Oracle - OS (LC


Oracle Architecture
Oracle Day 1

      To Recall RDBMS concepts To introduce ORACLE and its products To introduce Oracle Client/Server Architecture To explain Oracle Physical structure-Data Files, Control Files, Redo Files To explain Oracle Logical Structure- Tablespaces, Segments, Extents, Blocks To introduce Schema objects-Tables, Sequences, Synonyms, Views, Indexes and Clusters To explain Oracle Memory Structures and Background Processes, Data Dictionary

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Overview ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Why RDBMS? Keys SQL Embedded SQL Transaction processing Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 4 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .2.RDBMS .

‡ In the Relational Data Model. Copyright © 2005.2. ‡ It is a management system which uses the Relational Data Model.0 .What is Oracle? Oracle is a Relational Database Management System. Infosys Technologies Ltd 5 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. data is seen by the users in form of tables.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 6 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 .Oracle Products Oracle broadly sells products in two categories ‡ ‡ Database Servers Application Development Tools Copyright © 2005.

2.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 7 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Database Servers ‡ ‡ ‡ Oracle 10g Database Oracle 9i Database Oracle 8i Database Copyright © 2005.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 8 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .Application Development Tools ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Oracle Developer (Includes Forms. Graphics etc. Reports.) Oracle Designer Oracle Discoverer PL/SQL (Technology) Copyright © 2005.2.

0 . integrated approach to information management ± Consists of ‡ An Oracle Instance and ‡ An Oracle Database Oracle Server Copyright © 2005.Oracle Database Server Oracle Database server: ± Is a database management system that provides an open.2. comprehensive. Infosys Technologies Ltd 9 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

2.0 .Oracle Database Server Architecture User process Shared Pool Library Cache Instance SGA Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Large Pool Server process PGA Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON DBWR LGWR CKPT Others Parameter file Password file Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Archived Log files Database Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 10 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Oracle Database Oracle Database: ± Is a collection of data that is treated as a unit ± Consists of three file types Oracle Database Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Copyright © 2005.0 .2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 11 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Oracle Instance Oracle Instance: ‡ Is a means to access an Oracle database ‡ Always open one and only one database ‡ Consists of memory structures and background processes Instance SGA Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Large Pool Memory structures Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache PMON SMON DBWR LGWR CKPT Others Background Processes Copyright © 2005.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 12 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.

Establishing a Connection and Creating a Session Connecting to an Oracle Instance: ± Establishing a user connection ± Creating a session Connection established User process Server process Session created Oracle Server Database user Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 13 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 .

Redo log files.2. Other key files: ‡ Parameter file ‡ Password file ‡ Archived redo log file Oracle Database Parameter file Password file Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Archived Log files Copyright © 2005. Data files.0 .Physical Structure The physical structure includes three types of files: ‡ Control files. Infosys Technologies Ltd 14 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 15 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Memory Structure ‡ Oracle¶s memory structure consists of two memory areas known as: ± System Global Area (SGA): Allocated at instance startup. and is a fundamental component of an Oracle Instance ± Program Global Area (PGA): Allocated when the server process is started Copyright © 2005.0 .

statistical data) There are additional memory structures that can be configured within the SGA: ‡ Large Pool Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 16 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 . lock and latch management.2.System Global Area The SGA consists of several memory structures: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Shared Pool Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Other structures (for example.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 17 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .Shared Pool ± Used to store: ‡ Most recently executed SQL statements ‡ Most recently used data definitions ± It consists of two key performance-related memory structures: ‡ Library Cache ‡ Data Dictionary Cache ± Sized by the parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE Shared Pool Library Cache Data Dictionary Cache Copyright © 2005.2.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 18 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Library Cache ± Stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements ± Enables the sharing of commonly used statements ± Is managed by a least recently used (LRU) algorithm ± Consists of two structures: ‡ Shared SQL area ‡ Shared PL/SQL area ± Size determined by the Shared Pool sizing Copyright © 2005.0 .

