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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3
by Edward R. Rosset
Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: Beryl Aguado Lait Principal of Apsley School of English. Portsmouth - England Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseno y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Esquema © Editorial Stanley www.libross.com Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-195-4 Dep. Leg.: BI-1193-01 Second edition / Segunda edicion 1999 Reprint / Reimpresion 2001 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta RGM
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Present simple and present continuous Look, sound, seem, appear Modifiers: Quite, fairly, rather, pretty Phrasal verbs Must, can't + infinitive Should, ought to, could + infinitive Such, so Gerunds after prepositions -keep, try Comparison of adjectives Comparison of adverbs Adverbs of manner Order of adjectives Adjectives ending in ing/ed The present perfect simple Present perfect with ever, just, since, for If, when, as soon as, until, clauses Infinitives after adjectives Linking words and phrases Have to - must - need to Uses of the article, the Use of the article, a/an Since, as, because, so, so that Infinitive of purpose Conditionals: type 1, 2 and 3 May, might and could + infinitive Clauses of reason, purpose and result Need Ability can, know how to + infinitive Gerunds after prepositions - worth Present perfect (ever, just, already, for, since) Present perfect (with for and since) Present perfect continuous I would rather - prefer to Had better + infinitive - it's time Past continuous The past perfect I wish - if only Quantifiers Quantifiers (cont.) Links -however, whichever, whenever, etc Too and enough + infinitive Need and want + gerund -help Causative verbs: have and get Indirect speech Indirect speech (cont.) The passive -prepositions: Before, after, as soon as, until Indirect and embedded questions Infinitives after adjectives Participles (ing -ed) in clauses The participle (ing -ed) (cont.) Bare infinitives, after make and verbs of perception Future continuous, future perfect continuous Appendix
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ENGLISH G R A M M A R 3
A menudo usamos adverbios de tiempo o frases adverbiales. • The Art Gallery opens on July 5th and closes on August 30th. Uses of the progressive present. • Don't take that away I'm using it. 5. Acciones repetidas: A menudo usamos adverbios en este tipo de frases. The train's leaving. 3. La accion esta en progreso en el momento de hablar. 1. • Spring always follows the hardest winter. 1. • She's always talking about the same things. • Your father is arriving tonight. Para observaciones y declaraciones tambien usamos el presente simple. • What's your son doing these days? • He's reading History at London University.. Usamos el presente simple en verdades permanentes. • He's continually telling us what to do. • The moon goes round the Earth. I never go there. • Hurry up. Para situaciones o acontecimientos que pueden continuar indefinidamente. Tambien usamos el presente simple como referenda futura. • Next Sunday we're spending the day in the country.30.STANLEY UNIT 1 2 Present simple and present continuous Uses of the simple present tense. • I start work at nine. • Someone is waiting to see you. 4. cosas que suceden repetidamente. • The play begins at 8 and ends at 10. • Your brother smokes a lot. • 'How often do you come here?' 'I come here every day. 3. • My father goes to work by car. • They come here every day. 2. Usamos el presente simple para describir acciones habituales.' 4. Situaciones temporales. • We sometimes work till very late.' • 'Do you ever go to America?' 'No. Acciones planeadas: referencia futura. • I suppose they'll be here in time for the meeting. Usamos el presente simple con How often o Do you ever. • I certainly agree with you. 2. • My sister works in the library. • Your father is working at the moment. .
'What (Mr Brown/ do)?' 'He's an engineer. (stay / three weeks) 3. but he (not/work) at the moment. 5. 'Can Ann drive?' 'No. (go / by plane) 3. I (belong) to any trade union or political party. (open) in June and (begin) the show ? (arrive) at 11. (learn). (go / with his friend Tom) . (stay / Hotel Tropical) He 2. We 2. Escribe sobre sus planes de vacaciones. 11. You can take my car. (leave / tomorrow) 4. (come). The river 9. My father is in New York. (not/go) to see the new films but we (not/see) this one. The Tagus River 8. Example: Stop shouting. 12. but she (teach) her. En este ejercicio tienes que poner el verbo en presente continuo o simple. I am listening to the radio. Example: (go / Benidorm) He is going to Benidorm. Tomorrow 3. 10.' 6. (flow) into the Atlantic. (not/use) it tonight. We usually 4. What time (leave) at 9 and (be) Sunday. That man says he's 90. The tennis match 4. He He always 3. but I 2. (stay) at the Palace Hotel.1 (grow) carnations but this year they (grow) geraniums. She (stay) with them for a few months. (flow) fast today after the rains. Tu amigo va a ir de vacaciones a Espana. I 5. Come on! The train miss it.This girl (not/live) with them.STANLEY EXERCISES 3 1.' 2. What do you do for a living? 1. Ahora tienes unas frases de presente simple con sentido de future. The exhibition (close) in September. (start) at four. . Example: At what time do they open the Museum? 1.30. 1. (not/want) to (stay) at the Palace. They always 7. Her father (believe) him. 5.
no la accion del verbo. seem. appeared significa 'aparecer ante la vista. • Don't look at me like that. (adverb) LOOK tiene dos significados: • She looks tired. Podemos hacer esto cuando describimos el sujeto de la frase. SOUND. En la primera frase. For regla general con verbos usamos adverbios. . • She sounded depressed on the phone. Sin embargo. • It seems difficult. • She seemed a bit angry yesterday. pero en la segunda frase. ETC. A menudo usamos to be despues de seem. • I'll look into the matter. appear. • Mrs Cohn suddenly appeared behind us. LOOK.STANLEY UNIT 2 4 Look. alguno de estos verbos tiene doble significado: • The agreement appeared difficult. pero con ciertos verbos (como SEEM. • That piano sounds terrible. • It tastes delicious. significa 'parecia'. (adverb) This wine tastes delicious. Comparemos: • • • • The little girl looks sad. • It sounds nice. • He looked sad. y a menudo Neva detras particulas adverbiales o preposiciones.'(accion) asi que se usa con un adverbio. Aqui significa 'tiene el aspecto. APPEAR. sound. SOUND es uno de los verbos que no se usan en formas progresivas. • She seems to be very nice. appeared. (adjective) He tasted the wine thoughtfully. SEEM es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. • It looks good. parece' y va seguido de adjetivos.) se pueden usar adjetivos. no con adverbios. no con adverbios. Es tambien uno de los verbos que se usan con adjetivos. El otro significado de look se relaciona con 'ver'. TASTE. y se usa con un adjetivo. (adjective) The little girl looked at him sadly. • He seemed to be tired.
6. That guitar sounds 9.The situation seemed 14. / A blue car appeared suddenly. A blue car appeared sudden. Example: He appeared to be very angry. Your father looked very 6. (terrible). / This soup tastes strange. That sounded cheaply. 7. Una bien y otra mal. (awful)./ 1. (angry). / You looked sickly. / It looked expensively.STANLEY EXERCISES 5 1. (strange). / He felt his way around carefully. This soup tastes strangely. It tastes wonderful. She appeared 8. It looked expensive.That music sounds beautifully. / It seemed decisively. (careful). appeared in the doorway (sudden). 2. / He seemed quite normally. A continuacion tienes unas frases. / That music sounds beautiful. (cheap). 5. He looked at her 5. He looked awful. 1. The problem appeared 7. 11. This wine tastes a bit 11. 8. 12. The cheese smells 10. 2. Detras de estos verbos a veces se pone un adjetivo y a veces un adverbio. / He looked awfully.That rock looks 12. My skin feels very 4. / That thing smells awfully. The doctor felt his arm 3. (rough). (angry) last night. 3. The old woman 2.That thing smells awful. 9. (impossible). He tasted the soup suspiciously. (sudden) in front of them. . He seemed quite normal. He felt his way around careful. It seemed decisive. (sudden). (complicate). Example: The soup tastes wonderful.The piano sounds (impressive). 10. / It tastes wonderfully. Tienes que tachar la que esta mal. You look sick. She looked at me 13. 4. / That sounded cheap.
y con un verbo • It's quite a nice day. Pero no significan exactamente lo mismo. . generalmente en ingles coloquial. • He speaks English fairly well. pero que no merece la pena ir a verla. la estas recomendando. quiza no sea la mejor pelfcula de la historia. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'rather good'. pero no 'mucho'. A menudo significa mas de lo normal. pero merece la pena ver. pero se usa en un estilo bastante informal. (hasta la coronilla) RECUERDA Solo rather se puede usar con comparatives. • He speaks English rather well. Si dices que una peli'cula es 'quite good'. fairly. rather. pretty. Estas cuatro palabras se usan para modificar la fuerza de los adjetivos o adverbios. • It's all quite finished. Tiene un sentido de 'bastante'. Una peli'cula 'fairly good' es una peli'cula bastante buena. Tanto quite como rather se pueden usar delante de un artfculo. es ciertamente mejor que la mayorfa. • It's rather too late. FAIRLY es la mas debil de las cuatro. O con too. • I'm getting pretty fed up. • He speaks English quite well. (se las arregla muy bien) RATHER es todavi'a mas fuerte. (es un buen linguista) PRETTY es bastante parecido a RATHER. • It's getting rather warmer. • She was quite alone.STANLEY UNIT 3 6 Modifiers: quite. pero no muy bien) QUITE es un poco mas fuerte que FAIRLY. segun con que palabra se use. • I rather like that girl. Quite tiene tambien el significado de 'completamente'. (bastante bien.
.... / That boy is very good at tennis.......... We've invited rather too many people... Nothing out of this world good............................. 3... It's quite an impressive show............ This exercise is not too bad..... 7...... 5.................. There's something ......... 2.. .. We all like him.. I was pleasantly surprised........... It's 1 1 . manage a difficult discussion in English... / We've invited fairly too many people.............. 13.... A continuacion tienes dos frases....... 12. She has a rather strange way of speaking.. Tacha la que te parezca que esta mal..... rather. I certainly would nice........... 4. ....... It's quite too difficult for us.............. .... It could be better...... / It's rather too difficult for us....... She can even old to take up swimming....... His wife is rather older than he is.. It's a very good idea... It's very pleasant to hear intelligent.. 8.... 2. impressed by her singing...... good. / She's got quite a good voice..... 6. ...... The new art gallery is recommend going to see it.. / She has a fairly strange way to speak.. I was bad at all....STANLEY EXERCISES 7 1...... That girl is though.............. She's ....... behaves.. / His wife is quite older than he is..... hot....... It wasn't strange about the way she interesting.. 9... / It's a fairly good idea. 4.......... well........... / She is a very nice girl.. Example: He is a pretty good fellow........ That boy is quite good at tennis.. 9........ I love her. well.. but certainly not good fellow. Aren't we driving rather fast? / Aren't we driving quite fast? 5........ She's got a rather good voice..... 2......... quite.. She is a fairly nice girl. ... His new book is his best. 3...... Better than most of the films 7.. Of course he's still got a lot to learn.. This film is I've seen..... I don't feel comfortable with her. 1 . I feel all sticky.... a las frases que se te dan................. Twenty is .......... ...... En este ejercicio tienes que anadir fairly. ............. 6. Carmen speaks English ......... He's a 10.. I love it! .... She speaks her.... It's good.... ......... 10... 8... o pretty.... / It's pretty an impressive show....................... Example: He was rather old for her / 1.
• She's giving money away. • turn up (aparecer) . off. . on. • She's likely to turn down any suggestions I make. • The plane took off. con otro significado. Pero mas a menudo se coloca inmediatamente detras del verbo: • She took them off.look for (buscar) . • He took his jacket off. la particula se prefiere poner inmediatamente despues del verbo: • They turned down many perfectly good suggestions.STANLEY UNIT 4 8 Phrasal Verbs En ingles moderno es muy corriente colocar las preposiciones o los adverbios detras de ciertos verbos. Cuando el complemento directo es un pronombre a veces se coloca al final de la expresion: • She is looking for her. Esta posicion es muy corriente con palabras como: in. Y otras veces es intransitive. la particula viene despues del verbo: • The meeting broke up as I came into the room. e inseparable. away. • Give it away! • Put it down! Si el complemento directo es una frase larga. Sin embargo. Los verbos compuestos de preposicion no tienen problema. muchas veces se puede poner opcionalmente o bien al final o inmediatamente despues del verbo: • He took off his gloves o He took his gloves off. pues la preposicion siempre se pone detras del verbo: • That girl takes after her mother.: • He took off his jacket. down. Con verbos compuestos intransitivos. Es decir si Neva o no complemento directo. (despeg6) Expresiones transitivas El objeto se coloca generalmente al final de estas frases: • I'm looking for my passport.give up (abandonar) Es importante saber si la combinacion es transitiva o intransitiva. up. Look for es transitive: • I'm looking for my daughter. cambiando de esta manera su significado. Look out es intransitive: • Look out! A car is coming! RECUERDA A veces un verbo compuesto puede tener un significado y ser transitive y separable. out.
close down. The meeting is going to 6. In this exercise you have to 7. in half an hour. that horse. He asked me to ring Mr Jones up. That's a nice sweater 2. due to the recession. 1. I don't know when he is going to 6. so I 3. He asked me to give up drinking. so I 5. put on. their expenses. any time. go out. will you! your coat. Industries have to 5. We have to 5. Example: He told me to turn off the heating. He told me to take up learning French. Tomorrow we'll 4. That girl is going to 3. so I 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 9 1. He asked me to give up my job. It's cold. turn up. Example: I have never heard this word before. quite a lot since last year. Example: The nuns brought up the child in the convent. Completa estas frases tal como se muestra en el ejemplo. so I 7. This answer is not correct . He told me to put on my coat. /'// look it up in the dictionary. to the theatre. Completa estas frases usando el verbo compuesto apropiado. take off. These rich people 4. bring up. make up. so I 4. en el tiempo que corresponda: try on. fill in. so I turned it off. This firm is going to the gaps. 2. 3. on you. fall off. keep down. He asked me to try out the shampoo. The volume is too loud it . We'll 7. turn down. 1. 1. cross out. This is our plane. The boy has 2. so I 6. look up. He asked me to fold the paper up. break off. grow up. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con uno de los verbos compuestos que se te dan: look down. so I 2. for the time lost. it 8.
• She knows a lot about books. • He can't have been there. este dialogo seria: • Jim said that she must be about fifty. She must have been asleep. • He's not doing that. r must be clever/stupid/tired etc. En forma indirecta. En este sentido !o opuesto de must es can't. can't + infinitive. is he? He can't be so stupid. • She must be about fifty. Usamos can't para decir que creemos que algo es imposible: • You've just drunk a pint of beer. usamos must y can't (o couldn't) con el infinitive perfecto. etc En este tipo de frases el can't have (done) se puede sustituir por el couldn't have (done). Usamos must para decir que estamos seguros de que algo es verdad: • You've been working all day. can't have been watching/waiting. Usamos must para afirmar o sacar una conclusion de la mas probable interpretacion de una situacion o acontecimiento: • She must be about fifty. She must read a great deal. • You're taking the driving test next week.t be pract j s i n g/ stud yj ng etc.STANLEY UNIT 5 10 Must. You must be practising a lot. = He couldn't have been there. • He started five minutes ago. I/you/he (etc) J cgn. but Tom thought that she couldn't be more than forty. • She can't (o couldn't) have done it so quickly. • It must have been terrible for her. He can't (o couldn't) have finished already. I/you/he (etc) J must have been drunk/tired etc. No conocemos la verdad con exactitud. You can't be thirsty already. • She didn't hear me coming. • Oh no! She can't be more than forty. . RECUERDA Si nos referimos a un tiempo pasado. pero creemos que debe de ser asf. You must be tired.
rich. him earlier than I thought. (see/us) She can't/couldn't have seen us. 1. I know she married the old man. 'She finished reading the book. (couldn't/be/look) 7. she 3. In the village they all know about the project. your brother. She married that old man. She must be tired. Completa estas frases usando must (have) o can't (have). 'Impossible. They 2. 7. but she for love. That 4. I don't understand how the two cars crashed. He has no idea what the book is about. I 6. Completa estas frases con must o can't + un verbo apropiado. I don't know how you did it. He already. I lost my briefcase. Example: She has been working all day. It 4. That's the doorbell. So she 2. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 11 1. He's got a key. He walked into a lamppost. He drives a Rolls-Royce and his wife a Mercedes. so silly!' 2. He everybody. He was starting a few seconds ago. (must/be/very difficult) 5. She your uncle Tom. (couldn't/understand/tell her) ' . That girls knows a lot about films. 1. I can't find my key. (the driver/this car/can't/see/the other car coming) 4. The train's already gone.' 'She 3. I (must/leave/train) 6. 3.' (she/can't/finish). they must have been'. It 5. (desperate/for/money) 2. it. they can't have heard me'. She said she'd phone him. Example: 'Were they married?' 'Yes. it. He 5. him by now. That was the doorbell. 'She says she won't marry for money. to the cinema quite a lot. Example: She didn't say 'hello'. She did the exact opposite of what I told her. Ahora lee esta situacion y escribe una frase con must have o can't have. 'Did they hear you?' 'No. 3.
Mientras que la forma interrogativa es ought you? • Ought you to do it alone? Coloquialmente se tiende a usar should en vez de ought to debido a que es mas facil de pronunciar. • You shouldn't drink so much. ought to. • You oughtn't to have written to him. Es decir: (deberfan). La forma negativa del ought es oughtn't.' 'You shouldn't have drunk so much last night. • It was a good play.' Para el pasado usamos should have been (deben'as haber estado). • You ought to put central heating. • They should do something about unemployment. A menudo usamos should cuando creemos que una cosa es buena de hacer. o es la cosa apropiada. .' Ought to (deberfa) Tambien es un verbo defective que se puede usar para el presente. • She ought to have written a letter. Your doctor: • 'You must stop smoking!' Your friend: • 'You should stop smoking.STANLEY UNIT 6 12 Should.' • 'My motorbike slipped on the ice. Al igual que los demas verbos defectives (excepto el ought) no admite el to detras. y es el unico verbo defective que va seguido del infinitive con to (full infinitive). RECUERDA Should es un verbo defective. future y pasado cuando va precedido de un verbo en pasado. could + infinitive.' Usamos shouldn't con el sentido de no deben'as. • You ought to have passed the examination easily. I think we should. future y pasado. Should Se usa para dar consejos y no es tan fuerte como must. Es decir va seguido de un bare infinitive: • You should paint the bedroom. • 'Should we ask him to come?' 'Yes. You should go and see it. • 'I feel terrible today. se puede usar para presente.' 'You shouldn't have been going so fast.
Example: 'I can't see very well.. / think you ought to apologize to that lady. 'She was annoyed because I hadn't cleaned my room. . Rellena estas frases usando should have. 'Do you think he'll arrive in time?' 'Well. 1. Gambia should por ought y viceversa. Example: 'Do you think he'll pass his driving test?' 'He should pass it. 4. you know. 'Do you think he'll help you?' 'He a lot of favours. 3. It's a very good picture'. I've done him see 2.' They 5. Example:! think you should apologize to that lady. We ought to have gone out for dinner. They arrived late.' He me. You should have bought a better car.' 'You (leave) earlier. I should have gone to bed earlier. (apologize) 6. .' 3. You ought to have told her 6. I ought to have spoken to her 8. .' 'You (stay) a little longer.' 2. 4. En este ejercicio usa should para decir que algo deberia suceder. you without saying goodbye. you it.' 1.' (tell) him the truth'. he left very early.' 3. He ought to have come earlier 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 13 1.' 3. They should work harder 7.' 2. 'Do you think the film is worth seeing?' 'Yes. You should stop smoking 5. 'He was angry because I lied.' 'You should have gone to the optician before. He can drive very well.' 'What! You haven't posted it yet? You (post) it yesterday.' 1. You insulted him. 'I left very early. 'I'm going to post the letter. I think you for what you said. 4.' 'You (clean) it before you left. 'Do you think I could leave without telling them?' 'No.
