CHI - T I ~1 L ,\ I

The Opposition of Celestial-Master Taoism to Popular Cults during the Six Dynasties

THE

EXPLAN

A TO R Y MO OELS

hen the Taoist Celestial-Master religion (rien-shih tao *~IIHlt literally, "the Way of the Celestial Masters"] began to proliferate in southern China in the fourth and fifth centuries AD, it also began compiling large numbers of scriptural texts to systematize its theological and liturgical teachings.' These Taoist scriptures strongly criticized the popular sacrificial cults that promoted worship of demons and divinities W. t$ , as well as of the insatiable spirits of the dead who entered into and spoke through spirit-mediums _Wi, In this article I deal in particular with the following scriptures of this type: Scripture of the Inner Explanations of the 'Ihree Heavens (San-t 'ien nei-chieh ching ~ApqWf't&, referred to below as the Three Heavens Scripture)'-"-; One Hundred Eighty Precepts Spoken by the Lord Lao (Lao-chiin pai-pa-shih t:+=t"B/\ -t-'f-X, referred to as The t So Precepts):l; and Lu Hsiu-ching chieh

W

!IfVt-ii'Ji (406-477), Master Lu s Abridged Codes for the Taoist

, In general, for the early history and organization of the Celestial Ma'(~r', see Ch'en Kuo-fu I~i _ll'l'J! 'JZf,IP -lJ ili idem, Tao-tsang yiilln-!iu II. '00 in!l'I:ii8iht:<j- (Peking: Chung-hua shu-chu, ",r':l), pp. 3ol'l-oq; Tang Ch'ang-ju 1,li Jd:t, uWei Chin ch'i chien per-fang T'ien-shih tao te ch'uan-po" it tf WI IHU UiX: ~rtii:Q (li'J 1.1i-M\-, idem, We; Chin Nan-pei ell'ao _,Mh -lun shih-i tI! f\;fj J i:,;(I1.'1: ~~ #; i'lt (Peking: Chung-hua, '9tl:I), pp_ 2' fl-:'1 ~; Masayoshi Kobayashi, "The Ce lestial Masters under the Eastern .lin and Lilt-Song Dvnasrie s." Taoist R£SOUTces:l (, 99z;', pp. 17--4:1; Sawa Akitoshi ;'l" t.'i'!11, "Gorobcido seiken no soshiki kozo" T-'i- *ii'l:if:dlf(J)tlIio-Jlti'lii~ , in Dokyo bunka kenkyukai l~ f!c:!:Jl:r:H4i: eds., lJ6kyii bunka f no trnhQ ii"'i.!"(>::{l:J>.,(J)~ '1l (Tokyo: Hirakawa shuppan, [994), pp_ '''! -.~2:Terry F_Kleeman, Grea; Perfic/Ion: Rliligion and Ethnieily in a Ch'n(s! MilIrnnial Kingdom [Honolulu: U _of Hawaii P., '99il), pp- 6'-1:1,1

l:ifj';:I71 "Nan-pel ch'ao T'ien-shih tao k'ao ch'ang-pien"
>

n~',

*,

~ [Chrng.t'anglltlO-tsang [lEr:'O mE: ('44,,; rpt: Shanghai, !<)23- [(l~fi), text no. I [g6, following numbering in Weng Tu-ehien flt comp., Combined Indices to Ih( Authors and Tales of Books In Two Collections of Iaois! Literature !B >W.-r Fl '0 . i~, Harvard- Yenching lnst. Sinol. Index Ser, 25 (Peking: 19z~; hereafter cited as HY}.

*·iJ

LHt-

.s Preserved in the work titled Scriptures (fIT no, 7H::;)-

of th« Most H(gh (rai-shang

Lao-chun

ching-iii};:

L 'I:;g

I

including the internal section ti.CHI-TIM LAI C. and Hans Hermann 19R5).~. "'''.+ tEl.) "'g. They start where Stein left off.. are the same . the Taoist ritual of "sending up petitions . >C*~ffil. Chines! Buddhist Apocrypha (Honolulu.• ·7.f. H.-r ri'i is yet offered. p. Welch Stein.ll-. Stein. 4~ 2 3 . that the new Celestial-Master religion "defined itself in contrast to the popular religious cults..P-E:* t'fr .19 I). (U·rhi sacrifice. we may start merely by stating. llY no. Tao- "Therapeutische " Kobayashi. Schmidt. between the two is difficult to establish Cedzich. and thing. and Kobayashi Masayoshi'Hi. [(1<)71. Angelika Cedzich..." p. the Three Heavens Script« te claims that in 142 A lJ "the Lao ch tin who has newly emerged ifT J I:. "Consecration Surra. W But Stein's model is founded on a problematic interpretation. s that a dear line of demarcation " Michel Buswell.. "Religious and Anna Taoism Seidel. 1!l!l0). tt . I I Presupposing a common ground between Taoism and popular religion. ch: A. I include such problematical texts as The Hsiang-erb Commentary to the Lao-tzu (Lao-tzu hsiang-erh chu . Following Strickmann's Viewpoint. below. as have others. which considers that the negative attitude was not unique in itself. t:t!:i..'15)." in Gert Naundorf.l (Shanghai: in Celestial-Master Kuchi.(i'$li. 11 Rolf Stein. p. Strickmann says. Han to the 5th c. 7S-! 07. called eds.. sect. p "Roshi soji chu ni tsuite" 1!'. See also. p.$lw.j.: \t fWPL (Toyko: Sobunsha. Sacrifice and prayer arc considered heresies tiffiiW 'f~[U] _7 Furthermore. t'HH2. '" Ibid. 60.)L.F. ~!l().1. "Religious Taoism." used for the proscription and HYno. but simply an echo of the normative views of governing officials. H~ *. "'I Scholars of medieval Taoism have attempted various explanatory models for this Taoist attitude.:::. Early Daoist Scripture..-200. in Stein's view. and which hsiang-erh."! For instance.l:&r~ displayed a certain power over the spirits and demons of popular religions." io Holmes popular instance. sacrificial an excessive cults in Record of Rite. U. Rtcord of Rites states : "A sacrifice that is not proper offer. "Ch'ij·!in brings ffilr.. L. see Stephen R. Michel Strickmann.. Kobayashi Masayoshi. and Popular p.0 no blessings"1~ ." P: SY. and Peter Nickerson have attempted their own models of explanation concerning the distinction of Taoism from popular religion. Hawaii P. or For is • liT no..." that Taoism. WZiTI~ .U POPLLAR CULTS (). '. ed. The tao therefore prohibits such practices by severe penalties ill t~~ ~ g. .l..'. Rituale und das Problem des Bosen im fruhen Taoismus. argu . ~Nit ~::ti.j. pp. p.. idem.. 9:). eds. 2q-k. I.. i-. Maeda Shigeki. I:'l. pp :)~tI-:\b.< Scholarly 111<). An especially influential one is that of Rolf Stein. (ii ill:: 0P"( • mCH Yi (1".'i where Celestial-Master antagonism towards popular sacrificial cults is also a common theme.mmunity (Lu hsien-slung tao-men II. 1. Mugitani Kunio#. or later. Based on materials from the texts just mentioned. ('993). Law and Order: Taoist Liturgy. pp.and Manual of the [:!NJ Officials !(. Precepts and Codes). "Religious Taoism." Karl-Heinz Pohl.. referred to Moreover. "The Consecration Sutra: A Buddhist Book of Spells.lasien {Wurzburg. P: ()a. pp. Rtligion und Pnilosophie in o. Stein's which conclusion is unorganized doe' not mean and diffuse.iscusses the theological meaning d ism's new title for Lurd Lao . Ll In more recent studies of Celestial-Master Taoism. .P In consequence. p. 5!. Bokerikarnp. I. The Taoist priests.STIAL MASTERS Ar. 6<). in the Hsiang-erh we read: m The correct law of heaven does not consist in sacrifices and prayer cults. '990). Excessive sacrifice ~ .LF.' Strick mann. carnivorous gods of popular religions" a remarkable revolution in Chinese religion. "Ghosts and Demons. He links the Taoist rejection of bloody rites to its own religious ritual. difficult 10 establish.:[ appeared to Chang Tao-ling 1.Jr. {Berkeley: C." in Robert E.a r~~). clue and Cheng-ifa-wen Tien-sluh chiaochieh-k'o chinK range from late E.g. Rikucho D6k)"oshi k~nk)"" . 'a-filth as Master Lu s Codes:' ll$:7t:l @ ~IJt-'+I£1i.. Facets QfTaoism ")7~).~.: .j. finds Religioo a parallel from the Second (New Haven: argument 10 to Seventh Yale lJ... " Angelika Jao Grave Quelling Texts and Early Strickrnann. Angelika Cedzich. of Cali fomi a P. :) t . HT no. n tled "Commands and Admonitions for the Families of the Great Tao :*:ili1( 9tOC n). 1191i. below.t1Q-I~u Hsiang-erk chu chiaQ-chengr: -i' . Rikuchij. Because people's requests were channeled to the celestial spirits. who understood the Taoist opposition against popular religion as a strategy of syncretism so that the organized Taoist religion could sublimate the more dif- n" fused content of popular worship in a better-controlled framework..'2.. Stein thus concluded that the essential difference was simply one of degree. Centuries..\$!l i/1 t."~ a main prohibition of which stipulated that "one must not make the people improperly worship other spirits and demons. a clear line of demarcation between those cults accepted by Taoism and those of a popular or heterodox type were. ."Lao-chim who has newly emerged. 7· F views on the dating of Lao-tm 1'1. made every effort to reveal the true nature of those spirits of the dead whom the people worshipped as gods and who demanded food offering and blood sacrifices.f lli j'0t and entrusted to him with the new "correct law of the three heavens --:: Ir: X U.:!~tr." Taoist RtJOI17ctS . "In what way was the Celestial-Master religion in fact new?" Strickmann calls the Taoist replacement of the "impure. studying the Taoist ritual laid out in the works titled Concealed Instructions for the Aleent to Perfi:ction (1fng-chen yin -chiieh~.. p. j. and one must not make offerings of food and drink to demons.. (1:1. Hsiang-erh) and The Scripture of the Precepts and Codes raught by the Celestial Master from the Texts of the Law of Correct Unity (Cheng-ifa-wen T'ien-shib chiao-chieh-k '0 ching IE ·i1. '! 7 Tsung·i flJ'i. popular religiun. but ask the key question. ~3.p.frj t. "organized into a church.

