Assignment 20: Inductance and Magnetic Energy

Due: 8:00am on Wednesday, March 28, 2012 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.

Mutual Inductance of a Double Solenoid
Learning Goal: To learn about mutual inductance from an example of a long solenoid with two windings. To illustrate the calculation of mutual inductance it is helpful to consider the specific example of two solenoids that are wound on a common cylinder. We will take the cylinder to have radius and length . Assume that the solenoid is much longer than its radius, so that its field can be determined from Ampère's law throughout its entire length: .

We will consider the field that arises from solenoid 1, which has turns per unit length. The magnetic field due to solenoid 1 passes (entirely, in this case) through solenoid 2, which has turns per unit length. Any change in magnetic flux from the field generated by solenoid 1 induces an EMF in solenoid 2 through Faraday's law of induction, Part A .

Consider first the generation of the magnetic field by the current in solenoid 1. Within the solenoid (sufficiently far from its ends), what is the magnitude of the magnetic field due to this current? Express in terms of , variables given in the introduction, and relevant constants. ANSWER: = Correct Note that this field is independent of the radial position (the distance from the symmetry axis) for points inside the solenoid. Part B What is the flux generated by solenoid 1's magnetic field through a single turn of solenoid 2? Hint B.1 The definition of flux Hint not displayed Express in terms of , quantities given in the introduction, and any needed constants. ANSWER: = Correct

Part C Now find the electromotive force solenoid 1. Hint C.1 Find the flux from induced across the entirety of solenoid 2 by the change in current in

Hint not displayed Hint C.2 The EMF for the entire solenoid Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Putting it together Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of constants. ANSWER: = Correct Part D This overall interaction is summarized using the symbol to indicate the mutual inductance between the two windings. Based on your previous two answers, which of the following formulas do you think is the correct one? ANSWER: , , , other parameters given in the introduction, and any relevant

Correct Mutual inductance indicates that a change in the current in solenoid 1 induces an electromotive force (EMF) in solenoid 2. When the double solenoid is thought of as a circuit element, this electromotive force is added into Kirchhoff's loop law. The constant of proportionality is the mutual inductance, denoted by . The negative sign in the equation comes from the negative sign in Faraday's law, and reflects Lenz's rule: The changing magnetic field due to solenoid 1 will induce a current in solenoid 2; this induced current will itself generate a magnetic field within solenoid 2, such that changes in the induced magnetic field oppose the changes in the magnetic field from solenoid 1. Part E Using the formula for the mutual inductance, Express the mutual inductance in terms of , constants. ANSWER: = , find . , quantities given in the introduction, and relevant physical

Correct Part F Not surprisingly, if a current is sent through solenoid 2, it induces a voltage in solenoid 1. The mutual inductance in this case is denoted by , the mutual inductance for voltage induced in solenoid 1 from current in solenoid 2. What is ? Hint F.1 A new symmetry Express the mutual inductance in terms of constants. ANSWER: = Correct Hint not displayed , , quantities given in the introduction, and relevant physical

This result that is equal to reflects the interchangeability of the two coils and applies even if the coils are only partially coupled (for example, if one coil is wound on a much larger cylinder or if only a fraction of the larger coil's flux is intercepted by the smaller coil). Because of this fact, the subscripts are generally omitted: There is only one mutual inductance between two coils, denoted by : An EMF is generated in one coil by a change in current in the other coil.

Self-Inductance of a Solenoid
Learning Goal: To learn about self-inductance from the example of a long solenoid. To explain self-inductance, it is helpful to consider the specific example of a long solenoid, as shown in the figure. This solenoid has only one winding, and so the EMF induced by its changing current appears across the solenoid itself. This contrasts with mutual inductance, where this voltage appears across a second coil wound on the same cylinder as the first.

Assume that the solenoid has radius , length along the z axis, and is wound with turns per unit length so that the total number of turns is equal to . Assume that the solenoid is much longer than its radius. As the current through the solenoid changes, the resulting magnetic flux through the solenoid will also change, and an electromotive force will be generated across the solenoid according to Faraday's law of induction: . Faraday's law implies the following relation between the self-induced EMF across the solenoid and the current passing through it: .

The "direction of the EMF" is determined with respect to the direction of positive current flow, and represents the direction of the induced electric field in the inductor. This is also the direction in which the "back-current" that the inductor tries to generate will flow. Part A Suppose that the current in the solenoid is . Within the solenoid, but far from its ends, what is the magnetic field due to this current? Express your answer in terms of , quantities given in the introduction, and relevant constants (such as ). ANSWER: = Correct Note that this field is independent of the radial position (the distance from the axis of symmetry) as long as it is measured at a point well inside the solenoid. Part B What is the magnetic flux through a single turn of the solenoid? Express your answer in terms of the magnetic field , quantities given in the introduction, and any needed constants. ANSWER: = Correct Part C Suppose that the current varies with time, so that . Find the electromotive force induced across the entire solenoid due to the change in current through the entire solenoid. Hint C.1 Find the flux in terms of the current Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find the EMF for the entire solenoid Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Putting it together Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct Part D The self-inductance is related to the self-induced EMF by the equation . Find for a long solenoid. (Hint: The self-inductance will always be a positive quantity.) Express the self-inductance in terms of the number of turns per length , the physical dimensions and , and relevant constants. ANSWER: = Correct This definition of the inductance is identical to another definition you may have encountered: , where is the magnetic flux due to a current in the inductor. To see the correspondence you should differentiate both sides of this equation with respect to time and use Faraday's law, i.e., . Now consider an inductor as a circuit element. Since we are now treating the inductor as a circuit element, we , , , and .