Comparemos so y such: • I like those people. So Es un adverbio y se usa delante de adverbios y adjetivos: • • • • She is so big! Those girls are so pretty! He spoke so fast that I couldn't understand him. • He poured so much water that the glass overflowed. incluso cuando el much y el many van seguidos de sustantivos: • There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in.. y such . • She is such a nice girl that everyone loves her. Nunca se usa such delante de much y many: • It was such a nice day that we went out for a picnic. Esta ultima expresion aunque no es muy coloquial se suele ver en literatura... The dog was so big that nobody dared get near . • The book was so interesting that I read it in one day. such a long way.. So y such hacen que el significado del adjetivo sea mas fuerte. es igual a so + adjetivo + a + sustantivo: • Such a nice girl.STANLEY U NIT 7 n Such. that . = So nice a girl. RECUERDA Que such a se usa con sustantivos en singular: • Such a girl! • Such girls! • Such weather! Las expresiones • Such a nice girl! • Such nice girls! • Such nice weather! equivalen a " such a long time. that . Mientras que such se usa con plurales e incontables: so long so far . • She is very pretty. • It was such an interesting book that I couldn't put it down... but so silly. • They were such big dogs that everybody was afraid.. They are so nice/They are such nice people. Mientras que so se utiliza con ambos.. • She enjoyed the party. so . She had such a good time. Fijate que such + a + adjetivo + sustantivo. so Such Es un adjetivo y se usa delante de 'adjetivo + sustantivo'.
They lived so far from the centre that they had to take a bus. Gambia estas frases por otras con el mismo significado. 3. The problem was so difficult that nobody could solve it. He had such a big head that he couldn't find a hat big enough. beautiful eyes! Her eyes are 2. 3. I've been doing this for so long that I couldn't do anything else. The weather was so good that we went for a picnic. The sun was 4. 4. 3. / didn't know that he had lived here for such a long time. 1. horrible food. Gambia such por so y viceversa. She buys expensive nowadays! 8. That man has 3. 2. En este ejercicio tienes que poner so o such. lot of problems that he can't sleep. 1. Example: Don't eat so fast! I've never seen such a boring film. hot that I got sunburnt. Example:! didn't know that he had lived here for so long. She's got beautiful! 7. Example: The film was so exciting that everyone was quiet. Some people have got how to spend it. . We've got so much food that we don't know what to do with it. I've never had 6. 1. It was such an exciting film that everyone was quiet. I've never tasted 5. wonderful meal. expensive things! Things are lot of money that they don't know fit at eighty.STANLEY EXERCISES 15 1. It's incredible that she should be 2. 2. It was such a good motorway that we drove very fast.
Despues de before y after se pone gerundio: • Before doing anything ask your father. • He passed the sugar to his sister. Keep. este verbo ira en gerundio. This knife is for carving meat. Por lo tanto en las frases en las que el to sea preposicion y vaya seguido de un verbo. to tambien puede ser una preposicion: • My brother went to South America. She insisted on paying for herself. los cuales van seguidos del infinitivo sin to (bare infinitive). try. I'm fed up with doing always the same. TO es generalmente parte del infinitivo: • I want to come with you. There's no point in taking your car. . • I look forward to hearing from you. • I prefer running to walking.STANLEY UNITS 16 Gerunds after prepositions. Los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio: Are you good at learning languages? Is he interested in working for you? I am in favour of giving everyone a day off. He left without paying the bill. • He did nothing but complain. Las unicas excepciones a la regla del gerundio son except y but (preposicion). • What are you going to do after you leave college? Without y by van tambien seguidos de gerundio: • He left without saying goodbye. • I could do nothing except swallow my pride. • What are you going to do after leaving college? Tambien se puede poner un sujeto: • Before he left he said goodbye to everybody. • They got into the car by breaking the back window. Sin embargo.
It's a gadget for 2. Tom can solve difficult problems. I'm looking forward to it. He would like to emigrate to Australia. 4. I'm looking forward to it. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir una frase con el mismo significado que la primera. He found a parking place. Instead 6. First he went for a swim in the sea. Example: I'm meeting you next week. After three months you're going to see your girlfriend. 3. I'm not looking forward to that. He accused his accomplice. He got away with it. 1. After finishing my letter I went to the cinema. He didn't look for it. 2. 2. What do you say to her? . Escribe las mismas frases con look forward to. 3. 4. Example: She left the house. He didn't take his umbrella. I'm looking forward to meeting you. The burglar got into the house. Example:! finished my letter and then I went to the cinema. He went out in the rain. He fell in the second lap. 1. We didn't watch television. He is very good at 3. 1. He is thinking. Ahora vuelve a escribir estas frases con without o by. This gadget open tins. She left the house without saying goodbye.STANLEY EXERCISES 17 1. He broke the garage window. 2. We went to the cinema instead. 5. We went to the cinema but first we had a meal. I'm going home for Christmas. Old Grumbler is coming to see me. 3. and then he had a shower. In spite 7. but he managed to win the race. She didn't say goodbye.
It's more pleasant today than it was yesterday. Tambien se pueden dar comparaciones con frases hechas tal como: • She is taller than average. the less people buy. bien sea. The + comparative + the Esta construccion se puede hacer con adjetivos y con adverbios para mostrar causa y efecto: • The more money you have. La comparacion se hace entre dos. • Today it's less expensive than usual. Walking is less tiring than running. • Things are getting more and more difficult.STANLEY UNIT 9 1* Comparison of adjectives. damos la idea de aumento o disminucion: • He is getting taller and taller. rather. • Things are much more expensive nowadays. hardly any. the more you want. a lot. • The more expensive things are. • It's much colder this year than it was last year. • Videos and computers are getting less and less expensive. She feels less tired today than she felt yesterday. far. lots. Modification de los adjetivos. A veces el segundo termino de la comparacion se da por sobreentendido. very much. personas. • • • • • Our house is better/worse/bigger than our neighbour's. A leather coat is more expensive than a plastic one. • Which is (the) bigger? (of the two classes) Mas ejemplos de comparativos + than. RECUERDA Que cuando juntamos dos adjetivos (o adverbios) en grado comparative. • There have been many more crimes this month. . even. Para dar intensidad a la comparacion usamos palabras tales como: a bit. cosas o grupos: • Peter is taller than John. a little. etc. • Peter is taller than the other boys.
it was (far/interesting). (a lot/easy) 2. It's to learn things with a good teacher. I prefer this hotel. Restaurants are becoming I expected (expensive). The longer he waits 4. As days passed she became 4. C the more dangerous it becomes. The better the teacher is 7.STANLEY EXERCISES 19 1. The more you have 2. It's (much/comfortable) than that one 5. D the more you want. 'Did you enjoy your stay?' 'Yes. 1. F the less it sells. Completa las frases usando a little. G the more you have to pay. She looked sad yesterday but this morning she looks (a bit/happy) 4. (difficult) to find a job. The higher you climb 6. Example: The weather is getting warmer and warmer. (heavy). The more expensive it is 3. That woman is getting 8. She's only been here for two months and her English is already getting (good). (grumpy) as she gets older. much. It's becoming 7. E the more impatient he becomes. En este ejercicio tienes que usar la estructura more and more. Junta las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 3. 2. . This suitcase seems to get 6. The shorter the way 5. many etc. The car is too small for us. The longer the phone call A the more you learn. The little girl is becoming 3. Usa than cuando sea necesario. a lot. (beautiful) as she grows up. 1. (nervous).' 2. We need something (much/big) 3. (big). Things are getting more and more difficult. That crack on the wall is getting 5. B the quicker you get there. 1.
The faster he talks the more difficult it is to understand him. estos forman sus comparativos y superlatives con more/less y most/least: more quickly. She can't jump as high as her brother. My daughter works harder than anybody else in the office. most seldom). fastest). most/least (more seldom. Last y latest pueden ser adjetivos: • This is the latest news (las mas recientes).STANLEY U N I T 10 20 Comparison of adverbs. This man runs faster than anyone else in the world. It was snowing more and more heavily. I can't sing as well as my sister. • I last saw him two months ago. Ejemplos de comparacion de adverbios: • • • • • • • • I run as fast as my brother. less clearly. The clouds disappeared more quickly than we expected. • This is the last news bulletin for today. Algunos adverbios de frecuencia forman el grade comparativo y superlative con more/less. Pero generalmente last se usa como adverbio: • We went to the Wax Museum last. Solamente algunos de los adverbios pueden usarse en grades comparativo y superlative: adverb fast easily rarely badly far late little much well comparative faster more easily more rarely worse farther/further later less more better superlative fastest most easily most rarely worst farthest/furthest latest least most best RECUERDA Muchos adverbios como fast y early forman sus comparativos y superlatives de la misma forma que los adjetivos cortos (faster. Often tiene dos formas de comparativo: more often y oftener. least briefly. siendo la primera mas corriente: I go there more often than you. Como la mayoria de los adverbios de modo tienen dos d mas silabas. .
He still drinks but he used to drink a lot more. as. We've been here for a long time but they've been here longer. 1. He isn't as young as he looks. That table is not as long as this one. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases usando as . It isn't 4. . We go to the cinema less than we used to. 1.. Vuelve a escribir estas frases de forma que tengan el mismo significado. 2. We used to go very seldom to that place. We haven't 4. He doesn't 2. There weren't 3. I feel fit but yesterday I was fitter. It wasn't 3. We don't go 5. The restaurant is cheaper than we expected.STANLEY EXERCISES 21 1. The exam wasn't 2. 3. Example: It was not as clear as before. In fact it was less clearly written than before. 1. but yesterday was better. . In fact it was explained . The Post Office was farther than I thought. It was not explained very briefly. She wasn't 3. Example: This table is long but that one is longer. The weather today isn't 2. En este ejercicio vas a cambiar las frases usando less. There were fewer people at this match than at the last one. She was nervous before the exam but usually she is more nervous. but now we still go than before. Example: This man is older than he looks. The exam was more difficult than I expected. . In fact it's done than before. than before.. Today's weather is good. It's not done very quickly. I don't feel 5.
la 'e' desaparece: possible/possibly. weekly. clockwise. Asfmismo. Algunos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos: daily. Otros la retienen: extreme/extremely. • The excursion was well organized. • He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. Position Los adverbios de modo se colocan detras del verbo: • She sang beautifully. A menudo la 'y' se convierte en 'i': funny/funnily. el adverbio puede ir o bien delante de la preposicion o despues del objeto: • She looked at me suspiciously. La mayoria de los adverbios de modo se forman anadiendo ly a los adjetivos: sudden/suddenly. si el objeto es largo el adverbio se coloca entre el sujeto y el verbo: • They secretly decided to meet again shortly. RECUERDA Que algunos sufijos se pueden ahadir a los adjetivos para formar adverbios de modo (a veces de direccion): sideways. lengthwise. Early y fast tambien pueden ser adjetivos o adverbios. mad/madly. quarterly. . Con la excepcion de true/truly. Como adverbios de modo se colocan detras de un verbo active: • He speaks English well. O detras del objeto cuando hay uno: • She speaks English well.STANLEY U N I T 11 22 Adverbs of manner. • He was badly paid. • This train is very fast. • This is a fast train. He gave up his job reluctantly. Badly y well se pueden usar como adverbios de modo o de grado. crossways. due/duly. Si el objeto es una frase ponemos el adverbio antes que la preposicion: • She looked suspiciously at everybody sitting in the lounge. beautiful/beautifully. monthly. busy/busily. / She looked suspiciously at me. dry/drily (o dryly). • She behaved badly. Cuando tenemos verbo + preposicion + objeto. yearly. Cuando el adverbio termina en 'le'. en las frases de verbo + objeto.
4. 6. . / These actors very badly perform. appeared in front of her (sudden). / They crossed the street running. rain tonight (possible). tachala. 'Come here. He softly spoke to me. Completa la frase con el adverbio correspondiente. She gave him the money reluctantly. 1. / She every day pays. (fast). / It snowed heavily last February.This man always behaves very 14. It 9. (noble). I pay my bills 8. He drove very 10. (dry). Example: He was madly in love with the girl (mad). The documents were 3. Example: He pays his staff very well. / He spoke to the children kindly. I pay my bills quarterly. 10. (loud). / He left the room hurriedly. 14. / Shake well the bottle. / I quarterly pay my bills. 12.These people always laugh very 13.The film ended 11. / He slowly took the picture down. It heavily snowed last February. I Hejjaj 1. She played the piano 2. 5. received (due). He kindly spoke to the children. (month). You have to do it very 12. These actors perform very badly. We caught the train very 7. They ran across the street.STANLEY EXERCISES 23 1. / She very badly typed his letters. (early). She always greets me in a very 2. / He spoke to me softly. 3. / He denied angrily that he had stolen the money. Una de las dos frases esta mal. He took the picture down slowly. way (friendly). 13. 9. Entre parentesis tienes el adjetivo. It is 6. / She reluctantly gave him the money. He angrily denied that he had stolen the money. She danced beautifully. He hurriedly left the room. She pays every day. She typed his letters very badly. the same thing (basic). 7. Shake the bottle well. (careful). It will 5. 2.' he said 4. 8. (beautiful). 11. / She beautifully danced. (happy).
A large new square table. nice. como primer adjetivo. Usamos comas para separar los adjetivos que sean igualmente importantes. a small round table. • A large new table. La palabra que indica nacionalidad u origen se pone inmediatamente delante: Italian shirt. este precede al origen: • An Italian handmade tablecloth. • Black and white tiles. Si son mas de dos adjetivos los separamos con una coma excepto los dos ultimos que que van separados por and. • His clothes were filthy. Entonces tenemos que tener cuidado en que orden ponemos los adjetivos. Si uno de los adjetivos es un participio este se pondra delante del material: a handmade wooden table. . delicious. Adjectives quality age/size nice beautiful new old Noun colour country green blue Italian Japanese material wooden porcelain table vase Fi'jate que las cualidades generales (beautiful. shiny. dark. detras del verbo. es decir. Cuando los adjetivos se usan como predicados. • A tall and elegant young woman. • Fast-selling Italian handmade tablecloths. etc) van siempre delante. A veces usamos mas de un adjetivo para describir un sustantivo. black leather bag. El tamaho generalmente precede a la edad y forma. happy. Aunque no hay reglas fijas. El sustantivo puede estar compuesto de dos palabras: kitchen table. old. tennis racket. clever. se separan con un and si son dos: • The tea was sweet and strong. etc. • A small. clean. Estas palabras no se pueden separar. En caso de que haya un gerundio.STANLEY U NIT 12 24 Order of adjectives. handsome young man. wet and worn out. A veces tambien los atributivos van unido con and. Los adjetivos que expresan nuestra opinion de la calidad de algo o alguien van en primer lugar: nice. cheap. • There was a friendly little Chinese girl at the counter. en el cuadro que va a continuacion ponemos una gufa general. Nunca ponemos coma detras del ultimo adjetivo: • A tall.
A road (long. Ron los adjetivos que van entre parentesis en posicion correcta. fat. It seem/exciting/mysterious 5. little. The man/unshaven/dirty 8. A shower (hot. He/tall/handsome/dark 2. A village (fishing. Italian) 2. His clothes/dirty/wet/old/worn out 6. A house (modern. rare) 17. little. A dress (blue. large) 5. My shoes are worn out and torn. A car (black. Example: a table (nice. lovely) 19. 1. The road/long/winding 7.STANLEY EXERCISES 25 1. good-looking) 14. old. A cupboard (old. Eyes (large. old. beautiful. little) 6. red. new) 11. Hair (beautiful. A face ( thin. black. interesting. Example: My shoes/worn out/torn. The woman/beautiful/mysterious . white) 4. 1. A cat (white. Forma frases usando los adjetivos como predicados. brown. black. A man (young. An old lady (nice. long) 18. pretty) 7. watery) 10. Italian) 16. He/cruel/man/vicious 4. brick) 13. A day (beautiful. wooden) A nice old wooden table. He/dark/short/dirty 3. big) 2. A handbag (black leather) 12. narrow) 3. nice) 8. sunny) 9. A film (Japanese. A ring (silver. A painting (old. old) 15. A box (metal.
pain-painless. pain-painful. (He is interested in art because art is interesting. depressed/depressing. It doesn't mean anything. (He was alarmed because the news was alarming. si algo es surprising/boring etc. Se puede decir que alguien es o esta surprised/bored etc. fearfearless. He is a careless person. te hace surprised/bored: • Mary is surprised because the ending is surprising. meaning-meaningless. hope-hopeless. • The end of the film is surprising. shocked/shocking. • Mary is at the cinema. The end of the film is not what she expected. care-careful. so Mary is surprised. shame-shameful.) • He is interested in art. bottom-bottomless. sorrow-sorrowful. shame-shameless. Adjectives . • She was surprised by the end of the film. excited/exciting. terrified/terrifying. He's a trustful man. Tambien. You can say that: • The end of the film is surprising. astonished/astonishing. aim-aimless.. This note is meaningless. He trusts everybody. trust-trustful. plenty-plentiful. • He thinks that art is interesting.) Algunos adjetivos que tienen estas dos terminaciones son: amused/amusing. • The situation was very worrying. • The news was alarming.) • She was worried about the situation. exhausted/exhausting. . Por ejemplo: surprised y surprising.Ending in full / less Algunos sustantivos forman el adjetivo con sufijos tales como: Beauty-beautiful. si algo o alguien es o esta surprising/boring etc.STANLEY U N I T 13 26 Adjectives ending in ing/ed. (She was worried because the situation was worrying. Care-careless. He aquf algunos ejemplos mas: • We were alarmed when we heard the news. • • • • Be careful crossing the road. meaning-meaningful. confused/confusing. embarrassed/ embarrassing. Hay muchos pares de adjetivos que terminan en ing y ed. success-successful.
He is a s h a m e f u l / s h a m e l e s s boy. Brown trusts everybody. She was sorry. 2. (excite) She was I was very I felt very The exam was The weather was by their situation. He is a f e a r l e s s / f e a r f u l man. He is very brave. .STANLEY EXERCISES 27 1. Mr. (interest) He thinks maths is very in maths. 6. It was disgusting/dj|3j«stfci 1.. (depress) I was He was 6. 7. 2. The situation was very e m b a r r a s s i n g / e m b a r r a s s e d . He doesn't care about anything. The armchair was very comfortable. He is very c a r e f u l / c a r e l e s s . 3. 4. En este ejercicio tienes que completar dos frases con cada situacion. 4. It's tasteless/taJtetujT 1. (move) It was an job. 1. Maths is his favourite subject. (shock) 5. Example: The book wasn't as good as I had expected. 5. The teacher was terribly surprised by Jim's exam. Haz lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2. Usa un adjetivo que termina en ing y otro en ed para completar cada frase. (confuse) It was very It was very He was 4. (bore) The book was boring. Their situation was . The body laid on the floor a l i v e / l i f e l e s s . It was a m a z e d / a m a z i n g the progress he had made. I didn't understand the situation. It was raining all afternoon. He ran across the road. (relax) 3. 5. The family situation was terrible. Elige el adjetivo apropiado y tacha el que no corresponde. 2. He's a t r u s t f u l / t r u s t l e s s man. The whole affair was very annoying/annoyed. I get f r i g h t e n i n g / f r i g h t e n e d . I was bored reading the book. Example: The room was in a mess. 3. The job was very good. I was very d i s a p p o i n t e d / d i s a p p o i n t i n g when I finished the book. I don't tike horror films. Example:! don't like the food. 3. She was very s o r r o w f u l / s o r r o w l e s s for doing it. He is 2.