Demons. Demons. In addition of the Celestial ties provides worship. in the form of illness and of this liturgical is said that the newly emerged reinstituted documents gov- dead.r? own of of this change was that the Celestial Masters had to begin to the existence and Cedzich call the liturgical revolution examination of early-Taoist of sacrifices diviniin the of Taoism from the other kinds of prohibitions AD.: ~ as given in the Three Heavens Scripture demonstrates Masters adopted a systematic In the emit and spirits . "Local Cull. "Licentious Cults and Illoodv Victuals. P: 47." to absolve the unshri ven souls of the dead and so avoid of sacrifices to spirits and demons was possible because chang-li . "Religious Taoism.9. Maruyarna Hiroshi h LIJt."'2H Nickeror reform.choshosho 0 chushin toshiie" iE . sec Terrv Kleeman." p. pp. and diviners of Taoism was changing from that of a "sect.~k In contrast.. 01 II' Early View of .r" to what Strickmann Masters. that the Celestial-Masof "celestial officials. H HY no. ch. the Celestial-Master Taoism with methods to subdue the minor spirits of divination and divination In his words. but only of quantity. on the basis of the efficacy of their healof a conflict between to suppress Taoists and spirits of diviprohiillness. 472. *". 1S68 ('g86). on Maeda Shigeki. generals. A. 789- ~~There are several translations of this term. that the priests used in order to have the authority the gods to heal diseases and to control demons not included in its own hierarchy as belonging rituals.." in Facets of Iaoism." by Hisayuki Miyakawa.l" For Cedzich as for Strickmann. and liturgical to the appropriate vast numbers the correct law of the three heavens.' \ its novelty manner in which the Celestial sacrifices. Diviners. ! 19ti." from the point of view of officialdom.. 51-67. employed of. in Celeshe argues that the in the ritual of petito the diagnosis and Cedzich. reform. practices.. "Ghosts and Demons." Taoist Resources !l (T9!l4). 194. ~ Acla Asiatica 68 (Igg"i. Maeda suggests that the theological Text preserved in lImg·chm yin-rhiieh (HY no. around Mount Lu at the Time of Sun En's Rebellion. The names of these gods were rein the petitioning to "excessive cults corded in the registers ij. "Shamans.Peter Nickerson."~O! In 17 addition. ~ with to a "guild" of Taoist priests in the south." AM 3d ser.Mi-ch 'ing (Mi-ch 'ing kuei-liik~)l[ own hierarchy ff) /1 which may be regarded a certain kind of religious transformation. ~ with its deviant More recently. "Shuitsu Dokyo no josho girci ni tsuite . pp." fear of the evil caused by the demons of the it is largely owing to the Taoist ritual of celestial gods and ministries. they did provide Three Heaven Scripture excessive cults were condemned of the six heavens Lord Lao abrogated as deviant practices the age of decadence of excessive cult. go.7. A.-. 42 J) 3. cessfully dispersed sending petitions organizational. ifj f'{cJ)J:. the priests of religion regarded the worship of spirits embellishment known and restrict the function within their own liturgical framework. Like Strickmann rules and procedures of spirit-mediurnism of gods. Nickerson and that Taoist priests attempted divination practices. HY no. In this sense." P: _~ I_ 4 5 . !:\i-102. and Violence in Traditional China. .") The Taoist rejection their mediums. Diviners. P: :II .1 (1994)'~." p.?" bureaucratic son emphasizes tial-Master otherworldly tions provided of maladies for diagnosing that accounted that "between He gives as evidence as Ch 'ien-erh-pai kuan-i popular cults there was not a difference seen in such fifth-century ist establishment's command and demons not of quality. Indeed. scriptures He believes that it for the negative and Demon Statutes as the Taoto the list of divinities used certain of those same spirits and mantic principles to Stein's earlier conclusion practice and those of the prohibited but only of the degree. She suggests that although been very different coherent doctrinal. Sacrifice. Diviners. Diviners and Taoists: Conflict and Assimilation in Medieval Chinese Ritual Practice (c. ~ which suc- *. Demons. Peter Nickerson of petition practices cults. Masters nonetheless [the Taoists'] Chang Tao-ling and his followers in the second century in their view of divinities popular sacrifices. Nickerson.u the affliction that the latter visited on their descendants and misfortune. p. "Shamans.F'' nation. ~ g. Reciprocity. pp. l.17 goes asserted further in explaining by such opposition how the new to popular a might not have as "three heavens the intentional doctrine anating erned _~. and subject to bureaucratic and clerks by the "six heavens. P: 6 ". "Shamans. While granting another marker for distinguishing He suggests that Celestial-Master their competitors. "The Evolution of the Way of the Celestial Divinities. Maeda Shigeki's ing rituals.jb-23b_ n I~ Cedzich. Nickerson. Cedzich underscores.CHI-TIM LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS A'JD POPULAR CULTS (Ch 'ien-erh-pai kuan-i·fCelestial-Master religion _= sli i~ ). pp. 07 HYno. fl. 4 i· ~" Nickerson. 100-1000).NK-=f~If_f). ~" Stein..":' has studied the Celestial-Master containing material in Master Redpine's Almanac of Petitions (Ch 'ih Sung-tn: a scripture from the movement He points out that in the fifth cen- rules and legal procedures. ter priests were able to command *-'~.D. 2 i. dating back to the third to fifth centuries.M::s J!. a similar conclusion was made long "!. i~tE. /. Masters: 1'I Ibid. Demons.~I!H\'i! I~---'v'-cWii!:~J\~ g:r {} /: L-"( . 61_~. the widespread addressed the Taoists conceptually and liturgical "mortuary to reject and forbid the "other demons from ~the stale pneumas itlB1H$ .r" tury the social organization priests and registered The consequence compete with mediums lay followers. «Shamans. argues that in the face of the seemingly the Celestial unequivocal fourth and fifth centuries was also a change attitude towards did not entirely emanate from the ritual practices bition against popular In contrast nature." P: 16.