must discuss the voltage across it, not the EMF inside it. The important point is that the inductor is assumed to have no resistance. This means that the net electric field inside it must be zero when it is connected in a circuit. Otherwise, the current in it will become infinite. This means that the induced electric field deposits charges on such that ), not those and around the inductor in such a way as to produce a nearly equal and opposite electric field produced by changing magnetic fields (like

! Kirchhoff's loop law defines voltages only in terms of fields produced by charges (like

). So if we wish to continue to use Kirchhoff's loop law, we must

continue to use this definition consistently. That is, we must define the voltage alone (note that the integral is from A to B rather than from B to A, hence the positive sign). So finally, , where we have used and the definition of . Part E Which of the following statements is true about the inductor in the figure in the problem introduction, where is the current through the wire? Hint E.1 A fundamental inductance formula Hint not displayed ANSWER: If If If If is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be greater than that at end B. is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be greater than that at end B. is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be less than that at end B. is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be less than that at end B.

Correct Part F Now consider the effect that applying an additional voltage to the inductor will have on the current already flowing through it (imagine that the voltage is applied to end A, while end B is grounded). Which one of the following statements is true? Hint F.1 A fundamental inductance formula Hint not displayed ANSWER: If is positive, then If is positive, then If is positive, then negative. If is positive, then If is positive, then positive. will necessarily be positive and will necessarily be negative and could be positive or negative, while will be negative. will be negative. will necessarily be

will necessarily be positive and could be positive or negative while

will be positive. will necessarily be

If is positive, then Correct

will necessarily be negative and

will be positive.

Note that when you apply Kirchhoff's rules and traverse the inductor in the direction of current flow, you are interested in , just as traversing a resistor gives a term . In sum: when an inductor is in a circuit and the current is changing, the changing magnetic field in the inductor produces an electric field. This field opposes the change in current, but at the same time deposits charge, producing yet another electric field. The net effect of these electric fields is that the current changes, but not abruptly. The "direction of the EMF" refers to the direction of the first, induced, electric field.

Exercise 30.8
A toroidal solenoid has 560 turns, cross-sectional area 6.20 Part A Calcualte the coil's self-inductance. ANSWER: 7.78×10−4 = Correct Part B If the current decreases uniformly from 5.00 to 2.00 in 3.00 ANSWER: 0.778 = Correct Part C The current is directed from terminal a of the coil to terminal b. Is the direction of the induced emf from a to b or from b to a? ANSWER: From a to b From b to a Correct , calculate the self-induced emf in the coil. , and mean radius 5.00 .

± Energy Stored in an Inductor
The electric-power industry is interested in finding a way to store electric energy during times of low demand for use during peak-demand times. One way of achieving this goal is to use large inductors. Part A What inductance would be needed to store energy (kilowatt-hours) in a coil carrying current Hint A.1 The formula for the energy stored in a current-carrying inductor Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Express the energy in joules Hint not displayed ANSWER: = 240 H Correct ?

This is probably not the best way to store energy: unless the coil is a superconductor, the amount of heat

dissipated in the coil would be enormous. At this point, there is no way to produce large superconducting coils. Think of this problem as a practice exercise rather than a realistic example.

An Air-Filled Toroidal Solenoid
An air-filled toroidal solenoid has a mean radius of 15.2 and a cross-sectional area of 5.04 (see the figure). The current flowing through it is 12.5 , and it is desired that the energy stored within the solenoid be at least

0.388 . Part A What is the least number of turns that the winding must have? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Self-inductance of a coil Hint not displayed Hint A.3 The magnetic field through the solenoid Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Magnetic flux through a toroidal solenoid Hint not displayed Hint A.5 Energy stored in an inductor Hint not displayed Hint A.6 Equation for the magnetic energy density Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically, as a whole number, to three significant figures. ANSWER: 2740 turns Correct

Problem 30.48
A small solid conductor with radius is supported by insulating, nonmagnetic disks on the axis of a thin-walled tube with inner radius . The inner and outer conductors carry equal currents in opposite directions. Part A Use Ampere's law to find the magnetic field at any point at the distance from the axis of the cable in the volume between the conductors. Express your answer in terms of , , , , and .

ANSWER: = Part B Write the expression for the flux through a narrow strip of length parallel to the axis, of width distance from the axis of the cable and lying in a plane containing the axis. Express your answer in terms of , , , , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part C Integrate your expression from part B over the volume between the two conductors to find the total flux produced by a current in the central conductor. Express your answer in terms of , , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part D Find the inductance of a length of the cable. Express your answer in terms of , , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part E Use equation to calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field for a length of the cable. Express your answer in terms of , , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct , at a Correct

Problem 30.49
A small solid conductor with radius is supported by insulating, nonmagnetic disks on the axis of thin-walled tube with inner radius . The conductors carry equal currents in opposite directions. Part A Use Ampere's law to find the magnetic field at any point in the volume between the conductors. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , and appropriate constants. ANSWER: = Correct Part B Use the energy density for a magnetic field, equation , to calculate the energy stored in a thin, cylindrical shell between the two conductors. Let the cylindrical shell have inner radius , outer radius , and

length . Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , ANSWER: = Correct Part C

, and appropriate constants.

Integrate your result in part B over the volume between the two conductors to find the total energy stored in the magnetic field for a length of the cable. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , , and appropriate constants. ANSWER: = Correct Part D Use your result in part C and equation ANSWER: = Correct to calculate the inductance of a length of the cable.