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Adjective Clause dinamakan juga RELATIVE CLAUSE yaitu Clause (anak kalimat) yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menerangkan keadaan noun atau pronoun. Untuk lebih jelasnya penjelasan mengenai Adjective Clause, perhatikan penjelasan di bawah ini: Contoh:
I have read the book (that) you just mentioned. Main Clause: I have read the book. Subordinate Clause: (that) you just mentioned.
Anak kalimat menerangkan kata benda the book, disebut dengan Adjective Clause
The lesson (that) she is learning is very difficult. Main Clause: The lesson is very difficult. Subordinate Clause: (that) she is learning.
Berdasarkan pada the Antecedent yang ditunjuk oleh introductory words (kata-kata pendahulunya), Adjective Clause dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 macam, yaitu: 1. Relative Pronoun
Kata Ganti Orang Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah : Who, Whom, Whose, That Fungsi : a. Subjek: - He paid the money to the man who / that had done the work b. Objek Kata Kerja: - He paid the man whom/that he had hired. c. Objek Kata Depan: - He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money. d. Kata Ganti Kepunyaan: - This is the girl whose picture you saw.
Benda, Binatang Kata Penghubung yang digunakan adalah: Which, that Fungsi: a. Subjek: - Here is a book which/that describes animals. b. Objek Kata Kerja: - The chair which/that he broke is being repaired. c. Objek Kata Depan: - She was wearing the coat for which she had paid $2,00.
Page 2 Adjective clause . atau o The boy who is called Bob gave me a present. o o Adjective Clause dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase yang menjelaskan noun tanpa ada perubahan arti kalimat.2. mungkin (kadang-kadang) dapat digantikan dengan that atau kadang-kadang dapat dihilangkan dalam kalimat.The small town in which (= where) I was born has grown to a large metropolis. Tempat Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: where . Relative Pronoun Yaitu Adjective Clause dengan memakai kata penghubung Relative Pronoun. Alasan Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: when . .The day on which (= when) they were to leave finally arrived. Relative Adverbs Waktu Kata Penghubung yang digunakan: when . yaitu: Kata Why (yang menunjukkan alasan) yang menjadi Adverb penghubung. He gave me a present. _________________________ 1. .The reason (that) I came should be obvious to you. Relative Adverb Pelajaran tentang ini dibahas lebih lengkap pada Relative Clause.The reason I came should be obvious to you. The day that (or when. Please suggest a good place that (or where) we can meet Beberapa Hal Penting yang Berkaitan dengan Adjective Clause Perubahan dari Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase.Give me one good reason why you did that. Beberapa contoh Adjective Clause lainnya: The boy whose radio was stolen is a student. The boy is called Bob. Hal-hal yang perlu ditambahkan di sini. 2. which atau that yang dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase. on which) the trial was to take place was a stormy one. o The boy who gave me a present is called Bob. . When atau Where Bering dapat Baling ditukarkan dengan Preposition yang menunjukkan tempat (a preposition of Place) ditambah dengan Which.Here is the house where I live. The bike which I borrowed last week was sold.The reason (why) I came should be obvious to you. . Kadang-kadang that dapat menggantikan where atau when.This is the year when the Olympic Games are held. . The girl whom I gave a special reward is a bright student. Hanya Adjective Clause yang mempunyai subjek pronoun: who.
