Journal of Educational Administration 36,5 462

Educational development and reformation in Malaysia: past, present and future
Rahimah Haji Ahmad
Professor and Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Introduction Educational development and reform in Malaysia have always been characterized by the government’s efforts to adapt education to national development needs. The essence of educational development and reformation, as in other developing countries, has always been (and is) curriculum development, to provide education for human resource development to meet the needs of the social, economic and political development of the country. Moral and values education has always been recognized and acknowledged in the Malaysian school curriculum. It dates back to the time of the British colonial government, when missionary work was one of the reasons for providing education for the people. The curriculum had included Scripture as one of the subjects at the secondary level, and ethics for the non-Christian pupils. Mukherjee (1986, p. 151) states that there were “weekly slots on ‘ethics’ (given) to their nonChristian pupils…with liberal extracts from the Bible accompanied by frequent exhortations to ‘be good’”. Following the English school tradition then, the National School System included Islamic Religious Education, then known as Agama (Religion) in the curriculum for the Muslim pupils. For the non-Muslim students, some form of moral education was given in place of Agama. More fervor is given to values education in the present curriculum. The Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah (KBSR), that is the New Primary School Curriculum, and the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM), or the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum, which have completed their first cycle recently, emphasize the teaching of values in order to enhance quality individual development, as well as creating Malaysian citizens of the future, through education. This paper will briefly outline educational development from the time of independence, followed by a discussion on the current educational reforms beginning in 1980s. Highlights will be made on the development of values education in the curriculum, particularly the importance given to it in the new curriculum being implemented.
This paper is an adapted and improved version of a paper, “Educational development in Malaysia: the dilemma of values education”, presented in the 8th International Intervisitation Program (IIEP 94), held at OISE Toronto, and SUNY Buffalo, 15-27 May 1994.

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 36 No. 5, 1998, pp. 462-475, © MCB University Press, 0957-8234

due to the demand for technically oriented individuals in the labor market. with a Malaysian outlook and Malaysian oriented curriculum. Dr Mahathir Mohammed (now Reformation in Malaysia 463 . The changing emphasis during this period reflected the importance given to science and technology. specifically adapting the syllabus. was a result of clearly thought out strategies aimed at revamping the fragmented education system of the British colonial era. also saw the changing importance given to technical and vocational education as part of the “science stream” in schooling. but changes during this time have also shifted the emphasis from national unity to national unity and human resource development for a developing nation. Once again an Education Review Committee was set up under the then Honorable Minister of Education. in addition to 1. there were 68 technical and vocational schools in Malaysia. general comprehensive education at the lower secondary level. The main objective of education was still national unity.200 students enrolled. It was this gradual implementation of the Education Act. as mentioned earlier. In essence. it was a gradual change from the British (English School) type of education to a Malaysian education system. The Education Act was to be implemented in stages. Societal and economic changes during the period. to ensure a gradual transition.Educational and curriculum development: independence to 1990 The National Education System of Malaysia. in the light of economic development of the times. which characterized educational development and curriculum changes in the early decades after independence. with the main objective of achieving national unity and development through education. technical and vocational education gained recognition and popularity. that is content of subjects to be taught. At the end of the 1970s. By the end of the 1970s. Curriculum planning and development was (and is) done at the federal level and the national education system is centrally administered. However. Education was and is a federal matter. Curriculum changes mainly took the form of adapting the curriculum to the changing needs of the nation.200 normal “academic” schools in the country. all schools used Bahasa Malaysia as the medium of instruction (except at primary level which was provided for in the Education Act) and comprehensive education was provided for nine years. the government felt that it was time to review whether the system’s evolution was meeting the needs of a progressive Malaysian nation. the policy outlined in the Education Act of 1961. or the pre-university level. At the end of the 1970s. and semispecialized at the upper secondary level. The system of education then can be described as providing basic education at the elementary level. with more than 30. As a result. was inherited from the British colonial government. to fulfil the development needs of the country. after undergoing changes in the curriculum and system as a whole. at the end of which students sit for the Malaysian Higher School Certificate of Education Examination. reflected in an increasing emphasis on science and technology in general. Specialization as preparation for university was done in Grades 12 and 13.

