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Space-Division Multiple-Access for Wireless MIMO Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

Enzo Baccarelli, Mauro Biagi, Cristian Pelizzoni, Nicola Cordeschi

{enzobac, biagi, pelcris, cordeschi }@infocom.uniroma1.it

Enzo Baccarelli, Mauro Biagi, Cristian Pelizzoni and Nicola Cordeschi are with INFO-COM Dept., University of Rome ”La Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy. Ph. no. +39 06 44585466 FAX no. +39 06 4873330.This work has been partially supported by the Italian National project: ”Wireless 8O2.16 Multi-antenna mEsh Networks (WOMEN)” under grant number 2005093248.
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Abstract Optimized Space-Division Multiple-Access (SDMA) strategies for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Ad-hoc wireless networks are proposed in this paper, where noncooperating transmit/receive nodes are assumed to be affected by spatially colored Multiple Access Interference (MAI). The final task is to maximize the information throughput (in bits/slot) conveyed by each peer-to-peer link active in the network. For this purpose, the SDMA problem is modelled as an uncooperative strategic game, and the Game Theory approach is adopted for characterizing the nodes’ interactions and deriving out the conditions for the ”Nash Equilibrium” of the overall Ad-hoc networking game. The main contributions of this paper may be so summarized. Firstly, we develop a fully distributed scalable and asynchronous SDMA scheme combining both power-allocation and spatial data-shaping that maximizes (in a competitive sense) the information throughput sustained by each active peer-to-peer link under both Best-Effort and Contracted QoS access policies. Secondly, we characterize the convergence property of the proposed SDMA scheme under low and high traffic load offered to the network. Thirdly, based on the proposed SDMA scheme, we present two Connection Admission Procedures (CAPs) attaining an optimized (in a competitive sense) trade-off between number of allowed connections and throughput requested by each connection. Finally, for corroborating the carried out performance analysis, we present several numerical tests supporting superiority (in terms of conveyed peer-to-peer throughput) of the proposed SDMA scheme over more conventional collision-avoiding MAC schemes, such as TDMA and CSMA/CA.

Index Terms Multiple Antennas, Games Theory, MAI, SDMAC, Power-Allocation, Competitive Optimality, CAP, Self-reconfiguration, Fault-tolerant.

I. I NTRODUCTION Due to their capability to operate without any centralized infrastructure support, Ad-hoc wireless networks are considered to be main candidate to provide the distributed radio access facilities requested to support emerging high-throughput Personal Communication Services (PCSs) [9]. In order to meet the resulting QoS demands, lastly the utilization of the so-called ”smartantennas” in Ad-hoc networks gained consideration [9,23]. The term ”smart antennas” covers, indeed, a broad variety of Multi-Antenna Technological platforms that differ both in performance and transceiver complexity, such as the Switched-Beam and the Digital Adaptive Array (DAA)
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antenna systems [23,26]. A Switched-Beam antenna system exhibits a pre-assigned antenna array pattern that can be pointed out to any of a (small) number of spatial directions [23,26]. The ability of such antennas to convey power in a specified direction provides a directive gain that can be exploited for extending range (e.g., system coverage), or reducing radiated power [23]. However, due to their limited signal processing capabilities, switched-beam antenna systems are not able to adaptively null out MAI typically affecting Ad-hoc networks [23]. An adaptive array receiver constructively combines multiple copies of the desired received signal, so to give arise to array gain, which is the increase factor in the average SNR measured at the receiver output [26]. Furthermore, when the receive antennas are sufficiently far apart, then the likelihood of simultaneous deep fades decreases, so that an adaptive array receiver is able to provide also diversity gain [23,26]. Finally, an adaptive array receiver may attenuate the signal from an interfering source (adaptive nulling). Transmit DAA systems can also provide array and diversity gains, so to increase those already provided by receiver DAA platforms [17]. In addition, a transmit DAA system may generate multiple co-channel data streams, so to give arise to spatial multiplexing gain [10]. However, for achieving multiplexing gain, DAA systems must be employed at both ends of a point-to-point communication link, giving arise to the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology [10]. The analysis and optimization (e.g., maximization) of the information throughput conveyed by each link active in an Ad-hoc MIMO network impaired by MAI, fading and MIMO channel-estimation errors are the focus of this work. The main output resulting from the carried out analysis is the optimized design of a novel fully distributed and asynchronous SDMA protocol (see Table III) allowing network nodes to maximize (in a competitive sense) the information throughput sustained by each peer-to-peer link active in the network. A. Flexibility Characteristics of the MIMO Physical Layer To attain the above mentioned goals, the SDMA protocol we develop exploits some flexibility characteristics that are unique to MIMO Physical Layer. These characteristics are Adaptive
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as long as it has sufficient number of degrees of freedom to do so [23]. Robustness to Multipath fading [10. this gain may be exploited for achieving range extension (e.g. as desired.4 Resource Usage. increased system coverage). and are able to leverage multipath productively.26]. In principle. scalable and asynchronous way. even in the worst case of (r − 1) received interfering streams. an effective SDMA protocol should be able to adaptively exploit (in a combined way) the above mentioned flexibility characteristics of the MIMO Physical Layer by operating in a fully distributed. so to give arise to multiplexing gain [12]. Range-vs. Motivations for novel distributed SDMA schemes Since Ad-hoc networks are characterized by topology-depending time-varying MAI and work without any central controller [9]. a receiver equipped with r antennas is still able to properly detect the desired data conveyed by a single transmit stream [10. Robustness to Multipath Fading: Peer-to-peer MIMO systems do not require line-of-sight (LOS) propagation. Hence. Range-vs. or the overall number of the spatially multiplexed streams (multiplexing gain) [21].-Throughput Trade-off. MIMO systems effectively work in rich scattering and multipath environments [10]. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is ”de-facto” the MAC protocol considered for Ad-hoc networks [9]. In turn. Interestingly enough. or better reliability.12].-Throughput Trade-off : Instead of splitting the overall data flow into several parallel independent streams to be simultaneously radiated by transmit antennas. B. the receiver of a MIMO link is able to suppress interfering streams. Adaptive Resource Usage: A peer-to-peer MIMO link is able to exploit any radio resource not already spent to suppress MAI for increasing either array gains of the active streams. so to achieve transmit diversity gain [12]. correlated streams can be output by transmit antennas. or power minimization. a simple extension of CSMA/CA for 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. Flexible MAI Suppression: Regardless of the location of interfering sources. Adaptive Interference Suppression. Currently.

Thus.. scalable. in the proposed SDMA scheme each transmit node acquires and uses Channel State 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . and ii) a (possibly) non-orthogonal (e. Such a protocol is still collision-free [27]. the key-rationale behind this conclusion is that CSMA/CA(s) is still a collision-free MAC scheme.g. and. Proposed Contributions In this contribution we show that the potential gain arising from flexible MAI mitigation may be attained only in conjunction with adaptive radio resource usage (e. quite appealing. and asynchronous fashion? The main conclusion arising from this contribution is that the answer to above question is. We refer to this simple extension of CSMA/CA as CSMA/CA(s) [27]. CSMA/CA(s) operates the same fashion as conventional CSMA/CA. except that all transmissions are performed using s independent parallel streams. it is able to attain s times the throughput performance as the latter [27]. indeed. C. the combined exploitation at the MAC layer of these two characteristics offered by MIMO Physical Layer requires that : i) the information throughput conveyed by each MAI-impaired peer-to-peer active link is evaluated. Furthermore. indeed. in order to take full advantage from the potential offered by MIMO Physical Layer. r}-fold improvement in throughput performance compared to a Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) network (t is the number of antennas equipping each transmit node.5 MIMO links can be designed that can provide an s min {t. while r indicates the number of antennas present at each receive node). adaptive spatial multiplexing). while this s-fold improvement guaranteed by the collision-free CSMA/CA(s) is.. the key question we give insight in this contribution is: Is it possible for a more ”smart” SDMA scheme to attain better throughput performance by working in a fully distributed. collision-affected) scalable SDMA scheme able to exploit the capture effect is developed and implemented in fully distributed and asynchronous fashion. Roughly speaking. SISO) CSMA/CA.g. yes. In fact.. so that it is not able to fully exploit the advantages arising from the above mentioned flexible MAI-suppression capability of the MIMO Physical Layer. Essentially.g. when compared to default single-antenna (e. so to attain spatial multiplexing gain.

