ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3

by Edward R. Rosset

Editorial Stanley

Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: Beryl Aguado Lait Principal of Apsley School of English. Portsmouth - England Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Esquema © Editorial Stanley www.libross.com Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-195-4 Dep. Leg.: BI-1193-01 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1999 Reprint / Reimpresion 2001 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta RGM

INDEX
Unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Contents
Present simple and present continuous Look, sound, seem, appear Modifiers: Quite, fairly, rather, pretty Phrasal verbs Must, can't + infinitive Should, ought to, could + infinitive Such, so Gerunds after prepositions -keep, try Comparison of adjectives Comparison of adverbs Adverbs of manner Order of adjectives Adjectives ending in ing/ed The present perfect simple Present perfect with ever, just, since, for If, when, as soon as, until, clauses Infinitives after adjectives Linking words and phrases Have to - must - need to Uses of the article, the Use of the article, a/an Since, as, because, so, so that Infinitive of purpose Conditionals: type 1, 2 and 3 May, might and could + infinitive Clauses of reason, purpose and result Need Ability can, know how to + infinitive Gerunds after prepositions - worth Present perfect (ever, just, already, for, since) Present perfect (with for and since) Present perfect continuous I would rather - prefer to Had better + infinitive - it's time Past continuous The past perfect I wish - if only Quantifiers Quantifiers (cont.) Links -however, whichever, whenever, etc Too and enough + infinitive Need and want + gerund -help Causative verbs: have and get Indirect speech Indirect speech (cont.) The passive -prepositions: Before, after, as soon as, until Indirect and embedded questions Infinitives after adjectives Participles (ing -ed) in clauses The participle (ing -ed) (cont.) Bare infinitives, after make and verbs of perception Future continuous, future perfect continuous Appendix

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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3

Usamos el presente simple con How often o Do you ever.STANLEY UNIT 1 2 Present simple and present continuous Uses of the simple present tense. Acciones planeadas: referencia futura. 1. Usamos el presente simple en verdades permanentes. • The moon goes round the Earth. • Hurry up. Uses of the progressive present. Para observaciones y declaraciones tambien usamos el presente simple. Para situaciones o acontecimientos que pueden continuar indefinidamente. • My sister works in the library. • Someone is waiting to see you. The train's leaving. • We sometimes work till very late. • The play begins at 8 and ends at 10.' • 'Do you ever go to America?' 'No. La accion esta en progreso en el momento de hablar. Usamos el presente simple para describir acciones habituales. 5. 1. A menudo usamos adverbios de tiempo o frases adverbiales.. 2. I never go there. • Your father is arriving tonight. 3. • 'How often do you come here?' 'I come here every day. 4.30. . • My father goes to work by car. Tambien usamos el presente simple como referenda futura.' 4. Acciones repetidas: A menudo usamos adverbios en este tipo de frases. • What's your son doing these days? • He's reading History at London University. • Don't take that away I'm using it. • They come here every day. • Your father is working at the moment. • She's always talking about the same things. • Your brother smokes a lot. 3. • He's continually telling us what to do. • The Art Gallery opens on July 5th and closes on August 30th. cosas que suceden repetidamente. • I suppose they'll be here in time for the meeting. Situaciones temporales. 2. • I start work at nine. • I certainly agree with you. • Spring always follows the hardest winter. • Next Sunday we're spending the day in the country.

(not/use) it tonight. 5.' 2. (go / with his friend Tom) . We 2. Tomorrow 3. 1. (learn). but I 2. (go / by plane) 3. but she (teach) her. I 5. He He always 3. (flow) into the Atlantic. We usually 4. Her father (believe) him. (start) at four. (not/want) to (stay) at the Palace. What do you do for a living? 1. 'What (Mr Brown/ do)?' 'He's an engineer. The exhibition (close) in September. Example: Stop shouting.1 (grow) carnations but this year they (grow) geraniums. (stay / three weeks) 3. My father is in New York. I (belong) to any trade union or political party. The river 9. What time (leave) at 9 and (be) Sunday. 10. The Tagus River 8. but he (not/work) at the moment. The tennis match 4. I am listening to the radio. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en presente continuo o simple. That man says he's 90. Ahora tienes unas frases de presente simple con sentido de future. 12.' 6. She (stay) with them for a few months. Tu amigo va a ir de vacaciones a Espana. (stay / Hotel Tropical) He 2. Escribe sobre sus planes de vacaciones. (come). (leave / tomorrow) 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 3 1.This girl (not/live) with them. They always 7. (not/go) to see the new films but we (not/see) this one. Come on! The train miss it. Example: At what time do they open the Museum? 1. . You can take my car.30. (open) in June and (begin) the show ? (arrive) at 11. (flow) fast today after the rains. Example: (go / Benidorm) He is going to Benidorm. 5. 'Can Ann drive?' 'No. (stay) at the Palace Hotel. 11.

• I'll look into the matter. A menudo usamos to be despues de seem. Aqui significa 'tiene el aspecto.) se pueden usar adjetivos. • Don't look at me like that. • That piano sounds terrible. En la primera frase. Es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. El otro significado de look se relaciona con 'ver'. (adjective) He tasted the wine thoughtfully. significa 'parecia'. no la accion del verbo. • He looked sad. Sin embargo. pero en la segunda frase. • Mrs Cohn suddenly appeared behind us. no con adverbios. • He seemed to be tired. • It seems difficult. no con adverbios. SEEM es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. ETC. • It sounds nice. • It looks good.'(accion) asi que se usa con un adverbio. • It tastes delicious. For regla general con verbos usamos adverbios. • She sounded depressed on the phone. (adverb) This wine tastes delicious. appeared significa 'aparecer ante la vista. (adjective) The little girl looked at him sadly. • She seems to be very nice.STANLEY UNIT 2 4 Look. sound. LOOK. alguno de estos verbos tiene doble significado: • The agreement appeared difficult. pero con ciertos verbos (como SEEM. . Podemos hacer esto cuando describimos el sujeto de la frase. seem. SOUND es uno de los verbos que no se usan en formas progresivas. y a menudo Neva detras particulas adverbiales o preposiciones. Comparemos: • • • • The little girl looks sad. appeared. (adverb) LOOK tiene dos significados: • She looks tired. SOUND. • She seemed a bit angry yesterday. APPEAR. TASTE. appear. y se usa con un adjetivo. parece' y va seguido de adjetivos.

appeared in the doorway (sudden).The situation seemed 14. This wine tastes a bit 11. It tastes wonderful. This soup tastes strangely. 1. (awful). / This soup tastes strange. (strange).STANLEY EXERCISES 5 1. (impossible). She looked at me 13. / That sounded cheap.The piano sounds (impressive). Example: The soup tastes wonderful. He felt his way around careful. 8. (sudden). It seemed decisive. / It seemed decisively. She appeared 8. 7. My skin feels very 4. / It looked expensively. (angry). / He felt his way around carefully. He looked at her 5. He tasted the soup suspiciously. A blue car appeared sudden. (angry) last night. 3. Example: He appeared to be very angry. He seemed quite normal. Tienes que tachar la que esta mal. 2. That sounded cheaply. 5.That music sounds beautifully. The old woman 2. / That music sounds beautiful. 2. Una bien y otra mal. 6. You look sick. / A blue car appeared suddenly. (complicate). It looked expensive. (cheap). Your father looked very 6. (rough). The cheese smells 10. 9. / You looked sickly. He looked awful.That rock looks 12. 12./ 1. That guitar sounds 9. 4. The problem appeared 7. (sudden) in front of them. / It tastes wonderfully. (terrible). Detras de estos verbos a veces se pone un adjetivo y a veces un adverbio. A continuacion tienes unas frases. (careful). / That thing smells awfully. / He looked awfully. / He seemed quite normally. The doctor felt his arm 3. 10.That thing smells awful. 11. .

pero que no merece la pena ir a verla. • He speaks English fairly well. pero merece la pena ver. Tiene un sentido de 'bastante'. y con un verbo • It's quite a nice day. (se las arregla muy bien) RATHER es todavi'a mas fuerte. (bastante bien. • It's rather too late. Una peli'cula 'fairly good' es una peli'cula bastante buena. pero no muy bien) QUITE es un poco mas fuerte que FAIRLY. • She was quite alone. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'quite good'. fairly. • I'm getting pretty fed up. es ciertamente mejor que la mayorfa. la estas recomendando. Estas cuatro palabras se usan para modificar la fuerza de los adjetivos o adverbios. • He speaks English rather well. generalmente en ingles coloquial. Pero no significan exactamente lo mismo. Quite tiene tambien el significado de 'completamente'. FAIRLY es la mas debil de las cuatro. O con too. segun con que palabra se use. • It's getting rather warmer. . Tanto quite como rather se pueden usar delante de un artfculo. • I rather like that girl. quiza no sea la mejor pelfcula de la historia. A menudo significa mas de lo normal. (hasta la coronilla) RECUERDA Solo rather se puede usar con comparatives.STANLEY UNIT 3 6 Modifiers: quite. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'rather good'. • He speaks English quite well. pero se usa en un estilo bastante informal. (es un buen linguista) PRETTY es bastante parecido a RATHER. pretty. pero no 'mucho'. • It's all quite finished. rather.

.... Carmen speaks English ........ Twenty is ...... She is a fairly nice girl.. En este ejercicio tienes que anadir fairly................... It could be better. / She has a fairly strange way to speak... 6......... ................ o pretty. 8.. quite. She's got a rather good voice. He's a 10........ It wasn't strange about the way she interesting..... 1 . Nothing out of this world good.......... 2. 13................ ....... She's ....... / It's a fairly good idea.... Tacha la que te parezca que esta mal.................. / She is a very nice girl.. / That boy is very good at tennis... It's very pleasant to hear intelligent.... 12... His wife is rather older than he is..... Example: He is a pretty good fellow. 10............. . It's a very good idea........... She has a rather strange way of speaking...... 8.. 2. 5.. I love it! ........... a las frases que se te dan...... It's quite too difficult for us....... A continuacion tienes dos frases.. / It's pretty an impressive show.. but certainly not good fellow.. . behaves...... Better than most of the films 7.... 9.......... 3.... It's good.. good. / We've invited fairly too many people....... This film is I've seen.......... She speaks her........ There's something ....... The new art gallery is recommend going to see it... That boy is quite good at tennis....... Of course he's still got a lot to learn.... 4.... I was bad at all......... That girl is though... ............ I don't feel comfortable with her.... .... We all like him..... well................... Aren't we driving rather fast? / Aren't we driving quite fast? 5............ His new book is his best...... .... It's quite an impressive show............ 9.............. 2..... It's 1 1 .. 4.... .. 6........... I love her... 7. 3.. / His wife is quite older than he is..... Example: He was rather old for her / 1... hot... / She's got quite a good voice... We've invited rather too many people...... / It's rather too difficult for us. well.... impressed by her singing. rather. This exercise is not too bad..... I feel all sticky. manage a difficult discussion in English.. I certainly would nice.. .STANLEY EXERCISES 7 1.. I was pleasantly surprised.. She can even old to take up swimming..................

look for (buscar) . Pero mas a menudo se coloca inmediatamente detras del verbo: • She took them off. Con verbos compuestos intransitivos. . Look for es transitive: • I'm looking for my daughter.give up (abandonar) Es importante saber si la combinacion es transitiva o intransitiva. Y otras veces es intransitive. Cuando el complemento directo es un pronombre a veces se coloca al final de la expresion: • She is looking for her.STANLEY UNIT 4 8 Phrasal Verbs En ingles moderno es muy corriente colocar las preposiciones o los adverbios detras de ciertos verbos. • She's likely to turn down any suggestions I make. Es decir si Neva o no complemento directo. Look out es intransitive: • Look out! A car is coming! RECUERDA A veces un verbo compuesto puede tener un significado y ser transitive y separable. out.: • He took off his jacket. la particula se prefiere poner inmediatamente despues del verbo: • They turned down many perfectly good suggestions. (despeg6) Expresiones transitivas El objeto se coloca generalmente al final de estas frases: • I'm looking for my passport. pues la preposicion siempre se pone detras del verbo: • That girl takes after her mother. muchas veces se puede poner opcionalmente o bien al final o inmediatamente despues del verbo: • He took off his gloves o He took his gloves off. up. la particula viene despues del verbo: • The meeting broke up as I came into the room. • turn up (aparecer) . away. down. Sin embargo. Esta posicion es muy corriente con palabras como: in. on. cambiando de esta manera su significado. • She's giving money away. e inseparable. • Give it away! • Put it down! Si el complemento directo es una frase larga. Los verbos compuestos de preposicion no tienen problema. • He took his jacket off. off. • The plane took off. con otro significado.

1. We'll 7. so I 4. turn up. He asked me to try out the shampoo. so I 6. due to the recession. for the time lost. in half an hour. Example: The nuns brought up the child in the convent. will you! your coat. Tomorrow we'll 4. 2. fill in. The meeting is going to 6. It's cold. Example: I have never heard this word before. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con uno de los verbos compuestos que se te dan: look down. put on. 3. en el tiempo que corresponda: try on. Completa estas frases tal como se muestra en el ejemplo. quite a lot since last year. The boy has 2. make up. This answer is not correct . He told me to put on my coat. This is our plane. so I 5. He asked me to ring Mr Jones up. /'// look it up in the dictionary. keep down. We have to 5. any time. break off. These rich people 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 9 1. to the theatre. That girl is going to 3. so I 2. it 8. He told me to take up learning French. That's a nice sweater 2. on you. He asked me to give up drinking. close down. so I 3. I don't know when he is going to 6. 1. This firm is going to the gaps. grow up. look up. that horse. bring up. 1. so I 3. He asked me to fold the paper up. take off. The volume is too loud it . Example: He told me to turn off the heating. turn down. Completa estas frases usando el verbo compuesto apropiado. so I turned it off. go out. Industries have to 5. their expenses. In this exercise you have to 7. cross out. fall off. so I 7. He asked me to give up my job.

You must be tired. You can't be thirsty already. • He's not doing that. is he? He can't be so stupid. I/you/he (etc) J cgn. can't + infinitive. este dialogo seria: • Jim said that she must be about fifty. No conocemos la verdad con exactitud. • She must be about fifty. • She didn't hear me coming. can't have been watching/waiting. En forma indirecta. • She can't (o couldn't) have done it so quickly. Usamos must para afirmar o sacar una conclusion de la mas probable interpretacion de una situacion o acontecimiento: • She must be about fifty.t be pract j s i n g/ stud yj ng etc. pero creemos que debe de ser asf.STANLEY UNIT 5 10 Must. • It must have been terrible for her. She must have been asleep. You must be practising a lot. • He can't have been there. • She knows a lot about books. etc En este tipo de frases el can't have (done) se puede sustituir por el couldn't have (done). • He started five minutes ago. He can't (o couldn't) have finished already. En este sentido !o opuesto de must es can't. but Tom thought that she couldn't be more than forty. r must be clever/stupid/tired etc. I/you/he (etc) J must have been drunk/tired etc. • You're taking the driving test next week. . She must read a great deal. usamos must y can't (o couldn't) con el infinitive perfecto. Usamos can't para decir que creemos que algo es imposible: • You've just drunk a pint of beer. • Oh no! She can't be more than forty. Usamos must para decir que estamos seguros de que algo es verdad: • You've been working all day. RECUERDA Si nos referimos a un tiempo pasado. = He couldn't have been there.

1. it. He was starting a few seconds ago. Example: She has been working all day. (desperate/for/money) 2. 'Impossible. I know she married the old man. Example: She didn't say 'hello'. He walked into a lamppost. so silly!' 2. The train's already gone.' (she/can't/finish). I don't understand how the two cars crashed. Ahora lee esta situacion y escribe una frase con must have o can't have. That's the doorbell. I don't know how you did it. He's got a key. That girls knows a lot about films. she 3. (couldn't/be/look) 7. She said she'd phone him. 'She says she won't marry for money. it. 'She finished reading the book. It 5. (see/us) She can't/couldn't have seen us. That 4. She did the exact opposite of what I told her. your brother. 3. 1. She must be tired. they can't have heard me'. they must have been'. I (must/leave/train) 6. (the driver/this car/can't/see/the other car coming) 4. He has no idea what the book is about. He everybody. He already. They 2. In the village they all know about the project. 3. him by now. but she for love. rich. (must/be/very difficult) 5. He 5. him earlier than I thought. It 4. She married that old man. to the cinema quite a lot. (couldn't/understand/tell her) ' . I lost my briefcase.STANLEY EXERCISES 11 1. Completa estas frases usando must (have) o can't (have). I 6. I can't find my key. Completa estas frases con must o can't + un verbo apropiado. That was the doorbell. He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. 1. So she 2. 'Did they hear you?' 'No. She your uncle Tom. 7.' 'She 3. Example: 'Were they married?' 'Yes.

You should go and see it. • You ought to put central heating. se puede usar para presente. . Should Se usa para dar consejos y no es tan fuerte como must.STANLEY UNIT 6 12 Should.' • 'My motorbike slipped on the ice.' 'You shouldn't have drunk so much last night. • She ought to have written a letter. future y pasado. Your doctor: • 'You must stop smoking!' Your friend: • 'You should stop smoking. I think we should. • You oughtn't to have written to him. Es decir va seguido de un bare infinitive: • You should paint the bedroom. RECUERDA Should es un verbo defective.' Usamos shouldn't con el sentido de no deben'as. • You ought to have passed the examination easily. future y pasado cuando va precedido de un verbo en pasado. Al igual que los demas verbos defectives (excepto el ought) no admite el to detras.' Para el pasado usamos should have been (deben'as haber estado). • They should do something about unemployment. La forma negativa del ought es oughtn't. ought to. Mientras que la forma interrogativa es ought you? • Ought you to do it alone? Coloquialmente se tiende a usar should en vez de ought to debido a que es mas facil de pronunciar. • It was a good play. o es la cosa apropiada. • You shouldn't drink so much. • 'I feel terrible today.' Ought to (deberfa) Tambien es un verbo defective que se puede usar para el presente. could + infinitive. y es el unico verbo defective que va seguido del infinitive con to (full infinitive). Es decir: (deberfan).' 'You shouldn't have been going so fast. • 'Should we ask him to come?' 'Yes. A menudo usamos should cuando creemos que una cosa es buena de hacer.

'Do you think I could leave without telling them?' 'No. 3. You ought to have told her 6.' 2. . 'Do you think the film is worth seeing?' 'Yes. En este ejercicio usa should para decir que algo deberia suceder. 'I'm going to post the letter. I've done him see 2.' (tell) him the truth'. 1. Example: 'Do you think he'll pass his driving test?' 'He should pass it. We ought to have gone out for dinner.' 'You (clean) it before you left.STANLEY EXERCISES 13 1.' 'You should have gone to the optician before. 'Do you think he'll help you?' 'He a lot of favours. It's a very good picture'.' 3. Rellena estas frases usando should have. I think you for what you said. Gambia should por ought y viceversa. I ought to have spoken to her 8. 'Do you think he'll arrive in time?' 'Well.' They 5. Example:! think you should apologize to that lady.' 3. You should stop smoking 5.' 'What! You haven't posted it yet? You (post) it yesterday. 4. He ought to have come earlier 2. . They arrived late. 'I left very early.' 1.' 'You (leave) earlier. (apologize) 6.' 'You (stay) a little longer.' He me. 'He was angry because I lied. Example: 'I can't see very well. he left very early. They should work harder 7. / think you ought to apologize to that lady. He can drive very well.' 3. You insulted him. you it. 4. 4. You should have bought a better car.' 2.. you without saying goodbye. I should have gone to bed earlier. 'She was annoyed because I hadn't cleaned my room. .' 1. you know.

es igual a so + adjetivo + a + sustantivo: • Such a nice girl. such a long way.. • She enjoyed the party. Mientras que so se utiliza con ambos. incluso cuando el much y el many van seguidos de sustantivos: • There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in... • She is such a nice girl that everyone loves her. that . = So nice a girl. Mientras que such se usa con plurales e incontables: so long so far . RECUERDA Que such a se usa con sustantivos en singular: • Such a girl! • Such girls! • Such weather! Las expresiones • Such a nice girl! • Such nice girls! • Such nice weather! equivalen a " such a long time. so Such Es un adjetivo y se usa delante de 'adjetivo + sustantivo'. So Es un adverbio y se usa delante de adverbios y adjetivos: • • • • She is so big! Those girls are so pretty! He spoke so fast that I couldn't understand him. so . The dog was so big that nobody dared get near . So y such hacen que el significado del adjetivo sea mas fuerte. • It was such an interesting book that I couldn't put it down.STANLEY U NIT 7 n Such. Fijate que such + a + adjetivo + sustantivo... • She is very pretty. but so silly. • The book was so interesting that I read it in one day. Comparemos so y such: • I like those people.. that . They are so nice/They are such nice people. y such . Esta ultima expresion aunque no es muy coloquial se suele ver en literatura.. She had such a good time. Nunca se usa such delante de much y many: • It was such a nice day that we went out for a picnic. • He poured so much water that the glass overflowed. • They were such big dogs that everybody was afraid..

