. . .t)roWin~readers one

best practice

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Teaching Students to Take The Lead
Tar River Reading Council March 29, 2072

follow along here:
http://tinyurl.com/trrcrt

OR

vel"l"'ifer Jones 1<--5I12-T",Lcke M,{rq EleMentqr,{ School wq!<e COLAl"'ti PLAblicschool S'{steM www.helloliterqc,{. blo9spot. COM

• Setting the Stage for eCI roca

Teaching
Build on back~round knowled~e of already learned comprehension strate~ies -schema/ Makin~ Connections -Visualizin~1 Mental Ima~es -Inferencing

Identify Fiction $ Non-Fiction Features -Venn D;a~ram of Text features
- Do a Book Sort using book orders pictures - Make a "Features of Non-Fiction Notebook}'

• Text Vocabulary and Text Structure
-Use vocabulary you want them to use} "text -identify what a paragraph is} lenfJth} etc. -text ~enrei article, story} poem
ll

Reciprocal teaching is an instructional procedure designed to enhance students' comprehension of text. The procedure was designed by Anne Marie Palincsar, from Michigan State University and Anne Brown, from the University of Illinois. It is characterized by: • a dialogue between students and teacher, each taking a turn in the role of dialogue leader; • "reciprcccl'': interactions where one person acts in response to the other; • structured dialogue using four strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, predicting. Why were these four strategies selected?

Each of these strategies helps students to construct meaning from text and monitor their reading to ensure that they are in fact understanding what they read. Students may find the set of cards developed by Kathie Babigian, helpful to guide their questioning process:

Summarizing. This strategy provides the opportunity to identify, paraphrase, and
integrate important information in the text. identify the kind of information that is significant enough that it could provide the substance for a question. Then they pose this information in a question form and self--test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question.

Questioning. When students generate questions, they first

Clarifying. When teaching students to clarify, their attention is called to the
many reasons why text is difficult to understand; for example new vocabulary, unclear referent words, and unfamiliar or difficult concepts. Recognizing these blocks to understanding Signals the reader to reread, read ahead, or ask for help.

Predicting. This strategy requires the reader to hypothesize about what the
author might discuss next in the text. This provides a purpose for reading: to confirm or disapprove their hypotheses. An opportunity has been created for the

students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. It also facilitates the use of text structure as students learn that headings, subheadings, and questions imbedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next.

How are the four strategies

used in a session?

The discussion leader generates questions to which the group responds. Additional questions are raised by other members of the group. The leader then summarizes the text and asks other members if they would Iike to elaborate upon or revise the summary. Clarifications are discussed. Then, in preparation for moving on to the next portion of text, the group generates predictions. The goal is flexible use of the strategies.

How are the four strategies
• • • • •

introduced to students?

During the initial phase of instruction the teacher assumes primary responsibility for leading the dialogues and implementing the strategies. Through modeling the teacher demonstrates how to use the strategies while reading text. During guided practice the teacher supports students by adjusting the demands of the task based on each student's level of proficiency. Eventually the students learn to conduct the dialogues with little or no teacher assistance. The teacher assumes the role of a coach/facilitator by providing students with evaluative information regarding their performance and prompting them to higher levels of participation.

How should students

be grouped for instruction?

Students should be taught in small heterogeneous groups to ensure that each student has ample opportunity to practice using the strategies while receiving feedback from other group members. The optimal group size is between six to eight students. Frequent guided practice is essential in helping students become more proficient in their use of the strategies.

What criteria should be used to select appropriate instructional materials?
Select materials on the basis of the student's reading/listening comprehension level. • Identify materials that are sufficiently challenging. • Incorporate text that is representative of the kinds of materials students are expected to read in school. • Generally students have been taught the Reciprocal teaching procedure using expository or informational text. The story structure in narrative text lends itself quite well. also. Students are taught to USethe four strategies incorporating the elements of story grammar (e.g., the setting, characters, plot, problem, and solution). •

How much time should be allocated for instruction?
The first days of instruction are spent introducing the students to the four strategies. The length of each session will depend upon the age and the attention of the students but will usually fall within the range of 20 to 40 minutes per session. It is recommended that the initial instruction take place on consecutive days. After this point, instruction can be provided on alternate days if necessary.

Reciprocal Teachin1
Week 1:
WWhole strategy WSmalf

S~Mp'e scr-eaule

Group Lessons:-Introduce and provide instruction on the questioning

Group Lessons:-Teachermodels questioning (gradually releasing responsibility to students)

Week!:
WWhole ffiSmall Group lessons: -Introduce and provide instruction on the clarifying strategy Group Lessons:-Teachermodels clarifying (gradually releasing responsibility to students) -Students use questioning strategy while reading

WeekS:
WWhole strategy WSmalf Group Lessons:-Introduce and provide instruction on the summarizing

Group Lessons:-Teachermodels summarizing (gradually releasing responsibility to students) -Students use questioning and ciarifying while reading