it allows the maximization (in a competitive sense) of the information throughput sustained by each peer-to-peer active link. since each transmit node dynamically updates the spatial shaping of the radiated streams. in this contribution the topic concerning the optimized estimate of the path-gain coefficients of each MIMO link active in the network is also addressed.5. and asynchronous. In particular. Hence. to be new [27. thus meaning that it is self-reconfiguring when nodes leave or new nodes join the network. and the effects of errors possibly affecting the channel-estimations available at the transmit/receive nodes is explicitly taken into account in the developed SDMA protocol. Specifically. so to match to the changes of the network topology induced by nodes mobility. Since no cooperation is assumed among nodes.28]. This feature of the presented SDMA scheme is still retained even when the channel estimates available at the transmit/receive nodes are affected by errors.20]. • The proposed SDMA scheme combines (in an optimized way) power-control and spatial signal-shaping (in a statistic sense) of the multiplexed data streams to be transmitted. Although the Game Theory approach has been already employed for solving power-control problems in wireless networks [1. till now the application of the Game Theory for the analysis and optimized design of distributed SDMA schemes results. we resort to the formal framework of the strategic non cooperative Game Theory [13] for modelling the mutual interactions between network nodes. nevertheless. the proposed SDMA scheme is also fault-tolerant. In addition. when the QoS users requirements (measured in terms of requested throughput) cannot be sustained by the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . distributed. So doing.4.6 Information (CSI) to perform both optimized power-control and (statistical) spatial-shaping of the transmitted multiplexed streams. the proposed SDMA scheme is self-reconfiguring. • The proposed SDMA scheme is fully scalable. • The proposed SDMA scheme allows to implement both Best Effort and Contracted QoS access policies for sustaining multiple QoS traffic classes. indeed. the main appealing features of the SDMA scheme we propose may be so summarized. Furthermore. at the best of the authors’ knowledge.

in Sect.VII. time-invariant) MAI. The proposed CAPs are able to optimally balance (in a competitive sense) the number of allowed connections (fairness property) and the QoS requirements of each connection.III.IV the optimized transmit power-allocation is characterized when a single transmit/receive pair is impaired by ”static” (e. throughput maximizing) distributed and asynchronous power-allocation and signal-shaping of all peer-topeer active links. Before proceeding. In Sect. where some final hints for future investigations are also suggested.VI and proved in the final Appendices. D. after shortly reviewing in Sect. Thus. capital letters denote 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT ..II. Finally. specially in MAI-limited application scenarios. few words about the adopted notation.g. Analytical conditions for the convergence of the network state towards a stable point (e. Organization of the work The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. MIMO CDMA) in terms of peer-to-peer conveyed throughput. the Nash Equilibrium of the underlying strategic Game) are also provided in Sect. In the sequel.g.V the MAI model of [16] for Ad-hoc networks. while the evaluation of conveyed information throughput of Ad-hoc networks affected by MAI is carried out in Sect. The performance of the proposed SDMA scheme in terms of conveyed network throughput is tested in Sect. the fully distributed and scalable feature of the presented SDMA scheme is employed to develop two novel Connection Admission Procedures (CAPs) for Ad-hoc networks. MIMO FDMA.g. The above mentioned distributed CAPs are presented in the conclusive Sect. They lead to the conclusion that the proposed SDMA scheme outperforms the conventional collision-free (e. MIMO TDMA.VIII.VI we present an iterative Game Theory-based SDMA algorithm for the optimal (e.g. • Several numerical tests are provided for supporting the carried out analysis.. orthogonal) MAC schemes (such as CSMA/CA(s)..7 network. The system model is given in Sect.. where its self-reconfiguring and faulttolerating capabilities are also pointed out. the proposed SDMA scheme automatically shifts the working point of the network (represented by the delivered throughput) to the next-close-sustainable one.

transposition and conjugate-transposition respectively. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Anyway. † are used for denoting conjugation. where multiple autonomous transmitreceive nodes need simultaneously to be linked over a limited-size hot-spot cell. so that they are affected by MAI. Im denotes the (mxm) identity matrix. The MAI effect on the link of Fig. 0m is the m-dimensional zero-vector. The resulting ”block-fading” model describes the main features of several packet-based networks. am ]. the path gains may be also considered time-invariant over T ≥ 1 signalling periods.1 [10].3. A ⊗ B represents the Kronecker product [6]. and by a MIMO slow-variant Rayleigh flat faded radio channel1 impaired by (additive) MAI caused by the neighboring active transmit nodes. Apexes ∗ . ||A||E is the Euclidean norm of the matrix A [6].1. Finally. It is composed by transmit and receive units equipped with t ≥ 1 and r ≥ 1 antennas respectively. Each path gain hji ∈ C1 . while characters overlined by arrow → mean block-matrices and block-vectors.8 matrices.16]. II.1. T HE N ETWORK M ODEL The considered scenario is a wireless Ad-hoc network [9]. lower-case underlined symbols are for vectors.) [2. the assumption of flat fading may be considered reasonable when the RF bandwidth Bw of the radiated signals is less than the coherence bandwidth Bc of the MIMO forward channel of Fig..v. det [A] and T ra[A] mean determinant and trace of the matrix A [a1 . for low-mobility applications. while lower-case letters indicate scalar quantities. 1 ≤ j ≤ r. Specifically. Furthermore. lg indicates natural logarithm and δ(m. the (complex base-band equivalent) point-to-point radio channel from a transmit node Tx to a receive one Rx is sketched in Fig.. while vect(A) is the (block) vector obtained by the ordered stacking of the columns of matrix A. serving quasi-static (or nomadic) users [11.11] and these gains may be assumed mutually independent when the antennas are properly far apart (see [10]). Furthermore. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. and in the considered scenario it is assumed to be constant over (at least) the transmission time of an overall packet [16]. from transmit antenna i to receive one j is modelled as a zero-mean unit-variance complex random variable (r. T .1 is dependent on the network topology [16]. since the path gains {hji } and MAI may assume different values 1 By referring to Fig. n) is used for denoting the Kroenecker delta.

g. to be used to estimate the (r × t) path gains {hji } of MIMO forward channel of Fig. MAI plus thermal noise) may be evaluated by Rx during the Learning Phase via a sample average of the received signals and.11] 1 yj (n) = √ t t hji xi (n) + dj (n).II.1 optimally shapes the pilot streams {xi (n) ∈ C1 .9 over adjacent packets. where the first TL ≥ 0 are used by the receiver for learning the MAI statistics.g. the second Ttr ≥ 0 are employed for estimating the path gains {hji } of the MIMO channel (see Sect. The non-ideality is taken in account in [11] and it is not considered here. 1 ≤ j ≤ r . A comprehensive description of the Learning Phase may be found in [11.1 do not know them at the beginning of each packet transmission. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr . A. due to space limitation. we suppose that Tx and Rx in Fig. and the last Tpay T − Ttr − TL are devoted to convey payload data (see Sect. it is communicated back to Tx via the (ideal)2 feedback link of Fig. 1 ≤ j ≤ r} received by the j-th antenna of Rx during this phase may be modelled as [10. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr }.B). the transmitter Tx of Fig. During the Learning Phase.14.1. i=1 (1) where the corresponding overall disturbance (e. will be not replicated here. at the end of the Learning Phase. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .24] and. so that the sampled (vector) signal received by Rx is just given by the combined effect of MAI and (white) thermal noise. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. Hence.1. 1 ≤ j ≤ r.II.1 is off. MAI vj (n) plus thermal noise wj (n) ) is given by dj (n) 2 vj (n) + wj (n). (2) About this assumption it is reasonable to assume a separate channel for feedback signalling. we assume that all packets are composed by T ≥ 1 slots. during the Training Phase the transmit node of Fig. TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr .. The Training Phase On the basis of the MAI covariance matrix Kd received at the end of the Learning Phase.A). The resulting (sampled) signals {yj (n) ∈ C1 . 1 ≤ i ≤ t. The resulting (r × r) covariance matrix Kd of the overall disturbance (e.

.(2). TL + 1 ≤ n ≤ TL + Ttr ..11] 1 t t ||xi (n)||2 ≤ P .dr ] is composed by the disturbance samples MIMO channel. [h1 .) Gaussian random variables with variance 2 σε 29 agosto 2006 ˆ E{||εji ||2 } ≡ E{||hji −hji ||2 } = (1+a/t)−1 . 1 ≤ j ≤ r.d. the Ttr ×r (complex) samples in (1) received at the output of all receive antennas during the Training Phase may be collected into a (Ttr × r) observation matrix Y ≡ [y1 . t where X H (5) [x1 . at n = TL + Ttr ).. directly from (3).11] 1 Y = √ XH + D. the resulting signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) γj measured at the receive antenna j equates (see eqs. j (6. 1 ≤ j ≤ r.g.xt ] is the (Ttr × t) matrix gathering the transmitted pilot symbols {xi (n)} in (1). Hence. independent identically distributed (i.i. The radiated pilot streams {xi (n)} in (1) are assumed power-constrained as in [10..1.10 is independent from the path gains {hji } of the forward MIMO channel.. (3)) γj = P /kjj . † (6) ˜ As detailed in [11].. it follows that the pilot matrix X in (5) must satisfy the power constrain T ra[XX ] ≤ tTtr P . and the (Ttr × r) matrix D {dj (n)} in (2) arising from MAI plus noise. The resulting MMSE channel estimation errors {εji ˆ hji − hji . 1 ≤ i ≤ t} are zero-mean. complex. As shown in [10]. for any i. ˆ the resulting matrix estimate H is communicated back by Rx to the transmitter Tx of Fig..yr ] defined as in [10.hr ] is the (t × r) matrix composed by the path gains {hji } in (1) of the considered [d1 . Thus. the training observations Y in (5) are employed by the receive node Rx ˆ for computing the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) matrix estimate H E{H|Y} of the MIMO channel matrix H in (5).1 via the (ideal) feedback link of Fig.1) DRAFT .. At the end of the Training Phase (e. i=1 (3) with P being the maximum power level radiable by each transmit antenna during the Training Phase. (4) where kjj is the j-th diagonal entry of the MAI covariance matrix Kd ..

TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. i=1 TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. Now. and then radiate them.φt (n)]T be the (t×1) column vector of the (sampled) payload streams (9) radiated by the Tx node. B.1 ˆ has already acquired the current values of both Kd and H matrices... it has to ”shape” the corresponding payload streams {φi (n) ∈ C1 . TL +Ttr +1 ≤ n ≤ T } is the temporally-white spatially-colored Gaussian disturbance sequence with spatial covariance matrix given by Kd . from 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . at n = TL + Ttr + 1). The Payload Phase At the beginning of the Payload Phase (e. The corresponding sampled signals {yj (n) ∈ C1 .. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T }. denote the overall disturbances (e. 1 ≤ j ≤ r.dr (n)]T . and φ(n) [y1 (n). Thus.. and the disturbance samples in (7) are independent from the path gains {hji } and radiated payload streams {φi } [10]. i=1 (8) then the resulting SINR γj measured at the output of j-th receive antenna equates γj = P/kjj . where kjj is the j-th diagonal entry of MAI-plus-noise covariance matrix Kd . and it is going to transmit the current packet M (see Fig. 1 ≤ i ≤ t. MAI vj (n) plus thermal noise wj (n)) received during n-th slot of the Payload Phase.. t where {d(n) (10) [d1 (n)..11 where a ˜ Ttr P T ra[K−1 ] d r (see [11] for more details on this point). let y(n) in (7)... TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T }. For this purpose. Furthermore. 1 ≤ j ≤ r.yr (n)]T be the (r × 1) column vector collecting the r scalar quantities [φ1 (n). 1 ≤ j ≤ r. the Tx node of Fig. from (7) they are related as in 1 y(n) = √ HT φ(n) + d(n).g. (7) where the sequences dj (n) vj (n) + wj (n). The statistical properties of {dj (n)} are the same ones we have described for the Learning Phase. 1 ≤ j ≤ r. after assuming the payload streams power-constrained as in [2] 1 t t E{||φi (n)||2 } ≤ P. received at Rx may be modelled as [10. TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. Furthermore.1).11] 1 yj (n) = √ t t hji φi (n) + dj (n).g.

by resorting to quite standard approaches [7]. → − while the squared average Euclidean norm of the (block) vector φ in (12) collecting the transmitted payload signals is bounded as in (see (11)) →→ − †− E{ φ φ } ≤ Tpay tP.yT (T ) . Therefore.. (11) Finally. so that the corresponding Shannon capacity C (nats/slots) dictates the ultimate information throughput conveyed by the MIMO link Tx → Rx of Fig..1 during the Payload Phase [7]. (nats/slot).. by stacking the Tpay observed vectors in (10) into the corresponding (Tpay r × 1) block → vector − y yT (TL + Ttr + 1) . . (nats/slot) y Tpay → →→ − − †− φ :E{ φ φ }≤tTpay P (16) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . TL + Ttr + 1 ≤ n ≤ T. the average Shannon’s capacity C of the MIMO channel (12) can be expressed as ˆ C = E{C(H)} ≡ ˆ where p(H) = 1 2 π(1−σε ) rt ˆ ˆ ˆ C(H)p(H)dH.ESTIMATION ERRORS AND SPATIALLY COLORED MAI The block-fading model of Sect.NODE I NFORMATION T HROUGHPUT IN THE PRESENCE OF CHANNEL . and the random variable ˆ C(H) 1 → → − ˆ sup I − .. (15) 1 ˆ†ˆ exp − (1−σ2 ) T ra[H H] is the Gaussian probability density function ε ˆ (pdf) of the channel estimates H [11]. (14) III. φT (T ) T T T (10) as follows: → − where the (block) covariance matrix of the disturbance (block) vector d equates →→ − − E{ d ( d )† } = ITpay ⊗ Kd .1 results to be information stable [8]. t (12) dT (TL + Ttr + 1) . we can compactly express the Tpay relationships in 1 → − → T − → − = √ [I y T pay ⊗ H] φ + d .dT (T ) (13) φT (TL + Ttr + 1) .(8) the (t × t) spatial covariance matrix Rφ E{φ(n)φ(n)† } of the t-dimensional signal vector radiated by Tx over a slot time is power-constrained as in T ra[Rφ ] E{φ(n)† φ(n)} ≤ tP.12 eq.II used for modelling the MIMO channel of Fig. . φ |H . P ER .

Let the spatial correlation matrix Rφ in (11) be assigned. Therefore. The corresponding information throughput ˆ TG (H) 1 Tpay → → − ˆ sup I − . we know that Gaussian distributed input ˆ signals achieve the sup in (16) also when (H = H) as long as the length Tpay of the payload phase (largely) exceeds the number t of transmit antennas (see [10] about this asymptotic result). Thus. TL +Ttr +1 ≤ n ≤ T } in → − (10) of the overall signal vector φ in (12) are uncorrelated zero-mean proper complex Gaussian vectors. the above inequality ˆ is satisfied as equality when at least one of the above cited two operating conditions (e. H = H ).10]. φ |H . φ |H = y 1 −1/2 ˆ T σ 2 Tpay −1 ∗ ˆ ∗ −1/2 2 = Tpay lg det Ir + Kd H Rφ H Kd +σε P K−1 −lg det Irt + ε (Kd ) ⊗Rφ . φ |H in (16) of the MIMO channel (12) when Gaussian y input signals are employed is given by the following closed-form relationship (see [11]): → → − ˆ I − .g. (18) d t t when at least one of the following conditions is met: a) 29 agosto 2006 both Tpay and t are large. Finally. → → − ˆ the conditional mutual information I − . Therefore. we remark that. in the sequel we proceed to evaluate the sup in (16) under the assumption of Gaussian distributed input signals. (19) DRAFT .13 is the Shannon capacity of the MIMO link Tx → Rx of Fig. in general. ·|·) in (16) denotes the mutual information ˆ operator [7]. y However.g. y T ra[R ]≤P t φ (17) conveyed by the MIMO channel (12) for Gaussian input signals generally falls below the ˆ ˆ ˆ Shannon’ Capacity C(H) in (16). even for the simplest case of spatially white MAI [2.. the resulting → → − ˆ conditional mutual information I − . φ |H in (16) resists closed-form computation [10]. going to evaluate TG (H) in (17). with correlation matrix Rφ meeting (11). (nats/slot). so that we have TG (H) ≤ C(H). Unfortunately. in [11] the following result is proved. In this case. Proposition 1. → − the pdf of the input signals φ attaining the sup in (16) is currently unknown.1 conditioned on the current values ˆ H of the available channel estimates. when no exact channel estimates are available (e. the Tpay components {φ(n) ∈ Ct .. Anyway. H = H ˆ and/or Tpay >> t) is met. I(·. However.

. Towards this end. 1 ≤ m ≤ t} to be radiated by t antennas of Tx in Fig. it can be proved [11. let us also introduce the following dummy positions: αm 2 µm km .14 b) c) ˆ H approaches H. 1 ≤ l ≤ r. after introducing the (t × r) matrix A ˆ ∗ −1/2 H Kd Ud . A be the corresponding SVD.14] that an application of the Kuhn-Tucker conditions [7] allows to compute the powers {P (m). . Thus. Finally. O PTIMIZED P OWER -A LLOCATION AND S IGNAL -S HAPING IN THE PRESENCE OF COLORED MAI AND C HANNEL -E STIMATION ERRORS Therefore. (20) (21) A proof of Proposition 1 is given in [14] and...1 for 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . where UA and VA are unitary matrices. where Λd diag{µ1 . let us carry out the power-constrained sup of the conditional throughput in (18). ks . and DA diag{k1 . will be not replicated here. (24) ˆ accounting for the effects of both imperfect channel estimate H and spatial MAI Kd . (26) (25) is the (t × r) diagonal matrix built up by the s min{r.. 2 t(µm + P σε ) βl 2 σε Tpay . according to (17). in (14) vanish. all SINRs γj . µr }. tµl (27) Thus. IV.. 0t−s }. let A = UA DA V† ... t} magnitude-ordered singular-values k1 ≥ k2 ≥ . for sake of brevity. 1 ≤ m ≤ s. (23) (22) is the (r × r) diagonal matrix composed by the magnitude-ordered singular values of Kd . ≥ ks > 0 of A. we begin to indicate as Kd = Ud Λd U† . 1 ≤ j ≤ r. .. d the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the MAI spatial covariance matrix Kd .

