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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3
by Edward R. Rosset
Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: Beryl Aguado Lait Principal of Apsley School of English. Portsmouth - England Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Esquema © Editorial Stanley www.libross.com Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-195-4 Dep. Leg.: BI-1193-01 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1999 Reprint / Reimpresion 2001 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta RGM
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Present simple and present continuous Look, sound, seem, appear Modifiers: Quite, fairly, rather, pretty Phrasal verbs Must, can't + infinitive Should, ought to, could + infinitive Such, so Gerunds after prepositions -keep, try Comparison of adjectives Comparison of adverbs Adverbs of manner Order of adjectives Adjectives ending in ing/ed The present perfect simple Present perfect with ever, just, since, for If, when, as soon as, until, clauses Infinitives after adjectives Linking words and phrases Have to - must - need to Uses of the article, the Use of the article, a/an Since, as, because, so, so that Infinitive of purpose Conditionals: type 1, 2 and 3 May, might and could + infinitive Clauses of reason, purpose and result Need Ability can, know how to + infinitive Gerunds after prepositions - worth Present perfect (ever, just, already, for, since) Present perfect (with for and since) Present perfect continuous I would rather - prefer to Had better + infinitive - it's time Past continuous The past perfect I wish - if only Quantifiers Quantifiers (cont.) Links -however, whichever, whenever, etc Too and enough + infinitive Need and want + gerund -help Causative verbs: have and get Indirect speech Indirect speech (cont.) The passive -prepositions: Before, after, as soon as, until Indirect and embedded questions Infinitives after adjectives Participles (ing -ed) in clauses The participle (ing -ed) (cont.) Bare infinitives, after make and verbs of perception Future continuous, future perfect continuous Appendix
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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3
Acciones planeadas: referencia futura. • The play begins at 8 and ends at 10. A menudo usamos adverbios de tiempo o frases adverbiales. 4. 2. • My father goes to work by car. Acciones repetidas: A menudo usamos adverbios en este tipo de frases. • 'How often do you come here?' 'I come here every day. 2. I never go there.' 4. • What's your son doing these days? • He's reading History at London University.' • 'Do you ever go to America?' 'No. 1. Situaciones temporales. Usamos el presente simple para describir acciones habituales. • Spring always follows the hardest winter. • My sister works in the library. La accion esta en progreso en el momento de hablar. The train's leaving. cosas que suceden repetidamente. • Someone is waiting to see you. Uses of the progressive present. • Hurry up. Tambien usamos el presente simple como referenda futura. • Your brother smokes a lot. • The Art Gallery opens on July 5th and closes on August 30th. 5. • He's continually telling us what to do. 3. 3. • Next Sunday we're spending the day in the country. • She's always talking about the same things.. Usamos el presente simple en verdades permanentes. • The moon goes round the Earth. Para situaciones o acontecimientos que pueden continuar indefinidamente. • Your father is working at the moment. • We sometimes work till very late. • Your father is arriving tonight. • I certainly agree with you. 1. • Don't take that away I'm using it. • I start work at nine. .30. Para observaciones y declaraciones tambien usamos el presente simple. • They come here every day.STANLEY UNIT 1 2 Present simple and present continuous Uses of the simple present tense. Usamos el presente simple con How often o Do you ever. • I suppose they'll be here in time for the meeting.
I (belong) to any trade union or political party. What do you do for a living? 1. Example: Stop shouting. but I 2. 'Can Ann drive?' 'No. Example: (go / Benidorm) He is going to Benidorm. 10. That man says he's 90. (go / by plane) 3. We usually 4. (open) in June and (begin) the show ? (arrive) at 11. 12. (not/go) to see the new films but we (not/see) this one. I am listening to the radio. The tennis match 4. (leave / tomorrow) 4. What time (leave) at 9 and (be) Sunday. (not/want) to (stay) at the Palace.' 6. but she (teach) her. Escribe sobre sus planes de vacaciones. (stay / Hotel Tropical) He 2. Tu amigo va a ir de vacaciones a Espana. (stay / three weeks) 3. The river 9. She (stay) with them for a few months.' 2. . (start) at four. 5. Come on! The train miss it. We 2. Tomorrow 3. You can take my car. 'What (Mr Brown/ do)?' 'He's an engineer. 5. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en presente continuo o simple. (come). The Tagus River 8. They always 7.30. (go / with his friend Tom) . He He always 3. (flow) into the Atlantic.1 (grow) carnations but this year they (grow) geraniums. Her father (believe) him. but he (not/work) at the moment. My father is in New York. 1. I 5. The exhibition (close) in September. (stay) at the Palace Hotel.STANLEY EXERCISES 3 1. Ahora tienes unas frases de presente simple con sentido de future. (not/use) it tonight. (learn).This girl (not/live) with them. 11. (flow) fast today after the rains. Example: At what time do they open the Museum? 1.
• Mrs Cohn suddenly appeared behind us. no con adverbios. • That piano sounds terrible. seem. Aqui significa 'tiene el aspecto. (adverb) This wine tastes delicious. TASTE. • He seemed to be tired. SEEM es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. (adjective) The little girl looked at him sadly. sound. Podemos hacer esto cuando describimos el sujeto de la frase. • It tastes delicious. For regla general con verbos usamos adverbios. alguno de estos verbos tiene doble significado: • The agreement appeared difficult. • It seems difficult. • She seems to be very nice. • He looked sad. LOOK. pero con ciertos verbos (como SEEM. • I'll look into the matter. SOUND. • She seemed a bit angry yesterday. El otro significado de look se relaciona con 'ver'.STANLEY UNIT 2 4 Look.'(accion) asi que se usa con un adverbio. A menudo usamos to be despues de seem. • Don't look at me like that. Comparemos: • • • • The little girl looks sad. APPEAR. SOUND es uno de los verbos que no se usan en formas progresivas. appeared significa 'aparecer ante la vista. ETC. y se usa con un adjetivo. no con adverbios. (adverb) LOOK tiene dos significados: • She looks tired.) se pueden usar adjetivos. significa 'parecia'. • She sounded depressed on the phone. • It looks good. appear. y a menudo Neva detras particulas adverbiales o preposiciones. En la primera frase. Sin embargo. pero en la segunda frase. (adjective) He tasted the wine thoughtfully. . appeared. parece' y va seguido de adjetivos. no la accion del verbo. Es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. • It sounds nice.
She appeared 8. 1. The doctor felt his arm 3./ 1. (strange). (angry) last night. He looked at her 5. A blue car appeared sudden.That rock looks 12. He tasted the soup suspiciously.That music sounds beautifully. (terrible). / He seemed quite normally. appeared in the doorway (sudden). 7. It looked expensive. He seemed quite normal. This soup tastes strangely. 6. 9. (sudden). 4. Example: He appeared to be very angry. This wine tastes a bit 11.The piano sounds (impressive). 8. Detras de estos verbos a veces se pone un adjetivo y a veces un adverbio. / That thing smells awfully. / A blue car appeared suddenly. (rough). / It tastes wonderfully. My skin feels very 4. 12. He looked awful. A continuacion tienes unas frases. The cheese smells 10. / He felt his way around carefully. You look sick. / He looked awfully. 2. (sudden) in front of them. (angry). / You looked sickly. That sounded cheaply. That guitar sounds 9. He felt his way around careful.STANLEY EXERCISES 5 1. Your father looked very 6. The old woman 2. . (complicate). (impossible). 11. 2. 3. Una bien y otra mal. (awful). 10. / It seemed decisively. / That sounded cheap.The situation seemed 14. It seemed decisive. / This soup tastes strange.That thing smells awful. (careful). / That music sounds beautiful. Example: The soup tastes wonderful. / It looked expensively. (cheap). Tienes que tachar la que esta mal. The problem appeared 7. 5. It tastes wonderful. She looked at me 13.
fairly. FAIRLY es la mas debil de las cuatro. (hasta la coronilla) RECUERDA Solo rather se puede usar con comparatives. pero se usa en un estilo bastante informal. • I'm getting pretty fed up. generalmente en ingles coloquial. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'quite good'. (se las arregla muy bien) RATHER es todavi'a mas fuerte. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'rather good'. y con un verbo • It's quite a nice day. Tanto quite como rather se pueden usar delante de un artfculo. pero no muy bien) QUITE es un poco mas fuerte que FAIRLY. • It's all quite finished. A menudo significa mas de lo normal. quiza no sea la mejor pelfcula de la historia. pero no 'mucho'. • He speaks English quite well. la estas recomendando. rather. segun con que palabra se use. • It's rather too late. Tiene un sentido de 'bastante'. • I rather like that girl. pero merece la pena ver. (bastante bien. es ciertamente mejor que la mayorfa. • He speaks English fairly well. (es un buen linguista) PRETTY es bastante parecido a RATHER. • It's getting rather warmer. O con too.STANLEY UNIT 3 6 Modifiers: quite. pero que no merece la pena ir a verla. pretty. Pero no significan exactamente lo mismo. Una peli'cula 'fairly good' es una peli'cula bastante buena. • She was quite alone. • He speaks English rather well. . Estas cuatro palabras se usan para modificar la fuerza de los adjetivos o adverbios. Quite tiene tambien el significado de 'completamente'.
His wife is rather older than he is.... Example: He was rather old for her / 1. . impressed by her singing........ 8....... / It's rather too difficult for us................ rather..... She can even old to take up swimming............... good... / We've invited fairly too many people......... 1 .. 6........... En este ejercicio tienes que anadir fairly.............. It's quite an impressive show. / She's got quite a good voice... 12......... ......... 2. 3...... / It's pretty an impressive show.... She has a rather strange way of speaking..... It's a very good idea. She speaks her... Better than most of the films 7. I certainly would nice.. I love it! .............. 13.. I feel all sticky..... It could be better...... We all like him........ / She has a fairly strange way to speak................. She's got a rather good voice....... She's . ... It's very pleasant to hear intelligent... Carmen speaks English . That boy is quite good at tennis... She is a fairly nice girl. 2............ ........ 7........ / His wife is quite older than he is...... 8........ quite.... This exercise is not too bad... I was pleasantly surprised. behaves. 3...... ...... .. That girl is though.. 9... Nothing out of this world good.. well...... 6.....STANLEY EXERCISES 7 1.... 9.... This film is I've seen..... There's something ........ The new art gallery is recommend going to see it..... Aren't we driving rather fast? / Aren't we driving quite fast? 5........ Twenty is ... 5. 2..... .... / She is a very nice girl..... His new book is his best...... well........ Tacha la que te parezca que esta mal....... 10...................... Example: He is a pretty good fellow....... It wasn't strange about the way she interesting.. 4.. It's 1 1 ... It's good.. / That boy is very good at tennis. manage a difficult discussion in English........ I love her. I was bad at all..... ........ I don't feel comfortable with her......... but certainly not good fellow............... a las frases que se te dan..... hot.. We've invited rather too many people. Of course he's still got a lot to learn......... .... It's quite too difficult for us...... A continuacion tienes dos frases........ He's a 10.... / It's a fairly good idea.... 4......... o pretty.
(despeg6) Expresiones transitivas El objeto se coloca generalmente al final de estas frases: • I'm looking for my passport. • turn up (aparecer) . • He took his jacket off. Los verbos compuestos de preposicion no tienen problema. off. out.: • He took off his jacket. Es decir si Neva o no complemento directo. away. down. on. • Give it away! • Put it down! Si el complemento directo es una frase larga. Esta posicion es muy corriente con palabras como: in. Con verbos compuestos intransitivos. con otro significado. Cuando el complemento directo es un pronombre a veces se coloca al final de la expresion: • She is looking for her. up. Sin embargo. Pero mas a menudo se coloca inmediatamente detras del verbo: • She took them off. la particula se prefiere poner inmediatamente despues del verbo: • They turned down many perfectly good suggestions. Y otras veces es intransitive. la particula viene despues del verbo: • The meeting broke up as I came into the room. Look for es transitive: • I'm looking for my daughter. muchas veces se puede poner opcionalmente o bien al final o inmediatamente despues del verbo: • He took off his gloves o He took his gloves off. • She's likely to turn down any suggestions I make.look for (buscar) . . • The plane took off.STANLEY UNIT 4 8 Phrasal Verbs En ingles moderno es muy corriente colocar las preposiciones o los adverbios detras de ciertos verbos. • She's giving money away. e inseparable.give up (abandonar) Es importante saber si la combinacion es transitiva o intransitiva. cambiando de esta manera su significado. Look out es intransitive: • Look out! A car is coming! RECUERDA A veces un verbo compuesto puede tener un significado y ser transitive y separable. pues la preposicion siempre se pone detras del verbo: • That girl takes after her mother.
He asked me to give up drinking. 3. We have to 5. turn down. This answer is not correct . Example: He told me to turn off the heating. on you. so I 3. He asked me to give up my job. close down. so I 2. so I 4. Industries have to 5. 1. 1. 2. look up. cross out. go out. Completa estas frases usando el verbo compuesto apropiado. He asked me to fold the paper up. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con uno de los verbos compuestos que se te dan: look down. turn up. en el tiempo que corresponda: try on. their expenses. any time. These rich people 4. He told me to put on my coat. so I 3. fall off. so I 6. He asked me to try out the shampoo. so I turned it off. bring up. fill in. take off. That girl is going to 3. The volume is too loud it . He told me to take up learning French.STANLEY EXERCISES 9 1. 1. Example: I have never heard this word before. /'// look it up in the dictionary. in half an hour. We'll 7. will you! your coat. The meeting is going to 6. so I 7. It's cold. keep down. grow up. He asked me to ring Mr Jones up. This firm is going to the gaps. that horse. so I 5. I don't know when he is going to 6. make up. due to the recession. break off. Completa estas frases tal como se muestra en el ejemplo. it 8. This is our plane. Example: The nuns brought up the child in the convent. put on. In this exercise you have to 7. for the time lost. That's a nice sweater 2. to the theatre. quite a lot since last year. Tomorrow we'll 4. The boy has 2.
• She didn't hear me coming. • Oh no! She can't be more than forty. She must read a great deal. . • He's not doing that. but Tom thought that she couldn't be more than forty. • You're taking the driving test next week. No conocemos la verdad con exactitud. I/you/he (etc) J must have been drunk/tired etc. = He couldn't have been there. este dialogo seria: • Jim said that she must be about fifty. You must be tired. Usamos must para afirmar o sacar una conclusion de la mas probable interpretacion de una situacion o acontecimiento: • She must be about fifty. Usamos must para decir que estamos seguros de que algo es verdad: • You've been working all day. • He can't have been there. En este sentido !o opuesto de must es can't. pero creemos que debe de ser asf. can't have been watching/waiting. • She must be about fifty. I/you/he (etc) J cgn. He can't (o couldn't) have finished already. • She knows a lot about books. You must be practising a lot. r must be clever/stupid/tired etc. RECUERDA Si nos referimos a un tiempo pasado. can't + infinitive. You can't be thirsty already. She must have been asleep.t be pract j s i n g/ stud yj ng etc. • It must have been terrible for her. Usamos can't para decir que creemos que algo es imposible: • You've just drunk a pint of beer. En forma indirecta. • He started five minutes ago. • She can't (o couldn't) have done it so quickly. etc En este tipo de frases el can't have (done) se puede sustituir por el couldn't have (done).STANLEY UNIT 5 10 Must. usamos must y can't (o couldn't) con el infinitive perfecto. is he? He can't be so stupid.
He 5. 1. 'She says she won't marry for money. I don't know how you did it.STANLEY EXERCISES 11 1.' (she/can't/finish). The train's already gone. I (must/leave/train) 6. 'Impossible. That's the doorbell. I can't find my key. to the cinema quite a lot. She must be tired. 1. (couldn't/understand/tell her) ' . him earlier than I thought. He everybody. your brother. it. So she 2. She your uncle Tom. but she for love. Example: She didn't say 'hello'. 'Did they hear you?' 'No. (desperate/for/money) 2. I know she married the old man. He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes.' 'She 3. (couldn't/be/look) 7. 7. She married that old man. (see/us) She can't/couldn't have seen us. they can't have heard me'. He walked into a lamppost. Ahora lee esta situacion y escribe una frase con must have o can't have. She said she'd phone him. 1. so silly!' 2. 3. Completa estas frases usando must (have) o can't (have). Example: She has been working all day. It 4. That was the doorbell. she 3. Completa estas frases con must o can't + un verbo apropiado. That girls knows a lot about films. He has no idea what the book is about. He already. It 5. they must have been'. That 4. I 6. him by now. rich. it. They 2. 3. Example: 'Were they married?' 'Yes. (must/be/very difficult) 5. I lost my briefcase. In the village they all know about the project. He's got a key. He was starting a few seconds ago. She did the exact opposite of what I told her. (the driver/this car/can't/see/the other car coming) 4. 'She finished reading the book. I don't understand how the two cars crashed.
' 'You shouldn't have drunk so much last night. Es decir: (deberfan). future y pasado. • You oughtn't to have written to him. • They should do something about unemployment. .' 'You shouldn't have been going so fast. se puede usar para presente. Mientras que la forma interrogativa es ought you? • Ought you to do it alone? Coloquialmente se tiende a usar should en vez de ought to debido a que es mas facil de pronunciar. You should go and see it. • You ought to put central heating. Es decir va seguido de un bare infinitive: • You should paint the bedroom. La forma negativa del ought es oughtn't. • It was a good play.' Ought to (deberfa) Tambien es un verbo defective que se puede usar para el presente. • She ought to have written a letter. Should Se usa para dar consejos y no es tan fuerte como must. Your doctor: • 'You must stop smoking!' Your friend: • 'You should stop smoking. o es la cosa apropiada.' Para el pasado usamos should have been (deben'as haber estado). y es el unico verbo defective que va seguido del infinitive con to (full infinitive).STANLEY UNIT 6 12 Should. future y pasado cuando va precedido de un verbo en pasado.' Usamos shouldn't con el sentido de no deben'as. Al igual que los demas verbos defectives (excepto el ought) no admite el to detras. • You shouldn't drink so much. ought to. I think we should. could + infinitive. • You ought to have passed the examination easily. A menudo usamos should cuando creemos que una cosa es buena de hacer. • 'Should we ask him to come?' 'Yes. • 'I feel terrible today. RECUERDA Should es un verbo defective.' • 'My motorbike slipped on the ice.