The contents comprise some basic elements of Industrial arts. interests and ability of the students. characterized with student participation. the emphasis shifted towards building a truly Malaysian society of the future. This is the essence of the current movement. Specific teaching strategies. or diads) or as individuals. Learning is to be gained through a variety of experiences. To that effect. (which include both classroom activities as well as cocurricular activities outside the classroom). through the offering of core subjects. now popularly known as the Cabinet Committee Report. taken by all. spiritually. small groups. The Cabinet Committee Report (1979). is in essence in line with what is later declared by the Prime Minister as Vision 2020 (Mahathis. except that the choice of electives of prevocational subjects is eliminated. subtractions. it emphasizes at all levels of schooling. released in 1979. aimed at reducing the previously heavily content-oriented curriculum. Instead a new subject. The report. so as to produce individuals who are intellectually. physical and emotional) approach to quality human development to ensure development from all domains – cognitive. Home economics. be improved through the use of local prototype materials and orientations to reflect a truly Malaysian curriculum. 1993). The orientation clearly specifies a child-centered approach. and elective subjects to enable them to make choices in selecting subjects of their interest. multiplication and divisions. the KBSR and KBSM take on a whole new approach. who possess high moral standards. Teaching activities are designed to especially encourage participation and verbal communication through verbal skills (aural and oral) as well as reading and understanding.5 464 the Prime Minister). affective. emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in God. which requires more student participation and focuses on individual differences of students. was a result of a very comprehensive study of the education system as spelt out by the Education Act of 1961. KBSM is a continuation of the KBSR. as far as possible. to concentrate on the three Rs. “Life skills” is introduced as part of the core. which are child centered. spiritual. As stated in the National Educational Philosophy: Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further development of the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner. combined with a holistic approach to human development. In attempting to revamp the curriculum. KBSM retains the structure and subject offerings. 1991). depending on the skills. to provide general education until the 11th year of schooling. Although the Cabinet Committee Report did not delineate a new education policy.Journal of Educational Administration 36. a holistic (intellectual. At the lower secondary level. The KBSR is a back to basics movement. and psychomotor. The teaching and learning process should. are incorporated into the teaching learning activities. . and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being as well as able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the nation at large (Ministry of Education. Such an effort is destined to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable. experiential based writing and practical application of mathematical concepts such as additions. such as group learning (class.

For those preparing to enter foreign universities. Reformation in Malaysia 465 . when the importance of education was strongly linked to social mobility. to enable students to acquire manipulative skills in coping with their day-to-day lives. which is beyond what is covered by the KBSM). (“Arts”. that of providing alternative education. Private schools. This was to complement government efforts of giving further education classes to school dropouts or adult learners to enable them to sit for the public examinations. In this way. When the schooling system became more democratized. Associate American Degree Programs . they sit for the A-levels. Students are thus no more streamed into specialized areas. and Islamic Education). or Australian Matriculation Programs. This may also mean paving the way for the ultimate abolishment of the technical and vocational schools. and four groups of subjects from four areas (Humanities. this is the mainstay of private schools. During the developing years. then took on another character. During the early stages of educational development. the need for such organizations diminished. Science. and education was assured for at least nine years (now 11 years). Many of them cater for both the elementary and secondary and a few until the preuniversity level. Major changes occurred at the upper secondary level. Pre-university education consists of two years of specialization in preparation for students to enter university. Technical and Vocational. although in essence students treat it as another step in education. prepares students for the work market as well as to further their education to higher levels.Commerce and Agricultural science. private schools were established as charity organizations to assist school dropouts and examination failures by giving them a second chance to sit for the public examinations in order to reenter the mainstream. Students are allowed to choose their electives from two of the four areas. private schools were unheard of. the eleven years of schooling (six years elementary and five years secondary) at one and the same time. The upper secondary curriculum consists of core subjects required of all students (general education). also follow the national curriculum. which ultimately enable them to graduate with bachelor’s degrees. The KBSM aims to continue providing general education (implying that specialization is to be deferred to the pre-university level. when the country saw the consolidation of the education system. Today. although there is room for them to have subject concentration through their choice of elective subjects. or be converted into the degree programs. since their main function is to prepare students for the same examinations. Private schools. “Technical” or “Vocational” streams). For some. “Science“. pre-university education is in the form of matriculation classes of particular universities. In some cases students enter the universities for integrated programs which allow them to graduate with Diplomas (in the Malaysian context diplomas are one step lower than full fledged degrees). It is pertinent to mention here that private education in Malaysia is a fairly recent phenomenon. however. and the formal education system was rather élitist.