. (21) is met. r} and L 1− ρ− 1 .(8)): P (m) ≤ P t. Let us assume that at least one of conditions (19)..P (s).. s they are given by the following expressions: 2 P (m) = 0. . the resulting optimal spatial correlation matrix Rφ (opt) shaping the signal radiated by Tx in Fig. (20). l = 1. d ρ 1 rρβmin − αm αm Tpay .14].. the nonnegative scalar parameter ρ in (28)... d ρ r Tpay (29) where βmin min{βl ... 0t−s }U† . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . m∈I(ρ) (30) where I(ρ) 2 {m = 1. (33) A proof of the results reported by Proposition 2 may be found in [11. s : km > 1 + 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] }. . when km ≤ 1 + 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] . (29) is set so to satisfy the following power constrain (see eq. . for m = s + 1. αm Furthermore. . A (32) so that the resulting maximum information throughput in (17) can be evaluated via the following closed-form relationship: r ˆ TG (H) = m=1 σ2P 1 1+ ε + lg(1 + αm P (m)) − µm Tpay m=1 s r lg 1 + βl P (m) l=1 (nats/slot). Finally. d ρ (31) is the set composed by m indexes meeting the inequality in (29).. the radiated powers {P (m)} achieving the sup in (17) vanish..1 is aligned along the right-eigenvectors of matrix A according to Rφ (opt) = UA diag{P (1). Proposition 2. Thus. while for m = 1... (28) P (m) = 1 βmin L − 1 + 2βmin 2 when km > 1 + {βmin L}2 + 4βmin ρ − 2 σε P µm t 2 + σε T ra[K−1 ] .15 achieving the sup in (17).. These optimized powers are detailed by the following Proposition 2.. t.

g) are mutually independent zero-mean unit-variance Gaussian r. g) in (34) may be modelled as in (see [16]) H(f. mutually interfering. g) = 1 represents the worst case where MAI induced by Txf on Rxg is maximal. +∞) is the Rice-factor of the link Txf → Rxg . and χ(f.2 that captures the keyfeatures of the spatial MAI affecting MIMO Ad-hoc networks [9. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . g) H(sp) (f. χ(f. thus the resulting rg -dimensional disturbance d(g) (n) in (10) received by Rxg may be modelled as in (see [16]) N d (n) = f =1. so that the signal vector received by node Rxg is the combined effect of the desired MIMO signal radiated by Txg and the (n∗ − 1) interfering MIMO signals generated by all other transmit nodes. More in detail. according 3 Without loss of generality we assume transmitters and receivers separately. g) in (34) denotes the Rice-distributed fast-fading phenomena of the link Txf → Rxg . So in this analysis the same results can be obtained by exchanging transmitters and receivers.f =g (g) l(g. φ(f ) (n) is the tf -dimensional (Gaussian distributed) signal radiated by Txf . A T OPOLOGY-BASED MAI MODEL FOR M ULTI -A NTENNA AD . we may assume the coefficient χ(f. we consider the application scenario of Fig. In a realistic scenario each node can act as transmit/receive one.2 is composed by n∗ noncooperative. Therefore.v. this channel matrix H(f. 1 ≤ f ≤ n∗ . Furthermore. while rf is the number of the antennas equipping the corresponding Rxf node. g) (35) where k(f. g ≤ n∗ . while the elements of the (tf × rg ) matrix H(sc) (f. The (tf × rg ) matrix H(f. In detail. accounting for the scattering phenomena present on the link Txf → Rxg . g) falls into the interval [0. g) ≡ k(f. g) + 1 + k(f. pointto-point3 links Txf → Rxf . after denoting as l(f.HOC N ETWORKS To test the actual effectiveness of the power-allocation and signal-shaping results previously reported in Proposition 2. g). g) 4 1 √ χ(f. g) the length of the link Txf → Rxg . Specifically. 1 + k(f. Specifically. g)HT (f. 1]. each transmit node Txf is assumed to be equipped with tf antennas. according to the fast-fading spatial interference model developed in [16].16 V. g) captures the shadowing effects4 impairing the link Txf → Rxg . 4 Without loss of generality. the Ad-hoc network of Fig.s. g) l(f. tg (34) where w(g) (n) denotes the thermal noise. g) ∈ [0. g) 1 H(sc) (f.16]. according to [16]. 1 ≤ f. g)φ(f ) (n) + w(g) (n).

. . g). exp(j2πν cos(θa (f. N 0 (watt/Hz) is the thermal noise level at Rxg .g) χ2 (f. indeed. g) and b(f. and it can be modelled as in (see [16]) H(sp) (f. exp(j2πν(rg − 1) cos(θd (f. g))).16.. (36) where a(f. g))). (37) (38) where θa (f.g) P (f ) Irg + 1+k(f. while ν is the antennas spacing in multiple of the RF wavelength5 . g ≤ n∗ . b(f. (36). the resulting MAI covariance matrix Kd measured at Rxg is given by the following relationship: Kd = E d(g) (n) d(g) (n) ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ + n∗ 4 (g) ∆ † (g) ⎪ f =1 ⎩ f =g l(g. g).17 to [16]. Thus. 1+k(f. g) are the (tf × 1) and (rg × 1) column vectors describing the specular array responses of Rxg and Txf ..g) 4 χ2 (f. when regularly spaced linear arrays with isotropic elements are used. g)bT (f. at least in application scenarios as those here considered where the terminals are (approximately) co-located at the same level over the ground [10. for example. and φ by Txf .11-oriented literature (see. 1 ≤ f. g) = [1.g) ⎪ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (39) where P (f ) is the power radiated by Txf . g) ≡ a(f.g) l(f. g)R b (f. g) are the arrival and departure angles of the link Txf → Rxg (see Fig.. g)))]T .17].g) tf φ ⎪ ⎭ f =1 f =g ≡ ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ N0 + n∗ l(g. g)))]T . exp(j2πν(rf − 1) cos(θa (f. the above vectors may be directly evaluated as [16] a(f. . g)a (f. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . more realistic than those generally adopted by the IEEE802. [29] and references therein).g) ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (f ) ∗ k(f. We consider this model. the (tf × rg ) matrix H(sp) (f. respectively [16].g) l(f. In particular. θd (f. where the transmission range of any transmit node is supposed circular and 5 Several measures support the conclusion that ν values of the order of 1/2 generally suffice to meet the above mentioned uncorrelation assumption among rays impinging the receive antennas.2).g) T T a(f. g) . exp(j2πν cos(θd (f. g) in (35) accounts for the (MIMO) specular component of the signal received by Rxg . basing on the model (35). R (f ) E φ(f ) (n) φ(f ) (n) † is the spatial covariance matrix of the MIMO signals radiated The resulting spatial MAI model in (39) implies that each transmit node induces MAI on all receive nodes different from the intended one. g)b (f. g) = [1.

HOC NETWORKS In an Ad-hoc network with multiple no cooperating mutually interfering peer-to-peer links. We recall that a noncooperative and strategic game G set N N. A. . since there is no cooperation among the players. this conclusion. A concept related to this issue is the so-called Nash 6 The notation ug (ag . n∗ } of players. × An∗ the space of set of utility functions. 2. the MAI correlation matrix seen by each receive node varies with the signal correlation matrices generated by all (e. but his achieved utility depends also on the actions a−g taken by all other players [5. desired plus interfering) transmit nodes.g.13]. let us indicate as ug : A → R the g-th player’s utility function. to properly model this nodes interaction. according g to the following game rule [13]: a• ≡ maxag ∈Ag ug (ag . after indicating by a ∈ A an action profile. The numerical results we present in the sequel support.18 beyond that range no MAI at all is assumed to be induced. a set Ag . indeed. . Being power-allocation and signalshaping performed by each transmit node depending on the MAI covariance matrix measured by the corresponding receiver. but their aggregate effect could straightly affect the quality of the on-going desired transmissions. a−g ) emphasizes that the g-th player controls only own action ag . we can say that ug (a) ≡ ug (ag . Hence.. Specifically. thus a change in the transmit correlation matrix of one link induces changes in the signal correlation matrices of all other links. g (40) Therefore. . VI. a−g ). after denoting as A action profiles [13]. it is important to ensure the dynamic stability of the overall game. By fact. the main reason behind the MAI model we adopt here is that a (very) large number of interferes might cause negligible MAI individually. T HE S PATIAL P OWER -A LLOCATION M ULTI -A NTENNA (SPAM) G AME FOR AD . we resort to the analytical framework of the Strategic Game Theory [5].13]: a finite {1. . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . {ug } has three components [5. g ∈ N of possible actions for each player and a A1 × A2 × . in a strategic noncooperative game each player chooses a suitable action a• from his action set Ag so to maximize its utility function. In particular. . a−g ) maps6 each action profile a into a real number [13]. Thus. by ag ∈ Ag the players g’s action in a and by a−g the actions in a of the other (n∗ − 1) players. .