Present continuous / going to / future simple.' 'I'll ring her up. • Get down from that ladder. . leave. • She is arriving tomorrow afternoon on the 5. • Look at those clouds.' • 'You left the window open. I don't feel like going out. I don't think.STANLEY UNIT 14 28 The present perfect simple and continuous. WILL Usamos el will cuando decidimos hacer algo en el memento de hablar.' • 'Mary wants to talk to you. encuentros etc. I won't wait then. come. A menudo asociamos el presente continue como los verbos arrive. Tambien usamos el going to cuando predecimos algo.' 'Oh.30 train. go.' • I heard your daughter is going to marry a rich American. • Tom is coming next week. • 'Are you going out?' 'No. Con ofertas y promesas: • I'll help you with that heavy case. Generalmente necesitamos un adverbio a no ser que el significado este muy claro. I'm going to read for a while. please. • I don't think I'll bother answering all those letters. • I think I'll stay in tonight.' 'I'll close it. You're going to fall. para describir arreglos de viajes. all right. Usamos el presente continue para referirnos a actividades y eventos que estan planeados para el future. • We're spending our holiday in Benidorm. • 'Where are you meeting her?' No usamos el will para hablar acerca de arreglos que has concertado. • 'What would you like?' 'I'll have a whisky. etc. • When are you getting married? • What are you doing this evening? RECUERDA Usamos going to cuando ya nemos decidido hacer algo en el proximo future: • We are going to watch the football match on TV tonight. It's going to rain.' WON'T es la forma negativa de WILL.' A menudo se usa el will con I think. • 'Mr Martin is out. • I'll give you the money tomorrow.
1. Tu amiga tiene muchos proyectos para el proximo future. Tu tienes que escribir frases acerca de sus planes. Example: She is leaving lor America in a few days, (leave) 1. She 2. They 3. They 4. Mary 5. Her friend 6. Mary 7. From New York they (travel) with a friend of hers. (visit) the Niagara Falls. (go) by plane. (stay) with her aunt. (have) an interview for a job. (meet) an old friend of the family in New York. (fly) to California.
2. i,Que crees tu que va a suceder? Example: That little boy is trying to climb a tree. He is going to fall. 1. His passport is in the back pocket of his jeans.
2. Dark clouds are gathering.
3. She forgot her umbrella and it's raining.
4. I'm crossing the channel and the sea is very choppy.
5. He's taken his tennis racket.
3. Promete o queda de acuerdo en hacer alguna cosa. Example: I'd like you to come to see me tomorrow. All right. /'// go. 1. 'Can you repair my bike?' 'Okay, 2. 'Don't tell anybody, please!' 'All right 3. 'Be careful when you give an injection.' 'Don't worry. I you.' 4. 'You owe me a lot of money.' 'Well, 5. 'You promised you were going to take me swimming.' 'O.K next Sunday'. 6. 'Can I have my book back?' 'Of course, this afternoon. back on Saturday'. it.' '
U N I T 15
Present perfect with ever, just, since, for.
Used to + Infinitive.
La estructura used to + infinitive solo existe en el pasado. Se refiere a habitos pasados. • He used to drink quite a lot. (soli'a beber) Para expresar la misma idea en presente, basta con usar el presente simple: • He drinks quite a lot. O bien: • He usually drinks on Saturdays, (suele beber) Para la forma interrogativa y negativa se admiten las dos formas: • Did he use to drink? / Used he to drink? • He didn't use to drink. / He usen't to drink. RECUERDA Que para las coletillas o respuestas cortas se usa el didn't. • They used to live in Bristol, didn't they? • Did he use to smoke? - Yes, he did. o Yes, he used to. • No, he didn't, o No, he didn't use to.
USED TO y WOULD
Cuando nos referimos a habitos pasados podemos usar tanto uno como otro: • When I was a boy I used to get up at six o'clock. • When I was a boy I would get up at six o'clock. Sin embargo, para describir situaciones o estados pasados tenemos que usar el used to y no el would. • I used to be an English teacher, but now I'm a writer. • I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Used to no se usa cuando algo sucedio hace algun tiempo, o por cuanto tiempo duro: • I went to Italy several times (No: I used to go to Italy several times) • I lived in Bristol for five years. (No: I used to live in Bristol for 5 years)
No confundir used to + infinitivo con used to + gerundio. • I used to go. (soli'a ir) - I'm used to going, (estoy acostumbrado a ir) • He used to drink, (soli'a beber) - He's used to drinking, (esta acostumbrado a beber)
1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases con used to ... Example: Ronald doesn't drink now, but he used to drink quite a lot. 1. My father doesn't smoke now, but he 2. I've got a car now, but I 3. There is only one cinema now, but there 4. Years ago I 5. They 6. He 20 cigarettes a day. a motorbike. 3 cinemas. cider, but I don't like it now. in Bristol, but now they live in London. take a lot of medicines, but now he is a vegetarian.
2. En este ejercicio tienes que cambiar el pasado por el presente. Example: He used to drink a lot all the time, (solia) He usually drinks only on Saturdays, (suele) 1. He used to drink cups of coffee all day long. But now a cup in the morning. 2. My brother used to play tennis every day. But now he a match on Saturdays. 3. Jim used to smoke forty cigarettes a day. But now he only one after lunch. 4. We used to go out every day. But now we only on Saturdays. 3. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: He used to live alone. Did he use to live alone? He didn't use to live alone. 1. I used to play in that old castle when I was a child.
2. They used to go to the cinema every Saturday.
3. They used to travel a lot.
4. My friend used to live in Bristol.
• I'll tell you when I come back tonight. Usar if cuando es posible que algo suceda. When I come back I'll bring you a present. RECUERDA Que en las frases de when usamos el presente simple (en espanol es presente de subjuntivo). Despues de if tambien usamos el presente simple: • We'll go out if it doesn't rain. as soon as. Cuando generalizamos es posible usar ambas palabras sin que cambie el significado. aunque la idea de la frase es future. if I come back. • • • • I'll see you next week. pero no es seguro. • If it rains we'll stay at home. No confundir if con when. • When/If you heat water it boils. . when. (cuando vuelva) I'll see you next week. We'll be in Madrid when we wake up. Se puede usar el preterite perfecto para mostrar que la primera accion estara acabada antes que la segunda: • When I am finished with this I'll give it to you. when I come back. (cuando vuelva) • We'll go out when the rain stops. When se usa para hablar acerca de acontecimientos que es seguro o muy probable que sucedan. • If she doesn't come soon. (si vuelvo) We'll go to the beach if it doesn't rain. If I go out I'll buy it for you. until clauses. If sugiere que no estas seguro de que algo va a suceder. I'll go to the cinema alone. Lo mismo sucede con: as soon as until while • We'll go out as soon as I finish this. • I may go out this afternoon.STANLEY U NIT 16 32 If. Usar when para cosas que es seguro que sucedan: • I'm going to Madrid.
Todas las frases de este ejercicio tienen idea de future. We (arrive) in London. I'm going out 5. I'm finished with it . don't wait for me. (pass) his driving test.They'll come to see us tomorrow 15. tell him I want to talk to him. I'll give you a ring 3. don't come. I (drop) you a line as soon as I (let) you know when I (arrive). (be) ready. Please. (recognise) her. If we 2 3.. 8. it doesn't rain. I'll be away a couple of weeks. (be) surprised. 7. I'll return the book I am finished with it. (come). We 4. (get) there. you finish writing it?. I get back. but you don't want to. (be) away? (arrive). When you 5. (ask) you. I'll give it to you 10. Your brother may phone today 8. I'll be there by 7. I'll look for his address. We 9. I'll send it to you 11.STANLEY EXERCISES 33 1. En este ejercicio tienes que poner when o if. he doesn't 6. I am there I'll visit Aunt Maggie. I find it. 1.1 only watch TV 16. we you (do) that while I (start) off until my brother (see) my sister you (be) surprised if he (ask) you. he does. 2. there is something interesting. I'll have something to eat 4. I'd like you to come. Example: Come on! Your father will (be) angry if we are (be) late. you aren't here by 5. 6. But I get home. I'll be very surprised pass it. let me know when he 7. Will you send the letter 12. you want something. 1. We won't wait for you 14. When you 10. Ron los verbos en forma correcta.1 (phone) her as soon as we (start) the exam until the teacher (see) little Albert you (need) money. it doesn't rain. 2. I think he'll pass the exam.1 12. I'll get it for you. Example: If it rains this afternoon we'll stay in. I'm going to New York 9. If I 11. We (need) any help. We'll probably go out 13. I'm not.
quick. • There isn't enough work for us to do. brave. bound. clever. • It was silly of you to do that. kind. hard. A la lista anterior se pueden anadir algunos adjetivos que se refieren a probabilidades: certain. • He is determined to succeed in life. the best. glad. • It's impossible to be angry with this man. • It's wrong to do that. • She was very kind to help them. GRUPO 2: Curious. the second. etc. the worst: • Jim is always the first to arrive and the last to leave. the last. poliite right. Muchos adjetivos pueden ir seguidos de infinitives: GRUPO 1: Silly. careless. nice. easy. Esta estructura tambien admite el for + noun/pronoun. • They are very likely to accept your proposal. Too + adjective + infinitive • He is too stupid to understand. ashamed. wrong. etc. Algunos de estos adjetivos admiten la combinacion for + noun/pronoun: • He is anxious for his son to win the competition. • That box is too big to carry. • This type of shirt is difficult to wash. difficult. rude. ready.. GRUPO 3: Impossible. etc. anxious. • That was the worst thing to do. etc. foolish. reluctant. Adjective + enough + infinitive • This man is not strong enough to lift it. afraid. It + be + adjective + of noun/pronoun + to-infinitive • It was very kind of him to help you. the next. generous. eager. . • He is always reluctant to make any trouble. GRUPO 4: The first. • He is very clever to answer all these questions. likely. • She is too clever to fall into the trap. agreeable. good. keen. sure. sorry. boring.STANLEY UNIT 17 34 Infinitives after adjectives. willing.
He is (determine/succeed). . The best thing is to ask him. It is (nice/be/you). She was 3. he He was (his son/come back). It was very 3. It's very difficult to please him. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a las preguntas. Completa las frases con las palabras entre parentesis. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos del grupo 2. ' 2. It was very ' ' (good/show) us ' (foolish/insult) the (generous/give) us 4. Example: He was anxious to win the competition.' 'Yes. 'I heard he insulted the teacher. Example: 'Did he help you?' 'Yes. Gambia la frase de forma que signifique lo mismo. This competition 3. he teacher. 1. she some money. Example: He always arrives the first.STANLEY EXERCISES 35 1. It was very 2. he was very kind to help us. He is always the first to arrive. 3. She arrived the last one. 'Did she give you money?' 'Yes. He is 2. It was 2. 3. He is very weak. 1. He was nearly run over by a car. He 4. he was (careless/cross) the road like that. 1. 'Did he show you the way?' 'Yes. 'Does he want the job?' 'Yes he (his daughter/get/job). 'Did he want to come back?' 'Yes. He was anxious for his son to win the competition. It was very kind of him to help us'. (get/job). It's (boring/live) with. He's He's (his son/succeed). It is with him. He isn't lift the box. Example: He is very difficult to please. You are a nice person 4. Does he want to succeed?' Yes. 1. (impossible/win) this competition. He will come next. he the way. He is 2. (eager/come/back) home.' 'Yes.
• We all did our best.). I'll be on holiday.. • I left it either on the table or in the drawer. we lost the game. and .. or. we lost the game though. . • You can take either French or English. Though suele ir al final de la frase: • We tried our best. Although and even though se pueden usar al principio de una frase: • Although/Though/Even though we tried our best..' Both .. On the other hand (por otra parte). • He is good at maths and he is also good at sports.. • I don't know if can do that. pero debe colocarse al comienzo de la frase. Also es mas formal y se coloca en el medio de la frase. • She speaks both English and French...) Se usa cuando tienes dos alternativas. On the other hand. As well as (asi como). • He was both tired and hungry. o ... as well indican que la palabra o frase ha sido anadida a algo que ya se ha mencionado anteriormente.STANLEY U N I T 18 36 Linking words and phrases. • I've read the book and I've seen the film too/as well. • He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer.' 'But that is not what we agreed on. (o ... mientras que too y as well van al final.. • He opened the door as well as the window. Also. However we lost the game.. • He grows flowers as well as vegetables.. but he didn't cry. * But como conjuncion puede significar 'sino': • It's not the red one I wanted but the blue one. Tambien puede significar 'sin embargo': • He cut his knee... • Both his brother and his sister are married. However puede ser usado con un significado parecido. • I know Tom and I also know his mother. A veces muestra sorpresa o asombro: • 'I'll give you £5. (no solo . Either. too. sino .
Unfortunately he is very lazy. 2. He was tired 11. people buy them. that one. people don't read nowadays. read and write. and he speaks German too. 4. but. You can learn 13 happy. The little boy fell off the tree. he got the job.. this one to that one. 14. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. You can take 6. but not both. He is not very clever. 1. You can walk up take the cable car. meat French fish. 5. we have no money. German at the same time. You can take 12. we played our best. on the other hand. and 5. You must 9. they are expensive. 1. He had no qualifications 2. usando las palabras del ejercicio 1. or. Little Jimmy cut his finger 10. Nevertheless. Example: Even though we lost the game. though.STANLEY EXERCISES 37 1. We have not the means to do it. don't do it at all. 6. Besides. He says he will pay. He plays the guitar and 7. and he also speaks German. however. We won't go to this restaurant 4. The books are not very good. also. he is studying the piano. I have no time to go and 8. He didn't speak English. Example: 'Does he speak French?' 'Yes. 3. He didn't hurt himself. You can play rugby this afternoon. You can play football. You can't do the two things at the same time.' Yes. He is very clever.. Completa la frase con alguna de las uniones que van a continuacion: although. either. Although he could speak five languages. 2. do it properly he didn't cry. as well as. 7. . I don't feel well. 3. I don't think he will. he works hard.
Have to, must, need to.
Los verbos must y have to tienen un significado muy parecido aunque su uso no es exactamente el mismo. Must indica un obligacion moral, un sentimiento que es necesario hacer algo: • You must stop doing that.* I must finish this job for tomorrow. • I must make an appointment to see the dentist. Con el have to no das tus propios sentimientos. Puedes dar solo hechos: • I have to wear glasses. • I can't go to the party. I have to work. O indicar una obligacion exterior: • We all have to pay taxes. • You have to wear uniforms on duty, don't you? Para indicar costumbres se usa have to: • I have to take six of these pills every day.
Que • • • a veces se pueden usar las dos formas indistintamente: It's very late. I must/have to go now. I must/will have to buy a good dicctionary. I must/have to cut down on smoking.
Pero cuando comentamos las obligaciones de los demas usamos el have to: • I suppose you'll have to be at work by 9. • They'll have to send somebody down to examine the damage. Cuando las obligaciones le parecen importantes al que habla, usa must: • I must tell you about a friend of mine. • This sort of thing must stop at once. En pasado solo hay una forma: had to • Yesterday I had to borrow some money from Jim. Need to indica necesidad. • I need to consult a good dictionary. • He needs to have access to our files. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: • Need you go so early? • You needn't come with us. Para el pasado solo hay una. • You didn't need to wait for us. • Do you need to go so early? • You don't need to come with us.
1. Completa las frases con el verbo must o have to. Example: I have to go to work every day except Sunday. 1. Jane, you 2. Your spelling is awful. You 3. You 4. You 5. You'll 6. You 7. You both 8. I ran out of money and I 9. The doctor told me that I 10. There were no buses so she 11. Before I give you a cheque I 12.The poor girl can't see a thing. She 13.1 can't meet you tomorrow. I 14. It's very late. I 15. Daddy is not feeling well. We'll 16. In Britain children 17.1 couldn't repair the TV. I go now. call the doctor. wear uniform when they go to school. take it to the shop. work. wear a dress tonight. You're going to the theatre. use a dictionary. wear a uniform when you are on duty, don't you? train very hard for the Olympic Games, I suppose. start earlier when you start work, won't you? tell me about your quarrel with Jim. come and see us. borrow some from my friend. take these pills. walk. find my cheque book. wear glasses.
2. Ron estas frases en forma interrogativa y negativa. Example: I need to consult a doctor. Do I need to consult a doctor?/Need I consult a doctor? I don't need to consult a doctor/I needn't consult a doctor. 1. I need to talk to you
2. He needs to have access to our files.
U N I T 20
Uses of the article "the
The se usa para unas referencias definidas: • The lion is dangerous. Pero no se usa en sentido general: • Lions are dangerous. Con nacionalidades se usa the: the British, the Americans, the Spanish, the Italians. Y tambien con algunos adjetivos: the injured, the wounded, the dying, the old, the young, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the sick. El uso de the con estaciones del ano es opcional: • We'll go in (the) autumn. Con fechas el artfculo se lee pero no se escribe: • 16 (th) April (se dice the sixteenth of April).
Cinema, theatre, radio, television,
Decimos: We go to the cinema/theatre. • We listen to the radio. Pero generalmente omitimos el artfculo con television. • We watched television last night. • We watch the news on television. Sin embargo decimos: • Switch off the television, please.
Que no ponemos el artfculo cuando hablamos de algo en general bien sea contable o incontable: • Sugar is bad for the health. • Girls are always beautiful. Ni con organizaciones: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). O titulos de personas: Mr Jones, Mrs Brown, Miss Jackson, Dr Smith, Captain Mallory, Lord Mountbatten, Pope John, Father Brian. Con dfas y meses: • Saturday is the best day of the week. • May is a beautiful month. Con comidas: • Dinner is at seven. • Lunch was very light.
Los periodistas omiten los artfculos para ganar espacio y dar mas impacto a la noticia: • BINGO FIRE ALARM • COACH CRASH DISASTER Suprimimos los artfculos cuando empleamos estas palabras refiriendonos al uso para el que estan concebidas: church, hospital, school, bed, prison, sea, class, university, college, court, town. • The wounded were taken to hospital. • Mr and Mrs Brown go to church every Sunday. Sin embargo decimos: • I went to the church to see the new altar.
The man in charge of this church is 18. sea. That man was sent to 12 13 money makes the world go round. We had space this cupboard occupies is incredible. please? 1. He lives in a little village in 26. 20. TV. biggest hotel in the city. It was a nice cruise. wounded were taken to hospital. next Sunday. I've invited my girlfriend to dinner 9 10. sea for two months. They prefer going to longest river in the world? Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 11. Are there many stars in 30 31. cheapest in this town. We were at sea for two weeks. Swimming in a swimming pool is better than swimming in 3. 2. What time is 23 24. Alps with his elephants. lunch?. television. En algunas de estas frases hay que poner articulo.This is most expensive restaurant in town. Do you go to 29. 5. 7. 17. earth goes around sun. please? theatre very often? sky? 25. Pyrenees. My parents don't go to cinema.There are millions of stars in 21 22.STANLEY EXERCISES 41 1. space. She is dead were buried and only person who understands me. We went to 19. prison for two years. 14. Father Brown. Colonel Rogers to see you. En otras no. meal we had at the restaurant was delicious. Example: Can you turn up the volume of the television. We were at 32 people always say these things. I usually watch theatre very much. green is my favourite colour smoking is bad for your health. . sir. This hotel is 27. Which is 6 radio. dinner in a restaurant. I don't like listening to 4. Switch off 28. Hannibal crossed over 8. Doctors say that 15 16 beans contain a lot of fibre.