I've never had 6. beautiful eyes! Her eyes are 2. Example: The film was so exciting that everyone was quiet. hot that I got sunburnt. 3. 1. . Example: Don't eat so fast! I've never seen such a boring film. 2. The sun was 4. Gambia such por so y viceversa. It's incredible that she should be 2. I've never tasted 5. She's got beautiful! 7. That man has 3. We've got so much food that we don't know what to do with it. Gambia estas frases por otras con el mismo significado. It was such a good motorway that we drove very fast. 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 15 1. expensive things! Things are lot of money that they don't know fit at eighty. 2. Example:! didn't know that he had lived here for so long. They lived so far from the centre that they had to take a bus. I've been doing this for so long that I couldn't do anything else. En este ejercicio tienes que poner so o such. / didn't know that he had lived here for such a long time. It was such an exciting film that everyone was quiet. She buys expensive nowadays! 8. wonderful meal. The weather was so good that we went for a picnic. 1. lot of problems that he can't sleep. He had such a big head that he couldn't find a hat big enough. The problem was so difficult that nobody could solve it. Some people have got how to spend it. 4. 1. 3. horrible food.

• I look forward to hearing from you. Las unicas excepciones a la regla del gerundio son except y but (preposicion). • He did nothing but complain.STANLEY UNITS 16 Gerunds after prepositions. Despues de before y after se pone gerundio: • Before doing anything ask your father. • What are you going to do after leaving college? Tambien se puede poner un sujeto: • Before he left he said goodbye to everybody. . There's no point in taking your car. • They got into the car by breaking the back window. to tambien puede ser una preposicion: • My brother went to South America. este verbo ira en gerundio. • He passed the sugar to his sister. This knife is for carving meat. los cuales van seguidos del infinitivo sin to (bare infinitive). TO es generalmente parte del infinitivo: • I want to come with you. Los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio: Are you good at learning languages? Is he interested in working for you? I am in favour of giving everyone a day off. Por lo tanto en las frases en las que el to sea preposicion y vaya seguido de un verbo. • I could do nothing except swallow my pride. • What are you going to do after you leave college? Without y by van tambien seguidos de gerundio: • He left without saying goodbye. try. I'm fed up with doing always the same. • I prefer running to walking. Sin embargo. Keep. She insisted on paying for herself. He left without paying the bill.

2. He didn't look for it.STANLEY EXERCISES 17 1. In spite 7. We went to the cinema instead. I'm not looking forward to that. He would like to emigrate to Australia. He is thinking. Example: I'm meeting you next week. Tom can solve difficult problems. The burglar got into the house. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir una frase con el mismo significado que la primera. I'm looking forward to meeting you. 4. He accused his accomplice. 5. 1. We went to the cinema but first we had a meal. 1. 3. 3. After three months you're going to see your girlfriend. 4. Old Grumbler is coming to see me. 3. Example:! finished my letter and then I went to the cinema. I'm looking forward to it. We didn't watch television. He found a parking place. Example: She left the house. She didn't say goodbye. He went out in the rain. He got away with it. but he managed to win the race. and then he had a shower. It's a gadget for 2. 2. This gadget open tins. 1. I'm looking forward to it. Escribe las mismas frases con look forward to. First he went for a swim in the sea. What do you say to her? . After finishing my letter I went to the cinema. He is very good at 3. Ahora vuelve a escribir estas frases con without o by. He broke the garage window. He didn't take his umbrella. He fell in the second lap. She left the house without saying goodbye. 2. Instead 6. I'm going home for Christmas.

a lot. It's more pleasant today than it was yesterday. RECUERDA Que cuando juntamos dos adjetivos (o adverbios) en grado comparative. Tambien se pueden dar comparaciones con frases hechas tal como: • She is taller than average. • Today it's less expensive than usual. a little. La comparacion se hace entre dos. the more you want. A leather coat is more expensive than a plastic one. very much. personas. .STANLEY UNIT 9 1* Comparison of adjectives. bien sea. • The more expensive things are. Modification de los adjetivos. far. • Things are getting more and more difficult. • Things are much more expensive nowadays. rather. • • • • • Our house is better/worse/bigger than our neighbour's. cosas o grupos: • Peter is taller than John. • Videos and computers are getting less and less expensive. Walking is less tiring than running. lots. etc. • There have been many more crimes this month. The + comparative + the Esta construccion se puede hacer con adjetivos y con adverbios para mostrar causa y efecto: • The more money you have. • Peter is taller than the other boys. damos la idea de aumento o disminucion: • He is getting taller and taller. A veces el segundo termino de la comparacion se da por sobreentendido. • Which is (the) bigger? (of the two classes) Mas ejemplos de comparativos + than. even. She feels less tired today than she felt yesterday. Para dar intensidad a la comparacion usamos palabras tales como: a bit. • It's much colder this year than it was last year. the less people buy. hardly any.

much. (big). The longer the phone call A the more you learn. it was (far/interesting). G the more you have to pay. 1. Junta las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. The little girl is becoming 3. She looked sad yesterday but this morning she looks (a bit/happy) 4. (nervous). (heavy). I prefer this hotel. F the less it sells. The shorter the way 5. . The longer he waits 4. (grumpy) as she gets older. many etc. En este ejercicio tienes que usar la estructura more and more. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 19 1. E the more impatient he becomes. (beautiful) as she grows up. Usa than cuando sea necesario. She's only been here for two months and her English is already getting (good). The car is too small for us. That woman is getting 8. D the more you want. The higher you climb 6. (difficult) to find a job. 1. 3. As days passed she became 4.' 2. Completa las frases usando a little. a lot. C the more dangerous it becomes. We need something (much/big) 3. The more expensive it is 3. It's to learn things with a good teacher. 'Did you enjoy your stay?' 'Yes. Example: The weather is getting warmer and warmer. The more you have 2. The better the teacher is 7. Things are getting more and more difficult. Restaurants are becoming I expected (expensive). 2. (a lot/easy) 2. It's becoming 7. This suitcase seems to get 6. That crack on the wall is getting 5. B the quicker you get there. It's (much/comfortable) than that one 5.

• I last saw him two months ago. estos forman sus comparativos y superlatives con more/less y most/least: more quickly. least briefly. The faster he talks the more difficult it is to understand him. This man runs faster than anyone else in the world. less clearly. It was snowing more and more heavily.STANLEY U N I T 10 20 Comparison of adverbs. fastest). She can't jump as high as her brother. Last y latest pueden ser adjetivos: • This is the latest news (las mas recientes). Ejemplos de comparacion de adverbios: • • • • • • • • I run as fast as my brother. The clouds disappeared more quickly than we expected. Pero generalmente last se usa como adverbio: • We went to the Wax Museum last. Often tiene dos formas de comparativo: more often y oftener. siendo la primera mas corriente: I go there more often than you. Como la mayoria de los adverbios de modo tienen dos d mas silabas. My daughter works harder than anybody else in the office. Solamente algunos de los adverbios pueden usarse en grades comparativo y superlative: adverb fast easily rarely badly far late little much well comparative faster more easily more rarely worse farther/further later less more better superlative fastest most easily most rarely worst farthest/furthest latest least most best RECUERDA Muchos adverbios como fast y early forman sus comparativos y superlatives de la misma forma que los adjetivos cortos (faster. most/least (more seldom. I can't sing as well as my sister. most seldom). . Algunos adverbios de frecuencia forman el grade comparativo y superlative con more/less. • This is the last news bulletin for today.

We go to the cinema less than we used to. 2. Example: It was not as clear as before. There were fewer people at this match than at the last one. It isn't 4. The restaurant is cheaper than we expected. Vuelve a escribir estas frases de forma que tengan el mismo significado. Example: This man is older than he looks. We don't go 5. The Post Office was farther than I thought. The weather today isn't 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 21 1. than before. . She wasn't 3. He isn't as young as he looks. In fact it was less clearly written than before. I feel fit but yesterday I was fitter. 1. We haven't 4. It's not done very quickly. . That table is not as long as this one. En este ejercicio vas a cambiar las frases usando less. but yesterday was better. but now we still go than before. Today's weather is good. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases usando as . 1. 3. 1. . as. In fact it was explained . In fact it's done than before. It was not explained very briefly. The exam was more difficult than I expected. I don't feel 5. There weren't 3. We've been here for a long time but they've been here longer.. Example: This table is long but that one is longer. He still drinks but he used to drink a lot more. It wasn't 3. We used to go very seldom to that place. He doesn't 2. The exam wasn't 2. She was nervous before the exam but usually she is more nervous..

/ She looked suspiciously at me.STANLEY U N I T 11 22 Adverbs of manner. Algunos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos: daily. lengthwise. en las frases de verbo + objeto. Early y fast tambien pueden ser adjetivos o adverbios. weekly. La mayoria de los adverbios de modo se forman anadiendo ly a los adjetivos: sudden/suddenly. Badly y well se pueden usar como adverbios de modo o de grado. • This train is very fast. monthly. • He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. beautiful/beautifully. Asfmismo. Cuando tenemos verbo + preposicion + objeto. Otros la retienen: extreme/extremely. . O detras del objeto cuando hay uno: • She speaks English well. Position Los adverbios de modo se colocan detras del verbo: • She sang beautifully. quarterly. si el objeto es largo el adverbio se coloca entre el sujeto y el verbo: • They secretly decided to meet again shortly. busy/busily. He gave up his job reluctantly. • This is a fast train. Como adverbios de modo se colocan detras de un verbo active: • He speaks English well. clockwise. RECUERDA Que algunos sufijos se pueden ahadir a los adjetivos para formar adverbios de modo (a veces de direccion): sideways. • He was badly paid. A menudo la 'y' se convierte en 'i': funny/funnily. • The excursion was well organized. • She behaved badly. crossways. el adverbio puede ir o bien delante de la preposicion o despues del objeto: • She looked at me suspiciously. Cuando el adverbio termina en 'le'. dry/drily (o dryly). Si el objeto es una frase ponemos el adverbio antes que la preposicion: • She looked suspiciously at everybody sitting in the lounge.la 'e' desaparece: possible/possibly. Con la excepcion de true/truly. due/duly. mad/madly. yearly.

It is 6. She typed his letters very badly.These people always laugh very 13. It 9. / I quarterly pay my bills.This man always behaves very 14. The documents were 3. She danced beautifully. 13. the same thing (basic). He drove very 10. 14. We caught the train very 7. 5. / These actors very badly perform. He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. 12. tachala. 7. It will 5. 4. 'Come here. 10. Example: He was madly in love with the girl (mad). (happy). / They crossed the street running. 8. Shake the bottle well. (noble).STANLEY EXERCISES 23 1. 1. / He slowly took the picture down. Entre parentesis tienes el adjetivo. / She every day pays. He took the picture down slowly. / She very badly typed his letters. / He left the room hurriedly. She gave him the money reluctantly. / She reluctantly gave him the money. 9. She always greets me in a very 2. received (due).' he said 4. Una de las dos frases esta mal.The film ended 11. / He spoke to me softly. They ran across the street. / She beautifully danced. Completa la frase con el adverbio correspondiente. / He denied angrily that he had stolen the money. He kindly spoke to the children. Example: He pays his staff very well. She pays every day. I Hejjaj 1. (dry). (loud). You have to do it very 12. / He spoke to the children kindly. . He softly spoke to me. 3. 6. He hurriedly left the room. / It snowed heavily last February. (early). 2. (month). way (friendly). appeared in front of her (sudden). rain tonight (possible). (fast). (careful). These actors perform very badly. It heavily snowed last February. I pay my bills 8. (beautiful). I pay my bills quarterly. She played the piano 2. / Shake well the bottle. 11.

happy. como primer adjetivo. etc. clean. a small round table. este precede al origen: • An Italian handmade tablecloth. A veces usamos mas de un adjetivo para describir un sustantivo. clever. Si uno de los adjetivos es un participio este se pondra delante del material: a handmade wooden table. shiny. tennis racket. en el cuadro que va a continuacion ponemos una gufa general. etc) van siempre delante. black leather bag. El sustantivo puede estar compuesto de dos palabras: kitchen table. • There was a friendly little Chinese girl at the counter. se separan con un and si son dos: • The tea was sweet and strong. Adjectives quality age/size nice beautiful new old Noun colour country green blue Italian Japanese material wooden porcelain table vase Fi'jate que las cualidades generales (beautiful. Estas palabras no se pueden separar. • A tall and elegant young woman.STANLEY U NIT 12 24 Order of adjectives. Los adjetivos que expresan nuestra opinion de la calidad de algo o alguien van en primer lugar: nice. nice. detras del verbo. Aunque no hay reglas fijas. Si son mas de dos adjetivos los separamos con una coma excepto los dos ultimos que que van separados por and. cheap. El tamaho generalmente precede a la edad y forma. • His clothes were filthy. delicious. dark. • Black and white tiles. A veces tambien los atributivos van unido con and. Nunca ponemos coma detras del ultimo adjetivo: • A tall. . Entonces tenemos que tener cuidado en que orden ponemos los adjetivos. La palabra que indica nacionalidad u origen se pone inmediatamente delante: Italian shirt. handsome young man. wet and worn out. Usamos comas para separar los adjetivos que sean igualmente importantes. • A large new table. A large new square table. • A small. es decir. Cuando los adjetivos se usan como predicados. old. • Fast-selling Italian handmade tablecloths. En caso de que haya un gerundio.

A road (long. A day (beautiful. A dress (blue. A car (black. Example: My shoes/worn out/torn. white) 4. A cat (white. A cupboard (old. The woman/beautiful/mysterious . narrow) 3. 1. He/dark/short/dirty 3. A painting (old. old. An old lady (nice. My shoes are worn out and torn. interesting. Ron los adjetivos que van entre parentesis en posicion correcta. little. black. little) 6. Italian) 2. fat. brick) 13. nice) 8. Forma frases usando los adjetivos como predicados. It seem/exciting/mysterious 5. A house (modern. He/tall/handsome/dark 2. His clothes/dirty/wet/old/worn out 6. A handbag (black leather) 12. A village (fishing. rare) 17. wooden) A nice old wooden table. watery) 10. He/cruel/man/vicious 4. A box (metal. red. Hair (beautiful. old. black. The man/unshaven/dirty 8.STANLEY EXERCISES 25 1. A man (young. 1. A film (Japanese. The road/long/winding 7. A ring (silver. sunny) 9. A face ( thin. big) 2. lovely) 19. Eyes (large. old) 15. large) 5. new) 11. brown. pretty) 7. long) 18. A shower (hot. Example: a table (nice. beautiful. good-looking) 14. Italian) 16. little.

success-successful. excited/exciting. He aquf algunos ejemplos mas: • We were alarmed when we heard the news. te hace surprised/bored: • Mary is surprised because the ending is surprising. exhausted/exhausting. .. terrified/terrifying. (He was alarmed because the news was alarming. • The situation was very worrying.) Algunos adjetivos que tienen estas dos terminaciones son: amused/amusing.STANLEY U N I T 13 26 Adjectives ending in ing/ed. sorrow-sorrowful. Se puede decir que alguien es o esta surprised/bored etc. Care-careless.) • He is interested in art. shame-shameful. meaning-meaningless. meaning-meaningful. care-careful. The end of the film is not what she expected. Por ejemplo: surprised y surprising. • • • • Be careful crossing the road.) • She was worried about the situation. You can say that: • The end of the film is surprising. shame-shameless. aim-aimless. confused/confusing. (He is interested in art because art is interesting. Hay muchos pares de adjetivos que terminan en ing y ed. trust-trustful. He's a trustful man. si algo es surprising/boring etc. plenty-plentiful. • He thinks that art is interesting. embarrassed/ embarrassing. It doesn't mean anything.Ending in full / less Algunos sustantivos forman el adjetivo con sufijos tales como: Beauty-beautiful. hope-hopeless. • The news was alarming. si algo o alguien es o esta surprising/boring etc. Tambien. so Mary is surprised. This note is meaningless. depressed/depressing. Adjectives . astonished/astonishing. bottom-bottomless. pain-painful. He trusts everybody. pain-painless. (She was worried because the situation was worrying. • Mary is at the cinema. fearfearless. He is a careless person. • The end of the film is surprising. shocked/shocking. • She was surprised by the end of the film.

I don't tike horror films. 3. 2.. Haz lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2. I was bored reading the book. The situation was very e m b a r r a s s i n g / e m b a r r a s s e d . The armchair was very comfortable. It was raining all afternoon. She was very s o r r o w f u l / s o r r o w l e s s for doing it. (interest) He thinks maths is very in maths. The family situation was terrible. She was sorry. He ran across the road. 6. I get f r i g h t e n i n g / f r i g h t e n e d . The body laid on the floor a l i v e / l i f e l e s s . 4. He is a f e a r l e s s / f e a r f u l man. . Example: The room was in a mess. Example:! don't like the food. Brown trusts everybody. I didn't understand the situation. Their situation was . 2. (bore) The book was boring. (shock) 5. 3. (confuse) It was very It was very He was 4. En este ejercicio tienes que completar dos frases con cada situacion. Example: The book wasn't as good as I had expected. He is very c a r e f u l / c a r e l e s s . He's a t r u s t f u l / t r u s t l e s s man. 4. It's tasteless/taJtetujT 1. 5. The job was very good. He is very brave. 7. Maths is his favourite subject. 3. It was disgusting/dj|3j«stfci 1. (depress) I was He was 6. Elige el adjetivo apropiado y tacha el que no corresponde. The whole affair was very annoying/annoyed. (move) It was an job. 1. Usa un adjetivo que termina en ing y otro en ed para completar cada frase. I was very d i s a p p o i n t e d / d i s a p p o i n t i n g when I finished the book. It was a m a z e d / a m a z i n g the progress he had made. (excite) She was I was very I felt very The exam was The weather was by their situation. (relax) 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 27 1. He doesn't care about anything. Mr. 5. The teacher was terribly surprised by Jim's exam. He is a s h a m e f u l / s h a m e l e s s boy. He is 2. 2.

leave. You're going to fall. It's going to rain. come.' 'I'll close it. go. . Con ofertas y promesas: • I'll help you with that heavy case. • She is arriving tomorrow afternoon on the 5. Generalmente necesitamos un adverbio a no ser que el significado este muy claro. • Look at those clouds. • Get down from that ladder. WILL Usamos el will cuando decidimos hacer algo en el memento de hablar. • We're spending our holiday in Benidorm.' WON'T es la forma negativa de WILL. • 'What would you like?' 'I'll have a whisky. etc. • When are you getting married? • What are you doing this evening? RECUERDA Usamos going to cuando ya nemos decidido hacer algo en el proximo future: • We are going to watch the football match on TV tonight.' • I heard your daughter is going to marry a rich American.30 train. • 'Are you going out?' 'No. all right. A menudo asociamos el presente continue como los verbos arrive. • I'll give you the money tomorrow.' • 'You left the window open. • 'Mr Martin is out. I don't think.' 'Oh. • I think I'll stay in tonight. I won't wait then. Usamos el presente continue para referirnos a actividades y eventos que estan planeados para el future. Tambien usamos el going to cuando predecimos algo. I'm going to read for a while.' 'I'll ring her up.' • 'Mary wants to talk to you. para describir arreglos de viajes. encuentros etc. Present continuous / going to / future simple. • Tom is coming next week. • 'Where are you meeting her?' No usamos el will para hablar acerca de arreglos que has concertado.STANLEY UNIT 14 28 The present perfect simple and continuous. I don't feel like going out. • I don't think I'll bother answering all those letters. please.' A menudo se usa el will con I think.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

29

1. Tu amiga tiene muchos proyectos para el proximo future. Tu tienes que escribir frases acerca de sus planes. Example: She is leaving lor America in a few days, (leave) 1. She 2. They 3. They 4. Mary 5. Her friend 6. Mary 7. From New York they (travel) with a friend of hers. (visit) the Niagara Falls. (go) by plane. (stay) with her aunt. (have) an interview for a job. (meet) an old friend of the family in New York. (fly) to California.