an NE is an action profile a such that for all ag ∈ Ag the following inequality is satisfied [5.2. a−g ). a Nash Equilibrium is an action profile a at which no player may gain by unilaterally deviating [5. in the considered Ad-hoc networking scenario of Fig.. a−g ) ≥ ug (ag . the transmitters do not cooperate). A.(18)) ug (a) 1 → (1) (g) (n∗ ) → − (g) ˆ ug (R . sustained by the corresponding link Txg → Rxg via suitable power-allocation and shaping of the signals radiated by Txg . an NE is a stable operating point of the Game. Simply stated. so that we can write (see eq. so we can pose φ Ag ≡ {R : 0 ≤ T ra[R ] ≤ tg Pg }. i = g} and the Ad-hoc nature of the network does not allow transmitters to exchange information (e. More formally. So.5]...4. . R . .. ∀ag ∈ Ag .5]. . n∗ . we may model the interaction between transmit/receive pairs active over the network as a noncooperative strategic game [1. the utility function ug (. 13]: ug (ag . g = 1.. The considered networking Game Let us focus now on the Ad-hoc network of Fig..19 Equilibrium (NE).. φ |Hg y φ φ φ Tpay 1 (g)−1/2 ˆ T (g) ˆ ∗ (g)−1/2 (g)−1 2 (Kd )Hg R Hg (Kd ) + σε (g)P (g) (Kd ) φ tf DRAFT (g) ≡ lg det Irg + 29 agosto 2006 . the players’ set N is composed by the n∗ transmit/receive pairs. Since the signals radiated by the g-th transmitter induces MAI over all other receivers {Rxi .2 composed by n∗ mutually interfering transmit/receive Multi-Antenna units.. . φ φ (g) (g) (g) (41) (42) This means that the generic action ag of Txg consists in the transmission of a Gaussian distributed payload sequence with covariance matrix R . because no player has any profit to change his strategy [4. The ultimate task of the g-th transmit/receive pair is to maximize the information throughput TG (g)... Specifically. n∗ . while the set Ag of actions available to the the g-th player is the set of all the covariance matrices {R } meeting the power constraint (11). Furthermore.13]. R ) ≡ I − (g) .) for the gφ th transmit/receive pair is the conditional throughput conveyed by the g-th link. g = 1...g. ∀g ∈ N.

we focus on single-hop (e. the main target of the proposed SDMA scheme is to maximize (in a competitive sense) the information throughput of each single-hop peer-to-peer link in the presence of MAI. φ tg (i) − 1 Tpay lg det Irg tg + (g) (43) where the g-th MAI covariance matrix Kd depends on the spatial covariance matrices {R . fading. path loss. (44) (g)• Before proceeding. indeed. defined according to predefined multiple QoS classes. in place of guaranteed users’ QoS.n∗ .2. In fact. some remarks about the considered QoS policies are in order. routing is no considered in our analysis. g = 1. B.. . each player (e. since the performance of the SDMA scheme we go to present depends only on the singlehop links quality. Secondly. in Adhoc networks with no centralized controllers it may be not possible to guarantee to any user the requested QoS. so we can write (see (45)) 1 → (g)• → − (g) ˆ R I − (g) . it is more reasonable. transmitter Txg ) chooses the action R maximizing the throughput φ (43) conveyed by own link. About the rule of the game.2. shortcut) transmissions. In fact. and channel estimation errors.. few remarks about the considered network model of Fig. Specifically. Thus. thus meaning that broadcasting and multicasting are out of the scope of our analysis. φ |Hg ≡ arg max y φ (g) Rφ ∈Ag Tpay . the algorithm attempts to achieve the next lower QoS classes by decreasing the throughput requested by the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . A Competitive Optimal distributed SDMA Algorithm under the Best Effort and ContractedQoS access Policies In this sub-Section we present the algorithm for an optimized SDMA for the networking scenario of Fig. the packet generated by each transmit node is intended for a single receive node only.g. Specifically. Firstly..20 2 σε (g)Tpay (g) (g) ((Kd )−1 )∗ ⊗ R . if these classes are not achievable due to the MAI.. to resort to the concept of contracted QoS.g. i = φ g} of the signals radiated by the interfering transmitters as detailed by (39). Before proceeding. the SDMA algorithm we present attempts to achieve the target throughput classes dictated by the MAC layer and. we assume that at any time. We consider the QoS from an information throughput point of view.

If the obtained throughput is below the requested one T RT H . in an asynchronous way) by all transmit/receive pairs active over the network of Fig. It must be run by each transmit/receive pair active over the network of Fig.2. Hence. and the Steps from 16 to 18 perform the competitive optimal power-allocation and spatial signal-shaping for the link Txg → Rxg . then the game stops.VI. the third one. Distributed and Asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game Let us assume that the SDMA algorithm reported in Table I is iteratively run (possibly. where the number of QoS classes approaches infinity. while Steps 13 and 14 set up the ρ parameter. Otherwise. Specifically. while T RT H (nats/slot) at the Step 0 is the target throughput defining the z-th QoS class. The SDMA algorithm for achieving the maximal throughput over the g-th link under the above mentioned contracted QoS policy is reported in Table I. the Nash Equilibrium exists. the transmitter Txg restarts the game with a target throughput T RT H lower than the original one T RT H . In particular. In the Steps from 18 to 22 the convergence of the SDMA algorithm towards the NE is checked. the (1) (z) (z−1) (z) (z) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Step 12 verifies that the Game is playable (e.B). From this point of view. see Sect. the Best Effort strategy is a particular case of the contracted QoS one. and at Step 23 the maximized information throughput sustained by g-th link is evaluated. C. the first Tx1 → Rx1 pair begins to update its power-allocation and signal-shaping by running the algorithm of Table I. after measuring the impairing MAI covariance matrix Kd . Thus. Txg reduces the overall radiated power of an assigned step-size ∆l and restarts the game.g. Step 24 checks if the achieved throughput is compliant with the QoS requirement.21 users. in Table I the Steps from 0 to 11 are set-up procedures and eigen/singular values computations. The condition at Step 15 assures that the power meets the constraint (11). Finally.2.. I(ρ) and the step size ∆ requested to carry out the power-allocation procedure. etc. If it is compliant. this algorithm is successively run by the second pair Tx2 → Rx2 .

. {τ1 .22 algorithm is applied again by the first pair. the distributed and asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game of Table II converges to 7 In an asynchronous implementation of the game. Furthermore. Υn∗ sorted in increasing order. 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ .} with tgi < tg( i+1) . 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ .. the key questions are: • • • Does Nash Equilibrium exist for the SPAM Game? Is the Nash Equilibrium unique? Does the above iterative algorithm converge towards the Nash Equilibrium? The following Proposition 3 gives sufficient conditions for the existence. Proposition 3 . τ3 . let following three conditions be met: (g)2 km > 1 + 2 σε (g)P (g) (g) µm t ρ(g) 2 + σε (g)T ra[(Kd )−1 ] . (46) (47) Thus. the updating ordering may also change from time to time.. (45) (g) rg ≥ tg .} the overall set of updating instants Υ1 the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the considered SPAM Game generates the sequence of power-allocations and signal-shapings following the iterative procedure detailed in Table II. tg2 .2 executes the power-control and signal-shaping algorithm of Table I at time instances given by the set Υg {tg1 . 1 ≤ m ≤ min{rg . the second one and so on7 .. 1 ≤ g ≤ n∗ .. . the Nash Equilibrium of the SPAM Game of Table II exists and is unique. about the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game reported in Table II.By referring to the asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game reported by Table II. tg }. tg3 . after indicating by Υ Υ2 . uniqueness and achievement of the Nash Equilibrium. the g-th transmit/receive pair of Fig. Thus. Thus. in the fully asynchronous and distributed implementation of the SPAM Game. possibly in a random way [13]. τ2 . Formally. Tpay >> tg > 1 and/or 2 σε (g) → 0.. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .

3 bits/slot (see Fig. N UMERICAL TESTS ON THE CONVEYED NETWORK THROUGHPUT AND CONVERGENCE Numerical tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the the performance of the SPAM Game of Table II both in terms of achieved network throughput and self-reconfiguring/faulttolerating capability. The model of Sect. by running the SPAM Game we obtain an average information throughput around 18 bits/slots for the first link (see Fig. while the throughput sustained by the second link Tx2 → Rx2 is (obviously) zero. at iteration 0).. see Fig. It is composed by two transmit/receive pairs equipped with t=4 and r=8 transmit/receive antennas and operating at SNR=10dB with Tpay = 120. After. so the throughput over the Tx1 → Rx1 link decreases (till to 13 bits/slots. 1) = 1. At the beginning (e.4). Conveyed Average Throughput and self-reconfiguring/fault-tolerating capability Fig.4).23 the NE from any starting point.8 and χ2 (2. Next. the network topology changes and a barrier is introduced between the the second transmitter and first receiver. the link Tx2 → Rx2 turns on.4). the network self-reconfigures and new Nash Equilibrium (achieved at the 60th iteration) is characterized by different values of the achieved throughput over the active links. so that χ2 (1.g. The obtained results are detailed in the following sub-Sections.3). In this case. 2) = 0. A Proof of this proposition is reported in the final Appendix II. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . only the first transmit/receive pair is assumed to be on (see Fig. VII. the SPAM Game gives arise to an information throughput over the link Tx1 → Rx1 limited up to 14.V has been adopted to (numerically) generate the MAI.3 depicts the basic squared network considered for the tests. This point represents the (first) Nash Equilibrium for the considered squared topology and it has reached after 23 iterations (see Fig. A. while the (average) throughput of the Tx2 → Rx2 link increases till the same value of 13 bits/slot. Next. we introduced an additional change in the network topology. The numerical tests have been carried out under the Best Effort policy.4). 1) = 1. Next.6 while χ2 (2. we considered an operating scenario with χ2 (1.4. Thus. As it can be seen by Fig. 2) = 0.