and schools put little significance to its implementation as the school system was (and still is) very examination oriented. there were efforts to make it more applicable to everyday life and expand the curriculum to reflect teaching of Islam as a way of life. the need for the teaching of values was formally acknowledged. in direct instruction. Co-curricular activities were also designed to strengthen the classroom teaching. In the early 1970s. was (and is) an examination subject. was heavily content based. however. Agama could not be forced onto non-Muslim students. but nevertheless had an important section devoted to akhlak (Islamic ethics). In the government Malay schools. 1986. there were also doses of values education in the teaching of hygiene and “ethics” similar to those of the English schools. p. 168). it was Christian ethics. In implementing the recommendations. but the subject was non-examinable. no matter how informal. It was soon found to be ineffective. was given in the other schools. The name was changed to Pendidikan Islam (Islamic Education). In doing this. At the end of the 1970s. It was to be taught at the same time when the Muslim students are taught Islamic Education. Although teaching was still heavily content based. was only for the Muslim students.5 466 The development of values education curriculum Values education in one form or another has been a part of the Malaysian educational curriculum in at least some schools since the British colonial era. Islamic ethics were the core. and taking the sensitivities of the different ethnic groups as being important for national unity. and for it to be made mandatory as well as examinable. to reflect the scope. It can be assumed that some form of values education. Islamic education. as the subject was then known. The Cabinet Committee Report recommended that the Ministry of Education drew up a curriculum for the teaching of values in the form of moral education (as a subject) for the non-Muslim students. much care was taken to include values that reflect Malaysian society. on the other hand. be it government or the missionary schools. Agama like the other subjects underwent changes and adaptations parallel with the changing times and needs. Steps had to be taken to ensure that all students were exposed to some form of values education. as “…all the experiences that pupils have in schools have a morally educative effect” (Downey and Kelly. A committee was set . Agama. the Curriculum Development Center set up a machinery to draw up a syllabus for moral education. Civics as a subject was introduced as a mandatory subject for all non-Muslim students. Agama. In English schools.Journal of Educational Administration 36. In Arabic or Koranic schools. nor Islamic ethics be infused into their teaching. The post independence era saw the establishment of the National school system (and the abolishment of the different strands of schools systems) and following the British tradition – religion (in this case Islamic Studies) was taught in place of Scripture. taught in the context of teaching Islam as a way of life. which are acceptable to all and do not offend any one religious group. The constitution ensures freedom of worship for all. since all education is in fact moral education. During this phase too. and doctrinaire in approach.

