $50 000. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B Payment $50 000.12 $39 176.05)^A4" 1 2 3 4 I set up a spreadsheet to determine the present value of each of the payments for the next 20 years.00 $50 000.05 $45 351.87 $26 516.77 $35 534.58 $21 814. the present value of each following year is equal to 1. NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 517 .00 $50 000.00 $50 000.00 "= B4/(1.00 $50 000. If she can invest the money at 5%/a compounded annually.07 $25 253.00 $50 000.07 $33 841.52 I used the FILL DOWN command to determine the present values for the remaining payments.00 "= B2/1.00 $50 000.00 $50 000.00 $50 000.8.00 $50 000.96 $27 841.66 $29 233. how much should the lump-sum payment be to be worth the same amount as the annuity? Joel’s Solution: Using a Spreadsheet A Year 1 2 3 B C Payment Present Value $50 000.

072 133.072 1 2 (1 1 0.0055 12 I calculated the interest rate per compounding period and the number of compounding periods.072. he will take 20 years to pay off the loan.0055 133.60 in interest. Len will have paid $160 706. I rounded to the nearest cent.066 5 0.60 I 5 A 2 PV 5 $ 360 706. I substituted the values of PV. 518 Chapter 8 NEL .EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine the regular payment and total interest of an annuity Len borrowed $200 000 from the bank to purchase a yacht. i.60 Over the 20-year term of the loan. 200 000 8 R 3 133.60 2 $ 200 000 5 $ 160 706.072 R 8 1502. If the bank charges 6. I calculated the total amount that Len will have paid over the 20-year term.0055)2240 b 0.6%/a compounded monthly. I determined the interest by subtracting the present value from the total amount that Len will have paid. a) How much will each monthly payment be? b) How much interest will he have paid over the term of the loan? Jasmine’s Solution: Using the Formula a) 200 000 5 R 3 a 1 2 (1 1 i)2n b PV 5 R 3 a i n 5 20 3 12 5 240 PV 5 $200 000 i5 0. I divided both sides of the equation by 133.072 200 000 5R3 133. 5 $ 360 706. and n into the formula for the present value of an annuity. b) A 5 1502.94 per month for 20 years to pay off the loan.94 Len will have to pay $1502.94 3 240 To solve for R.

expressed as a decimal.8. and n is the number of compounding periods. 1 $R 2 $R 3 $R n 2 $R n 1 $R n $R Need to Know • The formula for the present value of an annuity is where PV is the present value. It is the sum of all present values of the payments and can be written as the geometric series PV 5 R 3 (1 1 i)21 1 R 3 (1 1 i)22 1 R 3 (1 1 i)23 1 ... PV 5 R 3 a 1 2 (1 1 i)2n b i NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 519 . i is the interest rate per compounding period. 1 R 3 (1 1 i)2n where PV is the present value. R is the regular payment. expressed as a decimal.5 In Summary Key Ideas • The present value of an annuity is the value of the annuity at the beginning of the term. and n is the number of compounding periods. i is the interest rate per compounding period. i% per compounding period Compounding 0 Period Payment $0 Present value of each payment R (1 + i)1 R (1 + i)2 R (1 + i)3 R (1 + i)n 2 R (1 + i)n 1 R (1 + i)n • The formula for the sum of a geometric series can be used to determine the present value of an annuity. R is the regular payment each compounding period.

iii) Calculate the present value of the annuity. Calculate the present value of each annuity. Each situation represents a simple. Calculate the amount of the original loan. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 9% 8% 8% Regular Payment Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly Time 7 years 3.2% 23.4% Compounding Period annually semi-annually weekly monthly Time 5 years 12 years 100 weeks 1 2 years 2 a) b) c) d) $5000 per year $250 every 6 months $25.6% 6.50 per week $48.73 per quarter $183. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 3. K Regular Payment Rate of Compound Interest per Year 7.17 per month 10 years 2.6% Regular Payment Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 5 years 9 years 3 1 years 2 a) b) c) d) $650 per year $1200 every 6 months $84.7% 9. Write the series that represents the amount of the original loan. Calculate the interest paid.2% 4. i) ii) iii) iv) Draw a timeline to represent the amount of the original loan. ii) Write the present values of the payments as a series. i) Calculate the present value of each payment.4% 3.50 per month 520 Chapter 8 NEL . ordinary annuity.CHECK Your Understanding 1.8% 5. Each situation represents a loan.5 years 2 years a) b) c) $8000 per year $300 every 6 months $750 per quarter PRACTISING 3.

8.5

4. You want to buy a $1300 stereo on credit and make monthly payments over

**2 years. If the store is charging you 18%/a compounded monthly, what will be your monthly payments?
**

5. Lily wants to buy a snowmobile. She can borrow $7500 at 10%/a

compounded quarterly if she repays the loan by making equal quarterly payments for 4 years. a) Draw a timeline to represent the annuity. b) Write the series that represents the present value of the annuity. c) Calculate the quarterly payment that Lily must make.

6. Rocco pays $50 for a DVD/CD player and borrows the remaining amount.

He plans to make 10 monthly payments of $40 each. The first payment is due next month. a) The interest rate is 18%/a compounded monthly. What was the selling price of the player? b) How much interest will he have paid over the term of the loan?

7. Emily is investing $128 000 at 7.8%/a compounded monthly. She wants to

withdraw an equal amount from this investment each month for the next 25 years as spending money. What is the most she can take out each month?

8. The Peca family wants to buy a cottage for $69 000. The Pecas can pay

$5000 and finance the remaining amount with a loan at 9%/a compounded monthly. The loan payments are monthly, and they may choose either a 7-year or a 10-year term. a) Calculate the monthly payment for each term. b) How much would they save in interest by choosing the shorter term? c) What other factors should the Pecas consider before making their financing decision?

9. Charles would like to buy a new car that costs $32 000. The dealership offers

A

to finance the car at 2.4%/a compounded monthly for five years with monthly payments. The dealer will reduce the selling price by $3000 if Charles pays cash. Charles can get a loan from his bank at 5.4%/a compounded monthly. Which is the best way to buy the car? Justify your answer with calculations. compounded monthly. She has a choice between a 5-, 10-, or 15-year term. a) Determine the monthly payment for each term. b) Calculate how much interest Nina would pay in each case.

10. To pay off $35 000 in loans, Nina’s bank offers her a rate of 8.4%/a

11. Pedro pays $45 for a portable stereo and borrows the remaining amount. The

loan payments are $25 per month for 1 year. The interest rate is 18.6%/a compounded monthly. a) What was the selling price of the stereo? b) How much interest will Pedro have paid over the term of the loan?

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12. Suzie buys a new computer for $2500. She pays $700 and finances the rest at

$75.84 per month for 21 years. What annual interest rate, compounded 2 monthly, is Suzie being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places.

13. Leo invests $50 000 at 11.2%/a compounded quarterly for his retirement.

Leo’s financial advisor tells him that he should take out a regular amount quarterly when he retires. If Leo has 20 years until he retires and wants to use the investment for recreation for the first 10 years of retirement, what is the maximum quarterly withdrawal he can make?

14. Charmaine calculates that she will require about $2500 per month for the

first 15 years of her retirement. If she has 25 years until she retires, how much should she invest each month at 9%/a compounded monthly for the next 25 years if she plans to withdraw $2500 per month for the 15 years after that?

15. A lottery has two options for winners collecting their prize:

T

• Option A: $1000 each week for life • Option B: $660 000 in one lump sum The current interest rate is 6.76%/a compounded weekly. a) Which option would you suggest to a winner who expects to live for another 25 years? b) When is option A better than option B? terms. Give examples. a) a lump sum or an annuity b) future value or present value

**16. Classify situations and factors that show the differences between each pair of
**

C

Extending

17. Stefan claims that he has found a different method for calculating the present

value of an annuity. Instead of calculating the present value of each payment, he calculates the future value of each payment. Then he calculates the sum of the future values of the payments. Finally, he calculates the present value of this total sum. a) Use Stefan’s method to solve Example 1 (a). b) Create another example to show that his claim is true. Include timelines. c) Use the formula for present value to prove that Stefan’s claim works for all annuities.

18. Kyla must repay student loans that total $17 000. She can afford to make

$325 monthly payments. The bank is charging an interest rate of 7.2%/a compounded monthly. How long will it take Kyla to repay her loans?

19. In question 14, Charmaine invested a fixed amount per month so that her

annuity would provide her with another monthly amount in her retirement. Derive a formula for the regular payment $R that must be made for m payments at an interest rate of i% per compounding period to provide for a regular withdrawal of $W after all the payments are made for n withdrawals.

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GOAL

**Using Technology to Investigate Financial Problems
**

YOU WILL NEED

Use technology to investigate the effects of changing the conditions in financial problems.

• graphing calculator • spreadsheet software

**INVESTIGATE the Math
**

Tina wants to buy a stereo that costs $566.47 after taxes. The store allows her to buy the stereo by making payments of $29.95 per month for 2 years.

?

A. B.

What annual interest rate, compounded monthly, is the store charging?

Draw a timeline for this situation. Will you be calculating present values or future values? Use a spreadsheet to set up an amortization schedule as shown.

1 Interest Rate Payment Number 2 3 0.01 1 4 "=B3+1" A B C

Payment

amortization schedule

F

D

Interest Paid

E

Principal Paid

Balance

$29.95 "=F2*A3" $29.95 "=F3*A3"

"=C3-D3" "=C4-D4"

$566.47 "=F2-E3" "=F3-E4"

a record of payments showing the interest paid, the principal, and the current balance on a loan or investment

C.

Use the COPY DOWN command to complete the spreadsheet so that 24 payments are showing. The spreadsheet shown here is set up with an interest rate of 1% per compounding period. Adjust the value of the interest rate to solve the problem. Enter the formula for the present value of the annuity into a graphing calculator, where Y is the (unknown) present value and X is the annual interest rate compounded monthly. Graph the equation in part D, as well as y 5 566.47. Use these graphs to solve the problem. On your graphing calculator, activate the TVM Solver. Enter the corresponding values and then solve the problem.

Tech

Support

For help creating an amortization schedule using a spreadsheet, see Technical Appendix, B-22.

D.

E. F. G.

Tech

Support

For help using the TVM Solver on a graphing calculator, see Technical Appendix, B-19.

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Reflecting

H. I.

Why could you not solve this problem easily with pencil and paper? Which of the three methods (the spreadsheet in parts B and C, the graphs in parts D and E, or the TVM Solver in parts F and G) used to solve the problem do you prefer? Why?

**APPLY the Math
**

EXAMPLE

1

Selecting a tool to investigate the effects of varying the interest rate

Jamal has $10 000 to invest. Bank of North America offers an interest rate of 4.2%/a compounded monthly. Key Bank offers an interest rate of 5%/a compounded quarterly. How much longer will it take the money invested to grow to $50 000 if Jamal chooses Bank of North America?

**Lina’s Solution: Using Guess-and-Check
**

i5 0.042 5 0.0035 12

I first looked at the Bank of North America. Since interest is paid monthly, I divided the annual interest rate by 12 to get the interest rate per month. I substituted the values of i and P into the compoundinterest formula. I thought 10 years might be a good guess. That would give n 5 120 compounding periods. My guess was way too small, so I tried 40 years, which gives n 5 480 compounding periods. That guess was much closer. Eventually, I tried 460 months. It was a little low, so I tried 461 months.

P 5 $10 000 A 5 P(1 1 i) n 5 10 000(1.0035) n A 5 10 000(1.0035) 120 8 15 208.46 A 5 10 000(1.0035) 480 8 53 498.41 Try n 5 460: A 5 10 000(1.0035) 8 49 887.68 461 8 38.417 12 0.417 3 12 months 8 5 months n 5 38 years and 5 months 0.05 5 0.0125 i5 4 P 5 $10 000 A 5 P(1 1 i) n 5 10 000(1.0125) 8 56 925.19

n

Try n 5 461:

460

A 5 10 000(1.0035) 8 50 062.29

461

I determined how long 461 months is in terms of years. First I divided 461 by 12 to get 38 years. Then I multiplied 0.417 by 12 to get 5 months. Next, I looked at Key Bank. Since interest is paid quarterly, I divided the annual interest rate by 4 to get the interest rate per quarter.

I substituted the values of i and P into the compoundinterest formula. Since it took Bank of North America 38 years to grow to $50 000, I used 35 years as my first guess for Key Bank because the interest rate is higher. 35 years is 35 3 4 5 140 quarters.

NEL

A 5 10 000(1.0125) 140

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Try n 5 129: 8 49 654.56 130 5 32.5 4 n 5 32 years and 6 months It will take 38 years and 5 months to get $50 000 if Jamal chooses Bank of North America. It will take 32 years and 6 months if he chooses Key Bank. So it will take almost 6 years longer to reach his goal if Jamal chooses Bank of North America. Try n 5 130: A 5 10 000(1.0125) 130 8 50 275.24

I determined how long 130 quarters is in terms of years. I divided 130 by 4 to get 32 years. I knew that 0.5 years is 6 months. This result was close, but a bit high. Eventually, I tried 129 quarters and then 130 quarters.

A 5 10 000(1.0125) 129

**George’s Solution: Using a Graphing Calculator
**

A 5 P(1 1 i) n Bank of North America: i5 0.042 5 0.0035 12 Key Bank: i5 0.05 5 0.0125 4

At Bank of North America, interest is compounded monthly. At Key Bank, interest is compounded quarterly. I calculated the interest rate per compounding period at each bank. Then I used the compound-interest formula to calculate the amounts. I entered the equations for the amounts into my graphing calculator, using Y1 and Y2 for the amounts for Bank of North America and Key Bank, respectively, and X for the number of compounding periods. I entered Y3 5 50 000.

A 5 10 000(1.0035) n

A 5 10 000(1.0125) n

I graphed the three equations and used the calculator to find the point of intersection of each exponential function with the horizontal line, which indicated when the amount of the investment had reached $50 000.

It will take about 460 months, or 38 years and 5 months, to get $50 000 if Jamal chooses Bank of North America. It will take about 129 quarters, or 32 years and 6 months, if he chooses Key Bank. So it will take almost 6 years longer to reach his goal if Jamal chooses Bank of North America.

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**Coco’s Solution: Using the TVM Solver
**

I entered the information on the investment with Bank of North America into the TVM Solver. Jamal pays into the account at the start, so the present value is 2 $10 000. Also, no regular payments are being made. This is a lump-sum investment, so I set PMT on my calculator to 0. I determined that it would take a bit more than 460 months, or 38 years and 5 months, to reach his goal with Bank of North America.

I entered the information on the investment with Key Bank into the TVM Solver. I determined that it would take a bit more than 129 quarters, or 32 years and 6 months, to reach his goal with Key Bank.

If Jamal chooses Bank of North America, it will take about 6 years longer to reach his goal.

EXAMPLE

2

Selecting a tool to investigate the effects of increasing the monthly payment

Lia borrows $180 000 to open a restaurant. She can afford to make monthly payments between $1000 and $1500 at 4.8%/a compounded monthly. How much sooner can she pay off the loan if she makes the maximum monthly payment?

**Teresa’s Solution: Using a Spreadsheet
**

I set up a spreadsheet to solve the problem. Since the interest is compounded monthly, I divided 4.8% by 12 to get the interest rate per month. For the $1000 minimum payment, I calculated the proportion of the principal paid for each payment. Then I subtracted that proportion from the previous balance to get the balance at the end of the next month. Next, I used the FILL DOWN command to complete the other rows.

A Payment Number 1 2 1 3 4 "=A3+1"

B Payment

C Interest Paid

D Principal Paid "=B3-C3" "=B4-C4"

$1 000 .00 "=E2*(0.048/12)" $1 000 .00 "=E3*(0.048/12)"

E Balance $180 000.00 "=E2-D3" "=E3-D4"

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A Payment Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

B Payment $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00

C Interest Paid $720.00 $718.88 $717.76 $716.63 $715.49 $714.36 $713.21 $712.07 $710.91 $709.76

D Principal Paid $280.00 $281.12 $282.24 $283.37 $284.51 $285.64 $286.79 $287.93 $289.09 $290.24

E Balance $180 000.00 $179 720.00 $179 438.88 $179 156.64 $178 873.26 $178 588.76 $178 303.11 $178 016.32 $177 728.39 $177 439.30 $177 149.06

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8.6

314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $1 000 .00 $30.96 $27.08 $23.19 $19.28 $15.36 $11.42 $7.47 $3.50 $969.04 $972.92 $976.81 $980.72 $984.64 $988.58 $992.53 $996.50 $6 770.39 $5 797.48 $4 820.67 $3 839.95 $2 855.31 $1 866.73 $874.20 –$122.31

I continued until the balance became negative, indicating that the loan was paid off.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A Payment Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

B Payment $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00

C Interest Paid $720.00 $716.88 $713.75 $710.60 $707.44 $704.27 $701.09 $697.90 $694.69 $691.47

D Principal Paid $780.00 $783.12 $786.25 $789.40 $792.56 $795.73 $798.91 $802.10 $805.31 $808.53

E Balance $180 000.00 $179 220.00 $178 436.88 $177 650.63 $176 861.23 $176 068.67 $175 272.95 $174 474.04 $173 671.94 $172 866.63 $172 058.09

I replaced the $1000 minimum payment with the $1500 maximum payment and used the FILL DOWN command in all the cells under Payment.

159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166

157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164

$1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00 $1 500 .00

$46.04 $40.22 $34.38 $28.52 $22.63 $16.72 $10.79 $4.83

$1 453.96 $1 459.78 $1 465.62 $1 471.48 $1 477.37 $1 483.28 $1 489.21 $1 495.17

$10 054.91 $8 595.13 $7 129.51 $5 658.03 $4 180.66 $2 697.39 $1 208.17 –$286.99

I continued until the balance became negative, indicating that the loan was paid off.

At the minimum payment of $1000, Lia’s loan would be paid off after 319 months, or 26 years and 7 months. At the maximum payment of $1500, the loan would be paid off after 164 months, or 13 years and 8 months. So Lia can pay off the loan almost 13 years sooner if she makes the maximum payment.

**Mike’s Solution: Using the TVM Solver
**

I entered the information on the loan into the TVM Solver on a graphing calculator. I entered the minimum monthly payment of $1000 and then used the calculator to determine the number of payments needed. I then changed the monthly payment to the maximum amount of $1500, and used the calculator to determine the number of payments needed.

At the minimum payment of $1000, Lia’s loan would be paid off after 319 months, or 26 years and 7 months. At the maximum payment of $1500, the loan would be paid off after 164 months, or 13 years and 8 months. So Lia can pay off the loan almost 13 years sooner if she makes the maximum payment.

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Discrete Functions: Financial Applications

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Communication

Tip

EXAMPLE

3

Sometimes you can make a large purchase by paying a small portion of the cost right away and financing the rest with a loan. The portion paid right away is called a down payment.

Selecting a tool to investigate the effects of paying more frequently

Sarah and John are both saving for a down payment on their first home. Both plan to save $2400 each year by depositing into an account that earns 4%/a. • John makes monthly deposits of $200 into an account on which the interest is compounded monthly. • Sarah makes annual payments of $2400 into an account on which the interest is compounded annually. Determine the difference in their account balances at the end of 5 years.

Jason’s Solution

I used the TVM Solver on my graphing calculator and entered the information on John. I found that his balance would be $13 259.80 at the end of 5 years.

I repeated the same type of calculation, but this time with the information on Sarah. I found that her balance would be $12 999.17 at the end of 5 years.

$13 259.80 2 $12 999.17 5 $260.63 John’s account will have $260.63 more than Sarah’s after 5 years.

I subtracted to calculate the difference in the amounts.

EXAMPLE

4

Connecting the interest paid on a loan with time

You borrow $100 000 at 8.4%/a compounded monthly. You make monthly payments of $861.50 to pay off the loan after 20 years. How long will it take to pay off a) the first $25 000? b) the next $25 000? c) the next $25 000? d) the last $25 000? e) Why are the answers to parts (a) through (d) all different?

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8.6

Mena’s Solution

a)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 104 105 106 107 108 A Payment Number 1 2 3 4 5 102 103 104 105 106 B Payment $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 $861 .50 C Interest Paid $700.00 $698.87 $697.73 $696.58 $695.43 $534.80 $532.51 $530.21 $527.89 $525.56 D Principal Paid $161.50 $162.63 $163.77 $164.92 $166.07 $326.70 $328.99 $331.29 $333.61 $335.94 E Balance $100 000.00 $99 838.50 $99 675.87 $99 512.10 $99 347.19 $99 181.12 $76 073.31 $75 744.32 $75 413.03 $75 079.42 $74 743.48

I used a spreadsheet to create an amortization schedule. I then used the FILL DOWN feature to complete the spreadsheet. I noticed that the balance is reduced to $74 743.48 after 106 months, so it took 8 years and 10 months to pay off the first $25 000. The balance is reduced to $49 625.69 after 166 months, so it took 60 months, or 5 years, to pay off the next $25 000. The balance is reduced to $24 624.00 after 208 months, so it took 42 months, or 3 years and 6 months, to pay off the next $25 000. The loan is paid off after 240 months, or 20 years. It takes 208 months to pay about $75 000, so I subtracted 208 from 240 to determine how long it takes to pay the last $25 000 of the loan. The last $25 000 takes 32 months, or 2 years and 8 months, to pay off.

b)

164 165 166 167 168

162 163 164 165 166

$861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50

$365.00 $361.53 $358.03 $354.50 $350.95

$496.50 $499.97 $503.47 $507.00 $510.55

$51 646.68 $51 146.71 $50 643.23 $50 136.24 $49 625.69

c)

206 207 208 209 210

204 205 206 207 208

$861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50

$195.99 $191.33 $186.64 $181.92 $177.16

$665.51 $670.17 $674.86 $679.58 $684.34

$27 332.96 $26 662.79 $25 987.93 $25 308.35 $24 624.00

d)

239 240 241 242 243

237 238 239 240 241

$861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50 $861.50

$23.72 $17.86 $11.95 $6.01 $0.02

$837.78 $843.64 $849.55 $855.49 $861.48

$2 551.46 $1 707.82 $858.28 $2.78 –$858.70

e) It takes different lengths of time to pay off the same amount of

money because the interest paid is greater when the balance owed is greater. Less of the payment goes toward the principal.

In Summary

Key Idea

• Spreadsheets and graphing calculators are just two of the technological tools that can be used to investigate and solve financial problems involving interest, annuities, and amortization schedules.

Need to Know

• The advantage of an amortization schedule is that it provides the history of all payments, interest paid, and balances on a loan. • More interest can be earned if • the interest rate is higher • there are more compounding periods per year • If you increase the amount of the regular payment of a loan, you can pay it off sooner and save a significant amount in interest charges. • Early in the term of a loan, the major proportion of each regular payment is interest, with only a small amount going toward paying off the principal. As time progresses, a larger proportion of each regular payment goes toward the principal.

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Discrete Functions: Financial Applications

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**CHECK Your Understanding
**

1. Use technology to determine how long it will take to reach each investment goal. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 8.3% 6.8% 12.4% 3.6%

Principal

Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly

Future Value $13 000 $4 000 $4 500 $20 000

a) b) c) d)

$5 000 $2 500 $450 $15 000

2. Use technology to determine the annual interest rate, to two decimal places,

**being charged in each loan. The compounding period corresponds to when the payments are made.
**

Principal Regular Payment $357.59 per year $1497.95 every 6 months $374.56 per quarter $29.62 per month Time 10 years 6 years 3 years 18 months

a) b) c) d)

$2 500 $15 000 $3 500 $450

PRACTISING

3. Trevor wants to save $3500. How much will he have to put away each month 4. Nadia borrows $120 000 to buy a house. The current interest rate is 6.6%/a

A

at 12.6%/a compounded monthly in order to have enough money in 2 1 years? 2 compounded monthly, and Nadia negotiates the term of the loan to be 25 years. a) What will be each monthly payment? b) After paying for 3 years, Nadia receives an inheritance and makes a onetime payment of $15 000 against the outstanding balance of the loan. How much earlier can she pay off the loan because of this payment? c) How much will she save in interest charges by making the $15 000 payment? • Bank A has offered them 6.6%/a compounded monthly. • Bank B has offered them 7.8%/a compounded monthly. How much more will they end up with by choosing the second offer? off a $25 000 loan. After 2 years, he is making a bit more money and decides to increase the monthly payment. If he pays $50 extra per month at the end of each 2-year period, how long will it take him to pay off the loan?

**5. Lisa and Karl are deciding to invest $750 per month for the next 7 years.
**

K

6. Mario decides to pay $250 per month at 5%/a compounded monthly to pay

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7. Natalie borrows $150 000 at 4.2%/a compounded monthly for a period of

20 years to start a business. She is guaranteed that interest rate for 5 years and makes monthly payments of $924.86. After 5 years, she renegotiates her loan, but interest rates have gone up to 7.5%/a compounded monthly. a) If Natalie would like to have the loan paid off after the original 20-year period, what should her new monthly payment be? b) If she keeps her payments the same, how much extra time will it take her to pay off the loan?

8. Peter buys a ski vacation package priced at $2754. He pays $350 down and

finances the balance at $147 per month for 11 years. Determine the annual 2 interest rate, compounded monthly, being charged. Round your answer to two decimal places.

9. a)

T

Suppose you have a loan where the interest rate doubles. If you want to keep the same amortization period, should you double the payment? Justify your reasoning with examples. b) Suppose you are borrowing money. If you decide to double the amount borrowed, should you double the payment if you want to keep the same amortization period? Justify your reasoning with examples.

10. Laurie borrows $50 000 for 10 years at 6.6%/a compounded monthly. How

much sooner can she pay off the loan if she doubles the monthly payment after 4 years?

11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using each technology to solve

C

financial problems? • a spreadsheet • a graphing calculator

Extending

12. A music store will finance the purchase of a rare guitar at 3.6%/a compounded

monthly over 5 years, but offers a $250 reduction if the payment is cash. If you can get a loan from a bank at 4.8%/a compounded annually, how much would the guitar have to sell for to make it worthwhile to take out the loan?

13. The interest on all mortgages is charged semi-annually. You are given a choice

of monthly, semi-monthly, bi-weekly, and weekly payments. Suppose you have a mortgage at 8%/a, the monthly payments are $1000, and the amortization period is 20 years. Investigate the effect on the time to pay off the mortgage if you made each of these payments. a) $500 semi-monthly b) $500 bi-weekly c) $250 weekly

14. Steve decides to pay $150 per month to pay off a $6800 loan. In the

beginning, the interest rate is 13%/a compounded monthly. The bank guarantees the interest rate for one year at a time. The rate for the next year is determined by the going rate at the time. Assuming that each year the rate drops by 0.5%/a, how long will it take Steve to pay off his loan?

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Discrete Functions: Financial Applications

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8

Study

Chapter Review

FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions

Q:

A1:

Aid

How do you determine the future value of an annuity?

• See Lesson 8.4,

Examples 1 to 4.

**• Try Chapter Review
**

Questions 11 and 12.

An annuity is a series of payments or investments made at regular intervals. The future value of an annuity is the sum of all regular payments and interest earned. You can determine the future value of each payment or investment by using the formula A 5 P(1 1 i) n. Since an annuity consists of regular payments, the future values of the investments, starting from the last, will be P, P(1 1 i), P(1 1 i) 2, .... These form a geometric sequence with common ratio 1 1 i. So the future value of all of the investments is the geometric series P 1 P(1 1 i) 1 P(1 1 i) 2 1 ... , which can be calculated with the formula for the sum of a geometric series.