P: lb. his contact with the supernatural then ceased **f#}@. ~4 Hr no." P: 5<J." predominantly characterized by the practices of excessive cults.:14Another example is that of Fan Po-tz'u 18)@. again according to Master Lu's Codes: "Before they converted to the The Celestial-Master scriptures and the Taoist distaste for blood sacrifice both reflect important contemporaneous issues.. Strict renunciation of the prohibited popular cults was a prerequisite for conversion to Taoism. POPULAR A CONFLICT CULTS BETWEE~ IN THE TWO SOUTH: RELIGIOUS DISCOURSES the scripture announced a new age of the "three heavens" to be established by the "newly appeared Lord Lao" through Chang Tao-ling. as a corollary to the above. 3:1Stein. and he often communicated with demons and spirits IJl'H. but only the Taoist liturgical method of sending written petitions (subject to numerous bureaucratic rules) to the appropriate divine ministries..3. and the three heavens :t: 2: .u. it should not be thought that the Celestial-Master strictures. c. or codes fOr. he renounced his cult lJ"!iHfi* . the precepts of the tao. and the theology of the petition-sending ritual .JD POPCLAR CULTS the Celestial Masters "turned them [the spirits of divination] into minor functionaries on the margin of the vast Taoist invisible bureaucratic pantheon of the other world.:q:q. was not motivated by any of its own theological concerns. . scholars have in general identified the important innovation as the bureaucratic and organizational framework underscored in Taoist liturgy..T 1:'>1 L A I C~L~STIAL MASTERS A:'. However.CHI . the chief distinction of Taoism is that in curing illness and enhancing overall fortune one did not use divination or sacrificial rituals.~'J. 1 [<Jli A.. The Three Heavens Scripture describes the religious situation of the general populace as one of decadence: there was "intermingling of humans and demons AW."?" In short. In this sense the Celestial Masters distinguished themselves from the cults of popular religion. when he converted to Taoism. -t1f1Jr·~ "'iit. '" Ibid. .ll"lllE-~ if ~~7:." The new age of "th ree heavens" was to replace that of the "six heavens.. pneuma-pacification. who accepted the Celestial-Master teachings. If the Taoist opposition to popular religion simply shared the state-official view concerning restriction of sacrificial cults and. ~a. pp. "ReligiOUS Taoism. who was called the "Master of the grand dark capital. HY" no.~'J" means prohibition against popular cults: m One must not uphold the demons of excessive cults and heterodox teachings.:'1 Given the broad assimilation. this article reexamines the change of theological discourse that appeared in the Celestial-Master scriptures. and of theology and practice. then the Celestial-Master priests could be described as ritual specialists without any concern for less immediate theological issues. P: 12 b. In contrast to earlier scholars' focus on ritual." hich required no w sacrifices.1 :I~ HY" no.areas of religion avidly practised by followers of the Celestial-Master religion during the fourth and fifth centuries. against the gods of popular cults had no basis in the movement's new theology and ethics. a faithful follower of popular cults W -t.'?' Indeed. his family had been devout followers of a cult of popular gods for generations "tl!:$ffi-:f:l . It should not be assumed that the condemnation of sacrificial cults in these scriptures was simply notional.P For example.!lBlU$ .' Ibid.. 12. the fact that Celestial-Master Taoism imposed a strict injunction upon its followers upon their joining fits the description of religious acts of conversion..Master Lu s Codes states clearly that the pure covenant urged the followers of Celestial-Master Taoism to cast out "the thousand spirits and ten thousand demons and all the [popular] gods +'tW~~-~i'$tF:. Evidences of such conversions tend to contradict Stein's view that in this time people probably would convert to a Taoist church because it contained familiar elements. In Master Lu's Codes the term "pure covenant i~. ~1!i) describes a person named Hua Ch'iao $Mf). Z ~ffi . IIr q. 6 7 . true unity.0-. Taoism is seen by Nickerson to incorporate into a bureaucratic structure and liturgical framework the spirits and demons of popular religion that originally were created by diviners for their own mantic purposes. do not receive sacrificial offerings). When he heard of the "pure covenant of the great tao "j-. . [010. 20..~3:l In response. Furthermore. As evidenced in this brief review of recent studies of the Celestial-Master movement in the fourth and fifth centuries. Put an end to all types of magic and enter into a pure covenant with the parishioners such that priests are not to accept money [for carrying out sacrifices] and the spirits neither eat nor drink (that is. including discourse concerning the nature of the tao.. Z:frlf . p .'. '"II' Ibid. therefore. in contrast to Stein's notion of the ambiguity between the two religious practices. Directing our attention to the theological and ethical innovations underlined in the codes of behavior will lead us to an integration of different fundamental aspects of the religious life. with no basis in a systematic theology.._ ji! i~. an item in Declarations of the Perfected (Chen-kao t:J. ch.~ Here. P: [::lb. Prior to his conversion. P: 49.