2. i,Que crees tu que va a suceder? Example: That little boy is trying to climb a tree. He is going to fall. 1. His passport is in the back pocket of his jeans.

He
2. Dark clouds are gathering.

It
3. She forgot her umbrella and it's raining.
She

4. I'm crossing the channel and the sea is very choppy.
You

5. He's taken his tennis racket.

He
3. Promete o queda de acuerdo en hacer alguna cosa. Example: I'd like you to come to see me tomorrow. All right. /'// go. 1. 'Can you repair my bike?' 'Okay, 2. 'Don't tell anybody, please!' 'All right 3. 'Be careful when you give an injection.' 'Don't worry. I you.' 4. 'You owe me a lot of money.' 'Well, 5. 'You promised you were going to take me swimming.' 'O.K next Sunday'. 6. 'Can I have my book back?' 'Of course, this afternoon. back on Saturday'. it.' '

STANLEY

U N I T 15

30

Present perfect with ever, just, since, for.
Used to + Infinitive.
La estructura used to + infinitive solo existe en el pasado. Se refiere a habitos pasados. • He used to drink quite a lot. (soli'a beber) Para expresar la misma idea en presente, basta con usar el presente simple: • He drinks quite a lot. O bien: • He usually drinks on Saturdays, (suele beber) Para la forma interrogativa y negativa se admiten las dos formas: • Did he use to drink? / Used he to drink? • He didn't use to drink. / He usen't to drink. RECUERDA Que para las coletillas o respuestas cortas se usa el didn't. • They used to live in Bristol, didn't they? • Did he use to smoke? - Yes, he did. o Yes, he used to. • No, he didn't, o No, he didn't use to.

USED TO y WOULD
Cuando nos referimos a habitos pasados podemos usar tanto uno como otro: • When I was a boy I used to get up at six o'clock. • When I was a boy I would get up at six o'clock. Sin embargo, para describir situaciones o estados pasados tenemos que usar el used to y no el would. • I used to be an English teacher, but now I'm a writer. • I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Used to no se usa cuando algo sucedio hace algun tiempo, o por cuanto tiempo duro: • I went to Italy several times (No: I used to go to Italy several times) • I lived in Bristol for five years. (No: I used to live in Bristol for 5 years)

IMPORTANTE
No confundir used to + infinitivo con used to + gerundio. • I used to go. (soli'a ir) - I'm used to going, (estoy acostumbrado a ir) • He used to drink, (soli'a beber) - He's used to drinking, (esta acostumbrado a beber)

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EXERCISES

31

1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con used to ... Example: Ronald doesn't drink now, but he used to drink quite a lot. 1. My father doesn't smoke now, but he 2. I've got a car now, but I 3. There is only one cinema now, but there 4. Years ago I 5. They 6. He 20 cigarettes a day. a motorbike. 3 cinemas. cider, but I don't like it now. in Bristol, but now they live in London. take a lot of medicines, but now he is a vegetarian.

2. En este ejercicio tienes que cambiar el pasado por el presente. Example: He used to drink a lot all the time, (solia) He usually drinks only on Saturdays, (suele) 1. He used to drink cups of coffee all day long. But now a cup in the morning. 2. My brother used to play tennis every day. But now he a match on Saturdays. 3. Jim used to smoke forty cigarettes a day. But now he only one after lunch. 4. We used to go out every day. But now we only on Saturdays. 3. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: He used to live alone. Did he use to live alone? He didn't use to live alone. 1. I used to play in that old castle when I was a child.

2. They used to go to the cinema every Saturday.

3. They used to travel a lot.

4. My friend used to live in Bristol.

Lo mismo sucede con: as soon as until while • We'll go out as soon as I finish this. If I go out I'll buy it for you. until clauses. RECUERDA Que en las frases de when usamos el presente simple (en espanol es presente de subjuntivo). Se puede usar el preterite perfecto para mostrar que la primera accion estara acabada antes que la segunda: • When I am finished with this I'll give it to you. as soon as. I'll go to the cinema alone. When I come back I'll bring you a present. We'll be in Madrid when we wake up. aunque la idea de la frase es future. Cuando generalizamos es posible usar ambas palabras sin que cambie el significado. Usar if cuando es posible que algo suceda. • If it rains we'll stay at home. when. when I come back. • I'll tell you when I come back tonight. . if I come back. No confundir if con when. • • • • I'll see you next week. If sugiere que no estas seguro de que algo va a suceder. (si vuelvo) We'll go to the beach if it doesn't rain. (cuando vuelva) • We'll go out when the rain stops. pero no es seguro. When se usa para hablar acerca de acontecimientos que es seguro o muy probable que sucedan. • If she doesn't come soon. Usar when para cosas que es seguro que sucedan: • I'm going to Madrid. • When/If you heat water it boils. Despues de if tambien usamos el presente simple: • We'll go out if it doesn't rain. • I may go out this afternoon. (cuando vuelva) I'll see you next week.STANLEY U NIT 16 32 If.

We won't wait for you 14. 2. I'm going to New York 9. We'll probably go out 13. don't come.STANLEY EXERCISES 33 1. tell him I want to talk to him. If I 11. But I get home. he doesn't 6. I think he'll pass the exam. 7. (come). I'll return the book I am finished with it. we you (do) that while I (start) off until my brother (see) my sister you (be) surprised if he (ask) you. If we 2 3. (be) ready. 6. let me know when he 7. (recognise) her. When you 10. I'll be very surprised pass it. (be) surprised. I'm going out 5. there is something interesting. I'll have something to eat 4. (pass) his driving test. I'll give you a ring 3. I (drop) you a line as soon as I (let) you know when I (arrive). Please. 2. En este ejercicio tienes que poner when o if. 1. I'll send it to you 11. you want something. you aren't here by 5. I'll be there by 7.1 (phone) her as soon as we (start) the exam until the teacher (see) little Albert you (need) money.1 only watch TV 16. We 9. but you don't want to. it doesn't rain. I'll look for his address.. I'd like you to come. (ask) you. I'll get it for you. (get) there. Your brother may phone today 8. I am there I'll visit Aunt Maggie. you finish writing it?. We (need) any help. I get back. I find it. I'm not. We (arrive) in London. When you 5. I'll give it to you 10. Will you send the letter 12. I'm finished with it . 1.They'll come to see us tomorrow 15. 8. (be) away? (arrive). Example: Come on! Your father will (be) angry if we are (be) late. Todas las frases de este ejercicio tienen idea de future. don't wait for me. he does. Ron los verbos en forma correcta. I'll be away a couple of weeks. it doesn't rain. We 4. Example: If it rains this afternoon we'll stay in.1 12.

difficult. eager. kind. clever. foolish. Esta estructura tambien admite el for + noun/pronoun.STANLEY UNIT 17 34 Infinitives after adjectives. • She was very kind to help them. the last. • He is very clever to answer all these questions. GRUPO 4: The first. • She is too clever to fall into the trap. anxious. hard. • This type of shirt is difficult to wash. rude. likely. • It was silly of you to do that. boring. • He is always reluctant to make any trouble. • It's wrong to do that. Muchos adjetivos pueden ir seguidos de infinitives: GRUPO 1: Silly. etc. etc. reluctant. willing. • That was the worst thing to do. the worst: • Jim is always the first to arrive and the last to leave. careless. easy. the best. poliite right. agreeable. sorry. generous. wrong. Too + adjective + infinitive • He is too stupid to understand. brave. • He is determined to succeed in life. • It's impossible to be angry with this man. etc. ready. Algunos de estos adjetivos admiten la combinacion for + noun/pronoun: • He is anxious for his son to win the competition. etc.. • That box is too big to carry. A la lista anterior se pueden anadir algunos adjetivos que se refieren a probabilidades: certain. good. quick. . the second. nice. bound. glad. Adjective + enough + infinitive • This man is not strong enough to lift it. • They are very likely to accept your proposal. GRUPO 2: Curious. GRUPO 3: Impossible. the next. afraid. It + be + adjective + of noun/pronoun + to-infinitive • It was very kind of him to help you. keen. sure. ashamed. • There isn't enough work for us to do.

he teacher. She was 3. he the way. It's very difficult to please him. She arrived the last one. . 1. he was very kind to help us. It was very 2. Completa las frases con las palabras entre parentesis. Does he want to succeed?' Yes. he He was (his son/come back).' 'Yes. He 4. He is very weak. This competition 3. 1. 'Did he want to come back?' 'Yes. He was anxious for his son to win the competition. It's (boring/live) with. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a las preguntas. He was nearly run over by a car. Example: 'Did he help you?' 'Yes. He is 2. It was very kind of him to help us'. Example: He always arrives the first.STANLEY EXERCISES 35 1. Example: He is very difficult to please. 'Did he show you the way?' 'Yes. It is (nice/be/you). 1. Gambia la frase de forma que signifique lo mismo. 1. It was very ' ' (good/show) us ' (foolish/insult) the (generous/give) us 4. (get/job). He is 2.' 'Yes. she some money. 'Did she give you money?' 'Yes. 3. 'Does he want the job?' 'Yes he (his daughter/get/job). He will come next. He is (determine/succeed). It was very 3. You are a nice person 4. 'I heard he insulted the teacher. It was 2. (eager/come/back) home. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos del grupo 2. It is with him. He is always the first to arrive. Example: He was anxious to win the competition. (impossible/win) this competition. 3. The best thing is to ask him. He isn't lift the box. he was (careless/cross) the road like that. He's He's (his son/succeed). ' 2.

Tambien puede significar 'sin embargo': • He cut his knee. as well indican que la palabra o frase ha sido anadida a algo que ya se ha mencionado anteriormente. or. • Both his brother and his sister are married... Though suele ir al final de la frase: • We tried our best. (o .. As well as (asi como)... I'll be on holiday. (no solo . pero debe colocarse al comienzo de la frase.. Either.STANLEY U N I T 18 36 Linking words and phrases. and . However puede ser usado con un significado parecido. On the other hand.. • I've read the book and I've seen the film too/as well.' Both . A veces muestra sorpresa o asombro: • 'I'll give you £5. we lost the game... • He is good at maths and he is also good at sports. • I don't know if can do that. mientras que too y as well van al final. we lost the game though. • You can take either French or English.. On the other hand (por otra parte)..). • He grows flowers as well as vegetables. • I left it either on the table or in the drawer. Also es mas formal y se coloca en el medio de la frase.. o . • He opened the door as well as the window. * But como conjuncion puede significar 'sino': • It's not the red one I wanted but the blue one.) Se usa cuando tienes dos alternativas.. • She speaks both English and French. but he didn't cry. • We all did our best. • He was both tired and hungry. • I know Tom and I also know his mother. • He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer... Although and even though se pueden usar al principio de una frase: • Although/Though/Even though we tried our best. sino .. Also. .' 'But that is not what we agreed on. too. However we lost the game.

on the other hand. . Completa la frase con alguna de las uniones que van a continuacion: although. we played our best. 7. He is very clever.. we have no money. The books are not very good. The little boy fell off the tree. don't do it at all. German at the same time. I have no time to go and 8. 5. that one. people don't read nowadays.STANLEY EXERCISES 37 1. You can play football. You can take 12. I don't think he will. 2. He had no qualifications 2. He says he will pay. this one to that one. and he also speaks German. You can learn 13 happy. 4. though. Example: Even though we lost the game. 1. as well as. people buy them. and he speaks German too.' Yes. read and write. Unfortunately he is very lazy. He didn't speak English. You can't do the two things at the same time. do it properly he didn't cry. You must 9. he is studying the piano. but not both. 6. You can play rugby this afternoon. 2. He plays the guitar and 7. however. also. Nevertheless. I don't feel well. 1. He was tired 11. We have not the means to do it. and 5. meat French fish. Little Jimmy cut his finger 10. Example: 'Does he speak French?' 'Yes. he works hard. 3. he got the job. 3.. usando las palabras del ejercicio 1. You can take 6. We won't go to this restaurant 4. Although he could speak five languages. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. You can walk up take the cable car. He didn't hurt himself. either. they are expensive. but. 14. or. Besides. He is not very clever.

STANLEY

UNIT

19

38

Have to, must, need to.
Los verbos must y have to tienen un significado muy parecido aunque su uso no es exactamente el mismo. Must indica un obligacion moral, un sentimiento que es necesario hacer algo: • You must stop doing that.* I must finish this job for tomorrow. • I must make an appointment to see the dentist. Con el have to no das tus propios sentimientos. Puedes dar solo hechos: • I have to wear glasses. • I can't go to the party. I have to work. O indicar una obligacion exterior: • We all have to pay taxes. • You have to wear uniforms on duty, don't you? Para indicar costumbres se usa have to: • I have to take six of these pills every day.

RECUERDA
Que • • • a veces se pueden usar las dos formas indistintamente: It's very late. I must/have to go now. I must/will have to buy a good dicctionary. I must/have to cut down on smoking.

Pero cuando comentamos las obligaciones de los demas usamos el have to: • I suppose you'll have to be at work by 9. • They'll have to send somebody down to examine the damage. Cuando las obligaciones le parecen importantes al que habla, usa must: • I must tell you about a friend of mine. • This sort of thing must stop at once. En pasado solo hay una forma: had to • Yesterday I had to borrow some money from Jim. Need to indica necesidad. • I need to consult a good dictionary. • He needs to have access to our files. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: • Need you go so early? • You needn't come with us. Para el pasado solo hay una. • You didn't need to wait for us. • Do you need to go so early? • You don't need to come with us.

STANLEY

EXERCISES

39

1. Completa las frases con el verbo must o have to. Example: I have to go to work every day except Sunday. 1. Jane, you 2. Your spelling is awful. You 3. You 4. You 5. You'll 6. You 7. You both 8. I ran out of money and I 9. The doctor told me that I 10. There were no buses so she 11. Before I give you a cheque I 12.The poor girl can't see a thing. She 13.1 can't meet you tomorrow. I 14. It's very late. I 15. Daddy is not feeling well. We'll 16. In Britain children 17.1 couldn't repair the TV. I go now. call the doctor. wear uniform when they go to school. take it to the shop. work. wear a dress tonight. You're going to the theatre. use a dictionary. wear a uniform when you are on duty, don't you? train very hard for the Olympic Games, I suppose. start earlier when you start work, won't you? tell me about your quarrel with Jim. come and see us. borrow some from my friend. take these pills. walk. find my cheque book. wear glasses.

2. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: I need to consult a doctor. Do I need to consult a doctor?/Need I consult a doctor? I don't need to consult a doctor/I needn't consult a doctor. 1. I need to talk to you

2. He needs to have access to our files.

STANLEY

U N I T 20

40

Uses of the article "the
The se usa para unas referencias definidas: • The lion is dangerous. Pero no se usa en sentido general: • Lions are dangerous. Con nacionalidades se usa the: the British, the Americans, the Spanish, the Italians. Y tambien con algunos adjetivos: the injured, the wounded, the dying, the old, the young, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the sick. El uso de the con estaciones del ano es opcional: • We'll go in (the) autumn. Con fechas el artfculo se lee pero no se escribe: • 16 (th) April (se dice the sixteenth of April).

Cinema, theatre, radio, television,
Decimos: We go to the cinema/theatre. • We listen to the radio. Pero generalmente omitimos el artfculo con television. • We watched television last night. • We watch the news on television. Sin embargo decimos: • Switch off the television, please.

RECUERDA
Que no ponemos el artfculo cuando hablamos de algo en general bien sea contable o incontable: • Sugar is bad for the health. • Girls are always beautiful. Ni con organizaciones: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). O titulos de personas: Mr Jones, Mrs Brown, Miss Jackson, Dr Smith, Captain Mallory, Lord Mountbatten, Pope John, Father Brian. Con dfas y meses: • Saturday is the best day of the week. • May is a beautiful month. Con comidas: • Dinner is at seven. • Lunch was very light.

Los periodistas omiten los artfculos para ganar espacio y dar mas impacto a la noticia: • BINGO FIRE ALARM • COACH CRASH DISASTER Suprimimos los artfculos cuando empleamos estas palabras refiriendonos al uso para el que estan concebidas: church, hospital, school, bed, prison, sea, class, university, college, court, town. • The wounded were taken to hospital. • Mr and Mrs Brown go to church every Sunday. Sin embargo decimos: • I went to the church to see the new altar.

I've invited my girlfriend to dinner 9 10. wounded were taken to hospital. He lives in a little village in 26. Do you go to 29. 2.There are millions of stars in 21 22. earth goes around sun. TV. 7. En otras no. 11. Which is 6 radio. Are there many stars in 30 31. 17. sea for two months. 14. Alps with his elephants. television.STANLEY EXERCISES 41 1. We were at sea for two weeks. .This is most expensive restaurant in town. Pyrenees. Father Brown. We had space this cupboard occupies is incredible. cheapest in this town. Doctors say that 15 16 beans contain a lot of fibre. Hannibal crossed over 8. please? theatre very often? sky? 25. Example: Can you turn up the volume of the television. 20. prison for two years. En algunas de estas frases hay que poner articulo. lunch?. green is my favourite colour smoking is bad for your health. She is dead were buried and only person who understands me. next Sunday.The man in charge of this church is 18. meal we had at the restaurant was delicious. We went to 19. Switch off 28. please? 1. sir. What time is 23 24. space. They prefer going to longest river in the world? Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Swimming in a swimming pool is better than swimming in 3. sea. My parents don't go to cinema. 5. Colonel Rogers to see you. It was a nice cruise. This hotel is 27. I don't like listening to 4. That man was sent to 12 13 money makes the world go round. dinner in a restaurant. biggest hotel in the city. I usually watch theatre very much. We were at 32 people always say these things.

La pronunciacion de a y an A se usa delante de sonidos de consonantes (no solamente letras consonantes). Usamos el artfculo indeterminado con profesiones. write a U and an H on the blackboard.H. • a radio with an R. A menudo usamos a/an con enfermedades: • I've got a cold. • This is a B.C. • a noise with an N. • John is a mechanic and Peter is an architect. • He is an American and she is a Frenchwoman.STANLEY U N I T 21 42 Use of the article a/an. nacionalidades. • a lion with an L.E.O..Q. El plural de a house puede ser El " " an egg " " houses eggs o some houses.W.G.I. • This is an A.U.P. RECUERDA Que se dice • an umbrella. an honour. Cuando usamos an no pronunciamos la h: an honest man. an hour.N. o some eggs. La diferencia entre one y a/an A menudo son intercambiables: a hundred = one hundred.. • She's got a toothache. • a man with an M.T. • a fair with an F. • • • • • an unusual event an eye an ear a home a hot day sin embargo.M.F.X.Y.K. Fijate: • a horse with an H.R. an se usa delante de sonidos de vocal (no solo con palabras que empiecen con vocal): • Please. .J. • He is a Catholic and she is an Anglican.L. an heir. religiones.S. " " " " " • a uniform • a union • a year. • He is a socialist and she is a conservative. a university • a European • a n hour • an honour Algunas palabras que empiezan por h pueden ir precedidas de a o an a discrecion del que las pronuncia: a hotel o an hotel.V.D. Cuando relatamos un suceso usamos tambien one: • One day I met your mother and . historian o an historian.Z. y polftica.