A2:

You can use technology such as a spreadsheet or the TVM Solver on a graphing calculator to calculate the future value of an annuity.

EXAMPLE

The spreadsheet below is set up for an annuity in which 40 regular investments of $250 are made at the end of each compounding period. The annuity earns 2% interest per compounding period. Since the last $250 investment was deposited at the end of the term, it earned no interest. The first $250 investment earned interest 39 times, but didn’t earn interest during the first compounding period because it was deposited at the end of that period.

A Number of Compounding Periods Invested "=A2+1" "=A3+1" 0 B C

1 2 3 4

Amount Invested Future Value $250.00 "=B2" $250.00 "=B3*(1+0.02)" $250.00 "=B4*(1+0.02)*2"

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 37 38 39 40 41 42

A Number of Compounding Periods Invested 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 35 36 37 38 39

B Amount Invested $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00 $250.00

C Future Value $250.00 $255.00 $260.10 $265.30 $270.61 $276.02 $281.54 $499.97 $509.97 $520.17 $530.57 $541.19 $15 100.50

A3:

Use the formula for the future value of an annuity, FV 5 R 3 a The future value of this annuity is $15 100.50

where FV is the future value; R is the regular payment each compounding period; i is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a decimal; and n is the number of compounding periods.

(1 1 i) n 2 1 b, i

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Chapter Review

Q:

A1:

How can you determine the present value of an annuity?

Study

Aid

The present value of an annuity is the amount of money you have to invest to get a specific amount some time in the future. You can determine the present value of each investment by using the formula PV 5 A(1 1 i) 2n. Since an annuity consists of regular payments, the present values of the investments, starting from the first, will be A(1 1 i) 21, A(1 1 i) 22, A(1 1 i) 23, .... These form a geometric sequence with common ratio (1 1 i) 21. So the present value of all of the investments is the geometric series A(1 1 i) 21 1 A(1 1 i) 22 1 A(1 1 i) 23 1 ... , which can be calculated with the formula for the sum of a geometric series.

• See Lesson 8.5,

Examples 1, 2, and 3.

**• Try Chapter Review
**

Questions 13 to 17.

A2:

You can use technology such as a spreadsheet or the TVM Solver on a graphing calculator to calculate the present value of an annuity.

EXAMPLE

The spreadsheet below is set up for an annuity earning 0.5% interest per compounding period and providing 20 regular payments of $50.

A Number of Compounding Periods Invested "=A2+1" "=A3+1" B Payment 1 C Present Value $50.00 "=B2/1.005" $50.00 "=B3/(1.005)^A3" $50.00 "=B4/(1.005)^A4"

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17 18 19 20 21 22

A Number of Compounding Periods Invested

B 1 2 3 4 5 6 Payment $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00 $50.00

C Present Value $49.75 $49.50 $49.26 $49.01 $48.77 $48.53 $46.17 $45.94 $45.71 $45.48 $45.25 $949.37

16 17 18 19 20

**The present value of all of the investements in this annuity is $949.37.
**

A3:

**Use the formula for the present value of an annuity,
**

2n

PV 5 R 3

payment each compounding period; i is the interest rate per compounding period, expressed as a decimal; and n is the number of compounding periods.

Q 1 2 (1 1 i)

i

R,

where PV is the present value; R is the regular

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Discrete Functions: Financial Applications

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a) What annual rate of simple interest is Pia earning? Round your answer to two decimal places.6% 24. compounded monthly.00 $2 000.1 5.5 years Future Value $8 000 $1 280 $100 000 $850 a) a) How much did Karl borrow? b) What annual interest rate is he being charged? c) How long will it take before he owes $20 000? Lesson 8. she earns $400 in interest.4% 27. How long will it take for her investment to grow to $10 000? monthly for 2.25 in interest. is Deana earning? Round your answer to two decimal places. Karl’s Loan being Charged Simple Interest $12 000. Calculate the total amount and the interest being charged.2% 29% 7. she earns $432 in interest. Rate of Compound Interest per Year 9. Pia invests $2500 in an account that earns simple 6. b) How much did she invest? 7. Vlad purchased some furniture for his apartment.5 years. At the end of the first year. How much money did Roberto borrow? NEL 534 Chapter 8 . Lesson 8. Calculate the present value of each investment.48.6%/a compounded 9.1% 10.2 6. Roberto financed a purchase at 9.6% b) c) d) 4.00 Total Amount $8 000.00 $4 000. He paid $850 down and financed the rest for 18 months.00 $10 000.7% 8. The interest. Principal Rate of Simple Interest per Year 6% 11% 3. What annual interest rate.3% Time 10 years 3 years 34 months 100 weeks 42 days compound interest. Isabelle invests $4350 at 7. Deana invests some money that earns interest interest. a) What interest rate.53. Each situation represents a loan being charged 1. she earns $11. At the end of the financing period.6%/a compounded quarterly.6% a) b) c) d) e) $3 500 $15 000 $280 $850 $21 000 Principal Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 8 years 11. b) How much money will be in her account after 7 years? c) How long will it take for her money to double? 3. Karl borrows some money and is charged simple compounded annually. The graph below shows how the amount he owes grows over time. At the end of the second year.00 $0.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 8.00 $6 000. At the end of each month. Vlad owed $2147.5 years 3 years 2. Rate of Compound Interest per Year Compounding Period annually semi-annually quarterly monthly Time 5 years 2.4% 6.5 years a) b) d) $4 300 $500 c) $25 000 $307 2. Each situation represents an investment earning simple interest. At the end of the finance period. was he being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places.37.8% 5. he still owed $847.5 years 8 years 1.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 Year 7 8 9 10 11 total cost was $2942.3 8. compounded annually. Calculate the interest earned and the total amount.

4 11.2% 4. Rate of Compound Interest Compounding per Year Period Time 7. How much sooner can she pay off the loan if she pays the maximum amount compared with the minimum amount? 20. At the end of that time. so she makes Lesson 8. How much more money will Adam need to invest each month if he wants his investment to be worth the same as Ken’s by the time they are 55 years old? 19. He agrees to make monthly investment is worth $2262.2%/a compounded monthly. $650 down. Eden finances a purchase of $611. Rate of Compound Interest Compounding per Year Period Time 5. would yield the same results? Round your answer to two decimal places. Starting at age 20. Starting at age 37. calculate the future value and the payments for the next 20 years.6%/a compounded monthly over 4 years. a) How much will Paul have to pay each month? b) How much interest is he being charged over the term of the loan? 16.5 13. She finances the balance at 6. Chantal purchases a moped for $1875. For each loan.17 for 21 years.73 per quarter d) $105. How much money does he have to put away each month? 14.8% 19. Paul borrows $136 000.47 with b) $500 every 6 months c) $2500 per quarter 12.5 years 4.6 18. compounded annually. For each annuity. he would like to have $25 000. starts saving money in an account that pays 7. What interest rate. Marisa invests $1650 for 3 years.4%/a compounded quarterly.2% annually semi-annually quarterly monthly 6 years 4.6%/a compounded monthly. How much will Chantal have to pay each month? a) $2500 per year 17.85 per week for 21 years at 13%/a compounded 2 weekly.4%/a compounded monthly. Kevin purchases a guitar on a payment plan of Regular Payment $17. Lesson 8. What was the selling price of the guitar? a) $450 per year b) $2375 every 6 months c) $185.3% annually semi-annually quarterly 12 years 9.27 per month NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 535 . his twin brother. Adam.2%/a compounded monthly. calculate the amount of the loan and the interest being charged. compounded monthly.5 years 3. at which time her 15. Naomi wants to save $100 000.1% 9. Ken invests $100 per month in quarterly payments of $1500 into an account that earns 4. Jenny starts a business and borrows $100 000 at 9%/a compounded monthly for 6 years. She can afford to make payments between $1000 and $1500 per month. is she being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places.70. What 2 annual interest rate.6% 7.5 years 3 years Regular Payment monthly payments of $26.03 by making interest earned.5 years 1. How long will it take her to reach her goal? Lesson 8.Chapter Review 10. The interest rate being charged is 6.2% 12. Ernie wants to invest some money each month at an account that earns 5.

4%/a compounded monthly for the next 10 years? 536 Chapter 8 NEL .35 payment on a house in 8 years. determine whether simple interest or compound interest is being charged. If she would like to have $25 000 for the down payment.18 $1098.2%/a compounded quarterly for the first 17 years and 8. Simone wants to save money for her retirement. What annual interest rate.8% compounded monthly Time 6 years 13 years 6 1 years 2 a) b) c) Loan #1 Year 1 2 3 Amount Owed $3796 $3942 $4088 $850 $5460 $230 per month 2. Which option should she choose? Why? 6. compounded monthly.2%/a compounded monthly. The amounts owed for two different loans are shown at the left. For each loan. Derek invests $250 per month for 62 years at 4. are Anand’s parents earning? Round your answer to two decimal places. Her two best options are 5. a) 3. c) How much was each loan originally? d) Determine the future value of each loan after 10 years. she plans to reinvest the money at 7. The fund is now worth $450 000. she wants to earn 8. For each investment.8%/a compounded monthly.4% compounded semi-annually 4. • She wants to withdraw $5000 per month for the 10 years after the initial 17 years. Principal Rate of Interest per Year 9% simple interest 8. 7. How much more would she have to invest per quarter if she earned 7. Justify your answer.88%/a compounded monthly or 6%/a compounded annually.8 Chapter Self-Test 1. Betsy inherits $15 000 and would like to put some of it away for a down Loan #2 Year 2 3 4 Amount Owed $977. determine the total amount and the interest earned. 1 How much will his investment be worth at the end of the 61 years? 2 5.53 $1036. Yvette wants to invest some money under these conditions: • Each quarter for the next 17 years. Anand’s parents have been paying $450 per month into a retirement fund for the last 30 years.4%/a compounded quarterly. • After 17 years. b) What annual interest rate is each loan being charged? Round your answer to two decimal places. how much of her inheritance must she invest at 9.2%/a compounded quarterly? 4.

B. Carol. When they retire. Carol. Carol wants hers to last 15 years. and Lisa get their first full-time jobs and talk about saving for retirement. Carol. ? A. Steve starts investing immediately and puts aside $150 per month. Carol and Lisa want to accumulate the same amount as Steve upon retirement. F. Assume that Steve. Carol wants to enjoy life a bit and decides to start contributing when she is 30. and Lisa be able to withdraw monthly upon retirement? What strategies will you use to solve this problem? Justify your strategies. How much will Steve. They are each 22 years old and plan to work until they are 55. C. Steve wants his investment to last 10 years. How much money will Steve have accumulated by the time he is 55? For how many months will Carol and Lisa be making payments? How much will Carol and Lisa have to put away each month to meet their goals? For how many months will each person withdraw money? How much will each person be able to withdraw from his or her nest egg each month? Task Checklist Did you explain and justify your strategies? Did you show your work? Did you support your calculations with appropriate reasoning? Did you explain your thinking clearly? NEL Discrete Functions: Financial Applications 537 . and Lisa are each earning 9%/a compounded monthly.8 Chapter Task Saving for Retirement Steve. D. Lisa thinks that they are both starting too early and decides to wait until she is 42 before starting to save. and Lisa wants hers to last 20 years. E.

Chapters 7–8 c) 10.41 d) $30. 6. 16.99 12. … annually. Determine the annual interest rate. The selling binomial (x 2 3)5. Choose the correct simplified expansion for the to 1. a) x 5 2 15x 4 1 90x 3 2 270x 2 1 405x 2 243 b) x 4 2 15x 3 1 90x 2 2 270x 1 405 c) x 6 2 15x 5 1 90x 4 2 270x 3 1 405x 2 2 243x d) x 5 2 15x 4 1 90x 3 2 270x 2 1 405x price is $1894.92 b) $1678.. .42? a) 4. 2598. b) 5 (12. 2 Determine t8. 191. 64. 1209 7.8 1 3. What is the half-life of the material? a) 1. 6. 2411. 0. b) 5 (16. 202.4 Cumulative Review 8. 1786 c) 25. 1703 b) 25.45 days 9. 5. a) 142. How long will it take for $5000 invested at 6%/a 3. 26) c) (a. compounded quarterly. Determine all possible values of a and b. a) 10. After 15 days.6 1 4. Determine the annual interest rate for the annuity if the interest is compounded monthly.4% c) 7% b) 14% d) 11. 27 10.5% d) 6% 13. a) 3. Identify the sequence that is not geometric. b. Consider the sequence 1. Determine the annual interest rate being 2 charged. a) 12% c) 5% b) 0. An annuity written as a geometric series has r equal by t1 5 25 and tn 5 23tn21 1 8. 6) d) (a. b) 5 (21. 24) b) (a. 24) 5. b) 5 (1. 270. 21. 261. 26. a.06% b) 1% d) 24% 538 Chapters 7–8 NEL .45 days c) 7. The investment earns 8%/a. 129.005. 5. 7. compounded 2. but the last three terms form a geometric sequence. 90% of a radioactive material has Multiple Choice 1. • Receive $800 at the end of every quarter for 10 years from an investment. 256.45% 2 4 3 9 8 .8 d) 142. 23. 5. The finance plan includes $150 down with payments of $113 at the end of each month for 11 years. The first three terms of the sequence 8. 565. 191. 22.8 b) 104 a) b) c) d) decayed. ….5 days b) 4. that would result in an investment doubling in seven years. 23.52 days d) 11.. … 5. 61. 9. 2565.2 1 3. if the interest is compounded monthly. Calculate the sum of the first nine terms. 128 a) 2187 64 b) 79 128 2187 64 d) 2 79 c) 2 compounded monthly to grow to $6546.2.. How much more money would she have if she chooses the lump sum? a) $3009. … 2. a) 147 615 c) 49 205 b) 8100 d) 36 705 6. Marisa has just won a contest. 2 .25% c) 20.5 years c) 40 months b) 3 years d) 48 months 11.89 c) $348. a) (a.24. 1.0 1 . • Collect a lump-sum payment of $50 000. Lee wants to buy a plasma television. a) 25. 4. Determine S21 for the series 2. 36 form an arithmetic sequence. She must decide 4. The fifth term of a geometric series is 405 and the sixth term is 1215. 251. 1703 d) 25. … 30. Determine the first six terms of the sequence defined between two prize options.

Which option. 32% of the medication remains in his body. Financial Planner Marcus has a bacterial infection and must take 350 mg of medication every 6 h. Medicine Dosage 18. As his financial planner. Use it to verify your answer in part (b). a) the average of all interest payments b) the fixed periodic payment made up of interest and principal c) the average of all principal payments d) the payment of principal only Investigations 17. b) What will the amount of medication in his body level off to? c) How long will it take for the medication to reach this level? You are a financial planner with a new client. The fund earns interest at 6%/a. Mr. would allow you to repay a to deposit $300 at the end of each month into an account that earns 6%/a interest. c) Create a spreadsheet to represent the monthly balance in the fund. by depositing $25 at the end of each month until Bart turns 18. By the time he takes his next dose. if any. compounded monthly. he uses the balance in the account as a down payment on a $56 000 sailboat. If interest rates remain constant. Cowan. is celebrating his son’s fourth birthday. a) Show why the sequence of the monthly amounts in the fund is a geometric sequence. Los is planning to buy a sailboat. compounded monthly. how long will it take him to repay the loan? a) 10 years and 6 months b) 12 years and 9 months c) 9 years d) 8 years and 10 months loan in less time? a) decrease the regular payment b) increase the regular payment and decrease the interest rate c) decrease the regular payment and increase the interest rate d) none of the above 16. He gets financing for the balance at a rate of 8%/a. b) How many payments will take place by the time Bart turns 18? Determine the balance in the fund on Bart’s 18th birthday.Cumulative Review 14. Mr. He can afford payments of $525 per month. Bart. Mr. d) How much would there be in the fund if Mr. who just turned 37. he asks you to develop a financial plan for him. Cowan wants to set up an education fund for his son. compounded monthly. Cowan deposits $50 per month instead of $25? NEL Cumulative Review 539 . a) Determine a recursive formula that models this situation. the value of the first deposit after n months. Determine an expression for tn . He decides 15. At the end of four years. Determine which best describes the regular payment on an amortized loan.

Appendix A Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge A–1 A–2 A–3 A–4 A–5 A–6 A–7 A–8 A–9 Operations with Integers Operations with Rational Numbers Exponent Laws The Pythagorean Theorem Graphing Linear Relationships Solving Linear Systems Evaluating Algebraic Expressions and Formulas Expanding and Simplifying Algebraic Expressions Factoring Algebraic Expressions 541 543 545 547 549 551 554 555 556 557 559 562 564 565 567 569 573 A–10 Solving Quadratic Equations Algebraically A–11 Creating Scatter Plots and Lines or Curves of Good Fit A–12 Using Properties of Quadratic Relations to Sketch Their Graphs A–13 Completing the Square to Convert to the Vertex Form of a Parabola A–14 Transformations of Quadratic Relations A–15 Equations of Circles Centred at the Origin A–16 Trigonometry of Right Triangles A–17 Trigonometry of Acute Triangles: The Sine Law and the Cosine Law 540 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL .

1. 54 4 (26) 5 29 More Than One Operation Follow the order of operations. 0. 22. then the answer is negative: (25) 3 9 5 245. then the sum takes the sign of the larger number: 18 1 (25) 5 13 Subtraction Add the opposite: 215 2 (28) 5 215 1 8 5 27 Multiplication and Division To multiply or divide two integers. 3. 23.A–1 Operations with Integers Appendix A Set of integers I 5 {… . …} Addition To add two integers. a) 210 1 (212) b) (212) 1 7 c) (211) 1 (24) 1 12 1 (27) 1 18 Index d) (26) 3 9 4 3 e) 20 1 (212) 4 (23) (24 1 12) 4 (22) NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge 541 . 2. 21. (236) 4 (29) 5 4 • if the two integers have different signs. then the answer is positive: 6 3 8 5 48. • if the two integers have the same sign. B E D M A S Appendix B Glossary Brackets Exponents Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction j j from left to right from left to right Answers EXAMPLE Evaluate. then the sum has the same sign as well: (212) 1 (25) 5 217 • if the signs are different. • if the signs are the same.

Solution a) 210 1 (212) 5 222 b) (212) 1 7 5 25 c) (211) 1 (24) 1 12 1 (27) 1 18 5 (222) 1 30 58 d) (26) 3 9 4 3 5 254 4 3 5 218 e) 20 1 (212) 4 (23) (24 1 12) 4 (22) 5 5 20 1 4 8 4 (22) 24 24 5 26 Practising 1. Evaluate. a) b) c) d) e) f) 6 1 (23) 12 2 (213) 217 2 7 (223) 1 9 2 (24) 24 2 36 2 (26) 32 1 (210) 1 (212) 2 18 2 (214) a) b) c) d) e) f) (23)2 2 (22)2 (25)2 2 (27) 1 (212) 24 1 20 4 (24) 23(24) 1 82 (216) 2 [(28) 4 2] 8 4 (24) 1 4 4 (22)2 212 2 3 23 2 2 218 1 6 (23) (24) (216 1 4) 4 2 8 4 (28) 1 4 25 1 (23) (26) (22) 2 1 (23) 2 2.. Evaluate. 4. Evaluate. . .. or 5? a) 25 2 4 2 3 1 3 I 24 2 3 2 1 2 (22) b) 4 2 6 1 6 2 8 I 23 2 5 2 (27) 2 4 c) 8 2 6 2 (24) 2 5 I 5 2 13 2 7 2 (28) d) 5 2 13 1 7 2 2 I 4 2 5 2 (23) 2 5 3. a) (211) 3 (25) b) (23)(5)(24) c) 35 4 (25) d) (272) 4 (29) e) (5)(29) 4 (23)(7) f ) 56 4 [(8)(7)] 4 49 a) b) c) d) 542 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Which choice would make each statement true: 5. Evaluate.

you need to find a common denominator. Appendix B EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Glossary Simplify 22 3 3 1 2 . b 2 06 b A–2 Operations with Rational Numbers Appendix A Addition and Subtraction To add or subtract rational numbers. a d a c 4 5 3 c b d b ad 5 bc Multiplication c ac a 3 5 . multiply by the reciprocal. b [ I. but first reduce to lowest b d bd terms where possible. More Than One Operation Follow the order of operations. Division To divide by a rational number. 5 22 10 Simplify 3 24 23 3 4 . 4 5 7 Solution Solution 3 3 24 215 3 22 1 2 5 1 2 5 22 10 10 10 10 24 2 15 2 3 5 10 222 5 10 1 11 or 22 52 5 5 3 24 23 3 24 7 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 7 4 5 23 1 3 2421 7 3 3 5 5 2321 14 7 2 5 or 1 5 5 Answers Index 543 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge .a Set of rational numbers Q 5 e ` a.

a) b) c) 21 2 ba b 3 25 1 3 f ) 24 3 a27 b 6 4 9 22 b d) a b a 4 23 e) a21 4. 3. a) b) c) 23 1 1 4 4 22 1 2 2 3 1 21 21 4 3 4 220 3 5 25 3 6 3 22 5 a 1 21 d) 28 2 4 23 e) f) 23 23 7 1 2 5 4 10 2 21 1 2 2 3 2 6 1 1 b a3 b 10 11 a) 24 2 4 3 23 1 3 b) 27 4 8 2 c) 22 21 1 2a 1 b 5 10 22 22 23 4 3 8 3 1 22 a ba ba b 5 26 3 22 2 1 3 b a b 3 22 2.Practising 1. Evaluate. a) b) c) d) a e) a 23 23 21 a 2 b 5 4 4 1 1 f ) a22 b 4 a23 b 3 2 d) e) 26 4 a 23 21 4a b 22 3 24 b 5 f) 1 5 21 22 1 b4a 2 b 5 22 28 2 23 24 2 5 5 1 21 2 3 5 544 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Evaluate. Simplify. Evaluate.

3(37) 4 (33)2 Solution 3(37) 4 (33)2 5 31 1 7 4 33 3 2 5 38 4 36 5 38 2 6 5 32 59 Index 545 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . the value of the power is 1.A–3 34 base Exponent Laws Appendix A and an are called powers n factors of a an 5 (a)(a)(a)…(a) exponent 4 factors of 3 34 5 (3)(3)(3)(3) Operations with powers follow a set of procedures or rules. Rule Description Algebraic Description Example Zero as an Exponent Negative Exponents When an exponent is zero. keep the base the same and subtract exponents. When the bases are the same. am 5 am2n an Power of a Power Keep the base and multiply the exponents. a 51 a2n 5 1 an 0 1200 5 1 Appendix B 322 5 1 32 1 5 9 Multiplication (a m ) (a n ) 5 a m1n (54 ) (523 ) 5 541(23) 5 5423 5 51 55 46 5 462(22) 422 5 4612 5 48 (32 ) 4 5 3(2)(4) 5 38 Glossary Division When the bases are the same. keep the base the same and add exponents. A negative exponent is the reciprocal of the power with a positive exponent. (a m ) n 5 a mn Answers EXAMPLE Simplify and evaluate.

Evaluate to three decimal places where necessary. a) 42 b) 50 c) 32 2. Simplify. 1 3 f) a b 2 4. Evaluate to an exact answer.Practising 1. Simplify. d) 232 e) (25)3 a) (x)5(x)3 b) (m)2(m)4(m)3 c) ( y)5( y)2 5. d) (ab)c e) a) 30 1 50 b) 22 1 33 1 3 2 2 d) a b a b 2 3 e) 225 1 24 c) 52 2 42 3. Evaluate. 1 2 1 2 f) a b 1 a b 2 3 x4 3 f) a 3b y c) (x 5 ) (x 3 ) x2 a) (x 2y 4)(x 3y 2) b) (22m 3)2(3m 2)3 (5x 2 ) 2 (5x 2 ) 0 d) (4u 3v 2)2 4 (22u 2v 3)2 a) b) 98 97 2(55 ) 53 c) (45)(42)3 d) (32 ) (33 ) (34 ) 2 546 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL .

c2 a2 hypotenuse b2 a2 b2 c2 Appendix B a c b Practising 1. Glossary a) 6 cm x c) 9m y 8 cm 5m Answers b) d) 3. For each right triangle. Every right triangle has a longest side. One of the important relationships in mathematics is known as the Pythagorean theorem. write the equation for the Pythagorean theorem. which is always opposite the right angle. called the hypotenuse.A–4 The Pythagorean Theorem Appendix A The three sides of a right triangle are related to each other in a unique way.2 cm 13 cm c a 8.5 cm Index 6 cm NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge 547 . It states that the area of the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares of the other two sides.

10 m 5.72 5 c 2 c) 5m 5.32 1 4. An apartment building casts a shadow. 3. The tip of the shadow is 72 m from the base of the building.8 m 3 cm 5. 6. An isosceles triangle has a hypotenuse 15 cm long.2 cm b) 6 cm d) 1. a) b) c) d) a) a 2 5 52 1 132 102 5 82 1 m2 262 5 b 2 1 122 2.2 cm 4. Round all answers to one decimal place. Determine the length of the two equal sides. Determine the length of the diagonals of each rectangle to the nearest tenth. How tall is the building? 548 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Find the value of each unknown measure to the nearest hundredth.2 m 4.2. From the tip of the shadow to the top of the building is 100 m. Calculate the length of the unknown side of each triangle in question 1.

2x 1 4(0) 5 8 2x 5 8 x54 For the y-intercept. Solution The intercepts of the line can be found. This information can be determined in several different ways. let y 5 0. 2y 4x 2 2 5 2 2 y 5 2x 2 1 x y Appendix B 21 0 1 2 2(21) 2 1 5 23 2(0) 2 1 5 21 2(1) 2 1 5 1 2(2) 2 1 5 3 5 y 5 0 2y 5 5x 4x 2 Glossary EXAMPLE 2 USING INTERCEPTS Sketch the graph of 2x 1 4y 5 8. For the x-intercept. Solution A table of values can be created. Express the equation in the form y 5 mx 1 b. let x 5 0. 2(0) 1 4y 5 8 4y 5 8 y52 0 x y Answers y 5 4 0 0 2 2x 4y 5 8 x Index 549 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . The graph can be drawn if at least two ordered pairs of the relationship are known. EXAMPLE 1 TABLE OF VALUES Sketch the graph of 2y 5 4x 2 2.A–5 Graphing Linear Relationships Appendix A The graph of a linear relationship (Ax 1 By 1 C 5 0) is a straight line.

0. Solution When the equation is in the form y 5 mx 1 b. Determine the x. 21. and y-intercept. Graph each equation. b. using a table of values where x [ {22. a) y 5 2x 1 3 2 b) y 5 x 1 1 3 a) y 5 5x 1 2 b) 3x 2 y 5 6 c) 2x 1 5y 5 10 d) 3x 2 4y 5 12 5.EXAMPLE 3 USING THE SLOPE AND Y-INTERCEPT Sketch the graph of y 5 3x 1 4. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 1 0 1 2 3x run y y rise 3 1 3x 4 Practising 1. m. For y 5 3x 1 4. 3. 2}. Express each equation in the form y 5 mx 1 b. 4. 1. Use the most suitable method. a) b) c) d) 3y 5 6x 1 9 2x 2 4y 5 8 3x 1 6y 2 12 5 0 5x 5 y 2 9 a) x 1 y 5 4 b) x 2 y 5 3 y-intercept. Graph each equation. Graph each equation by determining the intercepts. using the slope and 2.and y-intercepts of each equation. the slope. a) y 5 3x 2 1 1 b) y 5 x 1 4 2 a) x 1 y 5 10 b) 2x 1 4y 5 16 c) 50 2 10x 2 y 5 0 x y 1 51 d) 2 4 3 c) y 5 2 x 2 2 4 d) 2y 5 x 1 6 2 c) y 5 2 x 1 4 3 d) 4x 5 20 2 5y c) 2x 1 3y 5 6 d) y 5 4 6. can be determined. Graph each equation. the line has a slope of 3 and a y-intercept of 4. 550 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL .

Verify this result algebraically by substituting (5. y) is the intersection point of the linear equations in the system. 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 (5. 5 R. although this method does not always yield an exact solution. 5 R.S. 2x 2 8 5 2(5) 2 8 52 In equation 2 . L. 2) into equations 1 and 2 .S. Point P(x. y52 R. 2) x y Glossary y = 2x 8 6 8 10 In equation 1 . they are called a linear system of equations.S. 2) appears to be the point of intersection.S. L. Appendix B EXAMPLE 1 Solve the system graphically.S. x+y=7 Answers L.S. Point P is called the solution of the linear system and satisfies all equations in the system. 7 Therefore. y 5 2x 1 8 1 x1y57 2 Solution Draw both graphs on the same axes and locate the point of intersection.S. Solving a Linear System Graphically Linear systems can be solved graphically. Point (5. x1y 5512 57 R.S.A–6 Solving Linear Systems Appendix A Many kinds of situations can be modelled with linear equations. Index 551 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . When two or more linear equations are used to model a problem. L. Therefore.

3x 1 2y 1 24 5 0 1 2y 5 224 2 3x 3 y 5 212 2 x 2 3 Substitute y 5 212 2 x into 2 equation 2 . Determine the other value by substituting the solved value into equation 1 or 2 . One such method is called substitution.Solving a System of Linear Equations by Substitution Linear systems can also be solved by using algebra. 26). Substitute the expression that you determined for the corresponding variable in the other equation. 3x 1 2y 1 24 5 0 1 5y 1 2x 5 238 2 Solution Solve for y in equation 1 . 1 3x 1 2y 1 24 5 0 3(24) 1 2y 1 24 5 0 212 1 2y 1 24 5 0 2y 1 12 5 0 2y 5 212 y 5 26 The solution of the system is (24. 215x 1 4x 5 238 1 60 2 211x 5 22 2 211x 5 44 x 5 24 Substitute x 5 24 into equation 1 . 552 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . 5y 1 2x 5 238 3 5a212 2 xb 1 2x 5 238 2 260 2 15 x 1 2x 5 238 2 2 Choose one of the equations and isolate one of its variables by expressing that variable in terms of the other variable. EXAMPLE 2 Solve the system of linear equations by substitution. Algebraic methods always yield exact solutions.

(5. Using substitution to determine the coordinates of Appendix A equations. the point of intersection. (23. 210). (5. 1). 2). (2. 25).Practising 1. a) 3p 1 2q 2 1 5 0 p5q12 b) 2m 2 n 5 3 m 1 2n 5 24 c) 2x 1 5y 1 18 5 0 x 1 2y 1 6 5 0 d) 6g 2 3h 5 9 4g 5 5 1 3h e) 10x 1 15y 5 30 15x 2 5y 5 225 f ) 13a 2 7b 5 211 a 1 5b 5 13 Appendix B Glossary Answers Index 553 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . (3. 3). Solve the system by drawing the graph. Determine which ordered pair satisfies both 3. a) x 1 y 5 5 x5y11 b) x 1 y 5 25 y 5 22x a) 3x 1 4y 5 12 2x 1 3y 5 9 b) x 1 y 5 24 2x 2 y 5 4 c) x 2 3y 1 1 5 0 2x 1 y 2 4 5 0 d) x 5 1 2 2y y 5 2x 1 3 (4. 26). 4) (3. (10. 22) 2.

EXAMPLE 1 2x 2 2 y if x 5 22 EXAMPLE 2 Find the value of and y 5 3. a) 2. Solution 2x 2 2 y 5 2(22) 2 2 3 5 2(4) 2 3 5823 55 V 5 pr 2h 8 (3.5) 2 (7.5 cm and h 5 12. c.14) (6.5 cm and a height of 7. d) A sphere’s volume is calculated using the 4 formula V 5 pr 3. Find the volume of a cylinder with a radius of 2.25) (7. c) The hypotenuse of a right triangle. 1 2 and y 5 . is found using the formula c 5 "a 2 1 b 2.5) 8 147 cm3 Practising 1. Find the area of a triangle when 2 b 5 13.2 cm. b) The area of a circle is found using the formula A 5 pr 2. Then follow the order of operations to calculate the answer. a) x 1 y c) 3x 2 2y 1 1 d) x 2 y 2 2 b) x 1 2y The formula for the area of a triangle is 1 A 5 bh. Find the area of a circle with a radius of 4. find the value of each 2 3 expression. Solution The formula for finding the volume of a cylinder is V 5 pr 2h. 554 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Find the value of each expression for x 5 25 and 3.A–7 Evaluating Algebraic Expressions and Formulas Algebraic expressions and formulas are evaluated by substituting the given numbers for the variables.5 cm.5 cm. Determine the volume of a 3 sphere with a radius of 10. If x 5 2 a) 24x 2 2y b) 23x 2 2y 2 c) (3x 2 4y)2 y x d) a b 2 a b y x y 5 24. Find the length of the hypotenuse when a 5 6 m and b 5 8 m.5) 5 (3.3 m.14) (2.

Expand. Glossary Practising 1. 4. and then multiply the second term of the first binomial by the second binomial. Expand and simplify.A–8 Type Expanding and Simplifying Algebraic Expressions Description Example Appendix A Collecting Like Terms 2a 1 3a 5 5a Add or subtract the coefficients of the terms that have the same variables and exponents. Expand and simplify. Multiply each term of the binomial by the monomial. Simplify. Collect like terms if possible. 3. Index 555 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . 3a 2 2b 2 5a 1 b 5 3a 2 5a 2 2b 1 b 5 22a 2 b Distributive Property a(b 1 c) 5 ab 1 ac 24a(2a 2 3b) 5 28a 2 1 12ab (2x 2 2 3)(5x 2 1 2) 5 10x 4 1 4x 2 2 15x 2 2 6 5 10x 4 2 11x 2 2 6 Appendix B Product of Two Binomials (a 1 b)(c 1 d ) 5 ac 1 ad 1 bc 1 bd Multiply the first term of the first binomial by the second binomial. a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) 3x 1 2y 2 5x 2 7y 5x 2 2 4x 3 1 6x 2 (4x 2 5y) 2 (6x 1 3y) 2 (7x 1 2y) m 2n 1 p 2 (2p 2 3m2n) 3(2x 1 5y 2 2) 5x(x 2 2 x 1 y) m 2(3m 2 2 2n) x 5y 3(4x 2y 4 2 2xy 5) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) 3x(x 1 2) 1 5x(x 2 2) 27h(2h 1 5) 2 4h(5h 2 3) 2m 2n(m 3 2 n) 2 5m 2n(3m 3 1 4n) 23xy 3(5x 1 2y 1 1) 1 2xy 3(23y 2 2 1 7x) (3x 2 2)(4x 1 5) (7 2 3y)(2 1 4y) (5x 2 7y)(4x 1 y) (3x 3 2 4y 2)(5x 3 1 2y 2) Answers 2.

In this case.A–9 Factoring Algebraic Expressions Factoring is the opposite of expanding. x 2 1 4x 2 21 5 (x 1 7) (x 2 3) (221) 5 7(23) and 4 5 7 1 (23) 3x 2 1 4x 2 4 5 3x 2 2 2x 1 6x 2 4 5 (3x 2 2 2x) 1 (6x – 4) 5 x(3x 2 2) 1 2(3x 2 2) 5 (3x 2 2) (x 1 2) Check: (3x) (x) 1 (3x) (2) 1 (–2) (x) 1 (–2) (2) 5 3x 2 1 6x 2 2x 2 4 5 3x 2 1 4x 2 4 Multiply: 3(24) 5 212 Find two numbers whose product is 212 and whose sum is 4. Group the terms and factor out the common factors. Determine two numbers whose sum is b and whose product is c. Factoring Trinomials ax 2 1 bx 1 c. decompose the x-term. c) 3m n 2 9m n d) 28x 2 2 14xy 2 3 3 4 a) 6y 2 2 y 2 2 b) 12x 2 1 x 2 1 c) 5a 2 1 7a 2 6 d) 12x 2 2 18x 2 12 a) x 2 2 x 2 6 b) x 2 1 7x 1 10 c) x 2 2 9x 1 20 d) 3y 2 1 18y 1 24 556 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Using these numbers. Factoring Trinomials ax 2 1 bx 1 c. a) 4 2 8x b) 6x 2 2 5x 2. Factor each expression. the numbers are 6 and 22. Practising 1. 10x 4 2 8x 3 1 6x 5 5 2x 3 (5x 2 4 1 3x 2 ) Each term has a common factor of 2x 3. when a 2 1 Look for a common factor. Factor each expression. expanding 2x(3x 2 5) 5 6x 2 2 10x factoring Type Example Comment Common Factoring ab 1 ac 5 a(b 1 c) Factor out the largest common factor of each term. Check by expanding and simplifying. use decomposition and write as the product of two binomials. 3. Factor. If none exists. when a 5 1 Write as the product of two binomials.

or use the quadratic formula: x5 2b 6 "b 2 2 4ac 2a Appendix A A quadratic equation can have no roots. one root. EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Appendix B Solve x2 1 3x 5 10. and c 5 23 2 (21) 6 " (21) 2 2 4(2) (23) 2(2) 1 6 "1 1 24 4 1 6 "25 4 165 4 115 125 or x 5 4 4 24 6 3 or x 5 5 5 21 4 2 4 2x 5 3 2 2x 2 Glossary Answers Index 557 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . Not all quadratic equations can be solved by factoring. first rewrite it in the form ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0. if possible. Solve 2x 5 3 2 2x 2.A–10 Solving Quadratic Equations Algebraically To solve a quadratic equation. or two roots. Then factor the left side. b 5 21. Solution Solution x 2 1 3x 5 10 x 2 1 3x 2 10 5 0 (x 1 5) (x 2 2) 5 0 Then x 1 5 5 0 x 5 25 or or x2250 x52 x5 5 5 5 x5 x5 2x 2 2 x 2 3 5 0 a 5 2.

with t 5 0 corresponding to the year 2000. Its height in metres at t seconds is given by h 5 24. When is the population 350 000? 558 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Solve. where P is the population in thousands and t is the time in years. Determine the roots. Solve. The population of a city is modelled by P 5 0. 3.Practising 1.9t 2 1 29. a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) (x 2 3)(x 2 2) 5 0 (2x 2 5)(3x 2 1) 5 0 (m 2 4)(m 2 3) 5 0 (3 2 2x)(4 2 3x) 5 0 (2y 1 5)(3y 2 7) 5 0 (5n 2 3)(4 2 3n) 5 0 x2 2x2250 x 2 1 x 2 20 5 0 m 2 1 2m 2 15 5 0 6x 2 2 x 2 2 5 0 6t 2 1 5t 2 4 5 0 2x 2 1 4x 2 30 5 0 a) b) c) d) e) f) 4x 2 5 8x 2 1 4x 2 5 9 6x 2 2 x 5 1 5x 2 2 6 5 27x 3x 2 1 5x 2 1 5 2x 2 1 6x 1 5 7x 2 1 2(2x 1 3) 5 2(3x 2 2 4) 1 13x 2. A model rocket is shot straight into the air.4t.5t 2 1 10t 1 200. When does the rocket reach the ground? 5. 4.

The points in a scatter plot often show a general pattern. with the remaining points grouped equally above and below the line. or trend.4 1996 12. then the correlation is weak. Ages 15–19 Answers 1981 1985 1989 Year 1993 1997 1981 1985 1989 Year 1993 1997 The scatter plot shows a negative correlation.4 1989 12.1 1986 15.2 Glossary Solution a) Number of cigarettes smoked/day 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Average Number of Cigarettes Smoked/Day. Data that have a positive correlation have a pattern that slopes up and to the right. If the points are dispersed. b) Draw the line of best fit. EXAMPLE Appendix A Appendix B 1 a) Make a scatter plot of the data and describe the kind of correlation the scatter plot shows.A–11 Creating Scatter Plots and Lines or Curves of Good Fit A scatter plot is a graph that shows the relationship between two sets of numeric data. Ages 15–19 b) Number of cigarettes smoked/day 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Average Number of Cigarettes Smoked/Day. but still form some linear pattern.6 1985 15. If the points nearly form a line. Data that have a negative correlation have a pattern that slopes down and to the right.0 1983 16.6 1995 11. A line of best fit passes through as many points as possible.8 1994 12.5 1991 14. Index 559 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . then the correlation is strong. A line that approximates a trend for the data in a scatter plot is called a line of best fit.9 1990 13. Long-Term Trends in Average Number of Cigarettes Smoked per Day by Smokers Aged 15–19 Year Number Per Day 1981 16.

sketch a curve of good fit. Therefore. Here are the results: Speed (m/s) Distance (m) 10 10 16 25 19 47 22 43 38 142 43 182 50 244 54 280 Draw the line or curve of good fit. The final horizontal distance of the ball from the tee is also recorded. Each time she drives the ball from the tee.EXAMPLE 2 A professional golfer is taking part in a scientific investigation. a motion sensor records the initial speed of the ball. Solution The scatter plot shows that a line of best fit does not fit the data as well as an upward-sloping curve does. Distance (m) Horizontal Distance of a Golf Ball 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Speed (m/s) 560 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL .

86 4. the motion sensor may not be measuring accurately.51 a) Draw a curve of good fit for the data.4 1981 20.3 0. A motion sensor detects the speed of the marble at the start of the ramp. However. Here are the data: Speed (m/s) Final Height (m) 1.3 1996 12.Practising 1. In an experiment for a physics project.4 2.07 2. For each set of data.2 0.8 0.1 1.5 1.49 4.6 Glossary 1.1 0.7 1986 17.21 2. Answers Index 561 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge .7 1991 14. marbles are rolled up a ramp. Appendix A i) create a scatter plot and draw the line of best fit ii) describe the type of correlation the trend in the data displays a) Population of the Hamilton–Wentworth. Region Year Population 1966 449 116 1976 529 371 1986 557 029 1996 624 360 1998 618 658 b) Percent of Canadians with Less than Grade 9 Education Appendix B Year Percent of the Population 1976 25. b) How consistent are the motion sensor’s measurements? Explain.02 5.38 3. and the final height of the marble is recorded. Ontario.36 5.0 0.

substitute x 5 2 into y 5 23x 2 2 2x 1 7. if a . its graph can be sketched without making a table or using graphing technology. the parabola opens downward. then x 5 2 and y 5 7. If a . 0. 0. a 5 23. 2 3 1 To find the vertex. 7) 2 0 1 2 562 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . x 5 52 . the parabola opens upward. 3 1 1 The curve opens downward and the vertex is a2 . so the parabola opens downward. 2 The axis of symmetry is halfway between (0. 7 b . The graph is a parabola. 3 2 0 1 a2 b 3 1 Therefore. Let x 5 0 or 2 3x 2 2 5 0 to find two points on the curve. Factor partially. 7 — 3 3 ) y ( 2 —. Quadratic Relations in Standard Form The standard form of a quadratic relation is y 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. 7b. 3 3 1 2 1 1 y 5 23a2 b 2 2a2 b 1 7 5 7 3 3 3 ( 1 1 —. Solution y 5 23x 2 2 2x 1 7 y 5 x(–3x 2 2) 2 7 When x 5 0.A–12 Using Properties of Quadratic Relations to Sketch Their Graphs If the algebraic expression of a relation can be identified as quadratic. 3 2 When 23x 2 2 5 0. 7 3 ) 1 y= 3x 2 2x + 7 x 4 (0. then y 5 7. 7) and a2 . EXAMPLE 1 GRAPHING USING SYMMETRY Sketch the graph of y 5 23x 2 2 2x 1 7.

using the zeros of the curve. a) b) c) d) y5 2 6x 1 5 y 5 23x 2 1 9x 2 2 y 5 5x 2 2 3 1 5x y 5 3 1 4x 2 2x 2 2x 2 c) y 5 2x 2 2 5x 2 3 d) y 5 6x 2 2 13x 2 5 3. Sketch the graphs. Answers Practising 1. These are also the coordinates of the maximum point when a . Solution Appendix B The equation is in vertex form. 11) is a point on the curve. (0. Determine one point on the curve and use symmetry to find a second point. Index 2. EXAMPLE Appendix A 2 GRAPHING USING THE VERTEX FORM Sketch the graph of y 5 2(x 1 2) 2 1 3. When x 5 0 . The relation has a minimum value of 3 when x 5 22. 3) 4 2 0 4 In this case. Sketch the graphs. using partial factoring. 11) 12 y = 2x2 + 8x + 11 (0. 3).Quadratic Relations in Vertex Form The vertex form of a quadratic relation is y 5 a(x 2 h)2 1 k. 0. a) y 5 x 2 1 4x 2 12 b) y 5 x 2 2 7x 110 a) b) c) d) y 5 (x 2 2)2 1 3 y 5 (x 1 4)2 2 10 y 5 2(x 2 1)2 1 3 y 5 23(x 1 1)2 2 4 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge 563 . 0 and of the minimum point when a . Another point. Sketch the graphs. is symmetric to the axis of symmetry. y ( 4. y 5 2(0 1 2) 2 1 3 5 11 So. (24. k) is the vertex. 11) x 2 4 6 Glossary 6 4 ( 2. 11). where (h. 3) is the minimum point. Now sketch the graph. (22. and we see that the vertex is (22.

A–13 Completing the Square to Convert to the Vertex Form of a Parabola A quadratic relation in standard form. squared. This is half the coefficient of the x-term. A baseball is hit from a height of 1 m. Its height in metres. can be rewritten in vertex form as y 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k by creating a perfect square in the original and then factoring the square. • Factor the perfect square and collect like terms. • Group the three terms of the perfect square. 1 2x 1 1 a) b) x 2 1 4x 1 4 c) x 2 1 6x 1 9 d) x 2 1 10x 1 25 2. Multiply the subtracted value and move it outside the bracket.and x-terms. y 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c. after t seconds is h 5 25t 2 1 10t 1 1. and write in vertex form. Express in vertex form by completing the square. 3. x2 a) b) c) d) y 5 x 2 1 2x 1 2 y 5 x 2 1 4x 1 6 y 5 x 2 2 12x 1 40 y 5 x 2 2 18x 1 80 State the equation of the axis of symmetry and the coordinates of the vertex. a) What is the maximum height of the ball? b) When does the ball reach this height? 564 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Write each trinomial as a perfect square. Complete the square. y 5 2(x 2 1 6x) 2 5 y 5 2(x 2 1 6x 1 9 2 9) 2 5 y 5 2(x 2 1 6x 1 9) 2 2(9) 2 5 y 5 2(x 1 3)2 2 23 Practising 1. a) y 5 2x 2 2 4x 1 7 b) y 5 5x 2 1 10x 1 6 c) y 5 23x 2 2 12x 1 2 d) y 5 22x 2 1 6x 1 2 4. • Determine the constant that must be added (and subtracted) to create a perfect square. h. Steps Used to Complete the Square Example: y 5 2x2 1 12x 2 5 • Divide out the common constant factor from both the x 2.

A–14 Transformations of Quadratic Relations The graph of any quadratic relation can be created by altering or repositioning the graph of the base curve. 0 x a 1 The curve has a wide opening if 0 . To do so. (h. y y = ax 2. k) y = x2 x 0 (0. 0. curve. 1. y 5 x 2. a 0 0 0 Multiply the y-coordinate of every point on the base curve by a. h x 0 Subtract h from the x-coordinate of every point on the base curve. 0 and down if k . a y = x2 x 1 0 Index Vertical Compression y y = x2 y = ax 2. y 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k. 0. a . The base curve. 0. depending on the values of a. y = (x h)2. 1. h 0 y y = x 2 y = (x h)2. k (0. 0) (h. Appendix B y 5 x2 1 k Vertical Translation The curve shifts up if k . write the relation in vertex form. y y = x 2 + k. 0) (0. k (0. Relation Type of Transformation Graph y y = x2 x 0 Appendix A Explanation y 5 x2 Base parabola This is the base curve upon which other transformations are applied. or reflected about the x-axis. y 5 x 2. 0 and to the left if h . stretched or compressed vertically. Vertical Stretch y y = ax 2. a x y = ax 2. Add k to the y-coordinate of every point on the base curve. is translated vertically or horizontally. 0 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge 565 . h. The curve has a narrow opening if a . 0) y = x 2 + k. The resultant curve is congruent to the base curve. and k. k) 0 Glossary y 5 (x 2 h) 2 Horizontal Translation The curve shifts to the right if h . 0) Answers y 5 ax 2 Reflection The curve is reflected about the x-axis if a .

4). a) (22. From the form y 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k. 1). h 5 23. 4) ( 5. 4) d) (22. (0. y 6 ( 1. 4) 4 ( 5. sketch each graph. 4). shift left 5. 12). (2. so shift the entire parabola 4 units down. 0). 4. State the new coordinates under each transformation. so shift the entire parabola 3 units to the left (red). shift right 6 1 3 parabola y 5 x 2. Points (22. 4). note that a 5 22. (2. so multiply every y-coordinate by 22. and shift down 2 d) (0. 9).0) 4 6 4 2 2 ( 3. vertical stretch 3. 4) ( 2. 26). and reflect about x-axis c) (3. (0. 4) 2 y = x2 ( 3. 4). using transformations on y 5 x 2. Step 3: a 5 22. (0. 0). (6. vertical compression by 3. 0). 9). a) (22. vertical stretch 3. 12) c) (2. shift left 2 and up 5 b) (21. 1. shift up 4. The parabola is reflected and its opening becomes narrower (blue). 6). Solution Step 1: Begin with the graph of the base curve.EXAMPLE Use transformations to graph y 5 22(x 1 3) 2 2 4. vertical stretch of 2 f ) (2.0) x 0 (0. ( 5. 22). shift up 3 b) (22. Select three points on the curve to help define its shape. a) 3. shift left 4 d) (1. 6) b) (22. shift left 5. 4). shift down 5 c) (21. and (2. 8) 12) 6 ( 1. (0. Step 2: h 5 23. (4. y 5 x 2 (green). Use your knowledge of transformations to determine the equation of the parabola using these coordinates. 2). 1). 4). 0). (2. 12) Practising In questions 1 and 2. 10 8) ( 1. the coordinates of a point on the parabola y 5 x 2 are given. 26) In questions 4 and 5. 4) (2. 1). and k 5 24. This is the final graph (black). and reflect about x-axis y 5 1x 2 d) y 5 (x 1 4) 2 e) y 5 2x 2 1 f ) y 5 x2 2 b) y 5 2x 2 c) y 5 (x 2 3) 2 5. Step 4: k 5 24. a) e) (3. shift right 4. 4) are on the (2. a) y 5 2(x 2 1) 2 b) y 5 23(x 1 1) 2 1 c) y 5 (x 2 2) 2 2 1 d) y 5 2 (x 1 2) 2 3 566 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . vertical stretch of 2 2.

the coordinates x and y satisfy x 2 1 y 2 5 52 x 2 1 y 2 5 25 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 (x. Applying the Pythagorean theorem. Solution y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 8 x (x. the equation must be x 2 1 y 2 5 r 2. the equation has a simple form. with radius 11. y) What is the radius of a circle with equation x 2 1 y 2 5 30? Give your answer to the nearest hundredth. Answers Applying the Pythagorean theorem. Solution r 2 5 30 r 5 "30 r 8 5. y) Appendix A Appendix B x EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Glossary Write the equation of a circle centred at the origin. If the circle is centred at the origin.A–15 Equations of Circles Centred at the Origin A circle can be described by an equation.48 If the radius is r. Therefore. x 2 1 y 2 5 112 x 2 1 y 2 5 121 Index 567 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge .

a) x 2 1 y 2 5 9 b) x 2 1 y 2 5 81 c) x 2 1 y 2 5 15 d) x 2 1 y 2 5 27 e) x 2 1 y 2 5 6.25 568 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . a) 3 b) 7 c) 8 d) 1 x-coordinate of 12.6 64. For example.25 f ) x 2 1 y 2 5 17. x 2 1 y 2 5 25 (3) 2 1 y 2 5 25 9 1 y 2 5 25 y 2 5 16 x y is "25 5 5.Suppose you know the x-coordinate of a point on the circle x 2 1 y 2 5 25. What are the possible values of the y-coordinate? 4.9 64. Practising 1. if x 5 3. y 5 6"16 5 64 25 0 24 23 22 21 0 1 63 64 64. A point on the circle x 2 1 y 2 5 169 has an with each radius.9 65 The circle x 2 1 y 2 5 25 can be plotted from a table of values. start at x 525 and go through to x 55. What is the radius of a circle with each equation? Round your answer to the nearest hundredth. The equation of a circle defines a relation that is not a function. Plot the circle with the given equation. The possible values of the y-coordinate can be found by substituting for x in the equation. Since the radius 2 3 64 4 63 5 0 64. 3.64 a) x 2 1 y 2 5 16 b) x 2 1 y 2 5 49 c) x 2 1 y 2 5 100 d) x 2 1 y 2 5 12. if necessary.6 x2 + y2 = 25 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y x 2 4 Notice that there are two y-values for each x-value. 2. Write the equation of a circle centred at the origin.

A c B a b C Appendix A In any right triangle. there are three primary trigonometric ratios that associate the measure of an angle with the ratio of two sides. where c is the length of the hypotenuse and a and b are the lengths of the other two sides. in Figure 2. for /ABC. a 2 1 b 2 5 c 2 for any right triangle. in Figure 1. A hypotenuse B side adjacent to angle A C For sin A cos A tan A A opposite —————— hypotenuse adjacent —————— hypotenuse opposite ————— adjacent Answers side opposite to angle A Figure 2 Note how the opposite and adjacent sides change in Figures 1 and 2 with angles A and B. Index 569 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . A hypotenuse side opposite to angle B For sin B cos B tan B B opposite —————— hypotenuse adjacent —————— hypotenuse opposite ————— adjacent Appendix B B side adjacent C to angle B Figure 1 Glossary Similarly. For example.A–16 Trigonometry of Right Triangles By the Pythagorean relationship.

and the hypotenuse.EXAMPLE 1 C 5 A State the primary trigonometric ratios of /A. run 8 A 1 C B 8 570 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . Draw a labelled sketch. What is the angle of inclination of the ramp? Solution The slope of the ramp is 1 rise 5 . Then label the opposite side. the adjacent side. 4 3 B Solution Sketch the triangle. sin A 5 opposite hypotenuse 4 5 5 adjacent hypotenuse 3 5 5 opposite adjacent 4 5 3 C hypotenuse 5 opposite 4 cos A 5 A adjacent B 3 tan A 5 EXAMPLE 2 A ramp must have a rise of one unit for every eight units of run.

tan B 5 tan B 5 1 B 5 tan 21 a b 8 1 8 opposite adjacent Appendix B B 8 7° The angle of inclination is about 7°. adjacent hypotenuse x cos 27° 5 35 cos A 5 x 5 35 cos 27° 8 31 So x is about 31 cm.Calculate the measure of /B to determine the angle of inclination. A opp 1 C Appendix A B adj 8 The trigonometric ratio that associates /B with the opposite and adjacent sides is the tangent. Therefore. Solution Answers Label the sketch. NEL Index 571 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . The cosine ratio associates /A with the adjacent side and the hypotenuse. hyp 35 cm A 27 adj x C opp B Then. EXAMPLE 3 C 35 cm A 27 x B Glossary Determine x to the nearest centimetre.