--> He gave several reasons. * Adjective Phrase: The ideas presented in that book are interesting. all of. the exterior of which consisted of logs cemented with lay. Only a few of them were valid. Dalam pola ini biasanya Adjective Clause menerangkan "sesuatu". * Adjective Clause: The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. ==> The boy is playing the piano is Bent. Pola ini terutama digunakan untuk tulisan bahasa Inggris resmi (formal written English). * Adjective Clause: Ali is the man who is responsible for preparing the budget. Seringkali Adjective Clause digunakan dalam pola: noun + of which. * Adjective Phrase: The man talking to Taylor is from Japan. o We have an antique table. Page 3 Adjective clause .o Adjective Clause dengan subjek: whom tidak dapat dirubah menjadi Adjective Phrase. Cara mengubah Adjective Clause menjadi Adjective Phrase. Most of them are from the Outside Java. Ungkapan kuantitas mendahului pronoun. Adjective Clause * The girl who is sitting next to me is Lisa. most of whom are from the Outside Java. the top of which has jade inlay. * Adjective Clause: The books that are on the shelf are mine. * Adjective Clause: The man who is talking to Taylor is from Japan. both of. * He gave several reasons. The exterior of the house consisted of logs cemented with clay. --> There are 20 students in my class. Ungkapan kuantitas dengan "of" antara lain: some of. b. (2) Jika tidak ada verb be dalam Adjective Clause. one of. Adjective Clause sering digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kuantitas dengan of. (1) Subjek pronoun dan verb be dihilangkan. * We have an antique table. * Adjective Phrase: Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome. ==> The boy playing the piano is Bent. * Adjective Phrase: English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters. Adjective Phrase * The girl sitting next to me is Lisa. dan hanya whom. dll. two of. each of. The top of it has jade inlay. seringkali subjek pronoun dapat dihilangkan dan mengubah kata kerja dalam Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing. o We toured a 300-year-old house. * There are 20 students in my class. most of. many of. Perhatikan Contoh berikut: a. o We toured a 300-year-old house. dan whose yang digunakan dalam pola ini. * Adjective Clause: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. * Adjective Phrase: The books on the shelf are mine. * Adjective Phrase: Ali is the man responsible for preparing the budget. none of. Gunakanlah tanda koma bila Adjective Clause hanya berfungsi untuk memberi informasi tambahan dan tidak dimaksudkan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya. which. Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses Pedoman umum dalam Tanda Baca pada Adjective Clauses yaitu: o o Jangan menggunakan tanda koma bila Adjective Clause diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang dijelaskan olehnya. only a few of which were valid. * Adjective Clause: Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome.
Ada 2 macam perbedaan yang penting antara dua jenis Clause tersebut: perhatikan contoh berikut ini: Adjective Clause biasanya didahului oleh noun atau pronoun yang diterangkan. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini untuk lebih jelasnya dalam penggunaan tanda koma dalam Adjective Clause. Pada kalimat tersebut pembicara ingin mengindentifikasikan istrinya yang bekerja di Bank. (where he lives adalah objek dari kata know) Preposisi yang mendahului introductory word adalah milik Adjective Clause dan bukan milik Noun Clause.com/berita-87-adjective-clause. kita sudah jelas. Henry whose wife works at a bank came to my house yesterday. (Adjective Clause dimulai dengan to yang merupakan bentuk a prepositional phrase dengan whom dalam Adjective Clause itu. Keterangan: Contoh pertama menggambarkan bahwa Henry memiliki lebih dari 1 istri. Adjective Clause The woman to whom he has been giving money is a poor relative of his. The woman. About. yang merupakan objek dari kata know) Noun Clause o I know where he lives. (The Noun Clause dimulai dengan whoever. A clause may be either a sentence (an independent clause) or a sentence-like construction within another sentence (a dependent clause). Perbedaan antara Adjective Clause dan Noun Clause Karena adanya kesamaan dalam beberapa kata pendahulunya. Alex.com Guide Definition: A group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. o Soekarno. seluruh Noun Clause itu adalah objek dari to. Noun Clause He gives money to whoever needs it. whom he has been giving money to.html clause By Richard Nordquist. http://ismailmidi. could deliver speech well. whose wife works at a bank. Adjective Clause o I know the house where he lives. Dan To dapat diletakkan di bagian belakang Adjective Clause. (where he lives mempunyai antecedent the house. Sedangkan pada kalimat kedua.merupakan bentuk yang hanya bergandeng (mengikuti) dengan Noun Clause. yang tidak dapat dipindah letaknya. who is the first President of Republic of Indonesia. Frase yang berada di antara koma hanya memberikan keterangan tambahan saja. bukan yang lainnya. Adjective clause Page 4 . is a poor relative of his). came to my house yesterday. maka kadang-kadang antara Noun Clause dan Adjective Clause sering membingungkan. Tanpa frase tersebut pun orang lain sudah mengetahuinya kalau istrinya Alex memang bekerja di sebuah Bank karena memang istrinya cuma 1 itu. Dan juga -ever. kalau Alex memiliki hanya 1 orang istri.