ly several tens of thousands around surrendered *'~" The Three Heavens Scripture says that the sect was criticized as a "false method ~~lEit. people continued 2 15 + tradition. Perhaps that practice. ~Wei Chin ch'i chien pel-fang T'ien-shih tao.iX Z iIi because it did not follow certain Way of the this crucial aspects of practice mon ground common tial-Master and persisted in seeking and ritual prescribed by the "correct" of his followers and their families were resettled Although elements of the move" states that in 277 a cerand styled himself religion clearly Celestial Masters. f.(7-1 ) shows m Masters:. of the the Ch'ing-shui tao. no talismans. 2G. He said that in his Basing time "there were hundreds himself upon the fang-shih cults of spirits and demons demanded popular the inappropriate animals were killed and [spirits . p.~ Tang. On their day of vows no petitions. no booths for feasts of consecration.:t' the basic beliefs of the earliest Celestial a movement of religious area and continued in the later period. Goodman."! Oust north of present-day that such prohibitions their own..": Ch'enJui's carried out among the general populace the beginning.. "Celestial-Master Taoism and the Founding of the Ts'ao-Wei Dynasty: The u Fu Document.t $!dc. "Consecration Surra. 7 :1-8i..g{ -. ~.. i. pp. Great PtrfichOT/. 2. pp. prior to the Celestial Ie. Hua-yanglr. r : "This refers to persons who formerly adhered cults. in Wang Ming IiJi'!. Kleeman. tao] says that the Celestial Master had a slave who was by means of texts. at the End of the Han (Seattle: Scripta Serica. The reason emphasized worshipped as gods. p. Early Chinese historiographers referred to Chang Lu's Celestial-Master communities as adherants of the "way of demons. Kleeman.: vol. ~ A ill 11. i. _. When the illiterate Celestial and thus could not be converted So he ordered of the dead} ate their fresh blood" Master was just about to ascend to heaven.only a single urn of clear water. popular demonic 12!. 1 . ate there in the fourth century. I of cults of demons. and Ch'ang-an to thrive in the Han-chung the existing popular to extend ligious kingdom collapsed soon afterwards.44 Ch'ing-shu. Early Daoist Scriptum.~ It cults practice is that Ch'enJui's ~. Again we come to Strickmann's had been at pains to reveal that the observance those spirits of the dead whom the people benightedly would not be difficult to imagine among the general populace Taoist sect in the south.I.:i the extent of the practice of popular cults with blood sacrifices to spirits and demons during the Chin I" r--4Iq). ~r\§~. rh. Bokenkarnp. 79-80. cults who were possessed by demons to whom they offered sacrifices" fB 14' iknJ£ ilj.' (T 994).. devotees [of the Way of the Celestial Masters} were followers of popular cult way and called themselves and supplication. Taoist priests in the south when it began to proliferthe true nature worship of other spirits movement /fiHtQw.~ IE 1'1:. They say that the tao is in the water. 8 9 . xlI Authority of the Correct Unity -l'm_J!. T\lH:.Krn" (2R3-3. those sacrificial while they they could to the for reverence."J Howard.CHI-TIM LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS A:'ID POPULAR CULTS tao. but who were then converted to the truth ~ :iI'I A. '" Hislory (forth- IPeking' Chung-hua. fs'ao P'i Transcendent: The Political Culture of DylUlSly-Founding in Chino. 2 dl-32. ~ ~t+_ rill.-. 173. then we must not suppose dated to the fourth and fifth centuries suddenly 2I." P: \)::\. in this to actions and great expense of mediums. cult of spirit-mediums . p.. Howard L.t Ko Hung criticized and heterodox because." 40 Strickmann. P: Ga. "Ta-tung chi" (SKCS edn. Later.~ Chang Lu omous state in Han-chung.f MI. "Pao-p'u tzu and the Fang-shih Tradition. '7i· Pao-p u tzu ntl-p '1m ')."? "Celestial prohibited tain Ch'en Jui A passage in Hua-yang kuo-diih. L Goodman.." pp." S coming)... 163. Lo-yang. as perverse X ~tifJf: illTI §. HY no. p. p.<7 Ibid. Pao-p'u Izu nei-p'ier: duao-shin lttt-i' f'qiH'j'f!!< Chinese Stud. and subsequentChang Lu's retheir religious =:. Great Perfecuon.. in of Taoist prohibiarose on tions against the worship of the spirits of the dead.uo-chih 8.~fim. p 21 9. . trans.Q)lt $R mil . Its origins and religious characteristics Jill m -T. Ko Hung's~A:t had become Only a ladle of wine and a fish given for this religious the supreme values of "fresh- i[!i . and divination: not cure illness. 2 TO).n) Inner Chapters of the Book of the Master U1w of the are as (420-479 Embraces Simplicity (Pao-p 'u tzu nei p 'ien Eastern AD).. Cf. reform remark: Masters Celesto be "From of the Yeh. which they worship by burning incense. he took pity on him the issue of a well of water for him to use in disease.). It I the festival of clarity and light. In an attempt was implementing p_lj[ftfil revived the "way of demons" J1im Taoism Master" in southwestern Szechwan. Despite such differences. A. IT yb. Ko Hung'S criticisms also extended th... '" HY no. recognizable ment continued practices." AM 3d ser.t? Not surprisingly." and of the Three not the Way of the Covenanted Heavens who had established a semi-auton- to Ts'ao Ts'ao regions?" f¥!.~ as "clarity and purity" and the prohibition tao of the excessive a major issue for the newly arrived Such religious characteristics cults and sacrifices to demons of the dead are noticed also in a non- Chang sect of the Celestial Masters called the "Ch'ing-shui Lin-Sung period follows: (The m . In fact.~1iiwere ness and cleanliness of popular used in the rituals. to transcend ground underlined it is possible that they shared comcults._" ee Chi-tim Lai. I f at the historical no rites of offering . 1 !emil). sect. healing illness and contagious . it:. Y beginning of the Celestial Masters in Han-chung we can find evidence Szechwan) tao. they have nu chambers . 4. P: 77· 4I ·12 H HY no.