...... 12..... 1 met him 17. university in that country where you have to wear uniform.. She is 6.. ... .... This is a/an unique occasion............................. 1 3....... That man is a/an European... day..... This is 16... Many years ago .... 2... ......... Tacha la opcion que no corresponda.... She was 2.............. Example: The car was doing 80 kms....... 2...... He is a/.... 8... hall with a staircase leading to the rooms...... 5......... architect........ honest woman......... not two....... . .... ... 3. umbrella and ..... 4....... ...... headache............ hot meal.... piece of good news today..... 1 ........... He was carrying unusual case...Catholic...... 6. ...... 9.. quarter of a pound. We'll have 8....... 1 only want 18.. That man is 14..........There is ... This is a/an Eurovision song contest................ I ordered one/a coffee.. and that woman is a/an Asian.... .... 1........ ............. I'll be here before .Muslim and she is a/. It was 7.... many years ago........ lawyer..... ..... You have to spell it with 10.. 10..... It was a/an united nation. certain merchant arrived in Peking.. 9...STANLEY EXERCISES 43 1... ............... There is only 1 5.... This is a/an/one sort of can opener......... Completa las frases con a/an o one Example: There is a hospital not far from here. She's got 19..... hat? hour........ L.......... English woman.. If you go to Scotland take a/one raincoat and a/an umbrella.. ... an/jto[& hour. Have you got 4.. honour...... .... My sister is 3... . . 7..... You need a/an screwdriver and a/an knife........ Xylophone you spell it with ... It was a/an universal happening.. . 1 1 ..... unique book X.. There was 5...

So (asi). as. so that. As con la mayorfa de los verbos puede significar 'mientras. • The manager was ill so I went in his place. • So it was that he had the first sight of snow. So (de forma de que). • • • • As/Because/Since he had no money he couldn't buy a car. • As a student he gets a great reduction. (ya que. he didn't trust her. so. puesto que). • And so on. • The shops were closed so I didn't get any bread. . The knife had a cork handle so that it would float if it fell into the water. As/While she made up her face she thought about the date. como. As + noun puede significar when or while.STANLEY U N I T 22 44 Since. So (indicando resultado). As/While he walked along the path he thought of past events. So that se usa en oraciones de proposito (clauses of purpose). As.' • • • • As/While he climbed the stairs his eyes fell upon the picture. because. so. As/Because/Since he knew her well. As/Because/Since he lives near here we'll pay her a visit. He had to die so that others could live. • Stand with your arms out. As/Because/Since it contains alcohol you can't give it to the children. o cuando el sujeto original se vuelve a mencionar: • • • • I say these things so that you can criticise me. • I left a message so as to be sure of contacting her. She worked hard so that everything would be ready by six. • As a married man he has to think of his wife. puede muchas veces significar lo mismo que since o because. Tambien puede significar because. • As a doctor he was very well known. As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he cut himself badly. es decir cuando la persona a la cual se refiere el proposito es diferente del sujeto de la oracion principal.

They put a lot of water 5. 3. Example: Ships have lifeboats so that the crew can save their lives. The supermarket wasn't opened yet 2. 5. the animals wouldn't be thirsty. 4. Ron so o so that en las frases siguientes. we walked away. I left the note in the hall I didn't buy anything. 3. Since/While you are going to stay with us you may as well know it. 1. Because/While he drove he thought of the last events. She didn't like him 6. my wife would see it. As she walked along the corridor she thought of her sister. As/While a married man he has to think of his family. Tacha la palabfa qtre-este mal. You can tell me something about these people since you live in the district. He stopped for a rest as he was tired. 2. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. Since/When I'm going to be there in the morning I'll do it myself. 6. he didn't go to school. As a student he had been disastrous. The road was blocked 4. Since you seem to know everything tell me where I can find this. 1. Example: As/Because he shaved he thought of her. I came back. As he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. 5. everything would be ready. He hadn't done his homework 9. 1. 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 45 1. He wrote it on the blackboard 7. the students would see it. There was no answer 8. We worked all night long 3. He always sings as he shaves in the bathroom. she stopped going out with him. 4. Example: Since he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. As/Because you are so clever tell me the answer. 2. . 2.

Infinitives of purpose after GO and COME. « That is a trunk for keeping old clothes. buy. . Algunos verbos. • He bought a new car so that his wife might learn to drive. • I need a spoon to eat my soup. Estarfa mal decir: (He went early not to miss the beginning). Oraciones de proposito con so that + will/would o can/could + infinitivo. • She is learning Spanish so that she can travel in South America. a menudo introducen un objeto + infinitivo: • Bring me a chair to sit on. need.STANLEY U N I T 23 46 Infinitive of purpose. bring. e. • He went to the Post Office to buy stamps. En vez de decir: 'Go to find your brother' generalmente decimos 'Go and find your brother. Lo mismo ocurre si usamos el must: • I must go and finish that as soon as possible.g. • I'll switch on the heater so that the room will be warm by bed time. • She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time with her children. No es muy normal usar un infinitivo de proposito despues del imperativo o infinitivo de los verbos go y come. • I gave her my address so that she could write to me. In order/So as + Infinitive (para. • They took their seats early in order/so as not to miss the beginning. • Go and tell him to stop that noise. a fin de).' Es decir usamos dos imperativos unidos con and • Come and talk to my sister. • That is a tool for opening tins. • He tiptoed in order/so as not to wake up the children. • She disguised herself so that nobody would recognise her. El proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitivo: • She went to England to learn English. Con frases negativas no se puede usar solo el infinitivo. • This is a knife for carving meat. • He left early in order/so as to arrive in time. want. RECUERDA Que cuando hablamos acerca de un prop6sito en general usamos for + gerundio. take.

Example: He wrote a note. He wrote a note so that his wife would know. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con so that. 3. Why are you saving money? (buy a house) 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 47 1. 4. I need some shelves 4. 3. I am not fit enough 2. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a estas preguntas. Completa estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. He wrote it in code. Why did you go to the dentist? (pull a tooth out) 4. Give him a key. 1. He is lighting a fire. Why do children go to school? (learn) 2. I need a new dress 7. all these old clothes in. These poor people haven't got a bed 5. We haven't got enough money 3. Example: They are going to the airport to catch/take the plane. We have a trunk a marathon. at the wedding. He wants the house to be warm when the children get up. the problem. She hid his trousers. . He wanted his wife to know. my books on. We'll get together this afternoon 6. Why is she wearing a coat? (keep warm) 6. 1. 2. She didn't want him to leave the house. He didn't want anybody to understand it. in. Why did you telephone her? (tell her the news) 3. Why do you walk to your office every day? (save money) 2. 1. He can get into the house. a new house. Example: Why did you go to the Post Office? (buy stamps) / went to the Post Office to buy stamps.

If + present + modal. • Stop shouting and/or/otherwise you'll wake up everybody. • If I were John/in John's position. • If you went by plane you would get there earlier. I would have bought it. • If you didn't watch so much TV you wouldn't feel so sleepy in the morning. • If I finish early I can/could/may/might/should/ought/must phone him. • If I were you/in your position. Imperative + conjunction + clause. he hadn't finished the job. If + Should + imperative. I'd say yes. it hadn't been for the rain. we would have gone out. • I'll buy the house if we have money. • If she comes tomorrow we can/could/may/might/should/ought to/must go for a picnic. Otras expresiones con were. • Should you see her give her my regards. If I were/was + would/should. I would still be on the road. pero were es mas formal. . TYPE 1 La forma mas comun es if + simple present + future. If + past perfect + modal • If I had known that.STANLEY U N I T 24 48 Conditionals: type 1. • If the weather is good we'll go out. TYPE 2 La forma mas comun es: if + simple past + "d" conditional • If you spoke languages you would earn more. 2 and 3. I wouldn't do it. • If you (should) see her give her my regards. TYPE 3 La forma mas comun es: if + past perfect + would have • • • • If If If If I had had money. I had lived in the Middle Ages. I wouldn't have paid the bill. No hay diferencia en el significado. Were se puede usar en lugar de was. y se usa para posibilidades remotas: • If I were the King you'd be the Queen. • If it weren't for your help. • If I were/was a man I would be a policeman. I could/might have told you. I would have been a knight.

If I had been in your position. (be/punish). (she/marry me). I would still be there if 6. 2. 3. You would get there earlier 5. I wouldn't be surprised 4. If you drink too much you 9. He might have told us if 7. (be/punish). (get drunk). (weather/clear up). (take aspirin). (go/train). If you had worked harder at school. I will buy the car 6. 4. (rain). (tell/him/l/ring back). (get/drunk). Example: It would be very cold if I opened the window. I wouldn't do it if 7. (help you). I 8. . I would have stayed at home 2. (accept/offer). I 5. (learn/more English). we 2. If you had insisted. I 3. 1. We may go for a picnic 7. If it rains we 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 49 1. If you broke that you (stay/home). (get drunk). Example: If you eat too much you'll get fat. I 3. If I am not better tomorrow. If you had drunk too much you 9. (go/with you). If you drank too much you 9. (have/money). you (get/better/job). Remember! You must phone me 8. (weather/good). 1. 1. he 5. If you break that you (go out). (be/punish). (know/facts). Example: If I had asked him he would have answered. 3. If you help me. If it rained tomorrow. He might tell us if 8. (be/you). If you went to England. Completa las frases con condicional type 1. If you had broken that you (be/here/yesterday). (to be/for/your help). 6. If you had wanted. We would have been happy 4. (not/get/job). Completa las frases con el type 3. If he calls. (give it to you). Completa las frases con el type 2.

Seguidos del presente de infinitive pueden expresar posibilidad en el presente o en el future: • He may/might tell us tonight. • Dad may lend you the car. (future) May y might come posibilidad de presente y future. En las frases negatives hay diferencia: • He may/might not be driving the bus himself. (quiza no fuese el el que conducfa) • He couldn't be driving the bus. • 'I wonder where Jane is.' • 'May I smoke in this room?' 'No. • He may take my car this evening. • We couldn't take radios into the library.' Third person. (es imposible que fuera el) . Mr Brown?' 'Yes. • She said she might hire a van. you may leave. Might aumenta la duda. May para pedir permiso. Con el infinitive continue: • She may/might be waiting at the bus stop. Para los tiempos compuestos y voz pasiva se debe usar allowed. • An accused person may appeal. might and could + infinitive. you may not smoke here. En ingles coloquial se suele sustituir el may por el can. • They may come with us if they want to.STANLEY U N I T 25 50 May. • On Sundays we could stay in bed until 10.' 'She may/might/could still be waiting for you. • 'May I go now. Could come alternativa de may/might. (puede que te preste) • Dad might lend you the car. May/might for possibility.' • 'I wonder why Katty isn't here. Generalmente se usa para afirmaciones impersonates concernientes a la autoridad y permiso: • In certain circumstances the police may enter a private home. • They may/might emigrate to Australia. Could = was/were allowed para permiso en pasado. (podrfa ser que te prestase) Might se puede usar en el condicional cuando la expresion esta introducida por un verbo en el pasado: • If we asked him he might come. (at this moment) • They may/might be waiting when we arrive.' 'She may/might/could be in the shed. • Since the incident she hasn't been allowed to go out alone.

Lo mismo que en el ejercicio 1. Responde ahora en forma negativa. 'Are the children ready?' 'I'm not sure.' (may/go/cinema).' (might/be/toilet) . I wonder how they got in. 'Is she telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. He 2. I wonder why. Ahora escribe frases explicando la situacion. 'Do you know if she wants to do it?' 'I'm not sure. She 3. I wonder where he is. They . I wonder where it is. she may/might be in the kitchen. She 2. 'Does he want to do it?' 'I'm not sure.STANLEY EXERCISES 51 1. (might/be/shed) 1.' 1. Example: 'Do you know if Mum is in the kitchen?' 'I'm not sure.' (may/get in/through/window) 3. It may/might be in the shed. Example: / can't find the little puppy. He 3. 4. En este ejercicio tienes que poner las frases con may y might. 'Do you know if they were working?' 'I'm not sure. But he may/might have bought it. She 3. 'She was at home. The house was burgled. She 2. They 2. 2. 'Do you know if she was pregnant?' 'I'm not sure. 'Do you know if she is telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. pero en pasado.' 1. They 3. 'Do you know if they are coming?' 'I'm not sure. 'Your brother is not in the house. Example: 'Do you know if he bought the book?' 'I'm not sure. but she didn't answer the phone. Example:'Is your father in the office?' 'I'm not sure. He may/might not be in his office.' 1. 'Do you know if he was looking?' 'I'm not sure.

In view of the fact that puede ser expresado por as/since/seeing that. pero no because: • As/Since/Seeing that you're going that way. let's go together. So es un adverbio y se usa con adverbios y adjetivos: • The rain fell so heavily that we pulled up the car by the kerb. Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una afirmacion ya mencionada. Estas combinaciones podrfan expresarse tambien por dos oraciones unidas con so. why did you invite her?' Clauses of result (Oraciones de resultado) • As it had snowed during the night. • She hid his trousers so that he couldn't leave the room. the roads were slippery. • I was angry because she made me wait. Clauses of reason Estas oraciones se pueden introducir con as/because/since: • I gave up smoking as/because/since it was dangerous for my health. . so the roads were slippery. • It was too dark to find the tracks. purpose and result. En frases negativas so that puede ser reemplazado por to avoid/prevent. a fin de que) • They wear reflective jackets so that they can be seen in the dark. • 'I hope Janet doesn't come.' 'If so. why did you go out with him? If so (si es asf). Clauses of purpose (para que. Clauses of result with such/so . so we went back to the hut. • As/Because/Since it was dangerous for my health I stopped smoking.. se puede reemplazar por if: • As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Keith. that.. • It had snowed during the night. • She dyed her hair to avoid/to prevent being recognized (so that she wouldn't be recognized).STANLEY U N I T 26 52 Clauses of reason. • He had such a lot of money that he didn't know how to spend it. • He died in order that we might live.

1. . 3. 5. Tomorrow is a holiday. They closed all the windows. 4. We were able to catch the plane. I paid with my credit card. The room was very cold. She didn't have a car. We don't have to go to work. The door was closed. We couldn't get in. We finished work early. She has 3. We went for a walk. The window was open. people can see them.STANLEY EXERCISES 53 1. 3. It froze hard that night. Example: Ships carry lifeboats so that passengers can save their lives. The wind was blowing hard. 6. We walked home from the office. There was ice everywhere the next day. She had to walk to the office. Une las frase siguientes con so. He spoke for 4. They carry torches in the fog it will float if it falls into the water. 5. 2. It was a nice day yesterday I had no money. A. The train arrived on time. Example: The train arrived on time B. so we were able to catch the plane. 1 2. 4. You may as well give me a hand. En este ejercicio tienes que unir las frases de la columna A con la columna B. A. 2. You are here. fierce dog that nobody dares to get near her. Completa las frases con such a o so that. long time that people began to leave the place. The exercise was wrong. 7. It was too dark to go on. This gadget is made of wood 2. They camped there. 1. 3. The teacher told him to repeat it. B.

aunque la forma ordinaria es mucho mas comun: • You don't need to do it today = You needn't do it today. (no tenfas por que haber hecho) • You needn't have brought your coat. o ideas negativas. • All you need to do is sign this form.' RECUERDA Que el verbo need admite las dos formas. you don't need to come early. • I don't think she need go yet. He already knows. • You needn't tell your father. Estas mismas frases se diri'an coloquialmente usando el need como verbo ordinario. you needn't go. you know! (no tenfas necesidad de haber trafdo) . aunque no sea muy corriente el usarlas. Cuando se usa como verbo defective no anade s la tercera persona del singular y no admite ni el to ni el do: • 'Need I go?' -'No. NEEDN'T + PAST INFINITIVE Esta estructura se usa para expresar una accion innecesaria que de todas formas fue llevada a cabo. Mientras que mustn't indica que no debes. • You mustn't tell your father. • You needn't have made the beds. FIJATE en la diferencia entre needn't y mustn't. • I wonder if you need take an early train.STANLEY U N I T 27 54 Need. Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacion. I have to change the sheets. • All you need do is sign this form. • I don't think she needs to go yet. Se pueden usar formas afirmativas modales con frases que expresan duda. • I wonder if you need to take an early train. We are in Marbella. • Do I need to send it by air? = Need I send it by air? • He needs to get a haircut = He need get a haircut. Need puede tener la forma de un verbo defective (modal auxiliary) o la de un verbo ordinario.' Como verbo normal: • He needs a lot of money to buy that house. He'd go mad. • 'Do I need to come early?' 'No.

We needn't make two copies. Do I need to run to catch the bus? 3. You needn't tell your mother yet. Need you wear uniform at school? 3. Responde a estas preguntas usando el verbo need como defective. he needn't come. Gambia la forma defectiva del verbo need por la ordinaria. He needn't read the whole book. You needn't pay until the end of the month. 5. Need you type those letters today? 3. 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 55 1. he need come. Need I pay cash? 4. Ahora vas a pasar estas frases de forma ordinaria a defectiva Example: You don't need to wear a dress tonight. I don't need to tell you the difficulties. 2. She doesn't need to hurry. I don't think he needs to come just yet.' 1. 4. 3. Example: You needn't come with us. Need she send it by air? 2. Need we hurry tonight? 10. 4. 1. 7. All you need do is fill in the form. Need I type this report today? 2. You needn't wear a dress tonight. I wonder if I need take all these pills. . Do you need to spend so much money on shoes? 5. Example: 'Need he come so early?' 'Yes.' 'No. 1. I don't think he need come just yet. Need I come in early tomorrow? 6. 9. 8. You don't need to come with us.

STANLEY U N I T 28 56 Ability can. Aquf can tiene una funcion gramatical que equivale al presente simple en afirmaciones. • Can you cook. Can. Couldn't se usa tanto para habilidad general como particular. • After two hours we succeeded in reaching the top. Past Could se usa como habilidad general. • He was so drunk that he couldn't find the key. Se prefiere was able to. para decir que podrfas hacer algo cuando quisieras. Susan? Be able tambien se usa aunque es menos corriente. know how to + infinitive. could con verbos de percepcion. • I couldn't hear anything. Can puede ser usado con idea de future. • I can smell something burning. • Can you come to my house on Saturday? RECUERDA Que • • • KNOW HOW TO se puede usar tambien para expresar habilidad. • Tomorrow morning I'll be able to stay in bed until 10. • She is certainly able to cook. o succeeded in. Para el future se usa be able. • How many pints were you able to drink? • I managed to get a rise. • You could have killed him. . • After I have some sleep I'll be able to give you a hand. (Tambien: I was able to play) • My grandfather could speak several languages. • You can see that that is true. y al do/does en preguntas y negaciones. • I could play the piano at the age of 5. • We can discuss that this afternoon. • I could have made a fortune if I had wanted to. Could con el infinitive compuesto. She knows how to make you feel at ease. • Last year he couldn't decide what he wanted to do. I know how to cook. I know how to get there faster than the rest. Could no se usa para indicar una habilidad en el pasado (en una ocasion). Can se usa para hablar en presente de una habilidad general: • I can run 1000 metres in three minutes. managed to.

Example: She can't play the piano now. I've never her.' 6. He hurt his knee. but I when I was at school. but she could when she was a child. She can speak four languages now. but I Basque Country. 'Did you find the house?' 'Yes. 4. so he train for sometime. but I when I was a boy scout. to parachute. speak several languages. was/were able to o couldn't. Example: Everybody was able to escape from the building on fire. but I don't think he can do understand 2. He used to it now. 3. but she when she was younger. 1. En este ejercicio tienes que usar can o be able a veces puedes usar los dos. We looked everywhere for the child but we couldn't find him. 4. She seven languages. Ask my father. 1. My brother 2. I didn't find any bread at the baker's. Queen Cleopatra was very clever. I can't understand that woman. I can't solve those problems now. 2. En este ejercicio hay que completar las frases con could. 1.' 7. but I a loaf at the supermarket. do that. help you. He was able to/could play the piano when he was a child. solve all of them when I lived in the . Example: My brother could/was able to do that very easily. it was quite hard. I can't speak basque now. He should 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 57 1. 'Did you win your tennis match?' 'Well. but we 2. speak find the plane approaching. I focused my binoculars and I 5. 4. I can't light a fire now with two pieces of wood. but I to beat Bronson. 3. Completa las frases con could. 3. I haven't been able to come earlier. The plane caught fire. it wasn't easy but we find it.

He is very keen on gambling. • That woman does nothing but complain. • She put off making a final decision till the morning. tales como: be for/against. . ought. Algunos phrasal verbs llevan el gerundio detras. She is very fond of playing the piano. etc. • • • • • You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs. mean. have. Con algunos verbos tales como. look forward to. He was walking without looking in front. Todos los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio. try. • I am looking forward to seeing you. TO puede ser parte de un infinitive.STANLEY U N I T 29 58 Gerunds after prepositions Worth. He is not worth getting angry about. WORTH se puede usar en dos estructuras seguidas de gerundio. see about. En otras ocasiones el to colocado detras de un verbo sera probablemente una preposicion e ira seguida por un nombre/pronombre o gerundio. would like/love. but the baker's was closed. hope. • I am used to waiting for her. • 'Did you buy bread?' 'Well. Hay algunas combinaciones de noun + preposition + gerund. plan. used. hate. He went for a drink before coming home. y despues del going. intend. • • • • It isn't worth coming so early (It como sujeto). Si va detras de los verbos auxiliares be. take to: • He took to writing. usamos el to para evitar la repeticion. put off. give up. want. care for. • There's no point in talking about it if you don't listen. • What the point of talking to you if you don't listen? • Are you in favour of giving the workers extra pay? RECUERDA Que hay dos excepciones a la regla del gerundio: except y but. keep on. I wanted to. es parte del infinitive. • There's nothing we can do except wait. o una preposicion. Is it worth visiting the art gallery? This car isn't worth repairing (nombre o pronombre como sujeto). que llevan un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). leave off.

Then I looked for a job. He thinks it is not worth repairing it. I am looking forward to it. Usa la palabra worth con las siguientes frases. She was mad with me for 3. 1. We went to the Italian restaurant instead of 6. I'm not looking 3. I want to hear from you. Example: I left school. She has to translate this text.STANLEY EXERCISES 59 1. Example: She is happy. I don't want to give him more money. Escribe otra frase con looking forward to o I am used to. He is not used to 2. I don't think it is 3. I have no intention of 4. I think it is . I don't want to get angry. He's very good at 5. They are not going to visit the cathedral. 1. My brother makes a lot of things. I don't like it. Example: He is not going to repair the car. I am looking 3. We had an accident soon after 2. They think it is 2. She's going on holiday. We went to the Italian restaurant. We left and soon we had an accident. 1. He is queueing up. She is looking forward to going on holiday. She is not used 4. He doesn't like it. I am looking 2. After leaving school I looked for a job. I'm going to make an effort. She was mad because I was late. We didn't go to the Chinese restaurant. I'm going to the dentist. She doesn't translate very often. I want to meet you soon. Lee la frase y escribe otra con el mismo significado.

• No. I have already sent it back. • That was the easiest job I have ever done. • • • • • She has just gone out. • This is the best beer I have ever drunk. • This is the first time I have (ever) ridden a mule. since) El preterite perfecto con just se usa con acciones recientemente ocurridas. • No. They have already given it to me. • • • • We have already finished. El preterito perfecto con already (ya). have you just arrived? I've just seen your brother. RECUERDA Que tambien podemos usar esta construccion (con o sin ever). for. I have just remembered. I have never been to Rome. I've just had breakfast. • This is the most interesting book I have ever read. Normalmente el already se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio. Cuando usamos ever en frases afirmativas le damos el significado de jamas. con the first. just. the only. Lo usamos con superlatives. • • • • • Have you ever been to Rome? (alguna vez) Has she ever told you what happened that day? Have you ever been to the Prado Museum? Have you ever been in a submarine? Have you ever spoken to him? Para responder negativamente se usa el never. the second. etc. • Have you done that already? • He's finished already! • The children have gone to school already! . A veces para darle mas enfasis lo ponemos al final de la frase. I have never spoken to him. El preterito perfecto con ever se usa generalmente en preguntas.STANLEY U N I T 30 60 Present perfect (ever. already. (acaba de) Hello. She has already given up smoking. se usa para sugerir que algo se ha hecho antes de lo esperado. • This is the only time he has (ever) come to see me.

This is the (interesting/book/read) 2.' 'Yes. 1. Example: 'When are you going to post the letter?' 'I've already posted it. This is the second time I (be/this country) 4. Example:'I've heard Eddie is back. 'No. 'No. That is the (beautiful/woman/see) 3. 'No. 1. I've never eaten lobster. I 3. Como en el ejemplo. That was the fastest mile I (run) 4. 'No. I .' 1 ?' 3. Responde a las preguntas con already. 'Have you finished writing your book?' 'Yes. 'Have you seen my brother?' 'Yes. 'I see you're back from the Costa Brava. 'When are you going to do it?' 'I 2. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 61 1. Haz preguntas para las siguientes respuestas.' . we have never studied Greek. 'You don't smoke any more. I have never read Shakespeare. 'When are you going to run a marathon?' Well.' 1 4. I've never smoked a cigar.' 'Yes. a couple.' 'Have you ever been to Italy?' 1. Example: This is the best wine I have ever tasted. Example: 'No. Usa ahora ever con frases afirmativas. This the cheapest hotel I (stay) 5. I've never been to Italy. Sin dar enfasis.' No. Forma frases usando just. I 2. we 4.' 1 3. I've just seen him. 'Did you post the letters?' 'Well. 'When are you going to speak to your boss?' 'I 3. Como en el ejemplo.' 1 ?' ?' ?' 2. I (give up) 5. I 2.

Podemos decir: • • • • I haven't seen Tom for six months. We've been going out together since we met in Paris. RECUERDA Que con la estructura: It is + period + since + past o perfect tense. (todavia vivimos aqui) My parents have been married for twenty five years.' My grandmother has been ill for quite a long time. (ya no vivimos alii) • I worked in that company for a year. We have known each other for many years. He hasn't invited me to his house for years. I've been driving lorries since I was eighteen. I haven't smoked a cigarette for two months. For usado con el preterito perfecto denota un perfodo de tiempo que se extiende hasta el presente: • • • • • • • • We have lived in this town for twenty years. Ever since • He had an accident last year and he has been bedridden ever since. . Casi siempre se usa con preterito perfecto. I haven't seen my girlfriend for a week. y significa 'desde ese momento'. for a long time. (o bien) It is six months since I last saw Tom. SINCE Se usa con un momento determinado de tiempo. 'How long have you known your boyfriend?' 'I've known him for a week. I last saw Tom six months ago. He has worked in this factory since he left school. (o bien) It is six months since I have seen Tom.STANLEY U N I T 31 62 Present perfect (with for and since) FOR se usa con un perfodo de tiempo: for two days. Si usamos for con el pasado simple denota un determinado perfodo de tiempo: • We lived in London for two years. We haven't met since Christmas. • • • • • They've been here since 9 o'clock.

(I/not/see/Margaret/weeks) 4. 'How long has your brother been in hospital?' (a few days) 'He . 'How long have you known this man?' (Christmas) 'I've known 4. 'How long has your father been unemployed?' (six months) 'He has 5. (My father/has/not/work/Christmas) 3. 'How long have you been a smoker?' (14 years old) 'I've been 2. 'How long has she been ill?' (four weeks) 'She 7.. (It/has/not/rain/in this country/June last year) 7. Example: 'How long have you worked in that factory?' (six years) 'I've worked in that factory for six years. 2... Example: (we/know/eachother/six weeks) We've known each other for six weeks. Elije entre for y since. 1. (has/not/snow/years/this country) 2. Responde a estas frases usando for o since. 'How long has he been in the army?' (January) 'He 8.STANLEY EXERCISES 63 1.. 'How long have you been married?' (twenty years) 'I've been 3. 'How long have you been in love with that girl?' (summer holiday) 'I've 6. (We/have/not/buy/a new/car/10 years) . (I/have/not/smoke/cigarette/I980) 5. (We have/not/be/cinema/years) 6.' 1..

pero lleva algun tiempo ejecutando la accion. Pero si la moto antes no andaba. Usamos la forma simple para indicar cuanto hemos hecho. darling. cuantas cosas hemos hecho. puede que no. Usamos la forma continua para indicar cuanto tiempo ha estado sucediendo algo. no la accion en si. Tommy tiene la ropa manchada de grasa.STANLEY U N I T 32 64 Present perfect continuous. • She has been painting the kitchen. No nos interesa si la accion esta acabada o no. • I've written two books this year. y ahora sf anda: • He has repaired his motorbike. . 0 que acaba de terminar: • Sorry. • I've been reading this book all afternoon. • The baby has been sleeping for ten hours. Uso Este tiempo se usa para una accion que empezo en el pasado y que todavia continua: • I have been waiting for half an hour. o cuantas veces hemos hecho algo. si la cocina antes era de un color y ahora es de otro: • Jerry's mother has painted the kitchen. Nos interesa el resultado de la accion. • He has been repairing his bike. Have you been waiting long? Fijate en la diferencia entre la forma continua y la simple. • She has read two chapters of the book. I'm getting mad. • I've spoken to him on the phone three times. (Puede que todavia no haya terminado) Pero. Puede que Tommy haya terminado de arreglar la moto. Mas ejemplos: • Jerry's mother is covered in paint. En este caso lo importante es que la accion esta acabada. • That boy has been playing football since 2 o'clock. • The children have washed the car this morning. Se forma con el preterito perfecto del verbo to be + un gerundio: • I have been working.

3. Elije entre la forma continua y la simple. Ahora vas a hacer las preguntas para unas respuestas dadas. That girl is waiting for her boyfriend. You've 6. 1. (He/paint/20 pictures/since he left the art school) 3. That man (wait) for hours. They 2. How long has he been learning French? 1. . Completa las frases con el preterite perfecto simple o con el continuo. I'm tired. Look at those people. 'My friend is collecting stamps. (He/win/the county championship many times) 5.' 'How long 4. I have written ten already.' 'How long 2. Example: I have been writing letters all afternoon. (read) this book all day. I 5. Example: My brother is learning French. (He/paint/pictures/since he left the art school) 2.' 'How many 3. (talk) for hours. Example: (This writer/write/100 pages of his book) This writer has written 100 pages of his book. 1. (He/play/tennis/since/1985) 4. (The group/visit/several countries already) 2. (The group/travel/around/Europe for two months) 6.' 'How many 3. (smoke) too much recently. I have twenty already. 'My father writes short stories. but I (phone) our customers. 'Mrs Smith is painting the kitchen. I (finish) yet. 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 65 1. I have (cook) all morning.

• I'd rather they studied more during the course. el significado es presente o future: • I'd rather write the letter now. Si queremos poner la frase Jim would rather read than watch TV en pasado habra que usar el prefer. Usamos la estructura en pasado. Would rather + sujeto + pasado Cuando quieres que alguien haga algo. • I'd rather she didn't try to repair the TV set. . • I would rather phone than write. • I prefer reading to watching TV. Ambos significan lo mismo. Prefer puede ir seguido de un sustantivo: • I prefer cider to beer. puedes decir.prefer to. O tambien: • My father prefers driving to going by plane. • Jim preferred reading to watching TV. sin embargo. Would rather + infinitive No puede usarse para frases en pasado. • I'd rather fly than go by train. Mientras que would rather siempre lleva un verbo detras: • I'd rather drink cider than beer. • I prefer to fly rather than go by train. but I would have preferred to have gone to the cinema. • I'd rather you wrote the letter now. • We went to the theatre. Would rather y would prefer pueden ir seguidos de un infinitive preterite: • We went by train. FIJATE • My father prefers to drive rather than go by plane. Mientras que prefer to puede ir seguido de un infinitive o un gerundio.STANLEY U N I T 33 66 I would rather . • I'd rather you went today. • I prefer to live / living in the country. but I'd rather have gone by air. Would rather + infinitive Equivale a would prefer to. pero would rather va seguido de un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive).

Example: /'// accept a cheque.. Shall we cook dinner? (prefer/go to a restaurant) 3. Example: (walk/run) I'd rather walk than run.. I prefer to read rather than watch TV. Usa ahora I'd rather + otro sujeto. Shall we have wine? (rather/have beer) 5. o I'd rather than . Shall we pay with a cheque? (prefer/pay cash) 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 67 1. Shall we play golf? (prefer/play/tennis) 2.. but I'd rather you paid cash. rather than . Ahora termina las frases usando: I'd prefer. 1. Example: (reading/watching TV) I prefer reading to watching TV. I'll go shopping if you want me to but 2. I'll speak to her but . 1. (phone/write) I prefer I prefer I prefer I prefer 2. Responde a las preguntas usando I'd rather o I'd prefer Example: Shall we go by train? (rather/fly) I'd rather fly.. Haz frases usando I prefer como en el ejemplo. (ski/skate) I prefer I prefer 2. (give/ receive) i prefer 3.. (work/study) I'd rather I'd prefer 4. Shall we watch TV? (rather/go for a walk) 3.. 1. I prefer to walk rather than run. (read/write) I'd rather I'd prefer 2. (have a shower/have bath) I'd rather I'd prefer 3. 1... I'll phone him if you want me to but 3. Shall we go to the cinema? (prefer/go theatre) I'd prefer to go to the theatre. (go out/stay at home) I prefer 4.

• What! Still in bed? It's time you got up. el significado es presente o future. • We'd better leave now. • You'd better take the umbrella.' • He said (that) he'd better do it as soon as possible. It's going to rain. Cuando creemos que alguien deberfa haber hecho algo ya. (You'd better not) • She's got a temperature.' • It's time for us to go home. otherwise we'll be late. La forma negativa es had better not ('d better not). • I had/I'd better ring him up now. algo malo puede suceder. Had aqui es un pasado irreal. Se suele decir 'it's time (for somebody) to do something. James! .STANLEY U N I T 34 68 Had better + infinitive. si no. Usamos este tipo de frase cuando nos quejamos o criticamos. • It's time you bought a new car. She'd better not go out today. It's time. Had better generalmente se usa en forma afirmativa. A veces indica que es aconsejable hacer algo.. I'd better take an umbrella. 'I'd better do it as soon as possible. We'd better hurry. • It's time the children were in bed. Tambien se puede usar otra estructura: It's time somebody did something.. • I'd better do something. = I should do something. IT'S TIME .* It's time for them to do it. Aunque usemos la frase en pasado el sentido es de futuro. Look at the time! A veces reforzamos la estructura con la palabra about. • It's about time you did some work. El significado de had better es parecido a should. • We'd better hurry or we'll miss the bus. pero a veces se usa en forma interrogativa/negativa como un consejo: • Hadn't you better ask for permission? Para la forma indirecta el had better no varfa: • He said. • It's getting late. • You had better not miss the train. • It's time we went back. RECUERDA Que had better va siempre seguido de infinitive sin to: • It looks like rain. • It's time you did something for me.

'It 4. You think you should take him to the doctor. 'We 5. The kitchen looks terrible. Your husband is spending Sunday morning in bed. 'You 2. Your son doesn't look very well. Lee la situacion y escribe una frase con had better. 'We 4. Example: You are going to take the train. 'You 2. 'Your car is very old. You don't think he should go to school today. 'It's . You haven't been to the dentist for ages. 'It 5. 'We 7. 1. 1. You think you should buy a new car. It's about time something was done about the housing problem. 'It's 6. You think something should be done about the housing problem.STANLEY EXERCISES 69 1. If the children don't get up they'll be late. It should be painted. You think they should get up now. You think he should buy a suit. Escribe frases con It's time somebody did something. Jim has bumped his head. 'It's 7. What do you say to your friend? We'd better hurry. You think you should go. You think something should be done about the unemployed. You think he should get up. You're late for the train. You think you should take a taxi. It's time you wrote to your parents. 'We 3. You think something should be done about the traffic problem. You don't think she should wear that. Jill is going to put on her old jeans to go to church. Your husband never spends money on clothes. 'It 2. You want to go to a concert on Saturday. 'You 6. 'It 3. If you don't buy the tickets today you won't get in. You think Jack should write to them. You're late. Example: Jack hasn't written to his parents for ages. You think something should be done about the immigrants.

RECUERDA El pasado progresivo se forma con was/were + ing. Habian empezado pero no habfan terminado. • Yesterday I was having dinner when the phone rang. • The birds were singing. Quiza estaba quiza no. • What were you doing at this time yesterday? El pasado continue no nos dice si una accion estaba terminada o no. She was walking in the park with a boy. • Jim was studying his lessons. • It was raining when I went to bed. Sin embargo. • This time last week I was flying to Miami. • Jimmy fell off the ladder when he was painting the room. (Estaba en ello) • Jim studied his lessons. La accion habi'a empezado a un tiempo determinado pero todavia no habfa terminado. para decir que una cosa sucedio despues de otra. usamos el pasado simple. • My mother was cooking. • What were you doing yesterday at five? • They were playing football. They were playing significa que estaban en el medio del juego.STANLEY U N I T 35 70 Past continuous. (Ya habi'a terminado) Muy a menudo usamos el pasado continue y el pasado simple juntos para decir que algo sucedio en el medio de alguna otra cosa. . • I saw my friend Jenny. El uso mas comun del pasado progresivo es hablar acerca de lo que ya estaba sucediendo en un momento en particular en el pasado. I got up and answered the phone.

7. . (David/do/homework) 3. Ron el verbo en past continuous. (bump) into me while I (take) (play) 9. (slip) and (arrive). (1 o'clock/have/lunch) 6. 1. Example: (Mrs Evans/have/bath) Mrs Evans was having a bath. 3. 2. 5. (Mr Evans/talk/phone) 2. When it 4. . Little Jill 2. That man the photograph. The clock (strike) twelve while we the last set of our tennis match. (Tom/play/garden) 6. Ron el verbo en la forma correcta. (3 o'clock/watch/serial on TV) 2. Linda (wait) for her boyfriend when she (see) the man run out of the jeweller's shop. Example: (8 o'clock/breakfast) At 8 o'clock I was having breakfast. (Susan/watch/TV) 4. (11 o'clock/clean flat) 4. Jimmy (come). (2 o'clock/wash/dishes) 7. 3. I (shower) and 6. (Jerry/read/book) 5. 8. 1. 1. (12 o'clock/prepare/lunch) . . . (ring) the bell several times. Cuentanos lo que esta gente estaba haciendo cuando sucedio. I (dance) when I (breakfast) when the school bus (happen) I (run) downstairs when I (fall). Ayer hubo un terremoto. but she (not/hear/me). (cat/sleep/chair) 3. pasado progresivo o simple. Example: The phone rang while Mrs Cook was making the beds. (10 o'clock/do the shopping) . . (9 o'clock/read the paper) . (happen) I (not/drive) (live) in Eastbourne. 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 71 1. When the accident very fast.

para una accion que comenzo en el pasado y que todavfa continue o que acaba de terminar. I found that somebody had broken in during the night. She had done. • He had been with the company since he was 18. explain. • She refused to go until she had seen all the photographs. When I arrived he had just left. etc. • She told the boss that she had done enough work for one day. ask. El pluscuamperfecto se construye con had + participio. they had spent all their money. las cuales han estado en progreso hasta ese momento. when etc. Se refiere a cosas que ya habfan sucedido cuando la conversacion o los pensamientos tuvieron lugar. • • • • • I had worked. RECUERDA El pluscuamperfecto es muy comun en habla indirecta.STANLEY U N I T 36 72 The past perfect. El pluscuamperfecto se puede usar con till/until. • When he arrived to the place. told. Con oraciones de tiempo. • They had been working for hours when I got there. there were tears. • Before they had been there a week. • He had always been an honest man. • Mrs Brent had been cooking all morning and was tired. • When I got to the office. Con before y after se usa mucho el pluscuamperfecto. they had already gone. • After the rescue party had arrived. • We didn't wait till we had finished our breakfast. wonder. • The secretary had been with us for ten years. • When Peter arrived Linda had been waiting for half an hour. He had lost his umbrella and had to borrow one. con verbos como say. El pluscuamperfecto progresivo se usa para hablar acerca de acciones o situaciones mas largas. We had made. . • I wondered who had sent the letter. • I said that I had already finished. El pluscuamperfecto a menudo se usa con always/since/for etc.

All the drawers were open. Example: / was tired because I (be/run) had been running. 3. Example: She was nervous. The money (steal). (he/just/go out) He had just gone out. It was cold because it (be/snow) . 1. The the children's piggy bank was broken. 1. Completa estas frases usando el pluscuamperfecto. The workmen weren't working when we arrived. (he/arrange/do/something else) 2. (run) a (search).STANLEY EXERCISES 73 1. Completa las frases con el past perfect. Volviste a tu casa despues de las vacaciones y te encontraste con algunos cambios. 2. The native didn't know how to take a photo. He was weak because he (be/ill) 4. 5. She marathon before. She had never driven (drive) before. Somebody (drink). The porcelain vase in the hall was broken on the floor. I was afraid of planes. Example: Dad wasn't at home when I arrived. She was very tired. He (play) before. It (disappear). (The play/already/begin) 3. Example: The kitchen window was broken. It (break). 3. (They/just finish) (fly) before. Somebody had broken into the house. 4. 1. He (see) a camera before. He didn't know how to hold the racket. The house was quiet because everyone (go/bed) 3. The TV set was not there. 1. 2. Usa ahora el pluscuamperfecto continue. Tommy said he couldn't come. I 4. They 3. They arrived at the theatre late. Usa el pluscuamperfecto con las frases siguientes. 2. 4. The kitchen was full of empty beer bottles. He was dirty because he (work/cellar) 2.

(Ya podfa venir a vernos mas a menudo!) • I wish you would help me. • I wish he would come to see us more often.» I wish it rained. RECUERDA Que el verbo que va a continuacion del wish se pone en pasado aunque el significado de la frase sea presente. • I wish they would stop making bombs. La traduccion podrfa ser: ojala. • He wished he had known the truth. pero solo con acciones que el sujeto puede controlar. acciones que el podrfa cambiar si quisiera. • I wish I got more letters. • I wish I had known the truth. • I wished it stopped raining. (Ya podias ayudarme!) • I wish it would stop raining. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect lamenta una situacion pasada. If only + would puede reemplazar por regla general a wish + would. • She wished she had asked someone's advice.STANLEY U N I T 37 74 I wish. • I wish I knew what to do. • I wish you would shut up. ya podi'a. If only se puede usar de la misma manera. • • • • If If If If only only only only he would come to see me! he would have listened to me! she would just stop talking for a minute! they would listen to me! . En estas frases wished puede reemplazar I wish. if only. Tiene el mismo significado que I wish pero es mas dramatico: • • • • If If If If only only only only I knew where to look for her! she had asked my advice! I hadn't lost the money! I had listened to you! Wish + suject + would se pueden usar para lamentar una situacion presente.* I wish you had written to me before. • I wish he phoned me. Wish + subject + unreal past se usa para lamentar la presente situacion.

4. It is raining and I don't like it. 1. I wish you hadn't lost it. Escribe las mismas frases usando I wish. I wish 4. Escribe frases con I wish you would. I wish he said something about it 3. Las frases siguientes vas a ponerlas en pluscuamperfecto. Example: / don't know what's going to happen. I would like to be taller. I'm not very tall. Usa ahora if only. My husband is not here. but I haven't got money. You don't come to see us very often. I can't understand him. I wish he didn't speak so fast 3. I wish 2. I wish he came to see me 2. / wish he had taken my advice. I should like to buy a book. I should like to live in Malaga. / wish I lived in Malaga. My son doesn't study very much. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 75 1. You lost the money. I should like him to be here. . He doesn't vocalise. I wish 3. If only I knew what is going to happen! 1. 1. I wish he didn't sing in the bath 5. Example: / wish you would have said hello. I wish it stopped raining 4. 3. I should like to have one. You wish it hadn't been raining. I haven't got any cigarettes. 5. If 2. I should like to know. 2. It was raining all day. Example: I wish he took my advice. Example:! live in London. 2.

little. the rest of. dozens. both. plenty of. a little milk. • 'Is there any coffee in the cupboard?' 'Yes. a number of. Quantifier + plural countable noun: • a lot of houses. every. either. lots of. • Buy a dozen eggs and half a kilo of sugar. Degrees of quantity: definite . • We've hardly got any tea left in the house. another. half the. the other. the only. the whole. all. very little milk. a little.STANLEY U N I T 38 76 Quantifiers. hardly any people. more. plenty of milk. no people. very few people. • There are hundreds of students in this school. Quantifier + (singular) uncountable noun: • a lot of coffee. a good deal of..no. Quantifier + singular countable noun: • each person. any. hardly any.. no milk. a lot of . • 'How many people are there?' There are a few. countable nouns plural How many? There are too many people. a bit of. many. each. an amount of. neither. .' Quantifier + plural countable noun: • not many houses. plenty of people. Quantifier + uncountable noun: • Not much water. not enough milk. few. none of the. a lot of/lots of milk. part of. no. any. several. Some. • Every/each man has to do his duty. las cuales a menudo modifican los sustantivos y muestran de cuantas cosas o de cuanto estamos hablando. most. the other. none of. less. • There are plenty of chairs in the sitting-room. most of the. one. Quantifiers son las palabras o las frases como few. (not) much. a lot of/lots of people. not enough people. there is some in that box. plenty. a couple of.' • Are there any bottles of beer in the fridge? RECUERDA uncountable nouns sing How much? There is too much milk. some. a drop of. all the. a few people. fewer. hardly any milk.' • 'How much water is there in the jug?' There is a little.

pupils than in that one. several. That is 5.' ?' 'No. water and the glass will overflow. 1. There was 6. A 7 attitude. the least. 'Did they all speak English?' 'Well. We've got time than you think. Jim and Tom are very good players. none of the. enough. 'Do you want thanks. fewer. of . our employees are trustworthy. half the. a lot of. Completa las frases usando los quantifiers que se te dan a continuacion: dozens. There was 7. hours. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: a large amount of. not all. men approached the young couple in a threatening 2. I'll be away for a 3. I can trust them all. less. grain in the barn. money than you think. cake. the majority of. a couple of. but them could speak a little English. Example: There were hundreds of people in the square. There is very 3. There were 4 our pupils are very good students. any (of the).' 6. a drop of. 3. both. 1 2. Example: You need a good deal of patience. just give me . Just another 4. We are ruined. I'm sure that 3 4. most. Without their leader were very surprised. doubt about the truth of that. 5. The 2. hundreds of. people at the meeting knew what to do. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: some (of the).STANLEY EXERCISES 77 1. 1. little. all (the). of eggs in the large basket. I don't want the whole cake. others already knew. I can do for you. more. In this classroom there are 6. Example: There is hardly any traffic at all. We have 2. a bit of. people are waiting at the door to talk to you. boys can tell you the answer. I have 7. 5. hardly any. a number of. white powder on a saucer. a good deal of.

Sin embargo. go for a walk. She's a strange girl. • many houses. • There were lots of people at the concert. too much y too many si se usan en frases afirmativas.) Little (poco) . es decir. • Mary has very few friends. • There is too much money in that box. y many con contables. • Come on! We've got little time left. Much (mucho) y Many (muchos) Usamos much con sustantivos incontables. • much water. • We've got a lot of time. • a lot of/lots of/plenty of water/time/people/houses. I've already got a few friends. • We didn't have much time. A little (un poco) . • many people. Usamos much y many con frases interrogativas y negativas. que usamos a lot of/lots of/plenty of con contables y con incontables. • The meeting was a failure. . • • • • Let's After Let's Let's go to the hills. Only a few people came. I've still got a few pounds I can spend. There's a little snow left. RECUERDA Sin embargo. Tambien se puede usar usar very little y very few. Aunque tambien podrfamos usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of.STANLEY U N I T 39 78 Quantifiers (cont. I've still got a little time left. only a little y only a few tienen un sentido mas bien negative: • Come on! We've only got a little time left. Sin embargo. a week or so in here. • much time. go for a drink. • Were there many people at the concert? En frases afirmativas se prefiere usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. • There are too many people here. • Hurry up! We've got very little time. • My son has got few friends in this town.A few (unos pocos) Da una idea de que hay una cierta cantidad. que no hay mucho.Few (pocos) Dan una idea negativa.

Hurry up! We haven't got 9. That firm has got so how to invest it.STANLEY EXERCISES 79 1. years ago. The land is dry. A veces hay dos posibilidades.There were ' tourists dare to come. It's not surprising you're hungry. There isn't 6.1 've got very 15. petrol. Come on. people. We've got 12. My grandfather died 5.The country is politically unsafe. Completa las frases con much. money that they don't know of petrol. I didn't have any money but my friend had 6. to do. He is a very strange boy. friends. 3. He's lost 10. He needs a transfusion. rain recently. That man drinks 8. 1. It has happened . Did you take in Switzerland? 2. The theatre was nearly empty. It uses 5. There has not been very 10. Only times before. 4. many and a lot of. My car is very big. blood. We'll have to stop. He doesn't speak 7. 1. photographs when you were sugar in her coffee. Two pints every day. work to do. We've got 14. We can have omelettes for supper. Go away. but only 11 . Very 12. We haven't got 14. There aren't pupils in that school. You haven't eaten 11. please. 4. I 'm afraid. Example There weren't many things to do in that village. She always puts 3. time. Let's have a drink. I saw your brother 8. patience. time before the train leaves. This is not the first time that this machine breaks down. I've got 13. let's hurry! We've got 9. days ago. beer. of them on the table. things to tell you. I don't speak much Japanese. This village is very little. He is very quiet. Completa estas frases con little / a little/ few / a few. Example:The train is leaving we've got little time.'Any more tea?' 'Yes. time. words. eggs. As a teacher he is terrible. There were 2. He has 13. He's got very 7. 2.

• He trained hard all year. • He works 16 hour a day whereas she doesn't do any work at all. yet he still failed to reach his best form. • I have no time to go to the cinema. • I drink black coffee while he prefers it with cream. besides. • Some people earn a lot of money whereas others don't get enough to eat. . Whoever told you that was lying. whichever. he doesn't get angry. while Chinese is very difficult. • While I admit there are problems. Como adverbio (ademas de eso). BESIDES Como preposicion (ademas). WHILE Como conjunction (mientras. sin embargo). films nowadays are horrible. • Spanish is easy to write. yet. Come to see me whenever you are in town. thoroughly. we have three others besides him. I'll always love you whatever you do. • He did it slowly. Todas • • • • • • estas conjunciones sirven para unir dos oraciones I'll go with you wherever you go. etc. No matter what you say to him. whenever. • John is our youngert child. YET Conjuncion ( pero al mismo tiempo. • I do all my work and besides that I help my mates. • Besides doing my work I help my mates. aunque). WHEREAS Como conjuncion (mientras que). they always want more.STANLEY U N I T 40 80 Links: however. I don't think they are so difficult to solve. However rich people are.

That girl is very pretty. no matter what. you drive. I always feel safe. you go. 8 the one you bought is quite Peter was doing that. she never gets fat. wherever. she is very intelligent. You'll be welcome 4. 13 14 15 2. Mr Flint. Completa las frases con: whoever. the host. they were waiting for me. telephones. you say to her. the one we need for that part 9. however. 7. This one is very cheap. She always smiles back. he hasn't been able to pass . you come. you go you'll find a bottle of this kind of beer. 1 2 3. 1. he always overcomes them. Moreover. They knew the banknotes were counterfeit knew who the counterfeiters were. Don't get nervous 7 8 much she eats. besides. You can always come to me for help you may have. 9. road we take. I'll be with you wherever you are. He is not very intelligent 10. . I see that girl I feel nervous. they I admit there are problems. I was doing this 3. told you that was lying. I don't think it's so difficult to reach an agreement.STANLEY EXERCISES 81 1. moreover. He's been studying hard all his exams. Example: Darling. Completa las frases usando: while. whatever. Example: They knew I was coming. 2. the difficulties are. whereas. he doesn't study much. difficult the problem is. tell them I'm not here. These people work slowly 6. very thoroughly. he always solves it. whenever. whichever. 10. There were eleven people 4. yet. problems car you are not using.This girl is very tall. happens. . I'll take 11 12. expensive. 5. We'll get there 6. You'll find friendly people 5. must be small.

RECUERDA Que enough se pone detras de los adjetivos: • big enough. • He works too slowly to be of any use to me. • That girl is too silly to go out with. This problem is too difficult for you to understand. Too + adjetive + a + noun + infinitive. • • • • This box is too heavy for a child to lift. Too + infinitive. • large enough. Y con enough.STANLEY U N I T 41 82 Too and enough + infinitive. We haven't got enough money to go on holiday. • silly enough. mientras que con sustantivos se pone delante. • The case is too heavy to carry. He is not strong enough to carry that. The grass was too wet for us to sit on. . The house was too small for the Jones to live in. • • • • • That child is not old enough to go to school. Enough + infinitive. • That lamp is too heavy to hang on the wall. Construccion de for + noun/pronoun delante del infinitive. • This parcel is too bulky to send. • enough people. He is not experienced enough. • The soup is too hot to eat. The house was not big enough for the Jones to live in. • She was too clever to accept the first offer. He hasn't got enough experience. • enough milk. • • • • This box is not light enough for a child to carry. The grass was not dry enough for us to sit on. • enough time. Too + adverb + infinitive • It's too soon for me to say what is going to happen. This problem is not easy enough for you to understand. • He is too experienced a director to mind what the critics say. • The grass was too wet to sit on.

The soup was too hot lor me to eat.STANLEY EXERCISES 83 1. 'I'd like to go to the cinema. We can't move this piece of furniture. It's too heavy. This tea . he is (lazy) to get up early. She didn't have 3. to go to the beach. Complete estas frases usando enough con cada una de estas palabras: small. We haven't got 6. There are fourteen of us for dinner. Example: 'Is Jimmy going to school this year?' (not old enough) 'No. En este ejercicio tienes que elegir entre too y enough para completar la frase.' 'It's take a photo in here. It is very hot. She didn't finish the exam. Example:! couldn't eat the soup. It was too hot. he doesn't speak (English) to understand you. 3. That sideboard 4. for little Jimmy. Responde las preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. We haven't got for everybody.' (late) (dark) to to pay the bill.' 5. we are (far away) to hear. Sylvia. money. Four people can't sit in the back of the car. 'Does your brother get up early?' 'No.' 6. 5.' 'Sorry.' 1. he is not old enough to go to school. good. hot. 1. it's to go now. Don't stand on that sideboard. 'Can that man understand what I say?' 'No. This piece of 3. The seat 2. plates.' 3. It's not very wide. 2. This jacket should be 2. I can't drink this tea. He is not for you. It is not very strong. we haven't got (money) to take a holiday. 'Are you going to take a holiday this year?' 'No. 1. time. 'Let's take a photograph. Example: He hasn't got enough qualifications to get the job. The weather is not 4. qualifications.' 4. 'Can you hear what that man is saying?' 'No.' 2. That boy is from a poor family.

That handrail wants polishing/to be polished. • I can't help laughing every time I see that little man. HELP puede ir seguido del infinitivo con el to o sin el to. Tiene entonces las formas regulares normales. • I can't help wondering what would have happened if he had been here. la expresion: can't help + ing (no puedo evitar). The batteries in this radio need to be changed/changing. pero no el tiempo continue. • We'll all help you (to) do the cleaning. Sin embargo. The front gate wants painting/to be painted. The garden needs to be watered/needs watering. • 'How much money does she need?' 'She needs £10. • Everybody helped (to) push the car. Need Puede ser conjugado como verbo ordinario.' To need se puede usar con el infinitivo pasivo o el gerundio en frases tales como: • • • • • The grass in the garden needs to be cut/needs cutting. va seguida de gerundio.STANLEY U N I T 42 84 Need y want + gerund . • I couldn't help crying when I heard the news. . To need se puede usar con un infinitivo o con un objeto nombre/pronombre: • I need to know the exact date. That shirt needs to be ironed/needs ironing.help. • Can you help me (to) do the washing up. Your hair wants cutting/to be cut. Do you think my hair needs to be cut?/needs cutting? RECUERDA Que el verbo want tiene el mismo significado: • • • • Your car wants servicing/to be serviced. Las dos forma son validas.

Example: That water needs to be filtered. The lock is very rusty. It needs to be wound. 3. Completa las frases usando want + gerund. The windows are very dirty. Every time I see that romantic scene I (cry). It 4. It 7. Example: Every time I hear that sound I can't help thinking about your father. The screws are loose. It needs to be taken up. That skirt is too long. (polish up). 2. Gambia estas frases a need + gerund. 1. They 5. (cut). 1. It needs to be serviced. but it 6. Your shirt is very dirty. Your essay is very good but it 2. The kitchen is dirty. The accounting is in a mess. Every time I wake up I what to do the rest of the day. The hedge has overgrown. Example: The kitchen is dirty. 3. 1. 4. Completa las frases con can't help. (clean). It needs to be looked into. That water wants filtering. That old house is very solid but it 3. (charge). It needs cleaning. That engine sounds well. You have to soften your new shoes. (paint). The clock has stopped. 2. 1. The battery is run down. It 2. It needs to be oiled. Every time I hear that song I (remember) our first dinner in that little restaurant. 2. They need to be tightened. It needs to be cleaned. 4. (wash). (wonder) . (overhaul). 3. Termina las frases usando need + gerund. My car makes strange noises. Example: That little spoiled child needs smacking. They need to be worn.STANLEY EXERCISES 85 1. 3.

• Did you have your central heating installed? • No. I don't have my chimney swept very often. (Yo habfa revisado el coche) • He had cut his hair. Tambien con get: • The car got all four tyres punctured by the hooligans. • I had serviced my car.' • I had my car serviced..room redecorated. Si cambiamos el orden. I didn't have my central heating installed.. El sujeto puede ser tambien un objeto: • Several houses had their chimneys ripped off by the storm.. Get tambien se usa cuando mencionamos la persona que Neva a cabo la accion: • She got him to cut the grass in the garden. Tambien se puede usar en tiempos continues. Se puede reemplazar por: • He had his new car stolen before he had the chance to drive it. (se hizo cortar el pelo) FIJATE en el orden de las palabras: have + object + past participle.STANLEY U N I T 43 86 Causative verbs: have y get.. (el se habfa cortado a si mismo el pelo) . (me hice revisar el coche) • He had his hair cut. La construccion have + object + past participle se puede usar coloquialmente para reemplazar al verbo pasivo: • His new car was stolen before he had the chance to drive it. • The house is too small and I am having a garage built on. Esta misma frase se puede construir con have + infinitive sin to. Esta construccion es del tipo: 'Yo pago a alguien para que me haga algo. el significado es muy diferente. • We can't have the party this week. • She had him cut the grass in the garden. Get se puede usar de la misma manera que have pero es mas coloquial. I'm having my sitting. RECUERDA que cuando usamos have en este sentido la forma interrogativa y negative se forma con do: • Do you have your chimney swept very often? • No. • While I was having my photo taken somebody stole my car. .

1. Is your mother going to clean the windows? No. (Last week/Mr Brown/get/Jim/paint/kitchen) 4. I had it washed yesterday. / had it pulled out this morning. Are you going to service the car yourself? No. What happened to it? (pull out). Did your father cut the hedge himself? last week. Did you pick the fruit yourselves? No. Did you install the central heating? Yes. Are you going to repair the TV yourself? by those people. I'll 4. we 3. I'll 3. No. When are you going to paint the house? Well. 1. he 2. Example: Did you wash the car yourself? No. she 4. I 3. (Tomorrow/l/have/my son/repair the dishwasher) 3. (Yesterday/Mrs Evans/get/her son/do the washing up for her) 2. I 2. Example: (l/get/Jimmy/clear/snow/by the front door) /'// get Jimmy to clear the snow by the front door. (Last Sunday/l/have/your brother/clean up his room) next month. Responde ahora a las preguntas usando el get. Completa las frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. . Are you going to repair the shoes yourself? No. I 5. I 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 87 1. No. Responde a las preguntas usando el have + object + past participle. Are you going to change the wheel alone? No. Example: Your front tooth is missing. 1.