to enable the students to be continuously and consistently infused with them. It is considered to be the most important strategy of the KBSM and at the same time the most radical movement in the current curriculum reform movement. traditions and customs of the people.up to work on the syllabus. a total of 16 core values (which can again be detailed as the core content of the moral education and approved for implementation in the KBSR and KBSM. To achieve this. as well as consultants from the universities. which can be applied to values education as a whole. 1986). the members of which include the curriculum officers. The list of values is in the Appendix. Hence the values are to be presented as of equal importance. who can make decisions and are responsible members of the society. or serialize them. to be in line with the student’s maturity and ability to think. Instead all 16 values are to be taught at all levels. They relate to human relationships in everyday life. It was also at this time that Malaysians got involved in a series of Asian workshops sponsored by the National Institute of Education (NIER) Tokyo and Unesco which undertook to discuss and identify core values universally accepted (Mukherjee. however. These values are derived from religions. was to mould individuals of good character possessing good moral values through the nurturing of. representatives from all religious groups. the KBSR and KBSM encompass the teaching Reformation in Malaysia 467 . Nevertheless the scope and depth of approach were to be different for every level. which is firmly based on values centered around the belief in God. Values adopted by the workshops are taken into consideration in developing the moral education syllabus. The issues are to be presented in an increasingly difficult and complex manner. the current curriculum clearly pays special attention to the teaching of values as a means of achieving the objectives of providing quality education for qualitative individual development of the future Malaysian generation as discussed in the previous sections. does not put them in a hierarchy. and every day occurrences in the life of the student. particularly relevant to relationships with the family. Issues in curriculum implementation: the dilemma of values education Although values education in one form or another has from the beginning been acknowledged as relevant in the school curriculum. and internalizing as well as applying moral values relevant to the Malaysian society. The syllabus of moral education. It is expected then to help produce good citizens. The syllabus. The main thrust is the adherence to the principle of holistic development of individuals through education. and able to cope with moral issues in the modern world. while taking into consideration the universal aspects. as delineated in the moral education syllabus (1988) the Sukatan pelajaran Pendidikan moral 1988. society as well as organization. Teaching strategies should be in the realm of daily living. peer group. and to be treated in relation to one another. Finally.

To this effect too. and no issue is made of whose values to teach. This paper will be limited to the Malaysian case in terms of the dilemma of implementing values education and coping with KBSM implementation.5 468 of values in a more fervent manner. It is clear that Malaysia has taken the stand that values education should be an integral part of the school curriculum and that values are to be firmly based on religious values. but also to be integrated into the teaching of other subjects (values across the curriculum). It is this bold move which is the crux of the dilemma in values education as discussed in this paper. as can be attested by anyone who has been involved in it. The teaching of moral values. values education and the hidden curriculum and classroom based values curriculum development. Specifically. when we talk about all teachers. The government had made a bold statement that quality individual (human) development is to be firmly founded in the teaching of values education.Journal of Educational Administration 36. Direct teaching of values education is actualized in Islamic Education and Moral Education. which in turn is based on a “firm belief in God”. as well as indirect infusion through the teacher as the role model. A total of 16 values have been adopted as the content of moral education. the importance put on values education reflects the notion that for individuals to be truly developed it has to be balanced in terms of the intellect. It should be offered in a spirit and in a manner that will ensure that in the end the students will be able to think for themselves. and more importance is given to similarities between different people rather than their differences. Malaysia believes that all education is values education oriented. but the underlying philosophy is that all religions profess the same things as good and evil. physical as well as emotional. This is indeed a tall order. and should not be (especially in a multi ethnic and multi religious society) an imposition of any one’s values on all children. is a very complex process. The point of concern here is whether the teaching of values as in moral education and Islamic education. to reach their own moral conclusions on issues. No excuse is made for the inclusion of religion in the curriculum. the teaching of values is emphasized in the curriculum. This paper will now address the dilemma of values education as the dilemma of teaching values in the context of the KBSM implementation. We know that moral guidance does not have to. as well as the infusion of values in teaching through values across the curriculum achieve their objectives. which have been extensively deliberated on by well-known scholars. not only through the direct teaching of the subject (Islamic Education and Moral Education). which are based on values. spiritual. No attempt will be made on the issue of values clarification or values development per se. Acknowledgement is made to the existence of different beliefs and religions. We must also remember that the intent . Discussions will revolve around the reflection of issues in the context of values education in Malaysia. namely values education in the holistic curriculum of the KBSM. not contradicting their own religious beliefs. which are also the values to be integrated into their teaching. The end result can very well be confusing to students.