not only reflected the gravity of the crisis and the challenge the Taoist sect faced. says. but the dangers and crises of illness are just the things they know nothing about."4H THE A NEW CELESTIAL RELIGIOUS MASTERS: MOVEMF.": t~ . 788. Lord Lau transforms and the pneumas took shape as the heavens. Pao-p'u 47 4!< I~u nei-p'ien chiao-shih. one that distinguished itself from the popular sacrificial cults to the spirits of the dead." HY" no."! Admonitions for the Families of the Great Tao also states that "the lao gave birth to heaven." P: . and Master Lu 's Codes. ch: A. P: ~~·1· As is well known. the Three Heavens Scripture. were not the same as that intended in the ancient Tao-te ching. A. ". and the primal pneuma forms the lao. expound madly on maleficent influences..$J!:" Wi .::f ~ Spirit-mediums 11i:. the author(s) of the Three Heavens Scripture also offered criticism of the widespread observance of popular cults of sacrifices officiated by "physicians" and mediums ~ 1.':i In brief. m: _'" Bokenkamp. Bokenkarnp. 12 a. P: ". The 180 Precepts. ch: A. the interpretation of the Tao-te ching text and the understanding of the nature of the tao itself. pn~uma forms heaven. FArly Daoist Scripluw. "Of course. of the Celestial Masters. p.1·(: "Singing and dancing to the music of drums and strings.. Maeda. the book of the deified Lord Lao. but the tao cannot be given a shape or im- m Faced by a similar religious environment in the south. humanity. I 7~. Stephen Bokenkamp writes. HY no. the pneumas of the tao activate all life and provide the motive force behind existence. 39. from which heaven. trans. divinations are requested tirelessly rn1 f-.L~and Wang Pi :::E'm~ commentaries. or dark) !Z:. for example. fecund fullness is related to the concepts of "non -being" (wu ~ ). J za: "The mysti. the Dao is Lord Lao. In early Taoism. within and without. "so In the Three Heavens Scripture.T. or unity" (i -). Those with hearts to hold this truth should memorize the Five-thousand Character Text This scripture leads one to maintain the tao and to achieve a lengthy existence beyond both life and death. Through the Laozi. II 96. . p. P: 4. it can be readily imagined that the organized and sys· tematic opposition of the Celestial Masters to excessive cults. Wang. I H}6. The ultimate source of the tao resides in this scrtpture. Lao-tzu is deified as "Lord Lao" (Lao-chiin t~) and. p ~b. Precepts and Codes. p.?" To be sure. P: ~ ':1. trans. Based on rich evidence in the following Taoist religious texts we come to understand how the movement gained a new and different religious basis when it codified its beliefs: the Hsiang-erh. and water were formed. . P: '7· "Way FArly Daoist Scriptures. or in the Ho-shang-kung illLI:-.t&:.CHI-TIM LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS A~'D POPCLAR CULTS People neglect the help that medicine can bring. The Nature of the tao .TlyDaoist Scriptures. earth. ch. and the target of its attack was primarily the gods of popular cults.. the inaugural pneuma forms earth. humanity and all beings. but abo showed its sectarian view in the codification of its own theology and faith in the form of scriptural texts. both as later rendered in the scriptures of the Celestial Masters. en. -. eb. the Way of the Celestial Masters also had its divine hierarchy of what were regarded as legitimate gods meriting worship that had been established in Cii'ien-erh-pai kuan-i."' HY" no. As Maeda Shigeki states it.. 10 I 196. At one point in the Three Heavens Scripture we read: Life is valuable. ". See also fa-lao cbia ling-dieh in HY" no. I"ij#.. they slaughtered and cooked the six domestic animals. and inauguration fJiJ.NT IN THE SOUTH In this section we seek to determine the theological basis upon which the medieval Celestial-Master viewpoint against popular cults was built." . The earth gave birth to humans. namely.~9. "Lord Lao is the deified Lord Lao. then made oblations and sacrifice to the deviant forces and the unholy dead" . "The pneumas of the lao constantly ascend and descend. the tao in its still undifferentiated. In essence.>:' H. Three Heavens Scnpluff. active in heaven and earth. HY no. With reference to the relationship between the two. P: r oa. II . "spontaneity" (tzu -jan tJ?~ ) and "one. F1J. a major religious practice of the Celestial Masters was the recitation of the Five-thousand Character Text.ttw:.H[l~ . All were born of the three pneumas [of the tao]. "5~ The Hsiang-erb states. the primal 71:. llokenkamp. more importantly. earth. the primordial tao is said first to have begun to act in the world by means of the division of the tao into three pneumas ':_:_1~\:mystery (the abstruse. Bokenkamp. p. as the hypostasis of the tao. Prayers are made incessantly tlTm !ilfE . 788. the Tao-te ching lit. A.?" A unique characteristic of the Celestial-Master Taoist scriptures. was the coherent emphasis upon the hypostasis of the tao and the activities of the tao in the world. but devote themselves solely to deceptions of prayers and sacrifices. the Dao thus speaks directly to humans. indeed.47 In view of the evidence that the observance of sacrificial cults of the spirits of the dead was a common religious phenomenon in the fourth and fifth centuries in the south. P: :19. Heaven gave birth to earth. Early Daoist Scriptum.iang-erh chu chiaQ-cheng. "Lao-tzu is Lord Lao.

' Ibid.. P: ~o(.Master scriptures that practice of the tao was not found in prayers on one's keeping the precepts and sacrifices. pp. but Thus the Hsiangonly depended maintained (tao·chich i-gm). For example. "Since the tao cannot precepts.. The deviant ways that they practice prayer. the Hsiang·erh the result of a common ical system: image. to another of the tao in heaven and earth are not seen. ch. "Licentious Cults.: it f1i\ :':t '8 +il!. the subtle pneumas cults of sacrifices. Ha. even slaughter spirits and demuns is illuminating for they are clear and subtle .' Besides.. they gain only death. the pneumas spontaneity.'~ Ibid" p.cheng.' llsiang-erli HY no. or "correct unity" (cheng-i . Through calculating they actually bring the destruction of their own bodies.IE i~). medieval ground Taoism's opposition to popular offlcials/'" cults was not On the conown theolog· or physical basic belief that the tao has no shape or physical says. T Ibid." Hsiang-erk '7 chu chiao-cheng.'. "Those who receive the tao internally and externally the importance of correctly keeping precepts of the ~W ay of the Celestial and regulations take hold of the ways of rituals. however.57 empty nothingness. one can only follow its grasp the is consis"When return to of the old age of "six heavens" Masters" in contrast new age of "three heavens. Celestialthat transmitted the "cor- itself as the only religion In Master Lu Similarly. Celestial.~ The "correct law" (chengja .OlE 7ti~(i'r i1lKi~ f-!'I'. 12 .Master thought considered that those who practice the tao should only honor Taoist precepts. deviance. Thus. ~1r I{:g 11 .iE-). lives to seek blessings. 1# pfTlU ~ . !la_ . p.#il%:: :. making their entreatand excessive and "Those who possess the tao will not shrines" f=1 ill about to. drum. [people] the original place their faith in the tao. the image. is and the of the distinct relito the popular the prac· are a means of commerce In the Three Heavens Scripture (cheng·chiao -[ $<. trans. Dark and attenuated.zr0l1 anything The reason for the prohibition at all otherwordly is that the Celestial. since the tao had no shape or physical image. as underlined important closely connected right and correct Tr'l' . and in a way were limited the tao has no shape or physical stemmed ness of their life is truly larnentable/" To summarize. '7. P: za: "The lao originally rose with nothing prior (0 it. and nurture their A Neui Discourse on Religious Maintaining the Precepts Master Taoism rect teaching" identified Ethics: The Honoring of popular of the tao and In the face of the wide influence cults in the south... that of "up- and unity." P: ~()2. chu ch. then. [hlng (HY no.I'''? the theological further organized gious identity to its distinct discourse on the tao itself and the practice of law" of the Celestial Masters could be contrasted to "deviregulate their bodies. p r za: ~Without shape or image.. 20. system of contrasting in the representations erh states.CHI-TI~f LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS A~D POPl:LAR ceLTS age:':' because So defined. " 96. be seen or known.Y" If one law. With reference the tao. Bukenkamp. [196) A. :.IE). it. [the Tao] is undifferentiated and yet spontaneously gives birth to the million species ~ }. Celestial. p. ~ as opposed to "deviant and perverse (hsieh til). of the Ceo lestial Masters states that "The tao prohibits the practice of sacrifice and prayers by severe penalty truth. ies with liquors and meats! Seeking life." be seen or known. 11 '9." which aimed at a redefinition Master Lu precepts '$ Codes states. deviance til was specifically defined in this way: "Making sacrifices to demons and gods and praying for blessings is called the Hsiang-erh.ao. 7!l!l).l'"! correct and deviant. 1119.. The way in which the Three Heavens text contrasted Also. . tions for the Families of the Great lao states. "Hidden Since it cannot wanted away in its subtlety. pp. and food offerings or good and evil."59 Instead of pointing to shapes and calling them the tao. as Admoni- trary. 7. The short- stay where there are offerings of foodstuffs or praying at popular ~-::or:IM~€~t1¥tll]. .11) of the tao by only worshipping the Lord Lao E and casting out "all the profane gods" --I:-}) fIll tt~. it had no cause" if!"* ~ Ii':' . EaTly Daoist Scriptures. Kleeman. vaporous and opaque.1.-. JD:m~~'tWH£itul" .'cl':. similarly concludes that. A. P: 1 a.. to assume a commonality of interest between the state and Taoism in rejecting popular CUllS. says that "sacrifices with deviant forces. t!:lf!l: If) fflf f~ iR in .A. the Taoist prohibitions were closely linked to the religion's it has no shape to cherish the tao with the correct since the tao arose from non-being.r'" the lao. the "correct ant" teachings. [a·lao dua bng·chleh (HY no. perverting so that no one knows whence their misfortunes and cook the six sorts of domestic They chant. . P: j'. in n the tao and honor the precepts. Some to supplicate animal (chen!!. in the age of lower antiquity deviant and discard ranee abound.!." 64 '"' HY no. in this creative tao are lice uf the tao tu the worship uf perverse our thesis: Now. and practice image. ensure and dance. "It would be wrong. them. in the Hsumg-erk tently treated people practice as the standard way of practicing . so Hr no. shared with governing one can only follow its precepts.<:.Master teachings from.t~t San-t'ien nei-thieh. j(jj il. s Codes. . Non-being.Master concept.1' -:-12. All sorts of igno· arise. "One will not point to an y shape and call it [the tao] ::or: Wi::fti If." and "Only then should they gradually W bel pursue the precepts of the lao. Celestial. p_ 7b. :.