Determine x to one decimal place. How tall is the other building? a) sin A 5 b) cos A 5 5 8 13 22 c) tan B 5 d) cos B 5 19 22 3 7 572 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . a) 15. How tall is the tree? 8. The angle of elevation from her eyes to the top of the tower is 70°.2 cm a) C b) 13 12 A 5 B c) 9. State the primary trigonometric ratios for /A. x 7 x b) cos 65° 5 16 a) sin 39° 5 c) tan 15° 5 x 22 31 d) tan 49° 5 x communications tower.5 cm c) 6. A tree casts a shadow 9. In ^ ABC. Solve for x to one decimal place.0 m from the base of a 3. /B 5 90° and AC 5 13 cm. How long is the 5. A rectangular lot is 15 m by 22 m. Determine a) BC if /C 5 17° b) AB if /C 5 26° c) /A if BC 5 6 cm d) /C if BC 5 9 cm 7. diagonal. Solve for /A to the nearest degree.3 m long when the angle of d) B the sun is 43°. building that is 80 m tall.Practising 1.8 m above the ground? 9. Janine stands 30. How high is the tower if her eyes are 1.2 cm x 35 x 17 21. to the nearest metre? 2.2 cm x 7. The angle of elevation from the camera to the top of another building is 42°. A surveillance camera is mounted on the top of a 4.2 cm b) A 9 B 15 12 C B 15 A 17 20 12 C 16 8 C A 25 x d) 18. The angle of depression from the camera to the same building is 32°.

Index 573 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . for ^ ABC. /Z 527°. Solution In the triangle shown. and z 54 cm. two angles and one side (AAS) or two sides and an opposite angle (SSA) must be given. Two angles and one side are known.2 Then XZ is about 8. Glossary EXAMPLE 1 Determine the length of XZ to one decimal place. /X 584°. sin Y sin Z 5 y z sin 69° sin 27° 5 y 4 4 sin 69° y5 sin 27° 8 8. so the sine law can be used. • a2 5 b2 1 c2 – 2bc cos A or • b2 5 a2 1 c2 – 2ac cos B To use the cosine law. two sides and the contained angle (SAS) or three sides (SSS) must be given. B c A b a C The cosine law states that. B c A b a Appendix B C • sin A sin C sin B 5 5 c a b or • c2 5 a2 1 b2 – 2ab cos C or a b c • 5 5 sin A sin B sin C To use the sine law. Sine Law Cosine Law Appendix A The sine law states that. for ^ ABC. so the primary trigonometric ratios do not apply. /Y 5 180° 2 (84° 1 27°) 5 180° 2 111° 5 69° X 4 cm 84 Y 27 Z Answers This is not a right triangle.A–17 Trigonometry of Acute Triangles: The Sine Law and the Cosine Law An acute triangle contains three angles less than 90°.2 cm.

x2 5 y2 1 z2 2 2yz cos X 2 2 2 X 42 17 cm Y Z 19 cm x 5 17 1 19 2 2(17) (19) cos 42° x 5 "172 1 192 2 2(17) (19) cos 42° x 8 13 Therefore. two sides and the contained angle are known. There is not enough information to use the primary trigonometric ratios or the sine law. Solution In this triangle.EXAMPLE 2 Determine the length of ZY to one decimal place. and z 5 19 cm. However. /X 5 42°. y 5 17 cm. ZY is about 13 cm. 574 Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge NEL . so the cosine law can be used.

EF 517. and /T 5 59°. a 5 6. A swamp separates points L and R. Solve each triangle for all missing sides and angles. An observation helicopter using a laser device d) 12.2 cm Glossary c) B 47 the distance between them. How far apart are the boats? 6.2 sin 14° sin 27° 5 3. 4.1 b F 8.2 cm. The angle formed between the helicopter and the two boats is 35°.2 cm G 39 a) b) c) d) e) f) sin 35° sin 42° 5 c 12 15 13 5 sin 43° sin B 192 5 152 1 132 2 2(15)(13) cos A c 2 5 122 1 172 2 2(12)(17) cos 47° sin A sin 58° 5 12. From P. with a 5 4. The rafters hang over the supporting wall by 0.2 cm Appendix B 2. Solve to one decimal place. and /D 5 39°. Determine x to one decimal place.2 cm. How many paces is it from L to R? 5.2 cm x A 10. a) A 5. she looks at R and estimates that /LPR is about 60°. and c 5 7.5.5 m.Practising 1.3 cm C C b) B a) ^ CAT. 3. c) ^ DEF.3 cm x 14.3 cm S 58 R x T determines that the helicopter is 1800 m from a boat in distress.8 cm. She turns about 45° and walks 52 paces from L to point P.7 cm C A x 52 17. Ciana stands at L and looks toward R.3 14. with c 5 5.6 cm rafters are the same length and meet at an angle of 80°.3 cm.3 cm. To determine 15.3 cm x H Appendix A f) U 35 x V W 21.3 cm B 19. with DE 514. The helicopter is 1200 m from a rescue boat. The roof Answers 14. b 5 5. b) ^ ABC. How long are the rafters? Index 575 NEL Appendix A: Review of Essential Skills and Knowledge . Neil designs a cottage that is 15 m wide.2 cm. e) 7.

Appendix B Review of Technical Skills Part 1 Using the TI-83 Plus and TI-84 Graphing Calculators B–1 B–2 B–3 B–4 B–5 B–6 B–7 B–8 B–9 B–10 B–11 B–12 B–13 B–14 B–15 B–16 B–17 B–18 B–19 B–20 Preparing the Calculator Entering and Graphing Functions Evaluating a Function Changing Window Settings Using the Split Screen Using the TABLE Feature Making a Table of Differences Finding the Zeros of a Function Finding the Maximum or Minimum Values of a Function Graphing the Inverse of a Function Creating Scatter Plots and Determining Lines and Curves of Best Fit Using Regression Finding the Points of Intersection of Two Functions Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios and Finding Angles Graphing Trigonometric Functions Evaluating Powers and Roots Generating the Terms of a Sequence Graphing Sequences Finding the Sum and Cumulative Sum of a Series Analyzing Financial Situations Using the TVM Solver Creating Repayment Schedules Using the TVM Solver 577 577 578 578 579 579 580 580 581 582 583 584 584 585 585 586 586 590 591 595 Part 2 Using a Spreadsheet B–21 B–22 Introduction to Spreadsheets Creating an Amortization Table 599 601 Part 3 Using The Geometer’s Sketchpad B–23 B–24 B–25 B–26 Graphing Functions Graphing Trigonometric Functions Creating Geometric Figures Measuring Sides and Angles. and Using the Calculator 602 604 605 606 Part 4 Using Fathom B–27 Creating a Scatter Plot and Determining the Equation of a Line or Curve of Good Fit 608 576 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL .

Clear all equations in the equation editor. enter 7 2 2x 1 3y 5 7 in the form y 5 2 x 1 . 3. 3 3 3. 1. If m or b are fractions. Press ZOOM 6 . The calculator will display the graph. ENTER TRACE Press ZOOM to trace using integer 8 intervals. be sure to clear any information left on the calculator from the last time it was used. Appendix B Press 2nd Y= 4 ENTER . Graph. Enter all linear equations in the form y 5 mx 1 b. Answers 2. to find the coordinates of any point on a graph. Turn off all stat plots. Press 4. as shown. Press 2nd 1 4 ENTER . T. 2. The graph will be displayed as shown. enter them between brackets. then press CLEAR for each equation. Press Y= . To graph y 5 2x 1 8. Press GRAPH TRACE to view the graph. press GRAPH Y= 2 X. 4. For example. Set the window so that the axes range from 210 to 10. n 1 8 . Glossary B–2 Entering and Graphing Functions Enter the equation of the function into the equation editor. You should always do the following: 1. Use the left and right arrow keys to cursor along the graph. Clear all data in the lists. Index 577 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . use the up and down arrow to scroll between graphs.PART 1 USING THE TI-83 PLUS AND TI-84 GRAPHING CALCULATORS B–1 Preparing the Calculator Before you graph any function. Press WINDOW to verify. If you are working with several graphs at the same time. U.

Press 4 GRAPH ENTER . then . enter (2) 1 at the cursor. then . 2. U. then 1 ENTER . Use function notation and the Y-VARS operation to evaluate the function. say at x 5 37. To display the function over the domain 5x | 22 # x # 56 and range 5 y | 0 # y # 146. then VARS .5. n x2 1 1. To find the value of the function at x 5 21. then cursor right to Y-VARS and press 1 ENTER . Press CLEAR . There is another way to evaluate the function. Finally. Use the value operation to evaluate the function. 1. To enter y 5 2x 2 1 x 2 3. press WINDOW 5 ENTER (2) 2 ENTER . and ENTER to show the function with this domain and range. then press . 3.B–3 Evaluating a Function Y= 2 X. press ENTER ( 3 7 . Enter the function y 5 x 2 2 3x 1 4 in the equation editor. U. T. then . Use the WINDOW function to set the domain and range. B–4 Changing Window Settings The window settings can be changed to show a graph for a given domain and range. then 1 ENTER . Enter the function into the equation editor. Press ) to select Y1. 5 . press 2nd ENTER TRACE ENTER . n 2 3 . 578 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . press X. then 0 ENTER 1 1 3. T. . 2.

U. Glossary B–6 Using the TABLE Feature A function such as y 5 20. stands for “change in. To enter y 5 20. Press 2nd WINDOW . press 1 ENTER . press 2nd and adjust the settings as shown.1x3 1 2x 1 3 can be displayed in a table of values. to see the table start at x 5 0 and increase in increments of 0. Press ENTER and to select this. Enter the function into the equation editor. Enter y 5 x 2 in Y1 of the equation editor. press cursor to Horiz. n . To view the table. U. the Greek capital letter delta. T. 2. The cursor is now alongside “DTbl5” (D. Appendix B It is possible to view the table with different increments. press Y= X. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 579 . 1. then press . then press MODE to return to the home screen. n ^ (2) X. Press GRAPH WINDOW . press (2) . press 3.1x 3 1 2x 1 3.”) To Index increase the x-value in steps of 1. Set the start point and step size for the table. The cursor is alongside “TblStart5. 2nd GRAPH .5.” To start at 5 ENTER x 5 25. 1 1 3 Answers 3 1 2 . Notice that you can look at higher or lower x-values than the original range. Use and to move up and down the table. Press ENTER and cursor to G–T GRAPH to select this. T. MODE To see a graph and a table at the same time: press (Graph-Table). For example. then press GRAPH .B–5 Using the Split Screen MODE 2nd To see a graph and the equation editor at the same time.

Scroll right and up to select L2. ) . use x-values from 22 to 4. use the STAT lists. to see the first differences displayed in L3. 4. Enter the function f (x). Find the first differences. 2. For the function f(x) 5 3x 2 2 4x 1 1. Start by entering y 5 2(x 1 3)(x 2 5) in the equation editor. to display the values of the function in L2. Repeat step 4. Scroll right and up to select L4. 5. Find the second differences. B–8 Finding the Zeros of a Function To find the zeros of a function. Press 2nd TRACE 2 . 2. 1. Then press 2nd Scroll right to OPS and press Enter L2 by pressing 2nd Press ENTER 7 2 STAT . then press GRAPH ZOOM 6 . to choose DList(. Press ALPHA 1 1 1 1 3 2nd ALPHA 1 1 x2 2 2nd ENTER . Press ENTER to see the second differences displayed in L4. Access the zero operation. using L3 in place of L2. use the zero operation. using L1 as the variable x.B–7 Making a Table of Differences To create a table with the first and second differences for a function. Press 4 3. 1. Press STAT 1 and enter the x-values into L1. Enter the function. Scroll right and up to select L3. 580 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL .

3. Press ENTER to set the left bound. so it has a maximum. Press ENTER ENTER to set the right bound. again to display the coordinates of the zero (the x-intercept). again to display the coordinates of the optimal Index value. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 581 . Press ENTER to set the left bound. 1. Cursor along the curve to any point right of the maximum value. Enter y 5 22x 2 2 12x 1 30. Repeat to find the second zero. 4. 3. Answers Press 2nd 2nd TRACE 3 4 . 2. Press 5. Use the maximum operation. Press ENTER ENTER to set the right bound. Press 5. Cursor along the curve to any point to the right of the zero. Graph it and adjust the window as shown. For parabolas that open upward. Use the left and right arrow keys to cursor along the curve to any point to the left of the maximum value. 6. Use the left and right arrow keys to cursor along the curve to any point to the left of the zero. Appendix B B–9 Finding the Maximum or Minimum Values of a Function Glossary The least or greatest value can be found using the minimum operation or the maximum operation. press TRACE to use the minimum operation. 4. This graph opens downward.

2. At Y1T=. Use window settings such as the ones shown to display the graph. y 5 2 2 t 2 to x 5 2 2 t 2. Press GRAPH to display the inverse function. enter X. Change the setting to the parametric mode by scrolling down to the fourth line and to the right to Par. U. Replace x with t. Press ENTER . is also the domain of t. For a parametric equation. For example. n . Then x 5 t and y 5 2 2 t 2. t. as shown on the screen. The inverse of this function can now be graphed. Enter the inverse function by swapping the parametric equations x 5 t. Press WINDOW . Press Y= . U. the function y 5 2 2 x 2 with domain x $ 0 can be graphed using parametric mode.B–10 Graphing the Inverse of a Function Parametric equations allow you to graph any function and its inverse. T. 4. Clear the calculator and press MODE . At X1T=. n x2 ENTER . The original domain. enter 2 2 X. 3. both x and y must be expressed in terms of a parameter. 1. x $ 0. T. y 5 t. 582 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL .

and L1 and L2 appear after Xlist and Ylist. Index 583 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . Display the graph. to enable ExpReg. Glossary 4. Repeat this for height in L2. Scroll over to twice. Press ENTER . Turn on and 1 Plot 1 by making sure the cursor is over On. VARS . Answers Press 2nd Y-VARS. Enter the data into lists. Display and analyze the results. 2nd Y= ENTER 2. Create a scatter plot.B–11 Creating Scatter Plots and Determining Lines and Curves of Best Fit Using Regression This table gives the height of a baseball above ground. b. Time (s) Height (m) 0 2 1 27 2 42 3 48 4 43 5 29 6 5 Create a scatter plot of the data. C 1 1 ALPHA to enable SinReg. the equation is about y 5 24. This action stores the equation of the line or curve of best fit into Y1 of the equation editor. In this case. Press ENTER . 2nd 2 . the letters a. 5. Move the cursor over to the first position in L1 and enter the values for time. Appendix B 1. Press .93x 1 1. ZOOM 9 3. from the time it was hit to the time it touched the ground.98. and c are the coefficients of the general quadratic equation y 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c for the curve of best fit.90x 2 1 29. To start press STAT . Press: 4 5 0 to enable LinReg(ax1b) to enable QuadReg. In this case. To determine the equation of the line or curve of best fit press STAT and scroll over to CALC. Press to activate ZoomStat. R 2 is the percent of data variation represented by the model. the Type is set to the graph type you prefer. Press ENTER after each value. Apply the appropriate regression analysis.

Use SIN21. 6 584 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . 5. Press 2nd TRACE 5 . Press ENTER . Use the intersect operation. Put the calculator in degree mode. press SIN . 3. Determine any additional points of intersection. Repeat steps 4 to 6. Use the MODE . 6. SIN . COS . Press 2. COS21. Press TRACE and move the cursor close to the other point you wish to identify. 5 4 ) ENTER To find the value of sin 54°. twice. GRAPH . ENTER 4.Note: In the case of linear regression. The point of intersection is exactly (2. if r is not displayed. Adjust the window settings until the point(s) of intersection are displayed. Graph both functions. Press 3. Press 2nd Press ENTER 0 and scroll down to DiagnosticOn. press 2nd ) ENTER . Scroll down and across to Degree. or TAN key to calculate trigonometric ratios. or TAN21 to calculate angles. Repeat step 4. In this case we will use y 5 5x 1 4 and y 5 22x 1 18. COS . To find the angle whose cosine is 0. Press GRAPH B–12 Finding the Points of Intersection of Two Functions 1. You will be asked to verify the two curves and enter a guess (optional) for the point of intersection.6. Enter both functions into the equation editor. B–13 Evaluating Trigonometric Ratios and Finding Angles 1. turn on the diagnostics function. 14). 2. Plot the curve. Press after each screen appears. Determine a point of intersection.

Graph the function using ZoomFit. Glossary Note: You can use ZoomTrig (press ZOOM 7 ) to graph the function in step 4. U. Evaluate the power 75. In this case. step 4 B–15 Evaluating Powers and Roots 1. Press 7 ^ 5 2 ENTER . and Ymax 5 4. set Ymin 5 21 and Ymax 5 1. Adjust the window to correspond to the given domain. Scroll down and across to Degree. 4. Press X. The graph is displayed over the domain and the Press ZOOM calculator determines the best values to use for Ymax and Ymin in the display window. using an interval of 90° on the x-axis. Xmax 5 360. Set Xmin 5 0. 3. n ) ENTER .B–14 Graphing Trigonometric Functions You can graph trigonometric functions in degree measure using the TI-83 Plus or TI-84 calculators. ZoomTrig will always display the graph in a window where Xmin 5 2360°. this step can be omitted. T. These settings display the graph from 0° to 360°. Graph the function y 5 sin x for 0° # x # 360°. Press 8 ^ ( 2 2 4 3 ) ENTER . 3. Evaluate the square root of 46. if this fact is not known. and Xscl 5 90. Put the calculator in degree mode. Evaluate "256 . 4. Evaluate the power 823 . Press 2nd x2 4 6 . 3 x2 ENTER . Press WINDOW . Appendix B 0 . 1 ) ENTER . Xmax 5 360°. step 3 2. Answers 2.3)2. Y= SIN . NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 585 . Press Press MODE . However. Index 4 Press 4 MATH 5 2 5 6 ENTER . since the sine function lies between these values. Ymin 5 24. Press 5 . 5. Enter y 5 sin x into the equation editor.1. 1. Evaluate the power (5.

n 2 step 2 586 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . U. Change the graphing mode from function to sequence. The graphing modes are listed on the fourth line of the MODE menu. You will need to enter the following: • the expression of the general term • the variable n — let X. 5 . the first term is generated. because the difference between each pair of consecutive natural numbers is always 1 Press X. Press step 3 ENTER . Scroll down to sequence and press ENTER . U. You can change the minimum value of n (nMin). Enter the information for sequence. 2. Scroll down to u(n) and position the cursor to the right of the 1 . 1. You will need the general term. n . 1 . 1. and w(n) represent the general terms of sequences. B–17 Graphing Sequences Part 1: Creating a Table and Graphing — The General Term Using the TI-83 or TI-84 Plus calculator. Press 3 X. n represent n • the first position number • the last position number • the increment — the increment is 1. n x2 ) step 2 . step 1 Press Y= . v(n). U. Press ENTER . Press MODE and scroll down and across to Seq. Enter the general term into the sequence editor. Press 2nd step 1 STAT . 1 . you will not need to change the value 1. X. T. u(n). In this editor. In most cases. T. Select sequence from the List OPS menu. T. 2. when n 5 1.B–16 Generating the Terms of a Sequence Generate or list the first five terms of the sequence defined by tn 5 n2. Generate the first five terms of the sequence. because. equal sign. 3. T. U. Create and graph the sequence defined by tn 5 3n 2 1. you can first create a table for a sequence and then a graph for the sequence.

Trace along the graph to identify specific terms of the sequence. Use and to move from point to point. Press WINDOW . 6. step 4 5. Appendix B step 3 4. or position. then scroll down and across to G–T (on the last line of ENTER GRAPH Index the MODE menu). The y-coordinate represents the value of the term. The setting nMin indicates the smallest n-value for the calculator to evaluate.3. Press GRAPH .and y-coordinates of each term are displayed at each point. Adjust the window to display the required number of terms. Press TRACE . Set TblStart to 1 and DTbl to 1. Press . The Glossary n-value. a) Press 2nd b) Press 2nd WINDOW . while nMax indicates the largest n-value for the calculator to evaluate. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 587 . PlotStep=1 means that each consecutive term will be plotted. GRAPH to display the table. but use these window settings for this example. Use the cursor keys to scroll through the table. You can change these settings. PlotStart=1 means that the graph starts at the first term. use split-screen mode. Graph the sequence. and the x. step 5 Answers step 6 a) step 6 b) Note: To see the graph and the table at the same time. View the terms of the sequence in a table. Press MODE .

Enter the recursive formula in the sequence editor and set the initial value. tn 5 500 1 0. 1. Then.26tn–1. Press WINDOW and enter the values shown. or the first term. 588 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . t 1 5 0 and t 2 5 1. 0 2nd ) ENTER . Graph the sequence t1 5 500. if you were to ( enter. T. ) 2 6 2nd 7 5 ( 0 0 X. for the sequence u(n). Set the initial value to 500. However. n . Position the cursor to the right of the equal sign for u(nMin) and press 2nd ) ENTER ( 5 0 0 2nd . then you would press 2nd 1 . 2. press . Set the window. you can graph recursive sequences in the same way.Part 2: Creating a Table and Graphing — The Recursive Formula Using the TI-83 Plus or TI-84 calculator. Note: You do not have to enter the braces ( 2nd ) ( and 2nd ) around the initial value. U. Press 1 2 Y= 0 1 . for example. with one exception: you must specify an initial value or values for u(nMin) in the sequence editor.

Set TblStart to 1 and DTbl to 1. Appendix B Press 2nd Press 2nd WINDOW . Use the cursor keys to scroll through the table. Press GRAPH . Glossary Answers Index 589 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . 4. Draw the graph.3. GRAPH to display the table. View the terms of the sequence in a table.

step 3 590 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . b) Enter the expression of the general term. Find the sum of the series. and the increment. Part 1: Finding the Sum of the Terms of a Series 1. 2nd 2 . Follow step 1 of Part 1. 3. 3. 1. Use Ans. Press 2nd Press step 2 STAT ) and scroll down to 6:cumSum. ENTER . Find the cumulative sums of the terms of the sequence. Press 2nd Press step 2 STAT and scroll down to 5:sum. Press ENTER to generate the first five terms. the ending value of the variable. 2. a) Select sequence from the List OPS menu. the starting value of the variable. Press ENTER ENTER . Generate the terms of the sequence again. 2. ) 2 ENTER . The cumulative sums are 151 55114 14 5 1 1 4 1 9 30 5 1 1 4 1 9 1 16 55 5 1 1 4 1 9 1 16 1 25 displayed.B–18 Finding the Sum and Cumulative Sum of a Series Find the sum and the cumulative sum of the first five terms of the sequence defined by tn 5 n 2. Press 2nd Scroll down to 5:seq and press step 1 STAT . The sum is displayed. Select sum from the List MATH menu. Select cumulative sum from the LIST OPS menu. as shown. Press 2nd Part 2: Finding the Cumulative Sum of the Terms of a Series The cumulative sum displays the progression of sums of the terms of a series. step 3 1. ENTER . the variable. Generate the first five terms of the sequence. last answer. to insert the terms in sum.

move the cursor to that variable and press ENTER ALPHA Glossary Answers . and the calculator will calculate this value. From the Finance CALC menu. across to 2. and press ENTER . you will see that the calculator adds the decimal and two zeros. You may enter different values for the variables. A small Index shaded box to the left of the line containing the calculated value will appear. Press APPS and then select 1:Finance. The screen that appears should be similar to the second one shown. select 1:TVM Solver. or the number of interest conversion periods for simple annuities I% annual interest rate as a percent. N total number of payment periods.B–19 Analyzing Financial Situations Using the TVM Solver Part 1: Introducing the TVM Solver Press MODE and change the fixed decimal mode to 2. When you enter a whole number. To solve for a variable. enter the value of money that is received as a positive number. Appendix B You will notice eight variables on the screen. since the investment is a cash outflow. because most of the values that you are working with here represent dollars and cents. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 591 . Enter the value for money that is paid as a negative number. not as a decimal PV present or discounted value PMT regular payment amount FV future or accumulated value P/Y number of payment periods per year C/Y number of interest conversion periods per year PMT Choose BEGIN if the payments are made at the beginning of the payment intervals. since the money is a cash inflow. Choose END if the payments are made at the end of the payment intervals. but the values may be different. Scroll down to Float.

C/Y. because the future value of the investment will be “paid” to Maeve. except the value for PV. Scroll to the line containing ENTER to get 2$2242. and PV 5 27500. I% 5 8. the future value.48 after nine years. Open the TVM Solver and enter these values. 592 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . and the compounding periods per year. compounded quarterly. PMT 5 0 and FV 5 0. Solution The number of interest conversion periods. is 9 3 12 5 108. because the investment represents a cash outflow. Scroll to the line containing FV. How much money should she deposit now in a savings account that pays 9%/a. because Maeve must pay this money and the payment is a cash outflow. representing a cash inflow. P/Y. The payments per year. The value for FV is positive. is negative. and press ALPHA ENTER . EXAMPLE 2 Maeve would like to have $3500 at the end of five years.Part 2: Determining Future Value and Present Value EXAMPLE 1 Find the future value or amount of $7500 invested for nine years at 8%/a. to finance her trip? Solution Open the TVM Solver and enter the values shown in the screen. compounded monthly. N.86. so she can visit Europe. are both 12. The solution for PV is PV and press ALPHA negative. The investment will be worth $15 371. The value for present value. PV.

The payment appears as 2473. Scroll to the line containing FV and press ALPHA Appendix B Glossary The balance in Celia’s account at the end of the year will be $8206. is positive. is negative.24 at the end of each month for 15 years. Scroll to the line containing PMT and press ALPHA ENTER . which is a cash outflow. compounded monthly? Solution Answers Open the TVM Solver and enter the values shown. Index Mr. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 593 . PMT 5 21500. compounded annually. Note that N 5 12 3 15 5 180. because it is a cash outflow. Open the TVM Solver and enter these values.Part 3: Determining the Future or Accumulated Value of an Ordinary Simple Annuity EXAMPLE 3 Celia deposits $1500 at the end of each year in a savings account that pays 4. EXAMPLE 4 Mr. The payment. PV 5 0. What will be the balance in the account after five years? Solution N 5 5 and I% 5 4. because Celia makes a payment. Bartolluci would like to have $150 000 in his account when he retires in 15 years. since he will receive the money at some future time. Because there is no money in the account at the beginning of the term. except for PMT. PMT. How much should he deposit at the end of each month in an account that pays 7%/a. P/Y 5 1 and C/Y 5 1.06.5%/a. and the future value.5. FV. Bartolluci must deposit $473. ENTER .24.

