Physical Facilities of the Organisation Part II

Topics   Ventilation & Air Conditioning Industrial Sanitation   Industrial Noise and Control Industrial Safety and Security .

i. airborne bacteria. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. to control temperature or remove moisture.e. to keep interior building air circulating. dust. and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture. odors.Ventilation  Ventilating is the process of "changing" or replacing air in any space to provide high Indoor air quality. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into: Natural Ventilation Artificial/mechanical/Forced Ventilation    . and to prevent stagnation of the interior air. introduce outside air. smoke. heat. carbon dioxide.

nausea. laziness and fatigue. fatigue. State Government & National Building Code Provides Adequate Supply of Fresh Air: stale air might lead to loss of appetite. sleeplessness. boredom and early tiring Maintains required degree of Humidity:     . Reduces Odours.Significance of Good Ventilation  Meets Legal requirements: Factories Act 1948. reduce immunity.Impurities and Noxious Gases: minimizes occupational hazards Prevents excessive Heat Generation in Premises : causing head-aches.

higher the speed of wind . its velocity size and position of openings or inlet and outlet in the factory building  When wind blows against the factory building a positive pressure is created on the windward side and creates suction on lee-ward side.Natural Ventilation windward .  Rate of airflow depends on pressure difference between inside and outside air. .greater will be the pressure and thus higher rate of air flow.the direction from which the wind is coming leeward side .the side sheltered from the wind Wind Effect  Caused by direction of wind.

Natural Ventilation (Contd.) Stack Effect  Caused by convection effect that are from a difference in the temperature or vapour pressure or difference of both inside and outside factory building  When the air inside the building gets warm cause by heat due to inputs and processing the warmer air rises and passes out the ventilations provided on the upper part of the buildings This effects also rests on the difference in the height of the inlets and the outlet and the ratio between two openings  .

Artificial Ventilation The three basic methods of artificial ventilation: The Exhaust System: in this exhaust fans are used to remove the stale and vitiated air through exhaust fans. The Supply System: in this system fresh air is supplied by means of fan without any efforts to duct it out. It involves upward and downward ventilation.dust and dust particles. odours. The system is ideal to remove smoke.fumes. In upwards ventilation incoming air is allowed to flow through the doors and windows at floor level and stale air is made to flow out though outlet on ceiling Balanced System: in this both exhaust and supply system is used for ventilation .

Reduces the concentration of atmospheric dust of incoming air.Devices used for effective Artificial Ventilation  Air Filters: It is used to filter the polluted or stale air.  Air Washers/Purifier: Used for cleaning air by forcing the air to pass through water taking the form of spray It removes dust and fumes by the water drops .

Air Conditioning It control temperature and humidity and the distribution and purity of air by artificial means. Heating 3. Humidification 5. Cooling 4. Self Contained. Dehumidification 6. Winter and Composite System of Air Conditioning: Central. Air Filters 2. Air Distribution Types of air conditioning: Summer. Semi Contained . Six main components of air conditioning: 1.

These fans consume a large amount of the building’s total power. high-powered fans to blow air into heating ducts. . and requires many large.Industrial Air Conditioning  Industrial air-handling can take up a large portion of building space.

    . reduce absenteeism. fatigue Desirable condition of temperature: processes which need certain level of moisture. soot. temperature.Significance of Air Conditioning    Employee comfort in cases of extreme temperatures. dust control. Employee health: prevents dust.meat packing. fumes. Preservation and Improvement of Product Quality: preserve quality standards for perishable items Protection of manufacturing equipments: avoiding breakdown of machinery Cost Control : increase in productivity. dairies. marine-product packing. fruit canning. avoid shut down in extreme weather conditions Storage of Inputs: in case of food processing.

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