' 'You should have gone to the optician before.' 'You (leave) earlier. 1. Gambia should por ought y viceversa. You should stop smoking 5. . / think you ought to apologize to that lady.' He me.' 3. It's a very good picture'.' (tell) him the truth'. You insulted him. .' 1. Example: 'I can't see very well. . 'Do you think I could leave without telling them?' 'No. 'Do you think the film is worth seeing?' 'Yes. Rellena estas frases usando should have. you without saying goodbye.' They 5. They should work harder 7.' 'What! You haven't posted it yet? You (post) it yesterday. you it. 'He was angry because I lied. You should have bought a better car. I think you for what you said.' 'You (clean) it before you left. You ought to have told her 6. 'I left very early. Example:! think you should apologize to that lady. 4. he left very early. We ought to have gone out for dinner. I've done him see 2.. 'Do you think he'll arrive in time?' 'Well.' 1. Example: 'Do you think he'll pass his driving test?' 'He should pass it. (apologize) 6. He ought to have come earlier 2. They arrived late. 4. 'She was annoyed because I hadn't cleaned my room. He can drive very well.' 'You (stay) a little longer. 'I'm going to post the letter. I should have gone to bed earlier.' 3. En este ejercicio usa should para decir que algo deberia suceder.' 2. 'Do you think he'll help you?' 'He a lot of favours. 3.' 2. you know.STANLEY EXERCISES 13 1. I ought to have spoken to her 8. 4.' 3.
es igual a so + adjetivo + a + sustantivo: • Such a nice girl.. Comparemos so y such: • I like those people. incluso cuando el much y el many van seguidos de sustantivos: • There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in. Fijate que such + a + adjetivo + sustantivo. • It was such an interesting book that I couldn't put it down. that . RECUERDA Que such a se usa con sustantivos en singular: • Such a girl! • Such girls! • Such weather! Las expresiones • Such a nice girl! • Such nice girls! • Such nice weather! equivalen a " such a long time.. So y such hacen que el significado del adjetivo sea mas fuerte. such a long way. • He poured so much water that the glass overflowed.STANLEY U NIT 7 n Such. Mientras que so se utiliza con ambos. • She is such a nice girl that everyone loves her.. Mientras que such se usa con plurales e incontables: so long so far . = So nice a girl. The dog was so big that nobody dared get near . She had such a good time. • She is very pretty.. • She enjoyed the party. So Es un adverbio y se usa delante de adverbios y adjetivos: • • • • She is so big! Those girls are so pretty! He spoke so fast that I couldn't understand him. that . so Such Es un adjetivo y se usa delante de 'adjetivo + sustantivo'.. so . y such .. Esta ultima expresion aunque no es muy coloquial se suele ver en literatura. but so silly. They are so nice/They are such nice people. • They were such big dogs that everybody was afraid... Nunca se usa such delante de much y many: • It was such a nice day that we went out for a picnic. • The book was so interesting that I read it in one day.
hot that I got sunburnt. I've been doing this for so long that I couldn't do anything else. The weather was so good that we went for a picnic.STANLEY EXERCISES 15 1. She buys expensive nowadays! 8. Gambia estas frases por otras con el mismo significado. 1. We've got so much food that we don't know what to do with it. Example: The film was so exciting that everyone was quiet. They lived so far from the centre that they had to take a bus. I've never tasted 5. Example: Don't eat so fast! I've never seen such a boring film. It's incredible that she should be 2. beautiful eyes! Her eyes are 2. She's got beautiful! 7. It was such an exciting film that everyone was quiet. 3. 3. lot of problems that he can't sleep. I've never had 6. It was such a good motorway that we drove very fast. 1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner so o such. Some people have got how to spend it. wonderful meal. 3. 1. 2. The sun was 4. Gambia such por so y viceversa. horrible food. Example:! didn't know that he had lived here for so long. The problem was so difficult that nobody could solve it. expensive things! Things are lot of money that they don't know fit at eighty. 4. That man has 3. He had such a big head that he couldn't find a hat big enough. . 2. / didn't know that he had lived here for such a long time.
Despues de before y after se pone gerundio: • Before doing anything ask your father. try. • What are you going to do after you leave college? Without y by van tambien seguidos de gerundio: • He left without saying goodbye. Por lo tanto en las frases en las que el to sea preposicion y vaya seguido de un verbo. • He passed the sugar to his sister. • I prefer running to walking. .STANLEY UNITS 16 Gerunds after prepositions. TO es generalmente parte del infinitivo: • I want to come with you. • What are you going to do after leaving college? Tambien se puede poner un sujeto: • Before he left he said goodbye to everybody. I'm fed up with doing always the same. los cuales van seguidos del infinitivo sin to (bare infinitive). He left without paying the bill. Los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio: Are you good at learning languages? Is he interested in working for you? I am in favour of giving everyone a day off. • He did nothing but complain. There's no point in taking your car. Sin embargo. • They got into the car by breaking the back window. Las unicas excepciones a la regla del gerundio son except y but (preposicion). This knife is for carving meat. este verbo ira en gerundio. to tambien puede ser una preposicion: • My brother went to South America. • I look forward to hearing from you. She insisted on paying for herself. • I could do nothing except swallow my pride. Keep.
3. 2. but he managed to win the race. Example: She left the house. She didn't say goodbye. 2. I'm looking forward to it. After finishing my letter I went to the cinema. It's a gadget for 2. 1. 4. and then he had a shower. He went out in the rain. Instead 6. I'm going home for Christmas. First he went for a swim in the sea. Tom can solve difficult problems. We didn't watch television. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir una frase con el mismo significado que la primera. He found a parking place.STANLEY EXERCISES 17 1. He is thinking. We went to the cinema instead. 4. 3. 5. He is very good at 3. He would like to emigrate to Australia. Ahora vuelve a escribir estas frases con without o by. 3. We went to the cinema but first we had a meal. He fell in the second lap. I'm not looking forward to that. I'm looking forward to meeting you. Old Grumbler is coming to see me. He didn't look for it. After three months you're going to see your girlfriend. She left the house without saying goodbye. He didn't take his umbrella. The burglar got into the house. He accused his accomplice. 2. 1. In spite 7. 1. He broke the garage window. What do you say to her? . This gadget open tins. Example: I'm meeting you next week. Example:! finished my letter and then I went to the cinema. Escribe las mismas frases con look forward to. He got away with it. I'm looking forward to it.
• Things are much more expensive nowadays.STANLEY UNIT 9 1* Comparison of adjectives. rather. The + comparative + the Esta construccion se puede hacer con adjetivos y con adverbios para mostrar causa y efecto: • The more money you have. RECUERDA Que cuando juntamos dos adjetivos (o adverbios) en grado comparative. • Which is (the) bigger? (of the two classes) Mas ejemplos de comparativos + than. the less people buy. It's more pleasant today than it was yesterday. far. La comparacion se hace entre dos. • Things are getting more and more difficult. Modification de los adjetivos. A veces el segundo termino de la comparacion se da por sobreentendido. a little. • There have been many more crimes this month. Tambien se pueden dar comparaciones con frases hechas tal como: • She is taller than average. bien sea. the more you want. even. • Videos and computers are getting less and less expensive. • Today it's less expensive than usual. a lot. • It's much colder this year than it was last year. hardly any. lots. • The more expensive things are. • Peter is taller than the other boys. Para dar intensidad a la comparacion usamos palabras tales como: a bit. • • • • • Our house is better/worse/bigger than our neighbour's. very much. etc. cosas o grupos: • Peter is taller than John. She feels less tired today than she felt yesterday. damos la idea de aumento o disminucion: • He is getting taller and taller. Walking is less tiring than running. . A leather coat is more expensive than a plastic one. personas.
B the quicker you get there. The more you have 2. 1. . much. The more expensive it is 3. 2. C the more dangerous it becomes. 1. Things are getting more and more difficult. E the more impatient he becomes. It's to learn things with a good teacher. Restaurants are becoming I expected (expensive). it was (far/interesting). The longer the phone call A the more you learn. It's becoming 7. 1. This suitcase seems to get 6. (heavy).' 2. We need something (much/big) 3. Usa than cuando sea necesario. I prefer this hotel. The shorter the way 5. (big). 3. F the less it sells. Completa las frases usando a little. En este ejercicio tienes que usar la estructura more and more. The higher you climb 6. G the more you have to pay. (a lot/easy) 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 19 1. That woman is getting 8. (beautiful) as she grows up. (nervous). (grumpy) as she gets older. D the more you want. The car is too small for us. The little girl is becoming 3. She looked sad yesterday but this morning she looks (a bit/happy) 4. The better the teacher is 7. Junta las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. Example: The weather is getting warmer and warmer. She's only been here for two months and her English is already getting (good). 'Did you enjoy your stay?' 'Yes. many etc. The longer he waits 4. (difficult) to find a job. a lot. That crack on the wall is getting 5. It's (much/comfortable) than that one 5. As days passed she became 4.
It was snowing more and more heavily. Como la mayoria de los adverbios de modo tienen dos d mas silabas. This man runs faster than anyone else in the world. less clearly. I can't sing as well as my sister. Pero generalmente last se usa como adverbio: • We went to the Wax Museum last. Ejemplos de comparacion de adverbios: • • • • • • • • I run as fast as my brother. most seldom). . The faster he talks the more difficult it is to understand him. She can't jump as high as her brother. • I last saw him two months ago. least briefly. My daughter works harder than anybody else in the office. estos forman sus comparativos y superlatives con more/less y most/least: more quickly. most/least (more seldom.STANLEY U N I T 10 20 Comparison of adverbs. The clouds disappeared more quickly than we expected. Last y latest pueden ser adjetivos: • This is the latest news (las mas recientes). Algunos adverbios de frecuencia forman el grade comparativo y superlative con more/less. fastest). • This is the last news bulletin for today. siendo la primera mas corriente: I go there more often than you. Often tiene dos formas de comparativo: more often y oftener. Solamente algunos de los adverbios pueden usarse en grades comparativo y superlative: adverb fast easily rarely badly far late little much well comparative faster more easily more rarely worse farther/further later less more better superlative fastest most easily most rarely worst farthest/furthest latest least most best RECUERDA Muchos adverbios como fast y early forman sus comparativos y superlatives de la misma forma que los adjetivos cortos (faster.
2. It's not done very quickly. He still drinks but he used to drink a lot more. We go to the cinema less than we used to. That table is not as long as this one. Today's weather is good. I don't feel 5. The restaurant is cheaper than we expected. The exam wasn't 2. . We used to go very seldom to that place. 1. In fact it's done than before.STANLEY EXERCISES 21 1. 1. I feel fit but yesterday I was fitter. Example: This man is older than he looks. as. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases usando as . We've been here for a long time but they've been here longer. Example: It was not as clear as before. She was nervous before the exam but usually she is more nervous.. The Post Office was farther than I thought. We don't go 5. The weather today isn't 2. . It isn't 4. than before. Vuelve a escribir estas frases de forma que tengan el mismo significado. There were fewer people at this match than at the last one. Example: This table is long but that one is longer. She wasn't 3. In fact it was less clearly written than before. The exam was more difficult than I expected. 1. 3. but yesterday was better.. . We haven't 4. En este ejercicio vas a cambiar las frases usando less. He doesn't 2. It was not explained very briefly. In fact it was explained . He isn't as young as he looks. but now we still go than before. There weren't 3. It wasn't 3.
Position Los adverbios de modo se colocan detras del verbo: • She sang beautifully.STANLEY U N I T 11 22 Adverbs of manner. busy/busily. crossways. si el objeto es largo el adverbio se coloca entre el sujeto y el verbo: • They secretly decided to meet again shortly. • She behaved badly. Otros la retienen: extreme/extremely. weekly. el adverbio puede ir o bien delante de la preposicion o despues del objeto: • She looked at me suspiciously. • He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. • This train is very fast. RECUERDA Que algunos sufijos se pueden ahadir a los adjetivos para formar adverbios de modo (a veces de direccion): sideways. dry/drily (o dryly). Early y fast tambien pueden ser adjetivos o adverbios. Si el objeto es una frase ponemos el adverbio antes que la preposicion: • She looked suspiciously at everybody sitting in the lounge. monthly. yearly. en las frases de verbo + objeto. Asfmismo. Con la excepcion de true/truly. beautiful/beautifully. • The excursion was well organized.la 'e' desaparece: possible/possibly. O detras del objeto cuando hay uno: • She speaks English well. • This is a fast train. • He was badly paid. due/duly. Cuando tenemos verbo + preposicion + objeto. clockwise. lengthwise. quarterly. He gave up his job reluctantly. Algunos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos: daily. A menudo la 'y' se convierte en 'i': funny/funnily. / She looked suspiciously at me. La mayoria de los adverbios de modo se forman anadiendo ly a los adjetivos: sudden/suddenly. Badly y well se pueden usar como adverbios de modo o de grado. . Cuando el adverbio termina en 'le'. Como adverbios de modo se colocan detras de un verbo active: • He speaks English well. mad/madly.
/ She very badly typed his letters. (early). She played the piano 2. He took the picture down slowly. Shake the bottle well. She always greets me in a very 2. 5. I Hejjaj 1. Example: He pays his staff very well. They ran across the street. Entre parentesis tienes el adjetivo. He hurriedly left the room. / It snowed heavily last February. 10. / He left the room hurriedly. I pay my bills quarterly. / He spoke to me softly. 6. 'Come here. (careful). Example: He was madly in love with the girl (mad). / She reluctantly gave him the money. / He slowly took the picture down. 4. way (friendly).These people always laugh very 13. He kindly spoke to the children. Una de las dos frases esta mal. / She every day pays.' he said 4. 2. I pay my bills 8. 3. 8. Completa la frase con el adverbio correspondiente.STANLEY EXERCISES 23 1. (loud). It 9. It will 5. She danced beautifully. She gave him the money reluctantly. / Shake well the bottle.The film ended 11. / She beautifully danced. (fast). 7. (dry). 11. He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. These actors perform very badly. It is 6. She typed his letters very badly. / These actors very badly perform. 12. received (due). 1. 9. / He denied angrily that he had stolen the money. the same thing (basic). / He spoke to the children kindly. (noble). She pays every day. rain tonight (possible). / They crossed the street running. You have to do it very 12. He drove very 10. appeared in front of her (sudden). We caught the train very 7. The documents were 3. tachala.This man always behaves very 14. . It heavily snowed last February. 14. He softly spoke to me. 13. (month). / I quarterly pay my bills. (happy). (beautiful).
Si uno de los adjetivos es un participio este se pondra delante del material: a handmade wooden table. handsome young man. a small round table. en el cuadro que va a continuacion ponemos una gufa general. como primer adjetivo. etc) van siempre delante. Usamos comas para separar los adjetivos que sean igualmente importantes. old. black leather bag. El tamaho generalmente precede a la edad y forma. . dark. shiny. happy.STANLEY U NIT 12 24 Order of adjectives. Aunque no hay reglas fijas. A veces usamos mas de un adjetivo para describir un sustantivo. se separan con un and si son dos: • The tea was sweet and strong. A large new square table. tennis racket. • A small. El sustantivo puede estar compuesto de dos palabras: kitchen table. este precede al origen: • An Italian handmade tablecloth. nice. detras del verbo. • Black and white tiles. En caso de que haya un gerundio. La palabra que indica nacionalidad u origen se pone inmediatamente delante: Italian shirt. clever. • His clothes were filthy. Si son mas de dos adjetivos los separamos con una coma excepto los dos ultimos que que van separados por and. es decir. etc. Entonces tenemos que tener cuidado en que orden ponemos los adjetivos. • There was a friendly little Chinese girl at the counter. wet and worn out. cheap. Adjectives quality age/size nice beautiful new old Noun colour country green blue Italian Japanese material wooden porcelain table vase Fi'jate que las cualidades generales (beautiful. • Fast-selling Italian handmade tablecloths. delicious. A veces tambien los atributivos van unido con and. Nunca ponemos coma detras del ultimo adjetivo: • A tall. • A tall and elegant young woman. clean. Los adjetivos que expresan nuestra opinion de la calidad de algo o alguien van en primer lugar: nice. Cuando los adjetivos se usan como predicados. Estas palabras no se pueden separar. • A large new table.
white) 4. A box (metal. A face ( thin. black. watery) 10. brick) 13. The man/unshaven/dirty 8. Eyes (large. black. little. beautiful. His clothes/dirty/wet/old/worn out 6. interesting. Example: My shoes/worn out/torn. A shower (hot. A ring (silver. 1. The woman/beautiful/mysterious . A village (fishing. rare) 17. narrow) 3. A man (young. An old lady (nice. A handbag (black leather) 12. big) 2. little) 6. Example: a table (nice. A cat (white. It seem/exciting/mysterious 5. Forma frases usando los adjetivos como predicados. good-looking) 14. red. 1. He/dark/short/dirty 3. pretty) 7. Italian) 16. sunny) 9. A day (beautiful. old. My shoes are worn out and torn. A house (modern. old. A cupboard (old. Hair (beautiful. brown.STANLEY EXERCISES 25 1. long) 18. He/tall/handsome/dark 2. Italian) 2. little. nice) 8. old) 15. He/cruel/man/vicious 4. The road/long/winding 7. A road (long. A painting (old. wooden) A nice old wooden table. fat. A car (black. new) 11. lovely) 19. A film (Japanese. large) 5. A dress (blue. Ron los adjetivos que van entre parentesis en posicion correcta.
(He is interested in art because art is interesting. • She was surprised by the end of the film. success-successful. • The situation was very worrying.Ending in full / less Algunos sustantivos forman el adjetivo con sufijos tales como: Beauty-beautiful. excited/exciting. confused/confusing. • • • • Be careful crossing the road. shame-shameful. He's a trustful man. terrified/terrifying.) • He is interested in art. fearfearless. astonished/astonishing. bottom-bottomless.STANLEY U N I T 13 26 Adjectives ending in ing/ed.) • She was worried about the situation. sorrow-sorrowful. You can say that: • The end of the film is surprising. embarrassed/ embarrassing. Tambien. shocked/shocking. It doesn't mean anything. Adjectives . te hace surprised/bored: • Mary is surprised because the ending is surprising. so Mary is surprised. This note is meaningless. hope-hopeless. He trusts everybody. He aquf algunos ejemplos mas: • We were alarmed when we heard the news.) Algunos adjetivos que tienen estas dos terminaciones son: amused/amusing. pain-painless. The end of the film is not what she expected. meaning-meaningful. si algo o alguien es o esta surprising/boring etc. meaning-meaningless. (He was alarmed because the news was alarming. Care-careless. • Mary is at the cinema. trust-trustful. He is a careless person. • He thinks that art is interesting.. aim-aimless. si algo es surprising/boring etc. Se puede decir que alguien es o esta surprised/bored etc. Por ejemplo: surprised y surprising. • The news was alarming. exhausted/exhausting. (She was worried because the situation was worrying. depressed/depressing. Hay muchos pares de adjetivos que terminan en ing y ed. . shame-shameless. pain-painful. • The end of the film is surprising. care-careful. plenty-plentiful.
He is very c a r e f u l / c a r e l e s s . He is a s h a m e f u l / s h a m e l e s s boy. 7. I get f r i g h t e n i n g / f r i g h t e n e d .. Elige el adjetivo apropiado y tacha el que no corresponde. Mr. 3. The situation was very e m b a r r a s s i n g / e m b a r r a s s e d . Usa un adjetivo que termina en ing y otro en ed para completar cada frase.STANLEY EXERCISES 27 1. She was very s o r r o w f u l / s o r r o w l e s s for doing it. I was very d i s a p p o i n t e d / d i s a p p o i n t i n g when I finished the book. Their situation was . Maths is his favourite subject. I didn't understand the situation. (move) It was an job. The teacher was terribly surprised by Jim's exam. The body laid on the floor a l i v e / l i f e l e s s . 5. He doesn't care about anything. 2. 2. 3. He ran across the road. 5. 6. She was sorry. He is 2. Example: The room was in a mess. I was bored reading the book. (confuse) It was very It was very He was 4. He is very brave. (excite) She was I was very I felt very The exam was The weather was by their situation. The whole affair was very annoying/annoyed. The armchair was very comfortable. Brown trusts everybody. He's a t r u s t f u l / t r u s t l e s s man. 2. En este ejercicio tienes que completar dos frases con cada situacion. 1. It was a m a z e d / a m a z i n g the progress he had made. 4. Example:! don't like the food. I don't tike horror films. It was disgusting/dj|3j«stfci 1. The job was very good. The family situation was terrible. 4. Example: The book wasn't as good as I had expected. Haz lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2. 3. (bore) The book was boring. It was raining all afternoon. He is a f e a r l e s s / f e a r f u l man. (relax) 3. (shock) 5. . (depress) I was He was 6. (interest) He thinks maths is very in maths. It's tasteless/taJtetujT 1.