The value for PMT is positive. since the fund will be depleted at the end of the term. The total cash price is PV 1 $150 5 $706. Solution Open the TVM Solver and enter the values as shown in the screen.5 years. 594 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . 9 for I%.82. compounded monthly. because it represents what Monica would have to pay now if she were to pay cash. The payment. because the school must pay this money to establish the fund. because the payments are a cash inflow for the snowboard’s seller. If the finance charge is 16%/a. The payment is a cash outflow. The selling price is the sum of the positive present value and the down payment. PMT.41 now for the scholarship fund. except the value for PV. Under this finance plan. find the selling price of the snowboard. what does the school need to invest now to pay for the fund? Solution Open the TVM Solver and enter 8 for N.82. Scroll to the line containing PV and press ALPHA The school must invest $2767. is positive. Enter 0 for FV. Since the down payment is also a payment. EXAMPLE 6 Monica buys a snowboard for $150 down and pays $35 at the end of each month for 1. C/Y. and 500 for PMT. Monica will pay $35 3 18 1 $150 5 $780. ALPHA The present value is $556. because someone will receive $500 each year. A $500 scholarship will be awarded at the end of each school year for the next eight years. Enter 1 for both P/Y and ENTER . Scroll to the line containing PV and press ENTER .Part 4: Determining Present or Discounted Value of an Ordinary Simple Annuity EXAMPLE 5 Northern Lights High School wishes to establish a scholarship fund. The present value appears as 22767. If the fund earns 9%/a. compounded annually. add both numbers.41. The present value appears as a negative value on the screen.

B–20 Creating Repayment Schedules Using the TVM Solver In this section. The greater roundvalue is. roundvalue) calculates the sum of the interest paid from period A to period B calculates the sum of the principal paid from period A to period B calculates the balance owing after period x Appendix B The calculator rounds as it calculates. You will need to tell the calculator the value for rounding. a) How much is the monthly payment? b) How much will she pay in interest? c) How much will she still owe on the loan after the 30th payment. P/Y 5 12. EXAMPLE 1 Eleanor finances the purchase of a new pickup truck by borrowing $18 000. FV 5 0. and C/Y 5 12. She will repay the loan with monthly payments. Enter I% 5 14. at the halfway point in repaying the loan? d) What portion of the 30th payment reduces the principal? Solution Answers a) Press APPS and select 1:Finance. Here are three other functions: SInt(A. by applying some of the financial functions from the Finance CALC menu. ALPHA ENTER Index . which is also the value that banks use. The calculator can use the information that you have entered into the TVM Solver to perform other functions. future value and present value. that is. because Eleanor pays this amount each month. PV 5 18 000. is a positive number because Eleanor receives (a cash inflow) $18 000 from the bank. the greater the accuracy of the calculations. Part 1: Introducing Other Finance CALC Menu Functions You have used the TVM Solver to find.83. The interest rate is 14%/a. NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills 595 .83. for example. B. roundvalue. because 12 3 5 5 60. roundvalue) SPrn(A. The The payment appears as a negative value. compounded monthly. you will create a repayment schedule. Then press ENTER to select 1:TVM Solver from the Finance CALC menu. B. Scroll to the line containing PMT and press monthly payment is $418. roundvalue) bal(x. Part 2: Using the TVM Solver and Other Finance CALC Menu Functions Press MODE Glossary and change the fixed decimal mode to 2. the roundvalue is 6. Notice that the present value. In this section. Enter N 5 60.828 515 3. The actual value is 2418. which the calculator rounded to 2418. because most of the values in this section represent dollars and cents. The term of the loan is five years. PV.

(Why is this amount not $9000?) d) Find the portion of the 30th payment that reduces the principal by calculating the sum of the principal paid from the 30th payment to the 30th payment.27 after the 30th payment. 3 0 . In the words. Press 2nd MODE to return to the home screen. and the total number of payments. select SPrn by scrolling down or by pressing 0 . Eleanor will have paid $7129. Eleanor will have paid $7129.80.71 in interest and principal for the truck. . Note that the product of the payment. Press APPS and select 1:Finance from the Finance CALC menu. that is.83. The difference of $0.828 515 3 was rounded to 418. From the Finance CALC menu. 6 ) ENTER . 6. roundvalue must be consistent. you are calculating the sum of only one item.83. c) Find the balance on the loan after the 30th payment.71 1 $18 000 5 $25 129. Eleanor still owes $10 550. roundvalue is again 6. Press . select bal by scrolling or by pressing .71 in total interest. The other portion of this payment.09 is due to rounding.b) Use SInt(A. By the end of the loan. 0 Press 3 6 9 . $418. is $25 129. $126. because 418. Select SInt by scrolling down or by pressing Press Press ENTER 1 ALPHA MATH . 3 0 .50. From the Finance CALC menu. the 30th payment. .33. roundvalue) to calculate the total interest that Eleanor will pay. B. is interest. 60. 596 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . ) ENTER . 6 ) ENTER The portion of the 30th payment that reduces the principal is $292. The sum of the interest paid from the first period to the 60th period is calculated. 6 0 .

T. press 2nd Then press APPS Press X. You will combine sequence (List OPS menu) and bal. She will repay the loan with monthly payments. . beginning with the first month. n . Glossary to select bal. The increment for this sequence is 1. to calculate the sequence of balances. n ENTER 9 ) ) STAT 5 to select sequence. 7. Answers Index 597 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . Solution Appendix B a) Find the outstanding balance after each payment for the first seven months. c) Use the repayment schedule to verify that the loan is completely paid after five years or 60 payments. The term of the loan is five years. Press 7 ENTER . EXAMPLE 2 Recall that Eleanor borrows $18 000 to purchase a pickup truck. 1. U. and ending with the last month. U. From the home screen. . a) What will be the monthly outstanding balance on the loan after each of the first seven months? b) Create a repayment schedule for the first seven months of the loan. 1 .Part 3: Using the Finance Functions to Create Repayment Schedules Use the functions described in parts 1 and 2 to create repayment schedules or amortization tables. Recall that the increment is the change from payment number to payment number. X. 1 6 . The interest rate is 14%/a compounded monthly. T. Scroll right ( ) to see the other balances. which is the last value entered.

83 payment is interest. . Notice that a substantial portion of the $418. Each payment. The outstanding balance after seven payments is $16 486. T. c) Scroll or reset the tables’s start value to see other entries in the amortization table. Press X. The final outstanding balance is 2. or an amortization. To store the principal portion of each payment in Y2. T. The table will start with payment 0 and the payment number will Press 2nd GRAPH to see the amortization table. T. WINDOW . this value is $0. Therefore. U. n . none of the payment is applied to the principal. Set TblStart to 1 and Before viewing the table. which is a combination of interest and principal. 6 ) . X. the outstanding balance. ENTER ENTER . n to select SInt. U.b) Create a repayment. Scroll up to the beginning of the table. n ENTER . Press X.03. T. The loan will be paid completely after five years or 60 payments. n ENTER . schedule for the first seven months by comparing the interest. Clear Y1 to Y3. press APPS 9 to select bal. and balance in a table. n . At the end of the amortization. the amortization period of 60 payments is correct. Press X. DTbl to 1. Notice that the interest portion and the principal portion of each payment appear as negative values. Move the cursor to the right of Y15. U. Scroll down the table. Scroll right to see the values for Y3. . T. As a decimal. 598 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . Store the interest portion of each payment in Y1. U. is a cash outflow for Eleanor. Press Y= . if necessary. press 2nd increase by 1 at each step.5E25. U. Press APPS MATH 6 ) ENTER ALPHA X. press APPS ENTER 0 6 ) to select SPrn. principal.000 25. Begin by opening the equation editor. To store the outsanding balance after each payment in Y3.

Use the Fill Down command. 1955.94 A 1 Number of Quarters 2 0 3 1 4 2 . and cell C1 as Amount ($). A 1 Number of Quarters 2 0 3 1 4 2 5 3 6 4 B Time (years) 0 0. a number.PART 2 USING A SPREADSHEET B–21 Introduction to Spreadsheets A spreadsheet is a computer program that can be used to create a table of values and then graph the values.. . A cell can hold a label.50 1025.8328 1980. . .. the computer automatically calculates and enters the values in each cell.75 1 C Amount ($) 1000 1012.0125)^A3 in C3 to generate the next values in the table.2807 2005. label cell A1 as Number of Quarters. 0 in B2. and a caret (^) is used for exponents. 13. or a formula. and 1000 in C2.1563 . Cell B1 as Time (years).97 1050. as shown below in the screen on the left. This command inserts the appropriate formula into each selected cell.25 C Amount ($) 1000 Answers When the Fill Down command is used. Creating a Table Use spreadsheets to solve problems like this: How long will it take to double your money if you invest $1000 at 5%/a compounded quarterly? To create a spreadsheet.0342 Index 599 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . A3/4 in B3. A 1 Number of Quarters 2 0 3 1 4 B Time (years) 0 0..75 14 C Amount ($) 1000 1012.25 0.. 56 54 57 55 58 56 B Time (years) 0 0.16 1037.5 0. Next. Enter the initial values of 0 in A2. Continue to select the cells in the last row of the table and use the Fill Down command to generate more values until the solution appears. and 1000*(1.50 1025. such as A2 or B5.5 .25 0. A 1 Number of Quarters 2 0 3 =A2+1 4 B Time (years) 0 =A3/4 C Amount ($) 1000 -1000*(1. use the cursor to select cell A3 to C3 and several rows of cells below them. Enter the formulas A2 1 in A3. . as shown below in the screen on the right. .0125^A3) Appendix B Glossary Notice that an equal sign is in front of each formula. an asterisk (*) is used for multiplication.5 13. It is made up of cells that are identified by column letter and row number.

. In this case. 1955.5 13. This graph appears above on the right. Use the cursor to highlight the portion of the table you would like to graph.. Value of $1000 Over Time A 1 Number of Quarters 2 0 3 1 4 2 .25 0. .. Time versus Amount. .8328 1980.75 14 C Amount ($) 1000 1012. Determining the Equation of the Curve of Best Fit Different spreadsheets have different commands for finding the equation of the curve of best fit using regression.0342 2200 2000 Amount ($) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 1 11 21 31 41 Time (years) 51 Different spreadsheets have different graphing commands. . 600 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . .1563 . Check your spreadsheet’s instructions to find the proper command..5 . . 56 54 57 55 58 56 B Time (years) 0 0.2807 2005.Creating a Graph Use the spreadsheet’s graphing command to graph the results.50 1025. 13. Check your spreadsheet’s instructions to find the proper command for the type of regression that suits the data.

Payment. a comma.23 $480.00 $520. ENTER ENTER E2*0.89) Answers Index 601 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills .48 $509. Create a spreadsheet with five columns.00 $520.000. In cell C3. 3.051. respectively. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A Payment Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 $520. C1.00 $520. Principal Paid and Outstanding Balance in cells A1.77 B Payment C Interest Paid D Principal Paid E Outstanding Balance $4.35 $25.80 $489. C2.B–22 Creating an Amortization Table You have decided to purchase $4000 in furniture for your apartment.00 $3.00 $520.55 $2.00 $40.00 $3. enter 0 and 4000.53 $514.52 $10.01 D Principal Paid =B3 – C3 .54 $499.00 $520.520. and D2 Appendix B empty. and will be rounded to two decimal places. enter the expression A2 1 and press ENTER . Use the Fill Down command to complete the table.00 $484.88 $(496.20 $30. In cell A3.20 $2. 2.46 $20.035.50 $22.01 $1.00 $520. A spreadsheet can create a table of the outstanding balance and the graph. Select cells B3 to E11 and click the $ button or icon.47 $5. B1. In cell D3.62 $519. Select cells A3 across to E3 and down to E11.551.51 $15. Interest Paid. Your monthly payment is $520 and the interest rate 12%/a.00 $35. You can display financial data in different ways. Leave cell B2.01 and press . In cell E3 enter A Payment Number 0 =A2 + 1 B Payment B3 C3 and press ENTER E Outstanding Balance 4000 =E2 – D3 E2 D3 and press C Interest Paid =E2*0. compounded monthly.545.03 $537. enter the expression . enter the expression for interest.49 $504.52 $1047. enter 520.38 $0. Glossary 1 2 3 520 4. respectively. D1 and E1. Each number will appear with a dollar sign.65 $494. In cells A2 and E2. In cell B3. 1. Create a Table of the Outstanding Balance You may find that the spreadsheet software that you are using may have different commands or techniques for achieving the same results.00 $520.00 $520. labelled Payment Number.

Graph the function y x2 3x 2. The graph of y x2 3x 2 should appear on the grid. Turn on the grid.3 * x Then press the “OK” button on the calculator keypad. 3. choose Plot New Function. The function calculator should appear.PART 3 USING THE GEOMETER’S SKETCHPAD B–23 Graphing Functions 1. 2”. choose Show Grid. 2. From the Graph menu. From the Graph menu. Enter the function. Use either the calculator keypad or the keyboard to enter “x ^ 2 . 602 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL .

Left-click and drag this point to change the scale. Adjust the origin and/or scale. then left-click on the point at (1. 0) to select it. left-click in blank space to deselect. Appendix B Glossary Answers Index 603 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . To adjust the scale.4. left-click on the point at the origin to select it. Then left-click and drag the origin as desired. To adjust the origin.

• Click on “No” in the pop-up panel to keep degrees as the angle unit. From the Graph menu. Adjust the origin and/or scale.” use the pull-down “Functions” menu on the calculator keypad. 3. Turn on the grid. 0). choose Plot New Function. To enter “sin. • From the Graph menu. The function calculator should appear.B–24 Graphing Trigonometric Functions 1. The graph of y 2 sin (30x) 3 should appear on the grid. 2. • Click on the “OK” button on the calculator keypad. Graph the function y 2 sin (30x) 3. Left-click on and drag either the origin or the point (1. 604 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . choose Show Grid. • Use either the calculator keypad or the keyboard to enter “2 * sin (30 * x) 3”.

Left-click and drag around the three Appendix B Glossary 3. Choose the Point tool 2. . Select the vertices. Draw the sides of the figure. Answers Index 605 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . choose Segments. Plot the vertices of the figure. From the Construct menu.B–25 Creating Geometric Figures To draw a triangle. The sides of the triangle should appear. . 1. follow these steps. Choose the Arrow Selection tool vertices to select them.

3. choose Length. then C. then A. From the Measure menu. Left-click on a side to select it. 606 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . 1. choose Angle. To measure BAC. Repeat for the other two angles. 2. Repeat for the other two sides. Find the measure of each side. See “Creating Geometric Figures” (B-25). • • • • • Choose the Arrow Selection tool.B–26 Measuring Sides and Angles. Draw a triangle. select the vertices in that order: first B. Find the measure of each angle. Left-click on any blank area to deselect. • • • • Left-click on any blank area to deselect. draw a triangle and verify that the sine law holds for it. From the Measure menu. and Using the Calculator As an example.

Left-click on the measure “mAB” to select it. Appendix B Glossary Answers Index 607 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . Select the measure “m/ACB”. Repeat step 4 for the other two pairs of corresponding sides and angles. choose Calculate…. For side AB and the opposite ACB. 5. Use the “Functions” menu on the keypad to select “sin”. Use the calculator keypad to enter “÷”. Press the “OK” button on the calculator keypad. sin ACB From the Measure menu. The ratio should appear as a new measure.4. The calculator keypad should appear. calculate the ratio • • • • • • AB .

) When you name your first attribute. Deleting the collection deletes your data. The collection is where your data are actually stored. 2. 608 Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills NEL . repeat this step to add more attributes. and drop it in a blank space in your document. Drag a new graph from the object shelf at the top of the Fathom window. empty box). Drag a case table from the object shelf. (Press Tab to move from cell to cell. type a name for the new variable or attribute and press Enter. and drop it in the document. Graph the data.) 3. pressing Tab instead of Enter moves you to the next column. When you add cases by typing values. and drop it on the prompt below and/or to the left of the appropriate axis in the graph. Drag an attribute from the case table. Create a case table. Click <new>. the collection icon fills with gold balls. Enter the Variables and Data. To enter the data click in the blank cell under the attribute name and begin typing values. (If necessary. Fathom creates an empty collection to hold your data (a little.PART 4 USING FATHOM B–27 Creating a Scatter Plot and Determining the Equation of a Line or Curve of Good Fit 1.

Enter your function using a parameter that can be adjusted to fit the curve to the scatter plot.2). and drop it in a blank space below your graph. Drag a new slider from the object shelf at the top of the Fathom window. Create a slider for the parameter(s) in your equation. Create a function. Click on the number then adjust the value of the slider until you are satisfied with the fit. Index 609 NEL Appendix B: Review of Technical Skills . (a was used in this case). Right click the graph and select Plot Function.4. Appendix B 5. Type in the letter of the parameter used in your function in step 4 over V1.8(x 0.2)(x 6. Glossary Answers The equation of a curve of good fit is y 4.

7.5 and 5. tell why you think your answer is correct M measure: Use a tool to describe an object or determine an amount (e. Show something in picture form (e.) create: Make your own example explore: Investigate a problem by questioning. judge 2. Use a ruler and a protractor to construct an angle.. Determine if something makes sense.. Model addition of integers using red and blue counters. Calculate the value as a number explain: Tell what you did...) D describe: Tell. drawings.g. organize into categories compare: Look at two or more objects or numbers and identify how they are the same and how they are different (e. Pull or select an object (e.. Use a ruler to measure the height or distance around something. show how you know S show (your work): Record all calculations.) model: Show or demonstrate an idea using objects and/or pictures (e.g. drawings. and trying new ideas extend: 1. Draw a card from the deck. Use a measuring cup to measure capacity. 2. tell about a process in a step-by-step way determine: Decide with certainty as a result of calculation.g. show your mathematical thinking at every stage.) conclude: Judge or decide after reflection or after considering data construct: Make or build a model.. numbers. make a reasonable guess (e.g. brainstorming. continue the pattern 2. or symbols that make up the solution 610 Glossary NEL ... Estimate how many leaves are on a tree. Predict the next number in the pattern 1..) P predict: Use what you know to work out what is going to happen (e.. words. Use balance scales to measure mass. or a solution. 4.g. Draw a diagram. Use a protractor to measure an angle. Compare the size of the students’ feet. analyze relevant information to show understanding relate: Describe how two or more objects. Draw a tile from the bag. What is your estimate of 3210 1 789?) evaluate: 1. In patterning. or numbers are similar represent: Show information or an idea in a different way that makes it easier to understand (e. ideas.g. Use a stopwatch to measure the time in seconds or minutes. Compare the numbers 6.) E estimate: Use your knowledge to make a sensible decision about an amount.g.6.g. experiment.. create a new problem that takes the idea of the original problem further J justify: Give convincing reasons for a prediction. Draw a graph.) R reason: Develop ideas and relate them to the purpose of the task and to each other. draw an accurate geometric shape (e.g. . or exploration draw: 1. or write about what something is or what something looks like. compute clarify: Make a statement easier to understand. Make a model. Estimate how long it takes to cycle from your home to school.) 2. an estimate. In problem solving..Glossary Instructional Words C calculate: Figure out the number that answers a question. provide an example classify: Put things into groups according to a rule and label the groups. draw. Compare two shapes.

1. This occurs when you know two side lengths and an angle opposite one of the sides rather than between them (an SSA triangle).g. A simple annuity is an annuity in which the payments coincide with the compounding period. For example. A bearing is a clockwise angle from magnetic north. but never meets.sketch: Make a rough drawing (e. equals x when x $ 0 or 2x when x .g. 0. If the given angle is obtuse. or conversion period. on some portion of its domain y the ambiguous case of the sine law: A situation in which 0. you can add or multiply in any order: (a 1 b) 1 c 5 a 1 (b 1 c) and (ab)c 5 a(bc) asymptote: A line that the graph of a relation or function gets closer and closer to.) solve: Develop and carry out a process for finding a solution to a problem sort: Separate a set of objects. describes the distance of x from 0.. and I is the interest amplitude: Half the difference between the maximum and minimum values. 0. the bearing of the lighthouse shown is 335° N 25 W 335 S E Glossary 611 . 1. P is the principal. for example.) absolute value: Written as 0 x 0 . or 2 triangles can be drawn given the information in a problem. an ordinary annuity is an annuity in which the payments are made at the end of each interval arithmetic sequence: A sequence that has the same difference. the principal. 0 or 1 triangle is possible amortization schedule: A record of payments showing the interest paid. if a perpendicular is constructed. 0 3 0 5 3 and 0 23 0 5 2 (23) 5 3 V validate: Check an idea by showing that it works verify: Work out an answer or solution again. ideas. The amount is given by A 5 P 1 I. where A is the amount. and the current balance on a loan or investment amount: The total value of an investment or loan. or numbers according to an attribute (e. usually in another way. it is also the vertical distance from the function’s axis to the maximum or minimum value angle of depression (declination): The angle between a line below the horizontal and the horizontal angle of elevation: The angle formed by the horizontal and the line of sight (to an object above the horizontal) annuity: A series of payments or investments made at regular intervals. Sketch a picture of the field with dimensions. imagine Mathematical Words A associative property: With addition and multiplication. show evidence of visualize: Form a picture in your head of what something is like. Sort 2-D shapes by the number of sides. the common difference. If the given angle is acute. drawings.. between any pair of consecutive terms arithmetic series: The sum of the terms of an arithmetic sequence NEL Glossary asymptotes x axis of symmetry: A line in a two-dimensional figure such that. any two points lying on the perpendicular and the figure are at equal distances from this line B bearing: The direction in which you have to move in order to reach an object. or 2 triangles are possible.

which is the square of x 1 3 compound interest: Interest that is added to the principal before new interest earned is calculated. A. each of its terms is multiplied or divided by the number or term outside of the brackets 2 t12 5 2(12) 5 24 geometric sequence: A sequence that has the same ratio. and c. between any pair of consecutive terms geometric series: The sum of the terms of a geometric sequence NEL 612 Glossary . annually 1 1 time per year semi-annually 1 2 times per year quarterly 1 4 times per year monthly 1 12 times per year cosine law: The relationship. Interest is paid at regular time intervals called the compounding period compounding period: The intervals at which interest is calculated. of an investment after a certain length of time G general term: A formula. substitute n 5 12 ˛ D direction of opening: The direction in which a parabola opens. used to represent the value of the dependent variable—the output—for a given value of the independent variable. then a 2 5 b 2 1 c 2 2 2bc cos A curve of best fit: The curve that best describes the distribution of points in a scatter plot. if the general term of a sequence is tn 5 2n. used to determine unknown sides and angles in triangles. for any triangle. for example "12 E equation of the axis: The equation of the horizontal line halfway between the maximum and the minimum. then to calculate the 12th term (t12 ). when a polynomial is expanded. labelled tn. Typically found using an informal process domain: The set of all values of the independent variable of a relation down payment: The partial amount of a purchase paid at the time of purchase entire radical: A radical with coefficient 1. and if the angle A is opposite side a. For example. b. a 1 b 5 b 1 a and a 3 b 5 b 3 a completing the square: The process of adding a constant to a given quadratic expression to form a perfect trinomial square. but if 7 is added it becomes x 2 1 6x 1 9. If a triangle has sides a. x—the input future value: The total amount. The result is the same.C common difference: The constant difference between two consecutive terms in an arithmetic sequence or series common ratio: The constant ratio (quotient) between two consecutive terms in a geometric sequence or series commutative property: The order in which you add or multiply numbers does not matter. For example. x 2 1 6x 1 2 is not a perfect square. such as f (x). for example. up or down discriminant: The expression b 2 4ac in the quadratic formula distributive property: The principal that says that. it is determined by y5 maximum value 1 minimum value 2 exponential function: A function of the form y 5 a(bx ) F factored form: A quadratic relation in the form f (x) 5 a(x 2 r) (x 2 s) family: A collection of functions (or lines or curves) sharing common characteristics family of parabolas: A group of parabolas that all share a common characteristic function: A relation where each value of the independent variable corresponds with only one value of the dependent variable function notation: Notation. the common ratio. involving the cosine of one of the angles and the lengths of the three sides. that expresses each term of a sequence as a function of its position. Typically found using regression analysis curve of good fit: A curve that reasonably describes the distribution of points in a scatter plot. So interest is calculated on the principal and on the interest already earned.

undoes what the original function has done parabola: The graph of a quadratic relation of the form y 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c (a 2 0). which resembles the letter “U. for example. Any restrictions on a variable must be stated independent variable: In an algebraic relation. Typically found using linear regression analysis line of good fit: The straight line that reasonably describes the distribution of points in a scatter plot. the side that is opposite the right angle I identity: A mathematical statement that is true for all values of the given variables.. It tells which root is indicated: 3 for cube root. a variable whose values may be freely chosen and upon which the values of the other variables depend. If there is no number. involving the reciprocals of a list of numbers n H5 1 1 1 . the other decreases or vice versa nonperiodic function: Any function that does not repeat at regular intervals P inverse of a function: The reverse of the original function. Often represented by x index (plural indices): The number at the left of the radical sign. The graph. where 1 a2 1 . If the identity involves fractions. an are positive real numbers ˛ hypotenuse: The longest side of a right triangle.. the denominators cannot be zero.. 1 an a1 L like radicals: Radicals that have the same number under the radical symbol. such as 3"6 and 22"6 linear relation: A relation between two variables that appears as a straight line when graphed on a coordinate system.. . Typically found using an informal process lowest common denominator (LCD): The smallest multiple shared by two or more denominators a1. 0) for this graph and transformation y 4 y = x2 4 4 2 2 0 2 y= 4 x2 2 4 4 x M mixed radical: A radical with coefficient other than 1. denoted by H.. for example. etc.H half life: The time required for a quantity to decay to half of its initial value harmonic mean: A type of average. May also be referred to as a linear function line of best fit: The straight line that best describes the distribution of points in a scatter plot.” is symmetrical NEL Glossary 613 . 0) and (2. (22. the square root is intended interest: The cost of borrowing money or the money earned from an investment invariant point: A point on a graph (or figure) that is unchanged by a transformation. 4 for fourth root. 2"3 N negative angle: An angle measured clockwise from the positive x-axis y Glossary x 0 210 negative correlation: This indicates that as one variable in a linear relationship increases.