2 bits/slot (see Fig. pdf. the corresponding achievable throughput region of the overall network is the closure of all average information throughput n∗ -ples (TG (1). this question is still open and till now the convergence rate seems to resist.2 may be described by resorting to the concept of achievable throughput region [2.. g = 1.3]. n∗ active in the ad-hoc network of Fig. The new NE achieved by running the SPAM Game approaches 8.5 reports the achievable throughput regions of the considered squared network for different values of the shadowing factors χ2 (1.. g = 1. . In this operating condition. indeed. t1 = t2 = r1 = r2 = 4) transmit/receive units. TG (2)) that the links active over the considered network may guarantee when the 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .3). B.18.. By fact. we assumed that a third pair of trasmit/receive units switch on. closed-form analytical evaluation.. n∗ .g.3)..3 bits/slot for all active links (see Fig.4). Specifically. 2) = χ2 (2. some considerations about this point may be found in [25].4). About the convergence property. for a given statistical description of the network links and a set of constraints on the network input statistics (power. till now no closed-form analytical formulas are available for the computation of the achievable throughput region of an interference network as that sketched in Fig. Thus. 1) = 0 in Fig. ...19]. so that the network assumes an hexagonal topology (see Fig. The Achievable Throughput Region The set of simultaneous average throughput achieved by the n∗ peer-to-peer links Txg → Rxg . an interesting still open question concerns the convergence rate of the SPAM Game towards the NE for increasing values of the number k of performed iterations (see Table III). where the throughput conveyed by both links equates 19. 2) = χ2 (2.2 [12.13]..g. n∗ = 2) multi-antenna (e. . etc. However.. the sustained links throughput increase so to approach a new NE.24 so that both receivers do not suffer from MAI (e. Finally. TG (n∗ )) that can be simultaneously sustained by the peer-to-peer links Txg → Rxg . These regions represent the 2-ples of average information throughput (TG (1).. Fig. active over the network [9. Barring some partial contributions.g.). Roughly speaking. 1).. in this sub-Section we comment some results we have numerically obtained for a squared network composed by two (e. χ2 (1.

nevertheless the average throughput are less than those guaranteed by SPAM Game. in the carried out numerical tests the CSMA/CA(s) scheme we implemented schedules a single peer-to-peer link at a time and activates the scheduled link at maximum allowed power for an n -th of the time. the operating point of the SPAM Game moves from (TG (1). D. TG (2)) and converges to 8 (0) (0) (0) (0) To really guarantee both collision-free (e. neither this region may be analytically evaluated in closed-form. the throughput loss due to the exchange of RTS/CTS packets has been no accounted for in the reported numerical plots. It can be proved (see Appendix III of [25]) that. After comparing the throughput regions achieved by the proposed SPAM Game with those of the CSMA/CA(s) orthogonal access method (see the inner square in Fig. the transmit/receive nodes are not aware in advance about the throughput region of Fig. Thus.g..g. under Best Effort policy. at least in networking scenarios where the spatial-dimension of the system may be efficiently exploited to perform MAI suppression.5. perfectly MAI-free) and fair access under the MAI model of Sect. specially in MAI limited application scenarios. collision-free. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. Overall. Furthermore. by fact.5 is the largest one attainable by the CSMA/CA(s) policy.g. a key question concerns the convergence of the operating point of SPAM Game when the requested initial throughput (TG (1).5). although CSMA/CA(s) is.-TDMA comparison of Fig.V. Thus. 1) < 0. An examination of Fig.25 proposed SPAM Game is run.7 (e. fully MAI-free). Convergence Property of the SPAM Game toward the nearest allowable operating point In actual application scenarios.4 supports for the superiority of competitively optimal access strategies over collision-free ones. being the implemented CSMA/CA(s) scheme collision-free (e. the SPAM Game-vs.-CSMA/CA: a throughput comparison The above conclusion is also supported by the dotted line of Fig. SPAM Game-vs.4 that reports the corresponding CSMA/CA(s) average throughput for the same previously considered networking scenarios 8 . the corresponding throughput region of Fig.5 sustainable by the network. 2) = χ2 (2.4 shows that.in the presence of strong MAI) the proposed SPAM Game outperforms the CSMA/CA(s) one in terms of conveyed average throughput. C.. TG (2)) fall out of the achievable throughput region of Fig. we may conclude that at χ2 (1.

under the Contracted QoS policy. The first one (referred as Hard Connection Admission Procedure (HCAP)) is devoted to benefit users asking for higher QoS classes. TG (2)) and converges to the point on the QoS grid at minimum distance from (TG (1). the algorithm given in Table I is implemented by the incoming (new) transmit node. In Table IV the flow-chart of SCAP is shown. while the second one (referred as Soft Connection Admission Procedure (SCAP)) is designed to maximize the number of allowed connections. The SCAP approach is quite similar to HCAP. About this last. Afterwards.5). it may be of interest to develop distributed and scalable CAPs. Thus. Thus.g. If the resulting MAI matrices change.. 9 (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) The value assumed by the waiting time may be set (possibly in an adaptive way) by the MAC layer on the basis of the maximum delay (e. balancing QoS users’ requirements and aggregate networking throughput. then a new NE is approached. we propose two distributed CAPs for Ad-hoc networks based on the SPAM Game of Table II. the power-allocation algorithm starts again (see Table III). VIII. no changes of MAI covariance matrices are recognized). If convergence is reached (e. then user with QoS class z needs to wait for a zT period before passing to next lower (z − 1) QoS class.g. which also evaluates its current interference covariance matrix Kd . TG (2)) point (see the dotted arrow of Fig. latency) allowed for the (successful) transmission of each MAC PDU. the other nodes already joined the network compute their own interference covariance matrix too. The HCAP’s flow chart is given in Table III. the operating point of the SPAM Game moves from (TG (1).. each user waits for a time zT which is function9 of his current QoS class. D ISTRIBUTED C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURES (CAP S ) AND C ONCLUSIONS Since the Ad-hoc networks do not adopt any centralized controller and the number of active nodes is random.5). and a new connection service request is incoming with the QoS class equal to z. Likewise.26 the point on the boundary of the throughput region at the minimum Euclidean distance from the initial (TG (1). TG (2)) (see the dashed grid of Fig. In this Section. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . let us assume the network has just approached the NE. Otherwise.

in Fig. TDMA) admit all requiring connections.8 shows that. 8 confirm the above mentioned properties of the proposed CAPs.7.Existence of a Nash Equilibrium 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . regardless of QoS issues.7 the users’ number is evaluated and expressed as a function of QoS users’ percentage. From this point of view. Although the number of connections attained by HCAP is the lowest one. Proposition 4 .27 The only difference is given by the waiting time (that is inversely proportional to the required QoS class) and by the reduced number of classes. but the network throughput is lower. Specifically. in this approach the user with highest class is the first to reduce the request of QoS class. Specifically. we report the following result from [1. Overall. In Fig. Fig. VII. it is likelihood to retain that the results presented in this paper only grasp the tip of the iceberg and much remains to be done. The numerical plots of Figs. Being the ultimate task of SCAP to maximize the overall number of allowed connections.E XISTENCE OF A NASH E QUILIBRIUM FOR THE SPAM G AME In order to prove the existence of a Nash Equilibrium for the distributed and asynchronous implementation of the SPAM Game reported in Table II.13]. The number of users when both SCAP and HCAP are employed is decreasing as the QoS user percentage is increasing. the TDMA gives the worst performance.8 the resulting aggregated network throughput is reported. The number of connections allowed by SCAP is greater than that attained via HCAP. VIII is that the proposed SPAM Game represents a distributed Multi-Antenna access strategy able to outperform (in terms of peer-to-peer throughput) the conventional collision-free ones. The SCAP connection number is higher than HCAP one. the final conclusion that arises from the performance tests described in Sects. in terms of aggregate network throughput. the effect of multi-hop routing and relays [24] on the performance of the proposed SPAM Game is a topic currently investigated by the authors. A PPENDIX I . while collision-free access methods (such as. nevertheless the resulting network throughput is the highest one.

we conclude that ug (. where T ra[R (max)] ≡ tg Pg . (g) (g) (g) (52) Condition (49) . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Condition (48) . the φ closure property makes the set Ag compact. being its boundary (e. c) conditions.28 Given an uncooperative strategic Game G N. As a consequence. A.. 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1..g. (1) (n∗ ) 10 See [15] for the definition and main properties of the quasi-concave functions. φ φ (g) (g) (51) also falls into Ag .Since the function lg det [M] is continuous in the elements of the matrix M. a−g ) is quasi − concave10 in ag ∈ Ag f or any assigned a−g . In fact. in addition. it suffices to test the continuity of the two terms enclosed by φ φ (g) the squared brackets in (43). compact and convex. φ φ falls into the interval [0.. φ φ (g) the null and the maximum R (max) matrix) included into the Ag set. our task is to prove that the SPAM Game of Table II meets all above a). Kd is also continuous in {R . for all g = 1. an NE exists if.. after taking two elements R (1) and R (2) of Ag .For all g values. then the resulting combined matrix φ φ Rφ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) λR (1) + (1 − λ)R (2). Ag is also convex.. the set Ag is convex. the set of actions Ag in (42) is limited between the null and R (max) matrix. {ug } . Since both these terms are continuous in the g-th argument R φ (g) −1 (i) and.. since its trace T ra[Rφ ] = λT ra[R (1)] + (1 − λ)T ra[R (2)]. .) in (43) meets φ the continuity property (49).) in (43) with respect to the (matrix) arguments {R . Thus. c) the utility f uncion ug (ag . b). tg Pg ]. n∗ : (48) (49) a) the set Ag is not empty. Furthermore. (50) Thus. in order to prove the continuity of the utility function ug (. i = g}. b) the utility f uncion ug (a) is continuous over a ∈ A.R }. This set is closed. We only stress that a concave function is also quasi-concave [15].