• 'Where are you meeting her?' No usamos el will para hablar acerca de arreglos que has concertado. I don't think. • 'What would you like?' 'I'll have a whisky.' • 'Mary wants to talk to you. Present continuous / going to / future simple. • When are you getting married? • What are you doing this evening? RECUERDA Usamos going to cuando ya nemos decidido hacer algo en el proximo future: • We are going to watch the football match on TV tonight. etc. encuentros etc. I won't wait then. Usamos el presente continue para referirnos a actividades y eventos que estan planeados para el future. You're going to fall. come. • 'Mr Martin is out.' A menudo se usa el will con I think.' • I heard your daughter is going to marry a rich American. • She is arriving tomorrow afternoon on the 5. leave. • 'Are you going out?' 'No. para describir arreglos de viajes. • I'll give you the money tomorrow.' 'I'll close it.30 train. go. • Look at those clouds. I'm going to read for a while.' WON'T es la forma negativa de WILL.' 'I'll ring her up. It's going to rain. • Tom is coming next week. I don't feel like going out. A menudo asociamos el presente continue como los verbos arrive.' • 'You left the window open. please. • I think I'll stay in tonight. all right. Generalmente necesitamos un adverbio a no ser que el significado este muy claro.' 'Oh. WILL Usamos el will cuando decidimos hacer algo en el memento de hablar.STANLEY UNIT 14 28 The present perfect simple and continuous. • Get down from that ladder. . Tambien usamos el going to cuando predecimos algo. • We're spending our holiday in Benidorm. Con ofertas y promesas: • I'll help you with that heavy case. • I don't think I'll bother answering all those letters.
1. Tu amiga tiene muchos proyectos para el proximo future. Tu tienes que escribir frases acerca de sus planes. Example: She is leaving lor America in a few days, (leave) 1. She 2. They 3. They 4. Mary 5. Her friend 6. Mary 7. From New York they (travel) with a friend of hers. (visit) the Niagara Falls. (go) by plane. (stay) with her aunt. (have) an interview for a job. (meet) an old friend of the family in New York. (fly) to California.
2. i,Que crees tu que va a suceder? Example: That little boy is trying to climb a tree. He is going to fall. 1. His passport is in the back pocket of his jeans.
2. Dark clouds are gathering.
3. She forgot her umbrella and it's raining.
4. I'm crossing the channel and the sea is very choppy.
5. He's taken his tennis racket.
3. Promete o queda de acuerdo en hacer alguna cosa. Example: I'd like you to come to see me tomorrow. All right. /'// go. 1. 'Can you repair my bike?' 'Okay, 2. 'Don't tell anybody, please!' 'All right 3. 'Be careful when you give an injection.' 'Don't worry. I you.' 4. 'You owe me a lot of money.' 'Well, 5. 'You promised you were going to take me swimming.' 'O.K next Sunday'. 6. 'Can I have my book back?' 'Of course, this afternoon. back on Saturday'. it.' '
U N I T 15
Present perfect with ever, just, since, for.
Used to + Infinitive.
La estructura used to + infinitive solo existe en el pasado. Se refiere a habitos pasados. • He used to drink quite a lot. (soli'a beber) Para expresar la misma idea en presente, basta con usar el presente simple: • He drinks quite a lot. O bien: • He usually drinks on Saturdays, (suele beber) Para la forma interrogativa y negativa se admiten las dos formas: • Did he use to drink? / Used he to drink? • He didn't use to drink. / He usen't to drink. RECUERDA Que para las coletillas o respuestas cortas se usa el didn't. • They used to live in Bristol, didn't they? • Did he use to smoke? - Yes, he did. o Yes, he used to. • No, he didn't, o No, he didn't use to.
USED TO y WOULD
Cuando nos referimos a habitos pasados podemos usar tanto uno como otro: • When I was a boy I used to get up at six o'clock. • When I was a boy I would get up at six o'clock. Sin embargo, para describir situaciones o estados pasados tenemos que usar el used to y no el would. • I used to be an English teacher, but now I'm a writer. • I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Used to no se usa cuando algo sucedio hace algun tiempo, o por cuanto tiempo duro: • I went to Italy several times (No: I used to go to Italy several times) • I lived in Bristol for five years. (No: I used to live in Bristol for 5 years)
No confundir used to + infinitivo con used to + gerundio. • I used to go. (soli'a ir) - I'm used to going, (estoy acostumbrado a ir) • He used to drink, (soli'a beber) - He's used to drinking, (esta acostumbrado a beber)
1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con used to ... Example: Ronald doesn't drink now, but he used to drink quite a lot. 1. My father doesn't smoke now, but he 2. I've got a car now, but I 3. There is only one cinema now, but there 4. Years ago I 5. They 6. He 20 cigarettes a day. a motorbike. 3 cinemas. cider, but I don't like it now. in Bristol, but now they live in London. take a lot of medicines, but now he is a vegetarian.
2. En este ejercicio tienes que cambiar el pasado por el presente. Example: He used to drink a lot all the time, (solia) He usually drinks only on Saturdays, (suele) 1. He used to drink cups of coffee all day long. But now a cup in the morning. 2. My brother used to play tennis every day. But now he a match on Saturdays. 3. Jim used to smoke forty cigarettes a day. But now he only one after lunch. 4. We used to go out every day. But now we only on Saturdays. 3. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: He used to live alone. Did he use to live alone? He didn't use to live alone. 1. I used to play in that old castle when I was a child.
2. They used to go to the cinema every Saturday.
3. They used to travel a lot.
4. My friend used to live in Bristol.
When se usa para hablar acerca de acontecimientos que es seguro o muy probable que sucedan. aunque la idea de la frase es future. • I may go out this afternoon. . (cuando vuelva) • We'll go out when the rain stops.STANLEY U NIT 16 32 If. Usar if cuando es posible que algo suceda. as soon as. No confundir if con when. Despues de if tambien usamos el presente simple: • We'll go out if it doesn't rain. • • • • I'll see you next week. when I come back. (cuando vuelva) I'll see you next week. Usar when para cosas que es seguro que sucedan: • I'm going to Madrid. When I come back I'll bring you a present. • I'll tell you when I come back tonight. • If she doesn't come soon. (si vuelvo) We'll go to the beach if it doesn't rain. RECUERDA Que en las frases de when usamos el presente simple (en espanol es presente de subjuntivo). • If it rains we'll stay at home. pero no es seguro. • When/If you heat water it boils. Lo mismo sucede con: as soon as until while • We'll go out as soon as I finish this. if I come back. If I go out I'll buy it for you. Se puede usar el preterite perfecto para mostrar que la primera accion estara acabada antes que la segunda: • When I am finished with this I'll give it to you. I'll go to the cinema alone. when. We'll be in Madrid when we wake up. until clauses. If sugiere que no estas seguro de que algo va a suceder. Cuando generalizamos es posible usar ambas palabras sin que cambie el significado.
Your brother may phone today 8. I'll give you a ring 3. I'll return the book I am finished with it. I'll look for his address. 1. Example: If it rains this afternoon we'll stay in. 8. (pass) his driving test.1 only watch TV 16. (be) surprised. 6. 7. Todas las frases de este ejercicio tienen idea de future. I'll give it to you 10. We (need) any help. (get) there. I'll be away a couple of weeks. If I 11. We 4. I get back. don't come.STANLEY EXERCISES 33 1. Ron los verbos en forma correcta. Example: Come on! Your father will (be) angry if we are (be) late.. you want something. (come). I am there I'll visit Aunt Maggie. it doesn't rain. 2. I'll be there by 7. I'm not. I'll have something to eat 4. When you 10. I'm going to New York 9. Please. En este ejercicio tienes que poner when o if. (be) away? (arrive). I'll be very surprised pass it. he does. it doesn't rain. (be) ready. he doesn't 6. I'm going out 5. tell him I want to talk to him. (recognise) her. you finish writing it?. 2. 1. I'll get it for you. Will you send the letter 12. I (drop) you a line as soon as I (let) you know when I (arrive). don't wait for me. I'll send it to you 11. We'll probably go out 13. I think he'll pass the exam. we you (do) that while I (start) off until my brother (see) my sister you (be) surprised if he (ask) you. (ask) you. you aren't here by 5. let me know when he 7.1 (phone) her as soon as we (start) the exam until the teacher (see) little Albert you (need) money. We (arrive) in London. But I get home. I find it. We 9.They'll come to see us tomorrow 15. If we 2 3. We won't wait for you 14. there is something interesting. but you don't want to.1 12. When you 5. I'd like you to come. I'm finished with it .
brave. It + be + adjective + of noun/pronoun + to-infinitive • It was very kind of him to help you. etc. kind. foolish. agreeable. etc. • They are very likely to accept your proposal. • She was very kind to help them. • It's wrong to do that. GRUPO 4: The first. reluctant. Esta estructura tambien admite el for + noun/pronoun. poliite right. GRUPO 3: Impossible. nice. hard. bound. etc. clever. etc. • She is too clever to fall into the trap. • He is always reluctant to make any trouble. • It's impossible to be angry with this man. sure. Algunos de estos adjetivos admiten la combinacion for + noun/pronoun: • He is anxious for his son to win the competition. . Adjective + enough + infinitive • This man is not strong enough to lift it. keen. willing. Muchos adjetivos pueden ir seguidos de infinitives: GRUPO 1: Silly. eager. sorry. difficult. wrong. rude. • That was the worst thing to do. the second. good. GRUPO 2: Curious. generous. Too + adjective + infinitive • He is too stupid to understand. • He is very clever to answer all these questions. ashamed.STANLEY UNIT 17 34 Infinitives after adjectives. glad. likely. ready. A la lista anterior se pueden anadir algunos adjetivos que se refieren a probabilidades: certain. afraid. • He is determined to succeed in life. the last. • There isn't enough work for us to do. anxious. the best. careless. the worst: • Jim is always the first to arrive and the last to leave.. quick. boring. easy. • This type of shirt is difficult to wash. • That box is too big to carry. the next. • It was silly of you to do that.
she some money. . he He was (his son/come back). Example: 'Did he help you?' 'Yes. He is (determine/succeed). Example: He is very difficult to please. 1. Example: He always arrives the first. She arrived the last one. ' 2. He is 2. Example: He was anxious to win the competition. 1. Completa las frases con las palabras entre parentesis.STANLEY EXERCISES 35 1. (eager/come/back) home. (impossible/win) this competition. (get/job).' 'Yes. It was very 3. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos del grupo 2. It is with him. he teacher. He is always the first to arrive. It was very 2. he the way. This competition 3. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a las preguntas. He is very weak. Gambia la frase de forma que signifique lo mismo. He was anxious for his son to win the competition. He's He's (his son/succeed). She was 3. He isn't lift the box. 3. 'Does he want the job?' 'Yes he (his daughter/get/job). 'Did he want to come back?' 'Yes. 1. He will come next. he was (careless/cross) the road like that. he was very kind to help us. It was very ' ' (good/show) us ' (foolish/insult) the (generous/give) us 4. 'Did he show you the way?' 'Yes. He 4.' 'Yes. It's (boring/live) with. 3. You are a nice person 4. 'Did she give you money?' 'Yes. He was nearly run over by a car. 1. He is 2. It was very kind of him to help us'. It was 2. Does he want to succeed?' Yes. The best thing is to ask him. 'I heard he insulted the teacher. It is (nice/be/you). It's very difficult to please him.
(o .. we lost the game. we lost the game though. Although and even though se pueden usar al principio de una frase: • Although/Though/Even though we tried our best.' 'But that is not what we agreed on.. too. • She speaks both English and French. • He grows flowers as well as vegetables. • He was both tired and hungry. • Both his brother and his sister are married.' Both . ... • I've read the book and I've seen the film too/as well. • We all did our best. as well indican que la palabra o frase ha sido anadida a algo que ya se ha mencionado anteriormente. o .STANLEY U N I T 18 36 Linking words and phrases. Also. As well as (asi como). • I left it either on the table or in the drawer. Tambien puede significar 'sin embargo': • He cut his knee. mientras que too y as well van al final.. but he didn't cry... However we lost the game. On the other hand (por otra parte). • He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer. Though suele ir al final de la frase: • We tried our best. * But como conjuncion puede significar 'sino': • It's not the red one I wanted but the blue one.. Also es mas formal y se coloca en el medio de la frase. pero debe colocarse al comienzo de la frase.).. (no solo ... I'll be on holiday. and . • I know Tom and I also know his mother. • He is good at maths and he is also good at sports. Either.) Se usa cuando tienes dos alternativas.. or... • He opened the door as well as the window. However puede ser usado con un significado parecido. sino . A veces muestra sorpresa o asombro: • 'I'll give you £5.. • You can take either French or English.. • I don't know if can do that. On the other hand.
He is not very clever. don't do it at all. however. Completa la frase con alguna de las uniones que van a continuacion: although. 5. usando las palabras del ejercicio 1. He plays the guitar and 7. 7. He was tired 11. do it properly he didn't cry. We have not the means to do it.. they are expensive. Besides. this one to that one.. He is very clever. Nevertheless. Example: 'Does he speak French?' 'Yes. Little Jimmy cut his finger 10. He didn't speak English. and he also speaks German. You can learn 13 happy. The little boy fell off the tree. 3. Although he could speak five languages. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. on the other hand. he works hard. either. or. he is studying the piano. he got the job. We won't go to this restaurant 4. You can play football. 3. but not both. You can walk up take the cable car. I don't feel well. I don't think he will.STANLEY EXERCISES 37 1. 6. 1. read and write. 2. that one. .' Yes. German at the same time. as well as. You can't do the two things at the same time. and he speaks German too. we played our best. Example: Even though we lost the game. You can play rugby this afternoon. people buy them. 1. 14. we have no money. You must 9. The books are not very good. meat French fish. also. though. He didn't hurt himself. I have no time to go and 8. and 5. people don't read nowadays. Unfortunately he is very lazy. You can take 12. You can take 6. 4. He had no qualifications 2. He says he will pay. 2. but.
Have to, must, need to.
Los verbos must y have to tienen un significado muy parecido aunque su uso no es exactamente el mismo. Must indica un obligacion moral, un sentimiento que es necesario hacer algo: • You must stop doing that.* I must finish this job for tomorrow. • I must make an appointment to see the dentist. Con el have to no das tus propios sentimientos. Puedes dar solo hechos: • I have to wear glasses. • I can't go to the party. I have to work. O indicar una obligacion exterior: • We all have to pay taxes. • You have to wear uniforms on duty, don't you? Para indicar costumbres se usa have to: • I have to take six of these pills every day.
Que • • • a veces se pueden usar las dos formas indistintamente: It's very late. I must/have to go now. I must/will have to buy a good dicctionary. I must/have to cut down on smoking.
Pero cuando comentamos las obligaciones de los demas usamos el have to: • I suppose you'll have to be at work by 9. • They'll have to send somebody down to examine the damage. Cuando las obligaciones le parecen importantes al que habla, usa must: • I must tell you about a friend of mine. • This sort of thing must stop at once. En pasado solo hay una forma: had to • Yesterday I had to borrow some money from Jim. Need to indica necesidad. • I need to consult a good dictionary. • He needs to have access to our files. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: • Need you go so early? • You needn't come with us. Para el pasado solo hay una. • You didn't need to wait for us. • Do you need to go so early? • You don't need to come with us.
1. Completa las frases con el verbo must o have to. Example: I have to go to work every day except Sunday. 1. Jane, you 2. Your spelling is awful. You 3. You 4. You 5. You'll 6. You 7. You both 8. I ran out of money and I 9. The doctor told me that I 10. There were no buses so she 11. Before I give you a cheque I 12.The poor girl can't see a thing. She 13.1 can't meet you tomorrow. I 14. It's very late. I 15. Daddy is not feeling well. We'll 16. In Britain children 17.1 couldn't repair the TV. I go now. call the doctor. wear uniform when they go to school. take it to the shop. work. wear a dress tonight. You're going to the theatre. use a dictionary. wear a uniform when you are on duty, don't you? train very hard for the Olympic Games, I suppose. start earlier when you start work, won't you? tell me about your quarrel with Jim. come and see us. borrow some from my friend. take these pills. walk. find my cheque book. wear glasses.
2. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: I need to consult a doctor. Do I need to consult a doctor?/Need I consult a doctor? I don't need to consult a doctor/I needn't consult a doctor. 1. I need to talk to you
2. He needs to have access to our files.
U N I T 20
Uses of the article "the
The se usa para unas referencias definidas: • The lion is dangerous. Pero no se usa en sentido general: • Lions are dangerous. Con nacionalidades se usa the: the British, the Americans, the Spanish, the Italians. Y tambien con algunos adjetivos: the injured, the wounded, the dying, the old, the young, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the sick. El uso de the con estaciones del ano es opcional: • We'll go in (the) autumn. Con fechas el artfculo se lee pero no se escribe: • 16 (th) April (se dice the sixteenth of April).
Cinema, theatre, radio, television,
Decimos: We go to the cinema/theatre. • We listen to the radio. Pero generalmente omitimos el artfculo con television. • We watched television last night. • We watch the news on television. Sin embargo decimos: • Switch off the television, please.
Que no ponemos el artfculo cuando hablamos de algo en general bien sea contable o incontable: • Sugar is bad for the health. • Girls are always beautiful. Ni con organizaciones: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). O titulos de personas: Mr Jones, Mrs Brown, Miss Jackson, Dr Smith, Captain Mallory, Lord Mountbatten, Pope John, Father Brian. Con dfas y meses: • Saturday is the best day of the week. • May is a beautiful month. Con comidas: • Dinner is at seven. • Lunch was very light.
Los periodistas omiten los artfculos para ganar espacio y dar mas impacto a la noticia: • BINGO FIRE ALARM • COACH CRASH DISASTER Suprimimos los artfculos cuando empleamos estas palabras refiriendonos al uso para el que estan concebidas: church, hospital, school, bed, prison, sea, class, university, college, court, town. • The wounded were taken to hospital. • Mr and Mrs Brown go to church every Sunday. Sin embargo decimos: • I went to the church to see the new altar.
please? 1.This is most expensive restaurant in town. He lives in a little village in 26. 7. green is my favourite colour smoking is bad for your health. Which is 6 radio. We went to 19. dinner in a restaurant. I've invited my girlfriend to dinner 9 10. What time is 23 24. 20. My parents don't go to cinema. cheapest in this town. sir. I usually watch theatre very much. biggest hotel in the city.The man in charge of this church is 18. television. She is dead were buried and only person who understands me. That man was sent to 12 13 money makes the world go round. Example: Can you turn up the volume of the television. Switch off 28. sea. lunch?. I don't like listening to 4. We had space this cupboard occupies is incredible. next Sunday. Father Brown. Colonel Rogers to see you. 17. sea for two months. . En algunas de estas frases hay que poner articulo. 11. 14. Pyrenees. please? theatre very often? sky? 25. space. Are there many stars in 30 31. It was a nice cruise. earth goes around sun. We were at sea for two weeks. Alps with his elephants. 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 41 1. meal we had at the restaurant was delicious. This hotel is 27. 5. They prefer going to longest river in the world? Everest is the highest mountain in the world. En otras no. TV. prison for two years. Hannibal crossed over 8.There are millions of stars in 21 22. wounded were taken to hospital. Do you go to 29. Doctors say that 15 16 beans contain a lot of fibre. Swimming in a swimming pool is better than swimming in 3. We were at 32 people always say these things.