and that one cannot and offering and me- on the left tally [of the celestial officers]' the perare decreased.. emphatic and rules against popular fi instructs of days in their lifespans In Venerable Scripture of Tao-te proscription Jtx)!) number no.w The 18u Precepts contains a titled Tao-te tsun ching-chieh [the latter] infuriate transgressions]' that. . "'~. Han era.!lH. linked to a in Precepts and Codes we see precise refer- LJ-4)·"71 The necessity the law of heaven. on popular religion's cormection with the early-Taoist belief in a supernatural juridical system (hat account. r Ii. pp.:. p. The rich and noble to gain access to obtain such things use offerings and bribes [to spirits and demons] which was believed ultimately preservation in recompense ¥~ good Y* .r..tEIJ. Ret' LT S that the tao of life does not depart the Celestial-Master popular ences to the honoring ism from popular Precepts cannot from them.: . Sins will be counted [sins appear] sons' numbers persons sins tionaries. which accrue of Transcendence.ICi.<'I i\ }t(1j':Q)jt1{J1. existed sets of precepts plicit in the scriptures and prohibitions related that were transmitted Masters to the Celestial there already and made exA work kind of. '4 . 788. w curse will linger on their offspring?" It is possible that the idea of a celestial legal administration where de- to the prohibition H). see Erik Zurcher.}#. cults: to other demons and spirits (no.ya bunka illf.J<2H' nt f~ Jill ill. 1'1'. t'f tt!( (Precepts from the Venerable Scripture of Tao-te) divides these precepts into nine prescri pti ve ("Nine Practices ~ flh ) and twenty"seven proscriptive ones t·-tffl1:. . see Barbara Hendrischke.> Hr no. specific.eh is preserved in Tal-shang Lao-cbun ching-Iu Hr i 85. The Hsiang-erh the precepts of the tao. and keeping the precepts of the tao in the domains of Taoism from those of way of distinguishing Tao- diumism. tt:. pp. they will be put to death. ill A W i§: ¥ 1i&f:01.?" In Precepts and Codes. 11 Y:!!'ill . R~ 1z. p :{b. are devoted and proscription prohibits prayer will only be upon their own person. 22 pear] on the right tally. . "'3-11." in Akizuki Kan 'ei f-k )oj #X1l1l:.?:' Precepts and Codes upheld this belief as follows: are celestial officers in the bodies of those who receive the tao. 7<)-1 ~~.67 :!it loR c their good fortune will be the response w reason of one's transby the celestial what and prohibitions on such transgressions would determine By the middle of the fourth and into the early-fifth century.lF'~ t§..: Benjamin Penny. . divination. n Hsiang-erh. ff ~...-. Penny.1 Hr no. concentrate merit and assemble we enjoyed our essences to form [internal] spirits. 12. P: 46: see also HY no. N II POP t: I. 10(1:1) j 7. the of the body. when they honor and the spirit and exert the body. Precepts for the prohibition II of sacrifices are: "Paying ritual homage sacrifices to demons and spirI The firm stance towards honoring religion demarcated of precepts sacrificial cults.5~. chu chiao-clung: pp. 1-. 12<)-3:.'J hti k NT ~ ~ f~ lilT Pit ret ill. the tao departs are kept and judged from above. persons do not practice the precepts. the celestial ers. ttr no. idem. ga. See Jao Tsung-I. suffering and disease might occur before death.. ed.:1J'. and the possession of life. Dok)'o to .t a-2a. p.Y" is that detailed On the contrary.tp !:~19:. hard work will bring recompense. and prayers keep precepts and codes. When =- [the celestial officers] will depart from their bodies. 70 + . The latter's judgment For example. '" Ibid. /I.rllli. receiving states: "Keeping formed. "making its in order to seek good fortune (no. ('985). p.?" The underlying gressions of the precepts officials. "Hsiang-erh chiu-chieh yu san-he i" Q'ffl h'KW~~ 8". chu chiao-clung. 71 See Anna Seidel. '''' On the influence of Buddhist vinaya texts on Taoism in the third and fourth centuries. the punishment practice false arts and in the mortal world point to shapes and call them the lao At~w18ff. But for people of the tao and the wise.!ite51b. J-I. When the evil that the have committed are still few in number. 18)~. the sacrifice to spirits and demons the precepts JtX. and what intensity of.(:. Again in Th« t So Precepts. we amass good deeds." T~OI:'/ Resource. twenty-five links made to the precepts are listed.t .w i~ . . "'Rokun sersu ippyaku-hachi-ju kai jo' no seiritsu ni tsuite" 'f:fJ.ng·ch.i'i. 78. -?1 '-c. Toy/. 3)~. pp. nor can wine. they will die. for one's good fonune or suffering in the E. The ear ly-Taoist belief (hat sins bring punishment (0 one's offspring is closely related to the late-Han concept of "inherited evils" I:rh'mgJu iR p) in Tat-ping ching ~t:-+ ff (HY no.ping (hlng. JJsI~ng·erh chu chiao-dung.i<1j:x{L (Tokyo: Hirakawa.".Master precepts funccults. 8b-l0a. On ch 'engju in ra. Once the spirits are the longevity and they commit evil. pp. 1~r8i}. "Buddhism and Daoisrn in the r So Precepts Spoken by the Lord Lao. For studies of this text. no shis« /0 shrikyo *i'¥Q).I' pp. H[-94. "The 180 Precepts. If of their the these celestial officers several times [because masters return to the celestial heaven applied in the south. After and report up and then punishment to the offendWhen [sins apof their list of J Ho beh avioral injunctions meant especially Taoist for Ce lestial. sacrifice. pp. and "practicing vulgar cults (no. "Traces of Han Religion in Funeral TexIS in Tombs. 1-2<).1:\8. "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism: A Survey of Scriptural Evidence. see Maeda Shigeki M In ~!§: . pp. For example.. meat. There ~!t:£ iHA: 9 A frMl!~ ~:i: 4 Hf: iiIJ. pp.It::tTI .CHI-TIM CAl C I:: L EST I A L :\1A S T E R S /I.?' ill {-'&e$. 15 (I <)')0). six of of sacrifices. pp.~: '¥a . but when their sins are many." '/J>ti(i II!JRo). 4a. sins. Lao-tzu Hsiang-erh.R.U:: :. "The Concept of Inherited Evil in the Taiping jingo ~ East Asian IAs/ory 2 ([9<)1\. of keeping the precepts of the tao is closely juridical system of moral examination sustained by a supernatural to have accounted or malefaction fortune system called for one's as the standard and codes are to urge people on with [the hope] of long life.. til Tao-te tsun ch.'?. records if and such things.hfi. 1-16.