F. an se usa delante de sonidos de vocal (no solo con palabras que empiecen con vocal): • Please. Cuando usamos an no pronunciamos la h: an honest man.T.V.I. Fijate: • a horse with an H. write a U and an H on the blackboard.K. a university • a European • a n hour • an honour Algunas palabras que empiezan por h pueden ir precedidas de a o an a discrecion del que las pronuncia: a hotel o an hotel. .O.N. • He is an American and she is a Frenchwoman..Y.W. • a fair with an F.L. • This is an A. y polftica. La diferencia entre one y a/an A menudo son intercambiables: a hundred = one hundred. • a lion with an L. • a noise with an N.STANLEY U N I T 21 42 Use of the article a/an. • a man with an M. " " " " " • a uniform • a union • a year. • a radio with an R.P.R. • He is a Catholic and she is an Anglican. religiones.. • John is a mechanic and Peter is an architect. Cuando relatamos un suceso usamos tambien one: • One day I met your mother and . nacionalidades. • He is a socialist and she is a conservative.X. La pronunciacion de a y an A se usa delante de sonidos de consonantes (no solamente letras consonantes). historian o an historian.M. • She's got a toothache. • • • • • an unusual event an eye an ear a home a hot day sin embargo. A menudo usamos a/an con enfermedades: • I've got a cold. • This is a B.Z. o some eggs.E.S. an honour. an heir.C.U.H. an hour.J. RECUERDA Que se dice • an umbrella.D.Q.G. El plural de a house puede ser El " " an egg " " houses eggs o some houses. Usamos el artfculo indeterminado con profesiones.
.... .......... 1 1 .... It was a/an universal happening.. 1 met him 17.. .. .. honest woman........... Xylophone you spell it with . an/jto[& hour.. ........ day............There is .. honour.. Have you got 4..... . English woman........ ... It was a/an united nation. ..... 10...... and that woman is a/an Asian.. That man is a/an European... 1 3...... 4... 8..... We'll have 8... My sister is 3........ I ordered one/a coffee..... ........ ...... She's got 19..... 1.. many years ago. 2.... It was 7..... This is a/an/one sort of can opener........Muslim and she is a/.. 9....... .... .... ...... not two............. I'll be here before ............... This is 16........ He was carrying unusual case.. She was 2. L.. 9... He is a/.. 7. 1 ........ architect...... 12....... 2.... headache.... This is a/an Eurovision song contest.................. If you go to Scotland take a/one raincoat and a/an umbrella... umbrella and ..... .... unique book X.. hot meal....... certain merchant arrived in Peking..Catholic..... hall with a staircase leading to the rooms. ........ Completa las frases con a/an o one Example: There is a hospital not far from here........ piece of good news today... Example: The car was doing 80 kms. There is only 1 5.... 5. quarter of a pound.........STANLEY EXERCISES 43 1..... That man is 14............. You need a/an screwdriver and a/an knife...... university in that country where you have to wear uniform... There was 5........ hat? hour. 1 only want 18..... Tacha la opcion que no corresponda...... ...... lawyer...... ... You have to spell it with 10.......... . Many years ago ............. She is 6............. This is a/an unique occasion. 6...... 3...
• The shops were closed so I didn't get any bread. So (asi). • As a married man he has to think of his wife. As/While he walked along the path he thought of past events. • And so on. As/Because/Since he lives near here we'll pay her a visit.STANLEY U N I T 22 44 Since. so. • I left a message so as to be sure of contacting her. so. he didn't trust her. So (indicando resultado). • The manager was ill so I went in his place. • So it was that he had the first sight of snow. As/Because/Since he knew her well. • • • • As/Because/Since he had no money he couldn't buy a car. • As a doctor he was very well known. As. as. • As a student he gets a great reduction. As con la mayorfa de los verbos puede significar 'mientras.' • • • • As/While he climbed the stairs his eyes fell upon the picture. So that se usa en oraciones de proposito (clauses of purpose). es decir cuando la persona a la cual se refiere el proposito es diferente del sujeto de la oracion principal. As/While she made up her face she thought about the date. Tambien puede significar because. (ya que. So (de forma de que). puede muchas veces significar lo mismo que since o because. As + noun puede significar when or while. • Stand with your arms out. As/Because he shaved with a blunt razor he cut himself badly. She worked hard so that everything would be ready by six. because. He had to die so that others could live. . The knife had a cork handle so that it would float if it fell into the water. como. o cuando el sujeto original se vuelve a mencionar: • • • • I say these things so that you can criticise me. puesto que). so that. As/Because/Since it contains alcohol you can't give it to the children.
6. As/Because you are so clever tell me the answer. 1. 4. Ron so o so that en las frases siguientes. I left the note in the hall I didn't buy anything. We worked all night long 3. the students would see it. Because/While he drove he thought of the last events. I came back. He always sings as he shaves in the bathroom. 2. everything would be ready. Example: Since he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. As she walked along the corridor she thought of her sister. Since/When I'm going to be there in the morning I'll do it myself. 5. She didn't like him 6. he didn't go to school. she stopped going out with him. 2. Tacha la palabfa qtre-este mal. There was no answer 8. He wrote it on the blackboard 7. 2. 1. They put a lot of water 5. 4. The supermarket wasn't opened yet 2. we walked away. 3. As/While a married man he has to think of his family. 3. You can tell me something about these people since you live in the district. Since/While you are going to stay with us you may as well know it. 3. Escribe otra frase que signifique lo mismo. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 45 1. Example: As/Because he shaved he thought of her. my wife would see it. the animals wouldn't be thirsty. He hadn't done his homework 9. The road was blocked 4. . Since you seem to know everything tell me where I can find this. He stopped for a rest as he was tired. Example: Ships have lifeboats so that the crew can save their lives. As a student he had been disastrous. As he is a man he can allow himself many liberties. 5.
STANLEY U N I T 23 46 Infinitive of purpose. • He left early in order/so as to arrive in time. bring. • He bought a new car so that his wife might learn to drive. In order/So as + Infinitive (para.g. a menudo introducen un objeto + infinitivo: • Bring me a chair to sit on. RECUERDA Que cuando hablamos acerca de un prop6sito en general usamos for + gerundio. e. . a fin de). • He tiptoed in order/so as not to wake up the children. • Go and tell him to stop that noise. need. Algunos verbos. buy. Oraciones de proposito con so that + will/would o can/could + infinitivo. • She disguised herself so that nobody would recognise her. Estarfa mal decir: (He went early not to miss the beginning). No es muy normal usar un infinitivo de proposito despues del imperativo o infinitivo de los verbos go y come. « That is a trunk for keeping old clothes. • They took their seats early in order/so as not to miss the beginning. • That is a tool for opening tins. • I need a spoon to eat my soup. Lo mismo ocurre si usamos el must: • I must go and finish that as soon as possible. take. • I'll switch on the heater so that the room will be warm by bed time. El proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitivo: • She went to England to learn English. Infinitives of purpose after GO and COME.' Es decir usamos dos imperativos unidos con and • Come and talk to my sister. • He went to the Post Office to buy stamps. En vez de decir: 'Go to find your brother' generalmente decimos 'Go and find your brother. • This is a knife for carving meat. • She gave up her job in order/so as to have more time with her children. • I gave her my address so that she could write to me. want. Con frases negativas no se puede usar solo el infinitivo. • She is learning Spanish so that she can travel in South America.
Example: They are going to the airport to catch/take the plane. 4. Why are you saving money? (buy a house) 5. I am not fit enough 2. Why did you telephone her? (tell her the news) 3. 3. I need a new dress 7. 2. He didn't want anybody to understand it. She didn't want him to leave the house. He wants the house to be warm when the children get up. a new house. He wanted his wife to know. These poor people haven't got a bed 5. He is lighting a fire. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con so that. all these old clothes in. Why is she wearing a coat? (keep warm) 6. Why do children go to school? (learn) 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 47 1. 1. Example: He wrote a note. . Why do you walk to your office every day? (save money) 2. He wrote it in code. We have a trunk a marathon. I need some shelves 4. She hid his trousers. He can get into the house. in. my books on. Why did you go to the dentist? (pull a tooth out) 4. We'll get together this afternoon 6. We haven't got enough money 3. 3. Completa estas frases usando el verbo apropiado. at the wedding. Example: Why did you go to the Post Office? (buy stamps) / went to the Post Office to buy stamps. 1. 1. He wrote a note so that his wife would know. Usa las palabras entre parentesis para responder a estas preguntas. the problem. Give him a key.
• If you (should) see her give her my regards. I had lived in the Middle Ages. Otras expresiones con were. If + Should + imperative. I could/might have told you.STANLEY U N I T 24 48 Conditionals: type 1. No hay diferencia en el significado. I'd say yes. • If I finish early I can/could/may/might/should/ought/must phone him. y se usa para posibilidades remotas: • If I were the King you'd be the Queen. • Stop shouting and/or/otherwise you'll wake up everybody. it hadn't been for the rain. • If the weather is good we'll go out. • If it weren't for your help. he hadn't finished the job. pero were es mas formal. • If I were you/in your position. If + past perfect + modal • If I had known that. I wouldn't have paid the bill. 2 and 3. • If I were/was a man I would be a policeman. I would have bought it. If I were/was + would/should. TYPE 1 La forma mas comun es if + simple present + future. • If you didn't watch so much TV you wouldn't feel so sleepy in the morning. Were se puede usar en lugar de was. • If she comes tomorrow we can/could/may/might/should/ought to/must go for a picnic. I would still be on the road. TYPE 3 La forma mas comun es: if + past perfect + would have • • • • If If If If I had had money. • If you went by plane you would get there earlier. If + present + modal. . I would have been a knight. • Should you see her give her my regards. • If I were John/in John's position. I wouldn't do it. Imperative + conjunction + clause. • I'll buy the house if we have money. TYPE 2 La forma mas comun es: if + simple past + "d" conditional • If you spoke languages you would earn more. we would have gone out.
You would get there earlier 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 49 1. (give it to you). I 3. We would have been happy 4. Completa las frases con el type 3. If you had drunk too much you 9. . Example: It would be very cold if I opened the window. (be/punish). 1. If you break that you (go out). (have/money). I would have stayed at home 2. He might have told us if 7. (go/train). I 3. (be/punish). If you had wanted. (be/punish). (get drunk). 3. 6. (accept/offer). (go/with you). (take aspirin). I would still be there if 6. If you had worked harder at school. (she/marry me). you (get/better/job). I wouldn't do it if 7. I 5. If it rains we 2. I will buy the car 6. Remember! You must phone me 8. (know/facts). we 2. (tell/him/l/ring back). If you drink too much you 9. If he calls. I wouldn't be surprised 4. 3. If it rained tomorrow. 4. He might tell us if 8. (to be/for/your help). (get drunk). I 8. (be/you). (rain). If I had been in your position. If you broke that you (stay/home). If I am not better tomorrow. (weather/good). (get/drunk). If you help me. (weather/clear up). Completa las frases con condicional type 1. Completa las frases con el type 2. (help you). (learn/more English). If you drank too much you 9. Example: If you eat too much you'll get fat. If you went to England. If you had broken that you (be/here/yesterday). We may go for a picnic 7. If you had insisted. 1. he 5. (not/get/job). 1. 2. Example: If I had asked him he would have answered.
• On Sundays we could stay in bed until 10. • We couldn't take radios into the library.' • 'I wonder why Katty isn't here.STANLEY U N I T 25 50 May. (es imposible que fuera el) . Para los tiempos compuestos y voz pasiva se debe usar allowed.' • 'May I smoke in this room?' 'No. • He may take my car this evening. • Dad may lend you the car. might and could + infinitive. (quiza no fuese el el que conducfa) • He couldn't be driving the bus. Generalmente se usa para afirmaciones impersonates concernientes a la autoridad y permiso: • In certain circumstances the police may enter a private home. Seguidos del presente de infinitive pueden expresar posibilidad en el presente o en el future: • He may/might tell us tonight. you may not smoke here. May para pedir permiso.' 'She may/might/could still be waiting for you. you may leave.' Third person. • Since the incident she hasn't been allowed to go out alone. En ingles coloquial se suele sustituir el may por el can. Con el infinitive continue: • She may/might be waiting at the bus stop. • 'May I go now. (future) May y might come posibilidad de presente y future. En las frases negatives hay diferencia: • He may/might not be driving the bus himself. (at this moment) • They may/might be waiting when we arrive. Might aumenta la duda. Mr Brown?' 'Yes. • An accused person may appeal. Could come alternativa de may/might. (puede que te preste) • Dad might lend you the car. • They may come with us if they want to. • They may/might emigrate to Australia. • She said she might hire a van. • 'I wonder where Jane is.' 'She may/might/could be in the shed. Could = was/were allowed para permiso en pasado. May/might for possibility. (podrfa ser que te prestase) Might se puede usar en el condicional cuando la expresion esta introducida por un verbo en el pasado: • If we asked him he might come.
I wonder where he is. They . 'Do you know if they were working?' 'I'm not sure. I wonder where it is. (might/be/shed) 1.' (may/get in/through/window) 3. Example: 'Do you know if he bought the book?' 'I'm not sure.' (might/be/toilet) .STANLEY EXERCISES 51 1. She 3. He 3. 'She was at home. 4. 'Do you know if they are coming?' 'I'm not sure. She 3.' (may/go/cinema). But he may/might have bought it. 'Do you know if she wants to do it?' 'I'm not sure. En este ejercicio tienes que poner las frases con may y might. but she didn't answer the phone. 'Is she telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. I wonder how they got in. It may/might be in the shed. The house was burgled. Example:'Is your father in the office?' 'I'm not sure. pero en pasado.' 1.' 1. He may/might not be in his office. They 2. They 3. Lo mismo que en el ejercicio 1.' 1. He 2. She 2. 'Are the children ready?' 'I'm not sure. 'Your brother is not in the house. I wonder why. 'Does he want to do it?' 'I'm not sure. She 2. Ahora escribe frases explicando la situacion. she may/might be in the kitchen. 'Do you know if she is telling us the truth?' 'I'm not sure. 2. Example: 'Do you know if Mum is in the kitchen?' 'I'm not sure. 'Do you know if he was looking?' 'I'm not sure. Responde ahora en forma negativa. Example: / can't find the little puppy. 'Do you know if she was pregnant?' 'I'm not sure.
Estas combinaciones podrfan expresarse tambien por dos oraciones unidas con so. pero no because: • As/Since/Seeing that you're going that way.' 'If so. so the roads were slippery. • He had such a lot of money that he didn't know how to spend it. that. Clauses of result with such/so . In view of the fact that puede ser expresado por as/since/seeing that. • 'I hope Janet doesn't come. so we went back to the hut. why did you invite her?' Clauses of result (Oraciones de resultado) • As it had snowed during the night. • He died in order that we might live. the roads were slippery. let's go together. • It had snowed during the night..STANLEY U N I T 26 52 Clauses of reason. • She dyed her hair to avoid/to prevent being recognized (so that she wouldn't be recognized). • She hid his trousers so that he couldn't leave the room. Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una afirmacion ya mencionada. So es un adverbio y se usa con adverbios y adjetivos: • The rain fell so heavily that we pulled up the car by the kerb. En frases negativas so that puede ser reemplazado por to avoid/prevent. purpose and result. . Clauses of purpose (para que. Clauses of reason Estas oraciones se pueden introducir con as/because/since: • I gave up smoking as/because/since it was dangerous for my health.. se puede reemplazar por if: • As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like Keith. why did you go out with him? If so (si es asf). • It was too dark to find the tracks. • As/Because/Since it was dangerous for my health I stopped smoking. a fin de que) • They wear reflective jackets so that they can be seen in the dark. • I was angry because she made me wait.
It was a nice day yesterday I had no money. The teacher told him to repeat it. 3. 3. En este ejercicio tienes que unir las frases de la columna A con la columna B. . 1. She didn't have a car. Example: The train arrived on time B. He spoke for 4. 4. You may as well give me a hand. 6. Tomorrow is a holiday. A. They camped there.STANLEY EXERCISES 53 1. 1 2. We were able to catch the plane. They carry torches in the fog it will float if it falls into the water. long time that people began to leave the place. 5. Une las frase siguientes con so. We walked home from the office. I paid with my credit card. Completa las frases con such a o so that. 2. We went for a walk. There was ice everywhere the next day. 4. The room was very cold. We finished work early. This gadget is made of wood 2. The wind was blowing hard. fierce dog that nobody dares to get near her. The train arrived on time. The door was closed. 3. You are here. She had to walk to the office. A. Example: Ships carry lifeboats so that passengers can save their lives. We don't have to go to work. people can see them. We couldn't get in. 5. They closed all the windows. The window was open. 7. B. 2. It froze hard that night. It was too dark to go on. The exercise was wrong. She has 3. 1. so we were able to catch the plane.
' RECUERDA Que el verbo need admite las dos formas. • All you need do is sign this form. you don't need to come early. Need puede tener la forma de un verbo defective (modal auxiliary) o la de un verbo ordinario. Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacion. Cuando se usa como verbo defective no anade s la tercera persona del singular y no admite ni el to ni el do: • 'Need I go?' -'No. • I don't think she needs to go yet. • You needn't have made the beds. aunque la forma ordinaria es mucho mas comun: • You don't need to do it today = You needn't do it today. aunque no sea muy corriente el usarlas. He already knows. Estas mismas frases se diri'an coloquialmente usando el need como verbo ordinario. • All you need to do is sign this form. • I wonder if you need take an early train. Mientras que mustn't indica que no debes. • I wonder if you need to take an early train. • You mustn't tell your father. He'd go mad. you needn't go. • 'Do I need to come early?' 'No. I have to change the sheets. • Do I need to send it by air? = Need I send it by air? • He needs to get a haircut = He need get a haircut.' Como verbo normal: • He needs a lot of money to buy that house. (no tenfas por que haber hecho) • You needn't have brought your coat. We are in Marbella. you know! (no tenfas necesidad de haber trafdo) . Se pueden usar formas afirmativas modales con frases que expresan duda.STANLEY U N I T 27 54 Need. NEEDN'T + PAST INFINITIVE Esta estructura se usa para expresar una accion innecesaria que de todas formas fue llevada a cabo. • I don't think she need go yet. FIJATE en la diferencia entre needn't y mustn't. o ideas negativas. • You needn't tell your father.
You needn't tell your mother yet. Need I type this report today? 2. 2. he need come. Need she send it by air? 2. Do you need to spend so much money on shoes? 5. Do I need to run to catch the bus? 3.' 1.' 'No. I don't think he needs to come just yet. Example: You needn't come with us. 8. Responde a estas preguntas usando el verbo need como defective. Need you wear uniform at school? 3. I don't think he need come just yet. 4. You needn't pay until the end of the month. You needn't wear a dress tonight. Need I pay cash? 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 55 1. 9. . Gambia la forma defectiva del verbo need por la ordinaria. I don't need to tell you the difficulties. he needn't come. All you need do is fill in the form. He needn't read the whole book. 4. I wonder if I need take all these pills. 3. 1. Need I come in early tomorrow? 6. 5. 2. We needn't make two copies. Need we hurry tonight? 10. Need you type those letters today? 3. You don't need to come with us. 7. She doesn't need to hurry. Example: 'Need he come so early?' 'Yes. 1. Ahora vas a pasar estas frases de forma ordinaria a defectiva Example: You don't need to wear a dress tonight.