J. La diferencia entre one y a/an A menudo son intercambiables: a hundred = one hundred. an honour. an se usa delante de sonidos de vocal (no solo con palabras que empiecen con vocal): • Please..G. Usamos el artfculo indeterminado con profesiones. • a man with an M. " " " " " • a uniform • a union • a year.S.K. • He is a socialist and she is a conservative. • a radio with an R. La pronunciacion de a y an A se usa delante de sonidos de consonantes (no solamente letras consonantes). • a fair with an F. • John is a mechanic and Peter is an architect. religiones. • She's got a toothache. an heir.D.C. Cuando usamos an no pronunciamos la h: an honest man.Z.H.I.W. • • • • • an unusual event an eye an ear a home a hot day sin embargo.X.E. o some eggs. a university • a European • a n hour • an honour Algunas palabras que empiezan por h pueden ir precedidas de a o an a discrecion del que las pronuncia: a hotel o an hotel.L. nacionalidades.F.R.V. historian o an historian. • This is an A. an hour.Q.U.T..M.STANLEY U N I T 21 42 Use of the article a/an. RECUERDA Que se dice • an umbrella. • He is a Catholic and she is an Anglican. • a noise with an N.O. El plural de a house puede ser El " " an egg " " houses eggs o some houses. Fijate: • a horse with an H. • This is a B. • He is an American and she is a Frenchwoman. • a lion with an L. y polftica.N. write a U and an H on the blackboard. .P.Y. A menudo usamos a/an con enfermedades: • I've got a cold. Cuando relatamos un suceso usamos tambien one: • One day I met your mother and .
...... certain merchant arrived in Peking... 1 ...... This is a/an/one sort of can opener....There is .. She is 6... hot meal.......... hat? hour..... 1 3........................ I ordered one/a coffee...... Many years ago ...... You have to spell it with 10....... umbrella and ... an/jto[& hour. university in that country where you have to wear uniform. My sister is 3. English woman...... It was a/an united nation.. 2. unique book X............... 2......Catholic.. lawyer....... This is a/an unique occasion.. You need a/an screwdriver and a/an knife............ This is a/an Eurovision song contest....... .... ... architect. .. If you go to Scotland take a/one raincoat and a/an umbrella........ . not two. 9................. honest woman... .... I'll be here before . That man is 14..... 9.... ... 4... There was 5... . piece of good news today. . 5. honour.. ..... She was 2......... It was a/an universal happening....... 10...... Xylophone you spell it with .. Have you got 4.........Muslim and she is a/. ... It was 7..... There is only 1 5.. . We'll have 8. quarter of a pound. ... ... She's got 19......... L.. .........STANLEY EXERCISES 43 1. Completa las frases con a/an o one Example: There is a hospital not far from here........ 6.. That man is a/an European....................... headache............. 8. hall with a staircase leading to the rooms....... 1 1 .......... and that woman is a/an Asian.......... This is 16... He is a/.... 3......... Tacha la opcion que no corresponda....... Example: The car was doing 80 kms.... 1 met him 17... 1 only want 18. many years ago... 1. ........ 7. .............. He was carrying unusual case........ . 12............... day....
• I left a message so as to be sure of contacting her. • Stand with your arms out. So (asi). Tambien puede significar because. So (indicando resultado). As/Because/Since he lives near here we'll pay her a visit. • • • • As/Because/Since he had no money he couldn't buy a car. She worked hard so that everything would be ready by six. . • As a doctor he was very well known. because. • The shops were closed so I didn't get any bread. So that se usa en oraciones de proposito (clauses of purpose). como. as. He had to die so that others could live.STANLEY U N I T 22 44 Since. • As a student he gets a great reduction. As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he cut himself badly. As/Because/Since he knew her well. • As a married man he has to think of his wife. so. • And so on. puesto que). es decir cuando la persona a la cual se refiere el proposito es diferente del sujeto de la oracion principal. • So it was that he had the first sight of snow. o cuando el sujeto original se vuelve a mencionar: • • • • I say these things so that you can criticise me. As con la mayorfa de los verbos puede significar 'mientras. The knife had a cork handle so that it would float if it fell into the water. he didn't trust her. so. puede muchas veces significar lo mismo que since o because. (ya que. As + noun puede significar when or while. As/While he walked along the path he thought of past events. • The manager was ill so I went in his place. So (de forma de que). As/While she made up her face she thought about the date. As/Because/Since it contains alcohol you can't give it to the children. As. so that.' • • • • As/While he climbed the stairs his eyes fell upon the picture.
Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. 5. There was no answer 8. As/While a married man he has to think of his family. the animals wouldn't be thirsty. 3. She didn't like him 6. the students would see it. I left the note in the hall I didn't buy anything. Ron so o so that en las frases siguientes. As she walked along the corridor she thought of her sister. . 2. He stopped for a rest as he was tired. We worked all night long 3. everything would be ready. He always sings as he shaves in the bathroom. They put a lot of water 5. 1. 6. 2. Example: As/Because he shaved he thought of her. He wrote it on the blackboard 7. we walked away. I came back.STANLEY EXERCISES 45 1. 4. Example: Since he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. Example: Ships have lifeboats so that the crew can save their lives. 5. 1. she stopped going out with him. As he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. As a student he had been disastrous. he didn't go to school. 3. As/Because you are so clever tell me the answer. my wife would see it. Since/When I'm going to be there in the morning I'll do it myself. 2. Tacha la palabfa qtre-este mal. Since/While you are going to stay with us you may as well know it. You can tell me something about these people since you live in the district. He hadn't done his homework 9. Since you seem to know everything tell me where I can find this. The road was blocked 4. The supermarket wasn't opened yet 2. 3. Because/While he drove he thought of the last events. 1. 4.
• This is a knife for carving meat. • They took their seats early in order/so as not to miss the beginning. e. • She is learning Spanish so that she can travel in South America. • She disguised herself so that nobody would recognise her. • He tiptoed in order/so as not to wake up the children. • I'll switch on the heater so that the room will be warm by bed time. Estarfa mal decir: (He went early not to miss the beginning). No es muy normal usar un infinitivo de proposito despues del imperativo o infinitivo de los verbos go y come. need. want. Algunos verbos. bring. . Con frases negativas no se puede usar solo el infinitivo. Infinitives of purpose after GO and COME. El proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitivo: • She went to England to learn English. a fin de).STANLEY U N I T 23 46 Infinitive of purpose. • He went to the Post Office to buy stamps. • That is a tool for opening tins. In order/So as + Infinitive (para. • She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time with her children.' Es decir usamos dos imperativos unidos con and • Come and talk to my sister. • He bought a new car so that his wife might learn to drive.g. RECUERDA Que cuando hablamos acerca de un prop6sito en general usamos for + gerundio. • I gave her my address so that she could write to me. buy. Lo mismo ocurre si usamos el must: • I must go and finish that as soon as possible. « That is a trunk for keeping old clothes. take. a menudo introducen un objeto + infinitivo: • Bring me a chair to sit on. En vez de decir: 'Go to find your brother' generalmente decimos 'Go and find your brother. Oraciones de proposito con so that + will/would o can/could + infinitivo. • I need a spoon to eat my soup. • Go and tell him to stop that noise. • He left early in order/so as to arrive in time.
3. Why do children go to school? (learn) 2. He wanted his wife to know. We have a trunk a marathon. He wrote it in code. Why is she wearing a coat? (keep warm) 6. We haven't got enough money 3. Example: He wrote a note. Give him a key. 2. We'll get together this afternoon 6. She hid his trousers. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a estas preguntas. He didn't want anybody to understand it. Why do you walk to your office every day? (save money) 2. She didn't want him to leave the house. at the wedding. a new house. 1. Example: Why did you go to the Post Office? (buy stamps) / went to the Post Office to buy stamps. Why are you saving money? (buy a house) 5. in. Why did you telephone her? (tell her the news) 3. the problem. He can get into the house. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con so that. 4. Example: They are going to the airport to catch/take the plane. I am not fit enough 2. He wrote a note so that his wife would know. These poor people haven't got a bed 5. all these old clothes in.STANLEY EXERCISES 47 1. 1. I need a new dress 7. I need some shelves 4. . 3. Completa estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. 1. He wants the house to be warm when the children get up. my books on. Why did you go to the dentist? (pull a tooth out) 4. He is lighting a fire.
• If I were you/in your position.STANLEY U N I T 24 48 Conditionals: type 1. I wouldn't do it. we would have gone out. If I were/was + would/should. If + present + modal. I'd say yes. I would have bought it. 2 and 3. • If it weren't for your help. • I'll buy the house if we have money. I would still be on the road. • Should you see her give her my regards. TYPE 3 La forma mas comun es: if + past perfect + would have • • • • If If If If I had had money. No hay diferencia en el significado. Imperative + conjunction + clause. it hadn't been for the rain. pero were es mas formal. If + past perfect + modal • If I had known that. • If you (should) see her give her my regards. If + Should + imperative. I could/might have told you. • If I were/was a man I would be a policeman. • If you didn't watch so much TV you wouldn't feel so sleepy in the morning. • If I were John/in John's position. I had lived in the Middle Ages. I wouldn't have paid the bill. • Stop shouting and/or/otherwise you'll wake up everybody. he hadn't finished the job. • If you went by plane you would get there earlier. Were se puede usar en lugar de was. • If I finish early I can/could/may/might/should/ought/must phone him. • If she comes tomorrow we can/could/may/might/should/ought to/must go for a picnic. . TYPE 2 La forma mas comun es: if + simple past + "d" conditional • If you spoke languages you would earn more. y se usa para posibilidades remotas: • If I were the King you'd be the Queen. Otras expresiones con were. I would have been a knight. • If the weather is good we'll go out. TYPE 1 La forma mas comun es if + simple present + future.
Example: If I had asked him he would have answered. (go/train). If you had wanted. (learn/more English). 2. If it rains we 2. 1. Remember! You must phone me 8. (be/punish). If he calls. I 5. we 2. you (get/better/job). I 3. Completa las frases con el type 3. You would get there earlier 5. (tell/him/l/ring back). (weather/good). 3. If I am not better tomorrow. (have/money). (get/drunk). I would still be there if 6. If you break that you (go out). (be/you). I 8. I 3. 1. If you had worked harder at school. We may go for a picnic 7. (help you). (to be/for/your help). Completa las frases con el type 2. I wouldn't do it if 7. (not/get/job). (get drunk). Completa las frases con condicional type 1. If you went to England. I will buy the car 6. If it rained tomorrow. (take aspirin). (go/with you). Example: It would be very cold if I opened the window. If you drink too much you 9. If you had broken that you (be/here/yesterday). (accept/offer). (weather/clear up). 6. Example: If you eat too much you'll get fat. 3. If you help me. .STANLEY EXERCISES 49 1. he 5. I wouldn't be surprised 4. If you had drunk too much you 9. He might tell us if 8. If I had been in your position. He might have told us if 7. 1. If you broke that you (stay/home). We would have been happy 4. (rain). I would have stayed at home 2. (she/marry me). If you drank too much you 9. 4. (know/facts). (get drunk). (give it to you). (be/punish). If you had insisted. (be/punish).
• She said she might hire a van. • We couldn't take radios into the library. Could come alternativa de may/might. Generalmente se usa para afirmaciones impersonates concernientes a la autoridad y permiso: • In certain circumstances the police may enter a private home. Con el infinitive continue: • She may/might be waiting at the bus stop. (podrfa ser que te prestase) Might se puede usar en el condicional cuando la expresion esta introducida por un verbo en el pasado: • If we asked him he might come. Para los tiempos compuestos y voz pasiva se debe usar allowed.' • 'I wonder why Katty isn't here. May para pedir permiso. Could = was/were allowed para permiso en pasado.' 'She may/might/could be in the shed. May/might for possibility. you may leave. En ingles coloquial se suele sustituir el may por el can. you may not smoke here.' • 'May I smoke in this room?' 'No. • 'I wonder where Jane is. (es imposible que fuera el) . • They may come with us if they want to. • An accused person may appeal. (future) May y might come posibilidad de presente y future. (at this moment) • They may/might be waiting when we arrive. Mr Brown?' 'Yes.' 'She may/might/could still be waiting for you. • Since the incident she hasn't been allowed to go out alone. • On Sundays we could stay in bed until 10. • They may/might emigrate to Australia. Might aumenta la duda.' Third person. • He may take my car this evening. • 'May I go now.STANLEY U N I T 25 50 May. (quiza no fuese el el que conducfa) • He couldn't be driving the bus. Seguidos del presente de infinitive pueden expresar posibilidad en el presente o en el future: • He may/might tell us tonight. • Dad may lend you the car. might and could + infinitive. En las frases negatives hay diferencia: • He may/might not be driving the bus himself. (puede que te preste) • Dad might lend you the car.
'Do you know if she was pregnant?' 'I'm not sure. Responde ahora en forma negativa. 'Are the children ready?' 'I'm not sure. 'Do you know if she is telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. But he may/might have bought it. The house was burgled. They .' (might/be/toilet) . It may/might be in the shed. They 2. 'Your brother is not in the house. 'Do you know if he was looking?' 'I'm not sure.' 1. They 3.' 1. Example:'Is your father in the office?' 'I'm not sure. pero en pasado. He may/might not be in his office. I wonder where he is. She 2. I wonder how they got in. She 2. He 3. She 3. I wonder why. 2. Ahora escribe frases explicando la situacion. 'Do you know if they were working?' 'I'm not sure. she may/might be in the kitchen. (might/be/shed) 1. Example: 'Do you know if Mum is in the kitchen?' 'I'm not sure. 'Do you know if they are coming?' 'I'm not sure. but she didn't answer the phone. 'Do you know if she wants to do it?' 'I'm not sure. 'She was at home.' (may/go/cinema). I wonder where it is. 4. Lo mismo que en el ejercicio 1. 'Does he want to do it?' 'I'm not sure. 'Is she telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. She 3.' (may/get in/through/window) 3. Example: 'Do you know if he bought the book?' 'I'm not sure. He 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 51 1.' 1. Example: / can't find the little puppy. En este ejercicio tienes que poner las frases con may y might.
• She hid his trousers so that he couldn't leave the room. why did you go out with him? If so (si es asf). • It had snowed during the night. So es un adverbio y se usa con adverbios y adjetivos: • The rain fell so heavily that we pulled up the car by the kerb. • 'I hope Janet doesn't come. • As/Because/Since it was dangerous for my health I stopped smoking. • I was angry because she made me wait. Clauses of result with such/so . pero no because: • As/Since/Seeing that you're going that way. . purpose and result. Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una afirmacion ya mencionada. se puede reemplazar por if: • As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Keith. a fin de que) • They wear reflective jackets so that they can be seen in the dark. so the roads were slippery. • He died in order that we might live. why did you invite her?' Clauses of result (Oraciones de resultado) • As it had snowed during the night. Clauses of purpose (para que.STANLEY U N I T 26 52 Clauses of reason. the roads were slippery. Clauses of reason Estas oraciones se pueden introducir con as/because/since: • I gave up smoking as/because/since it was dangerous for my health.' 'If so. • It was too dark to find the tracks. Estas combinaciones podrfan expresarse tambien por dos oraciones unidas con so.. • He had such a lot of money that he didn't know how to spend it. so we went back to the hut. let's go together. • She dyed her hair to avoid/to prevent being recognized (so that she wouldn't be recognized). In view of the fact that puede ser expresado por as/since/seeing that.. that. En frases negativas so that puede ser reemplazado por to avoid/prevent.
The door was closed. It was too dark to go on. 1. Example: The train arrived on time B. It froze hard that night. We don't have to go to work. 5. Example: Ships carry lifeboats so that passengers can save their lives. You may as well give me a hand. Une las frase siguientes con so. Tomorrow is a holiday. They closed all the windows. We were able to catch the plane. We walked home from the office. 4. He spoke for 4. 3. A. We finished work early. B. The room was very cold. A. Completa las frases con such a o so that. fierce dog that nobody dares to get near her. You are here. long time that people began to leave the place.STANLEY EXERCISES 53 1. 2. people can see them. 1 2. . They camped there. The train arrived on time. I paid with my credit card. It was a nice day yesterday I had no money. This gadget is made of wood 2. 4. The wind was blowing hard. 1. We couldn't get in. 3. The exercise was wrong. 6. The window was open. so we were able to catch the plane. 3. 2. She has 3. The teacher told him to repeat it. She didn't have a car. They carry torches in the fog it will float if it falls into the water. We went for a walk. 7. 5. There was ice everywhere the next day. She had to walk to the office. En este ejercicio tienes que unir las frases de la columna A con la columna B.
He already knows. you know! (no tenfas necesidad de haber trafdo) . Cuando se usa como verbo defective no anade s la tercera persona del singular y no admite ni el to ni el do: • 'Need I go?' -'No. • 'Do I need to come early?' 'No. o ideas negativas.STANLEY U N I T 27 54 Need. NEEDN'T + PAST INFINITIVE Esta estructura se usa para expresar una accion innecesaria que de todas formas fue llevada a cabo. • I wonder if you need to take an early train. FIJATE en la diferencia entre needn't y mustn't. • All you need do is sign this form.' RECUERDA Que el verbo need admite las dos formas. you needn't go. • I don't think she need go yet. I have to change the sheets. • I don't think she needs to go yet. Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacion. Estas mismas frases se diri'an coloquialmente usando el need como verbo ordinario. We are in Marbella. • All you need to do is sign this form. • Do I need to send it by air? = Need I send it by air? • He needs to get a haircut = He need get a haircut.' Como verbo normal: • He needs a lot of money to buy that house. Mientras que mustn't indica que no debes. He'd go mad. • You mustn't tell your father. Need puede tener la forma de un verbo defective (modal auxiliary) o la de un verbo ordinario. • You needn't tell your father. (no tenfas por que haber hecho) • You needn't have brought your coat. Se pueden usar formas afirmativas modales con frases que expresan duda. aunque la forma ordinaria es mucho mas comun: • You don't need to do it today = You needn't do it today. aunque no sea muy corriente el usarlas. you don't need to come early. • I wonder if you need take an early train. • You needn't have made the beds.
All you need do is fill in the form. Need you wear uniform at school? 3. 2. Need I pay cash? 4. Need I type this report today? 2. 1.' 'No. You needn't pay until the end of the month. Gambia la forma defectiva del verbo need por la ordinaria. 9. You needn't wear a dress tonight. 3. Example: 'Need he come so early?' 'Yes. 2. Example: You needn't come with us. 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 55 1. I don't think he need come just yet. Ahora vas a pasar estas frases de forma ordinaria a defectiva Example: You don't need to wear a dress tonight. He needn't read the whole book. Responde a estas preguntas usando el verbo need como defective. I don't need to tell you the difficulties. 7. 5. he needn't come. I wonder if I need take all these pills. Need I come in early tomorrow? 6. 4. he need come. You don't need to come with us. Do you need to spend so much money on shoes? 5.' 1. I don't think he needs to come just yet. Need we hurry tonight? 10. Need you type those letters today? 3. 8. Need she send it by air? 2. You needn't tell your mother yet. . We needn't make two copies. She doesn't need to hurry. Do I need to run to catch the bus? 3. 1.