Donald Harper. and the popular Although others.JpingjiTlfj. ethical and theological system. Equally important..'IH'~It!. :I t ." in the Hsiang-erh clearly states. Chicago. Yet this explanation ideas that lay beneath should with reTaoist ritual and with worship and ethical hungry spirits of the that was (in the Taoist liturgical context). H. phenomenon such things were local gods and the mantic arts of popTaoist rituals. which. p. The between system of absolution and death with Taoist precepts.QtE}::' '#i . I 190.'i. pp. in The I So Precepts we read that "if you die holdoblivion "7f! history of Chinese religions. dead could not bring benefit to the person in distress in any sort of rationalized way. "Resurrection in Warring States Religion: Taoist Resources 5 (1994). among tion of the un shriven souls of the dead through orderly legal procedures. 56-63. Sacrifices and prayer cults are considered new religion restricted the average person's communication ural. "Chen-me-wen chung so chien-tao te Tung-han tao-wu kuan-hsi" WW 3 (lg81l. 3 I. "One should keep the or contrary As discussed above. p. m!!:Ztf' rfr tr. ~ I. HY no. misfortune. "The correct law of heaven does not consist in sacrifices and prayer cults. Hsiang-erh 76 WuJung·tseng 7'! Hsiang-eth chu chiao-cheng. A. Kenneth successfully that enables it to incorporate Dean recently shows how procedure spirits and gods of local Angelika Cedzupon a law of ing to the precepts. cults it attacked. trees. "" ~.~ i<J. "The Taoist Rite of Confession of Sins and Its Relationship with the TtJ.in. 6a. such offerings meant a change in popular in Taoist ritual even the "pledge-offerings" (hsin- . 13-28.:IT. . Han connection complete rationalized provenance but simply adopted cults.v' cult is established the spirits of dead. "Ghosts and Demons. pp." tionship between ethical practice and persona! logical ground for prohibiting food-offerings fortune established celestial officials against the demons of illness with the supernat- and prayers to spirits and gods of such here- and the spirits of the dead. Taoism rejected sacrifices and prayer to spirits and demons of the dead. Kenneth Dean. By rejecting spirit-rnediumism. '*'2 of this world. provides Taoism with the power to disperse the fear of demonic evil connected "Taoist ritual was in its essence a bureaucratic act. Therefore. By means of written petitions addressed requested help from responsible to the appropriate priests the celestial spirit-officials and subject to celestial rule. its separate stones. 3b-4a. l. in contrast to sacrificial rituals.~ffi&\lUlt:j'.hiaQ·chrog.. the Celestial-Master and misfortunes the idea that the Taoist practice of precepts was the only real and correct means to "seek good fortune and drive away what is harmful. recent studies that attempt to explain the innovations Taoism see the distinction cult. The Theological of medieval Foundation of the Liturgical Act of Sending Petitions framework. 1997.:{-8li. '. Princeton V. the practice practices however. Cedzich.CHI-TIM LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS AND POPULAR CULTS tailed records of the living and dead were kept and judged was not a CelestialMaster invention. Thus a of a set of ethics and a even resurrection. 77 ehu . All of this underof the tao in Taoism's ich also suggests that the Taoist mortuary bureaucratic and legal administration accessible to functionaries with death. pp. of prewas the and Han funerary sies. mountains. 2\ . mines Stein's thesis that there was not an essential difference between Taoism Taoism was forced to contend believed with threatening spirits and de. religious mentality. to preclude local shrines.\:Jfl. were thought of as demonic forces hostile to the living when their demands The precepts for food and other offerings were not satisfied. en. for sins will be tallied up among the celestial officers" 'i'~'i' 1. For instance. The popular you will transit through and your body will be as the worship of You will serve as a hea venl y official. the scriptures and punishment of the Celestial Masters espoused This new causal relathe theo- identity and its posture of superiority As shown above.j.. Taoist Ritual and ftJpulo. and their were essentially different. The tao therefore prohibits practices by severe penalty. In her words. In this regard the Hsiang-ern states. sacrificial cults were generally understood into a structured liturgical framework. Its purpose was the absoluthe Celestial-Master with popular reli- link with a celestial administration. pp. also called "the Taoist mortuary the Taoist ritual of petitions and universal pantheon cults and divination otherworldly and treat it as an innovation provides a bureaucratic lff·/!It.r Culls ojSoulh(aJ/ 1995). It may be true that by means of liturgical hierarchy gion by subordinating nonhierarchized theological mons that were popularly considered correctness a secondary to have lurked everywhere and wild animals. Moreover. China (Princeton. which. rivers. 7H HY 110. n precepts in good faith and refrain from committing in the "Taoist liturgical acts. "7\1 Likewise. J6 17 . pp. ~ p. incompatible Appeasing ritual of sending up petitions enabled Taoism to cooperate ular religion within the bureaucratized not eclipse the distinctive that also sustained spect to popular religion.77 transformed.\:~<»1:!i .1'15. the Three Heaoens Scripture explains the "correct law of the three heavens" as prohibition against the popular cuit of sacrifices: "The peo- ple were not to carry out wantonly excessive sacrifice to the demons and spirits that belong to other [shrines]."80 of one's illness. Chi-tim Lai.P.?" What from the ubiquitous was innovative. link was established was celestial..~paper presented at AAS. transgressions whose and punishment. in turn. Based upon an ethical system of recompense relatively more rationalized.