should be counted among those who laid the foundations of civilization. but some animals are more equal than others. past the carefully roped-off breeding grounds of terns. We have guided missiles and misguided men.Etymology: From the Latin." (George Orwell. why). I can: all of them make me laugh. whom." (Will Self." (Ferris Bueller's Day Off) (Note: "Life moves pretty fast" and "you could miss it" are independent clauses.com Guide Definition: A dependent clause used as an adjective within a sentence.) adjective clause By Richard Nordquist." (John Cohen. "A Real Cliff Hanger.) "The IRS spends God knows how much of your tax money on these toll-free information hot lines staffed by IRS employees." This combination is called a compound sentence. Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. I can find no common denominator. Also known as a relative clause. About. "the close of a sentence" Examples: "Life moves pretty fast. adjectival clause Relative Pronouns and Adjective Clauses By Richard Nordquist.com Guide As we've seen (in Subordination with Adjective Clauses)." (Martin Luther King. we now know to be nothing more than an inherited behavior pattern. instead of bashing their brains out with a club. "The man who first abused his fellows with swear words." (Clarence Day) "Among those whom I like or admire. but among those whom I love. a relative adverb (where. Here we'll focus on the five relative pronouns that are used in adjective clauses. an adjective clause is a group of words that works like an adjective to modify a noun." (W. whose idea of a dynamite tax tip is that you should print neatly. If you don't stop and look around once in a while. Animal Farm) (Note: Orwell's sentence contains two independent clauses joined by the conjunction "and." (Dave Barry) "On I trudged. whose)." (James Thurber) "The means by which we live have outdistanced the ends for which we live." (Albert Einstein) "Creatures whose mainspring is curiosity enjoy the accumulating of facts far more than the pausing at times to reflect on those facts. or a zero relative. Jr. which was once believed to contain the Answer.) "All animals are equal. that." 2008) The man that hit my motorcycle gave me false insurance information. Examples: "He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead. who. when. you could miss it. which chirruped a warning overhead. "If you don't stop and look around once in a while" is an adverb clause. Adjective clause Page 5 . H. About. An adjective (or adjectival) clause usually begins with a relative pronoun (which. Auden) "Love. 1965) Also Known As: relative clause.
1. Whose begins an adjective clause that describes something that belongs to or is a part of someone or something mentioned in the main clause: The ostrich. Sundown is an unincorporated town of about 20. whom. Then compare your responses with the answers at the end of the exercise. The commas signify that the adjective clause provides added." Professor Legree. 9. 3. ---. Here we'll learn to distinguish between the two main types of adjective clauses: restrictive and nonrestrictive.handled my case. ANSWERS: 1. 2. 9. was the biggest box-office attraction of his time. Kathryn DiNitto is the lawyer ---. has agreed to be the keynote speaker. but who refers only to people and which refers only to things. Put another way.once was considered "the car of the future.we elected as state senator two years ago. she. are no more now than a trickle. can run faster than the swiftest horse. About. whom is equivalent to the object pronouns him.you gave me is not cough syrup. almost all of ---. An older person who dresses like a teenager is often an object of ridicule or pity. 3. not essential. 10.000 people. that. who dresses like a teenager. ---. That may refer to either people or things. whose.are over the age of 60. 6. My first car was a ten-year-old Pacer. Notice that in this sentence Helen Keller is the subject of the adjective clause. 8. ---. ---. All three pronouns refer to a noun. In Relative Pronouns and Adjective Clauses.dissertation has just been published by Vanity Press. This who clause is nonrestrictive because the information in the clause doesn't restrict or limit the noun it modifies (Old Professor Legree). Adjective clause Page 6 . John Wayne. The creek beds. 10. Whom stands for the noun that receives the action of the verb in the adjective clause: Anne Sullivan was the teacher whom Helen Keller met in 1887.An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun: a word that relates the information in the adjective clause to a word or a phrase in the main clause. is going through his second childhood. PRACTICE: Adding Pronouns to Adjective Clauses Complete each of these sentences by adding an appropriate relative pronoun: who. which. should still have respect for the law. A lawyer. 5. which. who. 5. Here's an example: Old Professor Legree.appeared in over 200 movies. her. and that.first responsibility is to her client. which. which. whose wings are useless for flight. This practice is consistent with Comma Guideline #4: "Use a pair of commas to set off interruptions. whom. 7. ---. The blue liquid ---. or them in a main clause. information.is not yet an Olympic sport. that. Howard is majoring in badminton. 4. 8. we learned how an adjective clause functions like an adjective to modify a noun. 2. we focused on the role played by the relative pronoun. 4. and whom is the object." Restrictive Adjective Clauses On the other hand. an adjective clause that is restrictive should not be set off by commas. 7. 6. ---.in May are usually overflowing. whom. ---. whose. Two other relative pronouns used to introduce adjective clauses are whose (the possessive form of who) and whom (the object form of who). or they in a main clause. has left government to start her own business. who is equivalent to the subject pronouns he. Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses An adjective clause set off from the main clause by commas is said to be nonrestrictive. Lori Alexander.com Guide In Subordination with Adjective Clauses. who Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses By Richard Nordquist. whose. which. The most common adjective clauses begin with one of these relative pronouns: who.