the syllabus identifies 16 core values. teachers were “lost” and hardly knew what was expected of them. and Reformation in Malaysia 469 . However. And then again. which should ensure that all students get the same dosages from all teachers. The moral education syllabus clearly states that teaching it needs to use the problem solving method. The end result might as well be teaching values by teaching content which again raises the issue which is often debated whether knowledge about the content of the subject (in Malaysian case they are Islamic education and moral education) may mean that they are morally mature. particularly those specific to their own personal religious beliefs? To avoid sensitivities. in the geography syllabus alone there are at least 36 values. which can be extracted. According to Leo (1993). The list is not exhaustive. or mentioning the 16 values as listed. This may in the end be a futile exercise of reciting the values. that is. It is then left to the individual teacher. Hence. It is assumed that Islamic education and moral education teachers are trained in the methodology of teaching values. which are not in contradiction with any religion. that being a complex and sometimes personal process. other than those identified in the curriculum. and sometimes they do not even know what activities or strategies can be done to integrate the values into their teaching. More often than not. whether he/she can utilize those apparent. they write down the values in their lesson plans. the KBSM emphasizes values across the curriculum. How far are teachers serious and successful in inculcating values in their different subjects? How far can they integrate the 16 core values without reference to subsidiary beliefs. It is clear that the moral education syllabus consists of values. It is then left to the initiative of the teacher to look for and use them to good advantage. even though the curriculum is planned for the two subjects to be complementary. at least at the initial stages. which neither interest the students nor leave a lasting impression. Another point of concern is the integration of values across the curriculum for teachers to reinforce each other in the teaching of values but one wonders whether the other teachers can reinforce what has been dealt with in the Islamic education or moral education classes. and teachers are encouraged to be innovative and creative. teachers once again may take the easy way out. On the other hand. It may also be true that values or ethics education transmitted through Islamic education may not be the same as that which is obtained through moral education. Informal surveys done by the writer have shown that. Here another dilemma emerges. This is very clearly demonstrated when we observe trainee teachers implementing it. underlying the belief that teachers are key figures in the way in which values education is taught in schools. there is the dilemma that teachers in their enthusiasm. they may be in a dilemma. only referring to. In effect then all teachers are moral education teachers. and as far as possible there should not be moral imposition. The end result is that teachers mention what values they want to integrate. but they hardly integrated them into the teaching. A lot of care and special training may be needed for teachers to infuse values in their teaching effectively.

Journal of Educational Administration 36. and values. but the implementation of the curriculum will have to accommodate current development. they will then inevitably be influenced by their own beliefs and will not give the same emphasis to values identified. things are in a most interesting state of affairs with the government initiative for schools to be in line with the Malaysian super corridor (MSC) project. acceptance. we also know that teaching values is a complex process. Even when the teacher consciously tries to be neutral. Values are transmitted a lot by behavior and nonverbal messages.) The impact of the 1990s on the school system is also acute in terms of the invasion of the computer and information age. however. which involves several phases of understanding. At the point of writing. he or she can still transmit the value that he/she does not intend to. but now encompass more than the school system. A teacher is always a role model in the school. This act outlines specific policies that reiterates the Education Act of 1961. which differ from one person to another. We are given to understand. strengthening it to include all levels of education. The Ministry of Education has indeed fallen in love with the computer! Nevertheless we know that the Smart School is not about having computers and technology assisted teaching only. and finally internalizing. with different values. 1971. that the curriculum for the Smart School is ready for implementation as a pilot project in January 1999. There is as yet no real overhaul of the school curriculum. When talking about integrating values in teaching. attitudes. One of the flag carriers of this effort is the Smart School which centers around the concept of teaching through integrated usage of modern technology in teaching. Current developments. promote values which may even contradict what other teachers do. higher education was covered by the Universities and Colleges Act. particularly the advent of technology in schools. (Previously. What is clear is that the subject content remains the same. This can be a dilemma in itself because teachers find it difficult and unnatural to control themselves so as not to transmit values which are at times at a tangent with those listed in the syllabus. An important consideration especially pertinent to the teaching of values is the hidden curriculum. to be followed nation wide the year after. reforms and issues Current reforms in Malaysian education are a continuation of the efforts which began in 1980s. In integrating values into their teaching. and yet teachers are individuals. We also know that teachers are individuals each with their own beliefs. If these can influence them in their direct teaching. these are more important in the infusion of values through the hidden curriculum. which was not covered in the Education Act 1961.5 470 influenced by their different personal beliefs. The reforms of the 1990s culminated with the introduction of the Education Act 1996. it is about teaching the right things with the assistance of technology and the focus is on making students resource . including preschool and post secondary education.