• You can see that that is true. know how to + infinitive. • We can discuss that this afternoon. • Can you cook. Para el future se usa be able. • She is certainly able to cook. I know how to get there faster than the rest. Past Could se usa como habilidad general. • I can smell something burning. • I could play the piano at the age of 5. . o succeeded in. • After I have some sleep I'll be able to give you a hand.STANLEY U N I T 28 56 Ability can. managed to. Susan? Be able tambien se usa aunque es menos corriente. • He was so drunk that he couldn't find the key. Can se usa para hablar en presente de una habilidad general: • I can run 1000 metres in three minutes. • I could have made a fortune if I had wanted to. Can puede ser usado con idea de future. para decir que podrfas hacer algo cuando quisieras. y al do/does en preguntas y negaciones. • Tomorrow morning I'll be able to stay in bed until 10. • Can you come to my house on Saturday? RECUERDA Que • • • KNOW HOW TO se puede usar tambien para expresar habilidad. Se prefiere was able to. • You could have killed him. • Last year he couldn't decide what he wanted to do. Aquf can tiene una funcion gramatical que equivale al presente simple en afirmaciones. could con verbos de percepcion. Couldn't se usa tanto para habilidad general como particular. Can. Could con el infinitive compuesto. (Tambien: I was able to play) • My grandfather could speak several languages. • I couldn't hear anything. • After two hours we succeeded in reaching the top. Could no se usa para indicar una habilidad en el pasado (en una ocasion). She knows how to make you feel at ease. I know how to cook. • How many pints were you able to drink? • I managed to get a rise.
but she when she was younger. so he train for sometime. do that. it was quite hard. I can't understand that woman. He should 3. 4. but I a loaf at the supermarket. but I don't think he can do understand 2. solve all of them when I lived in the . Completa las frases con could. 2. 'Did you find the house?' 'Yes. Example: My brother could/was able to do that very easily. 1. Ask my father. was/were able to o couldn't. I haven't been able to come earlier. but I Basque Country. but I when I was a boy scout. but I when I was at school. help you. 1. speak find the plane approaching. 1. 3. En este ejercicio tienes que usar can o be able a veces puedes usar los dos. Example: Everybody was able to escape from the building on fire.STANLEY EXERCISES 57 1. She seven languages. He was able to/could play the piano when he was a child. I've never her. to parachute. He used to it now. Example: She can't play the piano now.' 7. Queen Cleopatra was very clever. I can't solve those problems now. I focused my binoculars and I 5.' 6. I can't speak basque now. My brother 2. 4. it wasn't easy but we find it. I can't light a fire now with two pieces of wood. 3. but I to beat Bronson. En este ejercicio hay que completar las frases con could. but we 2. but she could when she was a child. We looked everywhere for the child but we couldn't find him. speak several languages. She can speak four languages now. He hurt his knee. 'Did you win your tennis match?' 'Well. 3. 4. The plane caught fire. I didn't find any bread at the baker's.
etc. hate. He was walking without looking in front. tales como: be for/against. keep on. • What the point of talking to you if you don't listen? • Are you in favour of giving the workers extra pay? RECUERDA Que hay dos excepciones a la regla del gerundio: except y but. Hay algunas combinaciones de noun + preposition + gerund. • That woman does nothing but complain. • I am looking forward to seeing you. o una preposicion. usamos el to para evitar la repeticion. used. Algunos phrasal verbs llevan el gerundio detras. • • • • It isn't worth coming so early (It como sujeto). would like/love. put off. • • • • • You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs. intend. mean. que llevan un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). WORTH se puede usar en dos estructuras seguidas de gerundio. • There's nothing we can do except wait. I wanted to. have. take to: • He took to writing. Todos los verbos que se colocan inmediatamente despues de las preposiciones van en gerundio. He is very keen on gambling. Con algunos verbos tales como.STANLEY U N I T 29 58 Gerunds after prepositions Worth. • 'Did you buy bread?' 'Well. He went for a drink before coming home. y despues del going. He is not worth getting angry about. Si va detras de los verbos auxiliares be. look forward to. plan. • I am used to waiting for her. but the baker's was closed. es parte del infinitive. care for. see about. She is very fond of playing the piano. En otras ocasiones el to colocado detras de un verbo sera probablemente una preposicion e ira seguida por un nombre/pronombre o gerundio. • There's no point in talking about it if you don't listen. hope. TO puede ser parte de un infinitive. leave off. • She put off making a final decision till the morning. . give up. want. try. Is it worth visiting the art gallery? This car isn't worth repairing (nombre o pronombre como sujeto). ought.
He thinks it is not worth repairing it. After leaving school I looked for a job. 1. He is queueing up. She was mad because I was late. She was mad with me for 3. I'm going to the dentist. We had an accident soon after 2. I want to hear from you. I'm not looking 3. Then I looked for a job. They are not going to visit the cathedral. My brother makes a lot of things. Lee la frase y escribe otra con el mismo significado. 1. She has to translate this text. I don't want to get angry. I don't want to give him more money. She's going on holiday.STANLEY EXERCISES 59 1. They think it is 2. We went to the Italian restaurant instead of 6. We went to the Italian restaurant. I don't like it. Usa la palabra worth con las siguientes frases. I have no intention of 4. He's very good at 5. He doesn't like it. I am looking 3. Example: He is not going to repair the car. She doesn't translate very often. I think it is . I don't think it is 3. I want to meet you soon. 1. Escribe otra frase con looking forward to o I am used to. She is not used 4. He is not used to 2. I am looking forward to it. She is looking forward to going on holiday. Example: I left school. We didn't go to the Chinese restaurant. Example: She is happy. I am looking 2. We left and soon we had an accident. I'm going to make an effort.
A veces para darle mas enfasis lo ponemos al final de la frase. Cuando usamos ever en frases afirmativas le damos el significado de jamas. • No. the only. already. I've just had breakfast. have you just arrived? I've just seen your brother. I have just remembered. El preterito perfecto con ever se usa generalmente en preguntas. • That was the easiest job I have ever done. Normalmente el already se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio. just. RECUERDA Que tambien podemos usar esta construccion (con o sin ever). • • • • We have already finished. • This is the only time he has (ever) come to see me. • This is the first time I have (ever) ridden a mule. the second. • No. I have already sent it back.STANLEY U N I T 30 60 Present perfect (ever. • Have you done that already? • He's finished already! • The children have gone to school already! . El preterito perfecto con already (ya). They have already given it to me. • This is the best beer I have ever drunk. con the first. since) El preterite perfecto con just se usa con acciones recientemente ocurridas. Lo usamos con superlatives. • This is the most interesting book I have ever read. • • • • • She has just gone out. etc. I have never spoken to him. se usa para sugerir que algo se ha hecho antes de lo esperado. (acaba de) Hello. • • • • • Have you ever been to Rome? (alguna vez) Has she ever told you what happened that day? Have you ever been to the Prado Museum? Have you ever been in a submarine? Have you ever spoken to him? Para responder negativamente se usa el never. She has already given up smoking. I have never been to Rome. for.
I've never eaten lobster.' . Example: 'When are you going to post the letter?' 'I've already posted it. This is the (interesting/book/read) 2. 'Have you finished writing your book?' 'Yes. 'I see you're back from the Costa Brava.' 1 ?' 3. 1. Usa ahora ever con frases afirmativas. 'When are you going to speak to your boss?' 'I 3. 1. I have never read Shakespeare. That is the (beautiful/woman/see) 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 61 1. I've never smoked a cigar. 1.' 1 4. I 2. I . 'When are you going to run a marathon?' Well. Como en el ejemplo. 'Have you seen my brother?' 'Yes.' 'Yes. This is the second time I (be/this country) 4. we have never studied Greek. I (give up) 5. Example: 'No. Sin dar enfasis. That was the fastest mile I (run) 4.' 1 3. Forma frases usando just. Haz preguntas para las siguientes respuestas.' No. 'No. I 2. I've never been to Italy. Example:'I've heard Eddie is back. Como en el ejemplo. 'When are you going to do it?' 'I 2. I 3. 'Did you post the letters?' 'Well. Responde a las preguntas con already.' 'Have you ever been to Italy?' 1. a couple. we 4. Example: This is the best wine I have ever tasted. 'No.' 1 ?' ?' ?' 2. 'You don't smoke any more.' 'Yes. I've just seen him. 'No. 'No. This the cheapest hotel I (stay) 5.
Podemos decir: • • • • I haven't seen Tom for six months. Si usamos for con el pasado simple denota un determinado perfodo de tiempo: • We lived in London for two years. (o bien) It is six months since I last saw Tom. He hasn't invited me to his house for years. (o bien) It is six months since I have seen Tom. (todavia vivimos aqui) My parents have been married for twenty five years.STANLEY U N I T 31 62 Present perfect (with for and since) FOR se usa con un perfodo de tiempo: for two days. for a long time. 'How long have you known your boyfriend?' 'I've known him for a week. (ya no vivimos alii) • I worked in that company for a year. • • • • • They've been here since 9 o'clock. We've been going out together since we met in Paris. For usado con el preterito perfecto denota un perfodo de tiempo que se extiende hasta el presente: • • • • • • • • We have lived in this town for twenty years. We have known each other for many years. RECUERDA Que con la estructura: It is + period + since + past o perfect tense. Casi siempre se usa con preterito perfecto. He has worked in this factory since he left school. . Ever since • He had an accident last year and he has been bedridden ever since. I haven't seen my girlfriend for a week. SINCE Se usa con un momento determinado de tiempo.' My grandmother has been ill for quite a long time. I haven't smoked a cigarette for two months. I've been driving lorries since I was eighteen. y significa 'desde ese momento'. We haven't met since Christmas. I last saw Tom six months ago.
. 'How long has she been ill?' (four weeks) 'She 7. 'How long have you been a smoker?' (14 years old) 'I've been 2.. 1. (I/not/see/Margaret/weeks) 4. 2. (My father/has/not/work/Christmas) 3.. 'How long has he been in the army?' (January) 'He 8. (I/have/not/smoke/cigarette/I980) 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 63 1.. 'How long has your father been unemployed?' (six months) 'He has 5. (We/have/not/buy/a new/car/10 years) . 'How long have you known this man?' (Christmas) 'I've known 4. Example: 'How long have you worked in that factory?' (six years) 'I've worked in that factory for six years. 'How long have you been married?' (twenty years) 'I've been 3. (We have/not/be/cinema/years) 6. (It/has/not/rain/in this country/June last year) 7.' 1. 'How long have you been in love with that girl?' (summer holiday) 'I've 6. (has/not/snow/years/this country) 2.. Responde a estas frases usando for o since. 'How long has your brother been in hospital?' (a few days) 'He . Example: (we/know/eachother/six weeks) We've known each other for six weeks. Elije entre for y since.
Pero si la moto antes no andaba. (Puede que todavia no haya terminado) Pero. si la cocina antes era de un color y ahora es de otro: • Jerry's mother has painted the kitchen. I'm getting mad. • I've written two books this year. y ahora sf anda: • He has repaired his motorbike. En este caso lo importante es que la accion esta acabada. • He has been repairing his bike. Usamos la forma simple para indicar cuanto hemos hecho.STANLEY U N I T 32 64 Present perfect continuous. • She has read two chapters of the book. pero lleva algun tiempo ejecutando la accion. • That boy has been playing football since 2 o'clock. puede que no. cuantas cosas hemos hecho. • She has been painting the kitchen. Puede que Tommy haya terminado de arreglar la moto. . 0 que acaba de terminar: • Sorry. Usamos la forma continua para indicar cuanto tiempo ha estado sucediendo algo. No nos interesa si la accion esta acabada o no. • I've spoken to him on the phone three times. o cuantas veces hemos hecho algo. • I've been reading this book all afternoon. Nos interesa el resultado de la accion. • The children have washed the car this morning. Have you been waiting long? Fijate en la diferencia entre la forma continua y la simple. Se forma con el preterito perfecto del verbo to be + un gerundio: • I have been working. Mas ejemplos: • Jerry's mother is covered in paint. • The baby has been sleeping for ten hours. darling. Tommy tiene la ropa manchada de grasa. Uso Este tiempo se usa para una accion que empezo en el pasado y que todavia continua: • I have been waiting for half an hour. no la accion en si.
That girl is waiting for her boyfriend. (He/play/tennis/since/1985) 4. 'My friend is collecting stamps. 4. (He/paint/20 pictures/since he left the art school) 3. Ahora vas a hacer las preguntas para unas respuestas dadas. Example: I have been writing letters all afternoon.' 'How long 2. 'Mrs Smith is painting the kitchen. Example: My brother is learning French. (smoke) too much recently. That man (wait) for hours. 1. I (finish) yet. 'My father writes short stories. . You've 6. I have (cook) all morning. They 2. (The group/travel/around/Europe for two months) 6. I have twenty already. (He/win/the county championship many times) 5. I'm tired. (He/paint/pictures/since he left the art school) 2.' 'How many 3. I have written ten already.' 'How long 4. (read) this book all day.' 'How many 3. Example: (This writer/write/100 pages of his book) This writer has written 100 pages of his book. 1. (talk) for hours. Completa las frases con el preterite perfecto simple o con el continuo. (The group/visit/several countries already) 2. Look at those people. I 5. 3. Elije entre la forma continua y la simple.STANLEY EXERCISES 65 1. How long has he been learning French? 1. but I (phone) our customers.
• Jim preferred reading to watching TV. puedes decir.STANLEY U N I T 33 66 I would rather . • I'd rather she didn't try to repair the TV set. • I prefer reading to watching TV. • I prefer to fly rather than go by train. Would rather + infinitive Equivale a would prefer to. but I'd rather have gone by air. • I'd rather you wrote the letter now. FIJATE • My father prefers to drive rather than go by plane. pero would rather va seguido de un infinitive sin to (bare infinitive). but I would have preferred to have gone to the cinema. el significado es presente o future: • I'd rather write the letter now. sin embargo. • I'd rather you went today. • I prefer to live / living in the country. Prefer puede ir seguido de un sustantivo: • I prefer cider to beer. Would rather + infinitive No puede usarse para frases en pasado. Usamos la estructura en pasado. Would rather + sujeto + pasado Cuando quieres que alguien haga algo. Si queremos poner la frase Jim would rather read than watch TV en pasado habra que usar el prefer. Mientras que would rather siempre lleva un verbo detras: • I'd rather drink cider than beer. • I'd rather they studied more during the course. Ambos significan lo mismo. • I'd rather fly than go by train. O tambien: • My father prefers driving to going by plane. • I would rather phone than write. . Mientras que prefer to puede ir seguido de un infinitive o un gerundio.prefer to. Would rather y would prefer pueden ir seguidos de un infinitive preterite: • We went by train. • We went to the theatre.
I'll speak to her but . but I'd rather you paid cash.. I'll phone him if you want me to but 3. o I'd rather than . 1. I prefer to read rather than watch TV... Ahora termina las frases usando: I'd prefer. Haz frases usando I prefer como en el ejemplo.. 1.. rather than . Example: (reading/watching TV) I prefer reading to watching TV. Shall we cook dinner? (prefer/go to a restaurant) 3. Shall we go to the cinema? (prefer/go theatre) I'd prefer to go to the theatre. Shall we play golf? (prefer/play/tennis) 2. I prefer to walk rather than run. Responde a las preguntas usando I'd rather o I'd prefer Example: Shall we go by train? (rather/fly) I'd rather fly. Shall we watch TV? (rather/go for a walk) 3. Shall we pay with a cheque? (prefer/pay cash) 4. 1. 1. (go out/stay at home) I prefer 4. Example: /'// accept a cheque. (work/study) I'd rather I'd prefer 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 67 1. (give/ receive) i prefer 3. (read/write) I'd rather I'd prefer 2. Usa ahora I'd rather + otro sujeto. I'll go shopping if you want me to but 2... Shall we have wine? (rather/have beer) 5. (ski/skate) I prefer I prefer 2. (phone/write) I prefer I prefer I prefer I prefer 2. (have a shower/have bath) I'd rather I'd prefer 3. Example: (walk/run) I'd rather walk than run..
• I'd better do something. Tambien se puede usar otra estructura: It's time somebody did something. Had aqui es un pasado irreal.' • He said (that) he'd better do it as soon as possible. We'd better hurry. Cuando creemos que alguien deberfa haber hecho algo ya. • I had/I'd better ring him up now.* It's time for them to do it. • What! Still in bed? It's time you got up. IT'S TIME . • You had better not miss the train. She'd better not go out today. Had better generalmente se usa en forma afirmativa. algo malo puede suceder. otherwise we'll be late.. La forma negativa es had better not ('d better not). RECUERDA Que had better va siempre seguido de infinitive sin to: • It looks like rain. si no. Se suele decir 'it's time (for somebody) to do something. El significado de had better es parecido a should. • We'd better hurry or we'll miss the bus. pero a veces se usa en forma interrogativa/negativa como un consejo: • Hadn't you better ask for permission? Para la forma indirecta el had better no varfa: • He said. A veces indica que es aconsejable hacer algo. Look at the time! A veces reforzamos la estructura con la palabra about. 'I'd better do it as soon as possible. • You'd better take the umbrella. (You'd better not) • She's got a temperature. • It's time you bought a new car.' • It's time for us to go home. • It's time the children were in bed. • It's getting late. James! . = I should do something.STANLEY U N I T 34 68 Had better + infinitive. • It's about time you did some work.. • We'd better leave now. Usamos este tipo de frase cuando nos quejamos o criticamos. It's going to rain. • It's time we went back. Aunque usemos la frase en pasado el sentido es de futuro. It's time. el significado es presente o future. • It's time you did something for me. I'd better take an umbrella.
Lee la situacion y escribe una frase con had better. 'It 5. 'We 5. You haven't been to the dentist for ages. Jill is going to put on her old jeans to go to church. It should be painted. It's about time something was done about the housing problem. 'We 3. 'Your car is very old. Jim has bumped his head. Example: Jack hasn't written to his parents for ages. You think something should be done about the traffic problem. 'We 4. 'It's . You think he should buy a suit. It's time you wrote to your parents. Your husband never spends money on clothes. Escribe frases con It's time somebody did something. 'It's 7. You think you should go. The kitchen looks terrible. You don't think he should go to school today. What do you say to your friend? We'd better hurry. If the children don't get up they'll be late. Your son doesn't look very well. Your husband is spending Sunday morning in bed. Example: You are going to take the train. You think they should get up now. You think you should buy a new car. You're late for the train. 'It 2. You want to go to a concert on Saturday. 'You 2. 1. You think something should be done about the unemployed. You're late. 'It's 6. If you don't buy the tickets today you won't get in. You think you should take a taxi. 'It 4. You think he should get up. You think something should be done about the housing problem. You think something should be done about the immigrants. 'You 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 69 1. 'It 3. You think you should take him to the doctor. You think Jack should write to them. 1. 'You 6. You don't think she should wear that. 'We 7.
• Jim was studying his lessons. • I saw my friend Jenny. I got up and answered the phone. • What were you doing at this time yesterday? El pasado continue no nos dice si una accion estaba terminada o no. • It was raining when I went to bed. Habian empezado pero no habfan terminado. La accion habi'a empezado a un tiempo determinado pero todavia no habfa terminado. . (Ya habi'a terminado) Muy a menudo usamos el pasado continue y el pasado simple juntos para decir que algo sucedio en el medio de alguna otra cosa. She was walking in the park with a boy. • What were you doing yesterday at five? • They were playing football. • My mother was cooking.STANLEY U N I T 35 70 Past continuous. usamos el pasado simple. para decir que una cosa sucedio despues de otra. Sin embargo. • Jimmy fell off the ladder when he was painting the room. El uso mas comun del pasado progresivo es hablar acerca de lo que ya estaba sucediendo en un momento en particular en el pasado. Quiza estaba quiza no. • The birds were singing. RECUERDA El pasado progresivo se forma con was/were + ing. (Estaba en ello) • Jim studied his lessons. They were playing significa que estaban en el medio del juego. • Yesterday I was having dinner when the phone rang. • This time last week I was flying to Miami.
(ring) the bell several times. . (9 o'clock/read the paper) . (Tom/play/garden) 6.STANLEY EXERCISES 71 1. 7. 5. I (shower) and 6. 8. (3 o'clock/watch/serial on TV) 2. Ron el verbo en la forma correcta. 3. (cat/sleep/chair) 3. The clock (strike) twelve while we the last set of our tennis match. . Cuentanos lo que esta gente estaba haciendo cuando sucedio. . (11 o'clock/clean flat) 4. 2. but she (not/hear/me). Linda (wait) for her boyfriend when she (see) the man run out of the jeweller's shop. (happen) I (not/drive) (live) in Eastbourne. (2 o'clock/wash/dishes) 7. 5. That man the photograph. (Mr Evans/talk/phone) 2. Example: (8 o'clock/breakfast) At 8 o'clock I was having breakfast. (David/do/homework) 3. (Susan/watch/TV) 4. (bump) into me while I (take) (play) 9. (1 o'clock/have/lunch) 6. When it 4. When the accident very fast. Jimmy (come). I (dance) when I (breakfast) when the school bus (happen) I (run) downstairs when I (fall). Little Jill 2. . Ayer hubo un terremoto. 3. Example: (Mrs Evans/have/bath) Mrs Evans was having a bath. 1. (10 o'clock/do the shopping) . 1. . pasado progresivo o simple. 1. (12 o'clock/prepare/lunch) . (Jerry/read/book) 5. Ron el verbo en past continuous. (slip) and (arrive). Example: The phone rang while Mrs Cook was making the beds.
para una accion que comenzo en el pasado y que todavfa continue o que acaba de terminar. they had already gone. they had spent all their money. El pluscuamperfecto progresivo se usa para hablar acerca de acciones o situaciones mas largas. . las cuales han estado en progreso hasta ese momento.STANLEY U N I T 36 72 The past perfect. when etc. • When I got to the office. • He had always been an honest man. Se refiere a cosas que ya habfan sucedido cuando la conversacion o los pensamientos tuvieron lugar. • Before they had been there a week. • I wondered who had sent the letter. When I arrived he had just left. • She refused to go until she had seen all the photographs. • I said that I had already finished. ask. She had done. • The secretary had been with us for ten years. • After the rescue party had arrived. explain. • He had been with the company since he was 18. • When Peter arrived Linda had been waiting for half an hour. El pluscuamperfecto se construye con had + participio. • • • • • I had worked. wonder. Con oraciones de tiempo. Con before y after se usa mucho el pluscuamperfecto. • When he arrived to the place. • We didn't wait till we had finished our breakfast. • Mrs Brent had been cooking all morning and was tired. RECUERDA El pluscuamperfecto es muy comun en habla indirecta. told. etc. there were tears. • She told the boss that she had done enough work for one day. We had made. • They had been working for hours when I got there. He had lost his umbrella and had to borrow one. I found that somebody had broken in during the night. El pluscuamperfecto se puede usar con till/until. con verbos como say. El pluscuamperfecto a menudo se usa con always/since/for etc.
They arrived at the theatre late. Example: The kitchen window was broken. (run) a (search). She had never driven (drive) before. All the drawers were open. The house was quiet because everyone (go/bed) 3. (he/arrange/do/something else) 2. She marathon before. 1. 5. The kitchen was full of empty beer bottles. The the children's piggy bank was broken. The porcelain vase in the hall was broken on the floor. It (break). The native didn't know how to take a photo. The TV set was not there. They 3. He was weak because he (be/ill) 4. 2. 1. Example: / was tired because I (be/run) had been running. Usa ahora el pluscuamperfecto continue. (he/just/go out) He had just gone out. 4. 3. I was afraid of planes. He (play) before. 2. 1. He didn't know how to hold the racket. The workmen weren't working when we arrived. Completa estas frases usando el pluscuamperfecto. Completa las frases con el past perfect. Somebody had broken into the house. He was dirty because he (work/cellar) 2. 2. Volviste a tu casa despues de las vacaciones y te encontraste con algunos cambios.STANLEY EXERCISES 73 1. Somebody (drink). I 4. Example: Dad wasn't at home when I arrived. The money (steal). It (disappear). 4. Example: She was nervous. (The play/already/begin) 3. Tommy said he couldn't come. 3. 1. He (see) a camera before. Usa el pluscuamperfecto con las frases siguientes. She was very tired. It was cold because it (be/snow) . (They/just finish) (fly) before.
• I wish he phoned me. • I wished it stopped raining. En estas frases wished puede reemplazar I wish. • I wish I knew what to do. pero solo con acciones que el sujeto puede controlar. (Ya podias ayudarme!) • I wish it would stop raining. If only + would puede reemplazar por regla general a wish + would.* I wish you had written to me before. Tiene el mismo significado que I wish pero es mas dramatico: • • • • If If If If only only only only I knew where to look for her! she had asked my advice! I hadn't lost the money! I had listened to you! Wish + suject + would se pueden usar para lamentar una situacion presente. • He wished he had known the truth. acciones que el podrfa cambiar si quisiera. La traduccion podrfa ser: ojala. RECUERDA Que el verbo que va a continuacion del wish se pone en pasado aunque el significado de la frase sea presente. • • • • If If If If only only only only he would come to see me! he would have listened to me! she would just stop talking for a minute! they would listen to me! . Wish + subject + unreal past se usa para lamentar la presente situacion. ya podi'a. Wish (that) + subject + past perfect lamenta una situacion pasada. if only. • She wished she had asked someone's advice. • I wish they would stop making bombs.» I wish it rained.STANLEY U N I T 37 74 I wish. • I wish you would shut up. (Ya podfa venir a vernos mas a menudo!) • I wish you would help me. If only se puede usar de la misma manera. • I wish he would come to see us more often. • I wish I got more letters. • I wish I had known the truth.
I should like him to be here. 2. I can't understand him. 3. Escribe las mismas frases usando I wish. Example: / don't know what's going to happen. 2. I wish you hadn't lost it. I would like to be taller. It was raining all day. Escribe frases con I wish you would. I'm not very tall. . My son doesn't study very much. I should like to buy a book. / wish he had taken my advice. Example:! live in London. 1. 1. I should like to live in Malaga. He doesn't vocalise. I wish 2. It is raining and I don't like it. 1. You don't come to see us very often. I wish he came to see me 2. I wish he didn't sing in the bath 5. Example: I wish he took my advice. 5. I wish 3. I haven't got any cigarettes. If only I knew what is going to happen! 1. I should like to have one. If 2. Las frases siguientes vas a ponerlas en pluscuamperfecto. I wish he didn't speak so fast 3. 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 75 1. I wish he said something about it 3. I should like to know. Example: / wish you would have said hello. My husband is not here. I wish 4. but I haven't got money. Usa ahora if only. You lost the money. I wish it stopped raining 4. You wish it hadn't been raining. / wish I lived in Malaga.
all. • There are hundreds of students in this school. several. Quantifier + plural countable noun: • a lot of houses. • Buy a dozen eggs and half a kilo of sugar. Some. there is some in that box.STANLEY U N I T 38 76 Quantifiers. a lot of . a drop of.' • Are there any bottles of beer in the fridge? RECUERDA uncountable nouns sing How much? There is too much milk. a few people. neither. Quantifier + singular countable noun: • each person.. plenty of. very little milk. some. countable nouns plural How many? There are too many people. not enough milk. • We've hardly got any tea left in the house. plenty. hardly any people. each. most of the. no. lots of. (not) much. plenty of people. none of. both. • Every/each man has to do his duty. every. hardly any milk. the rest of. the other. a little. another. hardly any. little..no. not enough people. no milk. none of the. a bit of. any. the other. fewer. any. • 'How many people are there?' There are a few. an amount of. a little milk. las cuales a menudo modifican los sustantivos y muestran de cuantas cosas o de cuanto estamos hablando. one. Degrees of quantity: definite . plenty of milk.' • 'How much water is there in the jug?' There is a little. less. more. most. half the. very few people. no people. a lot of/lots of people. a couple of. a good deal of. dozens. a number of. . Quantifier + uncountable noun: • Not much water. Quantifier + (singular) uncountable noun: • a lot of coffee. either. the whole. • 'Is there any coffee in the cupboard?' 'Yes. Quantifiers son las palabras o las frases como few. • There are plenty of chairs in the sitting-room. few. all the. the only. part of. many.' Quantifier + plural countable noun: • not many houses. a lot of/lots of milk.
I can trust them all. Example: You need a good deal of patience. men approached the young couple in a threatening 2. little. our employees are trustworthy. 5. There was 7. a drop of. not all. 3. 'Did they all speak English?' 'Well. We've got time than you think. 1. money than you think. most. Completa las frases usando los quantifiers que se te dan a continuacion: dozens. the least. boys can tell you the answer. That is 5.STANLEY EXERCISES 77 1. hardly any. a good deal of. a number of. a couple of. We have 2. There is very 3. I don't want the whole cake. Just another 4. There was 6. just give me .' ?' 'No. Without their leader were very surprised. less. I'll be away for a 3. of . both. several. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: a large amount of. Jim and Tom are very good players. 'Do you want thanks. In this classroom there are 6. a bit of. enough. a lot of. none of the. more. hours. hundreds of. 5. We are ruined. of eggs in the large basket. A 7 attitude. grain in the barn. Example: There is hardly any traffic at all. people are waiting at the door to talk to you. people at the meeting knew what to do. Haz lo mismo con los siguientes quantifiers: some (of the). The 2. Example: There were hundreds of people in the square. I'm sure that 3 4. 1. doubt about the truth of that. but them could speak a little English. 1 2. water and the glass will overflow.' 6. half the. all (the). cake. white powder on a saucer. I can do for you. pupils than in that one. others already knew. fewer. There were 4 our pupils are very good students. any (of the). I have 7. the majority of.
Tambien se puede usar usar very little y very few.Few (pocos) Dan una idea negativa. • There are too many people here. • much time. • a lot of/lots of/plenty of water/time/people/houses. . • many houses. • Were there many people at the concert? En frases afirmativas se prefiere usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of.STANLEY U N I T 39 78 Quantifiers (cont. Only a few people came. only a little y only a few tienen un sentido mas bien negative: • Come on! We've only got a little time left. A little (un poco) . I've still got a little time left. Much (mucho) y Many (muchos) Usamos much con sustantivos incontables. a week or so in here. I've still got a few pounds I can spend. • Hurry up! We've got very little time. y many con contables. • Come on! We've got little time left. too much y too many si se usan en frases afirmativas. • • • • Let's After Let's Let's go to the hills. • We didn't have much time. Sin embargo. Usamos much y many con frases interrogativas y negativas. • The meeting was a failure. • There were lots of people at the concert. • many people. • much water. RECUERDA Sin embargo. go for a walk. • There is too much money in that box. que no hay mucho. I've already got a few friends. She's a strange girl. go for a drink.) Little (poco) . Aunque tambien podrfamos usar a lot of/lots of/plenty of. que usamos a lot of/lots of/plenty of con contables y con incontables. Sin embargo. There's a little snow left. es decir.A few (unos pocos) Da una idea de que hay una cierta cantidad. • Mary has very few friends. • We've got a lot of time. • My son has got few friends in this town.
The land is dry. It uses 5. We can have omelettes for supper. blood. My grandfather died 5. 1. rain recently. I saw your brother 8. He doesn't speak 7. of them on the table. Come on. let's hurry! We've got 9. Go away. We haven't got 14. people. It has happened .'Any more tea?' 'Yes. many and a lot of. Two pints every day.There were ' tourists dare to come.The country is politically unsafe. eggs. I don't speak much Japanese. A veces hay dos posibilidades. Example:The train is leaving we've got little time. She always puts 3. I didn't have any money but my friend had 6. Hurry up! We haven't got 9. That firm has got so how to invest it. The theatre was nearly empty. We'll have to stop. This is not the first time that this machine breaks down. 4. 2. It's not surprising you're hungry. money that they don't know of petrol. There aren't pupils in that school. 1. petrol.1 've got very 15. He needs a transfusion. time before the train leaves. There isn't 6. I 'm afraid. This village is very little. I've got 13. Only times before. 3. Example There weren't many things to do in that village. years ago. time. We've got 14. There were 2. please. things to tell you. Completa estas frases con little / a little/ few / a few. Completa las frases con much. Let's have a drink. but only 11 . There has not been very 10.STANLEY EXERCISES 79 1. patience. He has 13. days ago. He is very quiet. We've got 12. beer. time. Did you take in Switzerland? 2. photographs when you were sugar in her coffee. words. My car is very big. 4. to do. work to do. That man drinks 8. As a teacher he is terrible. He's lost 10. Very 12. You haven't eaten 11. He's got very 7. friends. He is a very strange boy.
Come to see me whenever you are in town. • He trained hard all year. sin embargo). However rich people are. whenever. etc. • He works 16 hour a day whereas she doesn't do any work at all. thoroughly. • Some people earn a lot of money whereas others don't get enough to eat. whichever. they always want more. • I have no time to go to the cinema. • John is our youngert child.STANLEY U N I T 40 80 Links: however. I don't think they are so difficult to solve. • While I admit there are problems. he doesn't get angry. Todas • • • • • • estas conjunciones sirven para unir dos oraciones I'll go with you wherever you go. aunque). besides. while Chinese is very difficult. YET Conjuncion ( pero al mismo tiempo. BESIDES Como preposicion (ademas). yet. Como adverbio (ademas de eso). Whoever told you that was lying. • I drink black coffee while he prefers it with cream. yet he still failed to reach his best form. • Besides doing my work I help my mates. • I do all my work and besides that I help my mates. No matter what you say to him. I'll always love you whatever you do. • He did it slowly. WHILE Como conjunction (mientras. WHEREAS Como conjuncion (mientras que). • Spanish is easy to write. films nowadays are horrible. . we have three others besides him.
9. whatever. That girl is very pretty. . the one we need for that part 9. 1 2 3. 7. 13 14 15 2. whereas. you go you'll find a bottle of this kind of beer. expensive. 10. 8 the one you bought is quite Peter was doing that. he always overcomes them. must be small. Example: They knew I was coming. whichever. she is very intelligent. she never gets fat. You'll find friendly people 5. Don't get nervous 7 8 much she eats. telephones. These people work slowly 6. You can always come to me for help you may have. he doesn't study much. 5. I'll take 11 12. You'll be welcome 4. I always feel safe. I don't think it's so difficult to reach an agreement. you come. very thoroughly. happens. the difficulties are. difficult the problem is. the host. moreover. 2. Mr Flint. he hasn't been able to pass . however. I'll be with you wherever you are. he always solves it. whenever. . 1. I see that girl I feel nervous. you say to her. you drive. She always smiles back. They knew the banknotes were counterfeit knew who the counterfeiters were. problems car you are not using. He's been studying hard all his exams. told you that was lying. besides. This one is very cheap. He is not very intelligent 10. Completa las frases usando: while.STANLEY EXERCISES 81 1. There were eleven people 4. road we take. they I admit there are problems. no matter what. you go. tell them I'm not here. yet. Moreover. Example: Darling. Completa las frases con: whoever. I was doing this 3. We'll get there 6. they were waiting for me. wherever.This girl is very tall.
RECUERDA Que enough se pone detras de los adjetivos: • big enough. The grass was too wet for us to sit on. • • • • This box is not light enough for a child to carry. He hasn't got enough experience. • The grass was too wet to sit on. • silly enough. This problem is too difficult for you to understand. He is not experienced enough. • large enough. Too + adjetive + a + noun + infinitive. • enough people. • He is too experienced a director to mind what the critics say. We haven't got enough money to go on holiday. The grass was not dry enough for us to sit on. mientras que con sustantivos se pone delante. Construccion de for + noun/pronoun delante del infinitive. Too + adverb + infinitive • It's too soon for me to say what is going to happen. • enough milk. Enough + infinitive. • She was too clever to accept the first offer. He is not strong enough to carry that. • • • • This box is too heavy for a child to lift. • He works too slowly to be of any use to me. .STANLEY U N I T 41 82 Too and enough + infinitive. • The soup is too hot to eat. Too + infinitive. The house was not big enough for the Jones to live in. • • • • • That child is not old enough to go to school. • enough time. • This parcel is too bulky to send. The house was too small for the Jones to live in. Y con enough. • The case is too heavy to carry. This problem is not easy enough for you to understand. • That girl is too silly to go out with. • That lamp is too heavy to hang on the wall.
he is (lazy) to get up early. That sideboard 4. This piece of 3. The weather is not 4. 'Does your brother get up early?' 'No. That boy is from a poor family. We can't move this piece of furniture. qualifications.' 2. Responde las preguntas usando las palabras entre parentesis. he is not old enough to go to school. Four people can't sit in the back of the car. We haven't got for everybody. She didn't have 3.STANLEY EXERCISES 83 1. hot.' 1. The seat 2. 5. 'Are you going to take a holiday this year?' 'No. Sylvia. There are fourteen of us for dinner.' 3. to go to the beach. good. We haven't got 6. He is not for you. It's too heavy.' 5. It was too hot. Complete estas frases usando enough con cada una de estas palabras: small. 'Let's take a photograph. This tea .' 4. plates. It's not very wide. Example: 'Is Jimmy going to school this year?' (not old enough) 'No. money.' (late) (dark) to to pay the bill. Example: He hasn't got enough qualifications to get the job. Example:! couldn't eat the soup.' 6. 'Can you hear what that man is saying?' 'No.' 'It's take a photo in here. It is not very strong. we haven't got (money) to take a holiday. for little Jimmy.' 'Sorry. 1. This jacket should be 2. 3. we are (far away) to hear. time. 'I'd like to go to the cinema. The soup was too hot lor me to eat. It is very hot. he doesn't speak (English) to understand you. I can't drink this tea. Don't stand on that sideboard. En este ejercicio tienes que elegir entre too y enough para completar la frase. it's to go now. 'Can that man understand what I say?' 'No. 2. She didn't finish the exam. 1.
• We'll all help you (to) do the cleaning. . • I can't help laughing every time I see that little man. Do you think my hair needs to be cut?/needs cutting? RECUERDA Que el verbo want tiene el mismo significado: • • • • Your car wants servicing/to be serviced. Need Puede ser conjugado como verbo ordinario. • Everybody helped (to) push the car. The batteries in this radio need to be changed/changing. HELP puede ir seguido del infinitivo con el to o sin el to.help. The front gate wants painting/to be painted.' To need se puede usar con el infinitivo pasivo o el gerundio en frases tales como: • • • • • The grass in the garden needs to be cut/needs cutting. Your hair wants cutting/to be cut. pero no el tiempo continue. Las dos forma son validas. That handrail wants polishing/to be polished. • I can't help wondering what would have happened if he had been here. • Can you help me (to) do the washing up. To need se puede usar con un infinitivo o con un objeto nombre/pronombre: • I need to know the exact date.STANLEY U N I T 42 84 Need y want + gerund . The garden needs to be watered/needs watering. Sin embargo. Tiene entonces las formas regulares normales. va seguida de gerundio. • I couldn't help crying when I heard the news. That shirt needs to be ironed/needs ironing. la expresion: can't help + ing (no puedo evitar). • 'How much money does she need?' 'She needs £10.
It needs to be oiled. 1. It needs to be taken up. 1. Gambia estas frases a need + gerund. That water wants filtering. 3. That engine sounds well. Every time I see that romantic scene I (cry). Every time I hear that song I (remember) our first dinner in that little restaurant. Your shirt is very dirty. 4. They need to be tightened. It 2. Example: That water needs to be filtered. That old house is very solid but it 3. It needs to be cleaned. It needs to be wound. Example: The kitchen is dirty. The accounting is in a mess. 4. Every time I wake up I what to do the rest of the day. Completa las frases con can't help.STANLEY EXERCISES 85 1. Your essay is very good but it 2. 3. 3. (wonder) . 1. The lock is very rusty. but it 6. My car makes strange noises. They need to be worn. (charge). Termina las frases usando need + gerund. The screws are loose. (paint). Example: Every time I hear that sound I can't help thinking about your father. (wash). 2. The hedge has overgrown. 1. You have to soften your new shoes. (polish up). It 7. 2. The kitchen is dirty. The battery is run down. It 4. It needs to be serviced. The windows are very dirty. Example: That little spoiled child needs smacking. 2. That skirt is too long. It needs cleaning. It needs to be looked into. 3. (clean). The clock has stopped. (overhaul). Completa las frases usando want + gerund. (cut). They 5.
• We can't have the party this week. La construccion have + object + past participle se puede usar coloquialmente para reemplazar al verbo pasivo: • His new car was stolen before he had the chance to drive it. Esta construccion es del tipo: 'Yo pago a alguien para que me haga algo. (Yo habfa revisado el coche) • He had cut his hair. Si cambiamos el orden. I'm having my sitting.. • While I was having my photo taken somebody stole my car.' • I had my car serviced. • The house is too small and I am having a garage built on. Tambien se puede usar en tiempos continues. . (se hizo cortar el pelo) FIJATE en el orden de las palabras: have + object + past participle.. I didn't have my central heating installed. • Did you have your central heating installed? • No. Get se puede usar de la misma manera que have pero es mas coloquial. Get tambien se usa cuando mencionamos la persona que Neva a cabo la accion: • She got him to cut the grass in the garden. el significado es muy diferente. El sujeto puede ser tambien un objeto: • Several houses had their chimneys ripped off by the storm. • She had him cut the grass in the garden. Esta misma frase se puede construir con have + infinitive sin to..room redecorated. I don't have my chimney swept very often..STANLEY U N I T 43 86 Causative verbs: have y get. Se puede reemplazar por: • He had his new car stolen before he had the chance to drive it. Tambien con get: • The car got all four tyres punctured by the hooligans. • I had serviced my car. (me hice revisar el coche) • He had his hair cut. (el se habfa cortado a si mismo el pelo) . RECUERDA que cuando usamos have en este sentido la forma interrogativa y negative se forma con do: • Do you have your chimney swept very often? • No.
1. (Last Sunday/l/have/your brother/clean up his room) next month. we 3. Are you going to repair the shoes yourself? No. I 2. Example: Your front tooth is missing. I 5. I had it washed yesterday. Responde ahora a las preguntas usando el get. Responde a las preguntas usando el have + object + past participle. 1. Completa las frases usando las palabras entre parentesis. . Is your mother going to clean the windows? No. No. (Last week/Mr Brown/get/Jim/paint/kitchen) 4. Did you install the central heating? Yes. I 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 87 1. (Yesterday/Mrs Evans/get/her son/do the washing up for her) 2. Are you going to service the car yourself? No. I'll 3. she 4. Did your father cut the hedge himself? last week. / had it pulled out this morning. Did you pick the fruit yourselves? No. Are you going to change the wheel alone? No. I 3. (Tomorrow/l/have/my son/repair the dishwasher) 3. he 2. Example: Did you wash the car yourself? No. When are you going to paint the house? Well. What happened to it? (pull out). 1. I'll 4. No. Are you going to repair the TV yourself? by those people. Example: (l/get/Jimmy/clear/snow/by the front door) /'// get Jimmy to clear the snow by the front door.
STANLEY U N I T 44 88 Indirect speech. order. RECUERDA Algunos ejemplos en estilo indirecto: • • • • • » 'You had better not leave you bicycle unlocked. Las ordenes negativas generalmente se dicen con not + infinitive. Cuando la orden es precedida por una oracion. beg. Mrs Print reminded her husband to order the wine. He said I wasn't to open the window. • Meet me at the corner at 5. recommend. = • He asked/begged to be given some money (he begged for some money). forbid. A veces la persona a la que se dirije no se menciona. warn. Si es asf debemos afiadir un nombre o pronombre: • 'Come here.. Pero si el will you se dice de una manera irritable entonces se usa el tell o order. = He told me/him/her/them to go there. se suele usar el verbo ask. boys. request. Cuando introducimos un verbo en presente. 'Try again.'= He told Jim to go there. Say/tell + subject + be + infinitive: • 'Don't open the window. give me some money. Los verbos siguientes se usan muy a menudo en el estilo indirecto: ask. My friend warned me not to leave my bicycle unlocked. 'Don't forget to order the wine. implore. 'Come here. = He ordered them to shut up.' • He says that we are to meet at the corner at 5.. • 'When he leaves the office follow him.' said Mrs Print. = He told me not to open the window. Los verbos ask y beg pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo pasivo: • 'Please. invite. urge. • She said that I was to follow him when he left the office. • 'Will you shut up!' he said. remind. 'he says.' he said. • 'Will all the people standing please sit down. advise. • He asked all the people standing to sit down. Jim. • He said. command. Con las frases de will you . Tom's friends encouraged him to try again.' said Tom's friends encouragingly.' he begged. = • I warned/told the boys not to play near the river. tell.' she said.' I said. .' he said. • 'Don't play near the river.' he said.' said my friend. encourage.
'Forget all about that young man. 'I'll tell him exactly what I think. 'You haven't got much time. Example: 'I can see him now. 8. 'Why don't you take off your coat. 14.' he told me. 17.' said the officer to him.' he said.' Jill told Tom. please. don't take any risks.' she said. 6.'If I were you I'd go to see another lawyer. The meeting is off.' he said. 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 89 1. 3. 'Post some letters for me. Ron las siguientes frases en estilo indirecto.' He said (that) he could see him then.'If you'd just sign the register. 10.'I must have slept through the alarm. .' said his mother. 'I have lived in this country for many years. 4.'Could you live on £100 a week?' he asked. There has been a lot of stealing from cars.' said Mr Jones.' my boss said. 7. 'I can see you later. 1.' she said to the little girl. he said.' said her father.' said Mrs Merryat.' he said to Peter. 12.' said the receptionist. 'Could you show me your papers.' he said.'I'm writing a book.'Please. 5. 16.'If I were you I'd stop taking sleeping pills. 15. 11.'If you pass the driving test I'll buy you a car.' she said.' Jim said. 18. 13. 9.
' John said. • She told Jack that she would tell him the next day. Future .Present • 'I have read the book and I don't understand it.' he said. • He suggested going for a picnic. should.Conditional • 'I will tell you tomorrow. let us.Conditional perfect • 'I will have finished by 9. Future perfect . • The police officer ordered that everyone should leave the building / He ordered that the building should be evecuated / He ordered the building to be evacuated. . and urge + that • 'I advise closing the premises. let him/her se pueden expresar con suggest.STANLEY U N I T 45 90 Indirect speech (cont.Past • Mary: 'I need to get some money.' she said to me./That they should go for a picnic. Say o tell con should • 'If you drink don't drive. Past progressive . Past simple .Past perfect • 'I went to Madrid. • John said that he had gone to Madrid. recommend. • She told me that she had been waiting for me. • 'Evacuate the building. • 'Let's go for a picnic.' he said.Past perfect continuous • 'I was waiting for you. • He advised that the premises should be closed. • He told me that if I drank I shouldn't drive. He advised me not to drive if I drank. Advise.' • Frank said that they had just finished the job. Let's.' • Mary said that she needed to get some money. Command and order se pueden usar con should.' ordered the police officer. Present .' he said to me.' she said to Jack.' • She says (that) she has read the book and doesn't understand it. Present perfect .) Presente .Past perfect • Frank: 'We've just finished the job.' he said. • He said that he would have finished by 9.
14.' she said to me. 3. 6. Gambia las siguientes frases a estilo indirecto. Sandy: 'I have moved to another flat. Example: 'Come and visit us. 16.' he said to me.' she said.'If there is any danger don't do it.' said Mr Bruce. 13.'Don't touch that.' she said. 'I advise cancelling the meeting. He says that we are to go and visit him.'Let's not play silly games.'I'll help you if I can.' she said.' he said. 18. 'I lived in Scotland for many years. . 12.' he said.'I could see you tomorrow.' said Mr Thomson. 8.'I would complain if I were you. 5. 'Let's leave the cases at the station.' 10. 1. 'Let's not go alone.'Can you understand the instructions. 4. 2.' ordered the police officer. 9.' said Mrs Jones. 'Evacuate the area.' she asked me.STANLEY EXERCISES 91 1.' she said to the children.'I've been waiting for hours. 15. 17. 'Let's sell the house. 11.' he said. 'I was living in Wales at that time.' he says. 'Follow him if he leaves the studio.' she said to me.'What does the article say?' asked Jim. 7.' she told me.
• Who destroyed the bridge? . sobre todo despues de participios tales como: crowded.STANLEY U N I T 46 92 The passive. destroy. make. wreck and write.Cervantes.It was designed by Wren. crammed: • The room was filled with smoke. BY MEANS OF (por medio de). Tambien se puede dar informacion por medio de frases que no sean by + agente. discover. . design. packed. • The window was broken by the wind. • The bag was stuffed with dirty clothes. Compara: • He was killed by a runaway car. WITH tambien se usa a menudo con un ablative agente. compose. Prepositions. • The lock was covered with paint. • The bicycle was stolen by those two boys.It was destroyed by a borrib. La posicion del by + ablative agente al final de la oracion le da un cierto enfasis: • The bicycle was smashed by a heavy branch that fell off that tree. By + agente a menudo se usa en la voz pasiva de verbos tales como: build. En preguntas con who(m) se puede incluir by: • Who(m) was 'Don Quixote' written by? . filled. damage. • The crate was lifted by means of a crane. BY en la voz pasiva va seguido de agente ablative. • That is a gadget for slicing bread. de tal manera que la informacion importante se enfatiza al final: • Who designed that Cathedral? . invent. FIJATE Que a menudo una pregunta en activa es contestada en voz pasiva. • That old mansion was built 200 years ago. By + agent solo es necesario cuando el que habla quiere indicar quien o que es el responsable del acontecimiento en cuestion. (accidentalmente) • He was killed with a knife. Un agente es la persona o cosa que Neva a cabo la accion indicada por el verbo. (deliberadamente) FOR cuando indica proposito: • This is a machine for lifting weights.
4. 5. 1. Brown) 3. (jug/fill/water) 2. Pon estas frases en voz pasiva usando el ablative agente by. 1. Who wrote Hamlet? (Shakespeare) 2. That boy broke the window with a stone. A bomb destroyed this bridge during the war. (Council/build/new library/soon) 6. Experts can solve your problems quite easily. Who operated on your father? (Dr. Who built this cathedral? (Wren) 4. 3. Who destroyed the bridge? (enemy army) 3. 1. 2. Hilton is going to open this new luxury hotel very soon. (hail/ruin/crops) . Escribe estas frases en pasiva con with o by. Example: Who composed that piece? It was composed by Mozart. (room/crammed/people) 3. (his hair/cover/dirty oil) 4. 2.STANLEY EXERCISES 93 1. The cat was killed accidentally by a falling stone. (window/break/boy next door) 5. I think that Keats must have written those sonnets. My car was damaged by a slate that fell off your roof. Example: A slate that fell off your roof damaged my car. Example: (falling stone/kill/cat accidentally). Responde a estas preguntas usando la voz pasiva. (boy's face/smear/coal) 7.
Which o that o nada. who/whom I play tennis with on Sundays. Con preposicion: whom o that • The man to whom I spoke is here. is very fit. NON-DEFINING: • His yacht. NON-DEFINING: • Jane. Objetos. DEFINING: • This is the film that/which caused such a scandal. wants to go to the beach. which you can buy anywhere. DEFINING: Posesivo. / Mary. Objeto de una preposicion. Sujeto: Who o that. NON-DEFINING: • That ship. is trying to get a job.STANLEY U N I T 47 9* Before. soon as. with whom I play tennis on Sundays. has never sailed. / His yacht. NON-DEFINING: • The butler. DEFINING: • The secretary (whom/who/that) I saw told me to come back today. Complementos. which cost millions to build. NON-DEFINING: • Mary. who is very cheerful. NON-DEFINING: • This book. is always anchored. DEFINING: • This is the computer (that/which) I bought yesterday. La non-defining clause anade una informacion extra y va separada por comas./That's the stool I was sitting on. is very fit. is innocent. is ./ That's the stool which I was sitting on. DEFINING: • That's the stool on which I was sitting. who/whom everybody suspected. until. after as. whose children have grown up. for which he paid so much money. / The man (who/whom/that) I spoke to is here. NON-DEFINING La defining relative clause describe el sustantivo que la precede. RELATIVE CLAUSES: DEFINING. NON-DEFINING: • My father. will tell you all about it. which he paid so much money for. Objeto de un verbo: Whom o who o that. Which o that. DEFINING: • The woman who told me this refused to give me her name. Whose es la unica forma: DEFINING: • Those are the people whose houses were destroyed by the storm.
It was polluted for years. That tall man works for your uncle. 4. This is the boy I've been travelling with. The boy has been arrested. 1. The man is coming this way. who/whom you met at the party. That person is the manager. The tiles fell off the roof. You can see him from here. Mr Smith is going to undergo an operation. It caused a lot of damage. 2. This is the company. 3. Nobody was expecting the storm. Example: The woman is my wife. 2. suggested stopping for a while.STANLEY EXERCISES 95 1. 3. Frank. He snatched your bag. The nice boy is studying at Harvard. Example: Frank had been driving for hours. 2. I met him last week. 1. Elige entre defining o non-defining cuando el relative es objeto del verbo. I complained to him. 5. who had been driving for hours. They nearly wrecked my car. You met her at the party. I work for it. The woman. 1. I saw him near the place of the crime. I complained to him. . Example: This is the boy. The writer of this book proved to be a famous politician. The hotel manager happened to be an old friend of mine. I've been travelling with him. He ran a marathon last year. 3. 2. 4. This river is very clean. He suggested stopping for a while. You met him in Benidorm. Ron la preposicion al final. Elige entre defining y non-defining con whom o that con preposicion. Elige entre defining y non-defining cuando el relative es sujeto. 3. is my wife.
to Miami or to the Bahamas?' he asked me. / He asked what she wanted. 'What caused the fire?' he asked the firemen. sir?' / He offered to do it for him. Si en el estilo directo se usa say. • 'Where are you going?' he said to us. • 'What shall I do. Con should + infinitive para peticion de instrucciones. • 'Shall me meet at five?' / He suggested meeting at five. Cuando tenemos una eleccion usamos el whether. Con sugerencias se puede usar suggest. entonces debemos cambiarlo por: ask. Si en vez de ask usaramos inquire o wanted to know omitirfamos firemen. 'How can I go to the Town Hall?' he asked a policeman. wonder. / She wanted to know when the next train was. • He asked me whether I wanted to go to Miami or to the Bahamas. • 'What does she want?' he said. RECUERDA Que las preguntas que empiecen con shall I/we se introducen con wonder si especulan sobre el future. • He wanted to know what had caused the fire. Dad?' / He asked his father what he should do. inquire. • 'Shall I ever see you again?' he said. • 'Is anybody at home?' she asked. Con ofertas se puede decir: • 'Shall 1 do it for you. • 'When did you give it to me?' / He asked me when I had given it to him. Si no usamos un pronombre interrogativo debemos poner if o whether. • He wondered if he would ever see her again. want to know. • She asked if/whether anybody was at home. Para convertir las preguntas directas en indirectas cambiamos los tiempos del verbo y los adverbios como en las afirmaciones y omitimos el signo de interrogacion. • 'Where do you want to go. • He inquired what had caused the fire. / He asked us where we were going. • • • • • • 'Where's the bank?' he said. .STANLEY U N I T 48 96 Indirect and embedded questions. / He asked a policeman how he could go to the Town Hall. / He asked where the bank was. etc. 'When is the next train?' she said. / He asked the firemen what had caused the fire.
He asked if/whether anyone was there. Example: Who is in charge here? He asked who was in charge there. when are you getting married?' 2. 'Diana. what are you doing tonight?' 4. 'Sir. Example: 'What shall I do. when is the next train?' said Jim 3. Example: 7s anyone there?' he asked. 4. Pasa las siguientes preguntas a forma indirecta.STANLEY EXERCISES 97 1. 'How much did it cost you?' he asked her. did you see the accident?' said the policeman. 1. A veces se pueden usar ambos. Mum?' He wanted to know what he should do. Example: Mum. Ahora usa whether o if. 'Do you want to go by air or by train?' he asked 2. 'Did you see the accident?' asked the policeman. 'Shall I bring you another blanket?' He 3. Ahora haremos preguntas con shall. 'Why are you so late?' his mother said to him. 2. 1. 'Jane. 'Shall we ever meet again?' She . 'Where is the station?' he asked 5. 'Who lives next door?' he said 2. 3. 'When are you coming?' she asked Peter 3. 4. wanted to know. . 'Dad. . Usa ask. 1. 1. 'Shall we go out for dinner tonight?' He 2. . when is Dad coming back? He wanted to know/inquired when his father was coming/going back. Responde ahora usando inquire..
important. splendid. amusing. foolish. dreadful. kind. terrible. desirable. necessary. • I am inclined to believe her story. For + object se puede afiadir a este tipo de frases. idiotic. • A trailer is difficult to drive. prone. annoying. coward. silly. nice. interesting. It + be + adjective (+ of + object) + infinitive se usa principalmente con adjetivos que conciernen al caracter: brave. sensible. cruel. essential. • It's dangerous for people to go out at night in this town. • It's been lovely to see you again. • It was very kind of him to help us. Estos adjetivos (menos posible) se pueden usar con la construccion noun + be + adjective + infinitive: • This dish is very easy to make. stupid. dangerous. wicked. just. slow. selfish.STANLEY U N I T 49 SB Infinitives after adjectives. careless. hard. only fair/right/just. possible. It + be + adjective + infinitive se puede formar con: advisable. prompt. awful. . marvellous. • It was delightful to hear that song again. quick. mean. apt. liable. strange. It + be + adjective + for + object + infinitive se puede formar con: convenient. • It is better to reserve a table. unable. etc. fair. vital. • She was unable to utter a word. ready.. clever. best. inclined. • It is only fair to give him his share. nice. intelligent. • It won't be necessary for you to tell them what happened. reluctant. rude. • It wouldn't be advisable for you to mix with those people. good. easy. lovely. impossible safe. difficult. willing. • It was very silly of you to leave the money there. Subject + be + adjective/participle + infinitive con: able. It + be + adjective/participle + infinitive se puede formar con adjetivos y participios que muestren sentimientos y reacciones: agreeable. generous. disagreeable. wrong. good. prepared. delightful. better. unsafe. • It's quite impossible to find food in the besieged city. horrible. wonderful depressing.
encouraging. 1. annoying. strange. (important/keep/control/ball) 3. Example: (terrible/hear/bombs/falling) It was terrible to hear the bombs falling. cruel. (It was/you/save/drowning child) 4. Example: (advisable/book/holidays/advance) It is advisable to book your holidays in advance. (depressing/be/unemployed/long time) 4. nice. 1. right. (only right/him/get/fair/trial) 2. depressing. (vital/food/reach/stricken area) 3.STANLEY EXERCISES " 1. boring. generous. brave. (strange/find/water/this desert) 3. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos siguientes: advisable. important. (better/play/on Saturday) 4. (It was/him/tell/children/about/dead mother) 2. Example: (It was/them/leave/bicycles/unlocked) It was stupid of them to leave their bicycles unlocked. Haz lo mismo con: terrible. (lovely/see/you again) 2. vital. lovely. Forma frases con los siguientes adjetivos como el ejemplo: stupid. better. (annoying/hear/your neighbour/playing/piano) . (It was/you/come/see/us) 3. 1. (It was/him/give/us/money) 2.
excited. Cuando la segunda accion forma parte de la primera: • He shouted. No se deben confundir. Despues de verbs of sensation: • I heard the rain falling all night. Cuando una accion va seguida de la otra: • Opening the box he took out the books. Un oracion de presente de participio que reemplaza a una subordinada: • As he heard / Hearing that she lived in the area he stayed overnight. be busy: • Why don't you come dancing with us? Cuando dos acciones con el mismo sujeto ocurren a la vez: • She walked away thinking.' USE (Participles ING) Para formar continuous tenses: • We are walking.STANLEY U N I T 50 10 ° Participles (ind . amusing etc. son pasivos y significan 'afectados de esta manera.. Los participios presentes. Despues de catch/find/leave + object: • I left them opening a hole in the road. spend. Despues de have + object: • They had me walking in a month. • Writing /Having written a few lines on a paper he tucked it in his pocket. waste. pointing out that traffic is very bad on that road. Despues de go. • running water. / People needing medical care. amused etc. Un presente de participio a veces puede reemplazar a un pronombre relative + verbo: • People who need medical care. * She is cooking. having seen..ed) in clauses. son activos y significan que 'tienen este efecto'. warning the bandits. . Como adjetivos: • leaking tank. exciting. Tanto los participios presentes (ing) como los participles pasados (ed) se pueden usar como adjetivos. El participio perfecto a veces reemplaza al presente de participio: having made. come. Las frases de presente de participio tales como adding/pointing out/reminding/ warning pueden introducir aseveraciones en estilo indirecto: • They told me to go early. Los participios pasados.
He opened the drawer. Juntalas usando el presente de participio. En este ejercicio tienes dos frases. He talked to my brother. 2. Example: He got on his horse. Usa el presente de participio en las siguientes frases: Example: This is a map that marks political boundaries. I left him. 3. 3. Hello. These are the people who wish to visit the premises. / caught them stealing apples. He raised the trapdoor. He found a tree. 1. 1. John. Ahora vamos a cambiar estas frases de infinitive por otras de participio presente. They were stealing apples. 1. She took off her shoes. Those are the men who work on the road. She stood by the window. Example:! caught them. Example: Tomorrow they are going to sail. This is a map marking political boundaries. He pointed to a place on the wall. She is going to ride after lunch. 3. She crept along the passage. . Those are the children who need medical care. 3. Getting on his horse he took out his guitar.STANLEY EXERCISES 101 1. 2. I saw her. He took out his guitar. 4. 1. 2. 2. Haz con las frases siguientes lo mismo que en el ejemplo. 2. Tomorrow they are going sailing. Come to dance with us. It lay across the road. He took out a gun.
• Broken window. El participio puede estar separado del nombre por el verbo. • It was done. • Woken up by the din. El participio pasado de los verbos regulares se forma afiadiendo ed o d al infinitivo. • Mark Anthony. He jumped to his feet. / The little child enters the class. • The young boy entered. Para el participio de los verbos irregulares vease la lista de verbos irregulares en el volumen II de esta coleccion. • Having been assaulted twice. terrified by what he had seen.STANLEY U N I T 51 1 2 ° The participle (ing . • I have loved • We have seen. RECUERDA Que un participio se considers que pertenece al nombre o pronombre que le precede: • Jim. • Believing that he was alone.ed) (cont. the miser took out his coffer of gold coins. El perfecto de participio pasivo (having been + past participle) se usa cuando es necesario poner entasis que la accion expresada por el participio sucedio antes que la accion expresada por el verbo siguiente: • Having been told about the chaos on the roads. Para formar los tiempos compuestos y la voz pasiva.). Si no hay sustantivo o pronombre en esta parte de la oracion se considera que el participio pertenece al sujeto del verbo principal. El participio pasado puede reemplazar a un sujeto + verbo pasivo igual que el participio presente puede reemplazar al sujeto + verbo active: • The child enters the classroom. Alice stared eyes wide open. • Amazed by the spectacle. uso Como adjetivo: • Stolen car. he jumped to his feet. He is accompanied by his mother. took a step backwards. • He was woken up by the din. followed by his friend. he took the train. killed himself. . believing that Cleopatra was dead. he always carried a gun. accompanied by his mother. • Abandoned house.
Example: The old house had been weakened by the earthquake. horrified at what he had seen. She was carrying a large parcel. 4. Having been warned about that boy. 2. He stopped playing. 1. They were followed by their wives. Escribe estas frases otra vez usando bien el 'present participle' o el 'past participle. He had already lost a lot of money. They decided to buy a new house. Weakened by the earthquake. couldn't speak. Example: She had been warned about that boy. He believed he was the best. He entered for the competition. She tried to persuade him. 1. 2. Example: The man was horrified at what he saw. They decided to celebrate it. 3. It was not safe. He was warned about the unsafe situation in the streets. He fell heavily. The two men came in. The man. As they had won the football pools. 1. They were alarmed by the shouting in the street. . The postman refused to deliver the mail. Usa ahora el 'perfect participle passive' (having been + past participle). He had been bitten several times. the old house was not safe. 3. He couldn't move. 4.STANLEY EXERCISES 103 1. As he had finished writing his book. She was convinced that she was right. 3. 2. She didn't go out with him. He didn't leave the hotel 3. Escribe otra vez las siguientes frases usando el past participle. she didn't go out with him. The boxer was stunned by the blow. 2. They ran to the window. A woman got off the bus.
• I saw her leave the house. Siempre va seguido de un complemento nombre o pronombre antes de un infinitivo sin to. Let puede ir seguido de un infinitive pasivo: • She let it be known she was going to apply for the post. • I was made to move my car.STANLEY U N I T 52 104 Bare infinitives. Sin embargo. Mientras que el gerundio indica una accion que dura algun tiempo o que todavi'a esta en progreso. Para una serie de acciones seguidas preferimos el infinitivo. MAKE en voz activa Neva un infinitive sin to. hear. . Let se usa sin ningun complemento en la expresion: • Live and let live!. • Don't let the children disturb father. Significa 'hacer' en el sentido de 'obligar'. Let us go shopping. watch. • The policeman made me move my car. • The maths teacher made the boys stay in after school. rapida. • I heard him cough. • I heard them make a plan. LET como verbo normal signified 'permitir'. El infinitivo describe una accion corta. Los verbos de percepcion son: see.* He was heard to say that. Con estos verbos la accion en el presente de participio puede ser completa o incompleta: • I saw her washing the dishes Puede significar que contemple toda la accion o solo parte de ella. El see y el hear en pasiva llevan el 'full infinitive'. after make and verbs of perception. • I saw him changing the batteries of the transistor radio. Si usamos el infinitive significa que la accion esta completa: • I saw him change the batteries of the transistor radio. Estos verbos junto con listen to y notice pueden ir seguidos de un objeto + bare infinitive. Mientras que si usamos el gerundio la accion puede que este incompleta. cuando make esta en voz pasiva va seguido del infinitive con to. • The boys were made to stay in after school. • Come on. Si el complemento es us se puede contraer a let's. • I saw the him break the window. smell. • His thinning hair makes him look much older. • He was seen to enter the building. feel. clear the broken glass and enter the house. • I heard him coughing all night.
He wasn't allowed to see the documents. She told me to sit down next to her. I heard somebody 2. She wasn't allowed to smoke. We saw these people 7. (tap) my back and disappear. Completa estas frases con let + infinitive. I saw them 9. Example: I watched them take a picture and go. I told the dog to lie down.1 smelt something (unlock) the door and enter the house. Elige entre infinitivo y gerundio detras de un verbo de percepcion. I watched the firemen (break) the window and 5. (walk) along the road for miles. Live and ! 3. They heard the wolves 10. (howl) all night long. Leave other people alone. They 4. (cry) all night. I heard the child in his sleep a couple of times. 1. 2. I want to go trecking to the Sahara but my parents won't 2. (cry) and (wait) patiently for hours.STANLEY EXERCISES 105 1. They 3. (shout) in the street. Example: She wants to go out but her mother won't let her go. I 3. (burn) in the kitchen. 8. 1. (moan) . Las frases siguientes van seguidas de make + 'bare infinitive' o 'full infinitive' Example: He compelled me. The teacher told me to come on Saturday. They forced me to write the letter. I heard the little girl 6. 1. I felt somebody 4. (climb) a ladder (enter) the building. I had to do it. I heard people 3. He made me do it. She 4. I was 2.
• She won't be coming to the meeting. • He'll be coming tomorrow. RECUERDA La diferencia entre el futuro simple y el continuo: • I'll write to my parents and tell them about us. The future continuous tense se forma con el future simple del verbo be + el presente participio: • At this time tomorrow I will be working.. El futuro continue usado para expresar futuro sin intencion. • He won't be cooking (informa que no va a ser el el que cocine). • He won't cook (no quiere cocinar). • I'll be seeing your sister tomorrow. El futuro perfecto continuo: • By the end of this year he will have been working here for 20 years.. .. Anuncio una accion futura deliberada. • Will you be playing golf tomorrow?* Will he be working all day? El futuro perfecto generalmente se usa con una expresion de tiempo que empieza con by: • By this time tomorrow I'll have arrived in the Bahamas. Indica que la accion ocurrira siguiendo el curso normal de los acontecimientos. • This time next week we will be lying on the beach in Salou.STANLEY U N I T 53 106 Future continuous. Mientras que en . A menudo. • By the end of the month he will have been living with us for six months. • By then I will have become a graduate. Indica que se ha concertado una entrevista previa. • By the end of the year I will have saved £1000. and perfect continuous. Indico que ya les iba a escribir de todas formas. / She isn't coming . una intencion. Preguntas acerca de intenciones. Mientras que el presente continuo: • I am seeing your sister tomorrow. / He is coming tomorrow. por lo tanto. • I'll be writing to my parents tomorrow to tell them about us. • I will be helping my mother with the shopping tomorrow.. future perfect. sin embargo. esta diferencia no es muy importante. Como otros tiempos continues expresa una accion que empieza antes de un tiempo determinado y continua despues. Hay. • At this time tomorrow the children will be watching a film.
Las frases que tienes a continuation estan en future simple. Example: I'll come to see your mother tomorrow. 2. By Christmas (we/live/this town/15 years). Termina las frases usando el futuro perfecto. By 10 o'clock (l/cut/grass/and/prune/roses). 4. 1. By 1999 (I/finish/my studies). By the time we compete in the Championship (we/train/10 months). By this time tomorrow we'll have arrived in Miami. 3. We'll come to your party on Saturday night. /'// be coming to see your mother tomorrow. 2. 3. 3. 1.STANLEY EXERCISES 107 1. 1. . 4. I'll write to my father tomorrow. Cambialas y ponlas en futuro continuo. 3. By this time next week (I/take/all/my/exams). 2. By midnight (they/dance/for 24 hours). 4. By the year 2000 (we/climb/mountains/30 years). By the end of the year (they/get married). Escribe las frases siguientes en futuro perfecto continuo. Example: By the end of this month (he/work/20 years). Example: By this time tomorrow (we/arrive/Miami). I'll take my driving test next week. By the end of this month he will have been working for 20 years. I'll meet him next week. 2.
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capability for carefulness with carelessness of certainty of/about cleverness at/in contentment with sadness about safety from satisfaction with separation from slowness at sorrow for curiosity about difference from/to eagerness for excitement at/ about faithfulness to fame as fondness for surprise about/at . .STANLEY APPENDIX 11 ° ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS Adjective absent from work/school afraid of something/ somebody amazed at/by something/ somebody angry at/about something angry with someone annoyed at/about something annoyed with somebody anxious about/over something ashamed of someone/ something Nouns absence from fear of something amazement at anger at/about angry with annoyance at/ about annoyance with anxiety about/ over shame at something Adjective free from danger free of charge full of something glad about something good at something good with the hands grateful to someone for something happy about/at/over/with interested in/by something jealous of someone keen on something kind to someone late to work married to someone nervous of something obliged to someone please about/with something ready for something right about something sad about something safe from something satisfied with something separate from something slow at doing something sorry about/for something sorry for someone surprised about/at/by terrible at something thankful to/for something worried about something wrong about something Nouns freedom from freedom of speect gladness about gratitude for/to happiness over/at interest in jealousy of keenness on kindness to lateness for work marriage to nervousness about obligation to pleasure about readiness for aware of something/someone awareness of awful at doing something bad at doing something bored with/by something busy at/with something capable of doing something careful of/with something careless of danger certain of/about facts clever at something content with something contrary to advice curious about something different from/to something eager from something excited about/a t/by/over faithful to somebody famous for something fond of something/somebody boredom with . thankfulness to/fo worry about/over .
collected completed. longed arranged. weighed agreed. counted. mended. hated. enjoyed cried. waited. qualified replied. afforded attended. robbed.. explained. stopped axed. opened answered. tried buried. skidded admitted. minded needed. educated. moved. touched crashed. tugged banged. played. laughed. continued. faced. closed. wasted . changed. foxed. guaranteed annoyed. claimed. switched. guessed. waxed a Pronounced /id/ in the past added. locked. attempted. boxed. proved accused. plugged. travelled assumed. walked. rubbed begged. AS as blind as a bat (tan ciego como un topo) as bold as brass (muy atrevido) as bright as a button (espabilado como una ardilla) as cheap as dirt (muy barato) as clear as a bell (claro como una campana) as cool as a cucumber (fresco como una lechuga) as deaf as a post (sordo como una tapia) as dry as dust (aburridfsimo) as easy as pie (estaba tirado) as fat as a pig (gordo como un cerdo) as free as a bird (libre como un pajaro) as hard as nails (muy duro) as keen as mustard (muy entusiasta) as large as life (grandfsimo) as mad as a hatter (chalado) as pleased as Punch (muy complacido) as pretty as a picture (tan bella como una rosa) as quick as lightning (rapido como una centella) as right as rain (mas razon que un santo) as safe as houses (segurfsimo) REGULAR VERBS (pronunciation) Pronounced /d/ in the past bribed. judged. lived. excited. finished. pushed. excused. ended handed. joked. avoided. worked addressed. obeyed. terrified. talked. loved. dropped. reminded. employed. reviewed Pronounced / 1 / in the past asked. dragged. invited. rescued. helped hoped. managed called. emerged. developed. painted. liked.STANLEY APPENDIX 111 EXPRESSIONS WITH AS . followed. danced discussed. decided. carried. reached. combed cleaned. washed coughed. dared arrived. showed. expected greeted. dried. described. provided. videoed argued. belonged. filled. hurried. missed matched.. fried. insisted. lathed delayed. relaxed. married. worried borrowed. jumped. listened. posted printed rested shouted started tasted. denied. crossed. lifted. wanted. dated. exchanged damaged. appeared. shopped. stuffed camped. refused bathed. looked picked. visited. thanked. satisfied. freed. included. pulled. smiled. destroyed.
(me mantengo sin fumar) Keep to that point/plan. (deja de buscar faltas) This coat will do for you. (no lo considerare) Help yourself to some cake. (no me puedo pasar sin) We'll go into the matter. (dejala en paz) Leave it to me. (me estan arruinando) (se dirigio a) He entered for an exam. (acepto con entusiasmo) Don't jump on me for this. (ten paciencia) I have broken with her. (dejalo a mi cuenta) . (me metio en Ifos) I've been landed with this. (sigue con ello) You can't keep a secret from him. (ven a buscarme) I can call on you.d6ndeencontr6?) She came into a lot of money. (se ha repuesto de) You can't get around me. (armo un alboroto) He landed me into trouble. (le cogimos carino) I must hand it to you.que mosca te pico?) Can I count on you? (contar contigo) My uncle descended on me.. (se echaron encima) Where did she come by this? (i. (no me culpes) Keep at it. (sigue con su trabajo) He's gone after the thief. (puedes confiar) I didn't bargain for this. (he terminado con ella) Burst into the room. (se lanzo sobre la comida) He finished with her. (esto valdra) Shall I do for you now? (limpiar la habitacion) I could do with a drink. (sfrvete) I hit on this idea. (le proporciona) I'm keeping off tobacco. (buscando problemas) You can bank on my help. (debo darte el merito) It hangs on this agreement. (puedo visitarte) I came across this manuscript. (termino con ella) He flew into a rage. (adivino que) Gather around me.. (se puso como una fiera) I gather from him that . (me visito) You can't dictate to me. (se muere por) Stop digging at me. (heredo) What came over you? (<:. (se ha enamorado de el) I won't fall for that trick. (el perro se lanzo a por . (imponerme) She's dying for a drink. (ha ido tras el ladron) The dog went for the burglar. (explfcate) Appear for him in court (representale) You're asking for trouble. (consideraremos el asunto) The house grew on us. It headed for the port. (estallo en lagrimas) Call for me at five. (depende de) Bills are eating into my savings. (deja de meterte conmigo) She got into trouble. (se presento a) She's fallen for him. (me han dado esto) Lay off her. (no me esperaba esto) Please bear with me. (sigue con) He kicked up a fuss.) The picture went for £500. (no le ocultes) She keeps him in money.STANLEY APPENDIX 112 VERB + PREPOSITION (idiomatic) Cakes don't agree with me.. (me encontre) They came at me with knives. (me sientan mal) You answer to him. (se metio en Ifos) He's got over his illness. (reunirse a mi alrededor) Stop getting at me. (me vendria bien) I can't do without you. (no me vas a convencer) How can we get around this? (icomo podemos resolver?) He's going about his work. (debemos atenernos) He jumped at the idea. (se me ocurrio) We must hold on to our agreement. (no caere en esa trampa) She fell on the food. (irrumpiren) She burst into tears.. (el cuadro se vendio por) I won't hear of.
(aportardinero) He's reading for a degree. (estuve pensando) I'll stand by you. (la ignore) Leave him to it. (me tropece con el) f . (insistire) How much do you put it at? (<j. (revisa la casa) She looked right through her. (se presentara a / sera candidato) We'll run for it. (entendi) I'll see to the dinner. (les derrotaron facilmente) Don't play on my feeling (no juegues con mis sentimientos) I'll press for a rise. (se gasto) I can't run to a new car. (no me supervises) We must step on it. (soporte) I slept on your suggestion.Entiendes?) He's rolling in money. (lo investigaremos) Look over the house. (he perdido interes) It turns on this document. (escaparse) A lorry ran into the car. (no es serio) He will run for president. (termine con dificultad) Who is waiting on us? (^quien nos sirve?) I walked into a job. (se presenta a) I won't stand for you attitude. (apostar por) Put money towards it. (depende de) She turned to me for help. (podemos esperar tu ayuda) He lives on fruit. (no hicieron nada) I sat through a boring lecture. (debemos darnos prisa) She'll stick by me. (me he concontrado con) The cost runs into millions. (me ocupare de la cena) They sat on my application. (estoy considerandolo) She turned against us. (me sera leal) swear by this medicine. (lo encontre con facilidad) I walked into a trap.Cuanto crees que vale?) Put money on a horse. (no comas sin apetito/no piques) He plays at being a teacher. (no entendemos nada) You won't pass for German. (no te precipites) I'll see about that. (tengo confianza) She takes after her mother (se parece a) She took to English easily (le parecio facil) Work is telling on her. (no puedo permitirme) Don't rush into. (chocb contra) I've run into difficulties. (se volvio contra) I've been turned off it. (te apoyare) He's is standing for parliament. (me encargare de) We'll see over the house. (no toco el tema) I'm toying with it. (pasemos por alto) Don't pick/peck at. (le esta afectando) She didn't touch on the subject. (vive de fruta) We'll look into this. (asciende a) He ran through a fortune. (se volvio a mi) I waded though it. (dejale que lo haga) We can't make anything of this. (esta forrado) I ran across him. (esta estudiando para) Can you read much into this? (i. (me metf en una trampa) They walked over the other team. (no te haras pasar por) Let's pass over that.STANLEY APPENDIX 113 hope we can look to you for help. (examinaremos) I saw through it. (no soportare) Don't stand over me.
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