• He said. • She said that I was to follow him when he left the office. Las ordenes negativas generalmente se dicen con not + infinitive.' I said.STANLEY U N I T 44 88 Indirect speech. advise. Los verbos siguientes se usan muy a menudo en el estilo indirecto: ask. order. boys. beg. Cuando introducimos un verbo en presente. Jim. se suele usar el verbo ask. Mrs Print reminded her husband to order the wine. implore.'= He told Jim to go there. • 'Will you shut up!' he said. remind. RECUERDA Algunos ejemplos en estilo indirecto: • • • • • » 'You had better not leave you bicycle unlocked. Tom's friends encouraged him to try again.' he said. 'Come here. • 'When he leaves the office follow him. give me some money.' said Mrs Print. My friend warned me not to leave my bicycle unlocked. = He told me not to open the window. A veces la persona a la que se dirije no se menciona.' he begged. . invite..' she said. tell. = He ordered them to shut up. • 'Don't play near the river. request. 'Don't forget to order the wine. Con las frases de will you . • 'Will all the people standing please sit down.' he said. = • He asked/begged to be given some money (he begged for some money). 'he says.' said my friend. • He asked all the people standing to sit down. = He told me/him/her/them to go there. He said I wasn't to open the window. command. Pero si el will you se dice de una manera irritable entonces se usa el tell o order. warn. • Meet me at the corner at 5.' • He says that we are to meet at the corner at 5. Cuando la orden es precedida por una oracion. Si es asf debemos afiadir un nombre o pronombre: • 'Come here.. Los verbos ask y beg pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo pasivo: • 'Please. recommend. forbid. urge.' he said. = • I warned/told the boys not to play near the river. Say/tell + subject + be + infinitive: • 'Don't open the window. 'Try again.' said Tom's friends encouragingly. encourage.

'If you pass the driving test I'll buy you a car.'Could you live on £100 a week?' he asked. 14. 2.' said the receptionist. 6. don't take any risks. 5. 12. 'Could you show me your papers.' she said.' said Mrs Merryat.' he said.' said Mr Jones.' she said to the little girl. 9. .'If I were you I'd go to see another lawyer. 17. There has been a lot of stealing from cars.' he told me.' Jill told Tom. 11.' Jim said. 7. 'I have lived in this country for many years. 'I'll tell him exactly what I think. 'Post some letters for me.' he said to Peter. Ron las siguientes frases en estilo indirecto. 1. he said. 'Forget all about that young man. 10.'I must have slept through the alarm. 'You haven't got much time. 4.' He said (that) he could see him then.' said the officer to him. The meeting is off.' said his mother. 3. 15.'Please.STANLEY EXERCISES 89 1. 16.' he said.'If I were you I'd stop taking sleeping pills. Example: 'I can see him now.' he said.' said her father. 13.'I'm writing a book. please.' my boss said. 'I can see you later. 'Why don't you take off your coat. 8.'If you'd just sign the register. 18.' she said.

/That they should go for a picnic. Let's.' • She says (that) she has read the book and doesn't understand it.' he said. recommend. • John said that he had gone to Madrid. Present . let him/her se pueden expresar con suggest. Past simple . Advise. • He suggested going for a picnic. • She told me that she had been waiting for me. • He advised that the premises should be closed.' John said. • 'Evacuate the building.Conditional perfect • 'I will have finished by 9. • She told Jack that she would tell him the next day.Past • Mary: 'I need to get some money.Past perfect continuous • 'I was waiting for you. should.) Presente .' he said to me.Conditional • 'I will tell you tomorrow. . • He told me that if I drank I shouldn't drive. • The police officer ordered that everyone should leave the building / He ordered that the building should be evecuated / He ordered the building to be evacuated. Command and order se pueden usar con should.' she said to me. and urge + that • 'I advise closing the premises. Future . Say o tell con should • 'If you drink don't drive. let us.' ordered the police officer. • He said that he would have finished by 9.Past perfect • 'I went to Madrid. He advised me not to drive if I drank.' • Frank said that they had just finished the job.' he said. Future perfect .' • Mary said that she needed to get some money. Present perfect .' she said to Jack.Past perfect • Frank: 'We've just finished the job. • 'Let's go for a picnic.' he said. Past progressive .Present • 'I have read the book and I don't understand it.STANLEY U N I T 45 90 Indirect speech (cont.

' he said. 1. 'I was living in Wales at that time.' he said to me.STANLEY EXERCISES 91 1.'I would complain if I were you. 8. 3.' she said to me. 13. 'Evacuate the area. 'Let's not go alone. 9.' said Mr Thomson. 18. He says that we are to go and visit him. Sandy: 'I have moved to another flat. 17.' she asked me. . 'Let's sell the house. 11.' she told me. 7.' said Mrs Jones.'Can you understand the instructions. 6.' she said. 4.' he said.' ordered the police officer.'I'll help you if I can.'I could see you tomorrow. 16.'Let's not play silly games.' said Mr Bruce.' he said.' she said. 12. Gambia las siguientes frases a estilo indirecto.'What does the article say?' asked Jim.' she said to the children.' she said to me. 'I lived in Scotland for many years.'I've been waiting for hours. 15.' he says.'If there is any danger don't do it. 'I advise cancelling the meeting. 'Follow him if he leaves the studio. Example: 'Come and visit us.' 10. 2. 5. 'Let's leave the cases at the station.' she said.'Don't touch that. 14.

• The bicycle was stolen by those two boys. • The crate was lifted by means of a crane. filled.Cervantes. wreck and write. • That is a gadget for slicing bread. En preguntas con who(m) se puede incluir by: • Who(m) was 'Don Quixote' written by? .It was destroyed by a borrib. . (deliberadamente) FOR cuando indica proposito: • This is a machine for lifting weights. WITH tambien se usa a menudo con un ablative agente. FIJATE Que a menudo una pregunta en activa es contestada en voz pasiva. compose. invent. • The window was broken by the wind. Compara: • He was killed by a runaway car. By + agent solo es necesario cuando el que habla quiere indicar quien o que es el responsable del acontecimiento en cuestion. Un agente es la persona o cosa que Neva a cabo la accion indicada por el verbo. Tambien se puede dar informacion por medio de frases que no sean by + agente. BY MEANS OF (por medio de). damage. By + agente a menudo se usa en la voz pasiva de verbos tales como: build.STANLEY U N I T 46 92 The passive. design. sobre todo despues de participios tales como: crowded. • That old mansion was built 200 years ago. crammed: • The room was filled with smoke. (accidentalmente) • He was killed with a knife. • Who destroyed the bridge? . Prepositions. destroy. packed. • The bag was stuffed with dirty clothes. de tal manera que la informacion importante se enfatiza al final: • Who designed that Cathedral? . make. BY en la voz pasiva va seguido de agente ablative. discover. • The lock was covered with paint.It was designed by Wren. La posicion del by + ablative agente al final de la oracion le da un cierto enfasis: • The bicycle was smashed by a heavy branch that fell off that tree.

5. 1. 2. The cat was killed accidentally by a falling stone. Example: A slate that fell off your roof damaged my car.STANLEY EXERCISES 93 1. (hail/ruin/crops) . Escribe estas frases en pasiva con with o by. 2. 3. Who operated on your father? (Dr. (boy's face/smear/coal) 7. A bomb destroyed this bridge during the war. (his hair/cover/dirty oil) 4. Who built this cathedral? (Wren) 4. 4. That boy broke the window with a stone. My car was damaged by a slate that fell off your roof. Brown) 3. (jug/fill/water) 2. (Council/build/new library/soon) 6. (window/break/boy next door) 5. Example: (falling stone/kill/cat accidentally). I think that Keats must have written those sonnets. 1. Pon estas frases en voz pasiva usando el ablative agente by. Experts can solve your problems quite easily. Hilton is going to open this new luxury hotel very soon. Who destroyed the bridge? (enemy army) 3. Example: Who composed that piece? It was composed by Mozart. 1. Responde a estas preguntas usando la voz pasiva. (room/crammed/people) 3. Who wrote Hamlet? (Shakespeare) 2.

who is very cheerful./ That's the stool which I was sitting on. Objetos. which you can buy anywhere. Objeto de un verbo: Whom o who o that. Con preposicion: whom o that • The man to whom I spoke is here. RELATIVE CLAUSES: DEFINING. DEFINING: • This is the computer (that/which) I bought yesterday. until. is always anchored. for which he paid so much money. DEFINING: • That's the stool on which I was sitting. which cost millions to build. Sujeto: Who o that. has never sailed. after as. DEFINING: • This is the film that/which caused such a scandal. NON-DEFINING: • The butler. / The man (who/whom/that) I spoke to is here. will tell you all about it. NON-DEFINING: • This book. DEFINING: • The secretary (whom/who/that) I saw told me to come back today. is innocent. who/whom everybody suspected. is . NON-DEFINING: • Mary. NON-DEFINING: • His yacht. is trying to get a job. NON-DEFINING: • Jane. with whom I play tennis on Sundays. NON-DEFINING La defining relative clause describe el sustantivo que la precede. is very fit. / Mary. which he paid so much money for. / His yacht. NON-DEFINING: • That ship./That's the stool I was sitting on. whose children have grown up. Whose es la unica forma: DEFINING: • Those are the people whose houses were destroyed by the storm. wants to go to the beach.STANLEY U N I T 47 9* Before. soon as. Which o that. is very fit. NON-DEFINING: • My father. Objeto de una preposicion. DEFINING: • The woman who told me this refused to give me her name. La non-defining clause anade una informacion extra y va separada por comas. who/whom I play tennis with on Sundays. Complementos. DEFINING: Posesivo. Which o that o nada.

Example: Frank had been driving for hours.STANLEY EXERCISES 95 1. Elige entre defining y non-defining con whom o that con preposicion. That tall man works for your uncle. This is the boy I've been travelling with. The writer of this book proved to be a famous politician. He suggested stopping for a while. 1. . The nice boy is studying at Harvard. I work for it. 2. 3. 2. Frank. 3. Example: This is the boy. The boy has been arrested. 3. Example: The woman is my wife. 4. The tiles fell off the roof. You can see him from here. suggested stopping for a while. It was polluted for years. is my wife. The woman. I complained to him. He ran a marathon last year. 4. 2. 1. This river is very clean. Ron la preposicion al final. It caused a lot of damage. You met her at the party. This is the company. He snatched your bag. You met him in Benidorm. Nobody was expecting the storm. They nearly wrecked my car. 5. I complained to him. I saw him near the place of the crime. 1. The hotel manager happened to be an old friend of mine. The man is coming this way. 3. That person is the manager. Elige entre defining o non-defining cuando el relative es objeto del verbo. 2. Mr Smith is going to undergo an operation. Elige entre defining y non-defining cuando el relative es sujeto. who had been driving for hours. I met him last week. I've been travelling with him. who/whom you met at the party.

Cuando tenemos una eleccion usamos el whether. • She asked if/whether anybody was at home. / He asked us where we were going. Dad?' / He asked his father what he should do. sir?' / He offered to do it for him. • 'What shall I do. / He asked what she wanted. want to know. wonder. 'When is the next train?' she said. etc. Con should + infinitive para peticion de instrucciones. 'How can I go to the Town Hall?' he asked a policeman. • 'Shall I ever see you again?' he said. Para convertir las preguntas directas en indirectas cambiamos los tiempos del verbo y los adverbios como en las afirmaciones y omitimos el signo de interrogacion. • He wanted to know what had caused the fire. • 'When did you give it to me?' / He asked me when I had given it to him. Si en vez de ask usaramos inquire o wanted to know omitirfamos firemen. • 'What does she want?' he said. 'What caused the fire?' he asked the firemen. inquire. entonces debemos cambiarlo por: ask. • He wondered if he would ever see her again. Si no usamos un pronombre interrogativo debemos poner if o whether. Si en el estilo directo se usa say. / He asked a policeman how he could go to the Town Hall. Con ofertas se puede decir: • 'Shall 1 do it for you. / He asked where the bank was. • 'Where are you going?' he said to us. . RECUERDA Que las preguntas que empiecen con shall I/we se introducen con wonder si especulan sobre el future. / He asked the firemen what had caused the fire. • He inquired what had caused the fire. Con sugerencias se puede usar suggest.STANLEY U N I T 48 96 Indirect and embedded questions. to Miami or to the Bahamas?' he asked me. • 'Is anybody at home?' she asked. • He asked me whether I wanted to go to Miami or to the Bahamas. / She wanted to know when the next train was. • 'Shall me meet at five?' / He suggested meeting at five. • 'Where do you want to go. • • • • • • 'Where's the bank?' he said.

'Shall we ever meet again?' She . . Pasa las siguientes preguntas a forma indirecta. 'Why are you so late?' his mother said to him. what are you doing tonight?' 4. 'Diana. 'Who lives next door?' he said 2. when are you getting married?' 2. 4. .. Example: 'What shall I do. wanted to know. He asked if/whether anyone was there. A veces se pueden usar ambos. 'Shall we go out for dinner tonight?' He 2. Example: Who is in charge here? He asked who was in charge there. 'Shall I bring you another blanket?' He 3. Example: 7s anyone there?' he asked. Ahora haremos preguntas con shall. did you see the accident?' said the policeman. 'Dad. 1. 'Do you want to go by air or by train?' he asked 2. 'Jane. Usa ask. 'Sir. when is Dad coming back? He wanted to know/inquired when his father was coming/going back. 'How much did it cost you?' he asked her. 'When are you coming?' she asked Peter 3. 'Where is the station?' he asked 5. 4. Mum?' He wanted to know what he should do. Example: Mum. 1. 2. 1. . Ahora usa whether o if.STANLEY EXERCISES 97 1. when is the next train?' said Jim 3. 1. 'Did you see the accident?' asked the policeman. 3. Responde ahora usando inquire.

Subject + be + adjective/participle + infinitive con: able. mean. dreadful. annoying. marvellous. awful. • It is better to reserve a table. stupid. It + be + adjective + for + object + infinitive se puede formar con: convenient. careless. nice. possible. It + be + adjective/participle + infinitive se puede formar con adjetivos y participios que muestren sentimientos y reacciones: agreeable. intelligent. clever. interesting. prepared. sensible. It + be + adjective (+ of + object) + infinitive se usa principalmente con adjetivos que conciernen al caracter: brave. • It is only fair to give him his share. prone. cruel. • It wouldn't be advisable for you to mix with those people. better. • She was unable to utter a word. • It's dangerous for people to go out at night in this town. It + be + adjective + infinitive se puede formar con: advisable. quick. unable. lovely. hard. etc. impossible safe. essential. unsafe. • It's quite impossible to find food in the besieged city. reluctant. prompt. best. liable. foolish. amusing. horrible. desirable. • It won't be necessary for you to tell them what happened. silly. • It was very silly of you to leave the money there. just. wicked. wonderful depressing. dangerous.STANLEY U N I T 49 SB Infinitives after adjectives. easy. • It was very kind of him to help us. ready. only fair/right/just. good. necessary. inclined. • A trailer is difficult to drive. Estos adjetivos (menos posible) se pueden usar con la construccion noun + be + adjective + infinitive: • This dish is very easy to make.important. difficult. wrong. generous. For + object se puede afiadir a este tipo de frases. . vital. willing. idiotic. disagreeable. • It's been lovely to see you again. coward. delightful. slow. nice. • I am inclined to believe her story. selfish. good. strange. apt. terrible. fair. • It was delightful to hear that song again. kind.. splendid. rude.

STANLEY EXERCISES " 1. 1. (lovely/see/you again) 2. nice. (It was/him/give/us/money) 2. brave. Example: (terrible/hear/bombs/falling) It was terrible to hear the bombs falling. Haz lo mismo con: terrible. better. 1. (It was/you/come/see/us) 3. (annoying/hear/your neighbour/playing/piano) . (depressing/be/unemployed/long time) 4. cruel. right. (better/play/on Saturday) 4. (It was/you/save/drowning child) 4. boring. encouraging. (important/keep/control/ball) 3. (It was/him/tell/children/about/dead mother) 2. 1. generous. important. strange. annoying. (only right/him/get/fair/trial) 2. (strange/find/water/this desert) 3. depressing. vital. Example: (It was/them/leave/bicycles/unlocked) It was stupid of them to leave their bicycles unlocked. (vital/food/reach/stricken area) 3. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos siguientes: advisable. Forma frases con los siguientes adjetivos como el ejemplo: stupid. Example: (advisable/book/holidays/advance) It is advisable to book your holidays in advance. lovely.

Las frases de presente de participio tales como adding/pointing out/reminding/ warning pueden introducir aseveraciones en estilo indirecto: • They told me to go early. . Un presente de participio a veces puede reemplazar a un pronombre relative + verbo: • People who need medical care. come. amused etc. Tanto los participios presentes (ing) como los participles pasados (ed) se pueden usar como adjetivos. Cuando una accion va seguida de la otra: • Opening the box he took out the books. amusing etc. be busy: • Why don't you come dancing with us? Cuando dos acciones con el mismo sujeto ocurren a la vez: • She walked away thinking.. / People needing medical care. son activos y significan que 'tienen este efecto'. No se deben confundir.' USE (Participles ING) Para formar continuous tenses: • We are walking. waste. Despues de have + object: • They had me walking in a month. exciting. excited. Despues de go. * She is cooking. son pasivos y significan 'afectados de esta manera. Los participios presentes. Como adjetivos: • leaking tank. • Writing /Having written a few lines on a paper he tucked it in his pocket. Cuando la segunda accion forma parte de la primera: • He shouted. having seen. • running water. spend. Despues de catch/find/leave + object: • I left them opening a hole in the road. Los participios pasados. El participio perfecto a veces reemplaza al presente de participio: having made.STANLEY U N I T 50 10 ° Participles (ind . warning the bandits. pointing out that traffic is very bad on that road. Un oracion de presente de participio que reemplaza a una subordinada: • As he heard / Hearing that she lived in the area he stayed overnight.. Despues de verbs of sensation: • I heard the rain falling all night.ed) in clauses.

1. I left him. He took out his guitar. Juntalas usando el presente de participio. She is going to ride after lunch. He opened the drawer. En este ejercicio tienes dos frases.STANLEY EXERCISES 101 1. 2. 3. Ahora vamos a cambiar estas frases de infinitive por otras de participio presente. Tomorrow they are going sailing. 3. 1. Usa el presente de participio en las siguientes frases: Example: This is a map that marks political boundaries. Those are the men who work on the road. / caught them stealing apples. . This is a map marking political boundaries. Example:! caught them. John. Getting on his horse he took out his guitar. He found a tree. He raised the trapdoor. Example: He got on his horse. I saw her. 2. 4. 1. She took off her shoes. 2. These are the people who wish to visit the premises. Haz con las frases siguientes lo mismo que en el ejemplo. It lay across the road. They were stealing apples. 3. 2. 2. Those are the children who need medical care. She stood by the window. Example: Tomorrow they are going to sail. He took out a gun. Come to dance with us. Hello. He pointed to a place on the wall. 3. He talked to my brother. 1. She crept along the passage.

He is accompanied by his mother. killed himself. El participio pasado de los verbos regulares se forma afiadiendo ed o d al infinitivo. • Abandoned house. uso Como adjetivo: • Stolen car. Para formar los tiempos compuestos y la voz pasiva. He jumped to his feet.). El participio pasado puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo pasivo igual que el participio presente puede reemplazar al sujeto + verbo active: • The child enters the classroom.ed) (cont. he jumped to his feet. • Woken up by the din. El perfecto de participio pasivo (having been + past participle) se usa cuando es necesario poner entasis que la accion expresada por el participio sucedio antes que la accion expresada por el verbo siguiente: • Having been told about the chaos on the roads. believing that Cleopatra was dead. accompanied by his mother. El participio puede estar separado del nombre por el verbo. he always carried a gun. Para el participio de los verbos irregulares vease la lista de verbos irregulares en el volumen II de esta coleccion. • He was woken up by the din. Si no hay sustantivo o pronombre en esta parte de la oracion se considera que el participio pertenece al sujeto del verbo principal. • Mark Anthony. • The young boy entered.STANLEY U N I T 51 1 2 ° The participle (ing . RECUERDA Que un participio se considers que pertenece al nombre o pronombre que le precede: • Jim. he took the train. followed by his friend. • I have loved • We have seen. • Believing that he was alone. took a step backwards. • Amazed by the spectacle. the miser took out his coffer of gold coins. • It was done. • Having been assaulted twice. / The little child enters the class. . • Broken window. Alice stared eyes wide open. terrified by what he had seen.