tH:. /fY T ]{)fi.l-:. gods of nature and the ancestors to whom sacrifices used to and opaque. and 1h. there are the Illimitable Three According to Nickerson's study of Lu hsien-sheng tao-men k 'a·/iieh in Donald S. "Within In the ritual of liturgical deities all above and below. with supernatural con'equences for priests who took more than their thirty percent. fiT :. P 22a. and created by the pneuma of the rituals._t::t A. >\<. p. ". Isabelle Robinet. Anna Seidel was right in saying.!--"~~::tj'IT .A . The names of celestial those celestial of the di- When people of the present day send up unitten petitions to the Grand Clarity. with modifica- ticns. 1'. AA {no.I1. ''l'lil. celestial. 19. 83 ~7 HY no.J. the Three Heavens Scripture. "Taoism: The Unofficial High Religion of China. it is these Perfected of the heavens whom they address --. they were not humans born in heaven and earth ~r72_tfu:1. one passage in a scripture the tao controls Robinet "!-l') clerks and soldiers were the H!"$ Fin!~it ih. Dark and attenuated. 7kS).:l:. r n 19 . since the). 'Iaoism: Growth of A R£ligion. Bokenkamp. petitioning. and impersonal as pure crystallizations ones.m.Pl'· '-22. T !m6).... the Thearchs of the Heavens A 'At Ancient Lords of the Transcendent Metropolises 11t fill til.. generals. :H 7 -" T.Ht. the [Taoist] gods. Taoi. an d were not deified human beings.''''-' In Master Redpine 's Almanac of Petitions we read: The celestial officials who were asked to cure illness corresponded twenty-four crystallization deities that were located in the palaces of the human of celestial officials.. to the assisting celestial Way of Grand Heavens officials for their help were not meant as offerings to demons and spirits. certain cult practices of popular religion the observance and such customs as the worship of calendrical of the soil and stove gods and within Taoism.. P: :}~. of the three pneuma The hundreds to the body. it had no cause. ~1I4 throne of Grand Clarity. Fur discussion or the historical origin or the worship of the soil and stove gods on fa days.1 Resources 7 {]{l'lil. Instead.iHj!! Jlt. see Hsia jih-hsin ~ 6 ~. ~ 1'1-' rtri . normally included vegetarian foodstuffs and items of use to the Celestial-Master priests. m ill t( . Trryogalm shiikan III i F}l if: 73 (I 9~J»). "The innovation of Taoism was a belief in the highest authori ty of the tao which is higher than the immanent be offered. Early Daoist Scriptures. On this point.'i"--{ '0'~ . «Religious Taoism. pp. way: prior to it. It is important to note that this liturgical theology character of the divine Jfili of the tao partially (emphasis added) .fff'X-~ ill (emphasis added).' poor. of the three pneuma By vine lao. Based on this. Anna Seidel. ". ) L j\ TI + i1t Elders of the Nine Pneumas J. the multiplicity differentiation from the Formlessness of these celestial and the One that ac- is the origin of all things. Phyllis Brooks {Stanford: Stanford U .the tao ::g. P. :s ill:¥":::::' ~.P. p. Th erefore. that is. formed pneumas tao. they as a result become ce lestial clerks and soldiers .. It was due to this distinctive Taoist belief that the helpers the three pneumas.. ch: 2." TaGi.. Roblnet.TR. A."! The taboos were adopted ill~1:.t High Elders *. apart from Laozi himself. Ibid . "represent As Isabelle progressive of the celestial deities were called up by the Celestialstates. but.A {.:='7(Jm~Al:§. such a."!" Master priests in their rituals. and also marked the innovation was a belief that of merit I}l for having gained an effective result. honors.. In. ed. Religions nf China In Practice (Princeton: Princeton L'. "Taoism. have no biographies for purely ethereal. formed because of the clarity and sincerity of the audience registers. The highest divine au- priests.T-..!!7 understanding the celestial perfecteds and officials as only the transscriptures prohibof the unfathomable deities listed on the registers were not human deities were explained names.e JI. "Rotachi teki sai5hi~lfti. ostensibly the pledge-offerings were provided to pay the assisting celestial officials.. the *{~ ±. counts for the raison d'itre of the religion of the tao. P: z a: trans.A.A -m.5i:ffltJ:.fiX':!:': By insisting on the impersonal ties addressed by the Celestial-Master popular piled in the face of flourishing character 'IT ~4f& <.. "')0 this in an even more forceful and systematic The tao originally vaporous Its Power self-actualization. Lopea. ink. "-. They of needed items.jr.fill-. ch. Celestial-Master ited sacrifice to "other" demons and spirits. Stein. /fY no. invited by the things of of the tao.: A_ . Thus. II [l'j% Il'. It was born in the Void through it gave birth to the Elder of the Way and Great CONCLUSION As already pointed out by previous scholars. thority was the tao. arose with nothing Transforming. . -. "Unlike the popular saints.. As Isabelle Robinet says. a billion pneumas 0f the the official lords .:. twelve hundred Clarity . and writing brushes promised J served merely as a quid pro quo payment achievement the hundreds More importantly.the Mystic and Primal and the Highest the Most High Lord Lao Three Most u. trans." insists on the impersonal which of the hundreds of celestial deiemphasized tao..D POPULAR CliLTS kuei (~i S) of paper." P: mI. of Taoism in response to the situation it was the tao that had become a celestial deity receiving put it.. p.s" at the level of theological of celestial deities who descended during the ritual of petitioning except :B . paper and writing brushes.. the Nine }. comcults in the fifth century.CHI-TIM LAI CELESTIAL MASTERS A". They were ultimately to be distributed to the priests recluses. 'fJ. p H" 207.

"fr2 As Peter Nickerson has also shown. "Shamans. from popular religious cults in the areas of both belief and practice. Demons.CHI-TIM LAI Heauens Scripture states that. curative ritual of pentioning. and when Celestial-Master Taoism was redirected to a wider spectrum of local needs and began to take root among the populace. Taoism. <. holds that "this whole attitude of the Taoists [toward the excessive cults] is strictly the same as that uf Confucian literati and officials. "" Nickerson. "the faithful among the people are to sacrifice only on the five propitious fa It days of the year to the primogenitors and ancestors. 6a. it would be hasty to conclude that Taoist opposition to popular religion was not new.. Against offerings and sacrifices to those spirits of the dead and the cult of spirit-mediumism that provided immediate contact with spirits and demons. Stein. 65-66. p. however. "divination is allowed. they did not share common ground. provided it serves only for diagnosis and thereby remains subordinated to the bureaucratized. trans. Since the Celestial Masters held that the tao cannot be named and had neither shape nor image. 1 &rly Daoist Scriptures. I distinguish Taoism. male and female. p. ." Moreover. See also Robinet." pp. It bound the practice of the tao to the personal means of keeping the precepts and codes and to the liturgical means of written petitions to celestial spirits in order to seek good fortune and avoid the evil connected with the netherworld of demons and spirits. the Taoist condemnation of sacrificial cults was not the same as that of Confucian literati and officials. ~ [6." 20 . they condemned the "false practices" ~iR of making statues of the tao."?" As argued here. '>4 Diviners.!!5 The Celestial-Master prohibitions against popular cults of sacrifice and offerings genuinely arose from its own distinctive theological ground concerning the tao and the practice of the tao. "Religious Taoism." HY (no. of their own family and in the second and the eighth months to the god of the soil and the god of the stove." P: 61. On this point. 5._. it effected a compromise with popular religious practices. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HY Weng Tu-chien ~~1'l£. Bokenkamp. Combined Indices to the Authors and Titles of Books in Two Collections of Taoist Literature ill t~-T § tj I f~ 196) A. p. and even may be practiced by [the Taoist] priests. the medieval CelestialMaster religion conformed itself only to the practice of the tao.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful