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GUN-TYPE EFFECTS IN A GENERALIZED MAXWELL FIELD
Luminita DANDU-BIBIRE1, Zoltan BORSOS2, Daniel MATASARU3, Irinel CASIAN-BOTEZ4, Adrian NICULESCU5, Maricel AGOP 6
In această lucrare se studiază numeric, în aproximaţia fractală a mişcării, interacţiunea particule încărcate electric - undele electromagnetice generalizate (gravitaţionale şi electromagnetice) – câmp magnetic generalizat, constant. Se pun în evidenţă secvenţe distincte ale mişcării: regulată, fractală, effecte de tip gun, effecte de tip gun haotic şi efecte de tip gun-multiplu. Se fac unele consideraţii asupra secvenţelor de mişcare observate. In the fractal approximation of motion, by means of numerical simulation, the interaction charged particle-generalized electromagnetic waves (gravitational and electromagnetic waves)-generalized constant magnetic field is studied. Some distinct sequences of the movement are emphasized: regular motion, motion fractalization, gun-type effect, chaotic gun-type effect and multi-gun-type effect. Several considerations of these movement sequences are analyzed.
Keywords: gun-type effect, fractals, generalized Maxwell field 1. Introduction In recent papers [1-4] the motion of a charged particle in a field of a transverse monochromatic electromagnetic wave and within a constant external magnetic field was studied. New phenomena (gun effect, chaotic gun effect, etc.)
“Al. I. Cuza” University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Carol I Blvd. No. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania 2 Petrol-Gas University of Ploiesti, Department of Physics, Bucuresti Blvd. No. 39, Ploiesti, Romania 3 “Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Carol I Blvd. No. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania 4 Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Carol I Blvd. No. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania 5 “Grigore Antipa” National Institute for Marine Research and Development, Department of Oceanography, Marine and Costal Engineering, Mamaia Blvd. No. 300, 900581, Constanta, Romaia 6 Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Carol I Blvd. No. 11, 700506, Iasi, Romania and Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France, Centre d’Études et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (FR CNRS 2416)
e. Casian-Botez. Due to the fact that the different movement sequences presented in [1-4] refer only to one type of interaction scale (i. Niculescu. This result appears important for laboratory and space research experiments on particle acceleration. D. we shall study the interaction charged particlegeneralized electromagnetic waves (gravitational and electromagnetic waves)generalized constant magnetic field. different scales of interaction (e.g. A. M. In such a context. We can make this possible by using the fractal space-time theory [5-7]. atomic scale. 12]. in the case when four-dimensional space- ρ ∇ ⋅ ge = e ε0 (1) (2) (3) ∂g e (4) ∂t where je is the electric current density vector je = ρ e v . A short reminder on the generalized Maxwell equations time is split into space plus time (3+1). I. the atomic scale). ρ e the electric charge density. the particles motions take place on continuous but non-differentiable curves (fractal curves). μ 0 the vacuum magnetic permeability and c the speed of light in vacuum. planetary scale. the need to generalize this motion to any scale of interaction becomes essential. These fields verify Maxwell’s equations: Based on results from [3. In the present paper. We shall name this approach “the fractal approximation of motion” and some of its implications are given in [8-11]. ∇ × B e = μ0 je + c − 2 Likewise. Borsos. the general relativistic gravitational field ( g αβ ) breaks into three parts : (i) an electric like part. 2. g 00 . Agop are observed if the amplitude of the wave is sufficiently large. Numerical experiments display a clear energy dependence of the time of escape of particles as they exit from the acceleration region. Matasaru. the electromagnetic field F αβ breaks up into two parts: the electric field g e and the magnetic field B e . In such conjecture.176 Luminita Dandu-Bibire. in the fractal approximation of motion. It is shown that a high acceleration of charged particles is obtained by a cascade of gun effects which lead to sudden jumps between phase Larmor circles. galactic scale) can be analyzed. whose gradient for weak gravity is ∇ ⋅ Be = 0 ∂B ∇ × ge = − e ∂t . Z. Our results generalize the ones in .