• I could play the piano at the age of 5. Can puede ser usado con idea de future. know how to + infinitive. Past Could se usa como habilidad general. Can se usa para hablar en presente de una habilidad general: • I can run 1000 metres in three minutes. • Can you cook. Susan? Be able tambien se usa aunque es menos corriente. could con verbos de percepcion. She knows how to make you feel at ease. • Can you come to my house on Saturday? RECUERDA Que • • • KNOW HOW TO se puede usar tambien para expresar habilidad. • Tomorrow morning I'll be able to stay in bed until 10. • She is certainly able to cook.STANLEY U N I T 28 56 Ability can. • He was so drunk that he couldn't find the key. Can. Could no se usa para indicar una habilidad en el pasado (en una ocasion). • After I have some sleep I'll be able to give you a hand. • I can smell something burning. managed to. I know how to get there faster than the rest. • How many pints were you able to drink? • I managed to get a rise. Se prefiere was able to. I know how to cook. • I couldn't hear anything. • You could have killed him. o succeeded in. • We can discuss that this afternoon. (Tambien: I was able to play) • My grandfather could speak several languages. Could con el infinitive compuesto. Aquf can tiene una funcion gramatical que equivale al presente simple en afirmaciones. Para el future se usa be able. • I could have made a fortune if I had wanted to. . y al do/does en preguntas y negaciones. para decir que podrfas hacer algo cuando quisieras. • After two hours we succeeded in reaching the top. Couldn't se usa tanto para habilidad general como particular. • Last year he couldn't decide what he wanted to do. • You can see that that is true.
3. but she when she was younger. 4. but I to beat Bronson. to parachute. Example: My brother could/was able to do that very easily. 4. He hurt his knee. The plane caught fire. I've never her. I focused my binoculars and I 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 57 1. do that. He used to it now. Ask my father. I can't speak basque now. I can't light a fire now with two pieces of wood. but I when I was at school. 1. solve all of them when I lived in the . speak several languages. He was able to/could play the piano when he was a child. She can speak four languages now. 3. She seven languages. I haven't been able to come earlier. Example: She can't play the piano now. but she could when she was a child. Queen Cleopatra was very clever.' 7. I can't solve those problems now. but I Basque Country. I can't understand that woman. so he train for sometime. En este ejercicio tienes que usar can o be able a veces puedes usar los dos. We looked everywhere for the child but we couldn't find him. 1. 1. 3. but we 2. speak find the plane approaching. was/were able to o couldn't. but I when I was a boy scout. Example: Everybody was able to escape from the building on fire. but I a loaf at the supermarket. but I don't think he can do understand 2.' 6. it was quite hard. 4. He should 3. 'Did you win your tennis match?' 'Well. En este ejercicio hay que completar las frases con could. 'Did you find the house?' 'Yes. I didn't find any bread at the baker's. My brother 2. help you. Completa las frases con could. 2. it wasn't easy but we find it.
He is not worth getting angry about. • What the point of talking to you if you don't listen? • Are you in favour of giving the workers extra pay? RECUERDA Que hay dos excepciones a la regla del gerundio: except y but. He went for a drink before coming home. . Algunos phrasal verbs llevan el gerundio detras. He is very keen on gambling. Todos los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio. try. want. have. etc. Si va detras de los verbos auxiliares be. She is very fond of playing the piano. leave off. • I am looking forward to seeing you. look forward to. give up. He was walking without looking in front. intend. but the baker's was closed. care for. mean. hope.STANLEY U N I T 29 58 Gerunds after prepositions Worth. Hay algunas combinaciones de noun + preposition + gerund. • I am used to waiting for her. put off. I wanted to. take to: • He took to writing. used. que llevan un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). Con algunos verbos tales como. see about. y despues del going. would like/love. TO puede ser parte de un infinitive. o una preposicion. keep on. En otras ocasiones el to colocado detras de un verbo sera probablemente una preposicion e ira seguida por un nombre/pronombre o gerundio. ought. • 'Did you buy bread?' 'Well. Is it worth visiting the art gallery? This car isn't worth repairing (nombre o pronombre como sujeto). • • • • It isn't worth coming so early (It como sujeto). tales como: be for/against. plan. usamos el to para evitar la repeticion. hate. es parte del infinitive. • She put off making a final decision till the morning. WORTH se puede usar en dos estructuras seguidas de gerundio. • There's no point in talking about it if you don't listen. • There's nothing we can do except wait. • • • • • You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs. • That woman does nothing but complain.
We went to the Italian restaurant. I'm not looking 3. She has to translate this text. We didn't go to the Chinese restaurant. She is looking forward to going on holiday. She was mad because I was late. We had an accident soon after 2. They think it is 2. I am looking 3. I am looking forward to it. She doesn't translate very often. I want to hear from you. After leaving school I looked for a job. We left and soon we had an accident. I don't want to give him more money. He thinks it is not worth repairing it. She is not used 4. I don't want to get angry. He is queueing up. Escribe otra frase con looking forward to o I am used to. Lee la frase y escribe otra con el mismo significado. Example: I left school. I am looking 2. I don't think it is 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 59 1. Usa la palabra worth con las siguientes frases. She was mad with me for 3. He doesn't like it. I have no intention of 4. I don't like it. I want to meet you soon. I'm going to the dentist. He is not used to 2. She's going on holiday. Then I looked for a job. I'm going to make an effort. Example: She is happy. 1. We went to the Italian restaurant instead of 6. 1. He's very good at 5. They are not going to visit the cathedral. 1. My brother makes a lot of things. Example: He is not going to repair the car. I think it is .
I've just had breakfast. Normalmente el already se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio. • Have you done that already? • He's finished already! • The children have gone to school already! . I have already sent it back. Cuando usamos ever en frases afirmativas le damos el significado de jamas. already. El preterito perfecto con ever se usa generalmente en preguntas. A veces para darle mas enfasis lo ponemos al final de la frase. • This is the most interesting book I have ever read. the only. • This is the best beer I have ever drunk. • No. • This is the first time I have (ever) ridden a mule. con the first. etc. She has already given up smoking. have you just arrived? I've just seen your brother. • • • • We have already finished. I have never been to Rome. • That was the easiest job I have ever done. the second. RECUERDA Que tambien podemos usar esta construccion (con o sin ever). (acaba de) Hello. • This is the only time he has (ever) come to see me. • No. se usa para sugerir que algo se ha hecho antes de lo esperado.STANLEY U N I T 30 60 Present perfect (ever. for. • • • • • She has just gone out. Lo usamos con superlatives. They have already given it to me. just. since) El preterite perfecto con just se usa con acciones recientemente ocurridas. I have never spoken to him. I have just remembered. • • • • • Have you ever been to Rome? (alguna vez) Has she ever told you what happened that day? Have you ever been to the Prado Museum? Have you ever been in a submarine? Have you ever spoken to him? Para responder negativamente se usa el never. El preterito perfecto con already (ya).
I have never read Shakespeare.' 1 ?' ?' ?' 2. we have never studied Greek. 'When are you going to run a marathon?' Well.' 1 3. I 2. 'No. That was the fastest mile I (run) 4. 1. I 2.' . Como en el ejemplo. 'I see you're back from the Costa Brava.' 1 4.' 'Yes. That is the (beautiful/woman/see) 3. 'No. 'When are you going to do it?' 'I 2. 1. Example: 'No.' 'Yes. Forma frases usando just. Haz preguntas para las siguientes respuestas. I've never been to Italy. Example:'I've heard Eddie is back. I (give up) 5. 'Did you post the letters?' 'Well. Responde a las preguntas con already.' No. I 3. Usa ahora ever con frases afirmativas.STANLEY EXERCISES 61 1. a couple. This the cheapest hotel I (stay) 5. Sin dar enfasis. This is the second time I (be/this country) 4. I . I've never smoked a cigar. 'Have you finished writing your book?' 'Yes. This is the (interesting/book/read) 2. 'You don't smoke any more. 'No.' 1 ?' 3. Como en el ejemplo. Example: This is the best wine I have ever tasted. Example: 'When are you going to post the letter?' 'I've already posted it. I've just seen him. 'No. I've never eaten lobster.' 'Have you ever been to Italy?' 1. 1. 'Have you seen my brother?' 'Yes. 'When are you going to speak to your boss?' 'I 3. we 4.
STANLEY U N I T 31 62 Present perfect (with for and since) FOR se usa con un perfodo de tiempo: for two days. for a long time. SINCE Se usa con un momento determinado de tiempo. Si usamos for con el pasado simple denota un determinado perfodo de tiempo: • We lived in London for two years. Ever since • He had an accident last year and he has been bedridden ever since. . • • • • • They've been here since 9 o'clock. (o bien) It is six months since I last saw Tom. For usado con el preterito perfecto denota un perfodo de tiempo que se extiende hasta el presente: • • • • • • • • We have lived in this town for twenty years. Podemos decir: • • • • I haven't seen Tom for six months. Casi siempre se usa con preterito perfecto. RECUERDA Que con la estructura: It is + period + since + past o perfect tense. (ya no vivimos alii) • I worked in that company for a year. He hasn't invited me to his house for years. I last saw Tom six months ago. He has worked in this factory since he left school. 'How long have you known your boyfriend?' 'I've known him for a week. We've been going out together since we met in Paris. We haven't met since Christmas. We have known each other for many years. (todavia vivimos aqui) My parents have been married for twenty five years. y significa 'desde ese momento'. I've been driving lorries since I was eighteen. I haven't smoked a cigarette for two months. (o bien) It is six months since I have seen Tom.' My grandmother has been ill for quite a long time. I haven't seen my girlfriend for a week.
'How long has she been ill?' (four weeks) 'She 7. (We have/not/be/cinema/years) 6. 'How long have you been in love with that girl?' (summer holiday) 'I've 6. (We/have/not/buy/a new/car/10 years) . 'How long have you been married?' (twenty years) 'I've been 3.. 'How long has he been in the army?' (January) 'He 8. (I/not/see/Margaret/weeks) 4. 'How long have you known this man?' (Christmas) 'I've known 4.. 'How long has your father been unemployed?' (six months) 'He has 5. Example: 'How long have you worked in that factory?' (six years) 'I've worked in that factory for six years. 'How long have you been a smoker?' (14 years old) 'I've been 2. (I/have/not/smoke/cigarette/I980) 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 63 1. 'How long has your brother been in hospital?' (a few days) 'He . 2... (My father/has/not/work/Christmas) 3. Example: (we/know/eachother/six weeks) We've known each other for six weeks.' 1. (has/not/snow/years/this country) 2. Responde a estas frases usando for o since. (It/has/not/rain/in this country/June last year) 7. 1. Elije entre for y since..
I'm getting mad. Nos interesa el resultado de la accion. • He has been repairing his bike. Mas ejemplos: • Jerry's mother is covered in paint. • The baby has been sleeping for ten hours. • I've written two books this year. (Puede que todavia no haya terminado) Pero. En este caso lo importante es que la accion esta acabada. pero lleva algun tiempo ejecutando la accion. Have you been waiting long? Fijate en la diferencia entre la forma continua y la simple. Puede que Tommy haya terminado de arreglar la moto. • She has been painting the kitchen. • I've spoken to him on the phone three times. No nos interesa si la accion esta acabada o no. Se forma con el preterito perfecto del verbo to be + un gerundio: • I have been working. Usamos la forma continua para indicar cuanto tiempo ha estado sucediendo algo. y ahora sf anda: • He has repaired his motorbike. • The children have washed the car this morning. cuantas cosas hemos hecho.STANLEY U N I T 32 64 Present perfect continuous. Tommy tiene la ropa manchada de grasa. si la cocina antes era de un color y ahora es de otro: • Jerry's mother has painted the kitchen. no la accion en si. • She has read two chapters of the book. o cuantas veces hemos hecho algo. puede que no. 0 que acaba de terminar: • Sorry. Pero si la moto antes no andaba. darling. • That boy has been playing football since 2 o'clock. . • I've been reading this book all afternoon. Usamos la forma simple para indicar cuanto hemos hecho. Uso Este tiempo se usa para una accion que empezo en el pasado y que todavia continua: • I have been waiting for half an hour.
1. (The group/travel/around/Europe for two months) 6. I have written ten already.' 'How long 2. (talk) for hours. 'My friend is collecting stamps. . I 5.' 'How many 3. but I (phone) our customers. (He/paint/pictures/since he left the art school) 2. They 2. Example: (This writer/write/100 pages of his book) This writer has written 100 pages of his book. I have (cook) all morning. (read) this book all day. 'Mrs Smith is painting the kitchen. Elije entre la forma continua y la simple.' 'How many 3. (He/win/the county championship many times) 5. Example: I have been writing letters all afternoon. 1. You've 6. Completa las frases con el preterite perfecto simple o con el continuo. I (finish) yet.STANLEY EXERCISES 65 1. 4. (The group/visit/several countries already) 2. Ahora vas a hacer las preguntas para unas respuestas dadas. How long has he been learning French? 1. That man (wait) for hours. I have twenty already. 3. (He/paint/20 pictures/since he left the art school) 3. 'My father writes short stories. Example: My brother is learning French. That girl is waiting for her boyfriend.' 'How long 4. I'm tired. (He/play/tennis/since/1985) 4. (smoke) too much recently. Look at those people.
• I'd rather fly than go by train.prefer to. FIJATE • My father prefers to drive rather than go by plane. Would rather y would prefer pueden ir seguidos de un infinitive preterite: • We went by train. Would rather + infinitive Equivale a would prefer to. Would rather + infinitive No puede usarse para frases en pasado. • I'd rather they studied more during the course. Mientras que prefer to puede ir seguido de un infinitive o un gerundio. Would rather + sujeto + pasado Cuando quieres que alguien haga algo. O tambien: • My father prefers driving to going by plane. • We went to the theatre. Mientras que would rather siempre lleva un verbo detras: • I'd rather drink cider than beer. • I'd rather you wrote the letter now. but I'd rather have gone by air. • I would rather phone than write. • I prefer to fly rather than go by train. Usamos la estructura en pasado. pero would rather va seguido de un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). Prefer puede ir seguido de un sustantivo: • I prefer cider to beer. • I'd rather she didn't try to repair the TV set. Ambos significan lo mismo. but I would have preferred to have gone to the cinema. • I prefer to live / living in the country. el significado es presente o future: • I'd rather write the letter now. Si queremos poner la frase Jim would rather read than watch TV en pasado habra que usar el prefer. • Jim preferred reading to watching TV. sin embargo.STANLEY U N I T 33 66 I would rather . puedes decir. . • I'd rather you went today. • I prefer reading to watching TV.
Example: (reading/watching TV) I prefer reading to watching TV. Example: /'// accept a cheque. I prefer to walk rather than run.. 1. 1. Responde a las preguntas usando I'd rather o I'd prefer Example: Shall we go by train? (rather/fly) I'd rather fly... I'll phone him if you want me to but 3. (give/ receive) i prefer 3. rather than . Shall we cook dinner? (prefer/go to a restaurant) 3. Haz frases usando I prefer como en el ejemplo. I'll speak to her but . I'll go shopping if you want me to but 2. Usa ahora I'd rather + otro sujeto. I prefer to read rather than watch TV.STANLEY EXERCISES 67 1.. Shall we watch TV? (rather/go for a walk) 3. (work/study) I'd rather I'd prefer 4. Shall we pay with a cheque? (prefer/pay cash) 4. (go out/stay at home) I prefer 4. 1. 1. (ski/skate) I prefer I prefer 2.. but I'd rather you paid cash.. (phone/write) I prefer I prefer I prefer I prefer 2. (have a shower/have bath) I'd rather I'd prefer 3. Shall we play golf? (prefer/play/tennis) 2. o I'd rather than . Shall we go to the cinema? (prefer/go theatre) I'd prefer to go to the theatre.. Ahora termina las frases usando: I'd prefer. (read/write) I'd rather I'd prefer 2. Example: (walk/run) I'd rather walk than run.. Shall we have wine? (rather/have beer) 5.
• You had better not miss the train. Look at the time! A veces reforzamos la estructura con la palabra about. • It's getting late. pero a veces se usa en forma interrogativa/negativa como un consejo: • Hadn't you better ask for permission? Para la forma indirecta el had better no varfa: • He said. • We'd better leave now. • What! Still in bed? It's time you got up. • It's time the children were in bed. el significado es presente o future. We'd better hurry. RECUERDA Que had better va siempre seguido de infinitive sin to: • It looks like rain.' • It's time for us to go home. • I'd better do something.* It's time for them to do it. Usamos este tipo de frase cuando nos quejamos o criticamos.. Had aqui es un pasado irreal. (You'd better not) • She's got a temperature. IT'S TIME . I'd better take an umbrella. 'I'd better do it as soon as possible. Cuando creemos que alguien deberfa haber hecho algo ya.. otherwise we'll be late. algo malo puede suceder. Tambien se puede usar otra estructura: It's time somebody did something. • We'd better hurry or we'll miss the bus. La forma negativa es had better not ('d better not). Had better generalmente se usa en forma afirmativa. si no. • It's time you did something for me. • It's time you bought a new car. Aunque usemos la frase en pasado el sentido es de futuro.' • He said (that) he'd better do it as soon as possible. El significado de had better es parecido a should. • I had/I'd better ring him up now. A veces indica que es aconsejable hacer algo. It's time. • It's about time you did some work. = I should do something. It's going to rain. • You'd better take the umbrella.STANLEY U N I T 34 68 Had better + infinitive. Se suele decir 'it's time (for somebody) to do something. • It's time we went back. James! . She'd better not go out today.
'We 7. Your husband is spending Sunday morning in bed. Lee la situacion y escribe una frase con had better. You think they should get up now. You think Jack should write to them. 'It 4. 1. It's about time something was done about the housing problem. 'You 2. 'It's 6. 'We 4. You think you should take him to the doctor. If you don't buy the tickets today you won't get in. 'Your car is very old. You think something should be done about the housing problem. You think something should be done about the traffic problem. If the children don't get up they'll be late. Example: You are going to take the train. 'It 3. It should be painted. 'It 5. You don't think she should wear that. You want to go to a concert on Saturday. 1. You don't think he should go to school today. You think he should buy a suit. You think you should take a taxi. You think you should go. 'It's 7. 'You 6.STANLEY EXERCISES 69 1. 'We 5. You're late. 'It's . Jill is going to put on her old jeans to go to church. You think you should buy a new car. You're late for the train. 'It 2. Your husband never spends money on clothes. Jim has bumped his head. You think something should be done about the immigrants. You think he should get up. What do you say to your friend? We'd better hurry. You haven't been to the dentist for ages. It's time you wrote to your parents. Example: Jack hasn't written to his parents for ages. 'We 3. Escribe frases con It's time somebody did something. 'You 2. You think something should be done about the unemployed. The kitchen looks terrible. Your son doesn't look very well.
RECUERDA El pasado progresivo se forma con was/were + ing. They were playing significa que estaban en el medio del juego. • This time last week I was flying to Miami. La accion habi'a empezado a un tiempo determinado pero todavia no habfa terminado. El uso mas comun del pasado progresivo es hablar acerca de lo que ya estaba sucediendo en un momento en particular en el pasado. usamos el pasado simple. • Jimmy fell off the ladder when he was painting the room. • It was raining when I went to bed. • Jim was studying his lessons. • Yesterday I was having dinner when the phone rang. Habian empezado pero no habfan terminado. • My mother was cooking.STANLEY U N I T 35 70 Past continuous. Sin embargo. . She was walking in the park with a boy. (Estaba en ello) • Jim studied his lessons. • I saw my friend Jenny. (Ya habi'a terminado) Muy a menudo usamos el pasado continue y el pasado simple juntos para decir que algo sucedio en el medio de alguna otra cosa. I got up and answered the phone. para decir que una cosa sucedio despues de otra. • What were you doing yesterday at five? • They were playing football. Quiza estaba quiza no. • The birds were singing. • What were you doing at this time yesterday? El pasado continue no nos dice si una accion estaba terminada o no.