2. users.0 . privileges. indexes.Data Dictionary Cache ± A collection of the most recently used definitions in the database ± Includes information about database files. Infosys Technologies Ltd 19 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. the server process looks at the data dictionary for information to resolve object names and validate access ± Caching data dictionary information into memory improves response time on queries and DML ± Size determined by the Shared Pool sizing Copyright © 2005. columns. tables. and other database objects ± During the parse phase.

0 .Database Buffer Cache ± Stores copies of data blocks that have been retrieved from the datafiles ± Enables great performance gains when you obtain and update data ± Managed through the LRU algorithm ± DB_BLOCK_SIZE determines the block size Database Buffer Cache Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 20 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 21 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .Redo Log Buffer ± ± ± ± ± Records all changes made to the database data blocks Primary purpose is recovery Changes recorded within are called redo entries Redo entries contain information to reconstruct or redo changes Size defined by LOG_BUFFER Redo Log Buffer Copyright © 2005.2.

2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 22 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Large Pool ± An optional area of memory in the SGA ± Relieves the burden placed on the Shared Pool ± Used for: ‡ Session memory (UGA) for the Shared Server ‡ I/O server processes ‡ Backup and restore operations or RMAN ± Does not use an LRU list ± Sized by LARGE_POOL_SIZE Copyright © 2005.0 .

2.Program Global Area ± Memory reserved for each user process connecting to an Oracle database ± Allocated when a process is created ± Deallocated when the process is terminated ± Used by only one process PGA Server process User process Copyright © 2005.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 23 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 24 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Process Structure Oracle takes advantage of various types of processes: ± User process: Started at the time a database user requests connection to the Oracle server ± Server process: Connects to the Oracle Instance and is started when a user establishes a session ± Background processes: Started when an Oracle Instance is started Copyright © 2005.0 .

Infosys Technologies Ltd 25 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .User Process ± A program that requests interaction with the Oracle server ± Must first establish a connection ± Does not interact directly with the Oracle server Server process User process Connection established Database user Copyright © 2005.2.

Server Process ± A program that directly interacts with the Oracle server ± Fulfills calls generated and returns results ± Can be Dedicated or Shared Server Connection established User process Server process Session created Oracle server Database user Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 26 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 27 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Background Processes ‡ Maintains and enforces relationships between physical and memory structures ± Mandatory background processes: ‡ DBWR PMON CKPT ‡ LGWR SMON ± Optional background processes: ‡ ARCn RECO Copyright © 2005.

Database Writer (DBWn) Instance SGA Database Buffer Cache ‡ DBWn writes when: ± Checkpoint occurs ± Dirty buffers reach threshold ± There are no free buffers ± Timeout occurs ± Tablespace OFFLINE ± Tablespace READ ONLY ± Table DROP or TRUNCATE DBWn Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Database Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 28 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .2.

Log Writer (LGWR) Instance SGA Redo Log Buffer ‡ LGWR writes: ± At commit ± When one-third full ± When there is 1 MB of redo ± Every three seconds ± Before DBWn writes DBWn LGWR Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Database Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 29 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 .

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 30 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.System Monitor (SMON) Instance SGA ‡ Responsibilities: ± Instance recovery ‡ Rolls forward changes in redo logs ‡ Opens database for user access ‡ Rolls back uncommitted transactions ± Coalesces free space ± Deallocates temporary segments SMON Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Database Copyright © 2005.2.

2.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 31 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Process Monitor (PMON) Instance SGA ‡ Cleans up after failed processes by: ± Rolling back the transaction ± Releasing locks ± Releasing other resources ± Restarting dead dispatchers PMON PGA area Copyright © 2005.

2.0 .Checkpoint (CKPT) Instance SGA ‡ Responsible for: ± Signaling DBWn at checkpoints ± Updating datafile headers with checkpoint information ± Updating control files with checkpoint information DBWn LGWR CKPT Datafiles Control files Redo Log files Database Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 32 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Archiver (ARCn) ± Optional background process ± Automatically archives online redo logs when ARCHIVELOG mode is set ± Preserves the record of all changes made to the database Datafiles Control files Redo Log files ARCn Archived Redo Log files Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 33 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 .