Gun -type effects in a generalized Maxwell field 177 Newtonian acceleration g g . In the weak gravitational field. c is the speed of light in vacuum. h = hα . Ag = g ) ( ) 1 0i h . through the substitutions  2 g g = g 1 . g i = G 00i (i = 1.3 2 Then. 4 (8a-j) imply the Maxwell-type gravitational equations [13.−1. B1 = G 023 . g 3 .i . μ .1. B g . the general relativistic equations: 8π G μνλ Gλ = − 4 T μν c (6 a-c) (7) where G is Newton’s constant. and 1 α hμν = hμν − η μν h . α = 0. G μνλ is the Einstein’s tensor and T μν is the energy-momentum tensor that is the source of the gravitational field. B g = G 012 . whose curvature tensor is the ‘curvature of space’. B g = G 031 . 2.−1. B g = ∇ × A g ( i 2 3 A g = A1 . (ii) a magnetic part. the tensor metric g μν becomes : 1 (5) g μν ≈ η μν + hμν = η μν + hμν − η μν h 2 where η μν = (+. Ag . g g i j G 0ij = Ag. (iii) a spatial metric. h μν is to be treated as a small perturbation to η μν . g 0i . g g . B g . g ij . 14]: ∇ ⋅ g g = −4π Gρ ∇ ⋅Bg = 0 (9) (10) (11) ∇×gg = − ∂B g ∂t ∇× Bg = − 4π G c2 j+ 1 ∂g g c 2 ∂t (12) .ν . j − Ag .−1) is the usual Minkovski metric. whose curl for weak gravity is the gravitomagnetic field B g . Ag .2. 3) . g g g ( ) 2 3 2 3 B g = B1 .
16]). Borsos. if in a space-time manifold. are operating both with an accelerating force (vibration is associated to the electromagnetic wave). and with a returning force (the gravitational force is associated with the Lorentz force). M.. the acceleration of a charged particle by a stochastic medium – stochastic acceleration [16. B = B g + Be (13) m m These fields verify the generalized Maxwell’s equations  ⎛ 1 q2 ⎞ ⎟ρ (14) ∇ ⋅ g = ⎜ − 4π G + ⎜ ε 0 m2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ∇⋅B = 0 (15) ∂B (16) ∇×g = − ∂t ⎛ 4π G q2 ⎞ ⎟ j + 1 ∂g ∇ × B = ⎜− + μ0 (17) 2⎟ ⎜ c2 m ⎠ c 2 ∂t ⎝ where we accounted for the following relations: q q q e = ρ . for example “vibrating balls in a gravitational field”. (18) m m As an example. respectively. the stochastic acceleration can be modeled by the triplet: charged particle – homogenous magnetic field – polarized or non-polarized electromagnetic field (for details see [1-4. Usually. j = ρ v . 15. Z.g. we can introduce the generalized fields: q q g = g g + ge . I. based on the superposition principle . in our opinion. 3. equation (14) is obtained adding equation (1) multiplied by q m to equation (9) and taking into account the first relations from the equations (13) and (18).178 Luminita Dandu-Bibire. Transitions between levels at different scales of interaction by means of the fractal approximation of motion The transition of a particle (with charge) from a given level to another one of higher energy implies. Matasaru. Casian-Botez. The associated mechanical models . Niculescu. . 17]). A. the presence of a universal acceleration mechanism (e. equations (1)-(4) as well as equations (9)-(12) are valid. and ρ the mass density. Now. D. Agop In relation (12) j is the mass current density vector. je = j .
a specific generalized electrodynamics based on generalized Maxwell equations and relativistic equation of motion in a generalized Maxwell field will be developed. in the fractal dimensionless variable c p c2 t .Gun -type effects in a generalized Maxwell field 179 Now. ΩB = T= D m0 c D Ω H 2 12 γ = 1 + Px2 + Py . b) particle – homogenous generalized magnetic field – linear polarized generalized electromagnetic wave. P = .ε = ⊥ 2 m Ω m0 c c 0 B c 2 D ωB = γD (21a-g) and following the procedure from [1-3. ˆ ⎛ g ⎞ ⎛ g0 y ⎞ ⎜ ⎟=⎜ (19) ⎜ B ⎟ ⎜ H z ⎟ cos (kx − ω t ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 0 ˆ⎠ It is more convenient to describe this “composite” field in terms of the generalized vector potential ˆ A = [B0 z + A⊥ sin (kx − ω t )]e y (20) c) particle – homogenous generalized magnetic field on Oz direction – circular polarized generalized electromagnetic wave.β = = wave ΩB ΩB ( ) ω c = γΩ c c2 qA D qH 0 = . implies the equation system Px dX 1 = Px = 2 dt γ 1 + Px2 + Py dPx = Ω c [β cos( X − T ) + 1]Py dt (22a-c) . its polarization being on the y direction . For all these cases. in the mathematical modeling the following situations can be distinguished: a) particle – homogenous generalized magnetic field – non-polarized generalized electromagnetic wave. we can choose a static generalized magnetic field whose vector points in the z direction. 17]. For the cases a) and b). once accepted the “functionality” of the stochastic acceleration mechanism at both atomic and planetary scales. the previously mentioned equations. Particularly. and a generalized electromagnetic wave propagating along the x direction. B = B0 z . X = x.