.) principal: A sum of money that is borrowed or invested principal angle: The counterclockwise angle between the initial arm and the terminal arm of an angle in standard position. Sn. of the first n terms of a sequence peak: The maximum point on a graph y peak trough principal angle initial arm quadrant 4 x x period: The change in the independent variable (typically x) corresponding to one cycle. cube. the y-values in the table of values show a repetitive pattern when the x-values change by the same increment phase shift: The horizontal translation of a sinusoidal function is also called a phase shift positive correlation: This indicates that both variables in a linear relationship increase or decrease together present value: The principal that would have to be invested now to get a specific future value in a certain amount of time. or higher root.x20 3x 614 Glossary NEL . 1 and itself (e. The formula is phrased in terms of the coefficients of the quadratic equation: x5 2b 6 "b2 2 4ac 2a periodic function: A function whose graph repeats at regular intervals. for example..parent function: The simplest. such as 23 or 2 3 rational expression: A quotient of polynomials.g. a cycle of a periodic function is a portion of the graph that repeats y 1 cycle x 0 period Pythagorean theorem: The conclusion that. or base. y 5 x 2 1 7x 1 10 or " 27 5 3. function in a family y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x prime number: A number with only two factors. the square of the length of the longest side is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides Q quadratic formula: A formula for determining the roots of a quadratic equation of the form ax 2 1 bx 1 c 5 0. PV is used for present value instead of P. for 2x 2 1 example. " is called the radical symbol R 3 range: The set of all values of the dependent variable of a relation rational form: A number written as an integer or a 2 fraction. 17 is a prime number since its only factors are 1 and 17. Its value is between 0° and 360° quadrant 2 terminal arm related acute angle vertex 0 quadrant 3 y quadrant 1 partial sum: The sum. in a right triangle. such as "4 5 2 quadratic relation: A relation whose equation is in quadratic form. since P is used for principal radical: A square.

b. B. used to determine unknown sides and angles in triangles.rational function: Any function whose output can be given by an expression that is the ratio of two polynomials. equivalently. for any triangle. where R and S are polynomials and S 2 0—for example. 3. fractions. x 2 2 2x 1 3 1 f (x) 5 . respectively. values of the independent variable are paired with values of the dependent variable restrictions: The values of the variable(s) in a rational function or rational expression that cause the function to be undefined. graphs of sinusoidal functions can be created by transforming the graph of the function y 5 sin x or y 5 cos x 4 2 0 y x 2 4 6 8 10 1 adjacent cot u 5 5 tan u opposite cot u is the short form for the cotangent of angle u. and C. and c. then a b c 5 5 sin A sin B sin C sinusoidal function: A periodic function whose graph looks like smooth symmetrical waves. where any portion of the wave can be horizontally translated onto another portion of the curve. sec u is the short form for the secant of angle u.x2 4x 2 1 4 real numbers: Numbers that are either rational or irrational. and irrational numbers such as "2 and p reciprocal trigonometric ratios: The reciprocal ratios are defined by dividing 1 by each of the primary trigonometric ratios csc u 5 sec u 5 1 hypotenuse 5 sin u opposite hypotenuse 1 5 cos u adjacent R(x) relation: A set of ordered pairs. these include positive and negative integers. zero. and csc u is the short form for the cosecant of angle u recursive formula: A formula relating the general term of a sequence to the previous term or terms recursive sequence: A sequence for which one term (or more) is given and each successive term is determined from the previous term(s) related acute angle: The acute angle between the terminal arm of an angle in standard position and the x-axis when the terminal arm lies in quadrants 2. or 4 quadrant 2 terminal arm related acute angle vertex 0 quadrant 3 y quadrant 1 Glossary principal angle initial arm quadrant 4 2 x standard form: A quadratic relation in the form f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c NEL Glossary 615 . and if the angles opposite each side are A. If a triangle has sides a. A rational function can be expressed as f (x) 5 S(x) . These are the zeros of the denominator or. the numbers that are not in the domain of the function S scatter plot: A graph that attempts to show a relationship between two variables by means of points plotted on a coordinate grid sequence: An ordered list of numbers series: The sum of the terms of a sequence simple interest: Interest earned or paid only on the original sum of money that was invested or borrowed sine law: The relationships. involving the sines of two of the angles and the lengths of the opposite sides.

g. then the relation is not a function T term: A number in a sequence. A cube has eight vertices.) vertex form: A quadratic function written in the form f (x) 5 a(x 2 h) 2 1 k is in vertex form. Angle u is measured from initial arm to terminal arm (the arm that rotates) y m l ar ina m ter trough: The minimum point on a graph y peak trough x 0 initial arm x vertex V vertex (plural vertices): The point at the corner of an angle or shape (e. k) vertical line test: If any vertical line intersects the graph of a relation more than once.standard position: An angle in the Cartesian plane whose vertex lies at the origin and whose initial arm (the arm that is fixed) lies on the positive x-axis. An angle has one vertex. Subscripts are usually used to identify the position of the terms transformation: A geometric operation such as a translation. rotation. or reflection trend: A relationship between two variables for which the independent variable is time 616 Glossary NEL .. the vertex is (h. A triangle has three vertices. dilation.

p. Circles Quadratic Relations 2 2 Answers x 2 4 6 8 Property Linear Relations Equation(s) Shape of graph Number of quadrants graph enters Descriptive features of graph Types of problems modelled by the relation NEL y 5 mx 1 c or Ax 1 By 5 C Straight line 2 or 3 Slope is constant. 2 1. motion of a projectile. Similarities: none of the equations for the relations involve powers higher than 2. or 4 Graph has a single lowest or highest point (vertex). area Answers 617 . a) x 5 3 b) x 5 22 4. or 4 Graph has upper and lower parts Constant distance from a point 2 y 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c or y 5 a(x 2 h)2 1 k Parabola 1. a) Translate down 2 units y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 y = x2 2 4 x b) Reflect in x-axis. a) x 5 2 or 3 b) x 5 65 9. Differences: linear and quadratic relations assign one y-value to each x-value. crosses y-axis once. then translate up 3 units y 4 y = 4x2 + 3 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 c) Vertical compression. scale factor 2. 3. or 2 times Some economic functions. 2. 1. 1. 3. or 2 y-values. but circles may assign 0. a) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 6. x-axis 0. the relations have different shapes and model different types of problems. crosses each axis at most once Direct and partial variation (x 2 h) 1 (y 2 k) 5 r Circle 1. then vertical stretch. a) 22x 1 8y b) 16x 22 y 2 2. then vertical stretch. 2. scale factor 4. linear relations may only enter 2 or 3 quadrants. a) 246 b) 119 3.Answers Chapter 1 Getting Started. then translate right 1 unit and down 4 units 1 y = 2 (x 1)2 4 y 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 d) Reflect in x-axis. scale factor. a) y 4 2 2 0 2 4 5. then translate left 3 units and up 5 units y y= 2(x + 3)2 + 5 8 4 x 2 4 x 2 4 x y= 8 3(x + 4)2 + 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 6 4 2 0 4 8 y 12 8 4 0 4 y= x2 + 6x 8. a) 8 4 4 2 0 4 8 b) 6 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 x y = (x 2)2 1 d) y x 2 4 y = x2 6 y c) 2 4 y x2 + y2 = 9 x 4 b) 4 2 2 0 2 4 y 2 x 3x2 + 3y2 = 12 x 2 4 4 2 y = 2x 4 6 3 x c) 2 x 2 1 2 d) 2x 2 1 16x c) 27 d) 66 c) y 5 236 d) x 5 22 b) y 4 2 2 0 2 4 y 3x + 4y = 12 x 2 4 6 7.

function (passes vertical-line test). 15).1. Mandeep. (11. 16. (Mandeep. (Pierre. pp. 5. 15). Elly}. 10)} Barbara Pierre Kateri Mandeep Elly 10 11 12 grades. students. range 5 {8. (Elly. (Elly. Kateri. 8). 12}. 11). a) Not a function c) Function e) Function b) Not a function d) Not a function f ) Not a function 3. For x 5 y2 2 5y. 12). Elly}. each x-value gives a quadratic equation in y. 10). credits: 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 {(10. grades: 12 10 Grades 8 6 4 2 Ba rb ar a Pi er re K M ater an i de ep El ly y b) Quadratic. 12} grades. 18.Lesson 1. each x-value has only one y-value 2. credits: 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 y Credits x 5 Grades y 10 students. Pierre. (Kateri. credits: domain 5 {10. range 5 {10. a) {(Barbara. 16)} Barbara Pierre Kateri Mandeep Elly 8 25 15 18 16 6. 16. (12. 15. (10. 11. y 5 23 and 0 c) Not a Function. Pierre. 18). function y 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 y=5 2x x y= 8 y 3 (x + 3)2 + 1 2 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 d) Circle. which may have two solutions. it has repeated range values for single domain values. Mandeep. 25). 25} students. a) Function. 16)} 10 11 12 8 25 15 18 16 Credits x {(Barbara. grades: domain 5 {Barbara. x 5 3: vertical line. (Kateri. not a function y 4 x 4 2 2 0 2 4 x2 + y2 = 25 2 4 x x b) students. 11. (Pierre. 8). each x-value has only one y-value b) Not a function. credits: domain 5 {Barbara. 11). range 5 {8. not a function (fails vertical-line test) 7. 18. for x 5 0. 25). 25} c) Only grades-credits relation is not a function. (Mandeep. y 5 4 and 1 d) Function. Kateri. 15. For y 5 x2 2 5x. for x 5 1. a) Linear. (11. function c) Quadratic. 4. 18). 10–12 1. y 5 3: horizontal line. each x-value gives a single y-value. function y 4 2 4 x 0 Students 618 Answers Ba rb ar a Pi er re K M ater an i de ep El ly Students 2 0 2 4 2 y = 2x2 3 4 NEL .

15. A vertical line crosses the graph in at most one place x 2 4 6 4 5 b) i) 5 a) s iii) 3 iv) 3 v) 3 vi) 3 Definition: Characteristics: 0 1 2 9 4 1 0 Examples: 3x + y = 2 y= 2x2 + 7 Function x2 + y2 = 16 y=+ x 7 Non-examples: 3 15. a) Answers may vary. 7}. a) domain 5 {22. 22. 0. a) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. (iii) c) Graph relation and apply vertical-line test. 5. For example. 20. it passes the vertical line test. when x 5 6. 21 3 NEL Answers 619 . then across to y-axis c) i) 3 ii) 9 iii) 3x 2 2 4 16. 13.75 b) 25. 25 b) 1. or solve equation for y and check for multiple values 9. 225. 5} b) i) 4 ii) 2 iii) 5 iv) 22 7. Not a function. a) i) 1. a) 1 4 1 b) . graph fails vertical-line test 11. 3. Answers may vary. cost cannot be lower than daily rental charge. a) f (x) 5 1200 2 3x b) 840 mL c) 3:10 pm 4. start from 21 on x-axis. 13. b) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. range 5 {y [ R | y $ 44} b) Distance cannot be negative.75 ii) 62. Functions: (a). (d) 10. 12. 22 iv) 0.15x 1 50 b) $120.2. 0. a) 49 b) The y-coordinate of the point on the graph with x-coordinate 22 c) domain 5 {x [ R}. a) 3.8 d) 25 a) f (x) 5 0. 2. a) 2a 2 5 b) 2b 2 3 c) 6c 2 7 d) 210x 2 1 8.8. 3. 11. 260 c) 48 f (x) 8 0. This would make the prices strictly increasing as the weight of the order increases. Lesson 1.50 per kilogram for orders of 100 kg or more. for example: y y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 14.5 2 1 1 5. 2. for example: A relation with only one y-value for each x-value 2. 0 iii) 2. A better system would be for the company to charge $50 plus $3. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} c) y 1000 Cost ($) 10. 23 c) 21 17. Functions: (a). x 500 b) i) 9 ii) 4 iii) 1 iv) 0 v) 2 vi) 2 c) They are the same. range 5 {y [ R | y $ 21} d) It passes the vertical-line test.4 c) 0.25. a) 2 b) undefined c) d) 2 6 3 3 6. 6"2 b) Functions: (i). 14.0034x(281 2 x) a) f(x) = 3(x 1)2 4 y 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x Answers 0 100 200 Quantity (kg) d) Answers may vary. range 5 {1. a) 2 b) 4 c) 25 d) 23 or 24 3. y 5 2 or 22. a) g(t) t g(t) 0 1 2 3 5 8 11 14 17 20 ii) 14 f(s) 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 t g(t) = 3t + 5 4 x 4 8 2 2 0 2 4 9. 22–24 1. for example. 2195.80 c) 200 km a) f (x) 5 (24 2 3x)x b) 45. (b) 12. c) Yes. the company currently charges more for an order of 100 kg ($350) than for an order of 99 kg ($396). 17 a) 2 b) 0. which are constant for a quadratic function. (b). 2. 4. pp. for example: b) Answers may vary. a) 24 b) 2 c) 14 1 d) 2 e) 2 2 3a f ) 2 2 9b b) The y-coordinate of the point on the graph with x-coordinate 21. a) Each order quantity determines a single cost. move up to curve. they represent the second differences. a) 8.

range 5 { y [ R | y # 25} 620 Answers NEL .3. 0. a) domain 5 {x [ R}. 54. 2000}. range 5 { y [ R} domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 2}. 180 3 3 3 3 20.0} b) domain 5 {25. 27. Vertical asymptote of g (x): x 5 0. p. 1980. 610}. a single price (the lower one) is assigned. range 5 { y [ R | 26 # y # 6} c) No. V(t) 5 t. Both graphs lie in quadrants 1 and 2. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 23} 5. a) b) c) d) 1 2 3 4 5 t 4 8 x2 + y2 = 36 x 3. and does not intersect axes.55} 6. range 5 {h [ R | 0 # h # 45} h 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 25 domain 5 {x [ R}. 5}. f (x)) for which x is in the domain. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 24} domain 5 {x [ R}.7. but graph of g (x) is formed by two straight half-lines. range 5 {28. 1. 8} b) domain 5 {x [ R}. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 25} e) domain 5 {x [ R}. 2. a) y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 b) domain 5 {x [ R | 26 # x # 6}. domain 5 {t [ R | 0 # t # 2500}. v 16 12 8 4 0 t = 15 v 5 10 15 20 t Graph passes vertical line test. 4. (a). It would not make sense to assign two or more prices to the same mass. 153 . 1920. 26. 0} 7. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} d) domain 5 {x [ R}. 3. range 5 {47. Lesson 1. 2.52. 7} 2.4. 3. range 5 { y [ R} b) domain 5 {x [ R}. (c). a) Even at masses when the price changes. 5. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} domain 5 {x [ R}. graph of g (x) is in two curved parts. x # 500}. range 5 {t [ R | t . 25.3. 0. (f) 4. domain 5 {v [ R | v . 1. 64. 35–37 1. (b). 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 2 g(x) = |x| x 4 y f (x) = x2 2 1 g(x) = x f(x) = x x 4 e) domain 5 {x [ R | x # 6}. Student examples will vary. range 5 {21.7. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 28} d) domain 5 {x [ R | 26 # x # 6}. y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Both graphs lie in quadrants 1 and 3. horizontal asymptote of g (x): g (x) 5 0. range 5 {V [ R | 0 # V # 2500} 9.18. 73. graph of f (x) curves. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 10. 216 b) cube of x or x3 Lesson 1. for example: f (x) is defined as equal to an expression involving x. 24. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 22} f ) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 210}. 77. a) domain 5 {0. b) domain 5 {x [ R | 0 . 2. 17. a) 50 h h = 5t 2 + 20t + 25 40 30 20 10 0 b) c) 11. 3}. 28 1. 2. 68.93. domain 5 {x [ R}. fails vertical line test 8. 64. 2 1 1 2 19. 15. 62. 125.1. a) f (x) 5 x 1 10 b) 73 . (b). 21.9. 22. 69. 27. range 5 {9. range 5 { y [ R} c) domain 5 {x [ R}. 0. range 5 {0.20. a) 8.86. a) domain 5 {1900. the graph of f (x) is the set of all points (x. 1. 66. 22 # y . y . 1960. range 5 { y [ R | y 5 26. 126 . y f (x) = x2 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 g(x) = x 2 4 x h(x) = x Graph of g (x) is reflection of graph of f (x) in graph of h(x). 0. for each x-value in the functions domain. 62. pp. 0}. range 5 { y [ R | 26 # y # 6} domain 5 {t [ R | 0 # t # 5}. Answers may vary. range 5 { y [ R | y # 4} c) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 1}. 0. 1940. (e). range 5 { y [ R} f ) domain 5 {x [ R | x # 5}. 23} c) domain 5 {24. 4} 3.

16. 55} 15. 40 1. 150}. a) A 5 a 4 2 2 1 0 2 4 6 y y= 1 x2 +2 x 2 4 2 1 2 0 1 2 2 4 y y=+ x+4 x domain 5 { x [ R | x # 2!5. each x-value determines a single y-value f ) Function. a) 4 10 2 0 10 20 30 f (x) = y x 2 4 2(x + 1)2 + 3 b) c) d) 4. each x-value goes to a single y-value c) Function. range 5 {A [ R | 0 .12. w 5 75 m 14. A # 8437.5 m. 4. passes vertical line test d) Not a function e) Function. each x-value determines a single y-value 2. 7. a) 25 y-coordinate of the point on the graph with x-coordinate 2 3 i) 2 6 ii) 250 iii) 2 2(3 2 x)2 1 3 f (x) 5 (20 2 5x)x b) 15. 28. for example: b) Answers may vary. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 2} Mid-Chapter Review. the range is the set of y-values corresponding to these x-values. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} x 2 1 y 2 5 4: x y y 2 1 2 1 0 1 2 22 0 2 0 62 0 x2 + y2 = 4 x 1 2 Answers 3. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 22. x-values for which relation or function is defined.5. 0} 25 0 3 4 3 0 25 1 0 1 2 3 2 x2 + y = 4 4 6 d) 2 3 450 2 3w bw 2 b) domain 5 {w [ R | 0 . a) 17. The domain is the set of x-values for a relation or function. range 5 {A [ R | 50 # A # 100} c) P 5 4!x 2 1 (10 2 x) 2 or !2x 2 2 20x 1 100 d) domain 5 {x [ R | 0 # x # 10}. x-coordinates and y-coordinates of graph. 6. range 5 { y [ R | y .25} c) x y 4 2 3 2 y x 23 22 21 0 1 domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 0}. 23. Students’ examples will vary. w . x 2 1 y 5 4: b) domain 5 {x [ R}. 13} b) {1. range 5 {P [ R | 50"2 # P # 400} domain 5 {x [ R | x # 3}. a) {214. p.5} c) l 5 112. x $ !5 }. a) Not a function b) Function. 2105 c) 20 NEL Answers 621 . for example: 13. 225. a) Answers may vary. and all possible corresponding y-values. a) A 5 x 2 1 (10 2 x) 2 or 2x 2 2 20x 1 100 b) domain 5 {x [ R | 0 # x # 10}. Domain and range are determined by values in x-column and y-column.

5} b) domain 5 {2 2. 0. range 5 { y [ R} e) domain 5 {x [ R}. a) domain 5 {1. point (22. 2 3. 5}. 4. 3. d) y y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 4 4 2 2 0 2 4 y= x+5 5 x 2 4 5 y = 5x x 1 2 b) Function. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 4} c) domain 5 {x [ R | 2 7 # x # 7}. 2. range 5 {y [ R | y $ 0} 2. 0. 0. 150}. range 5 { y [ R | 2 7 # y # 7} d) domain 5 {x [ R | 2 2 # x # 6}. The function and its inverse are the same graph. point (1. 3). 22) is common c) y=1 3x 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 y f) 2 4 x e) Function. 2). 4} c) domain 5 {2 4. point (1. range 5 { y [ R | y # 5} b) domain 5 {x [ R}.5. 3. b) {(5. (6. 2 3. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 0} 1 f(x) = x 2 4 x 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 x b) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 c) 4 3 2 1 0 d) 1 4 3 2 1 2 1 0 1 2 y Both relation and inverse relation are functions. (4. NEL 6. 2). 2 2. 4. 4)} 6 4 y x 2 y 4 4 domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 0}. 2 2. point (0.25) is common y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 y = 0. 4}. w . 3. range 5 {A [ R | 0 . 3. 4. 2 1. 2. all points are common. pp. 0. (5. 22) is common y 4 x 2 4 2 0 2 4 Function. range 5 {2 4. 2 2). 5} d) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 2 3}. point (22. 1. 1. range 5 { y [ R | y # 5} f ) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 4}. range 5 { y [ R | 1 # y # 9} y = 2x + 2 x 1 y=2 2 4 x x 4 y= 1 3 x Function. (2 1. 0). range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 600 2 4w 7. range 5 {2. 1. 1.25. range 5 {2 1. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} Lesson 1. a) domain 5 {x [ R}. 2 1. a) {(3. 3. 2). A # 11 250} c) l 5 150 m. (1. 1) is common y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Not a function. 5)} 6 4 2 domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. 46–49 1.5x 4 Function. a) A 5 a bw 2 b) domain 5 {w [ R | 0 . 7}.5.25. 2.25) is common 622 Answers . (1. a) Both relation and inverse relation are not functions. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 x y f(x) = x x 3 y f(x) = |x| 4 domain 5 {x [ R}. a) 4 3 2 1 4 2 0 1 y f (x) = x2 domain 5 {x [ R}. w 5 75 m 8.

linear c) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Function. 6. (8. 5}. linear f) y = 5x x y= 5 2 4 x 4 y = 3x + 2 2 4 4 2 0 2 4 x 2 4 4(x 2) y= 3 y y y=6 2 4 5x x y y e) x=5 x 4 8 8 8 4 4 0 4 8 y y=x x 4 8 Not a function. linear 8. range 5 {24. 1. linear b) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Function. 22. 1. 6. y=2 4 x x 8 Function: domain 5 {24. (6. 1). linear Question 6. linear Function. a) b) c) b) Yes c) y=5 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 6 2 4x c) y 5 3 2x 2 10 y 5 2(2 2 x) d) y 5 5 f 21 (x) 5 x 1 4 d) f 21 (x) 5 2(x 1 1) x21 62x f 21 (x) 5 e) f 21 (x) 5 3 5 1 4 21 21 f (x) 5 x f ) f (x) 5 (x 2 2) 5 3 1 f (x) 5 x 2 7 d) f 1 (x) 5 25(x 1 2) f 1 (x) 5 2 2 x e) f 1 (x) 5 x x55 f ) f 21 (x) 5 4x 1 3 y 4 y=x+4 4 2 2 4 y=x x 4 4 d) 4 2 2 0 2 4 Function. range are interchanged b) {(6. linear The function and its inverse are the same graph. domain. 3)} 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 x y Function. 24). 22. (4. range 5 {21. 21). 2). 4. range are interchanged NEL Answers 623 . 8}. inverse: domain 5 {3. 3}. 3}. a) y 8 y= 4 8 4 0 4 8 4 y= 5x + 10 x 8 x 5 2 y = 2x + 2 1 x 4 x y=2 2 2 0 2 4 Function. linear 4 8 y = 4x + 3 x d) 7. a) 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 Function. a) b) c) 6. a) {(2. linear e) y = 3x + 1 y=x 3 1 x 2 4 4 y= 6 5 x 2 4 2 0 2 4 Function. inverse: domain 5 {2. 8}. (8. domain. a) y 5 4 b) 5. (3. 5)} 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 8 x y Answers Function. range 5 {3.3. 5}. 4. 1. a) No x13 4. Question 5. 22). 8}. linear y b) y=x+7 x 4 8 y=x 7 y y Function: domain 5 {21. 1. 8}. linear y 8 4 8 4 0 4 8 Function. 1). linear The function and its inverse are the same graph. 6. (8. range 5 {2. f) y 8 4 4 0 4 x 3 y= 4 8 8 Function. 2. 2. 6.

4x 10x c) g(x) 5 . 63.c) f 21 (x) 5 f(x) = 1 12x 3 3x 4 y y 8 6 4 2 0 2 + h 1(x) = x 2 1 x 4 6 8 h(x) = 2x 1 4 2 f 1(x) = 1 3 x x 0 2 2 4 2 4 Function equation is linear in x. f ) is slope of g (t) a) f (x) 5 2x 1 30 b) Subtract 30. 22). 10 10(70) 21 e) g (70) 5 5 175 cm 4 y 5 0. domain. (22. 62. slopes are 0 and undefined. (1. 21). 2). 61. graph is a straight line. 1 a) 37 b) 19 c) 3 d) 5 e) 3 f) 3 21 c) is slope of g(t). or. or. 2). 64. (1. 1). x 14. q21 is not a function. 23}. then halve. 3). 1). 23). 0). (0. graph is a straight line. range 5 {0.38x 1 0. inverse: domain 5 {x [ R}. graph is a straight line. (22. (2. p21 (x) 5 6 2 x y 8 6 4 2 0 x 2 4 2 4 6 8 p(x) = 6 x p 1(x) = 6 x x Function: domain 5 {x [ R}. (1. a) f 21 (x) 5 5 b) y f(x) = 5x 2 4 + f 1(x) = x 5 2 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x 10. slopes are reciprocals of each other. range 5 { y [ R}. graph is a straight line. 5}. 23}. or. 4). range are identical for both d) {(23. inverse: domain 5 {0. 62. domain. 61. x11 (2. 63. (21. In this case. (21. range 5 {0. 1 1 d) a .50 Function equation is linear in x. 5)} 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 Function: domain 5 {0. or. then divide by 4 b) A Canadian visiting the U. but its graph is a straight line.S. f ) g21 (x) 5 2(3 2 x) y 8 6 4 2 0 2 g(x) = 4 6 g 1(x) = 2(3 x) 1 2x + 3 8 13. range 5 { y [ R}. slopes are equal. a Canadian visiting the United States 1 c) f 1 (x) 5 (x 2 30) 2 d) f (14) 5 2(14) 1 30 5 58 °F 1 e) f 1 (70) 5 (70 2 30) 5 20 °C 2 a) Multiply by 10. 2). (2. b 2 2 e) Slopes are reciprocals of each other. slopes are reciprocals of each other. 61. 5}. g21 (x) 5 10 4 4(15) d) g(15) 5 5 6 in. 62. 64. q21 is the relation x 5 2 y 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 q(x) = 2 x 6 8 q 1: x = 2 c) Function equation is linear in x. 24). range are interchanged x12 9. h21 (x) 5 2 624 Answers NEL . all points on graphs. (22. 12. 11. 62. 61. y Function equation is linear in x.

a) y 5 (3x)2 b) f (x) 5 32.6. 2 1 c) Graph of y 5 is narrower (steeper) than graph of y 5 . vertex at (1. pp. 2) c) Hyperbola. 0). vertex at (1.2 + 0. k 5 2 18. 4) y 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 Lesson 1. graph lying to upper right and lower left of asymptotes 2. graph of y 5 2 |x| opens down.5. x 1000 2000 Sales ($) 3000 Lesson 1. x c) (9.05(x 1000) 4. b) Graph of y 5 2|x| is narrower (steeper) than graph of y 5 |x|. p. 0) 4 3. horizontal stretch factor 2 b) y 5 y 8 6 4 y = |0.and y-intercepts Inverse of a Linear Function 1(x) = b) y 5 x 2. switch x. c) Graph of y 5 a) Graph of y 5 2 "x is narrower (steeper) than graph of y 5 "x. horizontal x 1 compression factor 5 y 4 1 2 y = 5x 4 1 y=x 2 4 x Examples: f(x) = 3x + 2. For example. 17. ( f 21 ) 21 (x) 5 3x 1 4 Answers 3. 51 1.7. a) 120 100 Pay ($) 80 60 40 20 0 y y = 32. graph of y 5 2"x lower half of parabola opening right. a) b) (6.2) e) f 21 (420) 5 1000 1 20(420 2 32. a) Graph of y 5 "x is upper half.75. as well as (1. f g(x) = 5 (2 7 3 5x).2) 5 $8756 16. opening up. g 1(x) = 2 5 x 2 Properties: 1(x) = mx + c or x = c 7x 25 Has form f Graph is straight line 2 0 2 4 19. 0). horizontal 1 compression factor 2 and reflection in y-axis y 8 6 y= 2x 4 2 4 2 0 y= x x 2 4 d) f 1 (x) 5 1000 1 20(x 2 32. x x 1 lies to upper right and lower left of asymptotes. (0. horizontal 3 1 compression factor . horizontal stretch factor 4 y 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 y = ( 1 x) 2 4 x 2 4 y = x2 1 d) y 5 . NEL Answers 625 .15. (0. y 5 1 2 x 20. a) Upper half-parabola. Definition: Methods: Inverse of a function of form f(x) = mx + c Switch x and y and solve for y Take reciprocal of slope. opening right. 4) 4. (0. 4) b) y = x2 d) (20. 58–60 1. x 1 graph of y 5 2 lies to lower right and upper left. y 5 2 x. a) (1. asymptotes x 5 1 and y 5 2. 0) 5 Horizontal compression 1 factor . b) Graph of y 5 |x| opens up. horizontal 2 1 compression factor . (0. a) y 5 |x|. 2) cannot belong to f.05(x 21000) c) y 3000 y = 20(x 32. 2) b) V-shape.5x| 4 2 0 2 x 2 4 y = |x| 1 2 x 2 c) y 5 "x.2) + 1000 2500 Sales ($) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 50 Pay ($) 100 x Å 2. Because (1. Answers will vary. 4) y 8 6 y = 4x y = 3x y= x 2 4 6 8 x 10 4 2 0 y = (5x)2 4 y = (2x)2 x 4 Horizontal compression 1 factor . for example: y 5 x. Answers may vary.2 1 0. 5).