0 .2.Control File ± ± ± ± A small binary file Defines current state of physical database Maintains integrity of database Required: ‡ At MOUNT state during database startup ‡ To operate the database ± Linked to a single database ± Loss may require recovery ± Sized initially by CREATE DATABASE Database Control files Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 34 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 35 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Control File Contents ‡ A control file contains the following entries: ± Database name and identifier ± Time stamp of database creation ± Tablespace names ± Names and locations of datafiles and redo log files ± Current redo log file sequence number ± Checkpoint information ± Begin and end of undo segments ± Redo log archive information ± Backup information Copyright © 2005.2.0 .

2.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 36 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Redo Log Files Redo log files have the following characteristics: ± Record all changes made to data ± Provide a recovery mechanism ± Can be organized into groups ± At least two groups required Redo Log files Copyright © 2005.

2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 37 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .Structure of Redo Log Files Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Disk 1 Member Member Member Member Member Member Disk 2 Copyright © 2005.

2. ± When a redo log file is full.How Redo Log Files Work ± Redo log files are used in a cyclic fashion. Infosys Technologies Ltd 38 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 . LGWR will move to the next log group. ‡ Called a log switch ‡ Checkpoint operation also occurs ‡ Information written to the control file Copyright © 2005.

Copyright © 2005.0 .2.Archived Redo Log Files ± Filled online redo log files can be archived. Infosys Technologies Ltd 39 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. ± By default. ± There are two advantages in running the database in ARCHIVELOG mode and archiving redo log files: ‡ Recovery: A database backup together with online and archived redo log files can guarantee recovery of all committed transactions. database is created in NOARCHIVELOG mode. ‡ Backup: This can be performed while the database is open.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 40 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Archived Redo Log Files ± Accomplished automatically by ARCn ± Accomplished manually through SQL statements ± When successfully archived: ‡ An entry in the control file is made ‡ Records: archive log name.2. log sequence number. and high and low system change number (SCN) ‡ Filled redo log file cannot be reused until: ± A checkpoint has taken place ± File has been archived by ARCn ± Can be multiplexed ± Maintained by the DBA Copyright © 2005.0 .

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 41 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Logical Structure ± Dictates how the physical space of a database is used ± Hierarchy consisting of tablespaces. and blocks Tablespace Datafile Segment Segment Extent Blocks Copyright © 2005. extents. segments.2.

± Tablespaces: ‡ Can belong to only one database at a time ‡ Consist of one or more datafiles ‡ Are further divided into logical units of storage ± Datafiles: ‡ Can belong to only one tablespace and one database ‡ Are a repository for schema object data Database Tablespace Datafiles Copyright © 2005.2.0 .Tablespaces and Datafiles ‡ Oracle stores data logically in tablespaces and physically in datafiles. Infosys Technologies Ltd 42 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 43 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Types of Tablespaces ± SYSTEM tablespace ‡ Created with the database ‡ Contains the data dictionary ‡ Contains the SYSTEM undo segment ± Non-SYSTEM tablespace ‡ Separate segments ‡ Eases space administration ‡ Controls amount of space allocated to a user Copyright © 2005.0 .

2.Creating Tablespaces ‡ A tablespace is created using the command: ‡ CREATE TABLESPACE CREATE TABLESPACE userdata DATAFILE '/ora/data01.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 44 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. Copyright © 2005.dbf' SIZE 50M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M.

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 45 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Dropping Tablespaces ± Cannot drop a tablespace if it: ‡ Is the SYSTEM tablespace ‡ Has active segments ± INCLUDING CONTENTS drops the segments ± INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES deletes datafiles ± CASCADE CONSTRAINTS drops all referential integrity constraints DROP TABLESPACE userdata INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES. Copyright © 2005.2.

Obtaining Tablespace Information ‡ Obtaining tablespace and datafile information can be obtained by querying the following: ± Tablespaces: ‡ DBA_TABLESPACES ± Datafile information: ‡ DBA_DATA_FILES Copyright © 2005.2.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 46 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Types of Segments ± ± ± ± Data Segment Index Segment Rollback Segment Temporary Segment Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 47 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .

0 .Rollback Segment Old image Table New image Rollback segment Update transaction Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 48 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 49 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Rollback Segments: Purpose Transaction rollback Read consistency Transaction recovery Rollback segment Copyright © 2005.

0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 50 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Read Consistency Table SELECT * FROM table Copyright © 2005.

2.Types of Rollback Segments ± SYSTEM: Used for objects in the SYSTEM tablespace ± Non-SYSTEM: Used for objects in other tablespaces: ± Private: Acquired by a single instance ± Public: Acquired by any instance ± Deferred: Used when tablespaces are taken offline immediate. Infosys Technologies Ltd 51 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. temporary.0 . or for recovery Copyright © 2005.

2. ± An extent is allocated when the segment is: ‡ Created ‡ Extended ‡ Altered ± An extent is deallocated when the segment is: ‡ Dropped ‡ Altered ‡ Truncated Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 52 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.Extent Allocation and Deallocation ± An extent is a chunk of space used by a segment within a tablespace.0 .

Copyright © 2005.Manually Allocating Extents ALTER TABLE hr.employees ALLOCATE EXTENT(SIZE 500K DATAFILE µ/DISK3/DATA01. Infosys Technologies Ltd 53 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.DBF¶).2.0 .

Infosys Technologies Ltd 54 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.Database Block ± ± ± ± Minimum unit of I/O Consists of one or more operating system blocks Set at database creation DB_BLOCK_SIZE is the block size Copyright © 2005.0 .

0 .Database Block Contents Header Free space Data Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 55 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.

Block Space Utilization Parameters PCTFREE PCTUSED Copyright © 2005.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 56 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.

Row Migration and Chaining Before update After update Pointer Copyright © 2005.0 .2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 57 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Background processes ‡ Mount database ± ± ± ± Associate database with previously started instance Close database Find and open control file Read Redo /data file names from this file and confirm existence ‡ Open database ± Open online log files and data files ± Automatically perform instance recovery(SMON) ± Acquire one/more rollback segments Copyright © 2005.2.0 .Database and Instance Startup ‡ Start database [reads Parameter file before this] ± allocate & create SGA. Infosys Technologies Ltd 58 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Database and Instance Shutdown ‡ Close database ± Write all buffer data to disk ± Close Online redo files and data files ± Close database ‡ Dismount database ± Close control files ± Dissociate database from Instance ‡ Shut down instance ± Remove SGA from memory ± Terminate background processes Copyright © 2005.2.0 . Infosys Technologies Ltd 59 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

A user is created. A user can be associated only with one schema.Database Schema Schema Objects Tables Triggers Constraints Indexes Views Sequences Stored program units Synonyms User-defined data types Database links ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A schema is a named collection of objects.2.0 . Copyright © 2005. Username and schema are often used interchangeably. and a corresponding schema is created. Infosys Technologies Ltd 60 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

0 .Built-In Database Objects ‡ Other objects created with the database: ± Data Dictionary ± Performance tables ± PL/SQL packages ± Database event triggers Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 61 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

2.0 62 .Data Dictionary ± ± ± ± ± Central to every Oracle database Describes the database and its objects Contains read-only tables and views Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS ± Maintained by the Oracle server ± Accessed with SELECT Data files Control Redo files Log files Database Data Dictionary tables Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Base Tables and Data Dictionary Views ‡ The data dictionary contains two parts: ± Base tables ‡ Stores description of the database ‡ Created with CREATE DATABASE ± Data dictionary views ‡ Used to simplify the base table information ‡ Accessed through public synonyms ‡ Created with the catalog.0 .2.sql script Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 63 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Data Dictionary Contents The data dictionary provides information about: ± Logical and physical database structures ± Definitions and space allocations of objects ± Integrity constraints ± Users ± Roles ± Privileges ± Auditing Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 64 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .2.