He had been bitten several times. Example: She had been warned about that boy. 1. He had already lost a lot of money. She was carrying a large parcel. Having been warned about that boy. 2. He couldn't move. Escribe estas frases otra vez usando bien el 'present participle' o el 'past participle. 3. She didn't go out with him. They ran to the window. 4. The boxer was stunned by the blow. 4. 1. Example: The man was horrified at what he saw. Usa ahora el 'perfect participle passive' (having been + past participle).STANLEY EXERCISES 103 1. It was not safe. The postman refused to deliver the mail. the old house was not safe. 2. couldn't speak. He fell heavily. 3. They decided to celebrate it. 2. He didn't leave the hotel 3. horrified at what he had seen. He entered for the competition. she didn't go out with him. They were alarmed by the shouting in the street. She tried to persuade him. He stopped playing. Example: The old house had been weakened by the earthquake. A woman got off the bus. 2. Escribe otra vez las siguientes frases usando el past participle. The two men came in. 3. As they had won the football pools. Weakened by the earthquake. The man. They were followed by their wives. They decided to buy a new house. As he had finished writing his book. He was warned about the unsafe situation in the streets. She was convinced that she was right. 1. He believed he was the best. .

• I saw the him break the window. feel. • I heard him cough. smell. • I heard them make a plan. . hear. Si usamos el infinitive significa que la accion esta completa: • I saw him change the batteries of the transistor radio. Let us go shopping. rapida. Let puede ir seguido de un infinitive pasivo: • She let it be known she was going to apply for the post. El infinitivo describe una accion corta. Los verbos de percepcion son: see. Estos verbos junto con listen to y notice pueden ir seguidos de un objeto + bare infinitive. cuando make esta en voz pasiva va seguido del infinitive con to. MAKE en voz activa Neva un infinitive sin to. • The policeman made me move my car. El see y el hear en pasiva llevan el 'full infinitive'. • The maths teacher made the boys stay in after school. clear the broken glass and enter the house. after make and verbs of perception.STANLEY U N I T 52 104 Bare infinitives. • I saw her leave the house. • The boys were made to stay in after school. Con estos verbos la accion en el presente de participio puede ser completa o incompleta: • I saw her washing the dishes Puede significar que contemple toda la accion o solo parte de ella. watch. Mientras que el gerundio indica una accion que dura algun tiempo o que todavi'a esta en progreso. Mientras que si usamos el gerundio la accion puede que este incompleta. • I was made to move my car. • Don't let the children disturb father. Para una serie de acciones seguidas preferimos el infinitivo. LET como verbo normal signified 'permitir'. Sin embargo. • I heard him coughing all night. • His thinning hair makes him look much older.* He was heard to say that. Siempre va seguido de un complemento nombre o pronombre antes de un infinitivo sin to. Significa 'hacer' en el sentido de 'obligar'. • He was seen to enter the building. • Come on. • I saw him changing the batteries of the transistor radio. Let se usa sin ningun complemento en la expresion: • Live and let live!. Si el complemento es us se puede contraer a let's.

(cry) all night. We saw these people 7. (shout) in the street. I told the dog to lie down. He made me do it. The teacher told me to come on Saturday. I heard the little girl 6. 2. I want to go trecking to the Sahara but my parents won't 2. I felt somebody 4. Example: I watched them take a picture and go.STANLEY EXERCISES 105 1. They heard the wolves 10. He wasn't allowed to see the documents. 1. I saw them 9. Leave other people alone. She 4. 1. Las frases siguientes van seguidas de make + 'bare infinitive' o 'full infinitive' Example: He compelled me. I watched the firemen (break) the window and 5. Example: She wants to go out but her mother won't let her go. I had to do it. (climb) a ladder (enter) the building. I was 2. (tap) my back and disappear.1 smelt something (unlock) the door and enter the house. They forced me to write the letter. (burn) in the kitchen. (moan) . I heard people 3. She wasn't allowed to smoke. (cry) and (wait) patiently for hours. (walk) along the road for miles. I heard somebody 2. 1. Completa estas frases con let + infinitive. 8. They 3. (howl) all night long. I 3. She told me to sit down next to her. They 4. Elige entre infinitivo y gerundio detras de un verbo de percepcion. Live and ! 3. I heard the child in his sleep a couple of times.

Mientras que en .... • He won't cook (no quiere cocinar). Preguntas acerca de intenciones. Anuncio una accion futura deliberada. • This time next week we will be lying on the beach in Salou. • By the end of the month he will have been living with us for six months. • By then I will have become a graduate. • I will be helping my mother with the shopping tomorrow. and perfect continuous. A menudo. El futuro perfecto continuo: • By the end of this year he will have been working here for 20 years. future perfect. • I'll be writing to my parents tomorrow to tell them about us. Indico que ya les iba a escribir de todas formas. Indica que la accion ocurrira siguiendo el curso normal de los acontecimientos. Como otros tiempos continues expresa una accion que empieza antes de un tiempo determinado y continua despues. El futuro continue usado para expresar futuro sin intencion. esta diferencia no es muy importante. Mientras que el presente continuo: • I am seeing your sister tomorrow. Indica que se ha concertado una entrevista previa.STANLEY U N I T 53 106 Future continuous. • I'll be seeing your sister tomorrow. / She isn't coming . por lo tanto. / He is coming tomorrow. Hay. sin embargo. • He won't be cooking (informa que no va a ser el el que cocine). .. una intencion. RECUERDA La diferencia entre el futuro simple y el continuo: • I'll write to my parents and tell them about us. • She won't be coming to the meeting. • By the end of the year I will have saved £1000. • At this time tomorrow the children will be watching a film. • Will you be playing golf tomorrow?* Will he be working all day? El futuro perfecto generalmente se usa con una expresion de tiempo que empieza con by: • By this time tomorrow I'll have arrived in the Bahamas. • He'll be coming tomorrow. The future continuous tense se forma con el future simple del verbo be + el presente participio: • At this time tomorrow I will be working.

By the year 2000 (we/climb/mountains/30 years). By Christmas (we/live/this town/15 years). Termina las frases usando el futuro perfecto. 3. 1. Escribe las frases siguientes en futuro perfecto continuo. I'll write to my father tomorrow. By 10 o'clock (l/cut/grass/and/prune/roses). By the end of this month he will have been working for 20 years. I'll meet him next week. By the end of the year (they/get married). By this time tomorrow we'll have arrived in Miami. Example: I'll come to see your mother tomorrow. I'll take my driving test next week. By the time we compete in the Championship (we/train/10 months). 2. 2. Cambialas y ponlas en futuro continuo. /'// be coming to see your mother tomorrow. 2. By this time next week (I/take/all/my/exams). By 1999 (I/finish/my studies). By midnight (they/dance/for 24 hours). 4. Las frases que tienes a continuation estan en future simple. 1. We'll come to your party on Saturday night.STANLEY EXERCISES 107 1. 3. 4. Example: By the end of this month (he/work/20 years). Example: By this time tomorrow (we/arrive/Miami). 2. 1. 3. 4. . 3.

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APPENDIX .

capability for carefulness with carelessness of certainty of/about cleverness at/in contentment with sadness about safety from satisfaction with separation from slowness at sorrow for curiosity about difference from/to eagerness for excitement at/ about faithfulness to fame as fondness for surprise about/at .STANLEY APPENDIX 11 ° ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS Adjective absent from work/school afraid of something/ somebody amazed at/by something/ somebody angry at/about something angry with someone annoyed at/about something annoyed with somebody anxious about/over something ashamed of someone/ something Nouns absence from fear of something amazement at anger at/about angry with annoyance at/ about annoyance with anxiety about/ over shame at something Adjective free from danger free of charge full of something glad about something good at something good with the hands grateful to someone for something happy about/at/over/with interested in/by something jealous of someone keen on something kind to someone late to work married to someone nervous of something obliged to someone please about/with something ready for something right about something sad about something safe from something satisfied with something separate from something slow at doing something sorry about/for something sorry for someone surprised about/at/by terrible at something thankful to/for something worried about something wrong about something Nouns freedom from freedom of speect gladness about gratitude for/to happiness over/at interest in jealousy of keenness on kindness to lateness for work marriage to nervousness about obligation to pleasure about readiness for aware of something/someone awareness of awful at doing something bad at doing something bored with/by something busy at/with something capable of doing something careful of/with something careless of danger certain of/about facts clever at something content with something contrary to advice curious about something different from/to something eager from something excited about/a t/by/over faithful to somebody famous for something fond of something/somebody boredom with . thankfulness to/fo worry about/over . .

hated. lived. joked. fried. waited. dated. weighed agreed. educated. laughed. played. refused bathed. danced discussed. obeyed. ended handed. continued. dried. denied. robbed. liked. looked picked. shopped. freed.. worried borrowed. worked addressed. exchanged damaged. showed. stuffed camped. invited. pulled. hurried. visited. explained. lifted. tugged banged. destroyed. changed. opened answered. qualified replied. painted. talked. provided. terrified. described. waxed a Pronounced /id/ in the past added. skidded admitted. finished. included. excited. afforded attended. reviewed Pronounced / 1 / in the past asked. rubbed begged. counted. jumped. reminded. enjoyed cried. thanked. helped hoped.STANLEY APPENDIX 111 EXPRESSIONS WITH AS . faced. closed. appeared. travelled assumed. reached. tried buried. proved accused. plugged. developed. AS as blind as a bat (tan ciego como un topo) as bold as brass (muy atrevido) as bright as a button (espabilado como una ardilla) as cheap as dirt (muy barato) as clear as a bell (claro como una campana) as cool as a cucumber (fresco como una lechuga) as deaf as a post (sordo como una tapia) as dry as dust (aburridfsimo) as easy as pie (estaba tirado) as fat as a pig (gordo como un cerdo) as free as a bird (libre como un pajaro) as hard as nails (muy duro) as keen as mustard (muy entusiasta) as large as life (grandfsimo) as mad as a hatter (chalado) as pleased as Punch (muy complacido) as pretty as a picture (tan bella como una rosa) as quick as lightning (rapido como una centella) as right as rain (mas razon que un santo) as safe as houses (segurfsimo) REGULAR VERBS (pronunciation) Pronounced /d/ in the past bribed. managed called. missed matched. moved. foxed. decided. stopped axed. dragged. switched. followed. boxed. videoed argued. carried. posted printed rested shouted started tasted. excused. washed coughed. collected completed. attempted. filled. insisted. dropped. married. lathed delayed. belonged. wasted . guaranteed annoyed. touched crashed. emerged. walked. avoided. dared arrived. listened. combed cleaned. loved. rescued. locked. satisfied. pushed. relaxed. minded needed. judged. claimed. guessed. crossed. mended. employed. wanted.. smiled. expected greeted. longed arranged.

(consideraremos el asunto) The house grew on us. (se ha repuesto de) You can't get around me. (me han dado esto) Lay off her. (reunirse a mi alrededor) Stop getting at me. (le cogimos carino) I must hand it to you. (se ha enamorado de el) I won't fall for that trick. (dejala en paz) Leave it to me. (el cuadro se vendio por) I won't hear of. (deja de meterte conmigo) She got into trouble. (no me culpes) Keep at it. (termino con ella) He flew into a rage. (se muere por) Stop digging at me. (dejalo a mi cuenta) . (deja de buscar faltas) This coat will do for you. (ven a buscarme) I can call on you. (se echaron encima) Where did she come by this? (i.. (se metio en Ifos) He's got over his illness. (me visito) You can't dictate to me. (me sientan mal) You answer to him. (le proporciona) I'm keeping off tobacco. (armo un alboroto) He landed me into trouble. (me encontre) They came at me with knives.. (no le ocultes) She keeps him in money. (debemos atenernos) He jumped at the idea. (se lanzo sobre la comida) He finished with her. (sigue con ello) You can't keep a secret from him. (puedo visitarte) I came across this manuscript.) The picture went for £500. (imponerme) She's dying for a drink.que mosca te pico?) Can I count on you? (contar contigo) My uncle descended on me. (ha ido tras el ladron) The dog went for the burglar. (el perro se lanzo a por . (se me ocurrio) We must hold on to our agreement.. (adivino que) Gather around me. (heredo) What came over you? (<:. (explfcate) Appear for him in court (representale) You're asking for trouble. (no me esperaba esto) Please bear with me. (debo darte el merito) It hangs on this agreement.STANLEY APPENDIX 112 VERB + PREPOSITION (idiomatic) Cakes don't agree with me. (irrumpiren) She burst into tears. (me metio en Ifos) I've been landed with this.d6ndeencontr6?) She came into a lot of money. (buscando problemas) You can bank on my help. (no me vas a convencer) How can we get around this? (icomo podemos resolver?) He's going about his work. (no caere en esa trampa) She fell on the food. (puedes confiar) I didn't bargain for this. (depende de) Bills are eating into my savings. (no lo considerare) Help yourself to some cake. (me mantengo sin fumar) Keep to that point/plan. (no me puedo pasar sin) We'll go into the matter. (me estan arruinando) (se dirigio a) He entered for an exam. (sfrvete) I hit on this idea.. (se puso como una fiera) I gather from him that . (sigue con) He kicked up a fuss. (acepto con entusiasmo) Don't jump on me for this. (esto valdra) Shall I do for you now? (limpiar la habitacion) I could do with a drink. (me vendria bien) I can't do without you. (sigue con su trabajo) He's gone after the thief. (se presento a) She's fallen for him. (ten paciencia) I have broken with her. (he terminado con ella) Burst into the room. (estallo en lagrimas) Call for me at five. It headed for the port.

(les derrotaron facilmente) Don't play on my feeling (no juegues con mis sentimientos) I'll press for a rise. (se volvio a mi) I waded though it. (no me supervises) We must step on it. (tengo confianza) She takes after her mother (se parece a) She took to English easily (le parecio facil) Work is telling on her. (entendi) I'll see to the dinner. (depende de) She turned to me for help. (escaparse) A lorry ran into the car. (me he concontrado con) The cost runs into millions. (se volvio contra) I've been turned off it. (me ocupare de la cena) They sat on my application. (no soportare) Don't stand over me. (me tropece con el) f . (insistire) How much do you put it at? (<j. (vive de fruta) We'll look into this. (debemos darnos prisa) She'll stick by me. (se presenta a) I won't stand for you attitude. (no comas sin apetito/no piques) He plays at being a teacher. (lo encontre con facilidad) I walked into a trap. (no te haras pasar por) Let's pass over that.Cuanto crees que vale?) Put money on a horse. (me metf en una trampa) They walked over the other team. (no toco el tema) I'm toying with it. (revisa la casa) She looked right through her. (aportardinero) He's reading for a degree. (soporte) I slept on your suggestion. (chocb contra) I've run into difficulties.STANLEY APPENDIX 113 hope we can look to you for help. (estoy considerandolo) She turned against us. (le esta afectando) She didn't touch on the subject. (me encargare de) We'll see over the house. (la ignore) Leave him to it. (se presentara a / sera candidato) We'll run for it. (no es serio) He will run for president. (se gasto) I can't run to a new car. (no te precipites) I'll see about that. (no puedo permitirme) Don't rush into. (apostar por) Put money towards it. (esta forrado) I ran across him. (he perdido interes) It turns on this document. (pasemos por alto) Don't pick/peck at. (termine con dificultad) Who is waiting on us? (^quien nos sirve?) I walked into a job.Entiendes?) He's rolling in money. (lo investigaremos) Look over the house. (podemos esperar tu ayuda) He lives on fruit. (no hicieron nada) I sat through a boring lecture. (me sera leal) swear by this medicine. (dejale que lo haga) We can't make anything of this. (te apoyare) He's is standing for parliament. (examinaremos) I saw through it. (esta estudiando para) Can you read much into this? (i. (estuve pensando) I'll stand by you. (no entendemos nada) You won't pass for German. (asciende a) He ran through a fortune.

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207 • 2 0 3 0 0 IRUN • Tel. A TO ZEE • A GUIDE TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH FRANQAIS 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS I 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS II 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS III 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS IV ESPANOL TESTS ESPANOLI TESTS ESPANOL II TESTS ESPANOL III TESTS ESPANOL IV TESTSESPANOLV CLAVES TESTS ESPANOL DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-A DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-B DICTADOS EN ESPANOL I-C CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS I CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS II CRUCIGRAMAS DIDACTICOS III GRAMATICA ESPANOLA CLAVES GRAMATICA ESPANOLA Lecturas graduadas en espanol: • LA FAMILIA PEREZ 5000 CLES DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-A DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-B DICTES EN FRANQAIS I-C MOTS CROISES DIDACTIQUES L'lLE MYSTERIEUSE -Lecture 20.stanley@nexo.EXERCISES 159TRANSLATIONSI 159TRANSLATIONS II 159 TRANSLATIONS III 159TRANSLATIONSIV FILL IN THE GAPS I FILL IN THE GAPS II FILL IN THE GAPS III KEYS FILL IN THE GAPS DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH I DICTATIONS IN ENGLISH II GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS USING PHRASAL VERBS ENGLISH VERBS ONE BY ONE MY ENGLISH TELLTALE GUI'A DEL VIAJERO .FRANCES GUIDE CONVERSATION .MbroSS.ESPAGNOL GUI'A DEL VIAJERO ITALIANO GUIDA Dl CONVERSAZIONE .000 LIEUES SOUS LES MERS -Lecture LESTROIS MOUSQUETAIRES .INGLES CONVERSATION GUIDE .PORTUGUES EL INGLES PROHIBIDO FALSE FRIENDS • FALSOS AMIGOS EDITORIALSTANLEY-WWW.000 LEGUAS DE VIAJE SUBMARINO • EL CONDE DE MONTECRISTO • LOS TRES MOSQUETEROS • UN CAPITAN DE 15 ANOS •MIGUEL STROGOFF GUI AS PARA VIAJ AR GUI'A DEL VIAJERO . 943 64 04 12 • Fax.Let's talk! THE IRREGULAR VERBS AND MODALS 1000 EVERYDAY IDIOMS IN BUSINESS A TO ZED.SPANISH SPRACHFURER KONVERSATION -SPANISCH GUI'A DEL VIAJERO .Lecture UN CAPITAINE DE QUINZE ANS -Lecture MICHEL STROGOFF -Lecture QUI SAIT? -Lecture LA FAMILLE LENOIR -Lecture TRADUIRE AUJOURD'HUI TRADUIRE AUJOURD'HUI MON BILAN GRAMMATICAL NOUVEAU GUIDE DE CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALE 1 2 • 6QUIEN SABE? •LAISLAMISTERIOSA • 20.ESPAGNOLO GUI'A DEL VIAJERO . 943 64 38 63 • e-mail: rrossetg.com Apdo.es .FONDO E D I T O R I A L S T A N L E Y ENGLISH 3000TESTS ELEMENTARY LEVEL KEYS 3000 TESTS 2000TESTS ADVANCED LEVEL KEYS 2000 TESTS 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS I 1000 TESTS EN FRANQAIS V 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS I! 1500 STRUCTURED TESTS III KEYS STRUCTURED TESTS DIDACTIC CROSSWORDS I BILINGUAL BUSINESS LETTERS NEW GUIDE TO BUSINESS LETTERS ENGLISH GRAMMAR I (N/E) ENGLISH GRAMMAR II (N/E) ENGLISH GRAMMAR III (N/E) KEYS ENGLISH GRAMMAR LE COMPTE DE MONTE CRISTO -Lecture 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES I 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES II 2000 BILINGUAL PHRASES III GUIDE OF PREPOSITIONS USING PREPOSITIONS .ALEMAN CONVERSATION IN ACTION .