Week 4:
WWhoJe Group Lessons:-Introduce and provide instruction on the predicting strategy iWISmall Group lessons:-Teacher models predicting (gradually releasing responsibility to students) -Students use questioning, clarifying and summarizing while reading Group Lessons:-Teacherchooses mini-lessons based on student need as demonstrated during small group lessons Group Lessons:-Students use questioning, clarifying, summarizing, and predicting while reading

WeekS:
WWhoJe

WSmall

By Arlene Mark

Art by Craig Stapley

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n the first day of swim camp, Rory woke up early. Today was the day he would learn to swim. His mom dropped him off at the. area of the pool where the other Pollywogs were. "I'm Tim, your instructor /' said a teenager. "Welcome to Pollywogs." All the kids said hi, Then it was pool time. Rory was the first Pollywog in the water, the shallow end. Rory heard a loud splash! at the other end of the pool. In a few seconds, a boy popped out of the water and swam toward the edge of the pool. "Cool! Can I do that?" Rory asked,

watching the boy in the deep end. "Oh, he's a Frog," Tim said. "Those kids were Pollywogs last summer. You'll be a Frog someday, but today you'll learn the Pollywog float." Rory could see the Frogs bending their knees to dive in on the other side of the pool. He wished he could do that. Maybe he'd be a Frog by the end of the day. Tim helped Rory float by holding him up. When Tim let go, Rory lay flat for a few seconds. Then his legs started sinking. He got back up, blew the water out of his nose, and tried again. He practiced all morning. By lunchtime, Rory could almost float.

/

II

"Am I a Frog yet?" he asked Tim. "Keep floating," Tim said. Rory kept practicing, and he watched the Frogs. The next day, Tim showed the Pollywogs how to take side breaths. The day after that, Tim showed the class how to paddle kick. Rory held on to the side of the pool, and water splashed as his feet flew up and down. By the end of the week, Rory could float, and he could take side breaths. And he could paddle kick to the other side of the pool using a kickboard. He was probably a Frog now, he figured. But when he asked, Tim said, "Keep paddle kicking." Rory sighed. He wondered how long it took to become a Frog. The next week, Tim showed the Pollywogs how to do the windmill stroke. Rory spun his arms and pulled the water back. He paddle

kicked and took side breaths, all at the same time. He practiced fo~ days. The first time Rory did the windmill stroke all the way to Tim, he said, "Am I a Frog yet?" "Almost," Tim said. Rory liked "almost." He ducked underwater. He could see squiggly arms and legs as Frogs passed him. For the next two weeks, Rory practiced everything he'd learned. On the last day of swim camp, Tim announced, "Free swim today for Pollywogs and Frogs." Everyone jumped into the pool. Pollywogs and Frogs splashed and got all mixed up. They floated, paddle kicked, spun windmills, and played capture the flag. At the end of the day, Rory swam up to Tim and scrunched his face. He croaked, "Rib bet, ribbet!" Tim croaked back, "You did it, you did it!"

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QA~... You Trvy It!
Name: __ ~ __

In The Book
Think ~ 5e~rch:

In }\y Head
Author ~ He: On 1\y OWn:

IN THE BOOK
Right There
The answer is in one place in the text reread scan look for key words

Think and Search
The answer is in several places in the text. '"
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skim or reread look for important information summarize

IN MY HEAD
Author and You
The answer is not in the text. Think about how what you know and what is in the text fit together. "
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On My Own The answer is not in the text.

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reread think about what you already know and what the author says predict

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think about what you already know think about what you've read before make connections

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I can use QAR when I need to answer questions or create questions. ][ can use QAR whenever I need! to especially during social studies, science, math, or on tests. I cam. use QAR to help me understand and talk about what I read.

In the Book
What did . Who did . How many . What was . Who ore . When did . What does . What kind . Who is... What is... Where is . Nome . List.... How do you ... What happened to ... How long did . What time did . What happened before ... What happened after ... How wou.ld you describe ... What examples .... Where did ... How do you make ... Why does ... Explain ... Compare ...

In My Head
On
Do you agree with .... Why did the main character .. What did they mean by ... How did she/he feel when ... Give the reasons why ... What do you think ... What if ... What do you think will happen . What did the author mean by . What did the character learn about ...

l1Y O-wn

Have you ever ... What are the reasons that ... If you could ... If you were going to ... What are the pros & cons of.. Do you know anyone who ... How do you feel about ... What is your favorite ...why ... What do you do when ... What can be exciting about .. What do you already know about .... What would you do if...

Nome:~

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In The Book
Think ¢ Search:

Author

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He:

On ~ Own:

Following the text below are some questions that students might answer after reading the text. After reading the text, work with a partner to decide the question-answer relationship for each question, tell why it fits that category. Tom has lived in Marysville his entire life. However, tomorrow, Tom and his family would be moving 200 miles away to Grand Rapids. Tom hated the idea of having to move. He would be leaving behind his best friend, Ron, the baseball team he had played on for the last two years, and the big swing in his backyard where he liked to sit and think. And to make matters worse, he was moving on his birthday! Tom would be thirteen tomorrow. He was going to be a teenager! He wanted to spend the day with his friends, not watching his house being packed up and put on a truck. He thought that moving was a horrible way to spend his birthday. What about a party? What about spending the day with his friends? What about what he wanted? That was just the problem. No one ever asked Tom what he wanted.
1. 2.