and less as thinking individuals. The fact that Malaysian schools cannot ignore world developments cannot be refuted. particularly from the World Wide Web! Much is to be done to ensure that the Malaysian schools can successfully ensure positive effects of the so called “opening up of the skies” and keep the children firmly rooted in the Malaysian context and inculcate the Malaysian values. as teachers are thoroughly confused as to how to integrate values in the real sense. To date it has been announced that private tertiary colleges are allowed to twin with foreign institutions and grant degrees on their behalf. education and private education in general There is as yet no overhaul of the school curriculum. In the Smart Schools teachers are being asked to meet this challenge even as they use alternative media. This of course has hastened a flurry of private tertiary education institutions and the response from the public tertiary institutions to complement or compete with the private sector. The dilemma of teaching values in schools is now added with that opening up of the skies. by adapting modern technology and strategies. These will bring certain dilemmas for Malaysian society should there be a real invasion of foreign “curriculum” in the branch campuses. It was already difficult enough to infuse Malaysian values by making all teachers “values education” teachers with the “values across the curriculum strategy”. the result of success being measured by performance in public examinations. other dilemmas emerge. However. the UK and Australia to have branches in Malaysia. With the advent of the computer and the inevitable invasion of the Internet into the classrooms. The Education Act of 1966 also allows for the establishment of branch campuses. responsible for their own learning. This flurry of changes and policy implementation is also raising more dilemmas in the teaching of values at all levels. This looks like a bigger dilemma. and in fact the government has taken the bold and brave move in moving ahead and trying to be ahead of world developments. which promises the mushrooming of the big stakeholders from the USA. and the demand of technology. even though the so-called values are universal. specifically the increasing problem of developing children to be rote learners. and a whole new scenario of retraining teachers. particularly private tertiary. Reformation in Malaysia 471 . except to adjust to new needs and global changes. Smart Schools seek to ensure that the Malaysian school children will be young adults who will be learners working together with the teacher and other materials which are accessible and at their disposal. What stands out in the current spate of events is the emphasis on tertiary and higher. Malaysia is making sure that developments are in line with our stated philosophy and goals. in the Smart Schools concept.based learners. numerous institutions are twinning with or offering preparatory programs for the overseas institutions. This is to ensure that students will undo the phenomena which has developed over the years. As the government is still controlling the establishment of private universities. It is interesting to observe the developments in the next couple of years. and an influx of foreign students in the country. We are as yet not tested on the success of the values across the curriculum.