horizontal 1 compression factor and 5 (optional) reflection in y-axis. 0). 0). horizontal stretch factor 3. (0. 0) b) 8 y= 4x 6 4 y= 4 3x 2 2 0 2 y= x x 4 y d) Horizontal compression factor 1 and reflection in y-axis. 0) b) y= 6 1 4 3x 2 8 y= 4 0 y y= x x 4 8 d) Horizontal stretch factor 2 and reflection in y-axis. (0. (0. 0) Horizontal compression factor 1 and (optional) reflection in 3 y-axis. 0) 6 4 2 0 2 y d) 1 y = 3x y= x x 4 6 8 10 1 y = 4x Horizontal stretch factor 2. 0). 0). no invariant points. (0. horizontal stretch factor 4 and reflection in y-axis. 0) 626 Answers NEL . horizontal stretch factor 3. (0. 0) 1 4x x Horizontal stretch factor 2 and reflection in y-axis. (0. (0. no invariant points. no invariant points y y = | 1 x| 8 5 6 y = |x| 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 y = | 1 x| 3 Horizontal compression factor 1 and reflection in y-axis. horizontal 3 1 compression factor . 0) 5 b) y 4 y= 1 2 2x 4 2 0 2 4 1 y=x 4 1 y = 3x 2 x 2 0 Horizontal stretch factor 2. 0). 0). no invariant points. (0. (0. (0. a) y = ( 1 x) 2 2 y 2 8 y=x 6 4 2 y = ( 1 x) 2 4 x 4 x 2 4 y= 1 1 4 2 0 Horizontal stretch factor 2 and (optional) reflection in y-axis. 2 no invariant points. 0) Horizontal compression factor 1 and (optional) reflection 2 in y-axis. a) y = ( 5x)2 y 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 x y= x2 y = ( 2x)2 c) Horizontal compression 1 factor . no invariant points y = | 5x| y 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 y = |x| x 4 y = | 3x| Horizontal stretch factor 3. 0) c) y= 1 1 y 4 2 2 0 2 4 y=1 x 2 4 4x 2x 7. (0. (0. horizontal 1 compression factor and 3 reflection in y-axis. horizontal stretch factor 4. (0. (0. a) y = ( 1 x) 2 3 y 2 8 y=x 6 4 2 y = ( 1 x) 2 2 c) y=1 x 4 2 y 1 y=1 4x x 2 4 y = |x| x 2 4 4 x 2 4 4 2 0 2 1 y=1 4 2x 1 horizontal compression factor . (0. (0. 3 no invariant points 5. 0). no invariant points y y = | 1 x| 5 y = |x| 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 x y = | 1 x| 3 Horizontal stretch factor 2. horizontal 1 compression factor and 5 (optional) reflection in y-axis. 2 Horizontal compression 1 factor . horizontal stretch factor 5 and (optional) reflection in y-axis.c) 4 1 y = 2x 2 4 2 0 2 4 y 1 y=x 2 4 1 y = 3x d) y = |5x| x 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 y y = |3x| 6. horizontal stretch factor 3 and reflection in y-axis. 0). (0. (0. horizontal stretch factor 3 and (optional) reflection in y-axis. 3 (0. 0) Horizontal stretch factor 3 and (optional) reflection in y-axis. (0. horizontal 1 compression factor and 4 reflection in y-axis. 0). 0). horizontal stretch factor 5.

for example: A horizontal compression or stretch is equivalent to a vertical stretch or compression. h(x): domain 5 {x [ R | x # 0}. yes. for k . then horizontal compression factor . range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 1 11. h(x): domain 5 {x [ R}. d) y 5 1 . h(x): domain 5 {x [ R}. 0. a) For k . 2x 1 h(x) = 1 1 g (x): domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 0}. a horizontal stretch with scale factor . 26 c) 21. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. a) domain: {h [ R | h $ 0}. E: translation 4 units up 2. a) 20 40 h d) g (x) 5 "23x b) g (x) 5 1 22x 1 2 c) g (x) 5 a xb 4 d) g(x) = | 2x| 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 f(x) = |x| y x 2 4 1 h(x) = | 2 x| g (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. a) g (x) 5 |2x| 9. such as a f (x) 5 ax. a) b) 2 c) 21 d) 25 4 2 12. k 1 for 0 . range: {t [ R | t $ 0} b) t 8 t(h) = h 6 h t(h) = 4. Translation 4 units left. f (x) 5 a|x|. scale factors are reciprocals of each other for some functions. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. range 5 { y [ R | y # 0} b) 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 x y 1 13. Add 4 to the y-coordinate: E. Add 2 to the x-coordinate: D NEL Answers 627 . pp. Apply these transformations to the graph of |k| y 5 f (x) to sketch the graph of y 5 f (kx). but not for others. Divide the x-coordinates by 3: C. respectively.5.8. 3 1 2 g(x) = ( 4 x) 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 y f(x) = x2 x 2 4 h(x) = ( 4x2) g (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. then a horizontal compression or stretch 1 with scale factor . 14. 2 check students’ parent function investigations 2 1 y 5 2a b . a)–c) y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 a 2 4 b. Multiply the y-coordinates by 5: A. k .8. 1. Multiply the x-coordinates by 21: B. C: horizontal compression. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 0}. factor 5. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} c) g(x) = 1 4 4x 2 4 2 0 2 4 y f(x) = 1 x 2 4 3x x c) The horizontal and vertical stretches give the same graph. effect is a horizontal compression with scale factor . D: translation 2 units right. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. such as f (x) 5 ax 2 1 bx 1 c and f (x) 5 a"x 2 d 1 c. k reflection in the y-axis. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 0} 1 15. c x g (x): domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. a) 1. b) Answers may vary.9 4 2 0 10. 70–73 1. B: reflection in y-axis. 21 b) 9. factor 5. both equations simplify to y 5 x x Answers Lesson 1. and f (x) 5 x . A: vertical stretch. h(x): domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 0}. 1.

range 5 { y [ R | y $ 2} c) 8 6 4 2 0 2 2 4 6 4)] 8 1 x y y = 0. then translation 3 units left and 3 1 unit up f ) Vertical stretch with factor 4. 9b 3 b) y= 1 f – (x + 1) + 2 4 y 8 6 4 2 x 4 8 4. a) y 8 6 4 2 0 y = f(x 1 2 2) + 3 x 3 4 domain 5 {x [ R | x # 24}. then translation 1 unit right and 2 3 units down 7. then translation 1 unit down b) Translation 2 units right and 3 units up 1 c) Horizontal compression. factor 3. f(x) (1. vertical stretch with factor 3. a) 2 +3 y = 3(x 2)2 + 1 c) y= x 1 y y 8 y= 1 x 4 y= 2 x 6 y = 3x2 y= 2 2 4 x x y = x2 2 4 2 0 2 4 x 2 2 0 2 4 6 2 b) y y= 3x 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 3(x + 1) 2 y = 3x y= xx 4 1 y = | 2 x| y= 1 | 2 x| 6 4 12 8 4 0 domain 5 {x [ R}. factor 3. and then translation 3 units right and 1 unit up c) Reflection in x-axis. reflection in y-axis. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 4} b) 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 y=f 1 2 (x + 4) 3 3 4 y x y= 4 6. 1b 3 f(23x) 1 a2 . reflection in y-axis. factor . horizontal 1 compression with factor . range 5 { y [ R | y # 23} 8. 1b 3 5f(23x) 1 a2 . range 5 { y [ R | y $ 3} domain 5 {x [ R | x # 2}. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 23} c) y = 2f [ (x 2)] + 1 y 8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2 0 2 x domain 5 {x [ R}. a) Horizontal stretch. 5b 3 5f[23(x 2 2)] 1 4 2 a1 . and then translation 2 units down 2 e) Vertical compression. and then translation 4 units down 5. then translation 5 units down 2 d) Reflection in x-axis. 1) f(3x) 1 a . a) Vertical stretch. horizontal stretch with factor 2. factor . a) 8 6 4 2 x 2 4 6 8 y y = f(x 1) + 4 d) y = |x| 4 2 2 0 2 4 y= 1 | 2 (x + 3)| 2 2 x y 0 domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 1}. then translation 4 units left b) Vertical stretch with factor 2.3. range 5 { y [ R | y # 1} 628 Answers NEL .5f [3(x domain 5 {x [ R}.

g (x) 5 3f [2 (x 1 1)] 1 2 1 18. graph has been reflected in x. and graph has been reflected in one of the axes f ) D. and vertex is translated 1 unit right and 1 unit up h) B: parent graph is y 5 x 2. parent graph is y 5 |x|. and vertex is translated 4 units left and 1 unit up NEL Answers 629 . y 10 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 p(x) = f(4x + 8) x 2 4 6 8 14. Pd 40 30 x 2 4 20 10 0 y 15. graph has been reflected in y-axis. and graph has been reflected in one of the axes b) E. f(x) = |x| x 4 120| domain 5 {x [ R}. parent graph is y 5 x .5 Vertical stretch. 4 8 s T(s) = s 15 3 5)] 2 y = 3g[ (x y 6 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 10. a) C.5 Reflection in x-axis y= y 2 x 1 4 T(s) = s 8 4 0 4 T(s) = 20 8 s 16. asymptotes are translated 2 units right and 1 unit up. and vertex is translated 4 units left and 2 units up g) H: parent graph is y 5 "x. parent graph is y 5 |x|. graph has been reflected in y-axis. factor 2 Horizontal compression. parent graph is y 5 x .and y-axes. and vertex is translated 3 units left and 2 units down d) G: parent graph is y 5 x 2. graph has been reflected in y-axis. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} b) y = 4f [2(x 6 4 2 2 0 2 y 1)] 2 Pd = |P P 40 80 120 160 T 8 domain 5 {x [ R}. and vertex is translated 3 units right and 2 units down c) A: parent graph is y 5 "x. asymptotes are translated 3 units down. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 4} Translation right 2 Translation up 2 Vertical compression. g(x) = x x 6 g(x) = f(2x + 6) 6 4 2 4 2 0 12) y f(x) = x x 4 8 f(x) = x2 x 2 4 Answers 12. factor 0. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 22} c) 6 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 1 2 f [3(x + 2)] + 4 domain 5 {x [ R}.9. a) 8 6 4 2 0 y y = 2f(x 3) 13. and vertex is translated 2 units right and 3 units down 1 e) F. h(x) = f( 3x 6 4 2 8 4 0 y 5 3"2 (x 2 5) 2 2 17. factor 0. a) b) c) d) e) f) 11.

function. B. Transformations in steps B and C can be done in any order. c 5 26. a) domain 5 {23. but open in different directions. 5. d 5 1 3 y 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 y = 3| 1 (x 1)| 6 3 domain 5 {x [ R}. not a function. because each x except 64 has two y-values assigned 2. because two y-values are assigned to x 5 0 b) domain 5 {x [ R}. 1 . k 5 1. 0. 25 b) 2. because each x . k 5 21. d 5 24 2 1 y= 1 ( 2 ( (x + 3)) ) 4 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 23}. 1 22. 21. range 5 { y [ R | y # 0} 1 b) a 5 . |k| Translate c units right (or 2 c units left if c . 20. a) 2. c 5 0. and graph of g(x) is only an upper half-parabola. 1. 0) and d units up (or 2 d units down if d . for example: y 4 y = 3x2 + 3 2 x 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 6 8 4. 0). 0 and in y-axis if k . d) 24. D. 6}. a) Reflection in x-axis. 25 2 y = |x| x 4 y= 1 x 2 4 x Function 3. Sketch parent function. range 5 { y [ R}. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 24} 1 c) a 5 3. d 5 4 4 2 0 2 4 6 2 4 6 8 y y= x x Chapter Review. a) 27 b) 25 c) 22 d) 4b2 1 6b 2 5 e) 28a 2 1 f ) 1 or 22 630 Answers NEL . Reflect right half of graph of f (x) in the line y 5 x. range 5 { y [ R | 24 # y # 4}. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 26} 2 2 c) 2 . and then translation 3 units left and 1 unit up 2 1 1 b) y 5 2 (x 1 3) 2 1 2 c or y 5 2 c (x 1 3) d 1 2 d 4 2 23. and stretch or compression with factor . pp. Graphs are both based on a parabola. range 5 {0. 24 has two y-values assigned d) domain 5 {x [ R | 24 # x # 4}.19. not a function. because each x-value has only one y-value assigned c) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 24}. range 5 { y [ R}. Answers may vary. not a function. 3 3 3 21. 0. A. vertical compression factor [or horizontal 4 stretch factor 2]. c 5 23. Vertical-line test a) d) y y x2 + y2 = 1 2 1 1 2 1 0 1 2 Not a function b) 4 3 2 1 1 0 Function c) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 y = (x 2)2 + 4 x y f) 1 y=4 2 3x 3 4 Function 6 4 2 0 Function 2 4 6 8 y y= x x x 2 y e) 2 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 2 x 1 0 1 Not a function y 1 y=x x 2 1 x y= 2 x 4 domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 4}. 4}. a) a 5 22. but must precede translation in step D. Apply reflections in x-axis if a . k 5 . 76–77 1. apply vertical stretch or compression with 1 factor |a|.

Therefore. a) y 5 2"2(x 2 3) 2 2 4 2 0 2 4 6 y= 2(x 3) 2 y y= x x 2 4 6 8 domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 3}. g (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. c) i) 2 ii) 21 iii) 22(2 x 2 2)2 1 4 6. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 540 2 3w a) A(w) 5 a bw 2 b) domain 5 {w [ R | 0 . vertical stretch factor 2. range 5 {h [ R | 0 # h # 80} c) h 5 25t 2 1 20t 1 60 a) domain 5 {x [ R}. then solve for y: x13 y5 7 y13 x5 7 7x 5 y 1 3 7x 2 3 5 y f 21 (x) 5 7x 2 3 c) Reverse operations: for f. range 5 { y [ R | y # 4} b) f (1) represents the y-coordinate corresponding to x 5 1. a) Yes. Use graph to determine the slope-intercept form of inverse. range 5 {y [ R | y $ 3} b) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 22}. so for f 21. slope is 0. h(x): domain 5 {x [ R}. range 5 {y [ R | y # 22} NEL Answers 631 . w 5 90 m a) Graph y 5 2x 2 5. a) Reflection in x-axis.5 and y-intercept is 2. a) f(x) = x2 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 1 g(x) = ( 2 x)2 x x 2 4 h(x) = (2x)2 f (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. horizontal stretch factor 3. translation 4 units down. b) Yes: vertical stretch with factor 2. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. 180}.5x 1 2. b) domain 5 {t [ R | 0 # t # 6}. a) f (x) 5 30x 1 15 000 b) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. b) Switch x and y. subtract from 4 (operation is self-inverse) and multiply by 2. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. g (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. 5. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} 14.5. and translation 3 units right 15. translations must be done last. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. w . divide by 2 and subtract from 4. a). range 5 { y [ R | y # 0} b) 8 6 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 x g(x) = | 4x| y f(x) = |x| 8.5. and reflect it in the line y 5 x to get graph of inverse. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 15 000} 30 a) y 5 "4x b) y 5 1 1 2 x 5 h(x) = | 1 x| 4 f (x): domain 5 {x [ R}. a) h h = 5t2 + 20t + 60 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 t 1 2 3 4 f(x) = 2(x 3)2 + 4 13. h(x): domain 5 {x [ R}. 11. f 21 (x) 5 2(4 2 x). 21 7. 10. A # 12 150} c) l 5 270 m. 12. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 15 000}. range 5 {A [ R | 0 . then translation left 4 and down 1 b) y 6 f(x) = x2 4 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 y= 2f[ 1 x + 4)] 3 1 2 Answers x 17. and income cannot be less than corporate sponsorship x 2 15 000 c) f 21 (x) 5 . 9. 10) 16. b) y 4 2 0 2 4 a) domain 5 {x [ R}. (25. so f 21 (x) 5 0. number of people cannot be negative.5.

a) {(3. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 23} f(x) = 1 x 2 4 Function: domain 5 {22. a) domain 5 {25. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 3. g (x) 5 0. (5. range 5 { y [ R} 632 Answers NEL . or if the original function is f (x) 5 c constant. 23 domain 5 domain 5 domain 5 domain 5 x 0 10. 4}. 2 {x [ R | x .04(x 2 2500) 1 1500 for x $ 2500 c) f 1(x) = 25(x 1500) + 2500 y 3000 2000 1000 Chapter Self-Test. a) b) c) d) {x [ R | x 2 24}. range 5 {y [ R | y # 3} 4. 22} {x [ R | x .65. 22). range 5 { y [ R}.000 30.004x 1 0. c 5 23. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0. 21}.000 20. 4)} 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 2 4 6 8 x y 0 1000 2000 x 3000 d) f 21 (x) 5 25(x 2 1500) 1 2500 for x $ 1500 e) f 21 (1740) 5 25(1740 2 1500) 1 2500 5 $51 000 1 7.72 more than fluorescent. (8. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0}. function. 3. 78 1. a) domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 2}. 1} {x [ R | x . range 5 { y [ R | y 2 1} b) 4. 4} 32x b) f 21 (x) 5 4 8 6 4 2 2 0 2 f 1(x) = 3 2 4 6 4 x 8 x y f(x) = 3 4x x Function: domain 5 {x [ R}. 21} {x [ R | x . a) b) 23 5 1 8. range 5 { y [ R | y 2 0} b) domain 5 {x [ R | x # 3}. (6. 2. 0). because each x-value has only one y-value assigned b) domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 22}. range 5 { y [ R | y . range 5 {22. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 24} c) domain 5 {x [ R}. k 5 21. same reason as part (a) 2. 2. a) f (x) 5 0. 24}. 5. a) 19. 6. 7}. p. 3}. a) f(x) = 0.001x 1 3. 2). d 5 22 y = 4f(x + 2) 3 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 domain 5 {x [ R | x 2 22}. a) a 5 . 8}. 4}. 8}.b) y 5 23 11 x14 y 4 1 y= x x 2 6. 6. d 5 2 2 1 f[ (x 2)] y= 2 y 4 3 2 1 4 2 0 1 2 4 f(x) = x x domain 5 {x [ R | x # 2}. The inverse of a linear function is either the linear function obtained by reversing the operations of the original function.000 18. 5. 6 d) 25. 1.50 b) f : domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. inverse: domain 5 {3. the relation x 5 c.50} c) 950 h d) Regular bulb costs $3. 0. range 5 { y [ R | y . 0. inverse: domain 5 {x [ R}. 3} b) f (x) 5 0. 5. range 5 {3. c 5 0. range 5 {21. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 0} b) a 5 24. g: domain 5 {x [ R | x $ 0}. 23 c) 28.65}. 25}. k 5 1. function.04(x y 3000 2000 1000 2500) + 1500 y = x +34 + 1 2 6 4 2 0 2 4 domain 5 4. Domain and range are exchanged for the inverse. range 5 { y [ R | y . 0. 22. range 5 { y [ R | y .

Factoring is the opposite of expanding. For example. g(1) 5 220 4. a) 2xy 3(3 2 4x) d) b) (a 2 2)(a 2 5) e) c) (4n 1 5)(3n 2 2) f) 1 11 5. range 5 { y [ R | y # 22} y= Chapter 2 Getting Started. 5xPR6|x 2 06 d) 210 d) 5x 3y2 Answers A polynomial is any algebraic expression that contains one or more terms. 88–90 1. a pair of linear functions intersect at only one point. e. you multiply using the distributive property. a pair of quadratic functions intersect at most in two points. i) (3x 2 2 x) 2 (5x 2 2 x) 5 22x 2 ? 22x 2 2 2x ii) Answers will vary. 5xPR6|x $ 06 (3 2 5x)(3 1 5x) not possible (y 2 9)(y 1 4) 8 c) 15 e) x 5 4. y2 5 5 ∴ y1 ? y2 f ) f (2) 5 6 g (2) 5 14 ∴ f (m) ? g(m) 9. unless they are equivalent. a) P(x) 5 250x 2 1 2350x 2 9500 b) $11 500 13.3 c) a 5 2 . a) x 1 (x 1 7) 1 (x 1 14) 1 (x 1 15) 1 (x 1 16) 5 5(x 1 14) 2 18 b) 26 c) 5x 2 18 16. f (x) 5 7x 2 2 g(x) 5 7x 2 2 3. a) 9a 2 5c 1 5 d) 3x 2 2 9x 2 3 b) 2x 2 1 3x 1 4y 1 z e) 2x 2 2 5xy 1 2y 2 c) 3x 2 3y 1 1 f ) 5x 2 2 y 2 2 1 5. a) 19 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 23 b) n 5 (m 2 2) 1 (m 2 1) 1 m 1 (m 1 1) 1 (m 1 2) c) 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 17. (x 1 2)(3x 2 1) 5 3x 2 1 5x 2 2 → ← factoring expanding 4. they must be equivalent 2 0 2 4 6 3 2 f[4(x 3)] 2 domain 5 {x [ R}. a) 25 2 x 2 y b) 5x 1 y 1 25 c) 95 11. p... a) both functions are linear. a) 11x 2 7y d) 2x 1 xy 2 4y 1 yz 4 3 b) 4x 2 2 16x 2 3 e) x1 y 10 3 1 1 c) 4x 2 f) x 1 y 1 1 12 4 7. f (x) 5 2x and g(x) 5 x 2 10. • usually contains variables • can contain both like and unlike terms • exponents must be whole numbers Characteristics: Examples: 3x2 4x 5x3 3 2xy 1 6y Polynomial 5 x ———— 31x 5x 2 4x 1 3 x Non-examples: NEL Answers 633 .1. For example. a) 5xPR6 d) 8. b) 5xPR6 c) x . you try to determine the polynomials that multiply together to give you the given polynomial. 82 1. a) 9x 2 2 c) 8x 2 2 2x 2 15 2 b) 2x 2 4x 2 9 d) 4x 2 24x 1 1 3. a) b) 2 6 2x 7. a) cannot be determined d) cannot be determined b) cannot be determined e) equivalent c) not equivalent 14. To factor. unless they are equivalent. 5xPR6|x 2 46 c) 8x 3y5 Definition: f ) x . Answers may vary. if x 5 1. 5xPR6|x $ 2106 x 5 0. since the functions are equal at two values. they must be equivalent b) both functions are quadratric. a) 4x 2 2 8x 1 8 b) 2x 2 2 4 c) 2x 2 2 x 2. k 5 4. a) b) 2 12 2 5 15 5x 6. c 5 22. d 5 3 2 y f(x) = |x| 4 2 2 4 x Lesson 2. 210. a) f (x) 5 2x2 1 4x 2 9 and g(x) 5 2x 2 1 4x 2 5∴ f (x) ? g(x) b) s1(1) 5 27 and s1(1) 5 9 ∴ s1(t ) ? s2 (t ) c) e. (3x 2 2 x) 2 (5x 2 2 x) 5 (3 2 1) 2 (5 2 1) 5 22 but 22x 2 2 2x 5 22 2 2 524 8.g. 15. Type Degree a) binomial 1 b) monomial 0 c) binomial 2 d) monomial 2 e) trinomial 2 2. q 5 1. Answers will vary. since the functions are equal at three values.g. pp. a) m 2 4n 1 p 1 7 d) 22m 2 2 5mn 1 15n 2 b) 28m 2 4q 1 1 e) 2x 2 1 4y 2 1 15 c) 2a 3 1 4a 2 2 2a f ) 3x 2 1 50 6. then y1 5 2 and y2 5 0 ∴ y1 ? y2 d) f (n) 5 2n 2 1 2n 2 9 and g(n) 5 2n 2 1 2n 2 9 ∴ f (n) 5 g(n) e) p 5 1. y1 5 9. if x 5 21. For example. f (1) 5 210. 0. To expand a polynomial. 3x 1 3y 1 2 12. a) yes b) Replace variables with numbers and simplify.