(3 o'clock/watch/serial on TV) 2. That man the photograph. Cuentanos lo que esta gente estaba haciendo cuando sucedio. Ayer hubo un terremoto. Example: (Mrs Evans/have/bath) Mrs Evans was having a bath. Example: The phone rang while Mrs Cook was making the beds. (Mr Evans/talk/phone) 2. 3. 1. (bump) into me while I (take) (play) 9. Example: (8 o'clock/breakfast) At 8 o'clock I was having breakfast. 1. 1. Jimmy (come). (1 o'clock/have/lunch) 6. When it 4. 8.STANLEY EXERCISES 71 1. Ron el verbo en la forma correcta. I (shower) and 6. (11 o'clock/clean flat) 4. (Susan/watch/TV) 4. Linda (wait) for her boyfriend when she (see) the man run out of the jeweller's shop. When the accident very fast. (12 o'clock/prepare/lunch) . . . (happen) I (not/drive) (live) in Eastbourne. Little Jill 2. The clock (strike) twelve while we the last set of our tennis match. I (dance) when I (breakfast) when the school bus (happen) I (run) downstairs when I (fall). 7. . (cat/sleep/chair) 3. . Ron el verbo en past continuous. 3. but she (not/hear/me). (9 o'clock/read the paper) . (David/do/homework) 3. (2 o'clock/wash/dishes) 7. (Tom/play/garden) 6. (slip) and (arrive). (ring) the bell several times. 5. 2. pasado progresivo o simple. . 5. (Jerry/read/book) 5. (10 o'clock/do the shopping) .
El pluscuamperfecto progresivo se usa para hablar acerca de acciones o situaciones mas largas. when etc. • Mrs Brent had been cooking all morning and was tired. • I wondered who had sent the letter. explain. El pluscuamperfecto a menudo se usa con always/since/for etc. • After the rescue party had arrived. • He had been with the company since he was 18. • • • • • I had worked. El pluscuamperfecto se puede usar con till/until. Se refiere a cosas que ya habfan sucedido cuando la conversacion o los pensamientos tuvieron lugar. He had lost his umbrella and had to borrow one. wonder. • He had always been an honest man. para una accion que comenzo en el pasado y que todavfa continue o que acaba de terminar. • She refused to go until she had seen all the photographs. I found that somebody had broken in during the night. • The secretary had been with us for ten years. • She told the boss that she had done enough work for one day. RECUERDA El pluscuamperfecto es muy comun en habla indirecta. • Before they had been there a week. told. • When he arrived to the place. there were tears. We had made. . • We didn't wait till we had finished our breakfast. they had already gone.STANLEY U N I T 36 72 The past perfect. • When I got to the office. She had done. las cuales han estado en progreso hasta ese momento. they had spent all their money. El pluscuamperfecto se construye con had + participio. con verbos como say. Con oraciones de tiempo. ask. • I said that I had already finished. Con before y after se usa mucho el pluscuamperfecto. • They had been working for hours when I got there. etc. • When Peter arrived Linda had been waiting for half an hour. When I arrived he had just left.
4. Example: / was tired because I (be/run) had been running. Example: She was nervous. The kitchen was full of empty beer bottles. The house was quiet because everyone (go/bed) 3. Somebody (drink). 2. She marathon before. 5. It was cold because it (be/snow) . Completa las frases con el past perfect. 3. Example: The kitchen window was broken. He was dirty because he (work/cellar) 2. (run) a (search). He didn't know how to hold the racket. I was afraid of planes. He (see) a camera before. 4. 2. The money (steal). (he/just/go out) He had just gone out. 1. (They/just finish) (fly) before. Volviste a tu casa despues de las vacaciones y te encontraste con algunos cambios. 1. Somebody had broken into the house. (he/arrange/do/something else) 2. I 4. The workmen weren't working when we arrived. The native didn't know how to take a photo. 1. Usa el pluscuamperfecto con las frases siguientes. It (disappear). Example: Dad wasn't at home when I arrived. He was weak because he (be/ill) 4. They arrived at the theatre late. The porcelain vase in the hall was broken on the floor. 2. She had never driven (drive) before. The TV set was not there. He (play) before. She was very tired. Tommy said he couldn't come. They 3. Usa ahora el pluscuamperfecto continue. Completa estas frases usando el pluscuamperfecto. 3. (The play/already/begin) 3. It (break). All the drawers were open. 1. The the children's piggy bank was broken.STANLEY EXERCISES 73 1.
If only se puede usar de la misma manera. • I wish he phoned me. If only + would puede reemplazar por regla general a wish + would. acciones que el podrfa cambiar si quisiera. (Ya podfa venir a vernos mas a menudo!) • I wish you would help me. • I wish they would stop making bombs. En estas frases wished puede reemplazar I wish. if only. • I wish he would come to see us more often.STANLEY U N I T 37 74 I wish. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect lamenta una situacion pasada. • I wish you would shut up. pero solo con acciones que el sujeto puede controlar. • I wish I knew what to do. Tiene el mismo significado que I wish pero es mas dramatico: • • • • If If If If only only only only I knew where to look for her! she had asked my advice! I hadn't lost the money! I had listened to you! Wish + suject + would se pueden usar para lamentar una situacion presente. • He wished he had known the truth.* I wish you had written to me before. • I wished it stopped raining. • I wish I had known the truth. • I wish I got more letters. Wish + subject + unreal past se usa para lamentar la presente situacion. La traduccion podrfa ser: ojala. ya podi'a. RECUERDA Que el verbo que va a continuacion del wish se pone en pasado aunque el significado de la frase sea presente. (Ya podias ayudarme!) • I wish it would stop raining. • • • • If If If If only only only only he would come to see me! he would have listened to me! she would just stop talking for a minute! they would listen to me! . • She wished she had asked someone's advice.» I wish it rained.
I can't understand him. If 2. Escribe frases con I wish you would. 2. I'm not very tall. I wish 4. You lost the money. I wish he came to see me 2. I wish he didn't speak so fast 3. It was raining all day. It is raining and I don't like it. I wish you hadn't lost it. 2. . You don't come to see us very often. 3. Escribe las mismas frases usando I wish. 4. 1. I should like to have one. / wish I lived in Malaga. Example: I wish he took my advice. My son doesn't study very much. I haven't got any cigarettes. 5. Example: / wish you would have said hello. Las frases siguientes vas a ponerlas en pluscuamperfecto. If only I knew what is going to happen! 1. I wish it stopped raining 4. My husband is not here. 1. I should like to know. I should like to live in Malaga. / wish he had taken my advice. I wish 3. I should like him to be here. I wish he didn't sing in the bath 5. You wish it hadn't been raining. Usa ahora if only. but I haven't got money. Example: / don't know what's going to happen. 1. I should like to buy a book.STANLEY EXERCISES 75 1. I wish he said something about it 3. I wish 2. He doesn't vocalise. Example:! live in London. I would like to be taller.
a lot of/lots of milk. (not) much. very little milk. one. the other. • Buy a dozen eggs and half a kilo of sugar. a little milk. any. a number of.' • Are there any bottles of beer in the fridge? RECUERDA uncountable nouns sing How much? There is too much milk. none of. none of the. few.' Quantifier + plural countable noun: • not many houses. an amount of. a good deal of. neither. hardly any. fewer. both.. each. not enough milk. all the. a lot of . no people. the other. less. some. a drop of. plenty of milk. Quantifiers son las palabras o las frases como few. part of. • 'Is there any coffee in the cupboard?' 'Yes. plenty of people. a little. most. several. all. Quantifier + (singular) uncountable noun: • a lot of coffee. the whole. plenty. hardly any milk. • We've hardly got any tea left in the house.STANLEY U N I T 38 76 Quantifiers. Quantifier + singular countable noun: • each person. every. countable nouns plural How many? There are too many people. there is some in that box. lots of. more. dozens. plenty of. Some.. • 'How many people are there?' There are a few.' • 'How much water is there in the jug?' There is a little. • Every/each man has to do his duty. a lot of/lots of people. Quantifier + uncountable noun: • Not much water. the only. hardly any people. little. Quantifier + plural countable noun: • a lot of houses. . half the. a few people. any. either. many. not enough people. Degrees of quantity: definite . las cuales a menudo modifican los sustantivos y muestran de cuantas cosas o de cuanto estamos hablando. the rest of. a couple of. • There are hundreds of students in this school. a bit of. another.no. very few people. no. • There are plenty of chairs in the sitting-room. most of the. no milk.
not all. white powder on a saucer. A 7 attitude. There was 7. a bit of. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: a large amount of. a number of. enough. grain in the barn. Without their leader were very surprised. 1 2. fewer. hardly any. several. most. Example: You need a good deal of patience.' 6. 5. 1. hours. I can trust them all. of eggs in the large basket. cake. I'll be away for a 3. Example: There is hardly any traffic at all. The 2. both. hundreds of. but them could speak a little English. 3. 1. people are waiting at the door to talk to you. any (of the). money than you think. a good deal of. a couple of.STANLEY EXERCISES 77 1. There is very 3. a drop of. of .' ?' 'No. There were 4 our pupils are very good students. half the. In this classroom there are 6. less. doubt about the truth of that. 'Do you want thanks. boys can tell you the answer. 'Did they all speak English?' 'Well. That is 5. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: some (of the). Just another 4. our employees are trustworthy. men approached the young couple in a threatening 2. a lot of. more. others already knew. We have 2. I have 7. Example: There were hundreds of people in the square. the majority of. Jim and Tom are very good players. little. I'm sure that 3 4. none of the. 5. There was 6. the least. all (the). We've got time than you think. We are ruined. Completa las frases usando los quantifiers que se te dan a continuacion: dozens. I can do for you. just give me . people at the meeting knew what to do. pupils than in that one. water and the glass will overflow. I don't want the whole cake.
Aunque tambien podrfamos usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. A little (un poco) . too much y too many si se usan en frases afirmativas. Much (mucho) y Many (muchos) Usamos much con sustantivos incontables. Sin embargo. • Come on! We've got little time left. • There were lots of people at the concert. • We didn't have much time. I've still got a few pounds I can spend. • a lot of/lots of/plenty of water/time/people/houses. She's a strange girl. • much water. • much time. RECUERDA Sin embargo. Tambien se puede usar usar very little y very few. • The meeting was a failure. Usamos much y many con frases interrogativas y negativas.) Little (poco) . a week or so in here. Only a few people came. • many people. • My son has got few friends in this town. que usamos a lot of/lots of/plenty of con contables y con incontables. • There are too many people here. There's a little snow left. y many con contables.STANLEY U N I T 39 78 Quantifiers (cont. • Mary has very few friends. • many houses. .A few (unos pocos) Da una idea de que hay una cierta cantidad. • There is too much money in that box. • Hurry up! We've got very little time.Few (pocos) Dan una idea negativa. I've still got a little time left. go for a walk. go for a drink. • • • • Let's After Let's Let's go to the hills. que no hay mucho. es decir. Sin embargo. I've already got a few friends. • Were there many people at the concert? En frases afirmativas se prefiere usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. only a little y only a few tienen un sentido mas bien negative: • Come on! We've only got a little time left. • We've got a lot of time.
patience. He is very quiet. I've got 13. 1. rain recently. 4. Very 12. He doesn't speak 7. money that they don't know of petrol. We've got 12. Let's have a drink. petrol. Come on. Completa estas frases con little / a little/ few / a few. My grandfather died 5. let's hurry! We've got 9. many and a lot of. This village is very little. It uses 5. We've got 14.There were ' tourists dare to come. 2. 3. I don't speak much Japanese. There has not been very 10.'Any more tea?' 'Yes. time. Only times before. people. days ago. He has 13. Example:The train is leaving we've got little time. to do. There aren't pupils in that school. please. It has happened .STANLEY EXERCISES 79 1. photographs when you were sugar in her coffee. That man drinks 8. She always puts 3. 4. We can have omelettes for supper. We haven't got 14. There isn't 6. He's lost 10. blood. Completa las frases con much. words. Example There weren't many things to do in that village. I saw your brother 8. eggs. It's not surprising you're hungry. You haven't eaten 11. things to tell you. work to do. I didn't have any money but my friend had 6. The land is dry. time before the train leaves. friends. He's got very 7. He is a very strange boy. He needs a transfusion. I 'm afraid. of them on the table.The country is politically unsafe. There were 2. That firm has got so how to invest it. We'll have to stop. As a teacher he is terrible. Hurry up! We haven't got 9. but only 11 . My car is very big. This is not the first time that this machine breaks down. time. A veces hay dos posibilidades. Two pints every day. Go away. The theatre was nearly empty.1 've got very 15. years ago. Did you take in Switzerland? 2. 1. beer.
• I do all my work and besides that I help my mates. Come to see me whenever you are in town. etc. Como adverbio (ademas de eso). YET Conjuncion ( pero al mismo tiempo. • Some people earn a lot of money whereas others don't get enough to eat. I don't think they are so difficult to solve. • While I admit there are problems. However rich people are. sin embargo). • He works 16 hour a day whereas she doesn't do any work at all. Whoever told you that was lying. films nowadays are horrible. we have three others besides him. • Besides doing my work I help my mates. No matter what you say to him. thoroughly. • John is our youngert child. whenever. whichever. I'll always love you whatever you do. BESIDES Como preposicion (ademas). aunque). • He trained hard all year. WHILE Como conjunction (mientras. he doesn't get angry. • Spanish is easy to write. Todas • • • • • • estas conjunciones sirven para unir dos oraciones I'll go with you wherever you go. • He did it slowly. yet he still failed to reach his best form. • I have no time to go to the cinema. . while Chinese is very difficult. they always want more. WHEREAS Como conjuncion (mientras que).STANLEY U N I T 40 80 Links: however. yet. besides. • I drink black coffee while he prefers it with cream.
she is very intelligent. She always smiles back. they I admit there are problems. There were eleven people 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 81 1. That girl is very pretty. the difficulties are. road we take. must be small. besides. . Completa las frases usando: while. problems car you are not using. difficult the problem is. you go. You'll find friendly people 5. I see that girl I feel nervous. he always overcomes them. the one we need for that part 9. moreover. he hasn't been able to pass . he always solves it. you say to her. whatever. These people work slowly 6. We'll get there 6. no matter what. 1 2 3. told you that was lying. whichever. 10. Mr Flint. 7. This one is very cheap. 5. 1. They knew the banknotes were counterfeit knew who the counterfeiters were. tell them I'm not here. 8 the one you bought is quite Peter was doing that. expensive. Example: They knew I was coming. telephones. yet. Completa las frases con: whoever. they were waiting for me. you go you'll find a bottle of this kind of beer. 13 14 15 2. You can always come to me for help you may have. he doesn't study much. Moreover. He's been studying hard all his exams. you come. you drive. I'll be with you wherever you are. He is not very intelligent 10. You'll be welcome 4. the host. 2. happens. whenever. Don't get nervous 7 8 much she eats. I always feel safe.This girl is very tall. wherever. I don't think it's so difficult to reach an agreement. I'll take 11 12. Example: Darling. however. . 9. I was doing this 3. very thoroughly. she never gets fat. whereas.
The house was not big enough for the Jones to live in. • That girl is too silly to go out with. He hasn't got enough experience. • enough time. mientras que con sustantivos se pone delante.STANLEY U N I T 41 82 Too and enough + infinitive. • This parcel is too bulky to send. • • • • • That child is not old enough to go to school. This problem is too difficult for you to understand. He is not strong enough to carry that. This problem is not easy enough for you to understand. • large enough. RECUERDA Que enough se pone detras de los adjetivos: • big enough. The grass was too wet for us to sit on. • He works too slowly to be of any use to me. • The case is too heavy to carry. • That lamp is too heavy to hang on the wall. • • • • This box is not light enough for a child to carry. Construccion de for + noun/pronoun delante del infinitive. We haven't got enough money to go on holiday. • silly enough. He is not experienced enough. • He is too experienced a director to mind what the critics say. The house was too small for the Jones to live in. • The soup is too hot to eat. Y con enough. Too + infinitive. • enough milk. Enough + infinitive. • • • • This box is too heavy for a child to lift. • The grass was too wet to sit on. • enough people. • She was too clever to accept the first offer. The grass was not dry enough for us to sit on. Too + adjetive + a + noun + infinitive. Too + adverb + infinitive • It's too soon for me to say what is going to happen. .
The weather is not 4. 5. we haven't got (money) to take a holiday. he is not old enough to go to school. 'Does your brother get up early?' 'No.STANLEY EXERCISES 83 1.' (late) (dark) to to pay the bill. Responde las preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. 'Can that man understand what I say?' 'No. It's too heavy. Don't stand on that sideboard. She didn't have 3. We haven't got for everybody. Sylvia. This jacket should be 2. to go to the beach. En este ejercicio tienes que elegir entre too y enough para completar la frase. Example:! couldn't eat the soup. Example: 'Is Jimmy going to school this year?' (not old enough) 'No. Example: He hasn't got enough qualifications to get the job. There are fourteen of us for dinner. She didn't finish the exam.' 6. I can't drink this tea. he doesn't speak (English) to understand you. It's not very wide. 'Let's take a photograph. 3. The seat 2. qualifications. time. good. he is (lazy) to get up early. for little Jimmy. Complete estas frases usando enough con cada una de estas palabras: small. plates. He is not for you. money.' 5.' 'It's take a photo in here.' 4. We can't move this piece of furniture. It was too hot. It is not very strong. The soup was too hot lor me to eat. 'Are you going to take a holiday this year?' 'No.' 1. We haven't got 6. 1. hot. 'Can you hear what that man is saying?' 'No. It is very hot.' 3. we are (far away) to hear. That boy is from a poor family. That sideboard 4. Four people can't sit in the back of the car. 'I'd like to go to the cinema. This tea .' 2. 1. it's to go now. This piece of 3. 2.' 'Sorry.
The front gate wants painting/to be painted.STANLEY U N I T 42 84 Need y want + gerund . That handrail wants polishing/to be polished. • I couldn't help crying when I heard the news. Tiene entonces las formas regulares normales.' To need se puede usar con el infinitivo pasivo o el gerundio en frases tales como: • • • • • The grass in the garden needs to be cut/needs cutting. HELP puede ir seguido del infinitivo con el to o sin el to. . la expresion: can't help + ing (no puedo evitar). • We'll all help you (to) do the cleaning. The batteries in this radio need to be changed/changing. Sin embargo. • Can you help me (to) do the washing up. Do you think my hair needs to be cut?/needs cutting? RECUERDA Que el verbo want tiene el mismo significado: • • • • Your car wants servicing/to be serviced. Your hair wants cutting/to be cut. Las dos forma son validas. • 'How much money does she need?' 'She needs £10. To need se puede usar con un infinitivo o con un objeto nombre/pronombre: • I need to know the exact date. va seguida de gerundio. The garden needs to be watered/needs watering.help. • I can't help wondering what would have happened if he had been here. • I can't help laughing every time I see that little man. Need Puede ser conjugado como verbo ordinario. That shirt needs to be ironed/needs ironing. • Everybody helped (to) push the car. pero no el tiempo continue.
3. They need to be worn. That water wants filtering. They need to be tightened. (wash). Completa las frases usando want + gerund. 1. 1. It 2. but it 6. It needs cleaning. The lock is very rusty. 3. Your essay is very good but it 2. The battery is run down. The kitchen is dirty. That skirt is too long. 2. 3. It needs to be cleaned. The clock has stopped. You have to soften your new shoes. It 4. It needs to be looked into. It needs to be serviced. Example: The kitchen is dirty. (overhaul). 1. Your shirt is very dirty. Every time I see that romantic scene I (cry). That old house is very solid but it 3. My car makes strange noises. The hedge has overgrown. Every time I hear that song I (remember) our first dinner in that little restaurant. 3. (charge). (cut). 4. Example: That little spoiled child needs smacking. The windows are very dirty. It 7. Every time I wake up I what to do the rest of the day. The screws are loose. (wonder) . (paint). (polish up). Gambia estas frases a need + gerund. Example: That water needs to be filtered. 1. Termina las frases usando need + gerund. They 5. It needs to be taken up. It needs to be wound. Example: Every time I hear that sound I can't help thinking about your father. The accounting is in a mess. 2. 4. That engine sounds well. It needs to be oiled. (clean).STANLEY EXERCISES 85 1. 2. Completa las frases con can't help.
Esta construccion es del tipo: 'Yo pago a alguien para que me haga algo. I don't have my chimney swept very often. (Yo habfa revisado el coche) • He had cut his hair. • The house is too small and I am having a garage built on. I'm having my sitting. I didn't have my central heating installed.. (me hice revisar el coche) • He had his hair cut. El sujeto puede ser tambien un objeto: • Several houses had their chimneys ripped off by the storm. Get se puede usar de la misma manera que have pero es mas coloquial. (el se habfa cortado a si mismo el pelo) .STANLEY U N I T 43 86 Causative verbs: have y get. La construccion have + object + past participle se puede usar coloquialmente para reemplazar al verbo pasivo: • His new car was stolen before he had the chance to drive it.room redecorated.. Tambien con get: • The car got all four tyres punctured by the hooligans. Esta misma frase se puede construir con have + infinitive sin to. • Did you have your central heating installed? • No. • We can't have the party this week. Si cambiamos el orden.. . Get tambien se usa cuando mencionamos la persona que Neva a cabo la accion: • She got him to cut the grass in the garden. Tambien se puede usar en tiempos continues. • I had serviced my car. • She had him cut the grass in the garden. • While I was having my photo taken somebody stole my car. Se puede reemplazar por: • He had his new car stolen before he had the chance to drive it. el significado es muy diferente. RECUERDA que cuando usamos have en este sentido la forma interrogativa y negative se forma con do: • Do you have your chimney swept very often? • No.' • I had my car serviced.. (se hizo cortar el pelo) FIJATE en el orden de las palabras: have + object + past participle.
No. Are you going to service the car yourself? No. I 2. I 2. (Yesterday/Mrs Evans/get/her son/do the washing up for her) 2. I 5. Responde ahora a las preguntas usando el get. (Last week/Mr Brown/get/Jim/paint/kitchen) 4. No. Completa las frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. I 3. she 4. What happened to it? (pull out). Example: Your front tooth is missing. (Last Sunday/l/have/your brother/clean up his room) next month. Is your mother going to clean the windows? No. (Tomorrow/l/have/my son/repair the dishwasher) 3. / had it pulled out this morning. I'll 3. he 2. Example: (l/get/Jimmy/clear/snow/by the front door) /'// get Jimmy to clear the snow by the front door. Are you going to change the wheel alone? No. I had it washed yesterday. Responde a las preguntas usando el have + object + past participle. 1. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 87 1. When are you going to paint the house? Well. Are you going to repair the TV yourself? by those people. 1. Did you install the central heating? Yes. Did you pick the fruit yourselves? No. I'll 4. we 3. Are you going to repair the shoes yourself? No. . Did your father cut the hedge himself? last week. Example: Did you wash the car yourself? No.
'= He told Jim to go there.' said my friend. Los verbos ask y beg pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo pasivo: • 'Please. command. order. encourage. Say/tell + subject + be + infinitive: • 'Don't open the window. • Meet me at the corner at 5. implore. • 'Will all the people standing please sit down.. • He asked all the people standing to sit down. RECUERDA Algunos ejemplos en estilo indirecto: • • • • • » 'You had better not leave you bicycle unlocked. tell. Jim. = • He asked/begged to be given some money (he begged for some money). invite. advise. My friend warned me not to leave my bicycle unlocked. Tom's friends encouraged him to try again. 'Don't forget to order the wine.' he said. remind. • 'When he leaves the office follow him.' I said..' • He says that we are to meet at the corner at 5. warn. 'Try again. se suele usar el verbo ask.STANLEY U N I T 44 88 Indirect speech.' she said. = He told me not to open the window. recommend. Con las frases de will you . = He ordered them to shut up. . • 'Don't play near the river. 'he says. Cuando la orden es precedida por una oracion. beg. • He said. forbid.' said Tom's friends encouragingly. • She said that I was to follow him when he left the office. Las ordenes negativas generalmente se dicen con not + infinitive. urge. = He told me/him/her/them to go there. Mrs Print reminded her husband to order the wine. Los verbos siguientes se usan muy a menudo en el estilo indirecto: ask. A veces la persona a la que se dirije no se menciona.' he begged. = • I warned/told the boys not to play near the river. give me some money. • 'Will you shut up!' he said. Pero si el will you se dice de una manera irritable entonces se usa el tell o order. request. boys.' he said.' said Mrs Print. Cuando introducimos un verbo en presente. Si es asf debemos afiadir un nombre o pronombre: • 'Come here.' he said. 'Come here. He said I wasn't to open the window.
' she said. 13. 'Could you show me your papers.' He said (that) he could see him then.' said Mrs Merryat.' he told me.' she said.'If you pass the driving test I'll buy you a car. The meeting is off. 14.'If I were you I'd go to see another lawyer. please. 16. 7.'I'm writing a book. 15.'Please. 17.'I must have slept through the alarm.' he said. he said.' my boss said. 12. 10. Ron las siguientes frases en estilo indirecto. 4. don't take any risks. Example: 'I can see him now. 'Forget all about that young man. 'You haven't got much time. 'Why don't you take off your coat.' said his mother.' Jim said.' he said.' Jill told Tom. 5. .' she said to the little girl. 9.'If I were you I'd stop taking sleeping pills.' he said to Peter. 'Post some letters for me. 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 89 1.'If you'd just sign the register. 18. There has been a lot of stealing from cars. 'I can see you later. 8. 2. 'I'll tell him exactly what I think. 'I have lived in this country for many years.' he said.' said the receptionist.' said Mr Jones.'Could you live on £100 a week?' he asked. 6.' said the officer to him. 11.' said her father. 1.
Let's. let us.Conditional perfect • 'I will have finished by 9.Past perfect • Frank: 'We've just finished the job. should.Past • Mary: 'I need to get some money. • The police officer ordered that everyone should leave the building / He ordered that the building should be evecuated / He ordered the building to be evacuated. Advise. • She told me that she had been waiting for me. recommend. • He advised that the premises should be closed. Future . • She told Jack that she would tell him the next day.' he said.STANLEY U N I T 45 90 Indirect speech (cont. Future perfect .' he said. Present .' she said to me. Command and order se pueden usar con should.' • Frank said that they had just finished the job.' • Mary said that she needed to get some money./That they should go for a picnic. He advised me not to drive if I drank.' ordered the police officer.) Presente . • John said that he had gone to Madrid. Say o tell con should • 'If you drink don't drive. • 'Let's go for a picnic.' he said.Past perfect continuous • 'I was waiting for you. • He said that he would have finished by 9. and urge + that • 'I advise closing the premises. • He suggested going for a picnic. let him/her se pueden expresar con suggest. • 'Evacuate the building. Past simple . Past progressive .' she said to Jack.Present • 'I have read the book and I don't understand it.' • She says (that) she has read the book and doesn't understand it. Present perfect .Past perfect • 'I went to Madrid.' he said to me. .' John said.Conditional • 'I will tell you tomorrow. • He told me that if I drank I shouldn't drive.
'I would complain if I were you.' he said to me.' she said. Sandy: 'I have moved to another flat.' she said.' said Mrs Jones.' 10.' ordered the police officer. 13.STANLEY EXERCISES 91 1. 15. 'I advise cancelling the meeting. 8.' she told me. 7. 17. 'I was living in Wales at that time.' he said. 5.'I'll help you if I can. 4. 'I lived in Scotland for many years. 'Evacuate the area. 9.' he said.' she said.' she said to me. 3.' he said. 14. 'Let's not go alone.' said Mr Bruce. He says that we are to go and visit him.'If there is any danger don't do it.' said Mr Thomson. Example: 'Come and visit us.'What does the article say?' asked Jim. 'Let's sell the house.' she asked me. Gambia las siguientes frases a estilo indirecto.'Don't touch that. 'Let's leave the cases at the station.'I've been waiting for hours. 1. 'Follow him if he leaves the studio. 12. 11.' he says.' she said to the children. 2.'I could see you tomorrow.'Can you understand the instructions.' she said to me.'Let's not play silly games. 18. . 16. 6.
By + agent solo es necesario cuando el que habla quiere indicar quien o que es el responsable del acontecimiento en cuestion. (deliberadamente) FOR cuando indica proposito: • This is a machine for lifting weights. • That is a gadget for slicing bread. • The bag was stuffed with dirty clothes. destroy. make. crammed: • The room was filled with smoke. WITH tambien se usa a menudo con un ablative agente. Prepositions. discover.STANLEY U N I T 46 92 The passive. damage. La posicion del by + ablative agente al final de la oracion le da un cierto enfasis: • The bicycle was smashed by a heavy branch that fell off that tree. invent. BY MEANS OF (por medio de). • That old mansion was built 200 years ago. packed. filled. design. Un agente es la persona o cosa que Neva a cabo la accion indicada por el verbo. • The crate was lifted by means of a crane. . • The bicycle was stolen by those two boys. • Who destroyed the bridge? . compose. wreck and write.Cervantes. By + agente a menudo se usa en la voz pasiva de verbos tales como: build. • The window was broken by the wind. de tal manera que la informacion importante se enfatiza al final: • Who designed that Cathedral? . sobre todo despues de participios tales como: crowded. Compara: • He was killed by a runaway car. (accidentalmente) • He was killed with a knife.It was destroyed by a borrib. En preguntas con who(m) se puede incluir by: • Who(m) was 'Don Quixote' written by? . • The lock was covered with paint.It was designed by Wren. FIJATE Que a menudo una pregunta en activa es contestada en voz pasiva. Tambien se puede dar informacion por medio de frases que no sean by + agente. BY en la voz pasiva va seguido de agente ablative.
(Council/build/new library/soon) 6. That boy broke the window with a stone. My car was damaged by a slate that fell off your roof. Example: (falling stone/kill/cat accidentally). 4. Pon estas frases en voz pasiva usando el ablative agente by. Example: Who composed that piece? It was composed by Mozart. (boy's face/smear/coal) 7. (his hair/cover/dirty oil) 4. 1. (window/break/boy next door) 5. 2. 2. Responde a estas preguntas usando la voz pasiva. Who wrote Hamlet? (Shakespeare) 2. A bomb destroyed this bridge during the war. 5. (hail/ruin/crops) . Example: A slate that fell off your roof damaged my car. Who built this cathedral? (Wren) 4. 1. Escribe estas frases en pasiva con with o by. Who operated on your father? (Dr. Brown) 3. 3. Hilton is going to open this new luxury hotel very soon. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 93 1. Who destroyed the bridge? (enemy army) 3. The cat was killed accidentally by a falling stone. (room/crammed/people) 3. (jug/fill/water) 2. I think that Keats must have written those sonnets. Experts can solve your problems quite easily.
DEFINING: Posesivo. is trying to get a job. Whose es la unica forma: DEFINING: • Those are the people whose houses were destroyed by the storm. Objetos. until. is always anchored. La non-defining clause anade una informacion extra y va separada por comas. Complementos. which cost millions to build. with whom I play tennis on Sundays. wants to go to the beach. has never sailed./That's the stool I was sitting on. NON-DEFINING: • Jane. whose children have grown up. who/whom I play tennis with on Sundays. which he paid so much money for. Objeto de un verbo: Whom o who o that. DEFINING: • This is the computer (that/which) I bought yesterday. Con preposicion: whom o that • The man to whom I spoke is here. RELATIVE CLAUSES: DEFINING. Sujeto: Who o that. / His yacht. NON-DEFINING: • My father. NON-DEFINING: • Mary. DEFINING: • The woman who told me this refused to give me her name. Which o that o nada. is . is innocent.STANLEY U N I T 47 9* Before. is very fit. Which o that. / Mary. NON-DEFINING: • This book. / The man (who/whom/that) I spoke to is here. NON-DEFINING: • His yacht. which you can buy anywhere. DEFINING: • The secretary (whom/who/that) I saw told me to come back today. will tell you all about it. NON-DEFINING: • The butler. for which he paid so much money. after as. Objeto de una preposicion./ That's the stool which I was sitting on. is very fit. who/whom everybody suspected. NON-DEFINING La defining relative clause describe el sustantivo que la precede. DEFINING: • That's the stool on which I was sitting. DEFINING: • This is the film that/which caused such a scandal. soon as. NON-DEFINING: • That ship. who is very cheerful.
Elige entre defining o non-defining cuando el relative es objeto del verbo. Example: The woman is my wife. The woman. He snatched your bag. who had been driving for hours. The writer of this book proved to be a famous politician. . 4. That person is the manager. Example: Frank had been driving for hours. I complained to him. He suggested stopping for a while. 1. I saw him near the place of the crime. The tiles fell off the roof. Elige entre defining y non-defining con whom o that con preposicion. The hotel manager happened to be an old friend of mine. is my wife. 2. I work for it. Mr Smith is going to undergo an operation. Elige entre defining y non-defining cuando el relative es sujeto. It caused a lot of damage. 5. You can see him from here. 2. 2. This river is very clean. That tall man works for your uncle. 2. He ran a marathon last year. The nice boy is studying at Harvard. 1. suggested stopping for a while. 3. 1. Ron la preposicion al final. The boy has been arrested. who/whom you met at the party. You met her at the party. Frank. 3. 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 95 1. 4. Nobody was expecting the storm. You met him in Benidorm. This is the company. They nearly wrecked my car. I've been travelling with him. It was polluted for years. Example: This is the boy. 3. I complained to him. I met him last week. The man is coming this way. This is the boy I've been travelling with.
Con sugerencias se puede usar suggest. 'When is the next train?' she said. • 'When did you give it to me?' / He asked me when I had given it to him. 'How can I go to the Town Hall?' he asked a policeman. • He wanted to know what had caused the fire. / She wanted to know when the next train was. • 'What does she want?' he said. want to know. • 'Where do you want to go. • • • • • • 'Where's the bank?' he said. 'What caused the fire?' he asked the firemen.STANLEY U N I T 48 96 Indirect and embedded questions. sir?' / He offered to do it for him. RECUERDA Que las preguntas que empiecen con shall I/we se introducen con wonder si especulan sobre el future. / He asked a policeman how he could go to the Town Hall. • 'Where are you going?' he said to us. Si no usamos un pronombre interrogativo debemos poner if o whether. • She asked if/whether anybody was at home. entonces debemos cambiarlo por: ask. • 'Is anybody at home?' she asked. / He asked what she wanted. Si en vez de ask usaramos inquire o wanted to know omitirfamos firemen. • 'Shall I ever see you again?' he said. . Dad?' / He asked his father what he should do. Cuando tenemos una eleccion usamos el whether. inquire. / He asked the firemen what had caused the fire. wonder. to Miami or to the Bahamas?' he asked me. Para convertir las preguntas directas en indirectas cambiamos los tiempos del verbo y los adverbios como en las afirmaciones y omitimos el signo de interrogacion. • He asked me whether I wanted to go to Miami or to the Bahamas. Si en el estilo directo se usa say. / He asked us where we were going. • 'Shall me meet at five?' / He suggested meeting at five. Con ofertas se puede decir: • 'Shall 1 do it for you. • 'What shall I do. etc. / He asked where the bank was. • He inquired what had caused the fire. Con should + infinitive para peticion de instrucciones. • He wondered if he would ever see her again.
. Pasa las siguientes preguntas a forma indirecta. 4. Example: Who is in charge here? He asked who was in charge there. 'Shall we go out for dinner tonight?' He 2. Mum?' He wanted to know what he should do. 'Sir. 'Did you see the accident?' asked the policeman. 'Jane. He asked if/whether anyone was there. 'Shall we ever meet again?' She . 1. 1. Ahora haremos preguntas con shall. 1. 1. 'When are you coming?' she asked Peter 3. .. when is the next train?' said Jim 3. 'Diana. 'Shall I bring you another blanket?' He 3. Example: 'What shall I do. what are you doing tonight?' 4. when are you getting married?' 2. 'Why are you so late?' his mother said to him. Usa ask. A veces se pueden usar ambos. Example: Mum. 'Who lives next door?' he said 2. Example: 7s anyone there?' he asked. 'How much did it cost you?' he asked her. did you see the accident?' said the policeman. 'Dad. 'Do you want to go by air or by train?' he asked 2. Responde ahora usando inquire. 4. . when is Dad coming back? He wanted to know/inquired when his father was coming/going back.STANLEY EXERCISES 97 1. wanted to know. 3. Ahora usa whether o if. 2. 'Where is the station?' he asked 5.
wrong. liable. desirable. horrible. • It's been lovely to see you again. quick. careless. • It's dangerous for people to go out at night in this town. • It's quite impossible to find food in the besieged city. annoying. ready. prone. cruel. slow. • It was delightful to hear that song again. apt. difficult. necessary. • I am inclined to believe her story. prompt. splendid. vital. amusing. • It won't be necessary for you to tell them what happened. nice. It + be + adjective + for + object + infinitive se puede formar con: convenient. impossible safe. intelligent. idiotic. sensible. prepared. . awful. willing. better. clever. It + be + adjective + infinitive se puede formar con: advisable. stupid. etc. kind. lovely. interesting. nice. foolish. marvellous. easy. reluctant. good. possible. Estos adjetivos (menos posible) se pueden usar con la construccion noun + be + adjective + infinitive: • This dish is very easy to make. hard. only fair/right/just. selfish. generous. strange. essential. rude.important. • It is only fair to give him his share. Subject + be + adjective/participle + infinitive con: able. • It wouldn't be advisable for you to mix with those people. It + be + adjective/participle + infinitive se puede formar con adjetivos y participios que muestren sentimientos y reacciones: agreeable. wicked. • It was very kind of him to help us. unable. inclined. For + object se puede afiadir a este tipo de frases. dreadful.STANLEY U N I T 49 SB Infinitives after adjectives. terrible. unsafe. mean. • She was unable to utter a word. just. fair. • It is better to reserve a table. • It was very silly of you to leave the money there. wonderful depressing. coward. • A trailer is difficult to drive. good. delightful. dangerous. disagreeable. best. It + be + adjective (+ of + object) + infinitive se usa principalmente con adjetivos que conciernen al caracter: brave. silly..
(It was/him/give/us/money) 2. Example: (advisable/book/holidays/advance) It is advisable to book your holidays in advance. generous. important. (only right/him/get/fair/trial) 2.STANLEY EXERCISES " 1. strange. Forma frases con los siguientes adjetivos como el ejemplo: stupid. encouraging. (better/play/on Saturday) 4. (vital/food/reach/stricken area) 3. annoying. (It was/him/tell/children/about/dead mother) 2. (important/keep/control/ball) 3. (annoying/hear/your neighbour/playing/piano) . (depressing/be/unemployed/long time) 4. (It was/you/come/see/us) 3. vital. 1. (lovely/see/you again) 2. lovely. Example: (terrible/hear/bombs/falling) It was terrible to hear the bombs falling. boring. better. cruel. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos siguientes: advisable. 1. nice. Haz lo mismo con: terrible. (strange/find/water/this desert) 3. right. (It was/you/save/drowning child) 4. brave. Example: (It was/them/leave/bicycles/unlocked) It was stupid of them to leave their bicycles unlocked. 1. depressing.