Answers: 1. Practice: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses For each sentence below. 4. decide if the adjective clause (in bold) is restrictive or nonrestrictive. restrictive nonrestrictive nonrestrictive restrictive nonrestrictive nonrestrictive nonrestrictive restrictive restrictive restrictive Sentence Building with Adjective Clauses Exercises in Building and Combining Sentences By Richard Nordquist. 2. By substituting the relative pronoun which for the subject of the second sentence. The two main types of adjective clauses are restrictive and nonrestrictive. 8. fell apart after a few weeks. Tip: To view this exercise without ads. I left my son at the campus daycare center. John Wayne. who appeared in over 200 movies. 1. 2. 7. The thing that impresses me the most about America is the way parents obey their children. Restrictive: An adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should not be set off by commas. Adjective clause Page 7 . I like to keep a bottle of stimulant handy in case I see a snake. we've learned the following: 1. which fell apart after a few weeks. Or we may choose to substitute which for the subject of the first sentence: My mp3 player. 4. 9. Merdine. 6. An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun.com Guide So far in our study of adjective clauses. 9. 2. which is an excellent place for it. which is free to all full-time students. I refuse to live in any house that Jack built. 7. A restrictive adjective clause is not set off by commas. we can create a single sentence containing an adjective clause: My mp3 player. Consider how these two sentences can be combined: My mp3 player fell apart after a few weeks. A physician who smokes and overeats has no right to criticize the personal habits of his patients. 10. cost over $200.Here. click on the printer icon near the top of the page. 3. the adjective clause restricts or limits the meaning of the noun it modifies (An older person). Students who have young children are invited to use the free daycare center. About. 3. 8. 5. 5. grows homesick every time she hears the wail of a train whistle. which cost over $200. which I also keep handy. My mp3 player cost over $200. 6. The adjective clause--a word group that modifies a noun--is a common form of subordination. When you're done. 3. who was born in a boxcar somewhere in Arkansas. Now we're ready to practice building and combining sentences with adjective clauses. So let's keep in mind two basic rules: Nonrestrictive: An adjective clause that can be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should be set off by commas. was the biggest box-office attraction of his time. The beer that made Milwaukee famous has made a loser out of me. Every journalist has a novel in him. 10. compare your answers with those at the end of the exercise.
Merdine danced on the roof of her trailer during the thunderstorm that flooded the county last night. is not nearly as good a teacher as failure. 3. whose mother is an archaeologist. Bushido is based on the principle of honesty. 5. which woke the sleeper by gently rubbing his feet. Success. The thunderstorm flooded the county. 5. Henry Aaron played with the Braves. Oxygen is the chief life-supporting element of all animal life. Rachel's mother is an archaeologist. was voted into the Hall of Fame in 1982. Merdine danced during the thunderstorm. Here are sample combinations for the 10 sets of sentence-building exercises on page one. It was the roof of her trailer. The vote was taken in 1982. which encourages the repetition of old behavior. who was born in a boxcar somewhere in Arkansas. Oxygen is odorless. 10. Merdine was born in a boxcar. Bushido. Subordinate the information that you think is of secondary importance. compare your new sentences with the sample combinations on page two. which is the traditional code of honor of the samurai. 10. gets homesick every time she hears the cry of a train whistle. who played baseball with the Braves for 20 years. and odorless--is the chief life-supporting element of all plant and animal life. Henry Aaron. This rocket can be flown back to earth. Keep in mind that in most cases more than one effective combination is possible. 1. 8. Henry Aaron was voted into the Hall of Fame. The first alarm clock woke the sleeper by gently rubbing his feet. 4. 2. And keep in mind that an adjective clause usually appears after the noun it modifies. This rocket can be reused. courage. Merdine danced on the roof. Oxygen is tasteless. Henry Aaron played for 20 years. 8. Children who have not received flu shots must visit the school doctor. 1. The thunderstorm was last night. Success is not nearly as good a teacher as failure. 3. I showed the arrowhead to Rachel. Success encourages the repetition of old behavior. Oxygen--which is colorless. 