Canberra. We have to tackle the problem of providing world education in the Malaysian context. The objective of making Malaysia the center of educational excellence in the region is another. Mahathir. Australia. such as provision for the establishment of the Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (National Accreditation Board). especially private tertiary institutions to complement that of the public higher education institutions. 7.M. besides Malaysian studies which was identified earlier. (1993). and to suit both Malaysians and foreigners. “Curriculum development in Malaysia: context. M. Mukherjee. Harper Education Series. Leo A. “Moral education in a developing society: the Malaysian case”. Educational Planning and Research Division.V. University of Malaya. 10-22 September 1979. paper presented at an Unesco Seminar on Curriculum Design. (1986). “Malaysia: the way forward (Vision 2020)”. in a Conference of the Malaysian Business Council. London. H. M. (1979). (1991). if we are to adhere to the Malaysian educational philosophy at all levels..5 472 Conclusion: future trends and issues The development of the times in the last few years has made it impossible for the government not to allow the mushrooming private tertiary institutions to flourish. with a foreign curriculum is something we have to resolve and at the same time not to forget education for a Malaysian citizenry for the future. 3rd ed. It also has the underlying objective of making Malaysia the center of educational excellence in the region without compromising the development of the Malaysian citizenry with Malaysian values. . 3-5 November 1993. (1986). and Kelly.Journal of Educational Administration 36. References Downey. A. Education in Malaysia. Comparative and Education Series. Further reading Asiah. The latest announcement is that all higher institutions of education. pp. in Theory and Practice of Education: An Introduction. paper presented at the Seminar of the 30th Anniversary Celebration of Faculty of Education. paper presented by the Prime Minister. including private institutions. 28 February 1991. Kuala Lumpur. “Personal. in The Revival of Values Education in Asia and the West. The Act outlines policies in order to impose some form of control on the quality of higher education. as well as content which imposes the Malaysian context. Ministry of Education (1993). A. “Integrating values into the geography curriculum”. 147-62. approach and concerns”. V. Ch. is doubly difficult as compared to the process in schools. The Education Act 1996 has endorsed the existence and function of private education. the establishment of private tertiary education and the dawn of private higher education and the dilemma of values education have also affected tertiary and higher education. both public and private. the opening of private branch campuses of foreign universities brings to us another issue of infusing Malaysian values to the Malaysians. The infusion of Malaysian values into tertiary and higher education. social and moral education”. Furthermore.S. Vol. are to include Islamic and Asian Civilization into the curriculum. The Education Act 1996.

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Pelaksanaan kurikulum Pendidikan Moral di Sekolah:Arah dan cabaran bagi guru-guru (Implementing the Moral Education curriculum in schools: Direction and challenges for teachers). • sincerity. • dedication. and Straughan. • freedom to choose. University of Malaya. Philosophical Issues in Moral Education and Development. 15-20. (1988). (Education in Malaysia: Direction and Challenges). Moderation: • moderation in thought. Milton Keynes. • freedom from slavery. Freedom: • freedom within the law. Honesty: • truthfulness. Open University Press. Compassion and tolerance: • compassionate. • hospitable. • faithfulness. • appreciation. Diligence: • industriousness. B. • perseverance. • moderation in speech. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) . Courage: • courage as opposed to foolhardiness. Special publication to commensurate 30th Anniversary of the Faculty of Education. • moderation in action. in Pendidikan di Malaysia: Arah dan cabaran. Sixteen core values integrated into the curriculum (1) Cleanliness of body and mind: • personal cleanliness. • trustworthiness.Journal of Educational Administration 36. Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat (1993). • hardworking. • fraternity. R. • patience. Cooperation: • mutual responsibility. • tolerance. • cleanliness of the environment. • considerate. • thankfulness. • charitable. • generous.5 474 Spiecker. Gratitude: • gratefulness. Appendix.

(12) Rationality: • flexibility of thought. • as opposed to arrogance. and leaders. Reformation in Malaysia 475 . • respect for exemplary behaviour. (16) Public spiritedness: • Spirit of gotong royong (working together). • love for peace and harmony. teachers. • love for the nation. • weighing of alternatives. patriotism. • independence. (15) Respect: • respect for rules. • autonomy.(10) Humility and modesty: • as opposed to showing off. • respect for parents. (13) Self reliance: • responsibility. • respect for institutions. • love for life and humanity. • concept of reward and punishment. • respect for elders. • respect for knowledge and wisdom. (14) Love: • love for the environment. • respect for time and punctuality. (11) Justice: • a sense of fair play. • respect for another’s beliefs and customs. • Sensitiveness towards societal needs. law and authority. • admission of one’s fault.

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