We initiate the numerical calculus for the following values of parameters Ω B = 0.03 ) remains regular and no acceleration arises. Matasaru. the chaotic character of the movements becomes evident. Px dX 1 = Px = dt γ 1+ P2 + P2 x y dPx = −γ [H cos ( X − T ) + ω c ]Py dt (23a-c) dPy dt = −γ [H sin ( X − T ) + Ω c ]Px + H cos ( X − T ) Due to their non-linearity. X ] ≡ [0. 5 . it results the equation system. for the values (24a-c) and (25).g. following the same procedure as in a) and b) cases. When H ≥ 1. As may be expected. Py . 1.13 .5 .0. γ 0 ≡ γ 4 = 2 (24a-c) The dynamic of equations generates a flow in a 3-dimensional (3D) phasespace. D. The onset of a fractalization (stochastization) is observed once H exceeds 1.001 ] (25) Let us note that. whereby a sudden expulsion of a particle from the system takes place in . A. analytical solutions for the systems (22a-c) and (23a-c) are difficult to be obtained. M.180 Luminita Dandu-Bibire. The numerical solutions of the equations (23a-c) and their correspondences with the dynamics of the system are obtained using the Mathematica 7.0 software with an adaptive step-size control . n = 4 . Casian-Botez. Px . The initial values were ( ) [T .3 but the energy gain remains initially still small. 1. Px . Z.001. This is why we will numerically integrate them (examples in this sense are specified in [18-20]). the particle motion for small dimensionless amplitudes of the external electromagnetic wave (e.6 there emerges a strong acceleration and a gun-type effect is initiated. X . If the amplitude is increased to H = 0. H = 0. Niculescu. I.5 . the particle motion becomes more complex but retains a regular character. Borsos. Agop dPy dt = −Ω c [β cos( X − T ) + 1]Px + H cos ( X − T ) In the previous c) case. Py .
and finally we observe the sharp rectilinear part of the trajectory which in fact displays the gun-type effect. a localized chaotic regime emerges. Fig.3 and T = 0 − 5300 . receiving a kick of energy each time it completes an orbit.Gun -type effects in a generalized Maxwell field 181 a certain direction. The gain in energy becomes significant and thus a state of a resonance overlap is obtained. we distinguish three elements of movement: first. 1. The highest value is transferred to the following Larmor spiral in which the particle absorbs again energy from the electromagnetic field until a new gun-type effect erupts. From the (PxT ) time series (Fig. . A major chaotic gun-type effect erupts for H ≥ 2. and also through the Poincaré sections (Fig. In fact. on a specific Larmor spiral the particle will go around repeatedly. 2 the inclined lines display the chaotic gun-type effects between different Larmor orbits represented here by vertical oscillations. In such case. 2) we deduce that. 3). In Fig. Numerical solution of the system (23a-c) for H = 2. The radii of the Larmor circles and the corresponding energy of the particle increase. A multi-gun type effect and Larmor orbits The existence of a multi-gun-type effect via different Larmor orbits is illustrated clearly by the time series for Px (Fig. We note that in the process of acceleration the energy is increased by ‘quantum jumps’ so that a charged particle gains energy within a multi-gun-type effect. A very interesting result arises if we increase the number of iterations and the duration of the operation (see Fig. during a gun-type regime.3 . The jump from a ‘spiral Larmor orbit’ to another one is performed by a gun-type effect. 2). the ‘longitudinal momentum’ (Px ) increases and represents the highest value which may be achieved in the current Larmor spiral. 1). a high frequency oscillation with chaotic modulation of the amplitude appears.
as generated by a chaotic gun-type effect. (Px . 3) the motion seems apparently regular. 2. Agop Fig. D. electrodynamics described by the generalized Maxwell’s equations coupled with a charged particle equation of relativistic motion. A. Projection (phase particle or orbit) on the Px . Borsos. Z. Conclusions A specific electrodynamics is “simulated” through fractal “medium” property. 1.1 ( ) In a phase-portrait (Px . Fig. M. Py phase-space of the particle trajectory shown in Fig.182 Luminita Dandu-Bibire. T ) time-series corresponding to the dynamic system (23a-c) for the case of a multi-gun type effect illustrated in Fig. Casian-Botez. Py ) (Fig. 3. In such conjecture . Niculescu. 4. Matasaru. All vertical lines display in fact a gun-type effect. but a sharp sight can distinguish the jump from a Larmor circle to the next one. I.
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