. / People needing medical care. Despues de verbs of sensation: • I heard the rain falling all night. Un oracion de presente de participio que reemplaza a una subordinada: • As he heard / Hearing that she lived in the area he stayed overnight. Cuando la segunda accion forma parte de la primera: • He shouted. pointing out that traffic is very bad on that road. Tanto los participios presentes (ing) como los participles pasados (ed) se pueden usar como adjetivos. Despues de go. El participio perfecto a veces reemplaza al presente de participio: having made.' USE (Participles ING) Para formar continuous tenses: • We are walking. amused etc. having seen. son activos y significan que 'tienen este efecto'. Como adjetivos: • leaking tank. Las frases de presente de participio tales como adding/pointing out/reminding/ warning pueden introducir aseveraciones en estilo indirecto: • They told me to go early. Un presente de participio a veces puede reemplazar a un pronombre relative + verbo: • People who need medical care. Los participios pasados. • running water. son pasivos y significan 'afectados de esta manera..STANLEY U N I T 50 10 ° Participles (ind . Despues de have + object: • They had me walking in a month. be busy: • Why don't you come dancing with us? Cuando dos acciones con el mismo sujeto ocurren a la vez: • She walked away thinking. come. exciting. amusing etc. Los participios presentes. warning the bandits.ed) in clauses. waste. * She is cooking. No se deben confundir.. excited. Cuando una accion va seguida de la otra: • Opening the box he took out the books. spend. Despues de catch/find/leave + object: • I left them opening a hole in the road. • Writing /Having written a few lines on a paper he tucked it in his pocket.
Ahora vamos a cambiar estas frases de infinitive por otras de participio presente. 1. Example: He got on his horse. He pointed to a place on the wall. I saw her. 2. 3. Come to dance with us. / caught them stealing apples. Hello. 3. 4. 3. Example:! caught them. . She is going to ride after lunch. These are the people who wish to visit the premises. He found a tree. 2. 1. Example: Tomorrow they are going to sail. 1. Those are the men who work on the road. This is a map marking political boundaries. They were stealing apples. She took off her shoes. I left him. 1. Haz con las frases siguientes lo mismo que en el ejemplo. Tomorrow they are going sailing. He talked to my brother. Usa el presente de participio en las siguientes frases: Example: This is a map that marks political boundaries. 2. Juntalas usando el presente de participio. 2. En este ejercicio tienes dos frases. She crept along the passage. He raised the trapdoor. John. She stood by the window. 2. 3. He took out his guitar. He opened the drawer.STANLEY EXERCISES 101 1. Those are the children who need medical care. It lay across the road. He took out a gun. Getting on his horse he took out his guitar.
killed himself. he took the train.ed) (cont. Para el participio de los verbos irregulares vease la lista de verbos irregulares en el volumen II de esta coleccion. El participio pasado de los verbos regulares se forma afiadiendo ed o d al infinitivo. • He was woken up by the din. Alice stared eyes wide open. uso Como adjetivo: • Stolen car. terrified by what he had seen.). followed by his friend. El participio puede estar separado del nombre por el verbo. • Mark Anthony. • I have loved • We have seen. took a step backwards. / The little child enters the class. • Woken up by the din. he always carried a gun.STANLEY U N I T 51 1 2 ° The participle (ing . • Having been assaulted twice. accompanied by his mother. • Believing that he was alone. El participio pasado puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo pasivo igual que el participio presente puede reemplazar al sujeto + verbo active: • The child enters the classroom. • Broken window. He jumped to his feet. . believing that Cleopatra was dead. • The young boy entered. • It was done. • Amazed by the spectacle. RECUERDA Que un participio se considers que pertenece al nombre o pronombre que le precede: • Jim. He is accompanied by his mother. Si no hay sustantivo o pronombre en esta parte de la oracion se considera que el participio pertenece al sujeto del verbo principal. the miser took out his coffer of gold coins. El perfecto de participio pasivo (having been + past participle) se usa cuando es necesario poner entasis que la accion expresada por el participio sucedio antes que la accion expresada por el verbo siguiente: • Having been told about the chaos on the roads. he jumped to his feet. Para formar los tiempos compuestos y la voz pasiva. • Abandoned house.
She was convinced that she was right. She was carrying a large parcel. They were followed by their wives. The two men came in. They were alarmed by the shouting in the street. the old house was not safe. 3. He was warned about the unsafe situation in the streets. horrified at what he had seen. The postman refused to deliver the mail. Weakened by the earthquake. As they had won the football pools. 4. Example: She had been warned about that boy. He fell heavily. 2. Usa ahora el 'perfect participle passive' (having been + past participle). They ran to the window. He entered for the competition. 3. As he had finished writing his book. The boxer was stunned by the blow. 2. 2. Example: The old house had been weakened by the earthquake. Escribe estas frases otra vez usando bien el 'present participle' o el 'past participle. Example: The man was horrified at what he saw. Having been warned about that boy. She didn't go out with him. . 3. They decided to celebrate it. 1. He couldn't move. 1. couldn't speak. 2. A woman got off the bus. she didn't go out with him. She tried to persuade him. He had already lost a lot of money. He believed he was the best. He stopped playing.STANLEY EXERCISES 103 1. 4. They decided to buy a new house. It was not safe. He had been bitten several times. Escribe otra vez las siguientes frases usando el past participle. He didn't leave the hotel 3. 1. The man.
Mientras que si usamos el gerundio la accion puede que este incompleta. • I heard him cough. El infinitivo describe una accion corta. • I saw the him break the window. watch. Los verbos de percepcion son: see. LET como verbo normal signified 'permitir'. • The policeman made me move my car. • Come on. smell. Si el complemento es us se puede contraer a let's. clear the broken glass and enter the house. Let us go shopping. after make and verbs of perception. MAKE en voz activa Neva un infinitive sin to. rapida. . Con estos verbos la accion en el presente de participio puede ser completa o incompleta: • I saw her washing the dishes Puede significar que contemple toda la accion o solo parte de ella. • The maths teacher made the boys stay in after school. Para una serie de acciones seguidas preferimos el infinitivo. • His thinning hair makes him look much older. hear. Let se usa sin ningun complemento en la expresion: • Live and let live!.* He was heard to say that. • I saw her leave the house. • Don't let the children disturb father. • He was seen to enter the building.STANLEY U N I T 52 104 Bare infinitives. • I saw him changing the batteries of the transistor radio. El see y el hear en pasiva llevan el 'full infinitive'. • I heard him coughing all night. • The boys were made to stay in after school. cuando make esta en voz pasiva va seguido del infinitive con to. Let puede ir seguido de un infinitive pasivo: • She let it be known she was going to apply for the post. • I was made to move my car. • I heard them make a plan. Sin embargo. Si usamos el infinitive significa que la accion esta completa: • I saw him change the batteries of the transistor radio. Estos verbos junto con listen to y notice pueden ir seguidos de un objeto + bare infinitive. Mientras que el gerundio indica una accion que dura algun tiempo o que todavi'a esta en progreso. Significa 'hacer' en el sentido de 'obligar'. feel. Siempre va seguido de un complemento nombre o pronombre antes de un infinitivo sin to.
She 4. 1. They heard the wolves 10. I had to do it. I watched the firemen (break) the window and 5. 2. She told me to sit down next to her. (tap) my back and disappear. I 3. I heard the child in his sleep a couple of times. Example: She wants to go out but her mother won't let her go. (burn) in the kitchen.STANLEY EXERCISES 105 1. We saw these people 7. I told the dog to lie down. 1. Leave other people alone. (walk) along the road for miles. They 4. I felt somebody 4. She wasn't allowed to smoke. (cry) and (wait) patiently for hours. 1. (shout) in the street. (cry) all night. (moan) . They 3. I was 2. They forced me to write the letter. The teacher told me to come on Saturday. (howl) all night long. 8. I heard somebody 2. (climb) a ladder (enter) the building.1 smelt something (unlock) the door and enter the house. I want to go trecking to the Sahara but my parents won't 2. I saw them 9. Las frases siguientes van seguidas de make + 'bare infinitive' o 'full infinitive' Example: He compelled me. He wasn't allowed to see the documents. I heard the little girl 6. I heard people 3. Completa estas frases con let + infinitive. Example: I watched them take a picture and go. Elige entre infinitivo y gerundio detras de un verbo de percepcion. He made me do it. Live and ! 3.
una intencion. El futuro continue usado para expresar futuro sin intencion. Anuncio una accion futura deliberada. esta diferencia no es muy importante. and perfect continuous. Mientras que el presente continuo: • I am seeing your sister tomorrow. Como otros tiempos continues expresa una accion que empieza antes de un tiempo determinado y continua despues.. Preguntas acerca de intenciones. por lo tanto. • She won't be coming to the meeting. • Will you be playing golf tomorrow?* Will he be working all day? El futuro perfecto generalmente se usa con una expresion de tiempo que empieza con by: • By this time tomorrow I'll have arrived in the Bahamas. RECUERDA La diferencia entre el futuro simple y el continuo: • I'll write to my parents and tell them about us. • At this time tomorrow the children will be watching a film. / She isn't coming . Indica que la accion ocurrira siguiendo el curso normal de los acontecimientos. The future continuous tense se forma con el future simple del verbo be + el presente participio: • At this time tomorrow I will be working. • This time next week we will be lying on the beach in Salou. • He won't be cooking (informa que no va a ser el el que cocine). / He is coming tomorrow. • He won't cook (no quiere cocinar).. .. Mientras que en . El futuro perfecto continuo: • By the end of this year he will have been working here for 20 years. Hay. • He'll be coming tomorrow. • By the end of the year I will have saved £1000. A menudo.STANLEY U N I T 53 106 Future continuous. • By then I will have become a graduate. • By the end of the month he will have been living with us for six months. sin embargo. Indica que se ha concertado una entrevista previa. Indico que ya les iba a escribir de todas formas. • I'll be writing to my parents tomorrow to tell them about us.. • I'll be seeing your sister tomorrow. • I will be helping my mother with the shopping tomorrow. future perfect.
By this time next week (I/take/all/my/exams). By the end of this month he will have been working for 20 years. We'll come to your party on Saturday night. 2. Example: By the end of this month (he/work/20 years). 2. Example: By this time tomorrow (we/arrive/Miami).STANLEY EXERCISES 107 1. By the time we compete in the Championship (we/train/10 months). 4. By this time tomorrow we'll have arrived in Miami. 3. By midnight (they/dance/for 24 hours). 1. 4. By 10 o'clock (l/cut/grass/and/prune/roses). 3. Example: I'll come to see your mother tomorrow. By the year 2000 (we/climb/mountains/30 years). 3. /'// be coming to see your mother tomorrow. By the end of the year (they/get married). 1. 1. . By Christmas (we/live/this town/15 years). 2. Escribe las frases siguientes en futuro perfecto continuo. Termina las frases usando el futuro perfecto. I'll meet him next week. By 1999 (I/finish/my studies). I'll take my driving test next week. 4. I'll write to my father tomorrow. 3. Las frases que tienes a continuation estan en future simple. Cambialas y ponlas en futuro continuo. 2.
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capability for carefulness with carelessness of certainty of/about cleverness at/in contentment with sadness about safety from satisfaction with separation from slowness at sorrow for curiosity about difference from/to eagerness for excitement at/ about faithfulness to fame as fondness for surprise about/at . thankfulness to/fo worry about/over . .STANLEY APPENDIX 11 ° ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS Adjective absent from work/school afraid of something/ somebody amazed at/by something/ somebody angry at/about something angry with someone annoyed at/about something annoyed with somebody anxious about/over something ashamed of someone/ something Nouns absence from fear of something amazement at anger at/about angry with annoyance at/ about annoyance with anxiety about/ over shame at something Adjective free from danger free of charge full of something glad about something good at something good with the hands grateful to someone for something happy about/at/over/with interested in/by something jealous of someone keen on something kind to someone late to work married to someone nervous of something obliged to someone please about/with something ready for something right about something sad about something safe from something satisfied with something separate from something slow at doing something sorry about/for something sorry for someone surprised about/at/by terrible at something thankful to/for something worried about something wrong about something Nouns freedom from freedom of speect gladness about gratitude for/to happiness over/at interest in jealousy of keenness on kindness to lateness for work marriage to nervousness about obligation to pleasure about readiness for aware of something/someone awareness of awful at doing something bad at doing something bored with/by something busy at/with something capable of doing something careful of/with something careless of danger certain of/about facts clever at something content with something contrary to advice curious about something different from/to something eager from something excited about/a t/by/over faithful to somebody famous for something fond of something/somebody boredom with .
reached. showed. liked. qualified replied.. described. painted. listened. dated. claimed. denied. carried. joked. continued. boxed. dried. managed called. appeared. lathed delayed. played. attempted. videoed argued. belonged. married. avoided. minded needed. excited. smiled. reviewed Pronounced / 1 / in the past asked. jumped. pulled. weighed agreed. missed matched. reminded.. counted. refused bathed. closed. tried buried. excused. finished. enjoyed cried. filled. walked. guaranteed annoyed. lived. waxed a Pronounced /id/ in the past added. combed cleaned. changed. decided. mended.STANLEY APPENDIX 111 EXPRESSIONS WITH AS . locked. faced. afforded attended. employed. fried. expected greeted. satisfied. moved. loved. visited. danced discussed. skidded admitted. worried borrowed. thanked. rubbed begged. developed. wasted . educated. washed coughed. terrified. tugged banged. laughed. obeyed. destroyed. wanted. robbed. rescued. opened answered. switched. followed. freed. dropped. emerged. provided. collected completed. worked addressed. lifted. talked. exchanged damaged. crossed. proved accused. dared arrived. invited. AS as blind as a bat (tan ciego como un topo) as bold as brass (muy atrevido) as bright as a button (espabilado como una ardilla) as cheap as dirt (muy barato) as clear as a bell (claro como una campana) as cool as a cucumber (fresco como una lechuga) as deaf as a post (sordo como una tapia) as dry as dust (aburridfsimo) as easy as pie (estaba tirado) as fat as a pig (gordo como un cerdo) as free as a bird (libre como un pajaro) as hard as nails (muy duro) as keen as mustard (muy entusiasta) as large as life (grandfsimo) as mad as a hatter (chalado) as pleased as Punch (muy complacido) as pretty as a picture (tan bella como una rosa) as quick as lightning (rapido como una centella) as right as rain (mas razon que un santo) as safe as houses (segurfsimo) REGULAR VERBS (pronunciation) Pronounced /d/ in the past bribed. pushed. stopped axed. helped hoped. explained. travelled assumed. longed arranged. stuffed camped. hurried. hated. shopped. looked picked. foxed. touched crashed. insisted. posted printed rested shouted started tasted. guessed. included. relaxed. dragged. waited. ended handed. plugged. judged.
(estallo en lagrimas) Call for me at five. (no caere en esa trampa) She fell on the food. (adivino que) Gather around me. (se presento a) She's fallen for him. (ha ido tras el ladron) The dog went for the burglar.. (no me vas a convencer) How can we get around this? (icomo podemos resolver?) He's going about his work. (imponerme) She's dying for a drink. (termino con ella) He flew into a rage. (le proporciona) I'm keeping off tobacco. (sigue con) He kicked up a fuss. (dejala en paz) Leave it to me. (se ha repuesto de) You can't get around me.. (se muere por) Stop digging at me. (he terminado con ella) Burst into the room. (explfcate) Appear for him in court (representale) You're asking for trouble. (no lo considerare) Help yourself to some cake. (no le ocultes) She keeps him in money. (se me ocurrio) We must hold on to our agreement. (puedo visitarte) I came across this manuscript. (puedes confiar) I didn't bargain for this. (irrumpiren) She burst into tears. (deja de meterte conmigo) She got into trouble. (se echaron encima) Where did she come by this? (i. (no me esperaba esto) Please bear with me.STANLEY APPENDIX 112 VERB + PREPOSITION (idiomatic) Cakes don't agree with me. (se puso como una fiera) I gather from him that . (buscando problemas) You can bank on my help. (no me puedo pasar sin) We'll go into the matter. (reunirse a mi alrededor) Stop getting at me.) The picture went for £500. (dejalo a mi cuenta) . (sigue con su trabajo) He's gone after the thief. (se metio en Ifos) He's got over his illness. (consideraremos el asunto) The house grew on us. (se lanzo sobre la comida) He finished with her. (ten paciencia) I have broken with her. (se ha enamorado de el) I won't fall for that trick. (debemos atenernos) He jumped at the idea. (acepto con entusiasmo) Don't jump on me for this.que mosca te pico?) Can I count on you? (contar contigo) My uncle descended on me. (me metio en Ifos) I've been landed with this. (depende de) Bills are eating into my savings.. (ven a buscarme) I can call on you..d6ndeencontr6?) She came into a lot of money. (le cogimos carino) I must hand it to you. (me vendria bien) I can't do without you. (esto valdra) Shall I do for you now? (limpiar la habitacion) I could do with a drink. (me estan arruinando) (se dirigio a) He entered for an exam. (debo darte el merito) It hangs on this agreement. (me encontre) They came at me with knives. (deja de buscar faltas) This coat will do for you. (armo un alboroto) He landed me into trouble. (no me culpes) Keep at it. (heredo) What came over you? (<:. (me visito) You can't dictate to me. (el perro se lanzo a por . (me han dado esto) Lay off her. (me sientan mal) You answer to him. It headed for the port. (sfrvete) I hit on this idea. (el cuadro se vendio por) I won't hear of. (sigue con ello) You can't keep a secret from him. (me mantengo sin fumar) Keep to that point/plan.
(la ignore) Leave him to it. (se volvio a mi) I waded though it. (no comas sin apetito/no piques) He plays at being a teacher. (esta estudiando para) Can you read much into this? (i. (depende de) She turned to me for help. (no toco el tema) I'm toying with it. (vive de fruta) We'll look into this. (soporte) I slept on your suggestion. (entendi) I'll see to the dinner. (asciende a) He ran through a fortune. (no entendemos nada) You won't pass for German. (se presentara a / sera candidato) We'll run for it. (no me supervises) We must step on it. (no puedo permitirme) Don't rush into. (me tropece con el) f . (se volvio contra) I've been turned off it.Entiendes?) He's rolling in money. (me encargare de) We'll see over the house. (debemos darnos prisa) She'll stick by me. (no te haras pasar por) Let's pass over that. (escaparse) A lorry ran into the car. (se gasto) I can't run to a new car. (pasemos por alto) Don't pick/peck at. (me metf en una trampa) They walked over the other team. (le esta afectando) She didn't touch on the subject. (examinaremos) I saw through it. (revisa la casa) She looked right through her. (esta forrado) I ran across him. (lo encontre con facilidad) I walked into a trap. (estuve pensando) I'll stand by you.STANLEY APPENDIX 113 hope we can look to you for help. (no soportare) Don't stand over me. (me sera leal) swear by this medicine. (chocb contra) I've run into difficulties. (aportardinero) He's reading for a degree. (me ocupare de la cena) They sat on my application. (se presenta a) I won't stand for you attitude. (podemos esperar tu ayuda) He lives on fruit. (insistire) How much do you put it at? (<j. (estoy considerandolo) She turned against us. (termine con dificultad) Who is waiting on us? (^quien nos sirve?) I walked into a job. (tengo confianza) She takes after her mother (se parece a) She took to English easily (le parecio facil) Work is telling on her. (apostar por) Put money towards it. (dejale que lo haga) We can't make anything of this. (te apoyare) He's is standing for parliament. (he perdido interes) It turns on this document.Cuanto crees que vale?) Put money on a horse. (lo investigaremos) Look over the house. (me he concontrado con) The cost runs into millions. (no es serio) He will run for president. (no te precipites) I'll see about that. (no hicieron nada) I sat through a boring lecture. (les derrotaron facilmente) Don't play on my feeling (no juegues con mis sentimientos) I'll press for a rise.
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