3x 2 94 5. f (n) 5 (n2 1 3)(2n 1 1). 4. 115: 112 1 11 5 132 1152 5 13 225 b) (10x 1 5)2 5 100x 2 1 100x 1 25 and (x 2 1 x)100 1 25 are both the same 5.2. the condition is always true. 5. Do complex trinomials for 3 terms with a ? 1 or a prime. no. Do difference of squares for 2 square terms separated by a minus sign. a) b) 4. 15. Because (2n 1 1) is a factor of f (n). a negative number cubed is negative (different). 102–104 1.Lesson 2. (x 2 y) (x2 1 y2) 5 x 3 2 x 2y 1 xy 2 2 y 3 9. a) b) c) 6. a) a2 5 (c 2 b)(c 1 b) 12. 14.. a) 6x 2 2 38x 1 40 b) 27x 3 2 27x 2 1 9x 2 1 c) 22x 4 1 12x 3 2 34x 2 1 48x 2 32 d) 11x 2 2 25x 1 11 e) 230x 1 30 f ) 2x 3 1 3x 2y 2 3xy 2 1 y 3 NEL c) d) d) e) f) d) e) f) d) e) f) d) e) f) (3x 2 7)2 (2x 1 3)(x 2 5) (x 1 1)(7x 2 2 x 1 6) (x 2 4)(3x 2 1) 22t(t 2 13)(t 2 1) (2y 1 7)(y 2 1) (4a 2 7b)(2a 1 3b) 2(2x 1 5)(4x 1 9) (3y 2 8)(3y 1 2) 212(2x 2 3)(x 2 3) 2(pq 1 9)(pq 2 9) (4 2 x)(x 2 2) (a 2 b 1 5)(a 1 b 1 5) 2(m 1 n)(m 2 n 1 5) 634 Answers . (x 7 1 x 6)(x 9 1 x 4 1 1) has 6 terms b) Multiply the number of terms in each polynomial a) i) 8 ii) 12 iii) 6 iv) 1 b) i) 8 ii) 96 iii) 384 iv) 512 c) i) 8 ii) 12(n 2 2) iii) 6(n 2 2)2 iv) (n 2 2)3 d) same answers a) Answers may vary. 3. 6.. For example. 2n 1 1 is always odd and greater than 1. so 2m21 is composite. If m is composite. 107 1. e. a) b) c) (x 2 9)(x 1 3) (5x 1 7)(5x 2 7) (c 2 d)(a 1 b) (x 1 y 1 1)(x 2 y 1 1) (x 2 y 2 5)(x 1 y 1 5) (x 2 7)(x 1 4) (6x 2 5)(6x 1 5) 2x(2x 21)(x 21) 3xy 2(x 2 2 3xy 2 1 y) (a 1 1)(4a 2 3) (x 2 7)(x 1 2) (x 1 5y)(x 2 y) 6(m 2 6)(m 2 9) (x 2 3)(x 1 3) (2n 2 7)(2n 1 7) (x4 1 1)(x2 1 1)(x 1 1)(x 2 1) (x 1 y)(a 1 b) (b 1 1)(2a 2 3) (x 1 1)2(x 2 1) c) (2x 1 5)2 d) (2x 1 1)(3x 2 2) 8.. then let m 5 a 3 b. The resulting polynomial will be a cubic because you add the exponents of the highest terms (linear 5 1 and quadratic 5 2). c 5 7 m 11.g. e. x 4 1 5x 2 1 9 5 (x 2 1 3 1 x)(x 2 1 3 2 x) 14. I preferred multiplying the last two factors together first. b) Answer may vary. 13. 5x 1 10 5 5(x 1 2) 2. 1 x 0) d) xn 2 yn 5 (x 2 y)(x (n21))y 0 1 x (n22) 1 x (n23) y 2 1. x 2 1 6x 1 9 2 y 2 5 (x 1 3 1 y)(x 1 3 2 y) 6. a) 6x 2 2 10x 3 1 8xy c) x 2 1 8x 1 16 b) 6x 2 1 7x 2 20 d) x 3 1 3x 2 2 x 2 3 a) no. a) 6a 2 2 7 d) 18x 2 2 12x 1 3xy 2 2 b) x 2 11xy 1 9y e) 6a 2 1 20a 2 10ab 1 6b 2 18 c) 26c 2 1 cd 2 8d 2 2 d f ) 14x 3 1 6x 2 2 48x 1 9xy 2.. 12. 16. x 2 2 x 2 20 5 (x 2 5)(x 1 4) 4. 2. a) (x 2 3)(2x 2 7) d) (y 2 x 1 7)(y 1 x 2 7) b) (x 1 5)(y 1 6) e) 3(2x 2 7)(x 2 2) c) (x 2 1)(x 2 2)(x 1 2) f ) (2m2 2 5)(6m 2 7) 10. where a and/or b cannot equal 1.1x 0y(n21) 16. Do simple trinomials for 3 terms with a 5 1 or a prime. Since n is a natural number. a) (x 2 2 3x 1 6)(x 2 1 3x 1 6) b) (x 2 2 3x 2 7)(x 2 1 3x 2 7) 15.. b(0) 5 1 and c(0) 5 21 3. 11. 2.3. a) Both methods give 285x2 1 209x 2 266. Do incomplete squares for 3 terms when you can add a square to allow factoring. right side is 13 b) 9x 2 1 12x 1 4 a) 6x 3 1 24x 2 1 14x 2 20 b) same as (a) a) 25x 3 1 15x 2 2 20x d) n 2 2 13n 1 72 b) 2x 2 27x 2 30 e) 268x 2 2 52x 2 2 c) 16x 2 2 53x 1 33 f ) 5a 2 2 26a 2 37 a) 4x 3 2 100x d) 26x 3 1 31x 2 2 23x 2 20 b) 22a 3 2 16a 2 2 32a e) 729a 3 2 1215a 2 1 675a 2 125 c) x 3 2 5x 2 2 4x 1 20 f ) a 2 2 2ad 2 b 2 1 2bc 2 c 2 1 d 2 a) yes c) no e) no b) yes d) yes f ) yes All real numbers. 8. Lesson 2. 26 1 23 2 23 2 20 5 26 2 1 b) 35 5 5 3 7 ∴ 235 2 1 5 (25 2 1)(230 1 225 1 220 1 215 1 210 1 25 1 20) or 235 2 1 5 (27 2 1)(228 1 221 1 214 1 27 1 20) c) Yes. a) No. a) 26 1 24 1 22 2 24 2 22 2 20 5 26 2 1. x 2 3 5 2(3 2 x). Multiplying the first two factors together first meant that I had to multiply larger numbers in the second step. a) b) c) 5. a) x 4 1 4x 3 1 2x 2 2 4x 1 1 c) x 6 2 x 4 2 2x 3 2 3x 2 22x 21 b) 8 2 12a 1 6a 2 2 a 3 d) 216x 2 1 43x 2 13 0 1 1 1 1 a) mv 2 1 xv 2 b) mv 2 1 mvy 1 my 2 2 2 2 2 a) 6 2 3 3 5 6. pp. 10. e.g. 3. Expressions are equivalent. 1. Saturn a) i) p(r2 2 r1)(r2 1 r1) ii) p(r32r1)(r3 1 r1) iii) p(r32r2)(r3 1 r2) b) The area of the region between the inner ring and outer ring 13. a) b) c) 7... a) 16x 2 1 8px b) 8px3 1 4px 2 2 2px 2 p a) yes b) no. g(0) 5 232 and h(0) 5 32 b) Yes. For example.g. 4. 12x 2 2 x 2 20 5 (4x 1 5)(3x 2 4) 5. 4. f (x) 5 2x 2 2 7x 1 5 and g(x) 5 2x 2 2 7x 1 5 c) Yes d) No. left side is 25. 2ab (2a ) b 2m21 5 2ab21 5 1 5 1 2 2 This result will always have two factors: (2a21 ) (2a ) b21 Neither of these will ever equal 1. A negative number squared is positive (the same). Do grouping for a difference of squares for 4 or 6 terms with 3 or 4 squares. 1. Always do common factor first. a) b) c) 3. a) b) 2. 95–97 1. 4x 2 2 25y2 5 (2x 1 5y)(2x 2 5y) 3. b 5 4 m. 6. b) a 5 #33 m. pp. a) x4 2 1 5 (x 2 1)(x3 1 x2 1 x 1 1) b) x5 2 1 5 (x 2 1)(x4 1 x3 1 x2 1 x 11) c) xn 2 1 5 (x 2 1) (x (n21)y0 1 x (n22) 1 . 9. for x 5 1. p. 7. Mid–Chapter Review.

a2 b x23 2 2a 2 b 2 x23 . 6. y 2 0 2y 3 2 2 f ) 2 . 13. 5 a 51p 2(3t 2 2 1) 17. b [ I. 5 f ) R. 22. 2 e) R c) R. a 2 22. 2x 2 2 x 1 3. Many answers are possible. x 2 2y. y 2 0 2y 5 7a b) . a) . a 2 0. yes.x2 x2y 4(2x 2 1) 2 11. a) 5 12 3x 3 .y20 20y c) d) c) (x 1 1) . x 2 0. x 2 24. For example. 2 5(2m 1 1) 2 c) 2 5. Answers will vary. b 2 0 a Å3 2 x 2x e) 2 . 234. a) b) 3. 2 6. x 2 21. a) (n 2 3m)(2 1 5n) d) 2(x 1 2 2 2y)(x 1 2 1 2y) b) (y 2 3 2 x)(y 2 3 1 x) e) (w 2 a)(w 1 b) c) (y 2 b)(1 2 y 1 b) f ) (b 1 6)(a 1 b) 9. a) 3 2 2t 2. b) 3 . For example. 3 5 t(t 2 3) x23 3t 2 2 1 c) . (x 2 2 1) . a) (t 1 1)(4t 2 1). a) (x 2 2)(x 2 3) d) 3(5x 1 1)(2x 2 1) b) (x 2 7)(x 2 4) e) (4 2 5x)(4 1 5x) c) (3a 1 2)(a 2 4) f ) 2(5 1 2a)(13 2 2a) 8. 1 d) . 24.6. 21. x 2 23. b 2 3 2 . 3. All answers for k are of the form k 5 11b 2 3b2. x 2 25. (3x 2 2) (x 2 4) 5(3x 2 2) (x 2 4) . m 2 24. a) 5 3 2ab 1 . x 2 21 9 8x . x 2 0 d) R. x 2 23. x 2 0. a) b) 4. R. 24 52x 10. 5 (x 2 1) (x 2 2) (x 2 3) 14. 5 (x 2 2) (x 2 5) 3x a) 6x. For example. 116 1. y 5 3. 220. 5 2 (3x) 1 . 242. For example. a) . 1 x12 4 (x 1 1) . x 2 0 b. 3w 7 1 23 10 . Answers will vary. 6. x 2 21. x 2 0.x22 . y 5 2. therefore this would not be a triangle. x 2 22. x . 2 f) . pp. 2 3 21(m 1 4) (m 1 2) 1 d) . 2. x 2 23. (2x 1 1) (x 1 1) (x 2 4) (x 1 1) x(2x 1 1) x(x 2 4) (2x 1 1) (x 2 4) (x 2 4) 2 iii) iv) (2x 1 1) (3x 2 2) (x 2 4) (x 1 1) (2x 1 1) (2x 1 1) (x 2 4) (2x 1 1) Lesson 2. a 2 0.x2y . t 2 0. x 2 3 e) . pp. 22.x20 2x c) b2 . x 2 21. a) Answers will vary. 2 3. 112–114 1. a 2 0 d) . x 2 25. 214. n 2 22. not the same domain 1 2 8. 5 5t 3 1 21p 2 1. x 2 c) . Answers will vary. t 2 0.x20 (3x) 5 b) . For example. p 2 25. a 2 0.0 5 2 (3x) . a 2 0. 20x 1 8 10.1 x15 t21 2 6. a) b) 12. 0. Answers will vary. 3 (x 1 2) (x 1 3) 2(n 2 2) .x2 5x 2 4) 5 x 2 5y . i) ii) b) yes. p. a 2 24.4.5. a) b) c) 5. 25 9. 2. x 2 0. t 2 0 c) .x (3x 2 2) 4 2 3 Lesson 2. 121–123 1. x 2 24. x 2 7 4 Answers d) 26(x 2 1). a) 2 b) 2w 2 l 2 2 7. a) b) 2. y 5 2(x 2 2) (x 1 3) (x 2 2) (x 1 3) 1 x2 2 12 x(x 2 2) Lesson 2. 23y x 1 3y 1 2 d) (3a2 2 2b). k 5 260. 1 b) R.6. 4 5 NEL Answers 635 .t22 . 7 (x 2 7) 3 t24 b) 2x 2 . b 2 0 3a2 (x 1 1) (x 1 2) (x 1 4) (x 1 2) and (x 1 1) (x 1 3) (x 1 4) (x 1 3) b) lim g(x) 5 x →` 16. (x 2 4) 5(x 2 4) 2(x 1 1) . For example. 4 41x 1 2x 1 y 5 b) d) . Answers will vary. x 2 25 2 . no restrictions (1 1 t 2 ) 3 (2x 1 1) (6x 2 11) b) . 1 7. a) the denominator equals 0. x 2 25. 3. x 2 0 c) 2 . 8. 3 b) 3. 15. a) lim f (x) 5 0 x →` 4 5 c) lim h(x) 5 2` x →` a) a) b) c) 4. 2 5 3 b) Because x # would imply sides of length 0 or less. b 2 0 6a 3 (x 2 1) . x 2 22. 1 (x 1 3) 2 2 . a) yes b) no. for example. 10.

2 (y 1 1) (y 2 2) d) 2x 2 1 13x 1 15 . 1 1 1 1 i) 1 iii) 1 2 4 4 6 1 1 ii) 1 3 4 b) Factor the quadratic denominators and find the common denominator from these factors.a22 . x 2 9. 5 (a 2 3) (a 2 5) (2a 1 1) 2 10x 2 2 5x 1 7 1 1 . pp. a) b) c) d) 10.5 (2n 2 3) (n 2 5) 2 14. 6 (p 1 5) (p 1 7) (p 2 5) 15m 2 2 2mn 2 3m 2 n 2 2 15n 1 1 1 . 1. m(m 1 2n) n 3n n . For example. 13. 3. x 2 24 . 27y. 9. 10. n (2m 1 n) (3m 1 n) 2 3 2 Lesson 2. 3 (x 2 3) (x 1 3) 24x 1 22 c) .x20 15x 2 6y 2 15x d) . 23 (x 2 9) (x 1 3) 3p 1 1 1 . 3 (x 2 3) (x 1 2) (4x 1 5) 4 2 23(3y 2 2) 2 . x 2 21. d 2 0. x 2 0. x 2 24. 128–130 1. 24 (x 1 2) (x 1 4) (x 2 5) 2x 2 1 7x 1 23 . m 2 2 . n 2 0 mn 12x 1 43 . 4 (t 2 4) (t 1 4) 8t 2 1 . 300 12. same 8 2kdx 1 kx 2 . 3.3 2(3y 1 2) 3 x1y . 3 (x 2 3) (x 2 1) 2 13 3x 1 11 4. a) b) 8 (x 2 3(x 1 3) c) d) c) d) 11. c) Yes.7 10x 2 2 30x . a) . 2 (x 1 3) (x 2 2) (x 1 4) 3. 3 4(x 2 3) (x 1 1) (x 2 2) p3 1 5p2 2 25p 2 65 . 2 (t 1 3) 2 (t 2 2) x 2 2 32x . 2 y. then Liz is dividing by 0. x 2 23. 5b 2a 4(5x 2 y) 1 1 1 . 2 n. 24. 25. p 2 27. If x 5 y. a) 2 9 7y b) 6 35x 1 4 . x 2 22. 22n.3 (x 2 3) (5x 2 1) 5 2x 1 1 b) . 5. 2 . 22. Dividing is the same as multiplying by the reciprocal. 2n.7. 23. x 2 21. 2 (m 1 n) (4m 1 n) 3 2 4 14. a) b) c) (x 2 1) (3x 2 1) (2x 2 1) 5 1 . 2 . a) Then you can simplify and cancel common factors b) Sometimes you cannot factor and you need to take into account the factors you cancel because they could make the denominator equal to 0. t 2 23.n2 . 23 (x 1 4) (x 1 3) 22n 2 18 3 . c) 13 . a) 4 30 1 5t 2 2 6t 3 b) . a) 8x 1 18 1 . 2x d 2 (d 1 x) 2 5x 5. m 2 n. 2 . x 2 0. x 2 1. x 2 23. 4 (x 1 1) (x 2 4) 2t 2 1 3t .t20 10t 4 9a 2 8 6. m 2 2 n. 2 n. p 2 21. a 2 2 . 1 p21 3 11. y 2 21. n. a) 13.x2 . 2n. 2 (x 1 1) (4x 1 3) 2 4 a 2 1 4a 2 7 1 . (2x 2 1) (2x 1 1) 2 2 2 9x 3 2 10y 2 . 2 (x 2 1) (x 1 2) 2 10x 2 .x20 28x 3 2x 1 6 d) . a) b) c) 9. t 2 24. 4y x 1 7y (a 2 3b) . 25n. 4 a(a 2 4) 18x 2 8 2 b) .x20 4x3 2y 2 7 c) . x 2 24. y. x 2 21. a 2 0. 2n 2(m 1 n) 7 5 8. 22. t 2 2s t1s x 2 300 6 b) 0 # x . 2. 3 (x 2 3) (x 1 3) (x 2 2) 9t 2 2 14t 1 2 .x2 3x 2 2 3 40xy 3 2 15x 2y 1 36 . . 12.y22 . 2 . m 2 0. 1 3x 2 . restrictions: x 2 23.y20 60y 4 2 2 2 n 1m 2mn . a) 19 12 17x b) 5 1 2. y 2 0 15xy 136 43x 2 2 84x 2 . 22 933. a) Answers will vary. x 2 5. a) 2 (3m 2 n) (m 2 n) 1 2 d) . 2 y. a 2 0. 7.3 10(x 2 3) (2x 2 3) 2 3x 2 8 .x2 . 0.c) d) 7. 3.x20 x2 25 2 21x 2 c) . t 2 21. x 2 2y. 4 4(t 2 3) (t 2 4) (t 1 1) 7x 1 4 3 . y 3x(3x 2 y) 2 3 3 e) f) 7. 6 (x 1 4) (x 2 6) 78x 2 129 3 . 2. a) b) c) d) e) f) 8. 2s 1 t 2 1 . 2b. x. 3b. y 2 0 3xy 2 c) 23m 1 20 10 20x 2 3 b) . 636 Answers NEL .

m 2 0. a) b) c) 9. 4. 26 (b 2 5) (b 1 3) Chapter Review. 2 x 3 2 14. 65 15. 4 16. m 2 0. m 2 27.1 1 2 n n11 1(n 1 1) 1(n) 5 2 n(n 1 1) n(n 1 1) n112n 5 n(n 1 1) 1 5 n(n 1 1) b) Answers may vary. x21 x21 y 2b 12. 1. 2 x11 (x 2 2y) (x 1 y) . 1. a) . 23 m17 2x 1 1 3 3 d) . n 2 0. For example. 132–133 1. 2. and are not equivalent. a) b) c) 8. a) 3x(x 2 7) . 1 1 x 1 (x 1 2) 1 5 x x12 x(x 1 2) 2x 1 2 5 x(x 1 2) 2 (2x 1 2) 1 (x 2 1 2x)2 5 4x 2 1 8x 1 4 1 x 4 1 4x 3 1 4x 2 5 x 4 1 4x 3 1 8x 2 1 8x 1 4 5 (x 2 1 2x 1 2)2 So. 2x. a 2 0. 20. x 2 1. a) 12x 2 2 12x 1 13 b) 8a2 2 6ab 1 3b2 Answers will vary. y 2 0. a 2 2b 2 1 c) . 23. 2y. For example. but probably not. x 2 0. 3 or 5. 63. 5 (x 2 1) x(1 2 x) . Perhaps. 2 (n 2 1) (n 2 2) ii) 1 3x 2 7 . x 2 2 4. 21. q 2 0 2p x 13. 3 7(x 2 3) (x 2 1) x2y 1 f) . a) 8x 4 2 x3 1 x 2 2 1 2x4 1 5x3 2 10x2 2 20x 1 8 213x 3 1 8x2 2 11x 25x6 2 6x5 2 2x4 1 22x3 2 4x 2 220x 2x3 1 29x2 2 4x 2 252 x 4 1 10x 3 1 19x 2 2 30x 1 9 6m 2n 2(2n 1 3m) d) 2(5x 1 6)(5x 2 6) (x 2 5)(x 2 4) e) (3x 2 1)2 3(x 1 3)(x 1 5) f ) (2a 2 1)(5a 1 3) 2x 2y (y3 2 3x 3y 2 1 4x) d) (5x 2 6)(3x 2 7) (x 1 4)(2x 1 3) e) (a 2 1 4)(a 1 2)(a 2 2) (x 1 2)(x 2 5) f ) 2(m 1 4n)(3m 1 2n) c) 1 2 z. b) Answers may vary. x 2 0. 12. x 2 24.g. a) . V 5 a b p(r 1 x)2(h 1 2x) 3 1 V 5 a b p(2hrx 1 r2h 1 2r2x 1 4rx2 12x31x2h) 3 6. 2y (x 2 y) (x 1 3y) 3b 2 1 8b 2 5 . 3 (x 1 4) (x 2 1) (x 2 3) 5 . y 2 0 36y e) b) c) (x 2 3) (x 1 1) . p. 2 (x 2 2) (x 1 3) (x 2 3) 3x 2 2 14x 1 24 . x 2 22. no 4. 3. a) . a) 24n2 1 48n 1 26 5. 2x 1 2.x20 15x b) c) d) 15. n 2 0 Answers 8xy 3 1 12x 2y 2 2 3x 2 . x 2 1. x 2 63. y 2 62x. Then x 1 2 is the larger of the two. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 7. x 2 23y. f (x) 5 x2 1 x. For example. pp. n 2 0 d) . a) x2 2 5x 2. y. x 2 0. 65 17. y 2 0 22a 2 2 3c 2. 2y x1y 3 x11 x12 11. x 5 21. 21 (x 1 1) (x 2 1) 2(x 2 2) .x20 6x 3 7x 2 2 10x . y 2 0 c) 2 . x 2 0. b 2 0 3y 3 2 2z 2 1 5. a) m(m 2 1) b) (x 2 3)(x 2 24) c) (5x 1 y)(3x 2 2y) 6. 62. 2. x 2 0. b 2 0. y 2 0 y 7 b) . a) 6 n2 2 3n 1 2 1 b) i) 2 or 6 . a) b) c) d) e) f) 16. 4. 25. 3 (x 2 3) (x 1 4) (x 2 2) 6 . c 2 0 2 3c 5 b) m. x 2 21. 16. 134 1. 2x 1 3 2 2 Chapter Self-Test. g(x) 5 2x a) no b) probably c) 32 or 33 a) 284x 2 1 207x 2 105 b) 23y4 1 17y 3 2 38y 2 123y 121 c) 2a 3 1 6a 2b 1 6ab 2 1 2b 3 d) 12x6 2 36x5 2 21x4 1 144x3 2 60x 2 2 144x 1 108 1 5.. a) Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive even or odd numbers. 61 2 y( y 1 1) 2 d) x 2 y . p 2 0. x 2 61. x 2 1 2x. and x 2 1 2x 1 2 are Pythagorean triples. 6 (x 1 2) (x 2 6) 3x 2 1 30x . 4 b) 4m2 2 3mn 1 5n2 c) 20x3 2 57x 2 2 11x 1 6 d) 9p4 1 6p3 2 11p2 2 4p 1 4 b) d) e) f) 866 (x 1 3)(3x 2 2y 2 1) (y 2 2)(5x 2 3) (p 2 m 1 3)(p 1 m 2 3) NEL Answers 637 .x22 . e. x 2 2 y. a) 72a2 2 198a 1 70 b) 27x3y3 1 10x4y2 2 12x2y4 3. a) b) 10. x 2 5. x 2 0 d) 2r 2 3p 1 5k . 1.

4 (x 2 2) (x 1 3) c) d) 6t 2 49 . 1). a) 0 c) 0 e) 23k2 1 4k 2 1 221 d) 21 f ) 23k2 2 4k 2 1 f (x) 5 x 2 1 2x 2 15 c) f (x) 5 23x 2 2 12x 2 9 2 f (x) 5 2x 1 12x d) f (x) 5 x 2 2 2x 1 1 vertex (23.75). 0). range 5 { y [ R | y # 24} vertex (5. x50 2 4 x b) 8 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 f(x) = (x + 3)2 4 y x b) opens down. a) 3. 218). (3. range 5 { y [ R | y $ 23} positive. second differences are constant linear. x 5 4. a) b) 4. yes (as long as there are no restrictions that were factored out) 9. (0.7. 23). 2. domain 5 {x [ R}. 138 1.33. a) b) c) d) 5. 24). 23). yes Lesson 3. parabola opens up 638 Answers NEL . (9. t 2 22. 284) opens down vertex (21. a) b) 7. 4). (0. 0) f(x) = (x 2)(x + 8) c) y y 8 20 6 15 4 f(x) = x2 + 3 10 2 5 x x 0 4 2 2 4 0 8 4 4 8 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 4 f(x) = 2x2 4 x d) f(x) = 4 2 2 0 2 4 2 4 x (x + 2)2 + 3 y 1. vertex (1. a) linear.67 x 5 0. (2. x 5 1. second differences are constant opens up b) opens down c) opens down d) opens up zeros x 5 2 or 26 b) opens down c) x 5 22 vertex (22. range 5 {y [ R | y $ 1} vertex (0. 0) (21. x 5 27. 0). a) b) 7.55 or 5. x 2 23.5. 8) (23.83. 23) x51 domain 5 {x [ R}. x 5 23 6. range 5 {y [ R | y # 8} negative. a) b) c) d) e) f) 8.x22 . 0). vertex (0. x 5 5. b 2 0 3b2 2 b) . x 5 23. 0) c) (1. or no zeros second differences are constant Quadratic Function 4(x + 3)2 5 y=5 y=2 x 4x 5 Characteristics: Examples: y = x2 y= Non-examples: 2x 2 18x 3 2 3 . first differences are constant quadratic. 145–147 Chapter 3 Getting Started. opens up vertex (27. 3) b) x 5 22 domain 5 {x [ R}. 36. a) b) 3. x 5 0. first differences are constant quadratic. a) b) 6.83. a) 14 . a) b) 2. domain 5 {x [ R}. p. a 2 0. parabola opens down f (x) 5 22(x 1 1)2 1 8 or f (x) 5 22(x 1 3)(x 2 1) opens up vertex (1. (3. opens down vertex (1. one. Definition: equation is of form y = ax2 + bx + c or equivalent graph is a parabola function has two. x51 d) 1 f(x) = 2 x2 + 4 y 4 2 4 2 0 2 4 opens down.45 d) x 5 0. vertex (23. x50 opens up. 4). 0) d) (0. 1). (1. vertex (0.5. 0). a) c) 5. 24). a) b) c) d) 2. 0) domain 5 {x [ R}.1. (3x 1 2) (2x 1 3) (2x 2 3) 2 3 2 8. 0). 3) f (x) 5 4x 2 1 16x 2 84. opens down x 5 3 or 8 c) x 5 21 or 1.2 .5 or 3 (23. pp. 9 (t 1 2) (t 2 9) 2 8. range 5 { y [ R | y # 3} c) y f(x) = 2(x 4)(x + 2) y 4 20 2 10 x x 2 1 0 1 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 10 2 3 4 f(x) = x 20 opens up. a) b) c) d) e) f (x) 5 23x 2 1 6x 1 3. opens up vertex (4. a) 4.

2x 2 1 4. Using the graphing calculator to graph the function. Is possible. a) and c). then using CALC to find the minimum. 13. a). so to find the minimum. Completing the square would result in fractions that are more difficult to calculate than whole numbers. we must find the vertex. maximum value 8 3. a) maximum: 6 c) maximum: 8 b) minimum: 0 d) minimum: 27 4. x 22 21 9 210 4 26 4 0 1 2 3 f(x) First Differences Second Differences 19 3 22 4 1 2 4 3 6 9 12. minimum: 25 b) factor or complete the square. a) 30 20 10 0 2.2. f (x) has vertex (1. a) minimum: 22. Since this function will factor.5 c) i) P(x) 5 23x 2 1 18x 2 18 ii) x 5 3 ii) x 5 5. minimum value 22 b) vertex (4.6 7. $9 Lesson 3. pp. g(x) has vertex (1.6x 2 1 15x ii) maximum revenue: $93 750 d) i) R(x) 5 21. therefore 3x 2 2 6x 1 5 cannot be less than 1.5) 2 1 y52 110 88 Lesson 3. parabola opens down c) f (x) 5 2(x 1 1)2 1 4 11. 22). a) x f(x) 22 3 c) x 5 12 d) x 5 22 21 4 0 3 1 0 2 25 e) x 5 21. 9. 160–162 1. 10. height starts at 0 m and is 0 m again after 8 s. a) $5 450 000 b) Maximum profit occurs when $40 000 is spent on advertising. a) 21 4 3. 1805 1 (x 1 7. t 5 0 seconds 9.5 5 f) x 5 2 16 8. Possible response: Function is in standard form. b) Å 2 0 2 Answers 72x 2 y 4 f 1(x) 2 4 2 0 2 4 2 4 x NEL Answers 639 . (a) is negative. 11. 22). minimum: 24 c) factor or complete the square. a) 70 m b) 2 s c) 50 m $562 500 Minimum value is 2. a) complete the square. both have axis of symmetry x 5 1. a) x 5 0 b) x 5 27 10.3. pp. there would still be fractions to work with. putting the function in factored form and averaging the zeros to find the x-intercept of the vertex would be possible. 21. 25. a) 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 t h h(t) = 4t2 + 32t b) 8 s. because maximum rectangular area occurs when rectangle 250 is 125 m by p m.8 15.5 d) i) P(x) 5 22x 2 1 22x 2 17 4 f 21 (x) 5 6 Å 4. maximum: 25 5. a) i) R(x) 5 2x 2 1 5x ii) maximum revenue: $6250 b) i) R(x) 5 24x 2 1 12x ii) maximum revenue: $9000 c) i) R(x) 5 20. minimum: 2 f ) use vertex form. c) $22 971 b) First differences: 1.08 b) maximum: 1. a) vertex (25. $56 250 16. a) f(x) 10 6 4 2