7. and in some cases you may prefer your own sentences to the original versions.Put what you think is the main idea in the main clause. 6. was invented by Leonardo da Vinci. and justice. 6. 9. clear sentence with at least one adjective clause. Merdine gets homesick every time she hears the cry of a train whistle. PRACTICE: Building Sentences with Adjective Clauses Combine the sentences in each set into a single. I showed the arrowhead to Rachel. is based on the principles of simplicity. The first alarm clock. Merdine. Bushido is the traditional code of honor of the samurai. The first alarm clock was invented by Leonardo da Vinci. 9. Oxygen is colorless. compare your new sentences with the sample combinations on page two. 7. About. These children must visit the school doctor. The space shuttle is a rocket. When you have completed all ten sets. Keep in mind that many combinations are possible. 4. When you are done. 2. Merdine was born somewhere in Arkansas. Bushido is based on the principle of simplicity. The space shuttle is a manned rocket that can be flown back to earth and reused. tasteless. The rocket is manned. Oxygen is the chief life-supporting element of all plant life. the secondary (or subordinate) idea in the adjective clause. Bushido is based on the principle of courage. honesty.com Adjective clause Page 8 . Bushido is based on the principle of justice. Some children have not received flu shots. Henry Aaron played baseball.
"with what goal/result?". Note how an adverb clause can replace an adverb in the following example: adverb The premier gave a speech here. noun clause Where they are going is unknown.like the noun "destination. answering the questions "who(m)?" or "what?".Noun Clauses A noun clause is an entire clause which takes the place of a noun in another clause or phrase. the entire clause "that Latin ." Here are some more examples of noun clauses: about what you bought at the mall This noun clause is the object of the preposition "about. adverb clause The premier gave a speech where the workers were striking. the noun "Latin" acts as the direct object of the verb "know." and answers the question "about what?" Whoever broke the vase will have to pay for it. This noun clause is the subject of the verb "will have to pay." the clause is the subject of the verb "is." In the second example." is the direct object.. "where?". Like a noun." with a slight change in word order. Consider the following examples: noun I know Latin. The question "Where are they going?." and answers the question "what do the fans hope? Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a dependent clause which takes the place of an adverb in another clause or phrase. This noun clause is the object of the verb "hope. In fact. a noun clause acts as the subject or object of a verb or the object of a preposition. many noun clauses are indirect questions: noun Their destination is unknown. Adjective clause Page 9 ." and answers the question "who will have to pay?" The Toronto fans hope that the Blue Jays will win again. becomes a noun clause when used as part of a larger unit -. An adverb clause answers questions such as "when?". "why?". In the first example. noun clause I know that Latin is no longer spoken as a native language. and "under what conditions?"..
Note the change in word order -. effect. The adverb clause answers the question "with what goal/result?"." "since.ca/hypergrammar/claustyp. Note that a dependent adverb clause can never stand alone as a complete sentence: independent clause they left the locker room dependent adverb clause after they left the locker room The first example can easily stand alone as a sentence. space. The adverb clause answers the question "when?".html Adjective clause Page 10 ." and "so that. condition If the British co-operate. Hamlet ordered a play in an attempt to prove his uncle's guilt.uottawa.writingcentre." "where(ever). a subordinating conjunction like "because. effect Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle so that his father's murder would be avenged.Usually. The adverb clause answers the question "why?". Here are some more examples of adverb clauses expressing the relationships of cause. The adverb clause answers the question "where?"." will introduce an adverb clause. and condition: cause Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle because the uncle had murdered Hamlet's father. the Europeans may achieve monetary union." "after. The adverb clause answers the question "under what conditions?" Written by David Megginson http://www. place Where the whole Danish court was assembled. but the second cannot -. Hamlet wanted to kill him." "when(ever).the reader will ask what happened "after they left the locker room". time After Hamlet's uncle Claudius married Hamlet's mother.an adverb clause can often appear either before or after the main part of the sentence. time.
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