R ). .4].... i = 1. ..g. Therefore.. or when all the inequalities in (45) are met.. i = g}. i = g} of interfering covariance signal matrices.. An examination of (43) leads to the conclusion that this term becomes negligible 2 ˆ when the available channel estimates H are very reliable (e. for any assigned n∗ -ple φ (i) (g)• {R . g = 1.. .4] about the so called standard functions.. . . . . the φ (g)• resulting maximizing R in (44) constitutes the so-called ”g-th terminal best response” to the φ (i) set {R . for any assigned (n∗ − 1)-ple of spatial covariance matrices {R . σε (g) in (43) vanishes).. then [B• ](R .. These last considerations complete the proof about the existence of a NE for the SPAM Game of Table II.After recalling that a concave function is also quasi-concave [15].4] for more details) [B• ](R . it suffices to prove that the utility function ug (. from an analytical point of view the matrix [B• ](. Formally.. formally defined as (see [1. φ φ φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (54) (55) 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .U NIQUENESS AND ACHIEVABILITY OF THE NE FOR THE SPAM G AME To prove the uniqueness of NE for the SPAM Game of Table II.. or when (g) (g) (g) Tpay is large. R ) ¤ 0. . To φ accomplish this task. so that ug (..) in (48) is concave in R for any assigned Kd . n∗ } we may collect the resulting terminals best responses {R .) in (43) is concave in R when the term following the minus sign in (43) becomes φ negligible... we resort to some basic results reported in [1. A PPENDIX II . then [B• ](R . R ) ¤ [B• ](R . φ φ φ φ φ φ (g) (g) (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (R . Rφ (n∗ )• ]T .. according to a current taxonomy [1.) in (53) constitutes a standard function when it meets the following three properties: Positiveness: a) ∀a Monotonicity: b) if R ¤ R .29 Condition (50) . n∗ } φ φ • in (44) into the so called Matrix of Best Responses (MBR) [B ].... we simply observe that the lg det[M] function is concave in M...4]. R ) ∈ A... R ) φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (i) [Rφ (1)• .. (53) According to [1.

since the utility function in (43) is composed by the function log det (I + A).. when Kd ¤ Kd . a) Positiveness . it suffices to test that all the best response matrices {R . . when Kd ¤ Kd . (56). ∀Kd ¤ Kd .. φ φ ug (R . we have that this last can be re-written as: log((1 + λa )). then c[B• ](R .. we have that.) for the SPAM Game of Table II.In order to prove the positiveness of [B• ](.30 Scalability: c) ∀ c ≥ 1. Thus. By applying (g) the same proof-arguments to the matrix R . (46) are fulfilled. ∀Rφ ¤ R . Kd ).) decreases. In turn... we simply note that. both these conditions are met when the inequalities (45). log det (I + A) increases with {λa }.... R ) ¤ [B• ](cR . . we have to test the validity of the following inequalities: ug (R . our next task is to prove that the MBR [B• ](. we conclude that R is positive when tg ≤ sg min{rg . g = 1. b) Monotonicity . we directly arrive at test the monotonic increasing φ (g) behavior of the function ug (. thus ug (. So. tg } and all the R φ φ ∗ powers {Pg (m)} in (28)-(29) are strictly positive.. (55). φ φ φ φ (1) (n∗ ) (1) (n∗ ) (56) where the expression Q£U (Q¤U) means that Q−U is a definite (semidefinite) positive matrix. n∗ } in (53) are definite φ (g) positive for any assigned MAI matrices {Kd .. Kd ) ≤ ug (Rφ . n∗ }.In order to prove the monotonicity property. This implies that the eigenvalues of the matrix in (43) act as a reference to the matrix Kd (g)−1 (g)2 (g)2 (g) (g) . 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . since Theorem 1 of [4] assures the uniqueness of the NE when the corresponding MBR is a standard function (see also [1] for additional details on this topic). cR ).) in (43) with respect to R . and this proves the validity of the φ inequality (58). Now. . we have that k m ≥ km . g = 1.. . φ φ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)• (g)• (g)• (57) (58) For testing (57).. Therefore.) in (53) of the considered SPAM Game meets all the properties (54). ∀m. By examining the expression of reported in (32). Kd ). where {λa } are the (g) (g) eigenvalues of A. Kd ) ≤ ug (R .

its reachability is directly guaranteed by the fact that the NE represents the unique stable operating point of the Game [13]. [8] S.1995. The Theory of Matrices.Goodman. Feb. [9] C.For any assigned (n∗ − 1)-ple {R . pp..31 c) Scalability . . [7] R.B.U.. pp.. i = 1. [2] A.B. pp. Mandayanan. when Kd and Kd are computed according to the MAI model in (39).40.Nabar.G.MacKenzie.Paulraj.S.”A general Formula for channel Capacity”.Tismetesky. let us indicate by Kd φ the resulting MAI covariance matrix computed according to the model (39) and let us denote as Kd the corresponding MAI matrix generated by the (n∗ − 1)-ple {cR . then they satisfy the following chain of inequalities: cKd (g) Kd (g) Kd . R. the validity of (59) directly arises from the inequality chain (60). of Sel. ”Efficient Power control via pricing in wireless data networks”. . R EFERENCES [1] C..B. n∗ . Sept.Gallagher. vol.A. ”Game Theory in Communications: Motivation.Han..) in (43) increases for increasing Kd .821-825.M. 2nd Ed. Jan. 1985. M.J. Information Theory and Reliable Communication. July 1994. on Inform.1147-1157. n∗ .60-70. φ Therefore. Globecom 2001. pp.E. Kd )} £ arg max {ug (R .Carleial. Explanation and Application to Power Control”.Perkins.50. IEEE Trans.2. since we have already proved that ug (. by definition. ”Interference Channels”.1. n∗ .A. IEEE Trans. no.Yates. no. Feb. Wiley. ”An Overview of MIMO Communications: A Key to Gigabit Wireless”. i = g}. S. vol. Theory.Saraydar.Lancaster. D. [3] T.2002. vol. . Elements of Information Theory. N. J.J. 2000.B. Academic Press.13. of IEEE.291-303.Thomas. Theory. Proc. Ad Hoc Networking. the proof of the scalability property in (56) is equivalent to test the validity of the following inequality: c arg max {ug (R . vol.. g = 1.6. Wiley.198-218. (g) (g) (60) Therefore. pp. [10] A. Kd )}.Verdu’. After proving the uniqueness of the NE for the SPAM Game in Table II. IEEE Trans. on Comm. 2004.1978. Cover. φ φ R(g) ∈Ag R(g) ∈Ag φ φ (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (i) (i) (g) (59) Now. no.. ” A framework for Uplink Power control in Cellular Radio Systems”.Gore. Addison Wesley. IEEE Journ. [4] R. i = 1. [5] A. on Inf. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. [6] P. 1991.Wicker.24. 1968. we observe that. T.1341-1347. New York..Bolcskei. H. pp. D. Areas on Comm. i = g}.

no.1577-1586. IEEE Ant. R. pp. R. ”The Impact of Space Division Multiplexing on Resource Allocation: A Unified Approach”.Baccarelli. 2001. Ingram. [14] E. Feb. ”MIMO Ad Hoc Networks: Medium Access Control.Osborne.Vetterli. Diversity and Channel Capacity”..533-543. pp. pp. Sept. vol.49. pp. report. available at website http : //inf ocom.Biagi. pp.R. 2003.Chiasserini. IEEE Infocom Proc. pp. April 2000. no. Jan. Letters..Foschini. 2002.Baccarelli.Tassinulas. R.808-817. D. Kluver.4.Todd. M.Nabar. ”Topology Control of Multi-Hop wireless Networks using transmit power adjustment”.1. ”Antenna Arrays in Mobile Communications: Gain.Koutsopoulos. no.16. INFO-COM Tec. C.Farrokhi. IEEE Tr. M.Valenzuela. pp. pp. [12] L.115-119. Proc.it/ biagi/gamet. D.pdf : [26] J. M.85-87.. V.459-469. Ramanathan.Hu. MIT Press 1994.69-81 . vol. Chang. A. T. Sivakumar. J..Lozano. and Prop. on Inform. SIAM Rev.138-152. C.1967. vol3. ”Diversity and Multiplexing: A fundamental Tradeoff in Multiple-Antenna channels”.Litva. ”On the Capacity of wireless Networks: the relay case”. IEEE/ACM Tr. PWC2003 proc. Andersen. [19] M. L.pdf [15] J. C.Tse. 1999.A. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .Theory.Pelizzoni ”Games Theory for Power allocation and Spatial Shaping in MIMO ad-hoc Networks”. P.9.Gatspar.Kawadia. Dec. no. P. March 2001. ”Cooperation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”.uniroma1. ”Dynamic Slot Allocation (DSA) in indoor SDMA/TDMA using a smart antenna base station”. ”Medium Access Control in Ad-Hoc Networks with MIMO Links: Optimmization Considerations and Algorithms”.5.Kumar.2004.1. no. [20] V. D.. M.4.Biagi. [28] M. [24] V.D.Srinivasan. on Networking. no. IEEE INFOCOM’00.Nuggehalli.F. T. and Optimal Hop Distance”. A course in Game Theory. [25] E. IEEE Infocom Proc. J.R. 1073-1096. [21] I. R. ”Ad Hoc Game” INFO-COM Tec.Ren. ”Optimized Power Allocation and Signal Shaping for Interference-Limited Multi-Antenna ”ad-hoc” Networks”. 2003.it/ biagi/gameext.”Link-Optimal Space-Time Processing with Multiple Transmit and Receive Antennas”.Zheng. (JCN).2001 [23] G. [18] M.2004.Okamoto.Gore.Zhang.Paulraj. on Mob.Tse.Rubinstein. [29] R. IEEE Tr. ”Mobility Increases the Capacity of ad-hoc Wireless Networks”.Baccarelli.2.9. 12..Grossglauser. May 2003.J. available at website http //inf ocom. pp.Pelizzoni. IEEE Infocm Proc.Rao.Shad. [27] K. Saturation throughput. IEEE Infocom Proc. Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. pp.-Y. of Comm.Kezys. R. 350-365. [17] A.Rosales-Hain.2003. G.317-330.B. ”Power Control and Clustering in Ad Hoc Netwroks”.5. vol.1360-1369. vol.uniroma1. no.3.R. Journ. report. pp. ”Seven kinds of convexity”.32 [11] E. T. pp. IEEE Comm. Smart Antenna Systems and Wireless LANs. A. IEEE Infocom Proc. Comp.42.6. vol. [13] M. and Netw. vol.A. [22] F. pp. 2003. Sundaresan.Biagi.-Dec. M. [16] F.. Cambridge Press. 2003. Mag. Oct.Ponstein. 2000.J.