Copyright © 2005.How the Data Dictionary is Used ‡ Primary uses: ± Oracle server uses it to find information about: ‡ Users ‡ Schema objects ‡ Storage structures ± Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed. Infosys Technologies Ltd 65 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 . ± Users and DBAs use it as a read-only reference for information about the database.2.

Data Dictionary View Categories ± Three sets of static views ± Distinguished by their scope:  DBA: In all the schemas  ALL: What the user can access  USER: In the user¶s schema DBA_xxx All of the objects in the database ALL_xxx Objects accessible by the current user USER_xxx Objects owned by the current user Copyright © 2005. Infosys Technologies Ltd 66 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .2.

0 .Classification of Indexes ± Logical ‡ Single column or concatenated ‡ Unique or nonunique ‡ Function-based ‡ Domain ± Physical ‡ Partitioned or nonpartitioned ‡ B-tree ± Normal or reverse key ‡ Bitmap Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 67 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

Infosys Technologies Ltd 68 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 .Comparing B-Tree and Bitmap Indexes B-tree ‡Suitable for high-cardinality columns ‡Updates on keys relatively inexpensive ‡Inefficient for queries using OR predicates Useful for OLTP Bitmap ‡Suitable for low-cardinality columns ‡Updates to key columns very expensive ‡Efficient for queries using OR predicates Useful for data warehousing Copyright © 2005.

Creating Indexes CREATE INDEX empl_last_name_idx ON empl(last_name). Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 69 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.0 .

Creating Indexes: Guidelines ± Balance query and DML needs ± Place in separate tablespace ± Use uniform extent sizes: Multiples of five blocks or MINIMUM EXTENT size for tablespace ± Consider NOLOGGING for large indexes ± INITRANS should generally be higher on indexes than on the corresponding tables. Infosys Technologies Ltd 70 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.2.0 . Copyright © 2005.

Dropping Indexes ± Drop and recreate an index before bulk loads.2. DROP INDEX index1. Infosys Technologies Ltd 71 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. Copyright © 2005. ± Drop and recreate invalid indexes.0 . ± Drop indexes that are infrequently needed and build them when necessary.

0 .Obtaining Index Information ‡ Information about indexes can be obtained by querying the following views: ± USER_INDEXES: Provides information on the indexes ± USER_IND_COLUMNS: Provides information on the columns indexed Copyright © 2005.2. Infosys Technologies Ltd 72 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No.

‡ Generation of Sequence numbers ‡ Sequence object stored in database ‡ Example
± CREATE SEQUENCE SEQ_TRIAL INCREMENT BY 1 START WITH 1 ± insert into employees values (seq_trial.nextval, 'Test', 1, 2); ± use sequence.currval for current value of sequence

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Database Administrator Users

Users SYS and SYSTEM are created automatically during database creation and granted the DBA role ‡ SYS ± Password: change_on_install ± Owner of the database data dictionary SYSTEM ± Password: manager ± Owner of additional internal tables and views used by Oracle tools


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Creating Users
CREATE USER swetalina IDENTIFIED BY mamuni DEFAULT TABLESPACE usr01 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp01 QUOTA 10M ON usr01; Granting Privileges GRANT <role-name> TO swetalina;

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Infosys Technologies Ltd 76 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. ± Users who are currently connected to the Oracle server cannot be dropped. DROP USER swetalina CASCADE.0 . Copyright © 2005. DROP USER swetalina.Dropping a User ± Use the CASCADE clause to drop all objects in the schema if the schema contains objects.2.

± Explained Oracle Logical Structure. Blocks ± Introduced Schema objects-Tables. Redo Files. Sequences. Infosys Technologies Ltd 77 ER/CORP/CRS/DB25/003 Version No. Segments.2.Tablespaces. Control Files. Synonyms. Extents.0 . Indexes and Clusters ± Explained Oracle Memory Structures and Background Processes. Views.Summary We have discussed the following: Introduced ORACLE products Recalled RDBMS concepts Introduced Oracle Client Server Architecture Explained Oracle Physical structure-Data Files. Data Dictionary ± ± ± ± Copyright © 2005.