How long has Tom lived in Marysville? What is the name of the town where Tom and his family are moving? What might Torn do to make moving to a new town easier for him? Does Tom like playing on the baseball team he has played on for the last two years? In what ways can moving to a new house and to a new city be exciting? What is Tom's best friend's name?

3.

4.

5.

6.

Questioning Practice
After reading the passage about energy, choose sentences to turn into questions.
Statement:

Potential energy is energy that is stored in an object.
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Question: What is potential energy?

Statement: Question:

Statement: Question:

Statement: Question:

Statement: Question:

Statement: Question:

Statement: Question:

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Picture This
Qu~stionin~ Activity from Recipr()C©l1 Teaching using Sticky Notes

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Words, Phrases, or Ideas .
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Read all around it. ' Search your schema.

*.. ----the structure. - Study _, ~==.- Make a substitution.
If you
are still confused: Ask an expert. Make a note.

By Mary Ross Wisbach

~ S8BlV people i!0 0 \f\FO k ,;}' 11ig~t He~ are some .o~. thelj s ':0 ce: e rer VOU L-l' n ,.J iri VOli::-e Si! - e~ f' .
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Custodians Custodians often stay at school long after you leave. They clean every classroom in the building. They empty the trash 'and clean the bathrooms. If something is broken, they might fix it. Sometimes custodians use a waxing machine to polish the floor until it shines. Custodians take care of the school at night so that it's clean for you the next day. Police Officers Police officers answer calls every night at the station. Others patrol the town on foot or in cars. Sometimes they shine lights around to make sure
26

things are OK. They always wear a uniform, a badge, and a "duty belt." That belt often holds a gun, handcuffs, a flashlight, a night stick, and a portable radio. Flashing police-car lights are a way to say: "We're solving a problem." Steady lights say: "We're in the neighborhood watching over things. You can sleep safely."

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Learn about a firefighter's day on HighlightsKids.com.

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photo by jupirenrnaqes

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Fir~fi!,i1te¥s Even im 11he(ta~k, £i~efighteps aee ready; whea SGmepiL'e calls. Their . special "qwck-hitch"pa:ats are al;r:~'ady,; eOtinected to boots sa th.~t they eaa dress liekety-spHt ..~hey rush ill b1fttck's an,d ambulances to fight fires &R~ lIesctue people.

Name Clarifying - A Comprehension Strategy

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Word

What strategies did you use to clarify the word?

What do you think the word means?
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Doesn't identify any words or ideas to clarify Identifies a word or idea that needs to be clarified Identifies & attempts at least one strategy to clarify the meaning with support Identifies and uses one strategy to clarify without support Identifies a word or idea to clarify and uses 2 or more strategies with a reasonable

meaning

Stone Age Reading Test
Name: Date:

A Day in the Life of a Cave Person
Most Stone Age people Ido not stay in one place for long, they had to move where the food was. They made temporary shelters out of whatever mctericls were at hand: skins, branches of trees, animals tusks and reeds. In some places, where there were large numbers of mammoths, they make huts out of bones,of dead mammoths, covered with skins. Although some cave people did live in caves, most Stone Age people lived in huts and tents outside of the caves. Although it was very dark in the caves, the walls were covered with paintings Ir-m-a-gn-i-fi-ce-n---'tl of animals, full of life and color. Animals were the main subject of the pictures cave art. The animals included horses, reindeer, wooly mammoths and bison. In 'order to make cave art paint, the people would ~ix different r-lin-g-re-d-ie-n-t-'sl together to make paint. They would /combin~ animal fat and blood to make red paint. They would use fur .for paintbrushes or they would fill their mouths with liquid paints and then spit it out.

1. How many paragraphs are contained above?
2. Whi.ch feature tells what this passage is about? 3. T 4.T F F

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Most Stone Age people lived in huts and tents. Stone Age tents and huts were mostly made out wood, bricks and tile.

5. USingone of the boxed words above, write at least two clarifying strategies to tell me what you think they mean. Boxed Word Clarifying Strategies Used I think the word means....

6. Write one main idea question and answer from the text above. Q:

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Who or what is this article mostly about?

And what about the "who or what" isthe most important information?

Write the gist of the article in 10 words or less.

Name: Date:

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Example: What did the people do to control the floods?

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Word adapt Meaning to change in order to survive Clarif:ting Strategies read all around it, search schema

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In one word, what do you think this passage is mostly about? In 10 words, write a GIST statement telling the main idea of the passage. _

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Based on what you've already read, explain what you think will happen next in the passage and why. Write," I think the text will talk about because "

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PREDICT • Give a new prediction. .. Or, add a detail to the last one.

CLARIFY
• Choose another word or idea to clarify . ., Or, give more ways to clarify the same ~ word or idea. SUMMARIZE • Give a new summary. • Or. add to the previous summary.

QUESTION • Ask another question that begins with a different question word.

Reciprocal Teaching at Work: Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension by Lori D. Oczkus © 2003. Newark. DE: International Reading Association. May be copied For classroom use.
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