29 agosto 2006 xR egasseM detceteD M ˆ d sannetna r htiw redoced dna rotamitse lennahc . 2. xT .33 Fig. 1. g ) l(1. .....g) l(n*. ˆ Multi-Antenna system equipped with imperfect (forward) channel estimates H and impaired by MAI with spatial covariance matrix Kd . Tx1 θd (1..g) θa (2. g ) Rxg Txn* θ d (n* .. The model [16] considered for generating MAI.rotaludomeD H ˆ K 1 2 r H LENNAHC-DRAWROF OMIM ecnerefretnI sseccA elpitluM KNIL KCABDEEF trh 12h 11h 1 2 t sannetna t htiw rotaludoM dna redocnE emiT ecapS d K H ˆ egasseM ecruoS M .g) Rx1 Tx2 l(2...g) . Txg θd (2. DRAFT . g ) * θ a (n . g ) l(g. g ) Rxn* Fig. g ) Rx2 θ a (1.

3 are the desired links.VII for the numerical tests. 4. 2. g = f are the interfering ones. while Txg → Rxf .34 Tx2 Rx2 Tx2 Rx2 Tx1 Rx1 Tx1 Rx1 Tx1 Rx1 Rx2 Tx2 Tx1 Tx3 Rx3 Rx1 Tx2 Rx2 Tx2 Tx1 Tx1 Rx1 Fig. Rx1 Rx2 CSMA/CA(4) Fig.3. The network topology sequence considered in Sect. Average Information Throughput achieved by the SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) under the Best Effort policy for the network topology sequence of Fig. Txg → Rxg . g = 1. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . 3.

Compute the powers and the covariance matrix via eq. Set ρ(g) := 0 and I(ρ(g) ) := ∅. 3. if km { (g)2 (g) min1≤l≤r {µm }. 7. µmin 12. Compute the SVD of Hg Kd 8. Compute and sort the r eigenvalues of Kd . if TG (g) = T RT H stop.35 0.. . 19. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. else 25. (g) (g)2 11. (31). else fl(g)=1. 22. 2 σε (g)Tpay /µl tg . 1. Evaluate TG (g) via (33) for the g-th link.05||R (g) (old)||2 ) E E φ 21. (32). φ φ (g) 20. (g) 6. 17. 15. TG (g) = 0. µmin µm (g) for all m and fl(g)=1 13. ˆg ˆ ∗ (g)−1 HT . (g) 2 µm km /tg (µm + P (g) σε (g)). αm 10. fl(g)=1. Set Ψ(g) := R (new) − R (old). 18. d 2 5. φ φ 2. βmax 2 > (µm + P (g) σε (g)) (g) 2 σε (g) (g) (g) 2 σε (g)Tpay √µmin tg rTpay (g) (g) .ALLOCATION AND SIGNAL .(28). R (old):=R (new) φ φ } 23. } TABLE I A PSEUDO .CODE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POWER . (29). βl (g) (g) min(r. Set the target throughput T RT H of the z-th QoS Classes . If (||Ψ||2 ≤ 0. Sort the s 9. 14. if TG (g) < T RT H lower the target class to z-1 and go to Step 1. Update the set I(ρ(g) ) via eq. Set the step size ∆. 24. t) eigenvalues {k1 (g) (g) (g)2 . σε (g) (g) (g) (z) (1 + α(g) /tg )−1 . (g) ˜ 4. Initialize R (new) := R (old) = [0tg ×tg ].TH TRANSMITTER / RECEIVER PAIR UNDER THE ” CONTRACTED Q O S” POLICY. While { 16.SHAPING ALGORITHM FOR THE (z) (z) (z) (g) (g) (g) (g) m∈I(ρ(g) ) (g) P (m) < P tg do g. ks (g)2 } of Kd .. if TG (g) > T RT H reduce the radiated power P (g) and go to Step 1. else 26. Update ρ(g) = ρ(g) + ∆. then fl(g)=0. α(g) (P Ttr /rg )T ra[(K )−1 ].

4. n∗ . . χ2 = 0 χ 2 = 0. ∗ 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT . Radiate the signal vector φ . 5. .. 2) ≡ χ2 (2.. New Request from user n∗ with QoS Class equal to z (n ) . Equilibrium for the network composed by (n∗ − 1) pairs of transmit/receive nodes. 7. 5. g = 1. The user g waits for z (g) T for the network equilibrium. 2..7 χ2 = 1 CSMA/CA(4) Fig. else z (g) := z (g) − 1. Go to Step 3.3 χ 2 = 0. If the network is in equilibrium. n∗ . go to Step 1. Power allocation for g-th user .36 For all k such that τk ∈ Υ { For all terminals g ∈ N such that τk ∈ Υg { Evaluate the MAI matrix Kd (g) → − (g)• (g)• . g = 1.. g = 1. 1.. 1) ≡ χ2 .CODE FOR THE A SYNCHRONOUS AND D ISTRIBUTED IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SPAM G AME OF TABLE I. n∗ ..4 χ 2 = 0. and R Run the algorithm of Table I so to compute φ φ → − (g)• . 3. } } TABLE II A PSEUDO .. TABLE III H ARD C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURE (HCAP)... 6. . Regions of the average information throughput achieved by the proposed SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) squared network and different values of the shadowing factors χ2 (1.

∗ 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .. TABLE IV S OFT C ONNECTION A DMISSION P ROCEDURE (SCAP). . Go to Step 3. Power allocation for the g-th user . g = 1. If the network is in equilibrium.. =N (2) 0 = 10−4 W .. 4. New Request from user n∗ with QoS Class equal to z (n ) . . 2) ≡ χ2 (2.37 CSMA/CA(4) Fig. go to Step 1. n∗ . 1) ≡ 0. 5. Rice factors equal to 10. else z (g) := z (g) − 1. 7.. Regions for the information throughput achieved by the proposed SPAM Game and CSMA/CA(4) for a squared (1) 0 network with χ2 (1. The g-th user waits for (zmax − z (g) )T for the network equilibrium. N the considered QoS classes. g = 1. . n∗ . The dotted-dashed grid represents the throughput allowed by 1. n∗ .. 6. Equilibrium for the network composed by (n∗ − 1) pairs of transmit/receive nodes.. 2.4. 3... All the transmit nodes are equipped with t=r=4 transmit/receive antennas. 6.. P (1) = P (2) = 10−3 W . g = 1.

8.3 0. SCAP and HCAP. and P (g) = 10−3 W .6.9 1 Fig. Rice factors equal to 10. χ2 (f. Number of connected users for a random network topology.5 while the system parameters are the same specified in Fig. 120 Aggregate Network Throughput (bits/slot) 100 80 60 40 20 TDMA SCAP HCAP 0 0 0.4. All the transmit/receive nodes are equipped with r=t=4 antennas. The QoS-classes are the same considered in Fig. Performance comparison between TDMA.38 12 10 8 Number of Active Users 6 4 2 TDMA SCAP HCAP 0 0 0. SCAP and HCAP. g) ≡ 0.8 0. Aggregate Network Throughput for the same random network topology of Fig.2 0. Performance comparison between TDMA.5 0. 29 agosto 2006 DRAFT .7 0. 7.7 0.2 0.9 1 Fig.8 0.4 0.6 QoS users’ Percentage 0.1 0. The QoS-classes are the same considered in Fig.3 0. Furthermore.5 0.4 0.5.1 0.6.6 QoS users’ Percentage 0. N (g) 0 = 10−4 W have been considered for all users.

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